Sample records for colour vision impairment

  1. Impairment of colour vision in workers exposed to organic solvents

    PubMed Central

    Semple, S; Dick, F; Osborne, A; Cherrie, J; Soutar, A; Seaton, A; Haites, N

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate loss of colour vision related to exposure to solvents and the role of three enzyme polymorphisms in modifying the risk in exposed workers.?METHODS—A sample was studied of 68 male dockyard workers and 42 male community controls with and without neuropsychological symptoms from a previous cross sectional study. Indices of cumulative and intensity based exposure to solvents were calculated for all subjects. Alcohol, drug, and smoking histories were obtained. Colour vision was tested by Lanthony D15d colour vision test. Genotype of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 and N-acetyltransferase 2 polymorphisms were determined.?RESULTS—The relation between impairment of colour vision and exposure to solvents was investigated with multiple regression techniques. Increasing annual exposure to solvents was significantly associated with reduced colour vision (p=0.029). Impairment of colour vision was not associated with neuropsychological symptoms as measured by the Q16 solvent symptom questionnaire. No significant association was found between acquired impairment of colour vision and genetic polymorphisms when GSTM1, GSTT1 or NAT2 phenotypes were included in the analyses.?CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to mixed solvents is associated with impairment in colour vision, the risk increases with increasing exposure. The risk of impairment of colour vision was not altered in this study by the presence of different GSTM1, GSTT1 or NAT2 polymorphisms.???Keywords: colour vision; organic solvents; genetic polymorphisms PMID:10935938

  2. Introduction Colour-impaired vision, where certain colours cannot be

    E-print Network

    Jenny, Bernhard

    these colours. Dark green, brown, orange, and dark red in the first row appear as almost indistinguishable olive, where he produces print graphics for daily publication and interactive web graphics. nvkelso

  3. Colour, vision and ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age. PMID:22317623

  4. All Vision Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    All Vision Impairment Listen Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is defined as the best-corrected visual acuity ... being blind by the U.S. definition.) The category “All Vision Impairment” includes both low vision and blindness. ...

  5. A Colour Vision Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, David; Hore, Kevin

    1991-01-01

    The model for color vision put forward by Edwin Land is explained. The aspects of the theory that can be demonstrated within the classroom are described. A random arrangement of straight-edged colored areas mounted on a screen, called a Mondrian, projectors, and a computer are used to calculate reflectance. (KR)

  6. Impairment of Colour Vision in Diabetes with No Retinopathy: Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study (SNDREAMS- II, Report 3)

    PubMed Central

    Gella, Laxmi; Raman, Rajiv; Kulothungan, Vaitheeswaran; Pal, Swakshyar Saumya; Ganesan, Suganeswari; Sharma, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess impairment of colour vision in type 2 diabetics with no diabetic retinopathy and elucidate associated risk factors in a population-based cross-sectional study. Methods This is part of Sankara Nethralaya Diabetic Retinopathy Epidemiology and Molecular-genetics Study (SN-DREAMS II) which was conducted between 2007–2010. FM 100 hue-test was performed in 253 subjects with no clinical evidence of diabetic retinopathy. All subjects underwent detailed ophthalmic evaluation including cataract grading using LOCS III and 45° 4-field stereoscopic fundus photography. Various ocular and systemic risk factors for impairment of colour vision (ICV) were assessed in subjects with diabetes but no retinopathy. P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The mean age of the study sample was 57.08 ± 9.21 (range: 44–86 years). Gender adjusted prevalence of ICV among subjects with diabetes with no retinopathy was 39.5% (CI: 33.5–45.5). The mean total error score in the study sample was 197.77 ± 100 (range: 19–583). The risk factors for ICV in the study were women OR: 1.79 (1.00–3.18), increased resting heart rate OR: 1.04 (1.01–1.07) and increased intraocular pressure OR: 1.12 (1.00–1.24). Significant protective factor was serum high-density lipoprotein OR: 0.96 (0.93–0.99). Conclusions Acquired ICV is an early indicator of neurodegenerative changes in the retina. ICV found in diabetic subjects without retinopathy may be of non-vascular etiology. PMID:26053017

  7. Scotopic colour vision in nocturnal hawkmoths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Almut Kelber; Anna Balkenius; Eric J. Warrant

    2002-01-01

    Humans are colour-blind at night, and it has been assumed that this is true of all animals. But colour vision is as useful for discriminating objects at night as it is during the day. Here we show, through behavioural experiments, that the nocturnal hawkmoth Deilephila elpenor uses colour vision to discriminate coloured stimuli at intensities corresponding to dim starlight (0.0001cdm-2).

  8. The handicap of abnormal colour vision.

    PubMed

    Cole, Barry L

    2004-07-01

    All people with abnormal colour vision, except for a few mildly affected deuteranomals, report that they experience problems with colour in everyday life and at work. Contemporary society presents them with increasing problems because colour is now so widely used in printed materials and in computer displays. Equal opportunity law gives them protection against unfair discrimination in employment, so a decision to exclude a person from employment on the grounds of abnormal colour vision must now be well supported by good evidence and sound argument. This paper reviews the investigations that have contributed to understanding the nature and consequences of the problems they have. All those with abnormal colour vision are at a disadvantage with comparative colour tasks that involve precise matching of colours or discrimination of fine colour differences either because of their loss of colour discrimination or anomalous perception of metamers. The majority have problems when colour is used to code information, in man-made colour codes and in naturally occurring colour codes that signal ripeness of fruit, freshness of meat or illness. They can be denied the benefit of colour to mark out objects and organise complex visual displays. They may be unreliable when a colour name is used as an identifier. They are slower and less successful in search when colour is an attribute of the target object or is used to organise the visual display. Because those with the more severe forms of abnormal colour vision perceive a very limited gamut of colours, they are at a disadvantage in the pursuit and appreciation of those forms of art that use colour. PMID:15312030

  9. Colour vision in AIDS patients without HIV retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Sommerhalder, J; Baglivo, E; Barbey, C; Hirschel, B; Roth, A; Pelizzone, M

    1998-11-01

    Patients suffering from AIDS develop ocular complications, the most frequent being HIV retinopathy. It is however not clear, if functional visual impairments can be observed as early indicators of ocular complications, before clinical diagnosis of HIV retinopathy is made at fundus examination. To address this issue, we measured colour vision in a group of 49 AIDS subjects with normal clinical fundi using the 'two equation method'. This method, combining red-green Rayleigh and the blue-green Moreland metameric matches, enables more complete and quantitative assessments of colour vision than those based on pigmentary tests. Data were collected on our computer controlled colorimeter and compared to those of normal subjects. While most AIDS subjects without HIV retinopathy demonstrated normal colour vision, a significant portion of them had wider matches than normal subjects (11% for the Rayleigh equation and 16% for the Moreland equation). Furthermore, matching ranges of the Moreland equation were significantly correlated with CD4 lymphocyte counts. Patients with low CD4 values tended to produce larger matching ranges than the patients with high CD4 values. A within subject study on 17 patients confirmed this trend and showed that the patients who increased/decreased their CD4 blood counts generally improved/impaired their colour discrimination in the Moreland match. No such correlation was found between the matching ranges of the Rayleigh equation and the CD4 counts. These results show that colour discrimination is slightly reduced in some AIDS subjects, although there are no detectable ocular complications. They also suggest two different types of colour vision impairments in AIDS patients without retinopathy: one reversible process affecting colour discrimination in the blue-green range; and another irreversible process affecting colour discrimination in the red-green range. PMID:9893862

  10. A STANDARDIZED LANTERN FOR TESTING COLOUR VISION

    PubMed Central

    Martin, L. C.

    1939-01-01

    A Lantern for lesting Colour-Vision is arranged to show test colours in pairs as in the Board of Trade Lantern. It is adapted to use electric light, and is standardized by stringent testing. The paper discusses the experiments and considerations which led to the formulation of the allowable tolerances in the transmission and colour co-ordinate specifications of the filters, the colour temperature of the lamps and so on. The results of tests on normal and colour-defective subjects are described. PMID:18169586

  11. Colour vision: parallel pathways intersect in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kelber, Almut; Henze, Miriam J

    2013-12-01

    In the last one hundred years, colour vision has been demonstrated in bees and many other insects. But the underlying neural wiring remained elusive. A new study on Drosophila melanogaster combining behavioural and genetic tools yields surprising insights. PMID:24309280

  12. A Fuzzy Colour Image Segmentation Applied to Robot Vision

    E-print Network

    Granada, Universidad de

    A Fuzzy Colour Image Segmentation Applied to Robot Vision J. Chamorro-Martínez, D. Sánchez and B algorithm to segment colour images is proposed. A region is dened as a fuzzy subset of connected pixels environments. Keyword: Colour image segmentation, fuzzy segmentation, colour distance, robot vision. 1

  13. The Physics of Colour Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Martin

    1985-01-01

    An elementary physical model of cone receptor cells is explained and applied to complexities of human color vision. One-, two-, and three-receptor systems are considered, with the later shown to be the best model for the human eye. Color blindness is also discussed. (DH)

  14. Vision Impairment and Blindness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blindness in the United States are age-related eye diseases: macular degeneration, cataract and glaucoma. Other eye disorders, ... and braille books. The sooner vision loss or eye disease is found and treated, the greater your chances ...

  15. A Fuzzy Colour Image Segmentation Applied to Robot Vision

    E-print Network

    Granada, Universidad de

    1 A Fuzzy Colour Image Segmentation Applied to Robot Vision J. Chamorro-Mart´inez, D. S segmentation, fuzzy segmentation, colour distance, robot vision. 1.1 Introduction The image segmentation, view, but the fuzzy segmentation of colour images has been paid less attention. Other important aspect to take

  16. Impairment of colour contrast sensitivity and neuroretinal dysfunction in patients with symptomatic HIV infection or AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Geier, S A; Kronawitter, U; Bogner, J R; Hammel, G; Berninger, T; Klauss, V; Goebel, F D

    1993-01-01

    Ophthalmic and neurological complications are frequent findings in patients with AIDS. Little is known about neuroretinal dysfunction in patients with HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to measure and evaluate colour vision in patients with HIV infection or AIDS. Colour contrast sensitivity tests were performed on 75 patients (150 eyes) in different stages of HIV infection. A highly sensitive computer graphics system was used to measure tritan, deutan, and protan colour contrast thresholds. Patients were classified into three clinical groups: (a) asymptomatic HIV infection, (b) lymphadenopathy syndrome or AIDS-related complex, and (c) AIDS. Overall, tritan (p < 0.0001), deutan (p = 0.003), and protan (p = 0.009) colour contrast sensitivities were significantly impaired in patients with HIV infection compared with normal controls. Colour thresholds in patients with asymptomatic HIV infection (mean tritan threshold: 4.33; deutan: 4.41; protan: 3.97) were not impaired compared with normal controls. Colour vision was slightly impaired in patients with lymphadenopathy syndrome or AIDS-related complex (tritan: 6.25 (p < 0.0001); deutan: 4.99 (p = 0.02); protan: 4.45 (p = 0.05)). In patients with AIDS the impairment was even more marked (tritan: 7.66 (p < 0.0001); deutan: 5.15 (p < 0.0009); protan: 4.63 (p = 0.004)). Analysis of covariance controlling for age demonstrated a close association between impairment of tritan colour contrast sensitivity and progression of HIV disease (p < 0.0001). Following Köllner's rule, our study suggests that neuroretinal dysfunction occurs in patients with symptomatic HIV infection or AIDS. This is emphasised by the finding that the relative impairment in tritan vision compared with deutan/protan vision might reflect the difference in the number of cones or receptive fields. Measurement of tritan colour contrast sensitivity appears to be an appropriate and easily applicable method to detect early neuroretinal dysfunction in patients with HIV disease. PMID:8280686

  17. Impairment of colour contrast sensitivity and neuroretinal dysfunction in patients with symptomatic HIV infection or AIDS.

    PubMed

    Geier, S A; Kronawitter, U; Bogner, J R; Hammel, G; Berninger, T; Klauss, V; Goebel, F D

    1993-11-01

    Ophthalmic and neurological complications are frequent findings in patients with AIDS. Little is known about neuroretinal dysfunction in patients with HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to measure and evaluate colour vision in patients with HIV infection or AIDS. Colour contrast sensitivity tests were performed on 75 patients (150 eyes) in different stages of HIV infection. A highly sensitive computer graphics system was used to measure tritan, deutan, and protan colour contrast thresholds. Patients were classified into three clinical groups: (a) asymptomatic HIV infection, (b) lymphadenopathy syndrome or AIDS-related complex, and (c) AIDS. Overall, tritan (p < 0.0001), deutan (p = 0.003), and protan (p = 0.009) colour contrast sensitivities were significantly impaired in patients with HIV infection compared with normal controls. Colour thresholds in patients with asymptomatic HIV infection (mean tritan threshold: 4.33; deutan: 4.41; protan: 3.97) were not impaired compared with normal controls. Colour vision was slightly impaired in patients with lymphadenopathy syndrome or AIDS-related complex (tritan: 6.25 (p < 0.0001); deutan: 4.99 (p = 0.02); protan: 4.45 (p = 0.05)). In patients with AIDS the impairment was even more marked (tritan: 7.66 (p < 0.0001); deutan: 5.15 (p < 0.0009); protan: 4.63 (p = 0.004)). Analysis of covariance controlling for age demonstrated a close association between impairment of tritan colour contrast sensitivity and progression of HIV disease (p < 0.0001). Following Köllner's rule, our study suggests that neuroretinal dysfunction occurs in patients with symptomatic HIV infection or AIDS. This is emphasised by the finding that the relative impairment in tritan vision compared with deutan/protan vision might reflect the difference in the number of cones or receptive fields. Measurement of tritan colour contrast sensitivity appears to be an appropriate and easily applicable method to detect early neuroretinal dysfunction in patients with HIV disease. PMID:8280686

  18. Impact of congenital colour vision defects on occupation

    PubMed Central

    Cumberland, P; Rahi, J; Peckham, C

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether there is an association between congenital colour vision defects (CVD) and occupational choice and employment history, in order to inform the debate about the value of universal childhood screening for these disorders. Methods: Participants were 6422 males and 6112 females from the 1958 British birth cohort, followed from birth to 33 years, whose colour vision was assessed (Ishihara test) at 11 years. Results: A total of 431 males (6.7%) had CVD. Men with CVD had pursued some careers for which normal colour vision is currently regarded as essential; for example, eight men (3.1%) with CVD were in the police, armed forces, or fire-fighting service at 33 years compared to 141 men (3.8%) with normal colour vision. They were, however, under-represented compared to those with normal colour vision, in other occupations; for example, no men with CVD were employed in electrical and electronic engineering at 33 years compared to 15 men (0.4%) with normal colour vision. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest there is little to be gained by continuing with existing school screening programmes for CVD, whose primary purpose is to advise affected children against certain careers. Other ways of informing young people about potential occupational difficulties and pathways for referral for specialist assessment are likely to be more useful. PMID:15914497

  19. Colour vision in diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths.

    PubMed

    Kelber, Almut; Balkenius, Anna; Warrant, Eric J

    2003-08-01

    Diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera) have three spectral types of receptor sensitive to ultraviolet, blue and green light. As avid flower visitors and pollinators, they use olfactory and visual cues to find and recognise flowers. Moths of the diurnal species Macroglossum stellatarum and the nocturnal species Deilephila elpenor, Hyles lineata and Hyles gallii use and learn the colour of flowers. Nocturnal species can discriminate flowers at starlight intensities when humans and honeybees are colour-blind. M. stellatarum can use achromatic, intensity-related cues if colour cues are absent, and this is probably also true for D. elpenor. Both species can recognise colours even under a changed illumination colour. PMID:21680465

  20. Dark Adaptation of Colour Vision in Diabetic Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez-Gamiño, S.; Cortés-Peñaloza, J. L.; Pérez-Hernández, J. U.; Cruz-Rodríguez, E.; Caudillo, C.

    2004-09-01

    Eye disease, a late complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) occurs even under a careful glicemic control. It includes optic nerve, retina, vitreous humor, crystalline lens and pupillary affection. The physiopathological process could be independent of blood glucose levels or start at initial stages of the disease. Photoreceptors have specific physiological functions. The functional substrate of day light or colour vision in superior primates, the cones have different spectral sensitivity, 455, 530 and 560 nm. The rods, maximal sensitivity at 505 nm, are much more sensitive to light than are cones. Dark adaptation was tested to evaluate functional impairment differences in photoreceptors of diabetic subjects. 14 DM2 (type 2 DM), and 5 DM1 (type 1 DM) patients, as well as 9 healthy subjects were studied. Retinal affected individuals, were excluded. Dark adaptation curves seemed to be different between DM, and healthy subjects. Cones, specially those sensitive to 560 nm type, seems to be more labile to DM, as demonstrated by the lack of sensitivity to low, and medium intensity stimuli. Medical Physics and elementary Biomedical Engineering exhibited to be useful to discern malfunction between different types of photorreceptors. The inexpensive method used could be applied for early color vision alteration detection.

  1. Avian retinal oil droplets: dietary manipulation of colour vision?

    PubMed

    Knott, Ben; Berg, Mathew L; Morgan, Eric R; Buchanan, Katherine L; Bowmaker, James K; Bennett, Andrew T D

    2010-03-22

    Avian vision is highly developed, with bird retinas containing rod and double-cone photoreceptors, plus four classes of single cones subserving tetrachromatic colour vision. Cones contain an oil droplet, rich in carotenoid pigments (except VS/ultraviolet-sensitive cones), that acts as a filter, substantially modifying light detected by the photoreceptor. Using dietary manipulations, we tested the effects of carotenoid availability on oil droplet absorbance properties in two species: Platycercus elegans and Taeniopygia guttata. Using microspectrophotometry, we determined whether manipulations affected oil droplet carotenoid concentration and whether changes would alter colour discrimination ability. In both species, increases in carotenoid concentration were found in carotenoid-supplemented birds, but only in the double cones. Magnitudes of effects of manipulations were often dependent on retinal location. The study provides, to our knowledge, the first experimental evidence of dietary intake over a short time period affecting carotenoid concentration of retinal oil droplets. Moreover, the allocation of carotenoids to the retina by both species is such that the change potentially preserves the spectral tuning of colour vision. Our study generates new insights into retinal regulation of carotenoid concentration of oil droplets, an area about which very little is known, with implications for our understanding of trade-offs in carotenoid allocation in birds. PMID:19939843

  2. Orientation tuning in human colour vision at detection threshold

    PubMed Central

    Gheiratmand, Mina; Mullen, Kathy T.

    2014-01-01

    We measure the orientation tuning of red-green colour and luminance vision at low (0.375?c/deg) and mid (1.5?c/deg) spatial frequencies using the low-contrast psychophysical method of subthreshold summation. Orientation bandwidths of the underlying neural detectors are found using a model involving Minkowski summation of the rectified outputs of a bank of oriented filters. At 1.5?c/deg, we find orientation-tuned detectors with similar bandwidths for chromatic and achromatic contrast. At 0.375?c/deg, orientation tuning is preserved with no change in bandwidth for achromatic stimuli, however, for chromatic stimuli orientation tuning becomes extremely broad, compatible with detection by non-oriented colour detectors. A non-oriented colour detector, previously reported in single cells in primate V1 but not psychophysically in humans, can transmit crucial information about the color of larger areas or surfaces whereas orientation-tuned detectors are required to detect the colour or luminance edges that delineate an object's shape. PMID:24594749

  3. The fiddler crab Uca mjoebergi uses colour vision in mate choice

    PubMed Central

    Detto, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Although the role of colour in mate choice is well known, few tests of colour vision have been based on mating behaviour. Females of the fiddler crab Uca mjoebergi have recently been shown to use claw coloration to recognize conspecific males. In this study I demonstrate that the females use colour vision for this task; preferentially approaching yellow claws over grey claws regardless of their intensity while failing to discriminate between yellow claws differing in intensity. This is one of only a handful of studies confirming the involvement of colour vision in mate choice and the first conclusive evidence in fiddler crabs. PMID:17848366

  4. The fiddler crab Uca mjoebergi uses colour vision in mate choice.

    PubMed

    Detto, Tanya

    2007-11-22

    Although the role of colour in mate choice is well known, few tests of colour vision have been based on mating behaviour. Females of the fiddler crab Uca mjoebergi have recently been shown to use claw coloration to recognize conspecific males. In this study I demonstrate that the females use colour vision for this task; preferentially approaching yellow claws over grey claws regardless of their intensity while failing to discriminate between yellow claws differing in intensity. This is one of only a handful of studies confirming the involvement of colour vision in mate choice and the first conclusive evidence in fiddler crabs. PMID:17848366

  5. Vision impairment and nutritional status among older assisted living residents.

    PubMed

    Muurinen, Seija M; Soini, Helena H; Suominen, Merja H; Saarela, Riitta K T; Savikko, Niina M; Pitkälä, Kaisu H

    2014-01-01

    Vision impairment is common among older persons. It is a risk factor for disability, and it may be associated with nutritional status via decline in functional status. However, only few studies have examined the relationship between vision impairment and nutritional status, which was investigated in this cross-sectional study. The study included all residents living in the assisted living facilities in Helsinki and Espoo in 2007. Residents in temporary respite care were excluded (5%). Of permanent residents (N=2214), 70% (N=1475) consented. Trained nurses performed a personal interview and assessment of each resident including the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), functional and health status. Patient records were used to confirm demographic data and medical history. Mortality in 2010 was retrieved from central registers. Of the residents, 17.5% (N=245) had vision impairment and they were not able to read regular print. Those with vision impairment were older, more often females, and malnourished according to MNA. They had lower BMI, and suffered more often from dementia and chewing problems than those without vision impairment. In logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, chewing problems and dementia, vision impairment was independently associated with resident's malnutrition (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.80-3.51). According to our results older residents in assisted living with vision impairment are at high risk for malnutrition. Therefore it is important to assess nutritional status of persons with vision impairment. It would be beneficial to repeat this kind of a study also in elderly community population. PMID:24398167

  6. Essay/Book review to appear in The Gerontologist VISION IMPAIRMENT AND REHABILITATION

    E-print Network

    Sekuler, Robert

    Essay/Book review to appear in The Gerontologist VISION IMPAIRMENT AND REHABILITATION: TAKING STOCK and Frank J. Whittington. AFB Press, New York, 285 pp., $32.95 (paper). Vision Rehabilitation: Assessment). The Lighthouse Handbook on Vision Impairment and Vision Rehabilitation, Volume I, Vision Impairment, and Volume

  7. A Cisco education tool accessible to the vision impaired

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hope; Brian R. Von Konsky; I. Murray; L. C. Chew; B. Farrugia

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes iNetSim, a universally accessible network simulator, created to allow vision-impaired and sighted users to complete Cisco Certified Network Associate level two (CCNA 2) laboratory sessions. Previously, software used in the CCNA course was not accessible to those with impaired vision because it utilized images of network topology. These images were incompatible with screen reader software. In contrast,

  8. Impairment of colour contrast sensitivity and neuroretinal dysfunction in patients with symptomatic HIV infection or AIDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S A Geier; U Kronawitter; J R Bogner; G Hammel; T Berninger; V Klauss; F D Goebel

    1993-01-01

    Ophthalmic and neurological complications are frequent findings in patients with AIDS. Little is known about neuroretinal dysfunction in patients with HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to measure and evaluate colour vision in patients with HIV infection or AIDS. Colour contrast sensitivity tests were performed on 75 patients (150 eyes) in different stages of HIV infection. A highly

  9. Providing Low Vision Services as a Visually Impaired Rehabilitation Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sue Wiygul

    1993-01-01

    A visually impaired rehabilitation teacher describes a model developed in Maine for providing low vision services, with emphasis on teaching the use of near-point aids to assist on near-point tasks. The article addresses preevaluation services, assessment of clients with low vision, and follow-up when the client begins using the aids at home. (DB)

  10. Project VISION: Visually Impaired Students and Internet Opportunities Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapperman, Gaylen; And Others

    Project VISION (Visually Impaired Students and Internet Opportunities Now) was a 2-year effort to develop and test methods and strategies by which blind and visually impaired students can use assistive technology to gain access to the resources found on the Internet. The project produced a manual and a videotape. Nine students were provided with…

  11. A modified pseudoisochromatic ishihara colour vision test based on eastern arabic numerals.

    PubMed

    Heidary, Fatemeh; Gharebaghi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Congenital colour vision defects affect about 8% and 0.5% of the male and female population, respectively. Pseudoisochromatic Ishihara plates have shown to be successful in an early diagnosis of colour vision defects. This commonly used colour vision test was initially intended to identify those who suffered from red-green aspect of congenital colour blindness; however, it may be of use to reveal acquired colour vision defects as well. Despite the Ishihara plates' value, there are a number of shortcomings in their current layout. We proposing a new colour plate modified from original Ishihara test. To best assist illiterates who are not able to read English, standard Ishihara plates have been translated to Eastern Arabic numerals, which are used in most parts of the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa populations. The purpose of the present modification was to present the new plates to these regions, but more research and study is required to work on the validity, reliability, and repeatability of these new plates. PMID:24600648

  12. The intensity threshold of colour vision in a passerine bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus).

    PubMed

    Gomez, Doris; Grégoire, Arnaud; Del Rey Granado, Maria; Bassoul, Marine; Degueldre, David; Perret, Philippe; Doutrelant, Claire

    2014-11-01

    Many vertebrates use colour vision for vital behaviour but their visual performance in dim light is largely unknown. The light intensity threshold of colour vision is known only for humans, horses and two parrot species. Here, we first explore this threshold in a passerine bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). Using classic conditioning of colour cues to food rewards in three individuals, we find a threshold ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 cd m(-2). Results are comparable to the two previously tested bird species. For tits, nest light conditions probably exceed that threshold, at least after sunrise. These results shed new light on the lively debate questioning the visual performance of cavity nesters and the evolutionary significance of egg and chick coloration. Although this needs further investigation, it is possible that blue tits exploit both colour and brightness cues when viewing their eggs, chicks or conspecifics in their nests. PMID:25214487

  13. Remote Laboratory Access for Students with Vision Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iain Murray; Helen Armstrong

    2009-01-01

    The delivery of laboratory exercises to students that are unable to attend in person due to physical disabilities is a significant issue. Both Netlab and Packet Tracer are inaccessible to many students who use assistive technology, particularly those with vision impairment. This paper presents the development of an accessible, cost effective, remote laboratory and describes the modification to laboratory sessions

  14. Beam-deflection method of diagnosing impaired vision

    E-print Network

    Arizona, University of

    and becomes broader after defocusing. If there are lens opacities, the light beam shows dark areas and seems of cataract to patients with obscurely impaired vision as well as to those with mild lens opacities. When fundoscopy with the 78.0 diopter lens or a 3-mirror glass is appropriate. If a cataract is present, the beam

  15. Multi-coloured stereograms unveil two binocular colour mechanisms in human vision

    E-print Network

    van Ee, Raymond

    in the two eyes be- cause of slightly different positions of the light source relative to the eyes. Anaglyphs patches placed in anaglyphs containing differ- ent colour combinations (Fig. 1a). It may take minutes

  16. Fear of falling in vision impairment.

    PubMed

    White, Ursula E; Black, Alex A; Wood, Joanne M; Delbaere, Kim

    2015-06-01

    Falls are the leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality among older adults. In addition to the resulting physical injury and potential disability after a fall, there are also important psychological consequences, including depression, anxiety, activity restriction, and fear of falling. Fear of falling affects 20 to 43% of community-dwelling older adults and is not limited to those who have previously experienced a fall. About half of older adults who experience fear of falling subsequently restrict their physical and everyday activities, which can lead to functional decline, depression, increased falls risk, and reduced quality of life. Although there is clear evidence that older adults with visual impairment have higher falls risk, only a limited number of studies have investigated fear of falling in older adults with visual impairment and the findings have been mixed. Recent studies suggest increased levels of fear of falling among older adults with various eye conditions, including glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration, whereas other studies have failed to find differences. Interventions, which are still in their infancy in the general population, are also largely unexplored in those with visual impairment. The major aims of this review were to provide an overview of the literature on fear of falling, its measurement, and risk factors among older populations, with specific focus on older adults with visual impairment, and to identify directions for future research in this area. PMID:25930978

  17. Evaluation of the Night Vision Spectacles on patients with impaired night vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Friedburg; Ludwig Serey; Lindsay T. Sharpe; Susanne Trauzettel-Klosinski; Eberhart Zrenner

    1999-01-01

    · Background: The Night Vision Spectacles (NiViS) were developed by a consortium of European companies to assist individuals\\u000a who suffer from impaired night vision. They consist of a head-mounted video camera (input) and binocular displays (output)\\u000a connected to a portable computer processor, which uses an algorithm to enhance the luminance and contrast of the video image.\\u000a · Methods: Eighteen patients

  18. Vision impairment predicts five-year mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, H R; McCarty, C A; Nanjan, M B

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe predictors of mortality in the 5-year follow-up of the Melbourne Visual Impairment Project (VIP) cohort. METHODS: The Melbourne VIP was a population-based study of the distribution and determinants of age-related eye disease in a cluster random sample of Melbourne residents aged 40 years and older. Baseline examinations were conducted between 1992 and 1994. In 1997, 5-year follow-up examinations of the original cohort commenced. Causes of death were obtained from the National Death Index for all reported deaths. RESULTS: Of the original 3,271 participants, 231 (7.1%) were reported to have died in the intervening 5 years. Of the remaining 3,040 participants eligible to return for follow-up examinations, 2,594 (85% of eligible) did participate, 51 (2%) had moved interstate or overseas, 83 (3%) could not be traced, and 312 (10%) refused to participate. Best corrected visual acuity < 6/12 and cortical cataract were associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality, as were increasing age, male sex, increased duration of cigarette smoking, increased duration of hypertension, and arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: Even mild visual impairment increases the risk of death more than twofold. PMID:11190044

  19. Visual search performance of patients with vision impairment: effect of JPEG image enhancement

    E-print Network

    Peli, Eli

    Visual search performance of patients with vision impairment: effect of JPEG image enhancement Gang & Peli E. Visual search performance of patients with vision impairment: effect of JPEG image enhancement, image enhancement, low vision rehabilitation, visual search Correspondence: Gang Luo E-mail address

  20. Effects of colour vision phenotype on insect capture by a free-ranging population of white-faced capuchins,

    E-print Network

    Fedigan, Linda M.

    vertebrates, including fish, reptiles and birds, have tetrachromatic (four-colour) vision, and correspondingly 277-8562, Japan (email: kawamura@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp). 205 0003e3472/06/$30.00/0 Ó 2006 The Associ

  1. Photoreceptor sectral sensitivities in terrestrial animals: adaptations for luminance and colour vision

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, D; Vorobyev, M

    2005-01-01

    This review outlines how eyes of terrestrial vertebrates and insects meet the competing requirements of coding both spatial and spectral information. There is no unique solution to this problem. Thus, mammals and honeybees use their long-wavelength receptors for both achromatic (luminance) and colour vision, whereas flies and birds probably use separate sets of photoreceptors for the two purposes. In particular, we look at spectral tuning and diversification among ‘long-wavelength’ receptors (sensitivity maxima at greater than 500?nm), which play a primary role in luminance vision. Data on spectral sensitivities and phylogeny of visual photopigments can be incorporated into theoretical models to suggest how eyes are adapted to coding natural stimuli. Models indicate, for example, that animal colour vision—involving five or fewer broadly tuned receptors—is well matched to most natural spectra. We can also predict that the particular objects of interest and signal-to-noise ratios will affect the optimal eye design. Nonetheless, it remains difficult to account for the adaptive significance of features such as co-expression of photopigments in single receptors, variation in spectral sensitivities of mammalian L-cone pigments and the diversification of long-wavelength receptors that has occurred in several terrestrial lineages. PMID:16096084

  2. VISION PROBLEMS IN THE U.S.-PREVALENCE OF ADULT VISION IMPAIRMENT AND AGE-RELATED EYE DISEASES IN AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leading causes of vision impairment and blindness in the United States. Diabetic retinopathy? Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)? Cataract? Glaucoma? The Vision Problems in the U.S. study was the result of a 2001 consensus meeting, convened by the National Eye Institute and ...

  3. The evolution of the multicoloured face of mandrills: insights from the perceptual space of colour vision.

    PubMed

    Renoult, Julien P; Schaefer, H Martin; Sallé, Bettina; Charpentier, Marie J E

    2011-01-01

    Multicomponent signals consist of several traits that are perceived as a whole. Although many animals rely on multicomponent signals to communicate, the selective pressures shaping these signals are still poorly understood. Previous work has mainly investigated the evolution of multicomponent signals by studying each trait individually, which may not accurately reflect the selective pressures exerted by the holistic perception of signal receivers. Here, we study the design of the multicoloured face of an Old World primate, the mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx), in relation to two aspects of signalling that are expected to be selected by receivers: conspicuousness and information. Using reflectance data on the blue and red colours of the faces of 34 males and a new method of hue vectorisation in a perceptual space of colour vision, we show that the blue hue maximises contrasts to both the red hue and the foliage background colouration, thereby increasing the conspicuousness of the whole display. We further show that although blue saturation, red saturation and the contrast between blue and red colours are all correlated with dominance, dominance is most accurately indicated by the blue-red contrast. Taken together our results suggest that the evolution of blue and red facial colours in male mandrills are not independent and are likely driven by the holistic perception of conspecifics. In this view, we propose that the multicoloured face of mandrills acts as a multicomponent signal. Last, we show that information accuracy increases with the conspicuousness of the whole display, indicating that both aspects of signalling can evolve in concert. PMID:22216180

  4. Computer vision-based analysis of foods: a non-destructive colour measurement tool to monitor quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Gökmen, Vural

    2014-05-01

    Computer vision-based image analysis has been widely used in food industry to monitor food quality. It allows low-cost and non-contact measurements of colour to be performed. In this paper, two computer vision-based image analysis approaches are discussed to extract mean colour or featured colour information from the digital images of foods. These types of information may be of particular importance as colour indicates certain chemical changes or physical properties in foods. As exemplified here, the mean CIE a* value or browning ratio determined by means of computer vision-based image analysis algorithms can be correlated with acrylamide content of potato chips or cookies. Or, porosity index as an important physical property of breadcrumb can be calculated easily. In this respect, computer vision-based image analysis provides a useful tool for automatic inspection of food products in a manufacturing line, and it can be actively involved in the decision-making process where rapid quality/safety evaluation is needed. PMID:24288215

  5. The Effectiveness of Comprehensive Low Vision Services for Older Persons with Visual Impairments in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Grow, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of providing comprehensive low vision services to elderly persons with visual impairments in New Zealand. The 93 participants were matched on age, gender, and visual function with 93 who did not have access to comprehensive low vision services. No significant differences were found between the groups at posttest…

  6. Use of the Simplified Color Video Magnifier by Young Children with Severely Impaired Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muranaka, Yoshio; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A new image magnifier system that enlarges color picture images for visually impaired children consists of home video components following the closed-circuit television model. The technique seems especially effective in enriching visual experience of children with severely impaired vision and bridging the interest development gap between picture…

  7. Optic aphasia for colours and colour agnosia: A distinction between visual and visuo-verbal impairments in the processing of colours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-France Beauvois; Brigitte Saillant

    1985-01-01

    Two patients, both of whom would have been described according to classic criteria as cases of colour agnosia, were studied. Three kinds of colour tasks were administered: Visual, verbal and visuo-verbal tasks. However this was not only done by manipulating the kind of stimulus and the kind of response—one being visual, the other verbal (Experiment 1)—as is standard in most

  8. A stereo vision-based aid for the visually impaired

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Molton; Stephen Se; Michael Brady; David Lee; Penny Probert

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a portable vision-based obstacle detection system, intended for use by blind people. The system combines an obstacle detection system designed for AGVs with recalibration of ground position and a Kalman Filter based model of the person's walking movement. The system uses stereo vision. Obstacle detection is achieved through comparison of the disparity seen with that expected from

  9. The "Inclusion" of Students with Vision Impairments: Generational Perspectives in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitburn, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I draw upon findings of a recent qualitative project conducted in Queensland, Australia in which all actors--the researcher and 5 participants aged 13-17 years--were linked together by our shared experiences of being students with impaired vision (VI) and who were educated in inclusive secondary schools in Australia during the last…

  10. Students with Low Vision Describe Their Visual Impairments and Visual Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerette, Amy R.; Lewis, Sandra; Mattingly, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    In the study reported here, the responses to a survey that was designed to determine the knowledge of their visual impairment of 51 students with low vision were analyzed. Although the students described their visual weaknesses and strengths, they had limited knowledge of, and difficulty communicating about, the medical aspects of their…

  11. An Overview of a UK Paediatric Visual Impaired Population and Low Vision Aid Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodorou, Nana; Shipman, Tracey

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to evaluate the paediatric visual impaired population attending the Low Vision Clinic at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, over a period of 14 years. Data were collected and analysed for children less than 17 years for prevalence, demographics, registration status, aetiologies, and types of…

  12. Television, computer and portable display device use by people with central vision impairment

    E-print Network

    Peli, Eli

    , difficulty) and viewing metrics (e.g. distance viewed, display size) for television (TV), comput- ers with the viewing experience of NS viewers. Introduction Television (TV) watching is a common activity of dailyTelevision, computer and portable display device use by people with central vision impairment

  13. Can vision of the body ameliorate impaired somatosensory function?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Serino; Alessandro Farnè; Maria Luisa Rinaldesi; Patrick Haggard; Elisabetta Làdavas

    2007-01-01

    Viewing the body is reported to improve tactile acuity [Kennett, S., Taylor-Clarke, M., & Haggard, P. (2001). Non-informative vision improves the spatial resolution of touch in humans. Current Biology, 11, 1188–1191]. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this effect might be useful in improving somatosensory deficits of brain damaged patients. To support this proposal, we firstly

  14. Seroepidemiology of Toxocara Infection in Patients With Vision Impairment and Blindness in Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Toxocara infection is a cause of vision impairment and blindness. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxocara infection in patients suffering from vision impairment and blindness in Durango City, Mexico. Methods Through a cross-sectional seroprevalence study, 204 patients with vision impairment and 19 blind patients were studied for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies in Durango City, Mexico. Seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, housing, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of participants was also investigated. Results Five (2.5%) of the 204 patients with vision impairment, and none of the 19 patients with blindness were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. In total, five of the 223 (2.2%) patients were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. Seropositivity to Toxocara was not associated with age, sex, educational level, socio-economic status, presence of underlying diseases or behavioral characteristics of the patients. In contrast, multivariate analysis showed that Toxocara seropositivity was associated with living in a house with soil floor (odds ratio (OR) = 11.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57 - 78.74; P = 0.01). Conclusions This is the first report of Toxocara exposure in patients with vision impairment and blindness in Mexico, and of an association of Toxocara exposure with living in a house with soil floors. Results suggest a low Toxocara exposure in these patients in Durango, Mexico. The risk factor associated with Toxocara exposure identified in this study warrants for further investigation. PMID:25584103

  15. Evaluation of pork colour: prediction of visual sensory quality of meat from instrumental and computer vision methods of colour analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, M G; Byrne, D V; Martens, H; Gidskehaug, L H; Andersen, H J; Martens, M

    2003-10-01

    M. longissimus dorsi minced pork patties from three dietary treatment groups of DLY (Duroc/Landrace/Yorkshire) cross bred pigs were packaged in polythene bags and placed in a retail refrigerated display cabinet at 5 °C±1 °C, under fluorescent light (1000 lux) for up to 5 days. Each dietary treatment group consisted of pigs (n=7) fed either a low vitamin E diet (80 mg dl-?-tocopheryl acetate/kg of feed), supplemental iron (7 g iron (II) sulphate/kg feed) or supplemental vitamin E (200mg dl-?-tocopheryl acetate/kg of feed) + supplemental iron). Samples were subjected to visual colour evaluation by a trained sensory panel (n=8) and an untrained panel (n=8) on days 0, 1, 3 and 5. Instrumental Hunter L(?), a(?) and b(?) values were measured on each day of analysis using a Minolta colorimeter. In addition RGB (red, green and blue) and Hunter L(?), a(?) and b(?) values were measured using a digital camera. The use of trained and untrained panellists are both relevant in the visual assessment of meat products. In a previous study O'Sullivan, Byrne, and Martens (2003) indicated that the untrained panellist is analogous to the consumer and how they perceive colour changes in meat. However, the trained panellist is useful in the assessment of unfamiliar products and where a greater degree of discrimination is required. The order of oxidation of the experimental treatments was Control (low vitamin E)

  16. Parallel evolution of angiosperm colour signals: common evolutionary pressures linked to hymenopteran vision

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Adrian G.; Boyd-Gerny, Skye; McLoughlin, Stephen; Rosa, Marcello G. P.; Simonov, Vera; Wong, Bob B. M.

    2012-01-01

    Flowering plants in Australia have been geographically isolated for more than 34 million years. In the Northern Hemisphere, previous work has revealed a close fit between the optimal discrimination capabilities of hymenopteran pollinators and the flower colours that have most frequently evolved. We collected spectral data from 111 Australian native flowers and tested signal appearance considering the colour discrimination capabilities of potentially important pollinators. The highest frequency of flower reflectance curves is consistent with data reported for the Northern Hemisphere. The subsequent mapping of Australian flower reflectances into a bee colour space reveals a very similar distribution of flower colour evolution to the Northern Hemisphere. Thus, flowering plants in Australia are likely to have independently evolved spectral signals that maximize colour discrimination by hymenoptera. Moreover, we found that the degree of variability in flower coloration for particular angiosperm species matched the range of reflectance colours that can only be discriminated by bees that have experienced differential conditioning. This observation suggests a requirement for plasticity in the nervous systems of pollinators to allow generalization of flowers of the same species while overcoming the possible presence of non-rewarding flower mimics. PMID:22673351

  17. Parallel evolution of angiosperm colour signals: common evolutionary pressures linked to hymenopteran vision.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Adrian G; Boyd-Gerny, Skye; McLoughlin, Stephen; Rosa, Marcello G P; Simonov, Vera; Wong, Bob B M

    2012-09-01

    Flowering plants in Australia have been geographically isolated for more than 34 million years. In the Northern Hemisphere, previous work has revealed a close fit between the optimal discrimination capabilities of hymenopteran pollinators and the flower colours that have most frequently evolved. We collected spectral data from 111 Australian native flowers and tested signal appearance considering the colour discrimination capabilities of potentially important pollinators. The highest frequency of flower reflectance curves is consistent with data reported for the Northern Hemisphere. The subsequent mapping of Australian flower reflectances into a bee colour space reveals a very similar distribution of flower colour evolution to the Northern Hemisphere. Thus, flowering plants in Australia are likely to have independently evolved spectral signals that maximize colour discrimination by hymenoptera. Moreover, we found that the degree of variability in flower coloration for particular angiosperm species matched the range of reflectance colours that can only be discriminated by bees that have experienced differential conditioning. This observation suggests a requirement for plasticity in the nervous systems of pollinators to allow generalization of flowers of the same species while overcoming the possible presence of non-rewarding flower mimics. PMID:22673351

  18. The Use of a Tactile-Vision Sensory Substitution System as an Augmentative Tool for Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michael D.; Ray, Christopher T.; Griffith, Jennifer; De l'Aune, William

    2011-01-01

    The promise of novel technological strategies and solutions to assist persons with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) is frequently discussed and held to be widely beneficial in countless applications and daily activities. One such approach involving a tactile-vision sensory substitution modality as a mechanism to…

  19. Emotion Recognition/Understanding Ability in Hearing or Vision-Impaired Children: Do Sounds, Sights, or Words Make the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyck, Murray J.; Farrugia, Charles; Shochet, Ian M.; Holmes-Brown, Martez

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to assess whether children with a sensory disability have consistent delays in acquiring emotion recognition and emotion understanding abilities. Method: Younger (6-11 years) and older (12-18 years) hearing-impaired children (HI; n = 49), vision-impaired children (VI; n = 42), and children with no sensory…

  20. Effects of peripheral and central vision impairment on mental imagery capacity. 1 Dulin, Hatwell, Pylyshyn, and Chokron

    E-print Network

    Pylyshyn, Zenon

    of thought. In Europe, the Wurzburg school put forth the idea that certain mental process elements were nonEffects of peripheral and central vision impairment on mental imagery capacity. 1 Dulin, Hatwell, Pylyshyn, and Chokron Effects of peripheral and central visual impairment on mental imagery capacity David

  1. Vision Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should not be used as a substitute for evaluation and treatment by a physician. Please review our terms of use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen ...

  2. Device for diagnosis and treatment of impairments on binocular vision and stereopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahn, Jieun; Choi, Yong-Jin; Son, Jung-Young; Kodratiev, N. V.; Elkhov, Victor A.; Ovechkis, Yuri N.; Chung, Chan-sup

    2001-06-01

    Strabismus and amblyopia are two main impairments of our visual system, which are responsible for the loss of stereovision. A device is developed for diagnosis and treatment of strabismus and amblyopia, and for training and developing stereopsis. This device is composed of a liquid crystal glasses (LCG), electronics for driving LCG and synchronizing with an IBM PC, and a special software. The software contains specially designed patterns and graphics for enabling to train and develop stereopsis, and do objective measurement of some stereoscopic vision parameters such as horizontal and vertical phoria, fusion, fixation disparity, and stereoscopic visual threshold.

  3. The use of visual feedback during signing: evidence from signers with impaired vision.

    PubMed

    Emmorey, Karen; Korpics, Franco; Petronio, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The role of visual feedback during the production of American Sign Language was investigated by comparing the size of signing space during conversations and narrative monologues for normally sighted signers, signers with tunnel vision due to Usher syndrome, and functionally blind signers. The interlocutor for all groups was a normally sighted deaf person. Signers with tunnel vision produced a greater proportion of signs near the face than blind and normally sighted signers, who did not differ from each other. Both groups of visually impaired signers produced signs within a smaller signing space for conversations than for monologues, but we hypothesize that they did so for different reasons. Signers with tunnel vision may align their signing space with that of their interlocutor. In contrast, blind signers may enhance proprioceptive feedback by producing signs within an enlarged signing space for monologues, which do not require switching between tactile and visual signing. Overall, we hypothesize that signers use visual feedback to phonetically calibrate the dimensions of signing space, rather than to monitor language output. PMID:18495656

  4. Does colour constancy exist?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Foster

    2003-01-01

    For a stable visual world, the colours; of objects should appear the same under different lights. This property of colour constancy has been assumed to be fundamental to vision, and many experimental attempts have been made to quantify it. I contend here, however, that the usual methods of measurement are either too coarse or concentrate not on colour constancy itself,

  5. Self-Perception and Locus of Control in Visually Impaired College Students with Different Types of Vision Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Archie W. N.; MacKay, Gilbert F.

    2002-01-01

    The Twenty Statements Test (TST), a lotus of control test, was administered to 16 undergraduates with visual impairments, along with open-ended questions. A generally positive view of self emerged, but negative responses focusing on disability also occurred and sometimes were associated with deteriorating vision loss and time of onset. (Contains…

  6. Special home adaptation grants for members of the Armed Forces and veterans with certain vision impairment. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-09-12

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is issuing a final rule to amend its adjudication regulations regarding special home adaptation grants for members of the Armed Forces and veterans with certain vision impairment. This regulatory amendment is necessary to conform the regulations to changes mandated in the Honoring America's Veterans and Caring for Camp Lejeune Families Act of 2012. PMID:25233534

  7. Visual search performance of patients with vision impairment: Effect of JPEG image enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Gang; Satgunam, PremNandhini; Peli, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To measure natural image search performance in patients with central vision impairment. To evaluate the performance effect for a JPEG based image enhancement technique using the visual search task. Method 150 JPEG images were presented on a touch screen monitor in either an enhanced or original version to 19 patients (visual acuity 0.4 to 1.2 logMAR, 6/15 to 6/90, 20/50 to 20/300) and 7 normally sighted controls (visual acuity ?0.12 to 0.1 logMAR, 6/4.5 to 6/7.5, 20/15 to 20/25). Each image fell into one of three categories: faces, indoors, and collections. The enhancement was realized by moderately boosting a mid-range spatial frequency band in the discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of the image luminance component. Participants pointed to an object in a picture that matched a given target displayed at the upper-left corner of the monitor. Search performance was quantified by the percentage of correct responses, the median search time of correct responses, and an “integrated performance” measure – the area under the curve of cumulative correct response rate over search time. Results Patients were able to perform the search tasks but their performance was substantially worse than the controls. Search performances for the 3 image categories were significantly different (p?0.001) for all the participants, with searching for faces being the most difficult. When search time and correct response were analyzed separately, the effect of enhancement led to increase in one measure but decrease in another for many patients. Using the integrated performance, it was found that search performance declined with decrease in acuity (p=0.005). An improvement with enhancement was found mainly for the patients whose acuity ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 logMAR (6/15 to 6/38, 20/50 to 20/125). Enhancement conferred a small but significant improvement in integrated performance for indoor and collection images (p=0.025) in the patients. Conclusion Search performance for natural images can be measured in patients with impaired vision to evaluate the effect of image enhancement. Patients with moderate vision loss might benefit from the moderate level of enhancement used here. PMID:22540926

  8. Comparison of different pointing methods for sound localizability measurement in the vision impaired subjects.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Atsunori; Ohsugi, Yudai; Yamamoto, Yuki; Nakamura, Takabun; Sugiura, Toshifumi; Tauchi, Masaki

    2007-05-01

    In order to find out the most suitable and accurate pointing methods to study the sound localizability of persons with visual impairment, we compared the accuracy of three different pointing methods for indicating the direction of sound sources in a semi-anechoic dark room. Six subjects with visual impairment (two totally blind and four with low vision) participated in this experiment. The three pointing methods employed were (1) directing the face, (2) directing the body trunk on a revolving chair and (3) indicating a tactile cue placed horizontally in front of the subject. Seven sound emitters were arranged in a semicircle 2.0 m from the subject, 0 degrees to +/-80 degrees of the subject's midline, at a height of 1.2 m. The accuracy of the pointing methods was evaluated by measuring the deviation between the angle of the target sound source and that of the subject's response. The result was that all methods indicated that as the angle of the sound source increased from midline, the accuracy decreased. The deviations recorded toward the left and the right of midline were symmetrical. In the whole frontal area (-80 degrees to +80 degrees from midline), both the tactile cue and the body trunk methods were more accurate than the face-pointing method. There was no significant difference in the center (-40 degrees to +40 degrees from midline). In the periphery (-80 degrees and +80 degrees ), the tactile cue pointing method was the most accurate of all and the body trunk method was the next best. These results suggest that the most suitable pointing methods to study the sound localizability of the frontal azimuth for subjects who are visually impaired are the tactile cue and the body trunk methods because of their higher accuracy in the periphery. PMID:17641458

  9. Comparison on testability of visual acuity, stereo acuity and colour vision tests between children with learning disabilities and children without learning disabilities in government primary schools

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Nurul Farhana; Chen, Ai-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Context: Children with learning disabilities might have difficulties to communicate effectively and give reliable responses as required in various visual function testing procedures. Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the testability of visual acuity using the modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) and Cambridge Crowding Cards, stereo acuity using Lang Stereo test II and Butterfly stereo tests and colour perception using Colour Vision Test Made Easy (CVTME) and Ishihara's Test for Colour Deficiency (Ishihara Test) between children in mainstream classes and children with learning disabilities in special education classes in government primary schools. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 primary school children (50 children from mainstream classes and 50 children from special education classes) matched in age were recruited in this cross-sectional comparative study. The testability was determined by the percentage of children who were able to give reliable respond as required by the respective tests. ‘Unable to test’ was defined as inappropriate response or uncooperative despite best efforts of the screener. Results: The testability of the modified ETDRS, Butterfly stereo test and Ishihara test for respective visual function tests were found lower among children in special education classes (P < 0.001) but not in Cambridge Crowding Cards, Lang Stereo test II and CVTME. Conclusion: Non verbal or “matching” approaches were found to be more superior in testing visual functions in children with learning disabilities. Modifications of vision testing procedures are essential for children with learning disabilities. PMID:24008790

  10. A generalised mimicry system involving angiosperm flower colour, pollen and bumblebees’ innate colour preferences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Heuschen; A. Gumbert; K. Lunau

    2005-01-01

    Flower colour is a major advertisement signal of zoophilous plants for pollinators. Bees, the main pollinators, exhibit innate colour preferences, which have often been attributed to only one single floral colour, though most flowers display a pattern of two or several colours. The existing studies of floral colour patterns are mostly qualitative studies. Using a model of bee colour vision

  11. Second European Conference on Color in Graphics, Imaging and Vision Copyright 2004, CGIV Calibrated Colour Mapping Between LCD and

    E-print Network

    Funt, Brian

    Colour Mapping Between LCD and CRT Displays: A Case Study Bill Cressman Email: wcressma@sfu.ca Phone: 1 Applications (calibrations, instrument performance) #12;Calibrated Colour Mapping Between LCD and CRT Displays introduced by Tamura et al. in 2002 [6]. The devices include two CRT Monitors, three LCD Monitors, and two

  12. The "voice" has it: screen reader adoption and switching behavior among vision impaired persons in India.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Ted; Pal, Joyojeet; Cutrell, Edward

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a mixed methods study of screen reader use and switching behavior among people with vision impairments in India. We examine loyalty and experimentation with screen readers and find that the main drivers of adoption for early users differ significantly from the factors that drive continued use by advanced users. We discuss the factor that emerges as one of the strongest stated drivers of early adoption, text-to-speech "voice" quality, particularly a "human-sounding voice" as one of the key features differentiating free/open source products from more expensive proprietary products. While the initial preferences are driven by voice quality, application support becomes more important over time as users speed up their sound settings and become more comfortable with the resultant non-human-sounding speech. We discuss these findings from two theoretical perspectives--first, through the application of the economics of behavior switching, and second, vis-à-vis novice and expert approaches toward new product adoption. We argue that these findings further our understanding of initial user comfort related to assistive technology adoption, and the impact of early technology choices on long-term technology switching behavior. PMID:24620705

  13. Childhood vision impairment, hearing loss and co-occurring autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2015-01-01

    Background Limited population-based data on prevalence of childhood vision impairment (VI) and hearing loss (HL), and their co-occurrence with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exists. Objective To examine prevalence and characteristics of VI, HL and co-occurring ASD among 8-year-olds in metropolitan Atlanta 2000–2008. Methods We used data from the population-based Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program. Prevalence, birth and parental characteristics, presence and severity of other co-occurring developmental disabilities, and age of earliest identification of ASD, were examined for children with VI and HL, by co-occurring ASD. Results VI and HL prevalences were 1.2 and 1.3 per 1000 8-year-olds, respectively. Approximately 6–7% of children with VI or HL had co-occurring ASD. Children with VI or HL with co-occurring ASD differed from those without co-occurring ASD by select birth characteristics and the presence of other co-occurring DDs. The median age of earliest known ASD diagnosis was significantly later among children with VI and ASD compared to children with ASD without VI (79 vs. 56 months). Children with HL and ASD were first evaluated by a community provider significantly earlier than those with ASD without HL (40 vs. 50 months). Conclusions The frequency of co-occurring ASD with VI and HL is higher than the population prevalence of ASD. The significant delays in diagnosis of ASD in children with VI and lack of earlier diagnosis of ASD among children with HL despite earlier evaluation highlight the importance of developing screening tools for early identification of ASD among children with VI and HL. PMID:24060256

  14. Association Between Vision Impairment and Driving Exposure in Older Adults Aged 70 Years and Over: A Population-Based Examination

    PubMed Central

    Sandlin, Daniel; McGwin, Gerald; Owsley, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between vision impairment and driving exposure (amount of driving one does) in a population-based sample of older drivers, and to examine to what extent cognitive status impacts this relationship. Methods Enrollees consisted of a population-based sample of older adults from Alabama who were ? 70 years old, held a current driver’s license, and had driven within the last 3 months. Three aspects of visual function were measured under binocular conditions – habitual distance visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and visual processing speed. General cognitive status was assessed with the Mini-mental status examination. Driving exposure was estimated by the Driving Habits Questionnaire that asked about the number of miles, places, trips and days driven per week. Results Drivers with impaired contrast sensitivity exhibited reduced annual mileage, and a decreased number of places and trips driven per week compared to those with normal contrast sensitivity, even after adjustment for other factors. Slowed visual processing speed was associated with reduced number of days driven per week after adjustment. Visual acuity deficit was not associated with changes in driving exposure. Cognitive status did not impact any of the associations between vision impairment and driving exposure. Conclusion Older drivers with contrast sensitivity impairment exhibit reduced driving exposure in terms of number of trips and places they drive per week, as well as decreased annual mileage. These apparent self-regulatory practices should be viewed as adaptive since contrast sensitivity impairment elevates motor vehicle collision (MVC) risk and reduction in driving exposure can reduce MVC risk. PMID:23601553

  15. Prevention of vision loss protects against age-related impairment in learning and memory performance in DBA/2J mice

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Aimée A.; Brown, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age-related increases in intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 to 12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo-spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the “sensory impairment” hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic-XE, 0.00, 0.25, or 0.50%) daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age), mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50%) maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00%) exhibited impaired performance in visually-dependent, but not non-visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability. PMID:24065919

  16. The assessment of colour perception, naming and knowledge: a new test device with a case study.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Rossella; Bosco, Giovanna; Dalla Valle, Elisabetta; Capitani, Erminio; Laiacona, Marcella

    2012-08-01

    Besides ocular diseases, also cerebral damage may cause colour vision deficits; cerebral lesions may be associated with a variety of clinical conditions that impair colour processing. This study presents procedures and normative data for a rapid, comprehensive seven-test battery aimed at assessing colour perception, colour naming and object colour knowledge. The norms, obtained from 96 healthy Italian participants, allow normality/pathology judgements on the basis of one-sided tolerance limits, after adjusting the score of each test for the demographic variables of the proband subjects. We also report, as an example, use of the battery in a stroke patient; this patient was chosen because her lesion affected the left temporal-occipital cortex, an area sometimes associated with a deficit of colour processing. The patient resulted normal on colour perception and colour name retrieval, but defective on object colour knowledge probed using the stimulus name. For the sound definition of the functional locus of cognitive impairment at the single case level, a multi-faceted set of tasks is necessary. PMID:22076482

  17. Design for Simulator Performance Evaluations of Driving with Vision Impairments and Visual Aids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Peli; A. R. Bowers; A. J. Mandel; K. Higgins; R. B. Goldstein; L. Bobrow

    2005-01-01

    Driving simulator technology provides a safe method for evaluating the impact of vision loss on different components of the driving task and the potential efficacy of visual aids intended to compensate for a particular type of vision loss. Most previous investigations have used general driving scenarios. It is proposed here that scenarios with different task require- ments be designed specifically

  18. Television, computer and portable display device use by people with central vision impairment

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Russell L; Satgunam, PremNandhini

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To survey the viewing experience (e.g. hours watched, difficulty) and viewing metrics (e.g. distance viewed, display size) for television (TV), computers and portable visual display devices for normally-sighted (NS) and visually impaired participants. This information may guide visual rehabilitation. Methods Survey was administered either in person or in a telephone interview on 223 participants of whom 104 had low vision (LV, worse than 6/18, age 22 to 90y, 54 males), and 94 were NS (visual acuity 6/9 or better, age 20 to 86y, 50 males). Depending on their situation, NS participants answered up to 38 questions and LV participants answered up to a further 10 questions. Results Many LV participants reported at least “some” difficulty watching TV (71/103), reported at least “often” having difficulty with computer displays (40/76) and extreme difficulty watching videos on handheld devices (11/16). The average daily TV viewing was slightly, but not significantly, higher for the LV participants (3.6h) than the NS (3.0h). Only 18% of LV participants used visual aids (all optical) to watch TV. Most LV participants obtained effective magnification from a reduced viewing distance for both TV and computer display. Younger LV participants also used a larger display when compared to older LV participants to obtain increased magnification. About half of the TV viewing time occurred in the absence of a companion for both the LV and the NS participants. The mean number of TVs at home reported by LV participants (2.2) was slightly but not significantly (p=0.09) higher than NS participants (2.0). LV participants were equally likely to have a computer but were significantly (p=0.004) less likely to access the internet (73/104) compared to NS participants (82/94). Most LV participants expressed an interest in image enhancing technology for TV viewing (67/104) and for computer use (50/74), if they used a computer. Conclusion In this study, both NS and LV participants had comparable video viewing habits. Most LV participants in our sample reported difficulty watching TV, and indicated an interest in assistive technology, such as image enhancement. As our participants reported that at least half their video viewing hours are spent alone and that there is usually more than one TV per household, this suggests that there are opportunities to use image enhancement on the TVs of LV viewers without interfering with the viewing experience of NS viewers. PMID:21410501

  19. A case study of cortical colour "blindness" with relatively intact achromatic discrimination.

    PubMed

    Heywood, C A; Wilson, B; Cowey, A

    1987-01-01

    A patient is described whose most striking visual disorder was a grossly impaired ability to discriminate between different colours (hues) that were matched for brightness. In contrast his ability to discriminate between different neutral greys presented in the same fashion was much less abnormal, even though the greys were perceptually difficult. Although visual acuity was reduced and visual fields were constricted, and the patient's memory was moderately impaired, these associated symptoms could not themselves be the cause of his unusual colour vision. The patient had the symptoms of cerebral achromatopsia, and the relative preservation of his form vision (when his reduced acuity is taken into account) and his achromatic vision supports the view that the many different visual cortical areas recently demonstrated in the brains of monkeys, and presumed to exist in man, have a perceptual specialisation that matches their physiological differences. PMID:3493328

  20. Vision-model-based impairment metric to evaluate blocking artifacts in digital video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenghua Yu; Hong Ren Wu; STEFAN WINKLER; Tao Chen

    2002-01-01

    In this paper investigations are conducted to simplify and refine a vision-model-based video quality metric without compromising its prediction accuracy. Unlike other vision-model-based quality metrics, the proposed metric is parameterized using subjective quality assessment data recently provided by the Video Quality Experts Group. The quality metric is able to generate a perceptual distortion map for each and every video frame.

  1. Conference & Workshop on Assistive Technologies for People with Vision & Hearing Impairments Assistive Technology for All Ages

    E-print Network

    Coughlan, James M.

    will be communicated to the traveler using synthesized speech, audible tones and/or tactile feedback, and is meant important information. 2. State-Of-The-Art and Related Technology The specific problems of visually impaired

  2. Seeing in colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotto, R. Beau; Clarke, Richard; Corney, David; Purves, Dale

    2011-03-01

    Understanding perception of colour is challenging because what we see is not always what is there, which is a phenomenon we call illusions. Here we review the nature of colour vision, and the problems facing most current models and explanations. Focusing on our recent research on humans, bees and computers, we describe a new, more ecologically based explanation that provides a clear framework for why we see what we do.

  3. The Use of Visual Feedback during Signing: Evidence from Signers with Impaired Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmorey, Karen; Korpics, Franco; Petronio, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The role of visual feedback during the production of American Sign Language was investigated by comparing the size of signing space during conversations and narrative monologues for normally sighted signers, signers with tunnel vision due to Usher syndrome, and functionally blind signers. The interlocutor for all groups was a normally sighted deaf…

  4. Changes in Quality of Life in Visually Impaired Patients after Low-Vision Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renieri, Giulia; Pitz, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Beutel, Manfred E.; Zwerenz, Rudiger

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of low-vision aids on quality of life. Interviews included a modified version of the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (Modified German NEI VFQ-25), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Mini-Mental State Examination Blind, and Indicators of the Rehabilitation…

  5. A grayscale pneumatic micro-valve for use in a reconfigurable tactile tablet for vision-impaired individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Joseph Devin; Rebolledo-Mendez, Jovan David; McNamara, Shamus

    2015-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and characterization of a strained bilayer film for use in a micro-valve for a reconfigurable tactile tablet for vision-impaired individuals is presented. The bilayer film consists of a compressive and tensile layer to cause the film to coil and retract from the gas channel when the micro-valve is in the open position. A novel support structure that improves yield and controls the direction of coiling is demonstrated. An array of 225 strained bilayer films was designed and fabricated. Each strained bilayer film was able to be actuated individually with a voltage that ranged between 60 and 70?V. The relationship between the applied voltage and the percentage open of the micro-valve is found to be linear over an extended voltage range, enabling the reconfigurable tactile tablet to produce the equivalent of a grayscale image.

  6. Impact of Impaired Vision and Eye Disease on Quality of Life in Andhra Pradesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rishita Nutheti; Bindiganavale R. Shamanna; Praveen K. Nirmalan; Jill E. Keeffe; Sannapaneni Krishnaiah; Gullapalli N. Rao; Ravi Thomas

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE. To determine the impact of visual impairment and eye diseases on quality of life (QOL) in an older population of Andhra Pradesh in southern India. METHODS. The World Health Organization (WHO) QOL (WHO- QOL) instrument was adapted as a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instrument for administration to adults participating in the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. Participants aged

  7. Visualizing without Vision at the Microscale: Students with Visual Impairments Explore Cells with Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Minogue, James; Oppewal, Tom; Cook, Michelle P.; Broadwell, Bethany

    2006-01-01

    Science instruction is typically highly dependent on visual representations of scientific concepts that are communicated through textbooks, teacher presentations, and computer-based multimedia materials. Little is known about how students with visual impairments access and interpret these types of visually-dependent instructional materials. This…

  8. Vision Impairs the Abilities of Bats to Avoid Colliding with Stationary Obstacles

    PubMed Central

    Orbach, Dara N.; Fenton, Brock

    2010-01-01

    Background Free-flying insectivorous bats occasionally collide with stationary objects they should easily detect by echolocation and avoid. Collisions often occur with lighted objects, suggesting ambient light may deleteriously affect obstacle avoidance capabilities. We tested the hypothesis that free-flying bats may orient by vision when they collide with some obstacles. We additionally tested whether acoustic distractions, such as “distress calls” of other bats, contributed to probabilities of collision. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate the role of visual cues in the collisions of free-flying little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with stationary objects, we set up obstacles in an area of high bat traffic during swarming. We used combinations of light intensities and visually dissimilar obstacles to verify that bats orient by vision. In early August, bats collided more often in the light than the dark, and probabilities of collision varied with the visibility of obstacles. However, the probabilities of collisions altered in mid to late August, coincident with the start of behavioural, hormonal, and physiological changes occurring during swarming and mating. Distress calls did not distract bats and increase the incidence of collisions. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that visual cues are more important for free-flying bats than previously recognized, suggesting integration of multi-sensory modalities during orientation. Furthermore, our study highlights differences between responses of captive and wild bats, indicating a need for more field experiments. PMID:21085481

  9. Mapping colour in image stitching applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Hasler; Sabine Süsstrunk

    2004-01-01

    Digitally, panoramic pictures can be assembled from several individual, overlapping photographs. While the geometric alignment of these photographs has retained a lot of attention from the computer vision community, the mapping of colour, i.e. the correction of colour mismatches, has not been studied extensively. In this article, we analyze the colour rendering of today's digital photographic systems, and propose a

  10. Improved maritime target tracker using colour fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Westall; Peter O'Shea; Jason J. Ford; Stefan Hrabar

    2009-01-01

    Searching for humans lost in vast stretches of ocean has always been a difficult task. This paper investigates a machine vision system that addresses this problem by exploiting the useful properties of alternate colour spaces. In particular, the paper investigates the fusion of colour information from the HSV, RGB, YCbCr and YIQ colour spaces within the emission matrix of a

  11. Adaptive colouration in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Rudh, Andreas; Qvarnström, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians, i.e. salamanders, frogs and caecilians show a wide range of bright colours in combination with contrasting patterns. There is variation among species, populations and also within species and populations. Furthermore, individuals often change colours during developmental stages or in response to environmental factors. This extraordinary variation means that there are excellent opportunities to test hypotheses of the adaptive significance of colours using amphibian species as models. We review the present view of functions of colouration in amphibians with the main focus on relatively unexplored topics. Variation in colouration has been found to play a role in thermoregulation, UV protection, predator avoidance and sexual signalling. However, many proposed cases of adaptive functions of colouration in amphibians remain virtually scientifically unexplored and surprisingly few genes influencing pigmentation or patterning have been detected. We would like to especially encourage more studies that take advantage of recent developments in measurement of visual properties of several possible signalling receivers (e.g. predators, competitors or mates). Future investigations on interactions between behaviour, ecology and vision have the potential to challenge our current view of the adaptive function of colouration in amphibians. PMID:23664831

  12. Cav1.4 IT mouse as model for vision impairment in human congenital stationary night blindness type 2

    PubMed Central

    Knoflach, Dagmar; Kerov, Vasily; Sartori, Simone B; Obermair, Gerald J; Schmuckermair, Claudia; Liu, Xiaoni; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Garrido, Marina Garcia; Baker, Sheila A; Glösmann, Martin; Schicker, Klaus; Seeliger, Mathias; Lee, Amy; Koschak, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the CACNA1F gene encoding the Cav1.4 Ca2+ channel are associated with X-linked congenital stationary night blindness type 2 (CSNB2). Despite the increasing knowledge about the functional behavior of mutated channels in heterologous systems, the pathophysiological mechanisms that result in vision impairment remain to be elucidated. This work provides a thorough functional characterization of the novel IT mouse line that harbors the gain-of-function mutation I745T reported in a New Zealand CSNB2 family.1 Electroretinographic recordings in IT mice permitted a direct comparison with human data. Our data supported the hypothesis that a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage-dependence of channel activation—as seen in the IT gain-of-function mutant2—may reduce the dynamic range of photoreceptor activity. Morphologically, the retinal outer nuclear layer in adult IT mutants was reduced in size and cone outer segments appeared shorter. The organization of the outer plexiform layer was disrupted, and synaptic structures of photoreceptors had a variable, partly immature, appearance. The associated visual deficiency was substantiated in behavioral paradigms. The IT mouse line serves as a specific model for the functional phenotype of human CSNB2 patients with gain-of-function mutations and may help to further understand the dysfunction in CSNB. PMID:24051672

  13. Kids' Quest: Vision Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blind. Explaining Blindness Authors: Lionel Bender Publisher: Smart Apple Media (August 2009) Reading Level: Ages 9-12 ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file Zip Archive ...

  14. Valsalva hemorrhagic retinopathy presenting as a rare cause of impaired vision after a general anesthetic-a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patane, Paul S; Krummenacher, Thomas K; Rao, Rajesh C

    2015-06-01

    Postoperative visual loss from any cause is potentially catastrophic. We present a case of Valsalva hemorrhagic retinopathy (VHR) as a rare cause of impaired vision after an apparently uneventful general anesthetic. Previously published cases of VHR, anesthetic related and otherwise, are reviewed and the phenomenon discussed. Although VHR is considered to be rare, the events and activities with which it is associated are relatively common, both in everyday life and in the operating room. We suggest that the occurrence of VHR after anesthesia and surgery may be more frequent than previously appreciated and make recommendations for further investigations. PMID:25865821

  15. Colour Spaces for Colour Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Reinhard; Tania Pouli

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a Colour transfer algorithms aim to apply a colour palette, mood or style from one image to another, operating either in a three-dimensional\\u000a colour space, or splitting the problem into three simpler one-dimensional problems. The latter class of algorithms simply\\u000a treats each of the three dimensions independently, whether justified or not. Although they rarely introduce spatial artefacts,\\u000a the quality of the

  16. Localization of the gene (or genes) for a syndrome with X-linked mental retardation, ataxia, weakness, hearing impairment, loss of vision and a fatal course in early childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kremer; B. C. J. Hamel; B. van den Helm; W. F. M. Arts; I. J. de Wijs; E. A. Sistermans; H.-H. Ropers; E. C. M. Mariman

    1996-01-01

    Linkage analysis is described in a family with X-linked mental retardation, ataxia, weakness, floppiness, delayed motor development,\\u000a absence of deep tendon reflexes, hearing impairment and loss of vision (MIM no. 301835). The disease has a fatal course due\\u000a to the susceptibility of the patients to infections, especially of the respiratory tract. Clinical signs indicate impairment\\u000a of the posterior columns, peripheral

  17. Holmes and Horrax (1919) revisited: impaired binocular fusion as a cause of "flat vision" after right parietal brain damage - a case study.

    PubMed

    Schaadt, Anna-Katharina; Brandt, Stephan A; Kraft, Antje; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2015-03-01

    The complete loss of binocular depth perception ("flat vision") was first thoroughly described by Holmes and Horrax (1919), and has been occasionally reported thereafter in patients with bilateral posterior-parietal lesions. Though partial spontaneous recovery occurred in some cases, the precise cause(s) of this condition remained obscure for almost a century. Here, we describe a unique patient (EH) with a large right-sided occipito-parietal hemorrhage showing a complete loss of visual depth perception for several months post-stroke. EH could well simultaneously describe multiple visual objects - hence did not show simultanagnosia - but at the same time was completely unable to estimate their distance from him. In every 3-D visual scene objects appeared equidistant to him, thus experiencing a total loss of depth perception ("flat vision"). Neurovisual assessments revealed normal functions of the eyes. EH showed bilateral lower field loss and a severely impaired binocular convergent fusion, but preserved stereopsis. Perceptual re-training of binocular fusion resulted in a progressive and finally complete recovery of objective binocular fusion values and subjective binocular depth perception in a far-to-near-space, gradient-like manner. In parallel, visual depth estimation of relative distances improved, whereas stereopsis remained unchanged. Our results show that a complete loss of 3-D depth perception can result from an isolated impairment in binocular fusion. On a neuroanatomical level, this connection could be explained by a selective lesion of area V6/V6A in the medial occipito-parietal cortex that has been associated with the integration of visual space coordinates and sustained eye-positions into a cyclopean visual 3-D percept. PMID:25619849

  18. Present Vision--Future Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitterman, L. Jeffrey

    This paper addresses issues of current and future technology use for and by individuals with visual impairments and blindness in Florida. Present technology applications used in vision programs in Florida are individually described, including video enlarging, speech output, large inkprint, braille print, paperless braille, and tactual output…

  19. Low Vision Training in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inde, Krister

    1978-01-01

    The article describes the team work approach used in Sweden to provide services to the four main categories of visual impairment: central scotoma, nystagmus, loss of peripheral vision while retaining central vision, and amblyopia. (Author/PHR)

  20. Floral colour diversity in plant communities, bee colour space and a null model

    PubMed Central

    Gumbert, A.; Kunze, J.; Chittka, L.

    1999-01-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long hypothesized that the diversity of flower colours we see is in part a strategy to promote memorization by pollinators, pollinator constancy, and therefore, a directed and efficient pollen transfer between plants. However, this hypothesis has never been tested against a biologically realistic null model, nor were colours assessed in the way pollinators see them. Our intent here is to fill these gaps. Throughout one year, we sampled floral species compositions at five ecologically distinct sites near Berlin, Germany. Bee-subjective colours were quantified for all 168 species. A model of colour vision was used to predict how similar the colours of sympatric and simultaneously blooming flowers were for bees. We then compared flower colour differences in the real habitats with those of random plant communities. We did not find pronounced deviations from chance when we considered common plants. When we examined rare plants, however, we found significant divergence in two of the five plant communities. At one site, similarly coloured species were found to be more frequent than expected, and at the other two locations, flower colours were indistinguishable from a random distribution. These results fit theoretical considerations that rare plants are under stronger selective pressure to secure pollination than common plants. Our study illustrates the power of linking such distinct biological traditions as community ecology and the neuroethology of bee vision.

  1. Degas: Vision and Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The art of Edgar Degas is discussed in relation to his impaired vision, including amblyopia, later blindness in one eye, corneal scarring, and photophobia. Examined are ways in which Degas compensated for vision problems, and dominant themes of his art such as the process of perception and spots of brilliant light. (Author/JDD)

  2. Colour Guided Colour Image Steganography

    E-print Network

    Amirtharajan, R; Swarup, Motamarri Abhilash; K, Mohamed Ashfaaq; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2010-01-01

    Information security has become a cause of concern because of the electronic eavesdropping. Capacity, robustness and invisibility are important parameters in information hiding and are quite difficult to achieve in a single algorithm. This paper proposes a novel steganography technique for digital color image which achieves the purported targets. The professed methodology employs a complete random scheme for pixel selection and embedding of data. Of the three colour channels (Red, Green, Blue) in a given colour image, the least two significant bits of any one of the channels of the color image is used to channelize the embedding capacity of the remaining two channels. We have devised three approaches to achieve various levels of our desired targets. In the first approach, Red is the default guide but it results in localization of MSE in the remaining two channels, which makes it slightly vulnerable. In the second approach, user gets the liberty to select the guiding channel (Red, Green or Blue) to guide the r...

  3. Spectral sensitivity of a colour changing spider.

    PubMed

    Defrize, Jérémy; Lazzari, Claudio R; Warrant, Eric J; Casas, Jérôme

    2011-04-01

    Vision plays a paramount role in some spider families such as the Salticidae, Lycosidae and Thomisidae, as it is involved in prey hunting, orientation or choice of substrate. In the thomisid Misumena vatia, for which the substrate colour affects the body colour, vision seems to mediate morphological colour changes. However, nothing is known about which component of visual signals from the substrate might be perceived, nor whether M. vatia possesses the physiological basis for colour vision. The aim of this study is thus to investigate the vision of this spider species by measuring the spectral sensitivities of the different pairs of eyes using electrophysiological methods. Extra- and intracellular electrophysiological recordings combined with selective adaptation revealed the presence of two classes of photoreceptor cells, one sensitive in the UV region of the spectrum (around 340 nm) and one sensitive in the green (around 520 nm) regions in the four pairs of eyes. We conclude that M. vatia possesses the physiological potential to perceive both chromatic and achromatic components of the environment. PMID:21300067

  4. Trends in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, hearing loss, intellectual disability, and vision impairment, metropolitan atlanta, 1991-2010.

    PubMed

    Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Christensen, Deborah; Doernberg, Nancy; Schieve, Laura; Rice, Catherine; Wiggins, Lisa; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), cerebral palsy (CP), hearing loss (HL), intellectual disability (ID), and vision impairment (VI) over a 15-20 year time period, with specific focus on concurrent changes in ASD and ID prevalence. We used data from a population-based developmental disabilities surveillance program for 8-year-olds in metropolitan Atlanta. From 1991-2010, prevalence estimates of ID and HL were stable with slight increases in VI prevalence. CP prevalence was constant from 1993-2010. The average annual increase in ASD prevalence was 9.3% per year from 1996-2010, with a 269% increase from 4.2 per 1,000 in 1996 to 15.5 per 1,000 in 2010. From 2000-2010, the prevalence of ID without ASD was stable; during the same time, the prevalence of ASD with and without co-occurring ID increased by an average of 6.6% and 9.6% per year, respectively. ASD prevalence increases were found among both males and females, and among nearly all racial/ethnic subgroups and levels of intellectual ability. Average annual prevalence estimates from 1991-2010 underscore the significant community resources needed to provide early intervention and ongoing supports for children with ID (13.0 per 1,000), CP, (3.5 per 1,000), HL (1.4 per 1,000) and VI (1.3 in 1,000), with a growing urgency for children with ASD. PMID:25923140

  5. Why do seals have cones? Behavioural evidence for colour-blindness in harbour seals.

    PubMed

    Scholtyssek, Christine; Kelber, Almut; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2015-03-01

    All seals and cetaceans have lost at least one of two ancestral cone classes and should therefore be colour-blind. Nevertheless, earlier studies showed that these marine mammals can discriminate colours and a colour vision mechanism has been proposed which contrasts signals from cones and rods. However, these earlier studies underestimated the brightness discrimination abilities of these animals, so that they could have discriminated colours using brightness only. Using a psychophysical discrimination experiment, we showed that a harbour seal can solve a colour discrimination task by means of brightness discrimination alone. Performing a series of experiments in which two harbour seals had to discriminate the brightness of colours, we also found strong evidence for purely scotopic (rod-based) vision at light levels that lead to mesopic (rod-cone-based) vision in other mammals. This finding speaks against rod-cone-based colour vision in harbour seals. To test for colour-blindness, we used a cognitive approach involving a harbour seal trained to use a concept of same and different. We tested this seal with pairs of isoluminant stimuli that were either same or different in colour. If the seal had perceived colour, it would have responded to colour differences between stimuli. However, the seal responded with "same", providing strong evidence for colour-blindness. PMID:25452008

  6. Vision Deficits in Adults with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Silverman, Wayne; Gordon, James; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Oley, Nancy; Abramov, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Background In individuals with Down syndrome virtually all structures of the eye have some abnormality which likely diminishes vision. We examined basic vision functions in adults with Down syndrome. Materials and Methods Participants completed a battery of psychophysical tests which probed a comprehensive array of visual functions. The performance of adults with Down syndrome was compared to younger and older adults without intellectual disability. Results Adults with Down syndrome had significant vision deficits; reduced sensitivity across spatial frequencies and temporal modulation rates, reduced stereopsis, impaired vernier acuity, and anomalies in colour discrimination. The pattern of deficits observed was similar to those seen by researchers examining adults with Alzheimer’s disease. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a common mechanism may be responsible for the pattern of deficits observed, possibly the presence of Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology in the visual association cortex. We also showed that individuals with mild to moderate intellectual disability are capable of participating in studies employing state-of-the-art psychophysical procedures. This has wider implications in terms of their ability to participate in research that use similar techniques. PMID:23784802

  7. Light Vision Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  8. Study of colour discrimination with comb-filtered spectra.

    PubMed

    Bonnardel, V; Valero, E M

    2001-03-01

    Techniques that involve the use of comb-filtered spectra to study human colour vision have been developed in previous work (Bonnardel, V., Bellemare, H., Mollon, J.D., 1996. Measurements of human sensitivity to comb-filtered spectra, Vision Research 36, 2713-2720; Bonnardel, V., Ruderman D.L., Barlow, H.B., 1997. A fast determination of the Spectral Modulation Sensitivity Function: a comparison between trichromats and deuteranopes. In: C.R. Cavonius (ed.), Color vision deficiencies XIII. Dordrecht: Kluver 415-424). These techniques are applied in the present study to measure colour discrimination among deuteranomalous observers and normal trichromats, with the aim of determining the spectral position of the anomalous cone fundamentals. Results show that comb-filtered spectra are useful in determining the extent to which variability in colour discrimination among anomalous and normal trichromatic colour observers is accounted for by the spectral properties of photoreceptors. PMID:11226500

  9. Unusual effect colourants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Gregory

    2003-01-01

    Summaries  An unusual effect colourant is one that exhibits a colour change or some other unusual effect outside the traditional colour-imparting\\u000a properties of a colourant. Il also includes novel ways of producing colour.\\u000a \\u000a Many such effects are known and commercialised. For example, holograms and optically-variable pigments, which utilise the\\u000a interference of visible light, and the electrostatic and photoconductive effects used in

  10. Aging and Vision

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Given the increasing size of the older adult population in many countries, there is a pressing need to identify the nature of aging-related vision impairments, their underlying mechanisms, and how they impact older adults’ performance of everyday visual tasks. The results of this research can then be used to develop and evaluate interventions to slow or reverse aging-related declines in vision, thereby improving quality of life. Here we summarize salient developments in research on aging and vision over the past 25 years, focusing on spatial contrast sensitivity, vision under low luminance, temporal sensitivity and motion perception, and visual processing speed. PMID:20974168

  11. The involvement of the temporal lobes in colour discrimination.

    PubMed

    Heywood, C A; Shields, C; Cowey, A

    1988-01-01

    Monkeys with ablation of lateral striate, prestriate or inferotemporal cortex were compared with unoperated controls in their ability to discriminate Munsell colours, or greys, of increasing difficulty. Whereas lateral striate or prestriate lesions centred on visual area V4 mildly impaired only the most difficult discriminations, inferotemporal ablation resulted in a severe impairment in the acquisition of colour discriminations. However, the ability to discriminate greys was much less affected. PMID:3169175

  12. Chromatic Discrimination in a Cortically Colour Blind Observer.

    PubMed

    Heywood, C. A.; Cowey, A.; Newcombe, F.

    1991-01-01

    We tested the ability of a subject with cerebral achromatopsia to discriminate between colours and to detect chromatic borders. He was unable to identify colours or to arrange them in an orderly series or choose the odd colour out of an array or even to pick out a colour embedded in an array of greys. Nevertheless, he could select the odd colour when the colours were contiguous, even when they were isoluminant, and could discriminate an ordered from a disordered chromatic series as long as the colours in each row abutted one other. His verbal replies showed that he did so by detecting an edge between two stimuli that were, to him, perceptually identical. Introducing a narrow isoluminant grey stripe between adjacent colours abolished or greatly impaired this ability. As long as isoluminant colours were contiguous the patient could identify the orientation of the chromatic borders. Photopic spectral sensitivity showed evidence both for activity of three cone channels and for chromatic opponent processing, indicating that postreceptoral chromatic processing is occurring despite the absence of any conscious awareness of colour. The results indicate that both parvocellular colour opponent and magnocellular broad-band channels are active and that the cortical brain damage has selectively disrupted the appreciation of colour but not the ability to detect even isoluminant chromatic borders, which would be invisible to a retinal achromat. The subject's performance on non-colour tasks involving the discrimination of shape, texture, greyness and position was excellent. His disorder is therefore not like that of macaque monkeys in which cortical area V4 has been removed, and which are much more severely impaired at discriminating shape than colour. PMID:12106466

  13. Seasonal Changes in Colour: A Comparison of Structural, Melanin- and Carotenoid-Based Plumage Colours

    PubMed Central

    Delhey, Kaspar; Burger, Claudia; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Peters, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Plumage coloration is important for bird communication, most notably in sexual signalling. Colour is often considered a good quality indicator, and the expression of exaggerated colours may depend on individual condition during moult. After moult, plumage coloration has been deemed fixed due to the fact that feathers are dead structures. Still, many plumage colours change after moult, although whether this affects signalling has not been sufficiently assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied changes in coloration after moult in four passerine birds (robin, Erithacus rubecula; blackbird, Turdus merula; blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus; and great tit, Parus major) displaying various coloration types (melanin-, carotenoid-based and structural). Birds were caught regularly during three years to measure plumage reflectance. We used models of avian colour vision to derive two variables, one describing chromatic and the other achromatic variation over the year that can be compared in magnitude among different colour types. All studied plumage patches but one (yellow breast of the blue tit) showed significant chromatic changes over the year, although these were smaller than for a typical dynamic trait (bill colour). Overall, structural colours showed a reduction in relative reflectance at shorter wavelengths, carotenoid-based colours the opposite pattern, while no general pattern was found for melanin-based colours. Achromatic changes were also common, but there were no consistent patterns of change for the different types of colours. Conclusions/Significance Changes of plumage coloration independent of moult are probably widespread; they should be perceivable by birds and have the potential to affect colour signalling. PMID:20644723

  14. Does Colour Preference Have a Role in Colour Term Acquisition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Davis, Emma E.; Scerif, Gaia

    2009-01-01

    A developmental association exists between colour preference and emerging colour term acquisition in young children. Colour preference might influence colour term acquisition by directing attention towards or away from a particular colour, making it more or less memorable. To investigate the role that colour preference may have in the acquisition…

  15. Optimality of the basic colour categories for classification

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Lewis D

    2005-01-01

    Categorization of colour has been widely studied as a window into human language and cognition, and quite separately has been used pragmatically in image-database retrieval systems. This suggests the hypothesis that the best category system for pragmatic purposes coincides with human categories (i.e. the basic colours). We have tested this hypothesis by assessing the performance of different category systems in a machine-vision task. The task was the identification of the odd-one-out from triples of images obtained using a web-based image-search service. In each triple, two of the images had been retrieved using the same search term, the other a different term. The terms were simple concrete nouns. The results were as follows: (i) the odd-one-out task can be performed better than chance using colour alone; (ii) basic colour categorization performs better than random systems of categories; (iii) a category system that performs better than the basic colours could not be found; and (iv) it is not just the general layout of the basic colours that is important, but also the detail. We conclude that (i) the results support the plausibility of an explanation for the basic colours as a result of a pressure-to-optimality and (ii) the basic colours are good categories for machine vision image-retrieval systems. PMID:16849219

  16. Rockpool Gobies Change Colour for Camouflage

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Martin; Lown, Alice E.; Denton, Alexander M.

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is found in a wide range of species living in numerous habitat types, offering protection from visually guided predators. This includes many species from the intertidal zone, which must cope with background types diverse in appearance and with multiple predator groups foraging at high and low tide. Many animals are capable of either relatively slow (hours, days, weeks) or rapid (seconds and minutes) colour change in order to better resemble the background against which they are found, but most work has been restricted to a few species or taxa. It is often suggested that many small intertidal fish are capable of colour change for camouflage, yet little experimental work has addressed this. Here, we test rock gobies (Gobius paganellus) for colour change abilities, and whether they can tune their appearance to match the background. In two experiments, we place gobies on backgrounds of different brightness (black or white), and of different colours (red and blue) and use digital image analysis and modelling of predator (avian) vision to quantify colour and luminance (perceived lightness) changes and camouflage. We find that gobies are capable of rapid colour change (occurring within one minute), and that they can change their luminance on lighter or darker backgrounds. When presented on backgrounds of different colours, gobies also change their colour (hue and saturation) while keeping luminance the same. These changes lead to predicted improvements in camouflage match to the background. Our study shows that small rockpool fish are capable of rapid visual change for concealment, and that this may be an important mechanism in many species to avoid predation, especially in complex heterogeneous environments. PMID:25333382

  17. Rockpool gobies change colour for camouflage.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Martin; Lown, Alice E; Denton, Alexander M

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is found in a wide range of species living in numerous habitat types, offering protection from visually guided predators. This includes many species from the intertidal zone, which must cope with background types diverse in appearance and with multiple predator groups foraging at high and low tide. Many animals are capable of either relatively slow (hours, days, weeks) or rapid (seconds and minutes) colour change in order to better resemble the background against which they are found, but most work has been restricted to a few species or taxa. It is often suggested that many small intertidal fish are capable of colour change for camouflage, yet little experimental work has addressed this. Here, we test rock gobies (Gobius paganellus) for colour change abilities, and whether they can tune their appearance to match the background. In two experiments, we place gobies on backgrounds of different brightness (black or white), and of different colours (red and blue) and use digital image analysis and modelling of predator (avian) vision to quantify colour and luminance (perceived lightness) changes and camouflage. We find that gobies are capable of rapid colour change (occurring within one minute), and that they can change their luminance on lighter or darker backgrounds. When presented on backgrounds of different colours, gobies also change their colour (hue and saturation) while keeping luminance the same. These changes lead to predicted improvements in camouflage match to the background. Our study shows that small rockpool fish are capable of rapid visual change for concealment, and that this may be an important mechanism in many species to avoid predation, especially in complex heterogeneous environments. PMID:25333382

  18. Colour Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Shyam N.

    The most common property to measure quality of any material is its appearance. Appearance includes colour, shape, size and surface conditions. The analysis of colour is especially an important consideration when determining the efficacy of variety of postharvest treatments. Consumers can easily be influenced by preconceived ideas of how a particular fruit or vegetable or a processed food should appear, and marketers often attempt to improve upon what nature has painted. Recently colour measurements have also been used as quality parameters and indicator of some inner constituents of the material. In spite of the significance of colour in food industries, many continue to analyze it inadequately. This chapter deals with theory of colour, colour scales and its measurement, sampling techniques, and modeling of colour values for correlating them with some internal quality parameters of selected fruits.

  19. Low Vision

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Low Vision: What is Low Vision? In This Topic What is Low Vision? Causes and Risk Factors ... for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Cataract Glaucoma More Vision Topics The information in ...

  20. Color vision: Introduction by the feature editors.

    PubMed

    Buck, Steven L; Baraas, Rigmor; Bonnardel, Valérie; Lee, Barry B; Lindsey, Delwin T; Webster, Michael A; Werner, John S

    2014-04-01

    This feature issue of the Journal of the Optical Society of America A (JOSA A) stems from the 22nd Biennial Symposium of the International Colour Vision Society (ICVS) and reflects the basic and applied research interests of members of the color vision community. A profile is included of the 2013 Verriest Medal recipient. PMID:24695210

  1. Vision and Driving

    PubMed Central

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Driving is the primary means of personal travel in many countries and is relies heavily on vision for its successful execution. Research over the past few decades has addressed the role of vision in driver safety (motor vehicle collision involvement) and in driver performance (both on-road and using interactive simulators in the laboratory). Here we critically review what is currently known about the role of various aspects of visual function in driving. We also discuss translational research issues on vision screening for licensure and re-licensure and rehabilitation of visually impaired persons who want to drive. PMID:20580907

  2. (Computer) Vision without Sight

    PubMed Central

    Manduchi, Roberto; Coughlan, James

    2012-01-01

    Computer vision holds great promise for helping persons with blindness or visual impairments (VI) to interpret and explore the visual world. To this end, it is worthwhile to assess the situation critically by understanding the actual needs of the VI population and which of these needs might be addressed by computer vision. This article reviews the types of assistive technology application areas that have already been developed for VI, and the possible roles that computer vision can play in facilitating these applications. We discuss how appropriate user interfaces are designed to translate the output of computer vision algorithms into information that the user can quickly and safely act upon, and how system-level characteristics affect the overall usability of an assistive technology. Finally, we conclude by highlighting a few novel and intriguing areas of application of computer vision to assistive technology. PMID:22815563

  3. The Secret World of Shrimps: Polarisation Vision at Its Best

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonja Kleinlogel; Andrew G. White; Andrew Iwaniuk

    2008-01-01

    Animal vision spans a great range of complexity, with systems evolving to detect variations in optical intensity, distribution, colour, and polarisation. Polarisation vision systems studied to date detect one to four channels of linear polarisation, combining them in opponent pairs to provide intensity-independent operation. Circular polarisation vision has never been seen, and is widely believed to play no part in

  4. The Development of Low Vision Therapist Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gale R.; Quillman, R. Dee; Flax, Marshall; Gerritsen, Bryan

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the development and implementation of the low-vision-therapist certification through the Association for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired. Credentials for professionals in low vision are described, along with required written examination, and the role of the low-vision therapist. (CR)

  5. Colour constancy as counterfactual

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Cohen

    2008-01-01

    There is nothing in this World constant but Inconstancy.[Swift 1711: 258]In this paper I argue that two standard characterizations of colour constancy are inadequate to the phenomenon. This inadequacy matters, since, I contend, philosophical appeals to colour constancy as a way of motivating illumination-independent conceptions of colour turn crucially on the shortcomings of these characterizations. After critically reviewing the standard

  6. Study of colour discrimination with comb-filtered spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valérie Bonnardel; Eva M. Valero

    2001-01-01

    Techniques that involve the use of comb-filtered spectra to study human colour vision have been developed in previous work (Bonnardel, V., Bellemare, H., Mollon, J.D., 1996. Measurements of human sensitivity to comb-filtered spectra, Vision Research 36, 2713–2720; Bonnardel, V., Ruderman D.L., Barlow, H.B., 1997. A fast determination of the Spectral Modulation Sensitivity Function: a comparison between trichromats and deuteranopes. In:

  7. Partial reversal of protan and tritan colour defects with inhaled oxygen in insulin dependent diabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dean, F.; Arden, G.; Dornhorst, A.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—Abnormalities in colour perception occur early in the development of diabetic retinopathy. Whether these changes can be influenced by increasing circulating oxygen saturation was studied in comparison with non-diabetic controls.?METHODS—Protan and tritan colour thresholds were measured using a computer graphics system in 37 insulin dependent diabetic subjects, with no or minimal background retinopathy, and 27 matched controls. Colour thresholds were performed after subjects inhaled either gaseous air or 100% oxygen for a minimum of 5 minutes.?RESULTS—Diabetic subjects had higher colour vision thresholds when inhaling air when compared with controls (protan (mean 3.93 (SEM 0.39), v 2.36 (0.16), p<0.0002) and tritan (8.15 (0.62) v 5.42 (0.31), p <0.002)). The colour vision thresholds observed in diabetic subjects inhaling air fell when they inhaled oxygen (protan (3.93 (0.39) v 3.57 (0.33), p <0.025) and tritan (8.15 (0.62) v 7.35 (0.59), p<0.005)). No fall in colour thresholds was seen in non-diabetic controls who inhaled oxygen.?CONCLUSION—A small improvement in the colour vision thresholds was observed using computer graphics in diabetic subjects, with minimal or no retinopathy, who inhaled oxygen. This study supports a hypothesis that reduced retinal oxygenation contributes to the colour vision defects in diabetes.?? PMID:9135404

  8. Increased conspicuousness can explain the match between visual sensitivities and blue plumage colours in fairy-wrens

    PubMed Central

    Delhey, Kaspar; Hall, Michelle; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Peters, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Colour signals are expected to match visual sensitivities of intended receivers. In birds, evolutionary shifts from violet-sensitive (V-type) to ultraviolet-sensitive (U-type) vision have been linked to increased prevalence of colours rich in shortwave reflectance (ultraviolet/blue), presumably due to better perception of such colours by U-type vision. Here we provide the first test of this widespread idea using fairy-wrens and allies (Family Maluridae) as a model, a family where shifts in visual sensitivities from V- to U-type eyes are associated with male nuptial plumage rich in ultraviolet/blue colours. Using psychophysical visual models, we compared the performance of both types of visual systems at two tasks: (i) detecting contrast between male plumage colours and natural backgrounds, and (ii) perceiving intraspecific chromatic variation in male plumage. While U-type outperforms V-type vision at both tasks, the crucial test here is whether U-type vision performs better at detecting and discriminating ultraviolet/blue colours when compared with other colours. This was true for detecting contrast between plumage colours and natural backgrounds (i), but not for discriminating intraspecific variability (ii). Our data indicate that selection to maximize conspicuousness to conspecifics may have led to the correlation between ultraviolet/blue colours and U-type vision in this clade of birds. PMID:23118438

  9. 21 CFR 886.5910 - Image intensification vision aid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Identification. An image intensification vision aid is a battery-powered device intended for use by a patient who has limited dark adaptation or impaired vision to amplify ambient light. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device...

  10. Helping a Loved One (Who Has Vision Loss)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cómo hablarle a su oculista Helping a Loved One Listen Vision loss is a major public health ... vision loss also are affected. When a loved one becomes visually impaired, you are likely to feel ...

  11. Low Vision

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevalence Rates for Low Vision by Age, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence ... Ethnicity 2010 Prevalence Rates of Low Vision by Race Table for 2010 Prevalence Rates of Low Vision ...

  12. Reading aids for adults with low vision

    PubMed Central

    Virgili, Gianni; Acosta, Ruthy; Grover, Lori L; Bentley, Sharon A; Giacomelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of low-vision rehabilitation is to allow people to resume or to continue to perform daily living tasks, with reading being one of the most important. This is achieved by providing appropriate optical devices and special training in the use of residual-vision and low-vision aids, which range from simple optical magnifiers to high-magnification video magnifiers. Objectives To assess the effects of reading aids for adults with low vision. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to January 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2013), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov/) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 31 January 2013. We searched the reference lists of relevant articles and used the Science Citation Index to find articles that cited the included studies and contacted investigators and manufacturers of low-vision aids. We handsearched the British Journal of Visual Impairment from 1983 to 1999 and the Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness from 1976 to 1991. Selection criteria This review includes randomised and quasi-randomised trials in which any device or aid used for reading had been compared to another device or aid in people aged 16 or over with low vision as defined by the study investigators. Data collection and analysis At least two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results We included nine small studies with a cross-over-like design (181 people overall) and one study with three parallel arms (243 participants) in the review. All studies reported the primary outcome, results for reading speed. Two studies including 92 participants found moderate- or low-quality evidence suggesting that reading speed is higher with stand-mounted electronic devices or electronic devices with the camera mounted in a ‘mouse’ than with optical magnifiers, which in these trials were generally stand-mounted or, less frequently, hand-held magnifiers or microscopic lenses. In another study of 20 participants there was moderate-quality evidence that optical devices are better than head-mounted electronic devices (four types). There was low-quality evidence from three studies (93 participants) that reading using head-mounted electronic devices is slower than with stand-based electronic devices. The technology of electronic devices may have changed and improved since these studies were conducted. One study suggested no difference between a diffractive spectacle-mounted magnifier and either refractive (15 participants) or aplanatic (15 participants) magnifiers. One study of 10 people suggested that several overlay coloured filters were no better and possibly worse than a clear filter. A parallel-arm study including 243 participants with age-related macular degeneration found that custom or standard prism spectacles were no different from conventional reading spectacles, although the data did not allow precise estimates of performance to be made. Authors' conclusions There is insufficient evidence on the effect of different types of low-vision aids on reading performance. It would be necessary to investigate which patient characteristics predict performance with different devices, including costly electronic devices. Better-quality research should also focus on assessing sustained long-term use of each device. Authors of studies testing several devices on the same person should consider design and

  13. Geometric algebra colour image representations and derived total orderings for morphological operators Part I: Colour quaternions

    E-print Network

    Angulo,Jesús

    operators ­ Part I: Colour quaternions Jesús Angulo * CMM ­ Centre de Morphologie Mathématique mathematical morphology Colour quaternion Quaternion total ordering Nonlinear colour filtering Colour feature extraction Colour image representation Hypercomplex representation Colour potential function Quaternion

  14. A novel illumination-invariant colour constancy algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Méndez, L. A.; Quiñones Muñoz, M. L.; Olaya-Benítez, E. J.

    2011-08-01

    The human brain is able to extract the colour of objects no matter the existing illumination conditions which may affect the appearance of their colour. For a person, an object that is red, it will be red regardless of the type of illumination source. However, for a computer algorithm to achieve the same task is not as simple. For vision and robotics applications were feature extraction is essential having such an algorithm is crucial. It is well known from the literature that the colour of an object does not only depend on the chemical composition and shape of its surface but also on the illumination conditions, the intensity, number, location and colour of the sources of illumination as well as the intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics of the sensor used. Based on that knowledge, we propose a simple colour constancy algorithm that uses the quaternion representation of each pixel in the image instead of the commonly used RGB model. We assume linearity in the reception of the luminance spectrum of the charge-coupled device of the camera before variations in the illumination. We have tested our colour constancy algorithm in a variety of images containing different colour objects under different illumination conditions. Our experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed method.

  15. Cadmium colours: composition and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

    The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L*a*b* tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined.

  16. Prevalence and Causes of Blindness and Visual Impairment in Sokoto State, Nigeria: Baseline Data for Vision 2020: The Right to Sight Eye Care Programme

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Nasiru; Mansur, Rabiu M.; Dantani, Adamu M.; Elhassan, Elizabeth; Isiyaku, Sunday

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of low vision and blindness, identify the causes, and suggest policies for an effective eye care program based on 2005 data from Sokoto State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A stratified two-stage cluster sampling method was used to quantify the prevalence of blindness and the causes from 4 health zones in Sokoto State. Subjects were evaluated using a magnifying loupe, direct ophthalmoscope and torchlight. Data were collected based on the World Health Organization prevention of blindness coding for an eye examination. Prevalences with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and surgical coverage for causes of blindness was also analyzed. Results: The response rate was 91%. The prevalence of bilateral blindness was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.5–2.3%) ranging from 1.6% to 2.0% across the four health zones. The prevalence was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.6–2.6%) in males and 1.6% (95% CI: 1.1–2.1%) in females. The leading cause of bilateral blindness was cataract (51.6%), followed by uncorrected aphakia (20.9%) and glaucoma (11%). The prevalence of bilateral operable cataract was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.5–2.3%). The cataract surgical coverage (individuals with visual acuity <6/60) for the study was lower than the couching coverage (4.4% vs. 14.9%, respectively). Surgical coverage for trichiasis was 4.4%. The major barrier to cataract and glaucoma management was cost. Conclusions: The prevalence of blindness in Sokoto State is high yet the main causes are largely avoidable. Barriers can be reduced by appropriate health education regarding the eye care program and the provision of integrated, sustainable, affordable and equitable services. PMID:21731322

  17. Shape and colour measurement of colourful objects by fringe projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zonghua; Towers, Catherine E.; Towers, David P.

    2008-08-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method to measure shape and colour information of a colourful object by projecting separate red, green and blue colour fringe patterns onto the object surface. With regard to the object surface's colour, the modulation at each pixel position in the three colour channels has different values. For example, when projecting blue fringe patterns onto a red point, the corresponding pixel has too low a fringe modulation to accurately calculate the phase (shape) information; but with red fringe patterns a high fringe modulation is obtained. Therefore, phase information of the red point can be calculated by projecting red fringe patterns. For each object point, by comparing the modulation values from the three colour channels, it is possible to choose the channel having maximum modulation, and hence phase information can be reliably obtained by the phase-shifting algorithm. The fringe order information is obtained by using the optimum three-frequency selection method, so there is a maximum reliability in determining the fringe order and the 3-D shape of an object with step or large slopes on the surface. Since three colour channels are used, colour information of the object surface can be extracted with high dynamic range from the same fringe patterns. Chromatic aberration between colour channels is unavoidable and can be eliminated by a software-based method. Using the recently developed colour fringe projection system, separate colour fringe patterns are projected onto a mug having different colour patterns, a colourful box and plate, and a colour checker card to test the proposed method. The results show the range of colours that can be measured and that shape and colour information of colourful objects can be reliably obtained.

  18. Colour image segmentation using unsupervised clustering technique for acute leukemia images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, N. H. Abd; Mashor, M. Y.; Nasir, A. S. Abdul; Mustafa, N.; Hassan, R.

    2015-05-01

    Colour image segmentation has becoming more popular for computer vision due to its important process in most medical analysis tasks. This paper proposes comparison between different colour components of RGB(red, green, blue) and HSI (hue, saturation, intensity) colour models that will be used in order to segment the acute leukemia images. First, partial contrast stretching is applied on leukemia images to increase the visual aspect of the blast cells. Then, an unsupervised moving k-means clustering algorithm is applied on the various colour components of RGB and HSI colour models for the purpose of segmentation of blast cells from the red blood cells and background regions in leukemia image. Different colour components of RGB and HSI colour models have been analyzed in order to identify the colour component that can give the good segmentation performance. The segmented images are then processed using median filter and region growing technique to reduce noise and smooth the images. The results show that segmentation using saturation component of HSI colour model has proven to be the best in segmenting nucleus of the blast cells in acute leukemia image as compared to the other colour components of RGB and HSI colour models.

  19. Colour and translucency of tooth-coloured orthodontic brackets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Keun Lee

    SUMMARY The objective of this study was to determine the refl ected and transmitted colours and the diffuse light transmittance of tooth-coloured brackets. Four ceramic and four plastic brands were evaluated and fi ve brackets of each brand were tested. Refl ected colour and spectral refl ectance of the labial surface of the brackets were measured according to the Commission

  20. Efficacy of a Low Vision Patient Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siemsen, Dennis W.; Bergstrom, A. Ren?e; Hathaway, Julie C.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of obstacles can prevent persons or individuals with low vision from deriving the greatest possible benefit from the rehabilitation process, including inadequate understanding of their visual impairment, lack of knowledge about available services, and misconceptions about low vision devices. This study explores the use of a…

  1. A Low Vision Reading Comprehension Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, G. R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Fifty adults (ages 28-86) with macular degeneration were given the Low Vision Reading Comprehension Assessment (LVRCA) to test its reliability and validity in evaluating the reading comprehension of those with vision impairments. The LVRCA was found to take only nine minutes to administer and was a valid and reliable tool. (CR)

  2. Color Vision Deficits and Literacy Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Sandra Rollins

    1994-01-01

    Shows that color blindness, whether partial or total, inhibits literacy acquisition. Offers a case study of a third grader with impaired color vision. Presents a review of literature on the topic. Notes that people with color vision deficits are often unaware of the handicap. (RS)

  3. Neurological Vision Rehabilitation: Description and Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, John; Katsaros, Jennifer; Vu, Yurika; Goodrich, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have been notable for the high rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that have been incurred by the troops. Visual impairments often occur following TBI and present new challenges for rehabilitation. We describe a neurological vision rehabilitation therapy that addresses the unique needs of patients with vision

  4. Mimicry, colour forms and spectral sensitivity of the bluestriped fangblenny, Plagiotremus rhinorhynchos

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, Karen L.; Skogh, Charlotta; Hart, Nathan S.; Marshall, N. Justin

    2009-01-01

    Animals change their body coloration for a variety of purposes including communication, thermoregulation and crypsis. The cues that trigger adaptive colour change are often unclear, and the role of colour vision remains largely untested. Here, we investigated the bluestriped fangblenny (Plagiotremus rhinorhynchos), an aggressive mimic that changes its body coloration to impersonate a variety of coral reef fishes. In this field, we determined the fish species that the fangblenny associated with and measured the spectral reflectance of mimics and their models. We measured the spectral absorbance characteristics of the retinal photoreceptor visual pigments in the bluestriped fangblenny using microspectrophotometry and found it to have rod photoreceptors (?max 498?nm), single cones (449?nm) and double cones (561?nm principal member; 520?nm accessory member). Using theoretical vision models, fangblennies could discriminate between the colours they adopted and the colours of the fish they associated with. Potential signal receivers (Abudefduf abdominalis and Ctenochaetus strigosus) perceived colours of most mimics to closely resemble fishes they associated with. However, fishes with ultraviolet-sensitive visual pigments were better at discriminating between mimics and models. Therefore, colour vision could be used by fangblennies when initiating colour change enabling them to accurately resemble fishes they associate with and to avoid detection by signal receivers. PMID:19324827

  5. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David H.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been found to be of great value in assessing blood flow in many clinical conditions. Although the method for obtaining the velocity information is in many ways similar to the method for obtaining the anatomical information, it is technically more demanding for a number of reasons. It also has a number of weaknesses, perhaps the greatest being that in conventional systems, the velocities measured and thus displayed are the components of the flow velocity directly towards or away from the transducer, while ideally the method would give information about the magnitude and direction of the three-dimensional flow vectors. This review briefly introduces the principles behind colour Doppler imaging and describes some clinical applications. It then describes the basic components of conventional colour Doppler systems and the methods used to derive velocity information from the ultrasound signal. Next, a number of new techniques that seek to overcome the vector problem mentioned above are described. Finally, some examples of vector velocity images are presented. PMID:22866227

  6. Study of colour discrimination with comb-filtered spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vale Rie Bonnardel; Eva M. Valero

    Abstract Techniques,that involve the use of comb-filtered spectra to study human,colour vision have,been developed,in previous,work (Bonnardel, V., Bellemare, H., Mollon, J.D., 1996. Measurements of human sensitivity to comb-filtered spectra, Vision Research 36, 2713?2720; Bonnardel, V., Ruderman D.L., Barlow, H.B., 1997. A fast determination of the Spectral Modulation Sensitivity Function: a comparison between trichromats and deuteranopes. In: C.R. Cavonius (ed.), Color

  7. Colour based fire detection method with temporal intensity variation filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trambitckii, K.; Anding, K.; Musalimov, V.; Linß, G.

    2015-02-01

    Development of video, computing technologies and computer vision gives a possibility of automatic fire detection on video information. Under that project different algorithms was implemented to find more efficient way of fire detection. In that article colour based fire detection algorithm is described. But it is not enough to use only colour information to detect fire properly. The main reason of this is that in the shooting conditions may be a lot of things having colour similar to fire. A temporary intensity variation of pixels is used to separate them from the fire. These variations are averaged over the series of several frames. This algorithm shows robust work and was realised as a computer program by using of the OpenCV library.

  8. Colour cues proved to be more informative for dogs than brightness

    PubMed Central

    Kasparson, Anna A.; Badridze, Jason; Maximov, Vadim V.

    2013-01-01

    The results of early studies on colour vision in dogs led to the conclusion that chromatic cues are unimportant for dogs during their normal activities. Nevertheless, the canine retina possesses two cone types which provide at least the potential for colour vision. Recently, experiments controlling for the brightness information in visual stimuli demonstrated that dogs have the ability to perform chromatic discrimination. Here, we show that for eight previously untrained dogs colour proved to be more informative than brightness when choosing between visual stimuli differing both in brightness and chromaticity. Although brightness could have been used by the dogs in our experiments (unlike previous studies), it was not. Our results demonstrate that under natural photopic lighting conditions colour information may be predominant even for animals that possess only two spectral types of cone photoreceptors. PMID:23864600

  9. Hyperbolic geometry for colour metrics.

    PubMed

    Farup, Ivar

    2014-05-19

    It is well established from both colour difference and colour order perpectives that the colour space cannot be Euclidean. In spite of this, most colour spaces still in use today are Euclidean, and the best Euclidean colour metrics are performing comparably to state-of-the-art non-Euclidean metrics. In this paper, it is shown that a transformation from Euclidean to hyperbolic geometry (i.e., constant negative curvature) for the chromatic plane can significantly improve the performance of Euclidean colour metrics to the point where they are statistically significantly better than state-of-the-art non-Euclidean metrics on standard data sets. The resulting hyperbolic geometry nicely models both qualitatively and quantitatively the hue super-importance phenomenon observed in colour order systems. PMID:24921355

  10. Colour and translucency of tooth-coloured orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the reflected and transmitted colours and the diffuse light transmittance of tooth-coloured brackets. Four ceramic and four plastic brands were evaluated and five brackets of each brand were tested. Reflected colour and spectral reflectance of the labial surface of the brackets were measured according to the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) colour scale and transmitted colour and diffuse spectral transmittance measured with a spectrophotometer. One-way analyses of variance were performed for the reflected and transmitted colour co-ordinates (CIE L*, a*, and b*) and for light transmittance according to bracket brand. The range for CIE L* (lightness) was 36.2-50.3, for a* (red-green parameter) -1.3-3.8 and for b* (yellow-blue parameter) -2.9-11.2. All these colour co-ordinates were influenced by bracket brand (P < 0.05). Diffuse light transmittance was also influenced by bracket brand and ranged from 44.9 to 75.9 per cent (P < 0.05). Colour and transmittance varied by bracket brand. Variations in optical properties influenced the aesthetic performance of the brackets and the degree of cure of the adhesive that is possible through the brackets. Further studies on the clinical implications of colour matching of tooth-coloured brackets with teeth should now be performed. PMID:18390838

  11. Coloured Petri Nets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Jensen

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a Petri net model, called Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets), where information is attached to each token.\\u000a The information can be inspected and modified when a transition fires. For most applications, this generalization of ordinary\\u000a Petri nets allows the user to make more manageable descriptions, due to the fact that equal subnets can be folded into each\\u000a other,

  12. Colouring Space -A Coloured Framework for Spatial Modelling in Systems Biology

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, David

    framework [20] ­ coloured qualitative Petri nets (QPNC ), coloured stochastic Petri nets (SPNC ), coloured continuous Petri nets (CPNC ), and coloured hybrid Petri nets (HPNC ); Fig. 1 recalls our coloured frameworkColouring Space - A Coloured Framework for Spatial Modelling in Systems Biology David Gilbert1

  13. Cross-orientation masking in human color vision McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology,

    E-print Network

    Mullen, Kathy T.

    Cross-orientation masking in human color vision McGill Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology is impaired in the presence of a similar pattern of orthogonal orientation, a phenomenon known as cross-orientation masking (XOM). Here we investigate the role of color in cross-orientation masking. We measured contrast

  14. The Improvement of Vision by Vision Stimulation and Training: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavernier, G. G. F.

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews the theoretical and research literature on vision stimulation and vision training of children with severe irreversible visual impairments. It recommends early stimulation to prevent visual deprivation, use of operant conditioning, and the presentation of highly contrasting stimuli to stimulate visual awareness in children with…

  15. Vision multiplexing: An optical engineering concept for low-vision aids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eli Peli

    2007-01-01

    The normal visual system provides a wide field of view apparently at high resolution. The wide field is continuously monitored at low resolution for navigation and detection of objects of interest. These objects are sampled using the high- resolution fovea, applying a temporal multiplexing scheme. Most vision impairments that cause low vision impact upon only one of the components; the

  16. Sensory Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Keating; R. Neill Hadder

    Anthropological studies of sensory impairment address biological conditions and cultural disablement while contributing to theoretical discussions of cultural competence, communicative practices, the role of narrative, and features of identity, ideologies, and technology. As boundary cases, impairments can disclose essential aspects of the senses in human life. Sensory impairment studies navigate the complexities of comparing dominant sensory discourses with individual sense

  17. Sensory Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Keating; R. Neill Hadder

    2010-01-01

    Anthropological studies of sensory impairment address biological conditions and cultural disablement while contributing to theoretical discussions of cultural competence, communicative practices, the role of narrative, and features of identity, ideologies, and technology. As boundary cases, impairments can disclose essential aspects of the senses in human life. Sensory impairment studies navigate the complexities of comparing dominant sensory discourses with individual sense

  18. Low vision rehabilitation. Finding capable people behind damaged eyeballs.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, D. C.; Shindell, S.; Hindman, T.; Schaffrath, M.

    1991-01-01

    Loss of vision is a common physical impairment in America today. Comprehensive low vision rehabilitation programs can have dramatic results in increasing the independence and productivity of affected persons. Rehabilitation efforts must be tailored to the type of vision loss and to specific functional implications. Every effort should be made to enhance the residual vision. Activities of daily living, orientation and mobility, and psychological concerns must be addressed. PMID:1866949

  19. Distinctive convergence in Australian floral colours seen through the eyes of Australian birds

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Martin; Stayton, C. Tristan; Shrestha, Mani; Dyer, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    We used a colour-space model of avian vision to assess whether a distinctive bird pollination syndrome exists for floral colour among Australian angiosperms. We also used a novel phylogenetically based method to assess whether such a syndrome represents a significant degree of convergent evolution. About half of the 80 species in our sample that attract nectarivorous birds had floral colours in a small, isolated region of colour space characterized by an emphasis on long-wavelength reflection. The distinctiveness of this ‘red arm’ region was much greater when colours were modelled for violet-sensitive (VS) avian vision than for the ultraviolet-sensitive visual system. Honeyeaters (Meliphagidae) are the dominant avian nectarivores in Australia and have VS vision. Ancestral state reconstructions suggest that 31 lineages evolved into the red arm region, whereas simulations indicate that an average of five or six lineages and a maximum of 22 are likely to have entered in the absence of selection. Thus, significant evolutionary convergence on a distinctive floral colour syndrome for bird pollination has occurred in Australia, although only a subset of bird-pollinated taxa belongs to this syndrome. The visual system of honeyeaters has been the apparent driver of this convergence. PMID:24573847

  20. Specifying colour and maintaining colour accuracy for 3D printing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carinna Parraman; Peter Walters; Brendan Reid; David Huson

    2008-01-01

    Advances in rapid prototyping technologies have led to the emergence of three-dimensional printers which can fabricate physical artefacts, including the application of surface colours. In light of these developments, this paper asserts that the need to print colour accurately is just as important for designers using three-dimensional colour printing as it is for two-dimensional inkjet printing. Parallels can be made

  1. Grey leaves in an alpine plant: a cryptic colouration to avoid attack?

    PubMed

    Niu, Yang; Chen, Gao; Peng, De-Li; Song, Bo; Yang, Yang; Li, Zhi-Min; Sun, Hang

    2014-08-01

    Cryptic colouration is a common predation-avoidance strategy in animals that is postulated to occur in plants, but few experimental studies have rigorously tested this hypothesis. We investigated the colouration of Corydalis benecincta, an alpine plant with remarkably dimorphic leaf colours (grey and green), based on a cost-benefit analysis. First we tested the premise that herbivores (Parnassius butterflies) cannot distinguish grey leaves from a scree background by spectrographic measurements and by estimating discriminability between leaves and scree using a butterfly colour vision model. Then we estimated the potential costs of inconspicuousness by comparing the photosynthetic performance and visual attractiveness to flower visitors of the two colour morphs. Finally, we examined the potential benefits of inconspicuousness by comparing damage, survivorship and female reproductive success. It is difficult for herbivores to distinguish grey-coloured morphs against the background. This grey colour originates in a combination of anthocyanins and chlorophylls. The two colour morphs had similar photosynthetic performance, visual attractiveness and female reproductive success. However, grey morphs had significantly lower herbivore damage and higher survivorship. Grey leaves benefit C. benecincta by reducing herbivory with low investment in anthocyanin synthesis, and little cost on photosynthesis and mating opportunity. This cryptic colouration may have evolved through selection pressure imposed by visually foraging herbivores. PMID:24800901

  2. Colour misbinding during motion rivalry

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Ryan T.; Lam, Sarah K.; Clifford, Colin W. G.

    2013-01-01

    When two dissimilar colours are displayed to the two eyes at overlapping retinal locations, binocular rivalry typically results: a fluctuating struggle for perceptual dominance of each eye's stimulus. We found instead that isoluminant counter-rotating patterns consisting of coloured and achromatic portions can promote an illusory colour ‘misbinding’, where the colours from both eyes were perceived within a single rotating pattern. The achromatic portion of one rotating pattern thus appeared to take on the colour of the other, oppositely rotating pattern. The results suggest that the neural mechanisms of colour binding can operate even while representations of the same patterns' motions are undergoing rivalry, and support the idea that rivalry can occur in isolation within the motion system. PMID:23173191

  3. Colour invariant target recognition in multiple camera CCTV surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soori, Umair; Yuen, P. W. T.; Ibrahim, I.; Han, J.; Tsitiridis, A.; Hong, K.; Chen, T.; Jackman, J.; James, D.; Richardson, M.

    2011-11-01

    People tracking in crowded scene have been a popular, and at the same time a very difficult topic in computer vision. It is mainly because of the difficulty for the acquisition of intrinsic signatures of targets from a single view of the scene. Many factors, such as variable illumination conditions and viewing angles, will induce illusive modification of intrinsic signatures of targets. The objective of this paper is to verify if colour constancy (CC) approach really helps people tracking in CCTV network system. We have testified a number of CC algorithms together with various colour descriptors, to assess the efficiencies of people recognitions from multi-camera i-LIDS data set via receiver operation characteristics (ROC). It is found that when CC is applied together with some form of colour restoration mechanisms such as colour transfer, it does improve people recognition by at least a factor of 2. An elementary luminance based CC coupled with a pixel based colour transfer algorithm have been developed and it is reported in this paper.

  4. Leading Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Gay

    2004-01-01

    The current educational landscape makes it imperative that a vision statement become more than a fine-sounding statement that is laminated, hung on the wall, and quickly forgotten. If educators do not have a clear image of the future they wish to create, then someone will be ready to create it for them. But with a clear vision of the future, a…

  5. Rapid communication Study of colour discrimination with comb-filtered spectra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie Bonnardel; Eva M. Valero

    Techniques that involve the use of comb-filtered spectra to study human colour vision have been developed in previous work (Bonnardel, V., Bellemare, H., Mollon, J.D., 1996. Measurements of human sensitivity to comb-filtered spectra, Vision Research 36, 2713-2720; Bonnardel, V., Ruderman D.L., Barlow, H.B., 1997. A fast determination of the Spectral Modulation Sensitivity Function: a comparison between trichromats and deuteranopes. In:

  6. Digital colour management system for colour parameters reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grudzinski, Karol; Lasmanowicz, Piotr; Assis, Lucas M. N.; Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Januszko, Adam

    2013-10-01

    Digital Colour Management System (DCMS) and its application to new adaptive camouflage system are presented in this paper. The DCMS is a digital colour rendering method which would allow for transformation of a real image into a set of colour pixels displayed on a computer monitor. Consequently, it can analyse pixels' colour which comprise images of the environment such as desert, semi-desert, jungle, farmland or rocky mountain in order to prepare an adaptive camouflage pattern most suited for the terrain. This system is described in present work as well as the use the subtractive colours mixing method to construct the real time colour changing electrochromic window/pixel (ECD) for camouflage purpose. The ECD with glass/ITO/Prussian Blue(PB)/electrolyte/CeO2-TiO2/ITO/glass configuration was assembled and characterized. The ECD switched between green and yellow after +/-1.5 V application and the colours have been controlled by Digital Colour Management System and described by CIE LAB parameters.

  7. Across light: through colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Isabel; Richardson, Martin; Bernardo, Luis Miguel

    2012-03-01

    The speed at which our world is changing is reflected in the shifting way artistic images are created and produced. Holography can be used as a medium to express the perception of space with light and colour and to make the material and the immaterial experiments with optical and digital holography. This paper intends to be a reflection on the final product of that process surrounding a debate of ideas for new experimental methodologies applied to holographic images. Holography is a time-based medium and the irretrievable linear flow of time is responsible for a drama, unique to traditional cinematography. If the viewers move to left or right, they see glimpses of the next scene or the previous one perceived a second ago. This interaction of synthetic space arises questions such as: can we see, in "reality", two forms in the same space? Trying to answer this question, a series of works has been created. These concepts are embryonic to a series of digital art holograms and lenticulars technique's titled "Across Light: Through Colour". They required some technical research and comparison between effects from different camera types, using Canon IS3 and Sony HDR CX105.

  8. A colourful clock.

    PubMed

    van Diepen, Hester C; Foster, Russell G; Meijer, Johanna H

    2015-05-01

    Circadian rhythms are an essential property of life on Earth. In mammals, these rhythms are coordinated by a small set of neurons, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). The environmental light/dark cycle synchronizes (entrains) the SCN via a distinct pathway, originating in a subset of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) that utilize the photopigment melanopsin (OPN4). The pRGCs are also innervated by rods and cones and, so, are both endogenously and exogenously light sensitive. Accumulating evidence has shown that the circadian system is sensitive to ultraviolet (UV), blue, and green wavelengths of light. However, it was unclear whether colour perception itself can help entrain the SCN. By utilizing both behavioural and electrophysiological recording techniques, Walmsley and colleagues show that multiple photic channels interact and enhance the capacity of the SCN to synchronize to the environmental cycle. Thus, entrainment of the circadian system combines both environmental irradiance and colour information to ensure that internal and external time are appropriately aligned. PMID:25996907

  9. On Colour, Category Effects, and Alzheimer's Disease: A Critical Review of Studies and Further Longitudinal Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Martínez, F. Javier; Rodríguez-Rojo, Inmaculada C.

    2015-01-01

    The role of colour in object recognition is controversial; in this study, a critical review of previous studies, as well as a longitudinal study, was conducted. We examined whether colour benefits the ability of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and normal controls (NC) when naming items differing in colour diagnosticity: living things (LT) versus nonliving things (NLT). Eleven AD patients were evaluated twice with a temporal interval of 3 years; 26 NC were tested once. The participants performed a naming task (colour and greyscale photographs); the impact of nuisance variables (NVs) and potential ceiling effects were also controlled. Our results showed that (i) colour slightly favoured processing of items with higher colour diagnosticity (i.e., LT) in both groups; (ii) AD patients used colour information similarly to NC, retaining this ability over time; (iii) NVs played a significant role as naming predictors in all the participants, relegating domain to a minor plane; and (iv) category effects (better processing of NLT) were present in both groups. Finally, although patients underwent semantic longitudinal impairment, this was independent of colour deterioration. This finding provides better support to the view that colour is effective at the visual rather than at the semantic level of object processing.

  10. Computational vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The range of fundamental computational principles underlying human vision that equally apply to artificial and natural systems is surveyed. There emerges from research a view of the structuring of vision systems as a sequence of levels of representation, with the initial levels being primarily iconic (edges, regions, gradients) and the highest symbolic (surfaces, objects, scenes). Intermediate levels are constrained by information made available by preceding levels and information required by subsequent levels. In particular, it appears that physical and three-dimensional surface characteristics provide a critical transition from iconic to symbolic representations. A plausible vision system design incorporating these principles is outlined, and its key computational processes are elaborated.

  11. Reversible colour change in Arthropoda.

    PubMed

    Umbers, Kate D L; Fabricant, Scott A; Gawryszewski, Felipe M; Seago, Ainsley E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-11-01

    The mechanisms and functions of reversible colour change in arthropods are highly diverse despite, or perhaps due to, the presence of an exoskeleton. Physiological colour changes, which have been recorded in 90 arthropod species, are rapid and are the result of changes in the positioning of microstructures or pigments, or in the refractive index of layers in the integument. By contrast, morphological colour changes, documented in 31 species, involve the anabolism or catabolism of components (e.g. pigments) directly related to the observable colour. In this review we highlight the diversity of mechanisms by which reversible colour change occurs and the evolutionary context and diversity of arthropod taxa in which it has been observed. Further, we discuss the functions of reversible colour change so far proposed, review the limited behavioural and ecological data, and argue that the field requires phylogenetically controlled approaches to understanding the evolution of reversible colour change. Finally, we encourage biologists to explore new model systems for colour change and to engage scientists from other disciplines; continued cross-disciplinary collaboration is the most promising approach to this nexus of biology, physics, and chemistry. PMID:24495279

  12. The Colours of Arctic Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Meldola

    1885-01-01

    THE white colour of Arctic mammals and birds has hitherto been generally ascribed by evolutionists to protective resemblance, the adaptation to a snow-covered country being attributed to the preservation of individuals which by assimilating to their environment in colour, either escaped detection by their foes, or, on the other hand, were by this means enabled to secure their prey more

  13. The effect of an on-site vision examination on adherence to vision screening recommendations.

    PubMed

    Chu, Raymond; Huang, Kristine; Barnhardt, Carmen; Chen, Angela

    2015-04-01

    Vision screenings are intended to efficiently identify students with possible visual impairment and initiate a referral for diagnosis and treatment. In many cases, at-risk students do not access the recommended care or experience delays in receiving care. The purpose of this article is to report the effect on adherence to vision screening recommendations by providing the eye examination at the students' school and at no cost. Of the 1,306 students screened, 382 (29.2%) were identified with possible visual impairment. Parental consent for examination was obtained for 198 (51.8%) students. Our vision screening and examination program yielded similar adherence to follow-up as stand-alone vision screening programs. Future program considerations should address perceptual barriers that may be contributing to parental nonadherence to vision screening recommendations. PMID:24574183

  14. Follow up by colour Doppler imaging of 102 patients with retinal vein occlusion over 1 year

    PubMed Central

    Arséne, S; Giraudeau, B; Le Lez, M-L; Pisella, P J; Pourcelot, L; Tranquart, F

    2002-01-01

    Background/aim: Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is one of the most frequent ocular vascular diseases and leads to severe vision impairment. Colour Doppler imaging (CDI) is the first method which allows distinct evaluation of arterial and venous velocities in RVO. CDI is valuable for diagnosis of RVO and shows the effects of isovolaemic haemodilution. Patients with RVO were monitored by CDI for 1 year in order to clarify venous and arterial involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease. Methods: Patients with RVO were monitored prospectively for 1 year with clinical examinations, fluorescein angiography, and CDI every 3 months. 102 adults referred for RVO for less than 2 months were enrolled. Unaffected eyes were used as control. The maximum systolic and diastolic flow velocities and the resistance index (RI) were measured in the central retinal artery (CRA) and the maximum and minimum blood flow velocities in the central retinal vein (CRV). Results: During the year of observation, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), ischaemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), and non-ischaemic CRVO had a distinct pattern of venous velocity changes. BRVO had a similar profile to that observed in controls. Venous velocities were continuously lower in central forms, with the lowest values in ischaemic occlusion. In contrast, a brief decrease in arterial diastolic velocity was observed in ischaemic CRVO at presentation, correlated with arteriovenous passage time on fluorescein angiography, but with rapid normalisation. Conclusions: CDI findings were correlated with the type of RVO at all times during follow up. CDI showed persistent impairment of central venous velocity in CRVO whereas there was a fast initial values recovery of the arterial velocity. These results using CDI show strong evidence of a primary venous mechanism in RVO. PMID:12386080

  15. Visual Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that may cause vision loss after birth include: Amblyopia (pronounced: am-blee-OH-pee-uh) is reduced ... or crossed eyes) is a common cause of amblyopia, since the brain will start to ignore messages ...

  16. Low Vision

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... All eye problems can decrease contrast sensitivity. Depth perception This is the ability to judge the position ... vision loss in one eye can affect depth perception, such as the height of a step. Visual ...

  17. Vision problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in dealing with eye emergencies if: You experience partial or complete blindness in one or both eyes, ... a family history of diabetes Eye itching or discharge Vision changes that seem related to medication (DO ...

  18. Vision Underwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Joseph S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides information regarding underwater vision. Includes a discussion of optically important interfaces, increased eye size of organisms at greater depths, visual peculiarities regarding the habitat of the coastal environment, and various pigment visual systems. (CS)

  19. Can colours be used to segment words when reading?

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Tejero, Pilar; Winskel, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Rayner, Fischer, and Pollatsek (1998, Vision Research) demonstrated that reading unspaced text in Indo-European languages produces a substantial reading cost in word identification (as deduced from an increased word-frequency effect on target words embedded in the unspaced vs. spaced sentences) and in eye movement guidance (as deduced from landing sites closer to the beginning of the words in unspaced sentences). However, the addition of spaces between words comes with a cost: nearby words may fall outside high-acuity central vision, thus reducing the potential benefits of parafoveal processing. In the present experiment, we introduced a salient visual cue intended to facilitate the process of word segmentation without compromising visual acuity: each alternating word was printed in a different colour (i.e., ). Results only revealed a small reading cost of unspaced alternating colour sentences relative to the spaced sentences. Thus, present data are a demonstration that colour can be useful to segment words for readers of spaced orthographies. PMID:26002618

  20. Colours Core palette Colours Core palette APPLYING THE GUIDELINES

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    ) (web and screen) Bright aqua 3262 C81 M0 Y36 K0 r0 G192 B181 #00C0B5 Dark aqua 309 C99 M27 Y22 K80 r0 G THE GUIDELINES Colours Colour breakdowns for print and web Colour Pantone® CMYK RGB Hex (special) (professional and desktop printing) (web and screen) (web and screen) university red 187 C0 M91 Y72 K23 r171 G31 B45 #B01C2e

  1. Communication in coral reef fish: the role of ultraviolet colour patterns in damselfish territorial behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike E. Siebeck

    2004-01-01

    Many coral reef fish possess ultraviolet (UV) colour patterns. The behavioural significance of these patterns is poorly understood and experiments on this issue have not been reported for free-living reef fish in their natural environment. The damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis has UV facial patterns, and spectroradiometric ocular media measurements show that it has the potential for UV vision. To test the

  2. A Frequency View of Colour: Measuring the Human Sensitivity to Square-Wave Spectral Power Distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie Bonnardel; Francisco J. Varela

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the chromatic threshold sensitivity to stimuli with spectral composition determined by a periodic function of energy over wavelength. This approach is analogous to frequency studies of spatial vision for the study of colour. A device was constructed permitting the synthesis of illuminants over the entire visible range (400-700 nm) in which phase, frequency and amplitude can be

  3. The Gradual Transformation of Historical Situations: Understanding "Change and Continuity" through Colours and Timelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, Yosanne

    2011-01-01

    The small-scale research that Yosanne Vella reports in this article was driven by concern to help pupils develop "big picture" visions of the past and to engage effectively with the idea of change as a process rather than an event. The strategy that she adopts--asking groups of students to colour in a timeline recording their judgement in response…

  4. Natural phototaxis and its relationship to colour vision in honeybees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Menzel; U. Greggers

    1985-01-01

    1.Honeybees are positively phototactic when they leave a feeding place and start to fly back to the hive. The strength of this natural phototactic response in individually marked bees was measured without interfering with their foraging behaviour.2.Absolute sensitivity of this phototactic response to a point light source is in the range of 8.3 · 107 quanta s-1 for 537 nm.

  5. Minimizing unsatisfaction in colourful neighbourhoods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K. Y. Michael; Saad, David

    2008-08-01

    Colouring sparse graphs under various restrictions is a theoretical problem of significant practical relevance. Here we consider the problem of maximizing the number of different colours available at the nodes and their neighbourhoods, given a predetermined number of colours. In the analytical framework of a tree approximation, carried out at both zero and finite temperatures, solutions obtained by population dynamics give rise to estimates of the threshold connectivity for the incomplete to complete transition, which are consistent with those of existing algorithms. The nature of the transition as well as the validity of the tree approximation are investigated.

  6. To Appear: Tenth Congress of the International Colour Association AIC Colour 2005, Granada, Spain, May 2005. Quaternion Colour Texture

    E-print Network

    Funt, Brian

    , May 2005. Page 1 Quaternion Colour Texture Lilong Shi, Brian Funt School of Computing Science, Simon processing; quaternion principal component analysis, colour texture; image segmentation; colour texture in a given image is derived via quaternion principal component analysis of a training set of colour texture

  7. Alternative to colour feature classification using colour contrast ocurrence matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, R. A.; Richard, N.; Fernandez, C.

    2015-04-01

    Texture discrimination was the second more important task studied after colour perception and characterization. Nevertheless, colour texture assessment and characterization was few studied and no vector processing was proposed to assess this important visual information. In this work we show the construction of a new vector that integrates fully the information of texture and color. This vector is based on Julesz psico-physics conjectures and the Haralick cooccurrence matrix. A colour texture image in the CIEL*a* b* colour space is characterizing in a 3D matrix, from which it is possible to visually some variations in chromaticity. The performance of this vector had evaluated in tasks of classification in front of other developments that mix the texture and colour information. The colour contrast occurrence matrix (C2O) has the best classification rates in three of the four image database evaluated as OUTEX, VISTEX, STEX and ALOT. C2O texture classification was evaluated in front of co-occurrence matrix (GLMC), run-length matrix (RLM) and local binary patterns (LBP) approaches.

  8. Impaired Visual Function in Focal Idiopathic Dystonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Th. Büttner; W. Kuhn; M. Dietz; Th. Müller; Th. Postert; H. Przuntek; F. L. Welter

    1999-01-01

    Visual dysfunctions have previously been reported in Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s chorea. To further characterize the pathophysiology of vision in basal ganglion diseases, we studied visual functions in focal dystonic syndromes. Colour discrimination and visual contrast perception were investigated in 37 patients with focal idiopathic dystonia (ID; 20 spasmodic torticollis, 17 blepharospasm) and in age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers using

  9. Assessment of Citrus Fruit Quality Using a Real-Time Machine Vision System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Aleixos; José Blasco; Enrique Moltó; F. Navarrón

    2000-01-01

    Spain is a major producer of citrus fruit, which must be correctly classified depending on its external quality. Current commercial sorters based on machine vision cannot solve problems like defect detection or correct colour classification due to the low image resolution, which is necessary to achieve adequate production speed. This paper describes a new machine vision system to classify different

  10. Are Brazilian Conferences and Internship Arrangements, Involving McLeod's Patent Pending Naturoptic Method for Restoring Healthy Vision, for Visually Impaired Professional Americas' Students, an Effective Mechanism to Teach and Implement Desired Changes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataide, Italanei; Ataide, Jade; McLeod, Roger

    2006-10-01

    We have initiated investigations and procedures that we hope can be applied, perhaps first in Brazil, and also possibly in countries like Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela, or elsewhere in the Americas, to propagate favorably Naturoptic Vision Improvement methods. Could the countries involved serve as conference locations that would determine whether it is feasible and possible to transfer this applied physics process rapidly, economically and effectively? The methods and the practical theory involved are easily transmitted, as we hope to demonstrate. This approach is easiest of all to use with well- sighted youth or other individuals, and can be extended to them appropriately to maintain fine vision throughout their lives. Perhaps there should be Naturoptic Vision Maintenance conferences, also!

  11. Colour as visual rhetoric in financial reporting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John K. Courtis

    2004-01-01

    Visual rhetoric within communication seeks to persuade through the use of picturing and encompasses words and colour. Visual rhetoric is present within annual reports. The specific role of colour in financial reporting is a neglected field of enquiry. A survey of 100 Hong Kong annual reports related colour usage to profitability change and found companies used more colour when profitability

  12. Colour preferences of flower-naive honeybees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Giurfa; J. Núñez; L. Chittka; R. Menzel

    1995-01-01

    Flower-naive honeybees Apis mellifera L. flying in an enclosure were tested for their colour preferences. Bees were rewarded once on an achromatic (grey, aluminium or hardboard), or on a chromatic (ultraviolet) disk. Since naive bees never alighted on colour stimuli alone, a scent was given in combination with colour. Their landings on twelve colour stimuli were recorded. Results after one

  13. What Colour Is a Shadow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, S. W.

    2009-01-01

    What colour is a shadow? Black, grey, or some other colour? This article describes how to use a digital camera to test the hypothesis that a shadow under a clear blue sky has a blue tint. A white sheet of A4 paper was photographed in full sunlight and in shadow under a clear blue sky. The images were analysed using a shareware program called…

  14. Two-colour Penrose tiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Z. Li; J. M. Dusois; K. H. Kuo

    1994-01-01

    Penrose tiling is a two-dimensional quasiperiodic pattern, which is composed of two tiles, namely thick and thin rhombi. In this letter, white and black colours are given to the tiles to distinguish their top and bottom surfaces. Then, a two-colour Penrose tiling is yielded by the white black rhombi. The new pattern is a three-dimensional array and its projection is

  15. Personal and Family Stress in Individuals with Diabetes and Vision Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernbaum, Marla; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Assessed intrapersonal distress and impact of diabetes and vision impairment on marital functioning. Found significant degrees of intrapersonal distress and compromised family functioning. Of 18 subjects in committed relationship at onset of vision impairment, 9 later separated. Totally blind subjects were at greater risk for separation than were…

  16. Adolescents with Low Vision: Perceptions of Driving and Nondriving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Sharon Zell; Rosenblum, L. Penny

    2006-01-01

    Two studies examined how adolescents with low vision perceive their ability to drive. The results of both studies indicated similarities in the participants' responses with respect to knowledge of visual impairment, information about options for driving with low vision, frustrations and obstacles imposed by not being able to drive, and independent…

  17. The economic impact and cost of visual impairment in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H R Taylor; M L Pezzullo; J E Keeffe

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To quantify the total economic costs of vision loss in Australia.Methods: Prevalence data of visual impairment, unpublished data on indirect costs, and national healthcare cost databases were used.Results: Vision disorders cost Australia an estimated A$9.85 billion in 2004. A$4.8 billion is the loss of wellbeing (years of life lost as a result of disability and premature mortality). Vision disorders

  18. Physiology and Psychology of Vision and Its Disorders: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Moschos, Marilita M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to bring together to the physiology and psychology of vision and to analyze, based on our own data and on the available literature, the relationship between sight loss and individual reactions. As recent treatments for depression are often effective and have few side-effects, ophthalmologists should consider referral for treatment of depression in patients suffering from vision impairment. For this reason, vision rehabilitation should be more readily available and recommended. PMID:25741524

  19. Differentiating Biological Colours with Few and Many Sensors: Spectral Reconstruction with RGB and Hyperspectral Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jair E.; Girard, Madeline B.; Kasumovic, Michael; Petersen, Phred; Wilksch, Philip A.; Dyer, Adrian G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability to discriminate between two similar or progressively dissimilar colours is important for many animals as it allows for accurately interpreting visual signals produced by key target stimuli or distractor information. Spectrophotometry objectively measures the spectral characteristics of these signals, but is often limited to point samples that could underestimate spectral variability within a single sample. Algorithms for RGB images and digital imaging devices with many more than three channels, hyperspectral cameras, have been recently developed to produce image spectrophotometers to recover reflectance spectra at individual pixel locations. We compare a linearised RGB and a hyperspectral camera in terms of their individual capacities to discriminate between colour targets of varying perceptual similarity for a human observer. Main Findings (1) The colour discrimination power of the RGB device is dependent on colour similarity between the samples whilst the hyperspectral device enables the reconstruction of a unique spectrum for each sampled pixel location independently from their chromatic appearance. (2) Uncertainty associated with spectral reconstruction from RGB responses results from the joint effect of metamerism and spectral variability within a single sample. Conclusion (1) RGB devices give a valuable insight into the limitations of colour discrimination with a low number of photoreceptors, as the principles involved in the interpretation of photoreceptor signals in trichromatic animals also apply to RGB camera responses. (2) The hyperspectral camera architecture provides means to explore other important aspects of colour vision like the perception of certain types of camouflage and colour constancy where multiple, narrow-band sensors increase resolution. PMID:25965264

  20. Training Visions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "Training" asks the 2011 winners to give their predictions for what training--either in general or specifically at their companies--will look like in the next five to 10 years. Perhaps their "training visions" will spark some ideas in one's organization--or at least help prepare for what might be coming in the next decade or so.

  1. Presidential Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallin, Alice, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the theme of university presidents and their visions of the future. It presents the inaugural addresses and speeches of 16 Catholic college and university presidents focusing on their goals, ambitions, and reasons for choosing to become higher education leaders at this particular time in the history of education in…

  2. Agrarian Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul

    A new feature in "Country Teacher,""Agrarian Visions" reminds rural teachers that they can do something about rural decline. Like to populism of the 1890s, the "new populism" advocates rural living. Current attempts to address rural decline are contrary to agrarianism because: (1) telecommunications experts seek to solve problems of rural…

  3. ASIC vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Renshaw; P. B. Denyer; G. Wang; M. Lu

    1990-01-01

    Advances in VLSI vision sensor design that enable high-quality, analog images to be formed through devices fabricated using standard 5 V CMOS ASIC processes are reported. The potential for integrating mixed sensor-processor systems, using an integrated VLSI camera system as an example, is reported. The feasibility of the techniques is confirmed by results obtained from working prototype CMOS sensor arrays.

  4. Resources for Adapting Low Vision Training Materials for the Adult with Low Literacy Skills. Practice Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Laurel A.

    2004-01-01

    Adults with low vision who seek clinical low vision services need to be able to read (that is, to interpret or understand words, numbers, and symbols in print meaningfully). Reading difficulties that adults encounter during low vision therapy may be directly connected to a visual impairment or may be related to other reading problems, such as…

  5. The Role of Education and Rehabilitation Specialists in the Comprehensive Low Vision Care Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueck, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the contributions of education and rehabilitation specialists in maximizing specific skills, self-esteem, and quality of life of individuals with low vision. The role of these specialists in evaluating functional vision, teaching methods to compensate for impaired vision, and addressing psychosocial concerns are discussed. (Author/CR)

  6. Factors Affecting the Reading Media Used by Visually Impaired Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goudiras, Dimitrios B.; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios Ch.; Papageorgiou, Virginia E.; Stergiou, Maria S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine reading media (braille, cassettes, screen-reader, screen-magnifier, large print, low vision aids, CCTV) used by visually impaired adults. This article reports the results of a research project involving 100 people with visual impairment. The participants were interviewed and asked to fill in a questionnaire to…

  7. Identity Development in German Adolescents with and without Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The study reported here assessed the exploration of identity and commitment to an identity in German adolescents with and without visual impairments. Methods: In total, 178 adolescents with visual impairments (blindness or low vision) and 526 sighted adolescents completed the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire. Results: The levels of…

  8. The colour of gender stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Sheila J; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-08-01

    Despite legislative attempts to eliminate gender stereotyping from society, the propensity to evaluate people on the basis of their sex remains a pernicious social problem. Noting the critical interplay between cultural and cognitive factors in the establishment of stereotypical beliefs, the current investigation explored the extent to which culturally transmitted colour-gender associations (i.e., pink is for girls, blue is for boys) set the stage for the automatic activation and expression of gender stereotypes. Across six experiments, the results demonstrated that (1) consumer choice for children's goods is dominated by gender-stereotyped colours (Experiment 1); (2) colour-based stereotypic associations guide young children's behaviour (Experiment 2); (3) colour-gender associations automatically activate associated stereotypes in adulthood (Experiments 3-5); and (4) colour-based stereotypic associations bias impressions of male and female targets (Experiment 6). These findings indicate that, despite prohibitions against stereotyping, seemingly innocuous societal practices may continue to promote this mode of thought. PMID:21752009

  9. On Being Hearing Impaired in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hites, Jeanne

    1994-01-01

    Describes the author's experience with the loss of hearing in early adulthood. The use of hearing aids, the situations in which hearing is easier or more difficult, and discrimination faced by people with hearing disabilities are discussed. A vision of a future that enables hearing-impaired persons to participate is described. (Contains three…

  10. Spelling Performance of Visually Impaired Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Arvaniti, Evmorfia K.; Dimitriadi, Despina I.; Gkoutsioudi, Vasiliki G.; Zantali, Christina I.

    2009-01-01

    Visual processes undoubtedly play an important role in print reading as well as in spelling. In the present study we intend to compare the spelling performance of visually impaired individuals (both individuals who are blind and individuals with low vision) with that of their fully sighted peers. An analysis of errors (misspelled words and…

  11. Ultraviolet Light: Some Considerations for Vision Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Marie

    1986-01-01

    The article examines evidence of visual impairment caused by excessive amounts of ultraviolet (UV) light. Among considerations when using a source of UV light for vision stimulation are the position of the child and teacher, use of window glass filters or protective glasses, and careful recordkeeping of all UV stimulation. (Author/JW)[

  12. Background colour matching by a crab spider in the field: a community sensory ecology perspective.

    PubMed

    Defrize, Jérémy; Théry, Marc; Casas, Jérôme

    2010-05-01

    The question of whether a species matches the colour of its natural background in the perspective of the correct receiver is complex to address for several reasons; however, the answer to this question may provide invaluable support for functional interpretations of colour. In most cases, little is known about the identity and visual sensory abilities of the correct receiver and the precise location at which interactions take place in the field, in particular for mimetic systems. In this study, we focused on Misumena vatia, a crab spider meeting the criteria for assessing crypsis better than many other models, and claimed to use colour changes for both aggressive and protective crypsis. We carried out a systematic field survey to quantitatively assess the exactness of background colour matching in M. vatia with respect to the visual system of many of its receivers within the community. We applied physiological models of bird, bee and blowfly colour vision, using flower and spider spectral reflectances measured with a spectroradiometer. We observed that crypsis at long distance is systematically achieved, exclusively through achromatic contrast, in both bee and bird visions. At short distance, M. vatia is mostly chromatically detectable, whatever the substrate, for bees and birds. However, spiders can be either poorly discriminable or quite visible depending on the substrate for bees. Spiders are always chromatically undetectable for blowflies. We discuss the biological relevance of these results in both defensive and aggressive contexts of crypsis within a community sensory perspective. PMID:20400626

  13. The Secret World of Shrimps: Polarisation Vision at Its Best

    PubMed Central

    Kleinlogel, Sonja; White, Andrew G.

    2008-01-01

    Background Animal vision spans a great range of complexity, with systems evolving to detect variations in light intensity, distribution, colour, and polarisation. Polarisation vision systems studied to date detect one to four channels of linear polarisation, combining them in opponent pairs to provide intensity-independent operation. Circular polarisation vision has never been seen, and is widely believed to play no part in animal vision. Methodology/Principal Findings Polarisation is fully measured via Stokes' parameters—obtained by combined linear and circular polarisation measurements. Optimal polarisation vision is the ability to see Stokes' parameters: here we show that the crustacean Gonodactylus smithii measures the exact components required. Conclusions/Significance This vision provides optimal contrast-enhancement and precise determination of polarisation with no confusion states or neutral points—significant advantages. Linear and circular polarisation each give partial information about the polarisation of light—but the combination of the two, as we will show here, results in optimal polarisation vision. We suggest that linear and circular polarisation vision not be regarded as different modalities, since both are necessary for optimal polarisation vision; their combination renders polarisation vision independent of strongly linearly or circularly polarised features in the animal's environment. PMID:18478095

  14. Shadow Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalik, A. Stephen; Vala, John

    1988-10-01

    Shadow Vision: determining the dimension and position of an object by measuring its shadow cast from a collimated (parallel) light source. This alternative technology for measurement and inspection tasks such as edge detection, dimension measurement, and web inspection is presented. An explanation of shadow vision and differences from conventional systems is described with application examples. A modular collimated light source design is discussed which produces a beam approximately one inch high by seven inches wide. The beam can be extended to virtually any width. Discussion of recent developments in amorphous materials shows how a linear array photosensor is produced on a steel substrate having densities higher than in previous technologies. A sensor unit has been developed using these photodiodes with densities of 30 to 40 photodiodes per inch. It too can be made virtually any width.

  15. Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

  16. Colour As a Signal for Entraining the Mammalian Circadian Clock

    PubMed Central

    Walmsley, Lauren; Hanna, Lydia; Mouland, Josh; Martial, Franck; West, Alexander; Smedley, Andrew R.; Bechtold, David A.; Webb, Ann R.; Lucas, Robert J.; Brown, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Twilight is characterised by changes in both quantity (“irradiance”) and quality (“colour”) of light. Animals use the variation in irradiance to adjust their internal circadian clocks, aligning their behaviour and physiology with the solar cycle. However, it is currently unknown whether changes in colour also contribute to this entrainment process. Using environmental measurements, we show here that mammalian blue–yellow colour discrimination provides a more reliable method of tracking twilight progression than simply measuring irradiance. We next use electrophysiological recordings to demonstrate that neurons in the mouse suprachiasmatic circadian clock display the cone-dependent spectral opponency required to make use of this information. Thus, our data show that some clock neurons are highly sensitive to changes in spectral composition occurring over twilight and that this input dictates their response to changes in irradiance. Finally, using mice housed under photoperiods with simulated dawn/dusk transitions, we confirm that spectral changes occurring during twilight are required for appropriate circadian alignment under natural conditions. Together, these data reveal a new sensory mechanism for telling time of day that would be available to any mammalian species capable of chromatic vision. PMID:25884537

  17. Structural colour in Chondrus crispus.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Chris J; Wilts, Bodo D; Vignolini, Silvia; Brodie, Juliet; Steiner, Ullrich; Rudall, Paula J; Glover, Beverley J; Gregory, Thomas; Walker, Rachel H

    2015-01-01

    The marine world is incredibly rich in brilliant and intense colours. Photonic structures are found in many different species and provide extremely complex optical responses that cannot be achieved solely by pigments. In this study we examine the cuticular structure of the red alga Chondrus crispus (Irish Moss) using anatomical and optical approaches. We experimentally measure the optical response of the multilayer structure in the cuticle. Using finite-difference time-domain modelling, we demonstrate conclusively for the first time that the dimensions and organisation of lamellae are responsible for the blue structural colouration on the surface of the fronds. Comparison of material along the apical-basal axis of the frond demonstrates that structural colour is confined to the tips of the thalli and show definitively that a lack of structural colour elsewhere corresponds with a reduction in the number of lamellae and the regularity of their ordering. Moreover, by studying the optical response for different hydration conditions, we demonstrate that the cuticular structure is highly porous and that the presence of water plays a critical role in its ability to act as a structural light reflector. PMID:26139470

  18. Colouring, constraint satisfaction, and complexity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavol Hell; Jaroslav Nesetril

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Constraint satisfaction problems have enjoyed much attention since the early seventies, and in the last decade have become also a focus of attention amongst theoreticians. Graph colourings are a special class of constraint satisfaction problems; they oer,a microcosm of many of the considerations that occur in constraint satisfaction. From the point of view of theory, they are well known

  19. The Colour of Butterflies' Wings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. E. v

    1870-01-01

    IN making some experiments a short time ago, I came across a fact of which I was hitherto ignorant. I wished to test the effect of acid on the colours of the wings of a butterfly or moth, and with this view applied muriatic acid to a dried and set specimen of the Six-spotted Burnet [Zygæna filipendulæ). The red parts

  20. Colourful Objects Through Animal Eyes

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    , bird plumage, and fish skin were used to calculate receptor quantum catches. The quantum catches were. To simulate colour constancy, we used a von Kries algorithm, i.e., the receptor quantum catches were scaled so by receptor adaptation, and so invokes the simplest physiological mech- anism; no special-purpose neural

  1. About acyclic edge colourings of planar graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Fiedorowicz; Mariusz Haluszczak; Narayanan Narayanan

    2008-01-01

    Let G=(V,E) be any finite simple graph. A mapping C:E?[k] is called an acyclic edge k-colouring of G, if any two adjacent edges have different colours and there are no bichromatic cycles in G. In other words, for every pair of distinct colours i and j, the subgraph induced by all the edges which have either colour i or j

  2. Colour space models for soil science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Viscarra Rossel; B. Minasny; P. Roudier; A. B. McBratney

    2006-01-01

    Soil colour is an important soil property. It is frequently used by soil scientists for the identification and classification of soil. It is also used as an indicator of field soil physical, chemical and biological properties as well as of the occurrence of soil processes. Measurements of soil colour are commonly made using the Munsell soil colour charts. A number

  3. Colour Constancy for Scenes with Varying Illumination

    E-print Network

    Barnard, Kobus

    Colour Constancy for Scenes with Varying Illumination Kobus Barnard 1 , Graham Finlayson 2 surface reflectance and illumination variation to solve for colour constancy. Most colour constancy algorithms assume that the illumination across a scene is constant, but this is very often not valid for real

  4. Colour Constancy for Scenes with Varying Illumination

    E-print Network

    Funt, Brian

    Colour Constancy for Scenes with Varying Illumination Kobus Barnard1, Graham Finlayson2, and Brian surface reflectance and illumination variation to solve for colour constancy. Most colour constancy algorithms assume that the illumination across a scene is constant, but this is very often not valid for real

  5. Memory for colours: a reaction time experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Bonnardel; J. Herrero

    We used simultaneous and delayed match to sample tasks to investigate memory for 5 colour tests (green, yellow, purple, pink and orange) in men and women. Stimuli were emulated Munsell colour samples displayed on a CRT monitor. Colour tests were presented with distracters that could vary either in hue or in saturation. Our results indicate that: 1) over the five

  6. Extrasolar Visions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Extrasolar Visions Web site provides a searchable guide to extra solar planets. These include planets of normal stars, pulsar planets, brown dwarfs, protoplanetary disks and protoplanets, extragalactic worlds, massive compact halo objects, and disproven or doubtful worlds. Visitors can search for these objects or view the week's 20 most popular systems, 20 most interesting systems, or the 20 most recently updated systems. Once chosen, the objects name, mass, average distance, and type is given along with a link for further information. This well designed site does a good job of combining quality information and graphics resulting in a pleasurable surfing experience for anyone exploring it.

  7. Visual modelling suggests a weak relationship between the evolution of ultraviolet vision and plumage coloration in birds.

    PubMed

    Lind, O; Delhey, K

    2015-03-01

    Birds have sophisticated colour vision mediated by four cone types that cover a wide visual spectrum including ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. Many birds have modest UV sensitivity provided by violet-sensitive (VS) cones with sensitivity maxima between 400 and 425 nm. However, some birds have evolved higher UV sensitivity and a larger visual spectrum given by UV-sensitive (UVS) cones maximally sensitive at 360-370 nm. The reasons for VS-UVS transitions and their relationship to visual ecology remain unclear. It has been hypothesized that the evolution of UVS-cone vision is linked to plumage colours so that visual sensitivity and feather coloration are 'matched'. This leads to the specific prediction that UVS-cone vision enhances the discrimination of plumage colours of UVS birds while such an advantage is absent or less pronounced for VS-bird coloration. We test this hypothesis using knowledge of the complex distribution of UVS cones among birds combined with mathematical modelling of colour discrimination during different viewing conditions. We find no support for the hypothesis, which, combined with previous studies, suggests only a weak relationship between UVS-cone vision and plumage colour evolution. Instead, we suggest that UVS-cone vision generally favours colour discrimination, which creates a nonspecific selection pressure for the evolution of UVS cones. PMID:25664902

  8. Characterisation of the n-colour printing process using the spot colour overprint model.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Kiran; Green, Phil; Pointer, Michael R

    2014-12-29

    This paper is aimed at reproducing the solid spot colours using the n-colour separation. A simplified numerical method, called as the spot colour overprint (SCOP) model, was used for characterising the n-colour printing process. This model was originally developed for estimating the spot colour overprints. It was extended to be used as a generic forward characterisation model for the n-colour printing process. The inverse printer model based on the look-up table was implemented to obtain the colour separation for n-colour printing process. Finally the real-world spot colours were reproduced using 7-colour separation on lithographic offset printing process. The colours printed with 7 inks were compared against the original spot colours to evaluate the accuracy. The results show good accuracy with the mean CIEDE2000 value between the target colours and the printed colours of 2.06. The proposed method can be used successfully to reproduce the spot colours, which can potentially save significant time and cost in the printing and packaging industry. PMID:25607147

  9. Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Karthik; Duan, Huigao; Hegde, Ravi S; Koh, Samuel C W; Wei, Jennifer N; Yang, Joel K W

    2012-09-01

    The highest possible resolution for printed colour images is determined by the diffraction limit of visible light. To achieve this limit, individual colour elements (or pixels) with a pitch of 250 nm are required, translating into printed images at a resolution of ?100,000 dots per inch (d.p.i.). However, methods for dispensing multiple colourants or fabricating structural colour through plasmonic structures have insufficient resolution and limited scalability. Here, we present a non-colourant method that achieves bright-field colour prints with resolutions up to the optical diffraction limit. Colour information is encoded in the dimensional parameters of metal nanostructures, so that tuning their plasmon resonance determines the colours of the individual pixels. Our colour-mapping strategy produces images with both sharp colour changes and fine tonal variations, is amenable to large-volume colour printing via nanoimprint lithography, and could be useful in making microimages for security, steganography, nanoscale optical filters and high-density spectrally encoded optical data storage. PMID:22886173

  10. Sampling Colourings of the Triangular Lattice

    E-print Network

    Markus Jalsenius

    2010-10-26

    We show that the Glauber dynamics on proper 9-colourings of the triangular lattice is rapidly mixing, which allows for efficient sampling. Consequently, there is a fully polynomial randomised approximation scheme (FPRAS) for counting proper 9-colourings of the triangular lattice. Proper colourings correspond to configurations in the zero-temperature anti-ferromagnetic Potts model. We show that the spin system consisting of proper 9-colourings of the triangular lattice has strong spatial mixing. This implies that there is a unique infinite-volume Gibbs distribution, which is an important property studied in statistical physics. Our results build on previous work by Goldberg, Martin and Paterson, who showed similar results for 10 colours on the triangular lattice. Their work was preceded by Salas and Sokal's 11-colour result. Both proofs rely on computational assistance, and so does our 9-colour proof. We have used a randomised heuristic to guide us towards rigourous results.

  11. Sampling, Resampling and Colour Constancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Forsyth

    1999-01-01

    We formulate colour constancy as a problem ofBayesian inference, where one is trying to representthe posterior on possible interpretations given imagedata. We represent the posterior as a set of samples,drawn from that distribution using a Markov chainMonte Carlo method. We show how to build an efficientsampler.This approach has the advantage that it unifies theconstraints on the problem, and represents possibleambiguities.

  12. Robot Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutro, L. L.; Lerman, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    The operation of a system is described that is built both to model the vision of primate animals, including man, and serve as a pre-prototype of possible object recognition system. It was employed in a series of experiments to determine the practicability of matching left and right images of a scene to determine the range and form of objects. The experiments started with computer generated random-dot stereograms as inputs and progressed through random square stereograms to a real scene. The major problems were the elimination of spurious matches, between the left and right views, and the interpretation of ambiguous regions, on the left side of an object that can be viewed only by the left camera, and on the right side of an object that can be viewed only by the right camera.

  13. Vision Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  14. All about Low Vision

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Low Vision & Blindness > All About Low Vision All About Low Vision Due to an increase in the number of aging baby boomers and the growing ... sensitivity, a significantly obstructed field of vision -- or all three. Watch simulations of some of the most ...

  15. The original colours of fossil beetles.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2012-03-22

    Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group. PMID:21957131

  16. (Computer vision and robotics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.P.

    1989-02-13

    The traveler attended the Fourth Aalborg International Symposium on Computer Vision at Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark. The traveler presented three invited lectures entitled, Concurrent Computer Vision on a Hypercube Multicomputer'', The Butterfly Accumulator and its Application in Concurrent Computer Vision on Hypercube Multicomputers'', and Concurrency in Mobile Robotics at ORNL'', and a ten-minute editorial entitled, It Concurrency an Issue in Computer Vision.'' The traveler obtained information on current R D efforts elsewhere in concurrent computer vision.

  17. [On a binocular vision testing in concomitant strabismus].

    PubMed

    Seleznev, A V; Vakurin, E A; Kashchenko, T P

    2011-01-01

    Character of vision in 105 children with strabismus (with regular eye position) was tested using four dot test on different distance (5.0, 2.5, 1.0 m) and "Phorbis" device comprising phoropter and a set of light filters, that let us perform examination in the conditions of colour, polaroid and bitmapped division of visual fields. Stereoscopic vision was examined using original method based on anaglyph haploscopy. Binocular vision in strabismus was found to become more frequent as the distance and dissociating effect of light-filters decrease, and turned to be maximal in near testing in conditions of bitmapped haploscopy. Visual stereoscopic acuity in children with concomitant strabismus even on reaching regular eye position and binocular vision is significantly lower compared with healthy children of the same age. PMID:21800722

  18. The multiple disguises of spiders: web colour and decorations, body colour and movement.

    PubMed

    Théry, Marc; Casas, Jérôme

    2009-02-27

    Diverse functions have been assigned to the visual appearance of webs, spiders and web decorations, including prey attraction, predator deterrence and camouflage. Here, we review the pertinent literature, focusing on potential camouflage and mimicry. Webs are often difficult to detect in a heterogeneous visual environment. Static and dynamic web distortions are used to escape visual detection by prey, although particular silk may also attract prey. Recent work using physiological models of vision taking into account visual environments rarely supports the hypothesis of spider camouflage by decorations, but most often the prey attraction and predator confusion hypotheses. Similarly, visual modelling shows that spider coloration is effective in attracting prey but not in conveying camouflage. Camouflage through colour change might be used by particular crab spiders to hide from predator or prey on flowers of different coloration. However, results obtained on a non-cryptic crab spider suggest that an alternative function of pigmentation may be to avoid UV photodamage through the transparent cuticle. Numerous species are clearly efficient locomotory mimics of ants, particularly in the eyes of their predators. We close our paper by highlighting gaps in our knowledge. PMID:18990672

  19. Visual impairment, visual functioning, and quality of life assessments in patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, R K

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To determine the relation between visual impairment, visual functioning, and the global quality of life in patients with glaucoma. METHODS: Visual impairment, defined with the American Medical Association Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment; visual functioning, measured with the VF-14 and the Field Test Version of the National Eye Institute-Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ); and the global quality of life, assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), were determined in 147 consecutive patients with glaucoma. RESULTS: None of the SF-36 domains demonstrated more than a weak correlation with visual impairment. The VF-14 scores were moderately correlated with visual impairment. Of the twelve NEI-VFQ scales, distance activities and vision specific dependency were moderately correlated with visual impairment. Of the twelve NEI-VFQ scales, distance activities and vision specific dependency were moderately correlated with visual field impairment; vision specific social functioning, near activities, vision specific role difficulties, general vision, vision specific mental health, color vision, and driving were modestly correlated; visual pain was weakly correlated; and two were not significantly correlated. Correcting for visual actuity weakened the strength of the correlation coefficients. CONCLUSIONS: The SF-36 is unlikely to be useful in determining visual impairment in patients with glaucoma. Based on the moderate correlation between visual field impairment and the VF-14 score, this questionnaire may be generalizable to patients with glaucoma. Several of the NEI-VFQ scales correlate with visual field impairment scores in patients with a wide range of glaucomatous damage. PMID:8981717

  20. Circular Statistics Applied to Colour Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Hanbury

    Three methods for summarising the character- istics of colour images are presented. They all rely on the ability to represent colours in terms of a 3D-polar coordi- nate system having independent brightness and saturation coordinates. The methods discussed are: hue statistics and saturation-weighted hue statistics, saturation-weighted hue histograms, and colour statistics histograms. The latter are a way of visualising hue,

  1. Vision-Based User Interfaces for Health Applications: A Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Branzan Albu

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a survey of vision-based human computer inter- faces for several key-fields in health care: data visualization for image-guided diagnosis, image-guided therapy planning and surgery, the operating room, as- sistance to motor-impaired patients, and monitoring and support of elderly. The emphasis is on the contribution of the underlying computer vision techniques to the usability and usefullness of interfaces

  2. Local adaptation and divergence in colour signal conspicuousness between monomorphic and polymorphic lineages in a lizard.

    PubMed

    McLean, C A; Moussalli, A; Stuart-Fox, D

    2014-12-01

    Population differences in visual environment can lead to divergence in multiple components of animal coloration including signalling traits and colour patterns important for camouflage. Divergence may reflect selection imposed by different receivers (conspecifics, predators), which depends in turn on the location of the colour patch. We tested for local adaptation of two genetically and phenotypically divergent lineages of a rock-inhabiting lizard, Ctenophorus decresii, by comparing the visual contrast of colour patches to different receivers in native and non-native environments. The lineages differ most notably in male throat coloration, which is polymorphic in the northern lineage and monomorphic in the southern lineage, but also differ in dorsal and lateral coloration, which is visible to both conspecifics and potential predators. Using models of animal colour vision, we assessed whether lineage-specific throat, dorsal and lateral coloration enhanced conspicuousness to conspecifics, increased crypsis to birds or both, respectively, when viewed against the predominant backgrounds from each lineage. Throat colours were no more conspicuous against native than non-native rock but contrasted more strongly with native lichen, which occurs patchily on rocks inhabited by C. decresii. Conversely, neck coloration (lateral) more closely matched native lichen. Furthermore, although dorsal coloration of southern males was consistently more conspicuous to birds than that of northern males, both lineages had similar absolute conspicuousness against their native backgrounds. Combined, our results are consistent with local adaptation of multiple colour traits in relation to multiple receivers, suggesting that geographic variation in background colour has influenced the evolution of lineage-specific coloration in C. decresii. PMID:25330209

  3. Structural colour in Chondrus crispus

    E-print Network

    Chandler, Chris J.; Wilts, Bodo D.; Vignolini, Silvia; Brodie, Juliet; Steiner, Ullrich; Rudall, Paula J.; Glover, Beverley J.; Gregory, Thomas; Walker, Rachel H.

    2015-06-17

    documented the role of water in the modification of structural colour. For example, iridescent 154 feathers of mourning doves Zenaida macroura increased in overall reflectance by almost 50% 155 following the addition of water 38. The cuticle of Chondrus... -of-paradise explained by finite-difference time-domain modeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci 371 USA, DOI:10.1073/pnas.1323611111 (2014). 372 38 Shawkey, M. D. et al. Structural color change following hydration and dehydration of 373 iridescent mourning dove (Zenaida macroura...

  4. Composition of a vision screen for servicemembers with traumatic brain injury: consensus using a modified nominal group technique.

    PubMed

    Radomski, Mary Vining; Finkelstein, Marsha; Llanos, Imelda; Scheiman, Mitchell; Wagener, Sharon Gowdy

    2014-01-01

    Vision impairment is common in the first year after traumatic brain injury (TBI), including among service members whose brain injuries occurred during deployment in Iraq and Afghanistan. Occupational therapy practitioners provide routine vision screening to inform treatment planning and referral to vision specialists, but existing methods are lacking because many tests were developed for children and do not screen for vision dysfunction typical of TBI. An expert panel was charged with specifying the composition of a vision screening protocol for servicemembers with TBI. A modified nominal group technique fostered discussion and objective determinations of consensus. After considering 29 vision tests, the panel recommended a nine-test vision screening that examines functional performance, self-reported problems, far-near acuity, reading, accommodation, convergence, eye alignment and binocular vision, saccades, pursuits, and visual fields. Research is needed to develop reliable, valid, and clinically feasible vision screening protocols to identify TBI-related vision disorders in adults. PMID:25005505

  5. Teaching Math to Visually Impaired Students

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Osterhaus, Susan

    This page has the following resources for math teachers of the visually impaired: teaching strategies, math education and Nemeth Code, tactile math graphics, abacus information, calculators, math tools, math resources, adaptive tools and technology for accessible mathematics, suggested adaptive tools and materials for low vision students in algebra and geometry, suggested adaptive tools and materials for Braille students in algebra and geometry, and adaptive tools and technology for accessible mathematics equipment.

  6. Visualization Without Vision: Students with Visual

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gail Jones; Bethany Broadwell

    Complex science phenomena are often described with visual imagery. Research has shown that visual representations are not\\u000a only motivating but are also critical in the communication of science concepts (citeauthorch12:mathewson1999, citeyearch12:mathewson1999).\\u000a Yet very little is known about how students with little or no vision learn without access to these representations. This chapter\\u000a explores how students with visual impairment learn science

  7. Ultraviolet vision and foraging in dip and plunge diving birds

    PubMed Central

    Håstad, Olle; Ernstdotter, Emma; Ödeen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Many fishes are sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light and display UV markings during courtship. As UV scatters more than longer wavelengths of light, these signals are only effective at short distances, reducing the risk of detection by swimming predators. Such underwater scattering will be insignificant for dip and plunge diving birds, which prey on fishes just below the water surface. One could therefore expect to find adaptations in the eyes of dip and plunge diving birds that tune colour reception to UV signals. We used a molecular method to survey the colour vision tuning of five families of dip or plunge divers and compared the results with those from sister taxa of other foraging methods. We found evidence of extended UV vision only in gulls (Laridae). Based on available evidence, it is more probable that this trait is associated with their terrestrial foraging habits rather than piscivory. PMID:17148194

  8. Innate colour preferences and flexible colour learning in the pipevine swallowtail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha R. Weiss

    1997-01-01

    The importance of innate preferences and learned associations in choice of flower colours were investigated for the pipevine swallowtail butterfly,Battus philenor(Papilionidae). Naive butterflies showed innate colour preferences for yellow and, to a lesser extent, blue and purple. Apart from their innate preferences, they were able to learn within 10 flower visits to associate floral colour with the presence of nectar

  9. Why colour in subterranean vertebrates? Exploring the evolution of colour patterns in caecilian amphibians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. WOLLENBERG; G. JOHN MEASEY

    2009-01-01

    aposematism; caecilians; colour; crypsis; evolution; Gymnophiona; independent contrasts; pattern; selection. Abstract The proximate functions of animal skin colour are difficult to assign as they can result from natural selection, sexual selection or neutral evolution under genetic drift. Most often colour patterns are thought to signal visual stimuli; so, their presence in subterranean taxa is perplexing. We evaluate the adaptive nature

  10. Seasonal Changes in Colour: A Comparison of Structural, Melanin and Carotenoid-Based Plumage Colours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaspar Delhey; Claudia Burger; Wolfgang Fiedler; Anne Peters; David Reby

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundPlumage coloration is important for bird communication, most notably in sexual signalling. Colour is often considered a good quality indicator, and the expression of exaggerated colours may depend on individual condition during moult. After moult, plumage coloration has been deemed fixed due to the fact that feathers are dead structures. Still, many plumage colours change after moult, although whether this

  11. Mobile Visual Aid Tools for Users with Visual Impairments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Liu; David S. Doermann; Huiping Li

    2008-01-01

    \\u000a In this chapter we describe “MobileEye”, a software suite which converts a camera enabled mobile device into a multi-function\\u000a vision tool that can assist the visually impaired in their daily activities. MobileEye consists of four subsystems, each customized\\u000a for a specific type of visual disabilities: A color channel mapper which can tell the visually impaired different colors;\\u000a a software based

  12. Computer vision on tap

    E-print Network

    Chiu, Kevin Geeyoung

    We demonstrate a concept of computer vision as a secure, live service on the Internet. We show a platform to distribute a real time vision algorithm using simple widely available Web technologies, such as Adobe Flash. We ...

  13. Colour Mathematics: With Graphs and Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    The different combinations involved in additive and subtractive colour mixing can often be difficult for students to remember. Using transmission graphs for filters of the primary colours and a numerical scheme to write out the relationships are good exercises in analytical thinking that can help students recall the combinations rather than just…

  14. Selective attention to words and colours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Morton; Susan M. Chambers

    1973-01-01

    In the Stroop test it is found that the presence of words interferes with the task of naming colours. The usual account of this phenomenon is that the names of words are more readily obtained than are the names of colours and that the production of the latter is interfered with by the spontaneous occurrence of the former. Treisman and

  15. Mineralization in Rust-coloured Acarospora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. William Purvis; Anton Kearsley; Gordon Cressey; Anna T. Crewe; Mats Wedin

    2008-01-01

    The upper cortex and extracellular hyphal wall matrix are mineralized in both rust-coloured Acarospora sinopica and the paler A. smaragdula ‘f. subochracea’ in the form of microgranular or microbotryoidal phases. Analysis confirmed the distinctive colours are not simply due to hydrated iron oxides, as previously believed, and suggests mixed sulphide and oxide phases with little crystallinity, as well as other

  16. A novel colour-sensitive CMOS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langfelder, G.; Longoni, A.; Zaraga, F.

    2009-10-01

    A novel colour-sensitive semiconductor detector is proposed. The device (named Transverse Field Detector (TFD)) can be used to measure the colour of the incident light without any colour filter. The device is completely compatible with standard CMOS processes and is suitable to be integrated in a pixel array for imaging purposes. The working principle is based on the capability of this device to collect at different superficial junctions the carriers, generated at different depths, by means of suitable transverse electric fields. The transverse components of the electric field are generated inside the depleted region by a suitable bias of the superficial junctions. Thanks to the differences in the light absorption coefficients at different wavelengths, the device performs colour separation. Among the advantages of this approach are the capability of an active tuning of the pixel colour response, which can be obtained just by changing the biasing values of collecting junctions, and foreseen higher colour fidelity, thanks to the easy extension to four colour pixels. First test structures of three colours TFD pixels were designed and built in a standard CMOS 90 nm technology. Operative principles of the device and first experimental results are presented.

  17. Instant colour photography: chemistry and UV stabilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Usmani; I. O. Salyer

    1983-01-01

    An ultraviolet (UV) screening agent precursor, dinonylphenylisophthalate, applied as a component of a surface coating on instant colour positive photographic prints stabilizes the dyes that are used and prevents the fading of colour that otherwise occurs. It is believed that upon exposure to UV light the ester precursor rearrangesin situ to form substituted benzophenones, which are effective UV screening agents.

  18. Colour polymorphism in birds: causes and functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Galeotti; D. Rubolini; P. O. Dunn; M. Fasola

    2003-01-01

    We studied polymorphism in all species of birds that are presently known to show intraspecific variation in plumage colour. At least three main mecha- nisms have been put forward to explain the maintenance of polymorphism: apostatic, disruptive and sexual selection. All of them make partly different predictions. Our aims were to investigate evolutionary causes and adaptive functions of colour polymorphism

  19. Vertex-Colouring Edge-Weightings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louigi Addario-berry; Ketan Dalal; Colin Mcdiarmid; Bruce A. Reed; Andrew Thomason

    2007-01-01

    Abstract A weighting w of the edges of a graph G induces a colouring of the vertices of G where the colour of vertex v, denoted cv, is , e3v w(e). We show that the edges of every graph that does not contain a component isomorphic to K2 can be weighted from the set {1,..., 30} such that in the

  20. Colour mathematics: with graphs and numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2009-07-01

    The different combinations involved in additive and subtractive colour mixing can often be difficult for students to remember. Using transmission graphs for filters of the primary colours and a numerical scheme to write out the relationships are good exercises in analytical thinking that can help students recall the combinations rather than just attempting to memorize them.

  1. Enhancing SURF Feature Matching Using Colour Histograms

    E-print Network

    Whelan, Paul F.

    Enhancing SURF Feature Matching Using Colour Histograms Tony Marrero Barroso Centre for Image that enhances the local feature matching capabilities of the SURF descriptor by utilising colour histograms space (equation 2, where denotes the mean of the channel and the standard deviation), had the best

  2. Vision and Brain Vision and Brain

    E-print Network

    Stone, J. V.

    (1564­1642), The Assayer #12;#12;Contents Preface ix The Party Trick xiii 1 Vision: An Overview 1 2 Eyes press. I believe the brain is such an object. --David Hubel, Eye, Brain, and Vision (1988) Philosophy the evidence of its own eyes, ruthlessly casting aside red herrings and fallguys one by one, by one, until

  3. Methods of Reading Information on Labels of Prescription Medications by Persons Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, John M.; Curtis, Amy

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of visual impairment (that is, blindness and low vision) is increasing in the United States, especially in persons aged 65 and older, with more than half of all people who are blind in this age demographic. It has been estimated that about 6.5 million Americans aged 55 and older report vision loss, and this number is expected to…

  4. Impact of Low Vision on Well-Being in 10 European Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Mojon-Azzi; A. Sousa-Poza; D. S. Mojon

    2008-01-01

    Background: Because of the growing life expectancy in developed countries and the exponential increase in vision loss with increasing age, a growing number of elderly persons will eventually suffer from visual impairment and blindness. This paper describes the association between self-reported vision and well-being in individuals aged 50 years and older and their families. Methods: Using binary logistic regressions on

  5. The History and Future of Low Vision Services in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogk, Lylas; Goodrich, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the history of low vision services in the United States. The field began to gain momentum as the term "low vision" was conceptualized and coined, and this momentum is rapidly increasing with changes in the demographics of visual impairment.

  6. The Greatest Generation Meets Its Greatest Challenge: Vision Loss and Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Coleen

    2005-01-01

    Having lived through the Great Depression and World War II, older adults now face the challenge of vision loss in record numbers. Depression is closely associated with functional loss and social isolation in late-life vision loss. The principles of assisting those who are aging will also benefit those who are aging with a visual impairment. They…

  7. Leadership as vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Morden

    1997-01-01

    Contends that in addition to the role of leadership as a fundamental organizational competence, leadership may be defined in terms of vision and shared values. Vision is conceptualized in holistic terms. Defines vision as an imagined or perceived but consistent pattern of communal possibilities to which others can be drawn, and whose values they will wish to share. Explains visionary

  8. A child's vision.

    PubMed

    Nye, Christina

    2014-06-01

    Implementing standard vision screening techniques in the primary care practice is the most effective means to detect children with potential vision problems at an age when the vision loss may be treatable. A critical period of vision development occurs in the first few weeks of life; thus, it is imperative that serious problems are detected at this time. Although it is not possible to quantitate an infant's vision, evaluating ocular health appropriately can mean the difference between sight and blindness and, in the case of retinoblastoma, life or death. PMID:24852147

  9. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  10. Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreft, Samo; Kreft, Marko

    2007-11-01

    Out of three perceptual characteristics of the colour of any substance, the hue depends mostly on the spectral properties of a substance, while the brightness and saturation depend also on the concentration of a substance and its thickness. Here, we report that evident change of the hue of the colour (i.e., from green to red) is due to a change in concentration or the thickness of a layer in some exceptional substances such as pumpkin seed oil or an aqueous solution of bromophenol blue. In some regions of Central Europe, salad dressing is made preferably with the pumpkin seed oil, which has a strong characteristic nut-like taste and remarkable properties of the colour: it appears red in a bottle, but green when served as a salad dressing. The colour of the pumpkin seed oil was previously described as brownish yellow, dark green, dark green to red ochre or dark reddish brown to light yellow green. We elucidated the physicochemical and physiological basis of such dichromatism by Beer-Lambert law and by the characteristics of human colour perception. Our concept was corroborated by the outcome of calculations of colour from spectral properties using colour matching functions. We found that dichromatism is observed if the absorption spectrum of any substance has at least two local minima: one wide but shallow and one narrow but deep local minimum.

  11. Colloidal approach to prepare colour blends from colourants with different solubility profiles.

    PubMed

    Patel, A R; Heussen, P C M; Dorst, E; Hazekamp, J; Velikov, K P

    2013-11-15

    Food colouring plays a vital and a determining role in the processing and the manufacturing of food products because the appearance of products is critical for attracting consumers and influencing their food choices. However, factors such as legislative restrictions, limited number of approved colourants and the processing, formulation and stability issues of the natural colourants severely limits the application of food colouring in actual product formats. Hence, finding alternatives to the currently utilised formulation practises, represents an important area of research. Here, we report a simple colloidal approach to prepare colour blends by co-incorporating colourants with contrasting aqueous solubility profiles in composite colloidal particles. Curcumin and indigocarmine were selected as water insoluble and water soluble food-grade colourants respectively and incorporated in the colloidal particles prepared from food protein-zein. Composite particles obtained by loading of curcumin and indigocarmine (at different ratios) had mean particle size ranging from 76 to 300nm. The spherical shape of the colloidal particles was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and the colloidal dispersions were further characterised using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The incorporation of colourants in colloidal particles led to the generation of different shade of colour in yellow-green-blue range. The encapsulation also led to the stabilization of individual pigments against photodegradation. Such composite colloidal particles could potentially serve as an approach for developing tuneable colouring system for food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:23790940

  12. Colouration and colour changes of the fiddler crab, Uca capricornis: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Detto, Tanya; Hemmi, Jan M; Backwell, Patricia R Y

    2008-01-01

    Colour changes in animals may be triggered by a variety of social and environmental factors and may occur over a matter of seconds or months. Crustaceans, like fiddler crabs (genus Uca), are particularly adept at changing their colour and have been the focus of numerous studies. However, few of these studies have attempted to quantitatively describe the individual variation in colour and pattern or their adaptive significance. This paper quantitatively describes the colour patterns of the fiddler crab Uca capricornis and their ability to change on a socially significant timescale. The most dramatic changes in colour pattern are associated with moulting. These ontogenetic changes result in a general reduction of the colour pattern with increasing size, although females are more colourful and variable than similarly-sized males. Uca capricornis are also capable of rapid colour changes in response to stress, but show no endogenous rhythms associated with the semilunar and tidal cycles commonly reported in other fiddler crabs. The extreme colour polymorphism and the relative stability of the colour patterns in Uca capricornis are consistent with their use in visually mediated mate recognition. PMID:18286186

  13. Colouration and Colour Changes of the Fiddler Crab, Uca capricornis: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Detto, Tanya; Hemmi, Jan M.; Backwell, Patricia R. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Colour changes in animals may be triggered by a variety of social and environmental factors and may occur over a matter of seconds or months. Crustaceans, like fiddler crabs (genus Uca), are particularly adept at changing their colour and have been the focus of numerous studies. However, few of these studies have attempted to quantitatively describe the individual variation in colour and pattern or their adaptive significance. This paper quantitatively describes the colour patterns of the fiddler crab Uca capricornis and their ability to change on a socially significant timescale. The most dramatic changes in colour pattern are associated with moulting. These ontogenetic changes result in a general reduction of the colour pattern with increasing size, although females are more colourful and variable than similarly-sized males. Uca capricornis are also capable of rapid colour changes in response to stress, but show no endogenous rhythms associated with the semilunar and tidal cycles commonly reported in other fiddler crabs. The extreme colour polymorphism and the relative stability of the colour patterns in Uca capricornis are consistent with their use in visually mediated mate recognition. PMID:18286186

  14. Consumers' Perspectives on Effective Orientation and Mobility Services for Diabetic Adults Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Kelley, Pat; Matlock, Dwayne; Page, Anita

    2006-01-01

    The authors interviewed and videotaped diabetic adults with visual impairments about their perceptions of orientation and mobility (O&M) services that they had received. The visual impairments of these middle-aged adults ranged from totally blind to low vision. The interview questions focused on demographic information about the interviewees, the…

  15. An Investigation of First-Order False Belief Understanding of Children with Congenital Profound Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sarah; Pring, Linda; Swettenham, John

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed theory of mind understanding in children with congenital profound visual impairment (CPVI): children who have had no access to visual information throughout development. Participants were 18 children with CPVI and no other impairments, aged between 5 and 11 years, and 18 children with normal vision, matched individually on…

  16. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Balcer, Laura J; Miller, David H; Reingold, Stephen C; Cohen, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes assessment in clinical practice and therapeutic trials in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25433914

  17. A National Video Library for Teacher Preparation in Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trief, Ellen; Lengel, Jim; Baecher, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the findings of the first phase of a multiyear funded project whose ultimate purpose is to clearly define and then create a video clip library of 8- to 10-minute video clips that demonstrate exemplary teaching practices for working with students who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision).…

  18. Active and Passive Perceptual Learning in the Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrod, Beverley E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Active and passive perceptual training methods were tested with 30 macular degeneration patients to improve their residual vision. The main conclusion was that perceptual training may contribute to successful visual adjustment and that the effect of training is not limited to a particular level of visual impairment. (Author/CL)

  19. Neural-Based Visual Stimulation with Infants with Cortical Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, S. A.

    1996-01-01

    In order to shed light on the needs of children with cortical visual impairments, normal visual development of infants is described. Infant preferences for motion, faces, and black-and-white patterns are explained. Colors useful in stimulating vision development and the time needed for exposure to visual stimuli are discussed. (CR)

  20. Multiple Disabilities and Visual Impairment: An Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argyropoulos, Vassilios; Thymakis, Paraskevas

    2014-01-01

    Children with visual and motor disabilities constitute a distinct group with a unique set of educational needs. Such children are often grouped with the broader population of children with multiple disabilities and visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) (Erin, 2000; McLinden, 1997). The chief characteristic of…

  1. Environmental and Personal Safety: No Vision Required. Practice Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozeman, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    Personal safety is an important issue for all people, regardless of their physical capabilities. For people with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision), real concerns exist regarding their vulnerability to crime and their greater risk of attack. With a nationwide increase in crime in the United States, "Three out of…

  2. FPGA-Based Video Processing for a Vision Prosthesis

    E-print Network

    Diessel, Oliver

    FPGA-Based Video Processing for a Vision Prosthesis Benjamin Kwek1 , Freddie Sunarso1 , Melissa implanted within the retina of an impaired eye. This FPGA prototype ensures the processing is fast, accurate is transferred to the retina. Fig. 3 illustrates two such phases. Both FPGA- and processor-based image processing

  3. Life Goals in Vision Rehabilitation: Are They Addressed and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Boerner, Kathrin; Wang, Shu-wen

    2006-01-01

    This study explored if and how vision rehabilitation services address important life goals of young and middle-aged adults who are visually impaired. It found that services that teach functional skills and offer psychosocial therapeutic-type services were instrumental in addressing life goals and that independence-related goals were most often…

  4. Emotion-Induced Trade-Offs in Spatiotemporal Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocanegra, Bruno R.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2011-01-01

    It is generally assumed that emotion facilitates human vision in order to promote adaptive responses to a potential threat in the environment. Surprisingly, we recently found that emotion in some cases impairs the perception of elementary visual features (Bocanegra & Zeelenberg, 2009b). Here, we demonstrate that emotion improves fast temporal…

  5. Natural ingredients for colouring and styling.

    PubMed

    Dweck, A C

    2002-10-01

    This paper examines some of the existing methods for colouring the hair and skin using natural material (such as henna) and proposes a parallel technology that exists in the dyeing of wool and fabrics to extend the colour range. Many of the listed plants and their derivatives are not found in Annex IV of the Cosmetic Directive and may not be used as colours; however, they do have other properties which may justify their inclusion into a product, for example, as astringent or anti-inflammatory agents. The paper concludes with some reported antigreying and hair styling preparations cited in the literature. PMID:18498522

  6. AIC Colour 05 -10th Congress of the International Colour Association Rapid and Robust Algorithms for Detecting Colour Targets

    E-print Network

    Coughlan, James M.

    , Santa Cruz, CA Corresponding author: J. Coughlan (coughlan@ski.org) ABSTRACT We introduce a computer Algorithms for Detecting Colour Targets J. Coughlan, R. Manduchi*, M. Mutsuzaki* and H. Shen Smith

  7. Detection of colour change in moving objects: temporal order judgment and reaction time analysis.

    PubMed

    Murd, Carolina; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Allik, Jüri

    2009-01-01

    The time needed to detect changes in the colouration of a single moving stimulus becomes shorter with its increasing velocity (Kreegipuu et al, 2006 Vision Research 46 1848-1855). We examined the ability to detect colour change in moving chromatic bars or sinusoidal gratings through temporal order judgment (TOJ) and reaction time (RT) tasks to test whether the effect of velocity found in a previous study is universal and holds for different tasks and stimuli. The results demonstrate that the TOJ and simple RT to the colour change of a moving grating are insensitive to stimulus velocity. Therefore, we conclude that the process of comparison of the two internal representations of external events does not have access to temporal information precise enough to estimate the exact time when something enters our subjective awareness. The motion effect on colour-change perception seems to be confined to a single stimulus that moves across the visual field, to events that contain some spatial predictability, and to tasks that reflect the time of the change relatively directly. PMID:20120263

  8. Separate colour-opponent mechanisms underlie the detection and discrimination of moving chromatic targets.

    PubMed Central

    Willis, A; Anderson, S J

    1998-01-01

    Current opinion holds that human colour vision is mediated primarily via a colour-opponent pathway that carries information about both wavelength and luminance contrast (type I). However, some authors argue that chromatic sensitivity may be limited by a different geniculostriate pathway, which carries information about wavelength alone (type II). We provide psychophysical evidence that both pathways may contribute to the perception of moving, chromatic targets in humans, depending on the nature of the visual discrimination. In experiment 1, we show that adaptation to drifting, red-green stimuli causes reductions in contrast sensitivity for both the detection and direction discrimination of moving chromatic targets. Importantly, the effects of adaptation are not directionally specific. In experiment 2, we show that adaptation to luminance gratings results in reduced sensitivity for the direction discrimination, but not the detection of moving chromatic targets. We suggest that sensitivity for the direction discrimination of chromatic targets is limited by a colour-opponent pathway that also conveys luminance-contrast information, whereas the detection of such targets is limited by a pathway with access to colour information alone. The properties of these pathways are consistent with the known properties of type-I and type-II neurons of the primate parvocellular lateral geniculate nucleus and their cortical projections. These findings may explain the known differences between detection and direction discrimination thresholds for chromatic targets moving at low to moderate velocities. PMID:9921683

  9. The economic impact and cost of visual impairment in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, H R; Pezzullo, M L; Keeffe, J E

    2006-01-01

    Aims To quantify the total economic costs of vision loss in Australia. Methods Prevalence data of visual impairment, unpublished data on indirect costs, and national healthcare cost databases were used. Results Vision disorders cost Australia an estimated A$9.85 billion in 2004. A$4.8 billion is the loss of wellbeing (years of life lost as a result of disability and premature mortality). Vision disorders rank seventh and account for 2.7% of the national loss of wellbeing. Direct health system costs total A$1.8 billion. They have increased by A$1 billion over the last 10?years and will increase a further A$1–2 billion in the next 10?years. Cataract, the largest direct cost, takes 18% of expenditure. The health system costs place vision disorders seventh, ahead of coronary heart disease, diabetes, depression, and stroke. Indirect costs, A$3.2 billion, include carers' costs, low vision aids, lost earnings, and other welfare payments and taxes. Conclusions Even a developed economy such as Australia's cannot afford avoidable vision loss. Priority needs to be given to prevent preventable vision loss; to treat treatable eye diseases; and to increase research into vision loss that can be neither prevented nor treated. PMID:16488942

  10. Why colour in subterranean vertebrates? Exploring the evolution of colour patterns in caecilian amphibians.

    PubMed

    Wollenberg, K C; Measey, C John

    2009-05-01

    The proximate functions of animal skin colour are difficult to assign as they can result from natural selection, sexual selection or neutral evolution under genetic drift. Most often colour patterns are thought to signal visual stimuli; so,their presence in subterranean taxa is perplexing. We evaluate the adaptive nature of colour patterns in nearly a third of all known species of caecilians, an order of amphibians most of which live in tropical soils and leaf litter. We found that certain colour pattern elements in caecilians can be explained based on characteristics concerning above-ground movement. Our study implies that certain caecilian colour patterns have convergently evolved under selection and we hypothesize their function most likely to be a synergy of aposematism and crypsis, related to periods when individuals move overground. In a wider context, our results suggest that very little exposure to daylight is required to evolve and maintain a varied array of colour patterns in animal skin. PMID:21462404

  11. A frequency view of colour: measuring the human sensitivity to square-wave spectral power distributions.

    PubMed

    Bonnardel, V; Varela, F J

    1991-09-23

    We have measured the chromatic threshold sensitivity to stimuli with spectral composition determined by a periodic function of energy over wavelength. This approach is analogous to frequency studies of spatial vision for the study of colour. A device was constructed permitting the synthesis of illuminants over the entire visible range (400-700 nm) in which phase, frequency and amplitude can be independently controlled. We have used 12 frequencies of square-wave functions (from 0.5 to 3.6 cycles/300 nm) and seven values of phase (between 0 degrees and 180 degrees) to obtain the contrast sensitivity function of the chromatic system in three normal trichromats. The results show maximum sensitivity around 1.5 cycles/300 nm and a high-frequency cut-off at 3.6 cycles/300 nm. These empirical values are compared with the predictions obtained from three current psychophysical models of opponent-colour process. PMID:1684041

  12. Inheritance of seed colour in turnip rape ( Brassica campestris L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Schwetka

    1982-01-01

    The inheritance of seed colour was investigated in the progenies of crosses between seven yellow seeded forms and a brown seeded one of turnip rape (Brassica campestris L.). Seed colour differences were found to be determined in each case by one or two genes with epistatic effect. Moreover, independent inheritance of hilum colour was observed. Seed colour was predominantly but

  13. Not so colourful after all: eggshell pigments constrain avian eggshell colour space.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel; Grim, Tomáš; Cassey, Phillip; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-05-01

    Birds' eggshells are renowned for their striking colours and varied patterns. Although often considered exceptionally diverse, we report that avian eggshell coloration, sampled here across the full phylogenetic diversity of birds, occupies only 0.08-0.10% of the avian perceivable colour space. The concentrations of the two known tetrapyrrole eggshell pigments (protoporphyrin and biliverdin) are generally poor predictors of colour, both intra- and interspecifically. Here, we show that the constrained diversity of eggshell coloration can be accurately predicted by colour mixing models based on the relative contribution of both pigments and we demonstrate that the models' predictions can be improved by accounting for the reflectance of the eggshell's calcium carbonate matrix. The establishment of these proximate links between pigmentation and colour will enable future tests of hypotheses on the functions of perceived avian eggshell colours that depend on eggshell chemistry. More generally, colour mixing models are not limited to avian eggshell colours but apply to any natural colour. Our approach illustrates how modelling can aid the understanding of constraints on phenotypic diversity. PMID:25994009

  14. THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-06

    In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.

  15. OCoc- from Ocean Colour to Organic Carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Heim; Paul Overduin; Lutz Schirrmeister; H. Lantuit; J. A. Hoelemann; H. Kassens; C. Wegner

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced permafrost warming and increased arctic river discharges have heightened concern about the input of terrigenous matter into Arctic coastal waters. The `OCoc-from Ocean Colour to Organic Carbon' project (IPY-project 1176), funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG), is an Ocean Colour study joined with the Arctic Coastal Dynamics ACD network and Arctic Circum-polar Coastal Observatory Network ACCO-Net (IPY-project 90).

  16. Vertex-Colouring Edge-Weightings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Addario-Berry; B. A. Reed; A. Thomason

    A weighting w of the edges of a graph G induces a colouring of the vertices of G where the colour of vertex v, denoted cv, is P e3v w(e). We show that the edges of every graph that does not contain a component isomorphic to K2 can be weighted from the set {1,..., 30} such that in the resulting

  17. Performance evaluation of local colour invariants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gertjan J. Burghouts; Jan-mark Geusebroek

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we compare local colour descriptors to grey-value descriptors. We adopt the evaluation framework of Mikolayzcyk and Schmid. We modify the framework in several ways. We decompose the evaluation framework to the level of local grey-value invariants on which common region descriptors are based. We compare the discriminative power and invariance of grey-value invariants to that of colour

  18. Speech impairment (adult)

    MedlinePLUS

    Language impairment; Impairment of speech; Inability to speak; Aphasia; Dysarthria; Slurred speech; Dysphonia voice disorders ... Common speech and language disorders include: APHASIA Aphasia is loss of the ability to understand or express spoken or ...

  19. Flower colour adaptation in a mimetic orchid

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Ethan; Anderson, Bruce; Johnson, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Although the tremendous variability in floral colour among angiosperms is often attributed to divergent selection by pollinators, it is usually difficult to preclude the possibility that floral colour shifts were driven by non-pollinator processes. Here, we examine the adaptive significance of flower colour in Disa ferruginea, a non-rewarding orchid that is thought to attract its butterfly pollinator by mimicking the flowers of sympatric nectar-producing species. Disa ferruginea has red flowers in the western part of its range and orange flowers in the eastern part—a colour shift that we hypothesized to be the outcome of selection for resemblance to different local nectar-producing plants. Using reciprocal translocations of red and orange phenotypes as well as arrays of artificial flowers, we found that the butterfly Aeropetes tulbaghia, the only pollinator of the orchid, preferred both the red phenotype and red artificial flowers in the west where its main nectar plant also has red flowers, and both the orange phenotype and orange artificial flowers in the east, where its main nectar plant has orange flowers. This phenotype by environment interaction demonstrates that the flower colour shift in D. ferruginea is adaptive and driven by local colour preference in its pollinator. PMID:22298842

  20. The many colours of 'the dress'.

    PubMed

    Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Bloj, Marina; Toscani, Matteo

    2015-06-29

    There has been an intense discussion among the public about the colour of a dress, shown in a picture posted originally on Tumblr (http://swiked.tumblr.com/post/112073818575/guys-please-help-me-is-this-dress-white-and; accessed on 10:56 am GMT on Tue 24 Mar 2015). Some people argue that they see a white dress with golden lace, while others describe the dress as blue with black lace. Here we show that the question "what colour is the dress?" has more than two answers. In fact, there is a continuum of colour percepts across different observers. We measured colour matches on a calibrated screen for two groups of observers who had reported different percepts of the dress. Surprisingly, differences between the two groups arose mainly from differences in lightness, rather than chromaticity of the colours they adjusted to match the dress. We speculate that the ambiguity arises in the case of this particular image because the distribution of colours within the dress closely matches the distribution of natural daylights. This makes it more difficult to disambiguate illumination changes from those in reflectance. PMID:25981790

  1. Colourful parrot feathers resist bacterial degradation

    PubMed Central

    Burtt, Edward H.; Schroeder, Max R.; Smith, Lauren A.; Sroka, Jenna E.; McGraw, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    The brilliant red, orange and yellow colours of parrot feathers are the product of psittacofulvins, which are synthetic pigments known only from parrots. Recent evidence suggests that some pigments in bird feathers function not just as colour generators, but also preserve plumage integrity by increasing the resistance of feather keratin to bacterial degradation. We exposed a variety of colourful parrot feathers to feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis and found that feathers with red psittacofulvins degraded at about the same rate as those with melanin and more slowly than white feathers, which lack pigments. Blue feathers, in which colour is based on the microstructural arrangement of keratin, air and melanin granules, and green feathers, which combine structural blue with yellow psittacofulvins, degraded at a rate similar to that of red and black feathers. These differences in resistance to bacterial degradation of differently coloured feathers suggest that colour patterns within the Psittaciformes may have evolved to resist bacterial degradation, in addition to their role in communication and camouflage. PMID:20926430

  2. Flesh colour dominates consumer preference for chicken.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Orla B; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Mitchell, Peter C; Thurnham, David I

    2005-04-01

    Existing research investigating interactions between visual and oral sensory cues has tended to use model food systems. In contrast, this study compared product quality assessments of corn-fed and wheat-fed chicken products among persons recruited in Northern Ireland. Three approaches have been adopted to investigate the effect of colour upon consumer choice of chicken: sensory assessment under normal lighting; focus group discussion; and sensory assessment under controlled lighting conditions. Initial consumer sensory assessment indicated that wheat-fed chicken was perceived to be tenderer and to have a more intense flavour than that which was corn-fed. Qualitative enquiry discerned that this was because consumers perceived the yellow colour of corn-fed chicken negatively. Yellow-coloured corn-fed chicken was therefore again compared with wheat-fed chicken in terms of flavour, texture and overall liking with the flesh colour disguised by means of controlled lighting. Quality ratings for corn-fed chicken were more positive when the yellow flesh colour was disguised, with corn-fed chicken judged to be tenderer than wheat-fed chicken and more flavoursome. This study illustrates the importance of using a combination of methods to gain insight into interactions between different sensory modalities in consumer quality judgements and adds to previous research on the importance of colour upon consumer choice of real foods. PMID:15808892

  3. Adapting for Impaired Patrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a library, with an MCI Corporation grant, approached the process of setting up computers for the visually impaired. Discusses preparations, which included hiring a visually-impaired user as a consultant and contacting the VIP (Visually Impaired Persons) group; equipment; problems with the graphical user interface; and training.…

  4. A Handheld LED Coloured-Light Mixer for Students to Learn Collaboratively the Primary Colours of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2009-01-01

    To overcome students' inaccurate prior knowledge on primary additive colours, a coloured-light mixer has been constructed to enable students to observe directly the colours produced and reach the conclusion by themselves that the three primary colours of light are red, green, and blue (NOT red, yellow, and blue). Three closely packed tiny…

  5. Artificial human vision camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudou, J.-F.; Maggio, S.; Fagno, M.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we present a real-time vision system modeling the human vision system. Our purpose is to inspire from human vision bio-mechanics to improve robotic capabilities for tasks such as objects detection and tracking. This work describes first the bio-mechanical discrepancies between human vision and classic cameras and the retinal processing stage that takes place in the eye, before the optic nerve. The second part describes our implementation of these principles on a 3-camera optical, mechanical and software model of the human eyes and associated bio-inspired attention model.

  6. Effect of colouring green stage zirconia on the adhesion of veneering ceramics with different thermal expansion coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Guliz; Sahin, Erdal; Vallittu, Pekka; Özcan, Mutlu; Lassila, Lippo

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the adhesion of zirconia core ceramics with their corresponding veneering ceramics, having different thermal expansion coefficients (TECs), when zirconia ceramics were coloured at green stage. Zirconia blocks (N=240; 6 mm×7 mm×7 mm) were manufactured from two materials namely, ICE Zirconia (Group 1) and Prettau Zirconia (Group 2). In their green stage, they were randomly divided into two groups. Half of the specimens were coloured with colouring liquid (shade A2). Three different veneering ceramics with different TEC (ICE Ceramic, GC Initial Zr and IPS e.max Ceram) were fired on both coloured and non-coloured zirconia cores. Specimens of high noble alloys (Esteticor Plus) veneered with ceramic (VM 13) (n=16) acted as the control group. Core–veneer interface of the specimens were subjected to shear force in the Universal Testing Machine (0.5 mm?min?1). Neither the zirconia core material (P=0.318) nor colouring (P=0.188) significantly affected the results (three-way analysis of variance, Tukey's test). But the results were significantly affected by the veneering ceramic (P=0.000). Control group exhibited significantly higher mean bond strength values (45.7±8) MPa than all other tested groups ((27.1±4.1)?(39.7±4.7) and (27.4±5.6)?(35.9±4.7) MPa with and without colouring, respectively) (P<0.001). While in zirconia–veneer test groups, predominantly mixed type of failures were observed with the veneering ceramic covering <1/3 of the substrate surface, in the metal–ceramic group, veneering ceramic was left adhered >1/3 of the metal surface. Colouring zirconia did not impair adhesion of veneering ceramic, but veneering ceramic had a significant influence on the core–veneer adhesion. Metal–ceramic adhesion was more reliable than all zirconia–veneer ceramics tested. PMID:24158142

  7. 3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Zhigang

    ;3 3D Computer Vision and Video Computing Problem StatementProblem Statement Two Subproblems1 3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision CSc I6716 Fall 2011 Topic 4 of Part II@cs.ccny.cuny.edu 3D Computer Vision and Video Computing Outline of MotionOutline of Motion Problems and Applications

  8. Effectiveness of low vision services in improving patient quality of life at Aravind Eye Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Do, Anna T; Ilango, Krishanmurthy; Ramasamy, Dhivya; Kalidasan, Suriya; Balakrishnan, Vijayakumar; Chang, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Context: In India, where the heavy burden of visual impairment exists, low vision services are scarce and under-utilized. Aims: Our study was designed to survey the effectiveness of low vision exams and visual aids in improving patient quality of life in southern rural India. Subjects and Methods: The low vision quality of life (LVQOL) questionnaire measures vision-related quality of life through 25 questions on a Likert scale of 0–5 that pertain to (1) mobility, distance vision, and lighting; (2) psychological adjustment; (3) reading and fine work; and (4) activities of daily living. This tool was translated into Tamil and verbally administered to 55 new low vision referral patients before their first visit at the low vision clinic at Aravind Eye Hospital. Low vision aids (LVAs) were prescribed at the discretion of the low vision specialist. 1-month later, the same questionnaire was administered over the phone. Results: About 44 of 55 low vision patients completed baseline and follow-up LVQOL surveys, and 30 normal vision controls matched for age, gender, and education were also surveyed (average 117.34 points). After the low vision clinic visit, the low vision group demonstrated a 4.55-point improvement in quality of life (from 77.77 to 82.33 points, P = 0.001). Adjusting for age, gender, and education, the low vision patients who also received LVAs (n = 24) experienced an even larger increase than those who did not (n = 20) (8.89 points, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Low vision services and visual aids can improve the quality of life in South Indian rural population regardless of age, gender, and education level. Thus, all low vision patients who meet the criteria should be referred for evaluation. PMID:25579355

  9. Flower colour and cytochromes P450†

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3?-hydroxylase (F3?H) and flavonoid 3?,5?-hydroxylase (F3?5?H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3?H and F3?5?H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3?5?Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3?5?H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3?5?H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3?5?H and F3?H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones. PMID:23297355

  10. Capturing Natural-Colour 3D Models of Insects for Species Discovery and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Chuong V.; Lovell, David R.; Adcock, Matt; La Salle, John

    2014-01-01

    Collections of biological specimens are fundamental to scientific understanding and characterization of natural diversity—past, present and future. This paper presents a system for liberating useful information from physical collections by bringing specimens into the digital domain so they can be more readily shared, analyzed, annotated and compared. It focuses on insects and is strongly motivated by the desire to accelerate and augment current practices in insect taxonomy which predominantly use text, 2D diagrams and images to describe and characterize species. While these traditional kinds of descriptions are informative and useful, they cannot cover insect specimens “from all angles” and precious specimens are still exchanged between researchers and collections for this reason. Furthermore, insects can be complex in structure and pose many challenges to computer vision systems. We present a new prototype for a practical, cost-effective system of off-the-shelf components to acquire natural-colour 3D models of insects from around 3 mm to 30 mm in length. (“Natural-colour” is used to contrast with “false-colour”, i.e., colour generated from, or applied to, gray-scale data post-acquisition.) Colour images are captured from different angles and focal depths using a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera rig and two-axis turntable. These 2D images are processed into 3D reconstructions using software based on a visual hull algorithm. The resulting models are compact (around 10 megabytes), afford excellent optical resolution, and can be readily embedded into documents and web pages, as well as viewed on mobile devices. The system is portable, safe, relatively affordable, and complements the sort of volumetric data that can be acquired by computed tomography. This system provides a new way to augment the description and documentation of insect species holotypes, reducing the need to handle or ship specimens. It opens up new opportunities to collect data for research, education, art, entertainment, biodiversity assessment and biosecurity control. PMID:24759838

  11. Literature and information in vision care and vision science.

    PubMed

    Goss, David A

    2008-11-01

    The explosion of information in vision care and vision science makes keeping up with the literature and information in the field challenging. This report examines the nature of literature and information in vision care and vision science. A variety of topics are discussed, including the general nature of scientific and clinical journals, journals in vision science and vision care, resources available for searches for literature and information, and issues involved in the evaluation of journals and other information sources. Aspects of the application of citation analysis to vision care and vision science are reviewed, and a new citation analysis of a leading textbook in vision care (Borish's Clinical Refraction) is presented. This report is directed toward anyone who wants to be more informed about the literature of vision care and vision science, whether they are students, clinicians, educators, or librarians. PMID:19811764

  12. New Term, New Vision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2011-01-01

    During the affluent noughties it was sometimes said of government that it had "more visions than Mystic Meg and more pilots than British Airways". In 2011, the pilots, the pathfinders, the new initiatives are largely gone--implementation is the name of the game--but the visions remain. The latest one, as it affects adult learners, is in the…

  13. Computer use and vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan D. Comeau; Edward C. Godnig

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a medical condition called Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS). CVS is a relatively new medical problem that results from use of computer technology. Symptoms range from dry, itchy eyes to headaches and blurred vision. Computer users have grown from the relatively few professionals to the general work and home user, therefore this problem is becoming more extensive. This

  14. Coloured Filters Enhance the Visual Perception of Social Cues in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Amanda K.; Taylor-Whiffen, Elaine; Wilkins, Arnold J.

    2012-01-01

    Coloured filters have been found to reduce visual distortion of text in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We investigated the effect of the overlays on the “mind in the eye” task in children with ASD and controls matched for age, gender, and nonverbal IQ. Children were shown photographs of the periocular region of various faces and were asked to judge which emotion was being expressed in the eyes. In children with ASD, the perception of the emotion was significantly improved when the photograph was covered by a coloured overlay. The improvement was significantly greater than in the controls, who showed no significant effect of the overlay. A perceptual impairment may contribute to the social difficulties shown in ASD. PMID:22523702

  15. Colour unmasks dark targets in complex displays.

    PubMed

    Kingdom, Frederick A A; Kasrai, Reza

    2006-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that colour (meaning chromatic) variations help the visual system segment luminance-variegated displays into their illumination and reflectance layers. This leads to the prediction that colour variations should unmask partially camouflaged achromatic transparencies on luminance-variegated backgrounds. We used 'Mondrian-like' backgrounds that were either achromatic, i.e., varying only in luminance, or chromatic, which in our stimuli meant varying in both luminance and colour. Both achromatic and chromatic backgrounds had the same luminance distribution. Thresholds for detecting simulated transparency targets were found to be lower when on the chromatic compared to achromatic backgrounds. We hypothesised that the chromatic-background advantage resulted from the extra cue provided by colour as to which borders were background and which transparency, predicting that (a) randomising the colours on either side of the transparency border, (b) rotating the target to destroy its X-junctions, and (c) viewing the target eccentrically, would each destroy the chromatic-background advantage. However, none of these predictions was upheld. We suggest therefore that the chromatic-background advantage is due to a low-level, rather than border-disambiguation mechanism. We suggest that chromatic variations reduce the noise, but not the signal, in the mechanism that detects dark targets in complex displays. PMID:16226784

  16. Using Computer Vision to Access Appliance Displays

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Giovanni; Tekin, Ender; Ladner, Richard E.; Coughlan, James M.

    2014-01-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired face difficulties accessing a growing array of everyday appliances, needed to perform a variety of daily activities, because they are equipped with electronic displays. We are developing a “Display Reader” smartphone app, which uses computer vision to help a user acquire a usable image of a display, to address this problem. The current prototype analyzes video from the smartphone’s camera, providing real-time feedback to guide the user until a satisfactory image is acquired, based on automatic estimates of image blur and glare. Formative studies were conducted with several blind and visually impaired participants, whose feedback is guiding the development of the user interface. The prototype software has been released as a Free and Open Source (FOSS) project. PMID:25531011

  17. Developing a vision casting statement by Vision Team 2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisandro Felix Gonzalez

    2001-01-01

    This ministry project provided guidance through a Vision Team 2000 for a Vision Casting for the First Baptist Church of Lathrop. The project consisted of training provided to the Vision Team 2000 and, through them, training to the entire church. There were seventeen meetings of the Vision Team 2000, each lasting at least one-and-a half hours to three hours. The

  18. Perceptual Annotation: Measuring Human Vision to Improve Computer Vision

    E-print Network

    Nakayama, Ken

    Perceptual Annotation: Measuring Human Vision to Improve Computer Vision Walter J. Scheirer, Member--For many problems in computer vision, human learners are considerably better than machines. Humans possess performance. There is an obvious gap between current state-of-the-art computer vision applications and human

  19. VIRTUAL VISION Virtual Reality Subserving Computer Vision Research

    E-print Network

    Qureshi, Faisal Z.

    Chapter 1 VIRTUAL VISION Virtual Reality Subserving Computer Vision Research for Camera Sensor.qureshi@uoit.ca Abstract Computer vision and sensor networks researchers are increasingly mo- tivated to investigate networks, and computer vision on commodity computers. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach

  20. Impact of Cataract Surgery in Reducing Visual Impairment: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Sudhan, Anand; Jain, B. K.; Deshpande, Madan; Dole, Kuldeep; Shah, Mahul; Shah, Shreya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim was to assess the impact of cataract surgeries in reducing visual disabilities and factors influencing it at three institutes of India. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed in 2013. Data of 4 years were collected on gender, age, residence, presenting a vision in each eye, eye that underwent surgery, type of surgery and the amount the patient paid out of pocket for surgery. Visual impairment was categorized as; absolute blindness (no perception of light); blind (<3/60); severe visual impairment (SVI) (<6/60-3/60); moderate visual impairment (6/18-6/60) and; normal vision (?6/12). Statistically analysis was performed to evaluate the association between visual disabilities and demographics or other possible barriers. The trend of visual impairment over time was also evaluated. We compared the data of 2011 to data available about cataract cases from institutions between 2002 and 2009. Results: There were 108,238 cataract cases (50.6% were female) that underwent cataract surgery at the three institutions. In 2011, 71,615 (66.2%) cases underwent surgery. There were 45,336 (41.9%) with presenting vision < 3/60 and 75,393 (69.7%) had SVI in the fellow eye. Blindness at presentation for cataract surgery was associated to, male patients, Institution 3 (Dristi Netralaya, Dahod) surgeries after 2009, cataract surgeries without Intra ocular lens implant implantation, and patients paying <25 US $ for surgery. Predictors of SVI at time of cataract surgery were, male, Institution 3 (OM), phaco surgeries, those opting to pay 250 US $ for cataract surgeries. Conclusion: Patients with cataract seek eye care in late stages of visual disability. The goal of improving vision related quality of life for cataract patients during the early stages of visual impairment that is common in industrialized countries seems to be non-attainable in the rural India. PMID:25624679

  1. Coloured marking inside glass by laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligbado, Grace; Horn, Alexander; Kreutz, Ernst W.; Krauss, Manfred M.; Siedow, Norbert; Hensel, Hartmut

    2005-11-01

    Laser labelling inside glass induces micro-cracks by high energy densities in the focus. The micro-cracks reduce the mechanical stability of glass. Light scattering allows the observer to perceive the cracks as white pixels. Coloured marking of glass in this manner is not possible. Coloured marking inside glass by changing the oxidation state of the metal ions locally in the focus does not weaken the mechanical properties of the glass. Two kind of glass systems, lime-natron-silicate and borosilicate with 0.5 % mass-content of doping are investigated. The simultaneous presence of donators and acceptors allows a transition of electrons between polyvalent ions, and can lead to permanent colour-centres inside the glass, due to the fact that the absorption of the polyvalent ions is changed by the laser-induced conversion process. For this purpose a 3 ? Nd:YAG (wavelength ?L = 355 nm, pulse duration t = 10 to 80 ns) and a Ti:Sapphire solid-state laser (wavelength ?L = 810 nm, pulse duration t = 200 fs) are used. The radiation parameters and the chemical composition of the glass (mainly doping) are the dominant factors to generate coloured marking. The transmittance as a function of the fluence and the change of the absorption coefficient is measured and gives a statement of the colourshade. Further the difference between lime-natron-silicate and borosilicate glass (same doping variety) is examined. Actually mauve, yellow, red-brown an grey colouring can be produced. Cracks in the microstructure of glass can also be the cause for brown colour-centres generating.

  2. Measuring the colour of rendering mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govaerts, Yves; Meulebroeck, Wendy; Verdonck, Ann; de Bouw, Michael

    2014-05-01

    When restoring decorative mortar layers on historic façades, professionals need to determine the colour of these finishes in order to select an appropriate repair mortar. Currently, the appearance of these renders is only assessed from a subjective point of view. To match with the aesthetic aspects of the façade, contractors must constantly adjust their repair mortar composition to avoid a patchwork of different colours, which is detrimental for heritage. This time-consuming (trial-and-error) methodology can be excluded by evaluating `colour' with an objective numerical approach. The challenge of the research was to define and evaluate optimal material dependent boundary conditions for measuring the colour of nonhomogeneous mortars. Four samples with different scale of heterogeneity were measured by two spectrocolorimeters, both with a diffuse illumination geometry. The results were plotted in CIE-L*a*b* colour space. By calculating the colour difference (?E*), the influence of measuring with or without specular component was evaluated. We discovered the minimal number of measuring points depends on the scale of heterogeneity and the aperture area. The less homogeneous the mortar sample is and the smaller the aperture area, the more unique measuring points are required. Therefore, it is recommended to choose an aperture head of 25 mm or more to reduce the number of measurements, making your work time-efficient. However, in order to obtain accurate measurements on site, a portable optical spectrum analyser can be used with a 6 mm-diameter aperture, a viewing angle of 10°, SCI mode, illumination source D65, considering a minimum of 15 unique measuring points.

  3. OCoc- from Ocean Colour to Organic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, B.; Overduin, P. P.; Schirrmeister, L.; Lantuit, H.; Doerffer, R.

    2009-12-01

    Enhanced permafrost warming and increased arctic river discharges have heightened concern about the input of terrigenous matter into Arctic coastal waters. The ‘OCoc-from Ocean Colour to Organic Carbon’ project (IPY-project 1176), funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG), is an Ocean Colour study joined with the Arctic Coastal Dynamics ACD network and Arctic Circum-polar Coastal Observatory Network ACCO-Net (IPY-project 90). OCoc uses Ocean Colour satellite data for synoptical monitoring of organic matter fluxes from fluvial and coastal sources. Initial results from German-Russian expeditions at the southeastern Laptev Sea Coast (Arctic Siberia, Russia) in August 2008 and August 2009 are presented. Large parts of this coastal zone are characterized by highly erosive organic-rich material. Ocean Colour MERIS Reduced Resolution (RR)-LIB data of the have been processed towards optical aquatic parameters using Beam-Visat4.2 and the MERIS case2 regional processor for coastal application (C2R). Calculated aquatic parameters are absorption and backscattering coefficients, apparent optical properties such as the first attenuation depth (‘Z90’) and calculated concentrations of chlorophyll, total suspended matter and coloured dissolved organic matter absorption from the water leaving reflectances. Initial comparisons with expedition data (Secchi depths, cDOM) show that the MERIS-C2R optical parameters ’total absorption’ and the first attenuation depth, ’Z90’, seem adequately to represent true conditions. High attenuation values in the spectral blue wavelength range may serve as tracer for the organic-rich terrigenous input. The synoptic information of Ocean Colour products will provide valuable spatial and dynamical information on the Organic Carbon and sediment fluxes from the Siberian permafrost coast.

  4. Colour-Temperature Correspondences: When Reactions to Thermal Stimuli Are Influenced by Colour

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Hsin-Ni; Van Doorn, George H.; Kawabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Junji; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    In our daily lives, information concerning temperature is often provided by means of colour cues, with red typically being associated with warm/hot, and blue with cold. While such correspondences have been known about for many years, they have primarily been studied using subjective report measures. Here we examined this correspondence using two more objective response measures. First, we used the Implicit Association Test (IAT), a test designed to assess the strength of automatic associations between different concepts in a given individual. Second, we used a priming task that involved speeded target discrimination in order to assess whether priming colour or thermal information could invoke the crossmodal association. The results of the IAT confirmed that the association exists at the level of response selection, thus indicating that a participant’s responses to colour or thermal stimuli are influenced by the colour-temperature correspondence. The results of the priming experiment revealed that priming a colour affected thermal discrimination reaction times (RTs), but thermal cues did not influence colour discrimination responses. These results may therefore provide important clues as to the level of processing at which such colour-temperature correspondences are represented. PMID:24618675

  5. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L

    2013-01-01

    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  6. Pedestrian cue detection: colour inverse maximum likelihood ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braik, Malik; Pycock, David

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents an adaptable method for identifying pedestrian cues. Cue detection is investigated for adults in isolation and groups. The aim is to detect a single cue for each pedestrian. Colour Inverse Maximum Likelihood Ratio (IMLR) criteria are employed to distinguish object and background regions using a mask designed to accommodate a wide range of appearances. The adaptability and specificity of the method is demonstrated using images containing trees and street furniture; structures that are often confused with pedestrians by computer vision systems. Test images of low contrast are also included to assess the sensitivity of the cue detection process. Evaluation with over 250 images gives a false positive error rate of 10% and a false negative error rate of 1.5% % under exacting detection criteria with a complexity of where n is the number of image points considered. The speed of execution is 8 mS per frame for images of 640 by 480 pixels on an Intel core i3-2310MTM CPU running at 2.10GHz with 4.00GB RAM.

  7. Stereo vision and strabismus.

    PubMed

    Read, J C A

    2015-02-01

    Binocular stereopsis, or stereo vision, is the ability to derive information about how far away objects are, based solely on the relative positions of the object in the two eyes. It depends on both sensory and motor abilities. In this review, I briefly outline some of the neuronal mechanisms supporting stereo vision, and discuss how these are disrupted in strabismus. I explain, in some detail, current methods of assessing stereo vision and their pros and cons. Finally, I review the evidence supporting the clinical importance of such measurements. PMID:25475234

  8. Computer Vision Syndrome: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clayton Blehm; Seema Vishnu; Ashbala Khattak; Shrabanee Mitra; Richard W. Yee

    2005-01-01

    As computers become part of our everyday life, more and more people are experiencing a variety of ocular symptoms related to computer use. These include eyestrain, tired eyes, irritation, redness, blurred vision, and double vision, collectively referred to as computer vision syndrome. This article describes both the characteristics and treatment modalities that are available at this time. Computer vision syndrome

  9. The Expanded Core Curriculum at the Indiana School for the Blind and Visually Impaired: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Gail Mulholland

    2013-01-01

    This case study investigated how the Expanded Core Curriculum (ECC) was taught to high school students who are blind or visually impaired at the Indiana School for the Blind and Visually Impaired (ISBVI). The study focused on three students pursing different academic tracks with varying degrees of vision. The students were observed throughout…

  10. Haptic Identification of Raised-Line Drawings When Categorical Information Is Given: A Comparison between Visually Impaired and Sighted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, Delphine; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Mazella, Anaïs

    2014-01-01

    Research into haptic picture perception has mostly concerned adult participants, and little is known about haptic picture perception in visually impaired and sighted children. In the present study, we compared 13 visually impaired children (early blind and low vision) aged 9-10 years and 13 agematched blindfolded sighted children on their ability…

  11. Efficient detection of wound-bed and peripheral skin with statistical colour models.

    PubMed

    Veredas, Francisco J; Mesa, Héctor; Morente, Laura

    2015-04-01

    A pressure ulcer is a clinical pathology of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue caused by pressure, shear or friction. Reliable diagnosis supported by precise wound evaluation is crucial in order to success on treatment decisions. This paper presents a computer-vision approach to wound-area detection based on statistical colour models. Starting with a training set consisting of 113 real wound images, colour histogram models are created for four different tissue types. Back-projections of colour pixels on those histogram models are used, from a Bayesian perspective, to get an estimate of the posterior probability of a pixel to belong to any of those tissue classes. Performance measures obtained from contingency tables based on a gold standard of segmented images supplied by experts have been used for model selection. The resulting fitted model has been validated on a training set consisting of 322 wound images manually segmented and labelled by expert clinicians. The final fitted segmentation model shows robustness and gives high mean performance rates [(AUC: .9426 (SD .0563); accuracy: .8777 (SD .0799); F-score: 0.7389 (SD .1550); Cohen's kappa: .6585 (SD .1787)] when segmenting significant wound areas that include healing tissues. PMID:25564183

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER Seasonal ontogenetic colour plasticity in the adult striated

    E-print Network

    Tullberg, Birgitta

    February 2008 # Springer-Verlag 2008 Abstract Camouflage and warning colouration are two important forms provides a benefit of increased camouflage. Keywords Aposematism . Conspicuousness . Camouflage . Crypsis animals: cryptic colouration or camouflage, which decreases the risk of detection, and warning

  13. Testing the AUDI2000 colour-difference formula for solid colours using some visual datasets with usefulness to automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-García, Juan; Melgosa, Manuel; Gómez-Robledo, Luis; Li, Changjun; Huang, Min; Liu, Haoxue; Cui, Guihua; Luo, M. Ronnier; Dauser, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Colour-difference formulas are tools employed in colour industries for objective pass/fail decisions of manufactured products. These objective decisions are based on instrumental colour measurements which must reliably predict the subjective colour-difference evaluations performed by observers' panels. In a previous paper we have tested the performance of different colour-difference formulas using the datasets employed at the development of the last CIErecommended colour-difference formula CIEDE2000, and we found that the AUDI2000 colour-difference formula for solid (homogeneous) colours performed reasonably well, despite the colour pairs in these datasets were not similar to those typically employed in the automotive industry (CIE Publication x038:2013, 465-469). Here we have tested again AUDI2000 together with 11 advanced colour-difference formulas (CIELUV, CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, CAM02-UCS, CAM02-SCD, DIN99d, DIN99b, OSA-GP-Euclidean) for three visual datasets we may consider particularly useful to the automotive industry because of different reasons: 1) 828 metallic colour pairs used to develop the highly reliable RIT-DuPont dataset (Color Res. Appl. 35, 274-283, 2010); 2) printed samples conforming 893 colour pairs with threshold colour differences (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 883-891, 2012); 3) 150 colour pairs in a tolerance dataset proposed by AUDI. To measure the relative merits of the different tested colour-difference formulas, we employed the STRESS index (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823-1829, 2007), assuming a 95% confidence level. For datasets 1) and 2), AUDI2000 was in the group of the best colour-difference formulas with no significant differences with respect to CIE94, CIEDE2000, CAM02-UCS, DIN99b and DIN99d formulas. For dataset 3) AUDI2000 provided the best results, being statistically significantly better than all other tested colour-difference formulas.

  14. Cortical Visual Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 03/2014 Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy ... Screening Vision Screening Recommendations Loading... Most Common Searches Adult ... Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy ...

  15. Your Child's Vision

    MedlinePLUS

    ... using an acuity chart during the preschool years. Amblyopia ("lazy eye") is poor vision in an eye ... refractive error between the two eyes. If untreated, amblyopia can cause irreversible visual loss in the affected ...

  16. Vision based robot navigation

    E-print Network

    Roth, Daniel R. (Daniel Risner), 1979-

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we propose a vision-based robot navigation system that constructs a high level topological representation of the world. A robot using this system learns to recognize rooms and spaces by building a hidden ...

  17. Pediatric Low Vision

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 6/11 Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy ... Screening Vision Screening Recommendations Loading... Most Common Searches Adult ... Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy ...

  18. The Summer Vision Project

    E-print Network

    Papert, Seymour

    1966-07-01

    The summer vision project is an attempt to use our summer workers effectively in the construction of a significant part of a visual system. The particular task was chosen partly because it can be segmented into sub-problems ...

  19. Living with vision loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... EH, Katz PR, Malone ML, eds. Practice of Geriatrics . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap ... Shega JW. Vision loss. In: Wachtel TJ, ed. Geriatric Clinical Advisor: Instant diagnosis and treatment . 1st ed. ...

  20. [A woman with a blue coloured skin].

    PubMed

    Blokker, Ruud S; Asselbergs, Céline P E

    2010-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman with carcinoma of the breast developed a blue-grey colouring of the skin, after injection of patentblue for sentinel node procedure. This is a rare hypersensitivity reaction on patentblue, with the risk of depression of oxygen saturation or anaphylactic shock. PMID:20699024

  1. Ploidy analysis of azalea flower colour sports.

    PubMed

    De Schepper, S; De Loose, M; Van Bockstaele, E; Debergh, P

    2001-01-01

    Flower colour variegation is not only a phenomenon of importance to horticulture, the phenotype involved is also often used as a scientific model system for the study of complex gene regulation processes. In the course of such studies on azalea, we observed a correlation between flower colour patterns, flower morphology and somatic polyploidy. Using high-resolution flow cytometry of nuclear DNA, the ploidy level was determined in flowers of different azalea sport families. Sports exhibiting variegated flowers with broad (> 7mm), differently coloured, petal edges (picotee type) proved to be tetraploid in the petal edge while diploid in the rest of the flower tissue. Neither flower colour pattern nor ploidy differences are chimeral in origin, but seem to be correlated with the topographic location of the cells within the flower tissue, i.e. the margin of the petals. The possible role of gene dosage effects and cell size involved in the remarkable correlation between somatic polyploidy, (flavonoid) gene expression and the flower morphology is discussed. PMID:15954634

  2. Mathematical Morphology in the HLS Colour Space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Hanbury; Jean Serra

    2001-01-01

    The HLS colour space is widely used in image analysis as it is physically intuitive. As the hue component of this space is defined on the unit circle, standard greyscale image analysis operators, specifically morphological op- erators, are not applicable to it. A variation of the standard morphological op- erators which require the choice of an origin are discussed. In

  3. An analogy between colour and spatial coding.

    PubMed

    Clement, R; Moorhead, I

    2000-01-01

    The early stages of colour coding are well established in that the trichromatic receptor stage is followed by a set of opponent colour channels. One interpretation of the sequence is that opponent channels carry unrelated aspects of the colour stimulus, unlike the cone channels. The overlap of the cone channels can be removed by decorrelating their spectral-sensitivity functions, and this procedure has been found to give opponent colour channels which match those found psychophysically. Since the known spatial-frequency channels also show considerable overlap, the question arises which aspects of the spatial stimulus are captured by decorrelating the spatial-frequency channels. The results of decorrelating the spatial-frequency channels are that the first decorrelated spatial filter acts as a broad bandpass filter which has a peak sensitivity at 7.9 cycles deg-1, and that the second decorrelated spatial filter acts as an opponent spatial-frequency channel, with a minimum output at a low (4.1 cycles deg-1) spatial frequency and a maximum output at a high (15.1 cycles deg-1) spatial frequency. The characteristics of the first decorrelated filter closely resemble the properties of the foveal perceptive field which have been used to explain the Hermann grid illusion. Thus, the decorrelation analysis produces a model for the functional organisation of the channel implementation at the neural and psychophysical levels, but which directly relates to the subjective appearance of the visual stimuli. PMID:11257968

  4. All the colours of the rainbow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithson, Hannah E.; Gasper, Giles E. M.; McLeish, Tom C. B.

    2014-08-01

    Our perception of colour has always been a source of fascination, so it's little wonder that studies of the phenomenon date back hundreds of years. What, though, can modern scientists learn from medieval literature -- and how do we go about it?

  5. COLOUR SEGMENTATION AND FIGURE-GROUND SEGREGATION

    E-print Network

    Leow, Wee Kheng

    COLOUR SEGMENTATION AND FIGURE-GROUND SEGREGATION OF NATURAL IMAGES WONG SWEE SEONG (B. Sc. (Comp of S15 building. My graditude to them for making my stay a memorable one. Next, my wife Karen in Natural Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.2 Smoothing

  6. Supersymmetric coloured/hairy black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meessen, Patrick

    2008-07-01

    We discuss all possible spherically symmetric black hole type solutions to an N = 2 supergravity model with SO (3) gauging. The solutions consist of a one parameter family of black hole solutions evading the no-hair theorem and an isolated solution that is a supersymmetric analogue of a coloured black hole.

  7. 3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Zhigang

    1 3D Computer Vision and Video Computing 3D Vision3D Vision CSc I6716 Fall 2010 Topic 4 of Part II@cs.ccny.cuny.edu 3D Computer Vision and Video Computing Outline of MotionOutline of Motion Problems and Applications The importance of visual motion Problem Statement The Motion Field of Rigid Motion Basics ­ Notations

  8. Three Dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry using Colour Coded Light Sheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. McGregor; B. Jeffries; D. J. Spence; D. W. Coutts

    Coding of depth in an image by use of multiple-coloured stacked-light sheets and digital colour imaging enables full three-dimensional analysis of particle fields. We present a reliable method of colour decoding using pixel hue to discern regions of different colour. We have used a Foveon™ X3 image sensor which exhibits a smoothly varying monotonic decrease in pixel hue over the

  9. Predictive Robot Vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Achtemichuk

    2006-01-01

    Professor Benjamin and I designed and implemented a fast predictive vision system for a mobile robot, as part of a multi-year research project with two other universities: Brigham Young University and Fordham University. The vision system represents the robot's environment with a 3D gaming platform. Our system uses two Firewire cameras mounted in a pan-tilt base. I personally designed and

  10. Biofeedback for Better Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Biofeedtrac, Inc.'s Accommotrac Vision Trainer, invented by Dr. Joseph Trachtman, is based on vision research performed by Ames Research Center and a special optometer developed for the Ames program by Stanford Research Institute. In the United States, about 150 million people are myopes (nearsighted), who tend to overfocus when they look at distant objects causing blurry distant vision, or hyperopes (farsighted), whose vision blurs when they look at close objects because they tend to underfocus. The Accommotrac system is an optical/electronic system used by a doctor as an aid in teaching a patient how to contract and relax the ciliary body, the focusing muscle. The key is biofeedback, wherein the patient learns to control a bodily process or function he is not normally aware of. Trachtman claims a 90 percent success rate for correcting, improving or stopping focusing problems. The Vision Trainer has also proved effective in treating other eye problems such as eye oscillation, cross eyes, and lazy eye and in professional sports to improve athletes' peripheral vision and reaction time.

  11. Perception of colour in unilateral tritanopia.

    PubMed Central

    Alpern, M; Kitahara, K; Krantz, D H

    1983-01-01

    The unilateral tritanope described in the previous paper (Alpern, Kitahara & Krantz, 1983) was able to match every narrow-band light presented to his tritanopic eye with lights from a tristimulus colorimeter viewed in the adjacent field by the normal eye. In two regions of the spectrum (called isochromes) physically identical lights appeared identical to the observer's two eyes. One isochrome was close to 'blue' for the normal eye, the other was in the long-wave spectral region seen by the normal eye predominantly as 'red'. Between these isochromes the normal eye required less than spectral purity to match, dropping to near zero purity at 560-570 nm. A mixture of the two isochromes that appeared purple to the normal eye appeared neutral to the tritanopic eye. Hence dichoptic matches grossly violate Grassmann's additivity law. For the normal eye colour naming conformed to typical normal results. For the tritanopic eye the results were coherent with those found by dichoptic matching: the spectrum was divided into two regions by the achromatic neutral band. To the short-wave side, only the colour names 'blue' and 'white' were ever used. To the long-wave side the predominant colour names were 'red' and 'white' with some 'yellow'. Spectral lights appeared neither 'red-blue' nor greenish. Surrounding the test with an annulus either 430 nm, 650 nm, or a mixture of these, fails to induce any greenish appearance, although the achromatic band shifted in the expected directions. It is concluded that there must be exactly three functionally independent, essentially non-linear central codes for colour perception, and that these codes are different from those suggested in existing theories of colour perception. PMID:6603509

  12. On the colour-colour properties of the Extremely Red Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, S.; Wiklind, T.

    2004-01-01

    The colours of the galaxy class known as Extremely Red Objects (EROs; R-K>5) are considered to be consistent with two distinct galaxy populations at high redshift: evolved ellipticals or young dusty starbursts. In this paper the properties of EROs, spanned by the five photometric bands RIJHK, are investigated as to the possibility to distinguish between these two galaxy populations using only broad band photometry. The broad band colours of elliptical and starburst galaxies at redshifts up to 5 are computed from synthetic spectra obtained using the spectral evolution synthesis programme PÉGASE.2. Two initial mass functions and a range of metallicities and extinctions are used. In order to be extremely red in the redshift range considered, the evolution of the R-K colour sets the requirement that ellipticals have to be less than 7-8 Gyr old, and that the starbursts must have colour excesses of E(B-V)>1, as derived from the nebular emission lines. In investigating the overlap in the different colour-colour planes as a function of redshift, it is found that the planes formed from permutations of the same three filters exhibit very similar overlap characteristics. In colour-colour planes formed within such triplets one of the filters will serve as a ``pivot'' band against which the two other bands are compared. The configuration where this pivot band lies between the other two bands has the best performance as a discriminator among the three possible configurations. A consistent behaviour cannot be found among the configurations formed by permuting four filters. The minimal filter configuration R-H vs. H-K is found to be the very best discriminator, working as such up to redshift 2.9.

  13. Teaching the Absorption of Light Colours Using an Artificial Rainbow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Isik, Hakan; Arikan, Gizem; Kabay, Gozde

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental activity based on the absorption of light colours by pigments. The activity is constructed using a stepwise design and offers an opportunity for students and teachers to compare and generalize the interactions between light and pigment colours. The light colours composing an artificial rainbow produced in the…

  14. Then and now: James Clerk Maxwell and colour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C. Dougal; Clive A. Greated; Alan E. Marson

    2006-01-01

    A survey of the researches of James Clerk Maxwell into the production and perception of colour is presented, and links to a selection of present day applications of colour science are indicated. Although false colour photography was not known in Maxwell's time, aspects of his work, suitably interpreted, have a bearing on the wide applicability of the technique. An outline

  15. INTRODUCTION Animal colouration depends on an interplay of selective forces.

    E-print Network

    Carleton, Karen L.

    competition, may have driven evolution of male nuptial colouration in these fish. In cichlids, male colour in colour, brightness or patch size (Endler, 1978). To the human eye, male cichlids certainly appear more generates conspicuous individuals, often males, that can more effectively attract mates or compete

  16. Detecting skin in face recognition systems: A colour spaces study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José M. Chaves-González; Miguel A. Vega-Rodríguez; Juan Antonio Gómez Pulido; Juan Manuel Sánchez-Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Skin colour detection is a technique very used in most of face detectors to find faces in images or videos. However, there is not a common opinion about which colour space is the best choice to do this task. Therefore, the motivation for our study is to discover which colour model is the best option to build an efficient face

  17. Sweep-Line State Space Exploration for Coloured

    E-print Network

    Mailund, Thomas

    Chapter 9 Sweep-Line State Space Exploration for Coloured Petri Nets The paper Sweep-Line State Space Exploration for Coloured Petri Nets pre- sented in this chapter has been published as a workshop changes. 89 #12; 90 Chapter 9. Sweep-Line State Space Exploration for Coloured Petri Nets #12; 9

  18. THE HISTORICAL MANUFACTURE OF BLUE-COLOURED PAPER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Brückle

    1993-01-01

    This review article presents historical and technical information concerning European blue paper manufacture until the introduction of aniline dyes in the late 19th century. It summarizes important aspects of three major colouring methods, namely the use of blue coloured rags, the dyeing of paper pulp and the addition of pigments to the pulp. Each of these colouring methods is presented

  19. State Space Methods for Timed Coloured Petri Nets

    E-print Network

    Mailund, Thomas

    State Space Methods for Timed Coloured Petri Nets S#28;ren Christensen Kurt Jensen Thomas Mailund, AUSTRALIA Abstract We present two recently developed state space methods for timed coloured Petri nets which reconciles state space methods and time concepts of coloured Petri nets. The #12;rst method is based

  20. Coloured Petri Nets { A Tool in Software Engineering

    E-print Network

    Mailund, Thomas

    for the usually in#12;nite state spaces of timed coloured Petri nets. The second method exploits the progress state spaces of coloured Petri nets with time into #12;nite representa- tions, and Sect. 4.2 describesColoured Petri Nets { A Tool in Software Engineering Progress Report Thomas Mailund Department

  1. Balanced colourings of strongly regular R. A. Bailey

    E-print Network

    Queen Mary, University of London

    Balanced colourings of strongly regular graphs R. A. Bailey School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen is balanced if every pair of distinct colours occurs equally often on the ends of an edge. When the graph is the complete regular multipartite graph a balanced colouring is just a balanced incomplete-block design, or 2

  2. Inheritance of coat colour in the field spaniel dog

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Note Inheritance of coat colour in the field spaniel dog R Robinson St Stephens Nursery, Stephens known as roan. dog genetics / coat colour / field spaniel / breed Résumé - Hérédité de la couleur du for the heredity of coat colour in the dog (Little, 1957; Robinson, 1990), it has become apparent as work

  3. A Hierarchical Approach to Fuzzy Segmentation of Colour Images

    E-print Network

    Granada, Universidad de

    A Hierarchical Approach to Fuzzy Segmentation of Colour Images J. Chamorro-Mart´inez, D. S-- In this paper we introduce a methodology for the segmentation of colour images by means of a nested hierarchy of fuzzy partitions. Colour image segmentation attempts to divide the pixels of an image in several

  4. Inheritance of coat and colour in the Griffon Bruxellois dog

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    and colour varieties in the Griffon Bruxellois, a toy breed of dog (2.2-4.9 kgs), which was developedNote Inheritance of coat and colour in the Griffon Bruxellois dog R Robinson St Stephens Nursery - The varieties of the Griffon Bruxellois dog consist of the colours black, red and black and tan, combined

  5. Colour Design for Carton-Packed Fruit Juice Packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuo-Ting Wei; M. Ronnier Luo

    2008-01-01

    The present research studies the relationships between observers' expectations for 7 fruit juice packages and the colour design of the package. To do this, a two-stage experiment was conducted. At the first stage, we studied perceived colours for the fruit images shown on each package. At the second stage, fruit juice packages with 20 package colours were rated using 5

  6. Combining Colour and Orientation for Adaptive Particle Filterbased Tracking

    E-print Network

    Smeraldi, Fabrizio

    Combining Colour and Orientation for Adaptive Particle Filter­based Tracking Emilio Maggio1 combines in a single particle filter colour and gradient-based orientation informa- tion. A reliability, the automatic scale selection for the derivative filters results in increased robustness. 2 Introduction Colour

  7. Note: Comparison of Colour Techniques to Measure Chocolate Fat Bloom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Kumara; S. Jinap; Y. B. Che Man; M. S. A. Yusoff

    2003-01-01

    A combination of digital camera, computer and graphic software can provide a less expensive and more versatile technique to determine the changes of colour on chocolate's surface in fat bloom assessment compared to instrumental colour measurement. Both techniques were applied and compared to measure the colour profiles at various locations on the surface of bloomed chocolates. Pearson correlation coefficients and

  8. Vertex-Colouring Edge-Weightings L. Addario-Berrya

    E-print Network

    Addario-Berry, Louigi

    Vertex-Colouring Edge-Weightings L. Addario-Berrya , K. Dalala , C. McDiarmidb , B. A. Reeda and A A weighting w of the edges of a graph G induces a colouring of the vertices of G where the colour of vertex v isomorphic to K2 can be weighted from the set {1, . . . , 30} such that in the resulting vertex

  9. The effect of colour space on tracking robustness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sebastian; Yap Vooi Voon; R. Comley

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of colour space on the performance of tracking algorithms. The colour spaces that were investigated were grayscale, RGB, YCbCr and HSV. The performance of a normalised cross correlation tracking algorithm was measured to determine robustness and accuracy in the different colour spaces. Track Detection Rate (TDR) and Object Tracking Standard Deviation (OTStd) were used to

  10. Screening and specification of colour changes of nitritometric indicators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chilukuri S. P. Sastry; Kommula R. Srinivas; Dasari Narasimha Rao; Kommuri M. M. Krishna Prasad

    1995-01-01

    The specification of colour changes of nitritometric indicators, viz., cresyl fast violet acetate, amethyst violet, safranine O, neutral red, methylene violet, neutral violet, phenosafranine, brilliant cresyl blue and lissamine blue BF, in the titration of sulphanilamide has been carried out with the help of tristimulus colorimetry. Apart from the determination of true colour co-ordinates and complementary colour co-ordinates, the quantitative

  11. Qudit Colour Codes and Gauge Colour Codes in All Spatial Dimensions

    E-print Network

    Fern H. E. Watson; Earl T. Campbell; Hussain Anwar; Dan E. Browne

    2015-03-30

    Two-level quantum systems, qubits, are not the only basis for quantum computation. Advantages exist in using qudits, d-level quantum systems, as the basic carrier of quantum information. We show that colour codes---a class of topological quantum codes with remarkable transversality properties---can be generalised to the qudit paradigm. In recent developments it was found that in three spatial dimensions a qubit colour code can support a transversal non-Clifford gate, and that in higher spatial dimensions additional non-Clifford gates can be found, saturating Bravyi and K\\"onig's bound [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 170503 (2013)]. Furthermore, by using gauge fixing techniques, an effective set of Clifford gates can be achieved, removing the need for state distillation. We show that the qudit colour code can support the qudit analogues of these gates, and show that in higher spatial dimensions a colour code can support a phase gate from higher levels of the Clifford hierarchy which can be proven to saturate Bravyi and K\\"onig's bound in all but a finite number of special cases. The methodology used is a generalisation of Bravyi and Haah's method of triorthogonal matrices [Phys. Rev. A 86 052329 (2012)], which may be of independent interest. For completeness, we show explicitly that the qudit colour codes generalise to gauge colour codes, and share the many of the favourable properties of their qubit counterparts.

  12. Adjustable typography: an approach to enhancing low vision text accessibility.

    PubMed

    Arditi, Aries

    2004-04-15

    Millions of people have low vision, a disability condition caused by uncorrectable or partially correctable disorders of the eye. The primary goal of low vision rehabilitation is increasing access to printed material. This paper describes how adjustable typography, a computer graphic approach to enhancing text accessibility, can play a role in this process, by allowing visually-impaired users to customize fonts to maximize legibility according to their own visual needs. Prototype software and initial testing of the concept is described. The results show that visually-impaired users tend to produce a variety of very distinct fonts, and that the adjustment process results in greatly enhanced legibility. But this initial testing has not yet demonstrated increases in legibility over and above the legibility of highly legible standard fonts such as Times New Roman. PMID:15204299

  13. Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002.

    PubMed Central

    Resnikoff, Serge; Pascolini, Donatella; Etya'ale, Daniel; Kocur, Ivo; Pararajasegaram, Ramachandra; Pokharel, Gopal P.; Mariotti, Silvio P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of the prevalence of visual impairment and its causes in 2002, based on the best available evidence derived from recent studies. Estimates were determined from data on low vision and blindness as defined in the International statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death, 10th revision. The number of people with visual impairment worldwide in 2002 was in excess of 161 million, of whom about 37 million were blind. The burden of visual impairment is not distributed uniformly throughout the world: the least developed regions carry the largest share. Visual impairment is also unequally distributed across age groups, being largely confined to adults 50 years of age and older. A distribution imbalance is also found with regard to gender throughout the world: females have a significantly higher risk of having visual impairment than males. Notwithstanding the progress in surgical intervention that has been made in many countries over the last few decades, cataract remains the leading cause of visual impairment in all regions of the world, except in the most developed countries. Other major causes of visual impairment are, in order of importance, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and trachoma. PMID:15640920

  14. Hearing or speech impairment - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - hearing or speech impairment ... The following organizations are good resources for information on hearing impairment or speech impairment: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association - www.asha.org National Dissemination Center for Children ...

  15. A simple method for measuring colour in wild animals: validation and use on chest patch colour in geladas

    E-print Network

    A simple method for measuring colour in wild animals: validation and use on chest patch colour to subjects in their natural habitat. To illustrate this, we use the method to measure chest colour in wild geladas (Theropithecus gelada). Unique among primates, geladas have a red patch of skin on their chest

  16. Combining local and global contributions to perceived colour: An analysis of the variability in symmetric and asymmetric colour matching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eli Brenner; Jeroen J. M. Granzier; Jeroen B. J. Smeets

    2007-01-01

    Are surfaces’ colours judged from weighted averages of the light that they reflect to the eyes and the colour contrast at their borders? To find out we asked subjects to set the colour and luminance of test disks to match reference disks, on various backgrounds, and analysed the variability in their settings. Most of the variability between repeated settings was

  17. Communication Variables Associated with Hearing-Impaired/Vision-Impaired Persons--A Pilot-Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Wanda M.

    1979-01-01

    A study involving eight youths and adults with retinitis pigmentosa (and only 20 degree visual field and hearing loss of at least 20 decibels) determined variance in the ability to perceive and comprehend visual stimuli presented by way of the manual modality when modifications were made in configuration, movement speed, movement size, and…

  18. Blindness and visual impairment from severe midface trauma in Nigerians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Ugboko; C. Udoye; S. O. Olateju; A. O. D. Amole

    2006-01-01

    Reports have shown that severe midface trauma causes blindness and visual impairment but information from sub-Saharan Africa is sparse. A retrospective analysis was carried out of patients who sustained trauma to the midface and subsequently lost vision in one or both eyes. There were 25 males and 7 females whose ages ranged from 5 to 65 years (mean±SD, 33±13.3 years).

  19. Historic site interpretation and program accessibility for visually impaired people 

    E-print Network

    Lollar, Sam A

    1980-01-01

    ). As if lack of vision were not bad enough, blind people had to dwell in the world alone ? apart from society (Wallace 1972). In less civilized areas, blind people were regarded superstitiously as "blessed infants of the good Cod" and were allowed to roam... might assume. Rather than searching merely for a tactual sensation, visually impaired people strive for a haptic response. This response is a group of purposive, tactual-kinesthetic encounters that result in a perception completely separable from...

  20. Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jeppe D; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R; Delgado, Mikaela C; Henriksen, Sarah T; Nielsen, Mette M; Sørensen, Erik; Ullum, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Dahl, Anders L; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically identified and extracted from high resolution digital images. DIAT was made user friendly with a graphical user interface. The software counted the number of blue and brown pixels in the iris image and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colour quantitatively. The PIE-score ranged from -1 to 1 (brown to blue). The software eliminated the need for user based interpretation and qualitative eye colour categories. In 94% (570) of 605 analyzed eye images, the iris region was successfully extracted and a PIE-score was calculated. A very high correlation between the PIE-score and the human perception of eye colour was observed. The correlations between the PIE-scores and the six IrisPlex SNPs (HERC2 rs12913832, OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399, TYR rs1393350, SLC45A2 rs16891982 and IRF4 rs12203592) were analyzed in 570 individuals. Significant differences (p<10(-6)) in the PIE-scores of the individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G (PIE=0.99) and rs12913832 GA (PIE=-0.71) or A (PIE=-0.87) were observed. We adjusted for the effect of HERC2 rs12913832 and showed that the quantitative PIE-scores were significantly associated with SNPs with minor effects (OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399 and TYR rs1393350) on the eye colour. We evaluated the two published prediction models for eye colour (IrisPlex [1] and Snipper[2]) and compared the predictions with the PIE-scores. We found good concordance with the prediction from individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G. However, both methods had difficulties in categorizing individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 GA because of the large variation in eye colour in HERC2 rs12913832 GA individuals. With the use of the DIAT software and the PIE-score, it will be possible to automatically compare the iris colour of large numbers of iris images obtained by different studies and to perform large meta-studies that may reveal loci with small effects on the eye colour. PMID:23948321

  1. Color vision: a sensitive indicator of exposure to neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Gobba, F

    2000-10-01

    In the last 15 years an increasing number of studies have investigated color discrimination in workers exposed to various neurotoxins. Color vision was generally evaluated using the Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel (D-15 d), a test suited to identify mild acquired impairments, that can be easily performed at the workplace. In most studies, results were quantitatively expressed using the method of Bowman or that of Vingrys and King-Smith: the former is the most widely reported, while the latter gives information on the type of color defect. Applying D-15 d, or other color perception tests, impairment in color vision was observed among workers exposed to several solvents (styrene, perchloroethylene, toluene, n-hexane, and carbon disulfide), or to solvent mixtures, and also to metals like mercury. Chemical related color vision loss is a sub-clinical early effect, and in most studies proved dose-related. For styrene and perchloroethylene, and also for solvent mixtures, an impairment was observed at exposure levels lower than the current occupational limits, suggesting that these limits may be inadequate for a proper protection of visual function of workers. PMID:11130291

  2. Recognition of patient-reported impairment in oral aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Dannemand, K; Ozhayat, E B

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the degree of effective recognition by professionals of patient-estimated oral aesthetic impairment and the most reliable aspects in such recognition. Participants consisted of 95 patients with partial dentition in need of prosthodontic replacements. The oral aesthetics was professionally evaluated using the Prosthetic Esthetic Index (PEI), compiling 13 aesthetic aspects and an overall evaluation. The patient-reported impairment was evaluated using the Oral Health Impact Profile Aesthetic (OHIP-Aes) and the Oral Esthetic Scale (OES). Background variables were as follows: gender, age, work situation, education level, marital status, number and location of teeth, wearing a removable dental prosthesis (RDP) and smile line. A significant correlation was found between the overall professional evaluation and the OHIP-Aes score (R = 0·43, P < 0·05), the OES score (R = 0·46, P < 0·05) and the overall patient evaluation (0·35, P < 0·05). Correlations of the 13 specific aspects of the PEI with the patient-reported evaluations were generally small to moderate: the aspect 'discoloration of the teeth' showed the highest correlation. The multivariate analyses showed that up to 57% of the patient-reported impairment could be explained by the professionally evaluated oral aesthetic in combination with background variables. Discoloration of the teeth was the greatest explanatory variable, but also dental arch symmetry, and position and colour of the teeth were significant aspects. A high percentage of the patient-reported aesthetic impairment can be recognised by the professionals. The most reliable aspect is discoloration of the teeth, but also dental arch symmetry, and the position and colour of the teeth are important for recognising the aesthetic impairment. PMID:24836917

  3. The colour of domestication and the designer chicken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppy, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    Colour is an important feature of most living organisms. In the wild, colour has great significance affecting the survival and reproductive success of the species. The environmental constraints which lead to the specific colours of birds and animals are very strong and individuals of novel colours tend not to survive. Under domestication, mankind has transformed all the species involved which have thus been freed from environmental pressures to a large extent. Early colour variants were mostly selected for utility reasons or religious practices. In more recent centuries colour varieties have been created purely for ornament and pleasure, fashion playing a surprisingly large part in their development. A bewildering array of colours and patterns can now be found in all our commensal species, especially the Domestic Fowl ( Gallus gallus domesticus).

  4. Three-dimensional plasmonic stereoscopic prints in full colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Xiao Ming; Zheng, Yihan; Tan, Shawn J.; Zhang, Lei; Kumar, Karthik; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Yang, Joel K. W.

    2014-11-01

    Metal nanostructures can be designed to scatter different colours depending on the polarization of the incident light. Such spectral control is attractive for applications such as high-density optical storage, but challenges remain in creating microprints with a single-layer architecture that simultaneously enables full-spectral and polarization control of the scattered light. Here we demonstrate independently tunable biaxial colour pixels composed of isolated nanoellipses or nanosquare dimers that can exhibit a full range of colours in reflection mode with linear polarization dependence. Effective polarization-sensitive full-colour prints are realized. With this, we encoded two colour images within the same area and further use this to achieve depth perception by realizing three-dimensional stereoscopic colour microprint. Coupled with the low cost and durability of aluminium as the functional material in our pixel design, such polarization-sensitive encoding can realize a wide spectrum of applications in colour displays, data storage and anti-counterfeiting technologies.

  5. VisionBlocks: A Social Computer Vision Framework

    E-print Network

    Bendale, Abhijit

    Vision Blocks (http://visionblocks.org) is an on demand, in-browser, customizable computer vision application publishing platform for masses. It empowers end-users (consumers)to create novel solutions for themselves that ...

  6. Evolution of ultraviolet vision in the largest avian radiation - the passerines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Interspecific variation in avian colour vision falls into two discrete classes: violet sensitive (VS) and ultraviolet sensitive (UVS). They are characterised by the spectral sensitivity of the most shortwave sensitive of the four single cones, the SWS1, which is seemingly under direct control of as little as one amino acid substitution in the cone opsin protein. Changes in spectral sensitivity of the SWS1 are ecologically important, as they affect the abilities of birds to accurately assess potential mates, find food and minimise visibility of social signals to predators. Still, available data have indicated that shifts between classes are rare, with only four to five independent acquisitions of UV sensitivity in avian evolution. Results We have classified a large sample of passeriform species as VS or UVS from genomic DNA and mapped the evolution of this character on a passerine phylogeny inferred from published molecular sequence data. Sequencing a small gene fragment has allowed us to trace the trait changing from one stable state to another through the radiation of the passeriform birds. Their ancestor is hypothesised to be UVS. In the subsequent radiation, colour vision changed between UVS and VS at least eight times. Conclusions The phylogenetic distribution of SWS1 cone opsin types in Passeriformes reveals a much higher degree of complexity in avian colour vision evolution than what was previously indicated from the limited data available. Clades with variation in the colour vision system are nested among clades with a seemingly stable VS or UVS state, providing a rare opportunity to understand how an ecologically important trait under simple genetic control may co-evolve with, and be stabilised by, associated traits in a character complex. PMID:22024316

  7. Extracting parameters from colour-magnitude diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatto, C.; Campos, F.; Kepler, S. O.; Bica, E.

    2015-07-01

    We present a simple approach for obtaining robust values of astrophysical parameters from the observed colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of star clusters. The basic inputs are the Hess diagram built with the photometric measurements of a star cluster and a set of isochrones covering wide ranges of age and metallicity. In short, each isochrone is shifted in apparent distance modulus and colour excess until it crosses over the maximum possible Hess density. Repeating this step for all available isochrones leads to the construction of the solution map, in which the optimum values of age and metallicity - as well as foreground/background reddening and distance from the Sun - can be searched for. Controlled tests with simulated CMDs show that the approach is efficient in recovering the input values. We apply the approach to the open clusters M 67, NGC 6791 and NGC 2635, which are characterized by different ages, metallicities and distances from the Sun.

  8. Audiovisual integration in low vision individuals.

    PubMed

    Targher, Stefano; Occelli, Valeria; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2012-04-01

    Behavioral and neurophysiological studies have shown an enhancement of visual perception in crossmodal audiovisual stimulation conditions, both for sensitivity and reaction times, when the stimulation in the two sensory modalities occurs in condition of space and time congruency. The purpose of the present work is to verify whether congruent visual and acoustic stimulations can improve the detection of visual stimuli in people affected by low vision. Participants were asked to detect the presence of a visual stimulus (yes/no task) either presented in isolation (i.e., unimodal visual stimulation) or simultaneously with auditory stimuli, which could be placed in the same spatial position (i.e., crossmodal congruent conditions) or in different spatial positions (i.e., crossmodal incongruent conditions). The results show for the first time audiovisual integration effects in low vision individuals. In particular, it has been observed a significant visual detection benefit in the crossmodal congruent as compared to the unimodal visual condition. This effect is selective for visual stimulation that occurs in the portion of visual field that is impaired, and disappears in the region of space in which vision is spared. Surprisingly, there is a marginal crossmodal benefit when the sound is presented at 16 degrees far from the visual stimulus. The observed crossmodal effect seems to be determined by the contribution of both senses to a model of optimal combination, in which the most reliable provides the highest contribution. These results, indicating a significant beneficial effect of synchronous and spatially congruent sounds in a visual detection task, seem very promising for the development of a rehabilitation approach of low vision diseases based on the principles of multisensory integration. PMID:22056506

  9. Improving the Rainbow Attack by Reusing Colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ågren, Martin; Johansson, Thomas; Hell, Martin

    Hashing or encrypting a key or a password is a vital part in most network security protocols. The most practical generic attack on such schemes is a time memory trade-off attack. Such an attack inverts any one-way function using a trade-off between memory and execution time. Existing techniques include the Hellman attack and the rainbow attack, where the latter uses different reduction functions ("colours") within a table.

  10. How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

    2008-09-03

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  11. The clustering of colour-selected galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. J. I.; Webster, R. L.; Boyle, B. J.

    2000-10-01

    We present measurements of the angular correlation function of galaxies selected from a BJ~23.5 multicolour survey of two 5°×5° fields located at high galactic latitudes. The galaxy catalogue of ~4×105 galaxies is comparable in size to catalogues used to determine the galaxy correlation function at low redshift. Measurements of the z~0.4 correlation function at large angular scales show no evidence for a break from a power law, although our results are not inconsistent with a break at >~15h-1Mpc. Despite the large fields-of-view, there are large discrepancies between the measurements of the correlation function in each field, possibly caused by dwarf galaxies within z~0.11 clusters near the South Galactic Pole. Colour selection is used to study the clustering of galaxies from z~0 to z~0.4. The galaxy correlation function is found to depend strongly on colour, with red galaxies more strongly clustered than blue galaxies by a factor of >~5 at small scales. The slope of the correlation function is also found to vary with colour, with ?~1.8 for red galaxies and ?~1.5 for blue galaxies. The clustering of red galaxies is consistently strong over the entire magnitude range studied, although there are large variations between the two fields. The clustering of blue galaxies is extremely weak over the observed magnitude range, with clustering consistent with r0~2h-1Mpc. This is weaker than the clustering of late-type galaxies in the local Universe, and suggests that galaxy clustering is more strongly correlated with colour than morphology. This may also be the first detection of a substantial low-redshift galaxy population with clustering properties similar to faint blue galaxies.

  12. Integrating National Space Visions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines value proposition assumptions for various models nations may use to justify, shape, and guide their space programs. Nations organize major societal investments like space programs to actualize national visions represented by leaders as investments in the public good. The paper defines nine 'vision drivers' that circumscribe the motivations evidently underpinning national space programs. It then describes 19 fundamental space activity objectives (eight extant and eleven prospective) that nations already do or could in the future use to actualize the visions they select. Finally the paper presents four contrasting models of engagement among nations, and compares these models to assess realistic pounds on the pace of human progress in space over the coming decades. The conclusion is that orthogonal engagement, albeit unlikely because it is unprecedented, would yield the most robust and rapid global progress.

  13. Vision 2020 |LSU Residential Colleges Program Vision 2020

    E-print Network

    Harms, Kyle E.

    #12;Vision 2020 | LSU Residential Colleges Program 11.24.2011 Page | - 2 - Mission Statement MISSIONVision 2020 |LSU Residential Colleges Program Vision 2020 Residential Colleges Program Department that promote academic success and personal development in support of Flagship 2020. VISION Be a nationally

  14. Evolutionary replacement of UV vision by violet vision in fish

    E-print Network

    Yokoyama, Shozo

    understood why and how these func- tional changes have occurred. Here, we cloned the pigment of scabbardfish not only the molecular basis of phenotypic adaptations, but also the genetics of UV and violet vision humans, have switched from UV vision to violet vision even when they receive abundant UV light

  15. Colour fluctuations in grapheme-colour synaesthesia: The effect of clinical and non-clinical mood changes.

    PubMed

    Kay, Collette L; Carmichael, Duncan A; Ruffell, Henry E; Simner, Julia

    2015-08-01

    Synaesthesia is a condition that gives rise to unusual secondary sensations (e.g., colours are perceived when listening to music). These unusual sensations tend to be reported as being stable throughout adulthood (e.g., Simner & Logie, 2007, Neurocase, 13, 358) and the consistency of these experiences over time is taken as the behavioural hallmark of genuineness. Our study looked at the influence of mood states on synaesthetic colours. In Experiment 1, we recruited grapheme-colour synaesthetes (who experience colours from letters/digits) and elicited their synaesthetic colours, as well as their mood and depression states, in two different testing sessions. In each session, participants completed the PANAS-X (Watson & Clark, 1999) and the BDI-II (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996, Manual for Beck Depression Inventory-II), and chose their synaesthetic colours for letters A-Z from an interactive colour palette. We found that negative mood significantly decreased the luminance of synaesthetic colours. In Experiment 2, we showed that synaesthetic colours were also less luminant for synaesthetes with anxiety disorder, versus those without. Additional evidence suggests that colour saturation, too, may inversely correlate with depressive symptoms. These results show that fluctuations in mood within both a normal and clinical range influence synaesthetic colours over time. This has implications for our understanding about the longitudinal stability of synaesthetic experiences, and of how mood may interact with the visual (imagery) systems. PMID:25413977

  16. Artist's colour rendering of HDR scenes in 3D Mondrian colour-constancy experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parraman, Carinna E.; McCann, John J.; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    The presentation provides an update on ongoing research using three-dimensional Colour Mondrians. Two still life arrangements comprising hand-painted coloured blocks of 11 different colours were subjected to two different lighting conditions of a nearly uniform light and directed spotlights. The three-dimensional nature of these test targets adds shadows and multiple reflections, not found in flat Mondrian targets. Working from exactly the same pair of scenes, an author painted them using watercolour inks and paints to recreate both LDR and HDR Mondrians on paper. This provided us with a second set of appearance measurements of both scenes. Here we measured appearances by measuring reflectances of the artist's rendering. Land's Colour Mondrian extended colour constancy from a pixel to a complex scene. Since it used a planar array in uniform illumination, it did not measure the appearances of real life 3-D scenes in non-uniform illumination. The experiments in this paper, by simultaneously studying LDR and HDR renditions of the same array of reflectances, extend Land's Mondrian towards real scenes in non-uniform illumination. The results show that the appearances of many areas in complex scenes do not correlate with reflectance.

  17. Active Vision Laboratory Robot Navigation

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    Active Vision Laboratory Robot Navigation by Active Stereo Vision Joss Knight D.Phil First Year the previous system, in particular in the area of autonomy. The current system requires pre­knowledge of camera

  18. Active Vision Laboratory Robot Navigation

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    Active Vision Laboratory Robot Navigation by Active Stereo Vision Joss Knight D.Phil First Year, in particular in the area of autonomy. The current system requires pre-knowledge of camera calibration, head

  19. A History of Vision Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelboom, Tina M.

    1985-01-01

    The vision screening program has a long and interesting history involving educators, pediatricians, optometrists, and ophthamologists. This historical review of vision screening in the schools includes a discussion of amblyopia and screening of preschool students. (Author/CB)

  20. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  1. Computational Vision: A Critical Review

    E-print Network

    Edelman, Shimon

    1989-10-01

    We review the progress made in computational vision, as represented by Marr's approach, in the last fifteen years. First, we briefly outline computational theories developed for low, middle and high-level vision. We ...

  2. Vision Care and the Nation's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    Aspects of vision and vision care considered are the following: extent and types of vision defects of American children; importance of vision care in pre-school years, elementary, and secondary school and beyond; and manpower resources in vision care today, the extent of vision testing and care, special problem areas, and governmental support.…

  3. Trainable Mentally Impaired/Severely Multiply Impaired/Autistic Impaired/Severely Mentally Impaired. Product Evaluation Report 1989-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Richard N.; And Others

    The evaluation report describes special education services provided to trainable mentally impaired (TMI), autistic impaired (AI), severely multiply impaired (SXI), and severely mentally impaired (SMI) students at and through the Melvin G. Millet Learning Center (Bridgeport, Michigan). The eight program components are described individually and…

  4. Vision Screening For Head Starters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Celia

    To determine which children in the Head Start program may have vision problems, Head Start teachers and staff do vision "screening." This booklet demonstrates how to do the screening using the Snellen "E Chart." Trouble signs that the test administrator should be aware of are listed, and vision scores are explained simply. Amblyopia is defined,…

  5. Vision care: a compensation cornerstone.

    PubMed

    Steere, R W

    2001-03-01

    Vision care is a benefit that provides advantages for both employers and employees, and it has become an essential element of most competitive benefit packages. Well-designed vision care programs offer participants choice, options, self-help and value. An option that employers may want to consider is reduced prices on laser vision correction procedures. PMID:11272517

  6. Is School Vision Screening Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yawn, Barbara P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study followed children retrospectively from kindergarten through 12th grade to examine incidence of abnormal school vision screening tests and rates of follow-up by specialists. School vision screening provided first indication of abnormal visual acuity in 76% of the children. Results support the notion that school vision screening is…

  7. Faculty of Humanities Vision Statement

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    Faculty of Humanities Vision Statement Executive Summary The liberal arts lie at the heart of any that prepares our students for the major challenges of the next generation. Vision The Faculty of Humanities own visioning exercise. 1. Centre for Global Citizenship and Culture Inspiring Innovation, the central

  8. Registration of Vision 30 Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vision 30’ (Reg. No. CV-1062, PI 661153) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and tested as VA06HRW-49 and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2010. Vision 30 was derived from the cross 92PAN1#33/VA97W-414. Vision 30 is high yielding, awned,...

  9. Vision for a UAV helicopter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klas Nordberg; Gunnar Farneback; Gosta Granlund; Anders Moe; Johan Wiklund

    This paper presents and overview of the basic and applied research carried out by the Computer Vision Laboratory, Linkoping University, in the WITAS UAV Project. This work includes customizing and redesigning vision methods to t the particular needs and restrictions imposed by the UAV platform, e.g., for low-level vision, motion estimation, navigation, and tracking. It also includes a new learning

  10. Achromatopsia, color vision, and cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles A. Heywood; Robert W. Kentridge

    2003-01-01

    Few researchers would deny the advantages that color vision confers on those who possess it. In low-level vision, color assists in segmenting the visual scene on the basis of chromatic boundaries, when fluctuating shadows create spurious luminance borders that camouflage the contour of an object, thereby rendering it invisible to a monochromatic observer. In higher-level vision, color enhances identification and

  11. A universal ultraviolet-optical colour-colour-magnitude relation of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, Igor V.; Zolotukhin, Ivan Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The bimodal galaxy distribution in the optical colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) comprises a narrow 'red sequence' populated mostly by early-type galaxies and a broad 'blue cloud' dominated by star-forming systems. Although the optical CMD allows one to select red sequence objects, neither can it be used for galaxy classification without additional observational data such as spectra or high-resolution images, nor to identify blue galaxies at unknown redshifts. We show that adding the near ultraviolet (NUV) colour [Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) NUV ?eff= 227 nm] to the optical (g - r versus Mr) CMD reveals a tight relation in the 3D colour-colour-magnitude space smoothly continuing from the 'blue cloud' to the 'red sequence'. We found that 98 per cent of 225 000 low-redshift (Z < 0.27) galaxies follow a smooth surface ? with a standard deviation of 0.03-0.07 mag making it the tightest known galaxy photometric relation, given the ˜0.9 mag range of k-corrected g - r colours. Similar relations exist in other NUV-optical colours. There is a strong correlation between morphological types and integrated ? colours of galaxies, while the connection with g - r is ambiguous. Rare galaxy classes such as E+A or tidally stripped systems become outliers that occupy distinct regions in the 3D parameter space. Using stellar population models for galaxies with different star formation histories, we show that (a) the (?) distribution at a given luminosity is formed by objects having constant and exponentially declining star formation rates with different characteristic time-scales with the red sequence part consistent also with simple stellar population; (b) colour evolution for exponentially declining models goes along the relation suggesting a weak evolution of its shape up to a redshift of 0.9; (c) galaxies with truncated star formation histories have very short transition phase offset from the relation thus explaining the rareness of E+A galaxies. This relation can be used as a powerful galaxy classification tool when morphology remains unresolved. Its mathematical consequence is the possibility of precise and simple redshift estimates from only three broad-band photometric points. We show that this simple approach being applied to Sloan Digital Sky Survey and GALEX data works better than most existing photometric redshift techniques applied to multicolour data sets. Therefore, the relation can be used as an efficient search technique for galaxies at intermediate redshifts (0.3 < Z < 0.8) using optical imaging surveys. Footnotes<label>1</label> <label>2</label> <label>3</label> <label>4</label></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.engr.psu.edu/Symposium2006/papers/Session%201B%20-%20Computer%20Vision%20and%20Applications/Ge.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">OBJECT RECOGNITION: BEYOND <span class="hlt">VISION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Weina Ge</p> <p></p> <p>Object recognition, a difficult and long-lasting research topic about how machines can distinguish and identify different objects as we human beings do, has been extensively stud- ied in the computer <span class="hlt">vision</span> community. Although a substan- tial amount of effort has been made through the decades, the ultimate goal of fully automatic recognition for general objects has not yet been accomplished</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59019915"><span id="translatedtitle">Tele-<span class="hlt">visioning</span> Terror</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Caroline Zekri</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper is devoted to the relationship between terrorism and media, with a special focus on the theoretical notions of “icon”, “mass” and “distance”. It aims to show how the phenomenon of modern terrorism calls into question the essence of modern democracies and their systems of information, based on the distance between <span class="hlt">vision</span> and event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990071646&hterms=dream+intrusion&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddream%2Bintrusion"><span id="translatedtitle">Synthetic <span class="hlt">Vision</span> Workshop 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kramer, Lynda J. (Compiler)</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The second NASA sponsored Workshop on Synthetic/Enhanced <span class="hlt">Vision</span> (S/EV) Display Systems was conducted January 27-29, 1998 at the NASA Langley Research Center. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for interested parties to discuss topics in the Synthetic <span class="hlt">Vision</span> (SV) element of the NASA Aviation Safety Program and to encourage those interested parties to participate in the development, prototyping, and implementation of S/EV systems that enhance aviation safety. The SV element addresses the potential safety benefits of synthetic/enhanced <span class="hlt">vision</span> display systems for low-end general aviation aircraft, high-end general aviation aircraft (business jets), and commercial transports. Attendance at this workshop consisted of about 112 persons including representatives from industry, the FAA, and other government organizations (NOAA, NIMA, etc.). The workshop provided opportunities for interested individuals to give presentations on the state of the art in potentially applicable systems, as well as to discuss areas of research that might be considered for inclusion within the Synthetic <span class="hlt">Vision</span> Element program to contribute to the reduction of the fatal aircraft accident rate. Panel discussions on topical areas such as databases, displays, certification issues, and sensors were conducted, with time allowed for audience participation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyclists&pg=2&id=EJ444487"><span id="translatedtitle">Low <span class="hlt">Vision</span> Bicycling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Connor, M.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This article considers bicycling as a means of transportation, not recreation, for individuals with low <span class="hlt">vision</span>. Considered are evaluation of capabilities, watching for child cyclists, central and peripheral field loss, necessary equipment, potential problems, seasonal and weather considerations, night riding, route planning, basic visual skills…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010neof.book...41G"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer <span class="hlt">Vision</span> Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gunasekaran, Sundaram</p> <p></p> <p>Food quality is of paramount consideration for all consumers, and its importance is perhaps only second to food safety. By some definition, food safety is also incorporated into the broad categorization of food quality. Hence, the need for careful and accurate evaluation of food quality is at the forefront of research and development both in the academia and industry. Among the many available methods for food quality evaluation, computer <span class="hlt">vision</span> has proven to be the most powerful, especially for nondestructively extracting and quantifying many features that have direct relevance to food quality assessment and control. Furthermore, computer <span class="hlt">vision</span> systems serve to rapidly evaluate the most readily observable foods quality attributes - the external characteristics such as color, shape, size, surface texture etc. In addition, it is now possible, using advanced computer <span class="hlt">vision</span> technologies, to “see” inside a food product and/or package to examine important quality attributes ordinarily unavailable to human evaluators. With rapid advances in electronic hardware and other associated imaging technologies, the cost-effectiveness and speed of computer <span class="hlt">vision</span> systems have greatly improved and many practical systems are already in place in the food industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OERv...23..149C"><span id="translatedtitle">Review of night <span class="hlt">vision</span> metrology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chrzanowski, K.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>A review of night <span class="hlt">vision</span> metrology is presented in this paper. A set of reasons that create a rather chaotic metrologic situation on night <span class="hlt">vision</span> market is presented. It is shown that there has been made a little progress in night <span class="hlt">vision</span> metrology during last decades in spite of a big progress in night <span class="hlt">vision</span> technology at the same period of time. It is concluded that such a big discrep- ancy between metrology development level and technology development can be an obstacle in the further development of night <span class="hlt">vision</span> technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JTST...22...48P"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> Matching in Decorative Thermally Sprayed Glass Coatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poirier, Thierry; Bertrand, Pierre; Coddet, Christian</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Coloured</span> coatings were obtained on steel by plasma spraying without severe in-flight alteration of pigments, taking profit of the low thermal conductivity of the glassy matrix of glaze particles. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> matching was studied by mixing 3 different glazes, comparing Grassmann and Kubelka-Munk based algorithms. Results suggest that the latter method should be preferred upon Grassmann method, particularly when the light absorption/dispersion ratios of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> feedstocks are very different.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23578866"><span id="translatedtitle">Genetics and evolution of <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns in reptiles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olsson, Mats; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Ballen, Cissy</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The study of coloration in the polyphyletic reptilians has flourished in the last two decades, in particular with respect to the underlying genetics of <span class="hlt">colour</span> traits, the function of <span class="hlt">colours</span> in social interactions, and ongoing selection on these traits in the wild. The taxonomic bias, however, is profound: at this level of resolution almost all available information is for diurnal lizards. Therefore, we focus on case studies, for which there are as complete causal sequences of <span class="hlt">colour</span> evolution as possible, from phenotypic expression of variation in <span class="hlt">colour</span>, to ongoing selection in the wild. For work prior to 1992 and for a broader coverage of reptilian coloration we refer the readers to Cooper and Greenburg's (Biology of the Reptilia, 1992) review. There are seven major conclusions we would like to emphasise: (a) visual systems in diurnal lizards are broadly conserved but among the wider range of reptiles in general, there is functionally important variation in the number and type of photoreceptors, spectral tuning of photopigments and optical properties of the eye; (b) coloration in reptiles is a function of complex interactions between structural and pigmentary components, with implications for both proximate control and condition dependence of <span class="hlt">colour</span> expression; (c) studies of <span class="hlt">colour</span>-variable species have enabled estimates of heritability of <span class="hlt">colour</span> and <span class="hlt">colour</span> patterns, which often show a simple Mendelian pattern of inheritance; (d) <span class="hlt">colour</span>-polymorphic lizard species sometimes, but not always, show striking differences in genetically encoded reproductive tactics and provide useful models for studying the evolution and maintenance of polymorphism; (e) both male and female <span class="hlt">colours</span> are sometimes, but not always, a significant component of socio-sexual signalling, often based on multiple traits; (f) evidence for effects of hormones and condition on <span class="hlt">colour</span> expression, and trade-offs with immunocompetence and parasite load, is variable; (g) lizards show fading of <span class="hlt">colours</span> in response to physiological stress and ageing and are hence likely to be appropriate models for work on the interactions between handicaps, indicator traits, parasitology and immunoecology. PMID:23578866</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54213217"><span id="translatedtitle">N.P.L. <span class="hlt">Colour</span>-matching Investigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>W. S. Stiles; J. M. Burch</p> <p>1959-01-01</p> <p>The second part of the N.P.L.'s <span class="hlt">colour</span>-matching investigation was devoted to determining average <span class="hlt">colour</span>-matching properties in a large (10° diameter) bipartite matching field, and the final corrected results are here presented in tabular form, together with a specification of the conditions of measurement, and ancillary data on repeatability. The tabulated results comprise (a) mean <span class="hlt">colour</span>-matching functions, referred to reference primaries</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1690600"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span> affects aspects of single-species population dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Petchey, O L</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Single-species populations of ciliates (Colpidium and Paramecium) experienced constant temperature or white or reddened temperature fluctuations in aquatic microcosms in order to test three hypotheses about how environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span> influences population dynamics. (i) Models predict that the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of population dynamics is tinged by the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the environmental variability. However, environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span> had no effect on the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of population dynamics. All population dynamics in this experiment were reddened, regardless of environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span>. (ii) Models predict that populations will track reddened environmental variability more closely than white environmental variability and that populations with a higher intrinsic growth rate (r) will track environmental variability more closely than populations with a low r. The experimental populations behaved as predicted. (iii) Models predict that population variability is determined by interaction between r and the environmental variability. The experimental populations behaved as predicted. These results show that (i) reddened population dynamics may need no special explanation, such as reddened environments, spatial subdivision or interspecific interactions, and (ii) and (iii) that population dynamics are sensitive to environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span>, in agreement with population models. Correct specification of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the environmental variability in models is required for accurate predictions. Further work is needed to study the effects of environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span> on communities and ecosystems. PMID:10819142</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://web4.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/t.weyrich/projects/gpb/parchcolour.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> Analysis of Degraded Parchment Lindsay MACDONALD, Alejandro GIACOMETTI,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Weyrich, Tim</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Colour</span> Analysis of Degraded Parchment Lindsay MACDONALD, Alejandro GIACOMETTI, Tim WEYRICH, Melissa TERRAS and Adam GIBSON University College London ABSTRACT Multispectral imaging was employed to collect</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16387343"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes in a moving object.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kreegipuu, Kairi; Murd, Carolina; Allik, Jüri</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">colour</span>-changing stimulus paradigm is based on a tacit assumption that kinematic attributes (velocity, movement direction) do not affect the detection of <span class="hlt">colour</span> change (). In this study three experiments are reported that clearly demonstrate that the time needed to detect changes in <span class="hlt">colouration</span> of a moving stimulus becomes shorter with its velocity. The reduction of reaction time with increase of velocity is a purely kinematic effect independent on the reduction of reaction time caused by the stimulus uncertainty effects. It is concluded that <span class="hlt">colour</span> coding mechanisms are not totally ignorant about movement parameters. PMID:16387343</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.7866E..0ZI"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">colour</span> correction of strongly degraded movies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Islam, A. B. M. Tariqul; Farup, Ivar</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The archives of motion pictures represent an important part of precious cultural heritage. Unfortunately, these cinematography collections are vulnerable to different distortions such as <span class="hlt">colour</span> fading which is beyond the capability of photochemical restoration process. Spatial <span class="hlt">colour</span> algorithms-Retinex and ACE provide helpful tool in restoring strongly degraded <span class="hlt">colour</span> films but, there are some challenges associated with these algorithms. We present an automatic <span class="hlt">colour</span> correction technique for digital <span class="hlt">colour</span> restoration of strongly degraded movie material. The method is based upon the existing STRESS algorithm. In order to cope with the problem of highly correlated <span class="hlt">colour</span> channels, we implemented a preprocessing step in which saturation enhancement is performed in a PCA space. Spatial <span class="hlt">colour</span> algorithms tend to emphasize all details in the images, including dust and scratches. Surprisingly, we found that the presence of these defects does not affect the behaviour of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> correction algorithm. Although the STRESS algorithm is already in itself more efficient than traditional spatial <span class="hlt">colour</span> algorithms, it is still computationally expensive. To speed it up further, we went beyond the spatial domain of the frames and extended the algorithm to the temporal domain. This way, we were able to achieve an 80 percent reduction of the computational time compared to processing every single frame individually. We performed two user experiments and found that the visual quality of the resulting frames was significantly better than with existing methods. Thus, our method outperforms the existing ones in terms of both visual quality and computational efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3607564"><span id="translatedtitle">The Categorisation of Non-Categorical <span class="hlt">Colours</span>: A Novel Paradigm in <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Perception</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cropper, Simon J.; Kvansakul, Jessica G. S.; Little, Daniel R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we investigate a new paradigm for studying the development of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> ‘signal’ by having observers discriminate and categorize the same set of controlled and calibrated cardinal <span class="hlt">coloured</span> stimuli. Notably, in both tasks, each observer was free to decide whether two pairs of colors were the same or belonged to the same category. The use of the same stimulus set for both tasks provides, we argue, an incremental behavioural measure of <span class="hlt">colour</span> processing from detection through discrimination to categorisation. The measured data spaces are different for the two tasks, and furthermore the categorisation data is unique to each observer. In addition, we develop a model which assumes that the principal difference between the tasks is the degree of similarity between the stimuli which has different constraints for the categorisation task compared to the discrimination task. This approach not only makes sense of the current (and associated) data but links the processes of discrimination and categorisation in a novel way and, by implication, expands upon the previous research linking categorisation to other tasks not limited to <span class="hlt">colour</span> perception. PMID:23536899</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3440939"><span id="translatedtitle">Image Jitter Enhances Visual Performance when Spatial Resolution Is <span class="hlt">Impaired</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Watson, Lynne M.; Strang, Niall C.; Scobie, Fraser; Love, Gordon D.; Seidel, Dirk; Manahilov, Velitchko</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Purpose. Visibility of low–spatial frequency stimuli improves when their contrast is modulated at 5 to 10 Hz compared with stationary stimuli. Therefore, temporal modulations of visual objects could enhance the performance of low <span class="hlt">vision</span> patients who primarily perceive images of low–spatial frequency content. We investigated the effect of retinal-image jitter on word recognition speed and facial emotion recognition in subjects with central visual <span class="hlt">impairment</span>. Methods. Word recognition speed and accuracy of facial emotion discrimination were measured in volunteers with AMD under stationary and jittering conditions. Computer-driven and optoelectronic approaches were used to induce retinal-image jitter with duration of 100 or 166 ms and amplitude within the range of 0.5 to 2.6° visual angle. Word recognition speed was also measured for participants with simulated (Bangerter filters) visual <span class="hlt">impairment</span>. Results. Text jittering markedly enhanced word recognition speed for people with severe visual loss (101 ± 25%), while for those with moderate visual <span class="hlt">impairment</span>, this effect was weaker (19 ± 9%). The ability of low <span class="hlt">vision</span> patients to discriminate the facial emotions of jittering images improved by a factor of 2. A prototype of optoelectronic jitter goggles produced similar improvement in facial emotion discrimination. Word recognition speed in participants with simulated visual <span class="hlt">impairment</span> was enhanced for interjitter intervals over 100 ms and reduced for shorter intervals. Conclusions. Results suggest that retinal-image jitter with optimal frequency and amplitude is an effective strategy for enhancing visual information processing in the absence of spatial detail. These findings will enable the development of novel tools to improve the quality of life of low <span class="hlt">vision</span> patients. PMID:22879420</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED410737.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Golden Key Program. Common Education for Visually <span class="hlt">Impaired</span> Children in Western China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Xu, Bailun</p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes a new program in the Western provinces of China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Tibet, and Inner Mongolia) that is designed to integrate 20,000 children with low-<span class="hlt">vision</span> into general education classrooms. The Golden Key Research Center of Education for Visually <span class="hlt">Impaired</span> has been working with the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://pages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~ehud/Publications/PathfinderPoster.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Tangible Pathfinder Design of a Wayfinding Trainer for the Visually <span class="hlt">Impaired</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Sharlin, Ehud</p> <p></p> <p>cognitive map. ·On-site mobility assistance when physically walking through the environment. Detachable. The Tangible Pathfinder design goals: ·Autonomous learning of a new place, ·Self-assessment of the resulting designed from the point-of-view of a <span class="hlt">vision-impaired</span> person walking with a cane. Objects represent common</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=statistics+OR+data+AND+pediatric&id=EJ902176"><span id="translatedtitle">Outcomes and Opportunities: A Study of Children with Cortical Visual <span class="hlt">Impairment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Roman Lantzy, Christine A.; Lantzy, Alan</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Pediatric View is an evaluation project that began in 1999 and is located at Western Pennsylvania Hospital in Pittsburgh. The purpose of Pediatric View is to provide developmental and functional <span class="hlt">vision</span> evaluations to children who have ocular or cortical visual <span class="hlt">impairments</span>. The evaluations are generally two hours in length, and a detailed report…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=SO3&pg=2&id=EJ868931"><span id="translatedtitle">A Survey of Daily Trips of Persons Who Are Visually <span class="hlt">Impaired</span> Living in Communities in Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shimizu, Michiko</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>According to the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan (2006), there are 379,000 persons with visual <span class="hlt">impairments</span> (both those who are blind and those with low <span class="hlt">vision</span>) in Japan. Of these persons, 30% travel almost daily, 30% travel two to three days per week, 22% travel two to three days per month, and 11% travel several days a year; in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Karlsson&pg=6&id=EJ570169"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-reports of Psychological Distress in Connection with Various Degrees of Visual <span class="hlt">Impairment</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Karlsson, Jon S.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the relationship between degree of visual <span class="hlt">impairment</span> and the self-reports of psychological distress by 167 Icelanders (ages 18-69) and 100 between the ages of 70-97, who were blind or had low <span class="hlt">vision</span>. The study found that self-reports of psychological distress and perceptions of unhappiness varied significantly with the degree…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=quadriplegic&pg=2&id=EJ499231"><span id="translatedtitle">Thomas the Writer: Case Study of a Child with Severe Physical, Speech, and Visual <span class="hlt">Impairments</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Blischak, Doreen M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A case study is presented of a nine-year-old boy with quadriplegic cerebral palsy and <span class="hlt">vision</span> <span class="hlt">impairment</span>, chronicling his development of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and literacy skills from birth to second grade. Development and use of his AAC system is described, along with activities for language and literacy development.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=feet&pg=2&id=EJ1048528"><span id="translatedtitle">Using the Picture Exchange Communication System with Students with Visual <span class="hlt">Impairment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ivy, Sarah E.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Hooper, Jonathan D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Students with visual <span class="hlt">impairment</span> (VI) were taught to request using the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and tangible symbols. Participants were four males with additional disabilities, 5 to 11 years old, who had little to no functional <span class="hlt">vision</span>. A functional relation between PECS Phase 1 and requesting was established using a multiple…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=prevalence+AND+disorder+AND+language&pg=6&id=EJ842569"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification and Intervention for Students Who Are Visually <span class="hlt">Impaired</span> and Who Have Autism Spectrum Disorders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Li, Alicia</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>At least 60% of children with disabilities have multiple disabilities including visual <span class="hlt">impairments</span> (VI). Because the visual system is neurologically based, any problems of the neurological system will also likely affect <span class="hlt">vision</span>. The estimated number of students with VI and additional disabilities has increased significantly over the years. Since…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1683203"><span id="translatedtitle">Design of a haptic data visualization system for people with visual <span class="hlt">impairments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Jason P. Fritz; Kenneth E. Barner</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Data visualization is a technique used to explore real or simulated data by representing it in a form more suitable for comprehension. This form is usually visual since <span class="hlt">vision</span> provides a means to perceive large quantities of spatial information quickly. However, people who are blind or visually <span class="hlt">impaired</span> must rely on other senses to accomplish this perception. Haptic interface technology</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22meta-analysis%22&pg=7&id=EJ1017625"><span id="translatedtitle">Social Skills for Youths with Visual <span class="hlt">Impairments</span>: A Meta-Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Botsford, Kathryn D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: This meta-analysis reviewed correlational research on youths (ages 13-21) with visual <span class="hlt">impairments</span> (that is, blindness or low <span class="hlt">vision</span>) conducted using the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). Methods: After a systematic literature review, six studies (four peer-reviewed articles, one dissertation, and one conference…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13347216"><span id="translatedtitle">A STUDY OF SONIC GUIDANCE SYSTEMS FOR VISUALLY <span class="hlt">IMPAIRED</span> PERSONS TRAVELING ON THEIR OWN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>TERUYUKI TAJIMA; JINRO TAKATO; RYOTOARO TAKAMI</p> <p></p> <p>SUMMARY Various types of sonic guidance systems, using multiple speakers, were considered for the purpose of providing navigational clues for <span class="hlt">vision</span> <span class="hlt">impaired</span> people traveling on their own or people moving under low visibility conditions. Three types of sonic guidance systems were examined for this study. Each of them consisted of one pair, two pairs or multiple pairs of speakers emitting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=computer+AND+vision&pg=7&id=EJ885730"><span id="translatedtitle">An Assessment-for-Learning System in Mathematics for Individuals with Visual <span class="hlt">Impairments</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hansen, Eric G.; Shute, Valerie J.; Landau, Steven</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the usability of an assessment-for-learning (AfL) system that provides audio-tactile graphics for algebra content (geometric sequences) for individuals with visual <span class="hlt">impairments</span>--two who are blind and two with low <span class="hlt">vision</span>. It found that the system is generally usable as a mathematics AfL system. (Contains 4 tables.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ692447.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Visual Attention to Movement and Color in Children with Cortical Visual <span class="hlt">Impairment</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cohen-Maitre, Stacey Ann; Haerich, Paul</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the ability of color and motion to elicit and maintain visual attention in a sample of children with cortical visual <span class="hlt">impairment</span> (CVI). It found that colorful and moving objects may be used to engage children with CVI, increase their motivation to use their residual <span class="hlt">vision</span>, and promote visual learning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ718711.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiculturalism and Students with Visual <span class="hlt">Impairments</span> in New South Wales, Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gallimore, Desiree P. M.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This study found that a large number of students with visual <span class="hlt">impairments</span> in public and private schools in New South Wales come from culturally diverse backgrounds, that teacher training does not incorporate multicultural perspectives, and that instructors and itinerant <span class="hlt">vision</span> teachers lack knowledge and skills to teach from a multicultural…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12421225"><span id="translatedtitle">Research and development project for practical use of robotic travel aid for the visually <span class="hlt">impaired</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>H Mori; S Kotani; K Saneyoshi; H Sanada; Y Kobayashi; A Mototsune</p> <p></p> <p>Destined to the visually <span class="hlt">impaired</span>, Robotic Travel Aid (RoTA) acts as an intelligent cart, guiding people across the streets. The 60 Kg, one-meter tall mobile robot is equipped with computer <span class="hlt">vision</span> system, stereo camera sensor and voice interface. When moving, it is aware of its environment: It recognizes landmarks such as zebra crossing marks or traffic signals, stopping when the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24896877"><span id="translatedtitle">Learning of <span class="hlt">colour</span> and position cues in domestic chicks: Males are better at position, females at <span class="hlt">colour</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vallortigara, G</p> <p>1996-06-01</p> <p>Male and female chicks were trained to discriminate between two boxes for food reinforcement. The correct box was indicated by a <span class="hlt">colour</span> cue (red or brown) and a position cue (right or left). After learning, the <span class="hlt">colour</span> and the position cues were dissociated: the right-left location of the two boxes was alternated between trials according to a semi-random sequence.The chicks were thus retrained to discriminate either on the basis of <span class="hlt">colour</span> (irrespective of position) or on the basis of position (irrespective of <span class="hlt">colour</span>). There were no sex differences, during training, with both position and <span class="hlt">colour</span> cues. However, during re-training females performed better on the <span class="hlt">colour</span> learning task and males performed better on the position learning task. PMID:24896877</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=low+AND+vision+AND+rehabilitation&pg=5&id=EJ416536"><span id="translatedtitle">Interdisciplinary Approach to the Rehabilitation of Low <span class="hlt">Vision</span> Patients in Japan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yanashima, K.; And Others</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Visually <span class="hlt">impaired</span> persons (N=1,657) from 20 national rehabilitation centers in Japan and 230 patients of a low <span class="hlt">vision</span> clinic were surveyed to gather information on patients' age, sex, cause of disorder, visual acuity, and results of treatment and rehabilitation. (Author/JDD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=low+AND+vision+AND+rehabilitation&pg=2&id=EJ462581"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of the Alternating Treatment Design to Evaluate Intervention in Low <span class="hlt">Vision</span> Rehabilitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>LaGrow, S. J.; Murray, S.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>This article illustrates use of the alternating treatment design to assess effectiveness of individualized interventions in low <span class="hlt">vision</span> rehabilitation. The design was used to determine whether enlarging copy (to one of two magnification levels) and adding contrast would be effective in reducing the time a visually <span class="hlt">impaired</span> student required to read…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/78/28/82/PDF/pinching_journal_revised.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconfiguration graphs for vertex <span class="hlt">colourings</span> of chordal and chordal bipartite graphs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p></p> <p>Reconfiguration graphs for vertex <span class="hlt">colourings</span> of chordal and chordal bipartite graphs Marthe Bonamy that for each k-<span class="hlt">colour</span>-dense graph G, the reconfiguration graph of the -<span class="hlt">colourings</span> of G is connected and has-<span class="hlt">colourable</span> chordal graph G whose reconfiguration graph of the (k + 1)-<span class="hlt">colourings</span> has diameter (|V |2 ). Keywords</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24897160"><span id="translatedtitle">Lateral asymmetries during responses to novel-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> objects in the domestic chick: A developmental study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Regolin, L; Vallortigara, G</p> <p>1996-08-01</p> <p>Chicks were trained to peck on a small <span class="hlt">coloured</span> (red or green) box for food reinforcement. They were then presented with one box identical to that used during training (familiar) and one of a different <span class="hlt">colour</span> (unfamiliar). Food reinforcement was delivered for pecking either box, and the right-left position of the two boxes was alternated at random between trials. The number of times chicks pecked at the novel box when it was located on their right or on their left side was recorded. Chicks showed a general tendency to peck more frequently at the novel box when it was located on their right side. The lateral asymmetry was, however, age-dependent. Maximum lateral bias with both red and green novel boxes was observed at around day 4 and day 11 in both sexes, and minimum at around days 7 8 in males and days 8 9 in females. It is suggested that these lateral asymmetries can be accounted for in terms of a head-and-body turning bias associated to preferential use of the lateral field of <span class="hlt">vision</span> of the left eye, which arises from specializations of the contralateral brain structures (i.e. right hemisphere involvement in response to novelty). The observed changes in lateral asymmetries during development appear, in fact, to fit very well with independent behavioural and pharmacological evidence for biases to left eye use on day 11, and right eye use on day 8. PMID:24897160</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6616E..2HF"><span id="translatedtitle">Profile detection by projection of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fontani, Daniela; Francini, Franco; Sansoni, Paola; Jafrancesco, David; Mercatelli, Luca</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>The paper presents a study to detect the three-dimensional profile of an object using a technique based on the projection of <span class="hlt">colour</span>-coded lines. The accessibility at low-cost of projectors and digital photographic cameras has approved the employment and the development of these techniques. They provide information concerning the profile through the acquisition of a couple of images. The first one concerns a reference plane and it is captured only once, while the second one refers to the object image. The proposed methodology simplifies the individuation of homologous lines within the two images, when grating projection techniques are employed. Even though these methods are conceptually very simple, they are rarely applied because of this difficulty in stating the correspondence between observed deformation and projected line. The attribution of a different <span class="hlt">colour</span> to every single line, or to a set of them, introduces an element useful for their selection. After the image acquisition, the data pertaining to the profile are extracted examining the image by means of an algorithm developed in Matlab language for this application. The research work is in progress beyond the results presented in this paper, which already represent a excellent starting point for further studies and evolutions of the technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17163926"><span id="translatedtitle">Hair <span class="hlt">colouring</span>, permanent styling and hair structure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harrison, S; Sinclair, R</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>Hair is an important component of body image and has immense psychological importance for both men and women. Women, in particular, over the ages have modified their appearance through changing their hair <span class="hlt">colour</span> or style. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown or red. These natural variations are an important part of our identity that can be manipulated according to the dictates of fashion, culture or society. Different types of hair have varying affinity for the different <span class="hlt">colouring</span> and waving methods. Damaged hair also has a different affinity for hair products than normal healthy hair. The hair shaft is remarkably strong and resistant to the extremes of nature. Hair cosmetics are widely available and manipulate the structural properties of hair. Whilst most procedures are safe, there is considerable potential for damage to the hair and hair problems of acute onset, including hair breakage, hair loss and loss of condition, are frequently blamed on the last product used on the hair. Hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair. PMID:17163926</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/849455"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer <span class="hlt">Vision</span>: An Overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Robert L. Simpson Jr.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">vision</span> research being performed under the Strategic Computing Initiative sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the US Department of Defense is discussed. The goal is to develop knowledge-based technology that will allow the construction of complete, robust, high-performance image-understanding systems. The projects address four critical areas: visual modeling and recognition, dynamic scene and motion analysis,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860000474&hterms=robot+weld&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Drobot*%2Bweld*"><span id="translatedtitle">Robotic <span class="hlt">Vision</span> for Welding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, R. W.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Vision</span> system for robotic welder looks at weld along axis of welding electrode. Gives robot view of most of weld area, including yet-unwelded joint, weld pool, and completed weld bead. Protected within welding-torch body, lens and fiber bundle give robot closeup view of weld in progress. Relayed to video camera on robot manipulator frame, weld image provides data for automatic control of robot motion and welding parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=exit+AND+procedure&pg=6&id=ED334767"><span id="translatedtitle">Emotionally <span class="hlt">Impaired</span> Elementary Curriculum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Taulbee, Dianne R.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>The Jackson County (Michigan) Intermediate School District curriculum for teaching emotionally <span class="hlt">impaired</span> elementary students is presented. The curriculum document describes program management techniques, strategies for developing and maintaining teacher-student relationships, and therapy/change systems. It outlines referral and eligibility…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=exit+AND+procedure&pg=6&id=ED319180"><span id="translatedtitle">Emotionally <span class="hlt">Impaired</span> Elementary Curriculum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Taulbee, Dianne R.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>A curriculum is presented for teaching emotionally <span class="hlt">impaired</span> elementary students. The curriculum document describes program management techniques, strategies for developing and maintaining teacher-student relationships, and therapy/change systems. It outlines referral and eligibility procedures and exit criteria. It contains job descriptions for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3201025"><span id="translatedtitle">Virtual environment to quantify the influence of <span class="hlt">colour</span> stimuli on the performance of tasks requiring attention</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background Recent studies indicate that the blue-yellow <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination is <span class="hlt">impaired</span> in ADHD individuals. However, the relationship between <span class="hlt">colour</span> and performance has not been investigated. This paper describes the development and the testing of a virtual environment that is capable to quantify the influence of red-green versus blue-yellow <span class="hlt">colour</span> stimuli on the performance of people in a fun and interactive way, being appropriate for the target audience. Methods An interactive computer game based on virtual reality was developed to evaluate the performance of the players. The game's storyline was based on the story of an old pirate who runs across islands and dangerous seas in search of a lost treasure. Within the game, the player must find and interpret the hints scattered in different scenarios. Two versions of this game were implemented. In the first, hints and information boards were painted using red and green <span class="hlt">colours</span>. In the second version, these objects were painted using blue and yellow <span class="hlt">colours</span>. For modelling, texturing, and animating virtual characters and objects the three-dimensional computer graphics tool Blender 3D was used. The textures were created with the GIMP editor to provide visual effects increasing the realism and immersion of the players. The games were tested on 20 non-ADHD volunteers who were divided into two subgroups (A1 and A2) and 20 volunteers with ADHD who were divided into subgroups B1 and B2. Subgroups A1 and B1 used the first version of the game with the hints painted in green-red colors, and subgroups A2 and B2 the second version using the same hints now painted in blue-yellow. The time spent to complete each task of the game was measured. Results Data analyzed with ANOVA two-way and posthoc TUKEY LSD showed that the use of blue/yellow instead of green/red colors decreased the game performance of all participants. However, a greater decrease in performance could be observed with ADHD participants where tasks, that require attention, were most affected. Conclusions The game proved to be a user-friendly tool capable to detect and quantify the influence of color on the performance of people executing tasks that require attention and showed to be attractive for people with ADHD. PMID:21854630</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=FEDREG&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-01-17/pdf/2012-541.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 2342 - Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight <span class="hlt">Vision</span>/Synthetic <span class="hlt">Vision</span> Systems...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-17</p> <p>...Enhanced Flight <span class="hlt">Vision</span>/Synthetic <span class="hlt">Vision</span> Systems (EFVS/SVS). DATES...Committee 213, Enhanced Flight <span class="hlt">Vision</span>/ Synthetic <span class="hlt">Vision</span> Systems (EFVS/SVS). The...of the public may present oral statements at the meeting. Persons...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4123726"><span id="translatedtitle">Neuroimaging of amblyopia and binocular <span class="hlt">vision</span>: a review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Joly, Olivier; Frankó, Edit</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Amblyopia is a cerebral visual <span class="hlt">impairment</span> considered to derive from abnormal visual experience (e.g., strabismus, anisometropia). Amblyopia, first considered as a monocular disorder, is now often seen as a primarily binocular disorder resulting in more and more studies examining the binocular deficits in the patients. The neural mechanisms of amblyopia are not completely understood even though they have been investigated with electrophysiological recordings in animal models and more recently with neuroimaging techniques in humans. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the brain regions that underlie the visual deficits associated with amblyopia with a focus on binocular <span class="hlt">vision</span> using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The first studies focused on abnormal responses in the primary and secondary visual areas whereas recent evidence shows that there are also deficits at higher levels of the visual pathways within the parieto-occipital and temporal cortices. These higher level areas are part of the cortical network involved in 3D <span class="hlt">vision</span> from binocular cues. Therefore, reduced responses in these areas could be related to the <span class="hlt">impaired</span> binocular <span class="hlt">vision</span> in amblyopic patients. Promising new binocular treatments might at least partially correct the activation in these areas. Future neuroimaging experiments could help to characterize the brain response changes associated with these treatments and help devise them. PMID:25147511</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://hr.columbia.edu/files_humanresources/imce_shared/LeadershipCurriculum.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Columbia University Leadership Development Curriculum <span class="hlt">VISION</span> PROGRAM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Grishok, Alla</p> <p></p> <p>statement is clearly articulated, strategic goals are developed relative to the key themes from the <span class="hlt">vision</span> of the school or department. <span class="hlt">Vision</span> Objectives Strategic Elements <span class="hlt">Vision</span> Statement <span class="hlt">VISION</span> 20 © Nexient LearningColumbia University Leadership Development Curriculum <span class="hlt">VISION</span> PROGRAM WHAT IT IS The Columbia</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://cvpr11.cecs.anu.edu.au/files/australia_summer_school_1_Fernando.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Component Analysis Methods for Computer <span class="hlt">Vision</span> and</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Botea, Adi</p> <p></p> <p>1 Component Analysis Methods for Computer <span class="hlt">Vision</span> and Pattern Recognition Fernando De la TorreFernando De la Torre Computer <span class="hlt">Vision</span> and Pattern Recognition Easter SchoolComputer <span class="hlt">Vision</span> and Pattern <span class="hlt">Vision</span> and Pattern Recognition Easter SchoolComputer <span class="hlt">Vision</span> and Pattern Recognition Easter School March</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18686145"><span id="translatedtitle">The development of <span class="hlt">colour</span>-encapsulated microspheres for novel <span class="hlt">colour</span> cosmetics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, Stephen R; Grey, Bryan D; Mistry, Kishor K; Wildgust, Paul G</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>In the present study, the preparation, characterization and <span class="hlt">colour</span> retention properties of organic <span class="hlt">colour</span>-loaded microspheres are described. The study aimed to produce shatter-resistant, low-bleeding polymeric microspheres with particle diameters of 20 µm containing 10-20% (w/w) of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic grade <span class="hlt">colourants</span> FD&C Blue No. 1 Al Lake, FD&C Yellow No. 5 Al Lake and D&C Red No. 36 by utilizing an aqueous-dispersed polymer water-in-oil (W/O) solvent evaporation process featuring styrene/acrylates-based copolymers. The influences of matrix polymeric components on the shape, integrity and dye retention of the microspheres were studied. Encapsulation matrices based on alkali soluble polymers yielded misshapen spheroids that were prone both to swelling and decreased dye retention in aqueous environments, as well as loss of shape at 70°C in cosmetic oils under shear. A resin supported emulsion (RSE)-based matrix, in comparison, yielded highly spherical microspheres resistant to shape deformation and swelling. Additions of up to 15% (w/w) of an alkali soluble polymer to the RSE system improved <span class="hlt">colour</span> dispersion without detrimentally affecting the structural integrity of the microspheres while also slightly decreasing dye concentrations released into aqueous solutions. The in vitro dye release of the <span class="hlt">colour</span>-loaded microspheres in a cosmetic-type water-in-silicone (W/Si) emulsion was evaluated and compared to the in vitro dye release studies in aqueous solutions. No direct correlations between the emulsion system and single-component aqueous solutions could be made. Dye-release levels evaluated from contacting the microspheres with a complex aqueous medium (CAM5), which incorporated ingredient classes typically encountered in the aqueous phase of an emulsion, were found to correlate to levels determined in the generic W/Si emulsion with a 93% linear regression between the data sets. This study demonstrates that the CAM5 protocol (or, alternatively, a CAM2.5 protocol) satisfactorily predicted that the commercial materials derived, in part, from this study (Ciba: ENCAPSULENCE Blue 1, ENCAPSULENCE Yellow 5 and ENCAPSULENCE Red 36) are well suited to retain their <span class="hlt">colour</span> and shape in liquid cosmetic foundations. PMID:18686145</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.utoronto.ca/~strider/publications/FES_CIC08.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Segmenting memory <span class="hlt">colours</span> Clement Fredembach, Francisco Estrada, and Sabine Susstrunk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Estrada, Francisco</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">colours</span>: blue sky, green vegetation, and skin tones. Using a large database of real-world images, we (randomly) select and man- ually segment 900 images that contain one of the three memory <span class="hlt">colours</span>. The same: blue sky, green vegetation and skin tones [10]. It has been shown that human observers locate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41160904"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling kinetics of thermal degradation of <span class="hlt">colour</span> in peach puree</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>I. M. L. B. Ávila; C. L. M. Silva</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Optimisation of thermal processes relies on adequate degradation kinetic models for food safety and quality. In order to use peach puree as a model food to further validate calculated optimal conditions, isothermal experiments, using peach puree, were performed between 110°C and 135°C. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> was quantified using the L, a, b system. Two combinations of these parameters, La\\/b and Total <span class="hlt">Colour</span></p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3785454"><span id="translatedtitle">Field-Portable Pixel Super-Resolution <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Microscope</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Greenbaum, Alon; Akbari, Najva; Feizi, Alborz; Luo, Wei; Ozcan, Aydogan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Based on partially-coherent digital in-line holography, we report a field-portable microscope that can render lensfree <span class="hlt">colour</span> images over a wide field-of-view of e.g., >20 mm2. This computational holographic microscope weighs less than 145 grams with dimensions smaller than 17×6×5 cm, making it especially suitable for field settings and point-of-care use. In this lensfree imaging design, we merged a colorization algorithm with a source shifting based multi-height pixel super-resolution technique to mitigate ‘rainbow’ like <span class="hlt">colour</span> artefacts that are typical in holographic imaging. This image processing scheme is based on transforming the <span class="hlt">colour</span> components of an RGB image into YUV <span class="hlt">colour</span> space, which separates <span class="hlt">colour</span> information from brightness component of an image. The resolution of our super-resolution <span class="hlt">colour</span> microscope was characterized using a USAF test chart to confirm sub-micron spatial resolution, even for reconstructions that employ multi-height phase recovery to handle dense and connected objects. To further demonstrate the performance of this <span class="hlt">colour</span> microscope Papanicolaou (Pap) smears were also successfully imaged. This field-portable and wide-field computational <span class="hlt">colour</span> microscope could be useful for tele-medicine applications in resource poor settings. PMID:24086742</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.ikg.uni-bonn.de/uploads/tx_ikgpublication/Steinruecken__Pluemer_2009___A_Web_Service_to_personalise.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A WEB SERVICE TO PERSONALISE MAP <span class="hlt">COLOURING</span> Joerg Steinruecken</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Behnke, Sven</p> <p></p> <p>. Today, a lot of data sources are available, many of which provide data by using a Web Map Service (WMS of such <span class="hlt">colours</span> can be supported by a Web Service. This ser- vice acts as proxy server between WMS and users by using methods of nonlinear optimisation and computa- tional geometry. · Applying <span class="hlt">colours</span> on WMS: WMS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26515297"><span id="translatedtitle">An urban traffic network model via <span class="hlt">coloured</span> timed Petri nets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Mariagrazia Dotoli; Maria Pia Fanti</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This paper deals with modelling of traffic networks (TNs) for control purposes. A modular framework based on <span class="hlt">coloured</span> timed Petri nets (CTPNs) is proposed to model the dynamics of signalized TN systems: places represent link cells and crossing sections, tokens are vehicles and token <span class="hlt">colours</span> represent the routing of the corresponding vehicle. In addition, ordinary timed Petri nets model the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.bris.ac.uk/Publications/Papers/1000656.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Speed v. Accuracy for High Resolution <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Texture Classification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Mirmehdi, Majid</p> <p></p> <p>and saturation in the HLS <span class="hlt">colour</span> space. We compare the perfor- mance of these new features against Gabor transform features combined with HLS and Lab <span class="hlt">colour</span> space features. Multiple classifiers are employed spaces as RGB, Lab, or HLS [9, 10]. All such works have considered images of a size typically</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/183070"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Petri Nets Extended with Channels for Synchronous Communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Søren Christensen; Niels Damgaard Hansen</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This paper shows how <span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Petri Nets (CP-nets) can be extended to support synchronous communication. We introduce <span class="hlt">coloured</span> communication channels through which transitions are allowed to communicate complex values. Small examples show how channel communication is convenient for creating compact and comprehensive models. The concepts introduced in this paper originate from the practical use of Petri nets for modelling, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://decsai.ugr.es/vip/files/conferences/PradosEtAl_FUZZ-IEEE07.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">On Significant Crisp Representatives of Fuzzy Regions in <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Images</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Granada, Universidad de</p> <p></p> <p>approaches. Keywords: Image segmentation, fuzzy segmentation, path- based segmentation, fuzzy connectivity, fuzzy <span class="hlt">colour</span> homo- geneity, crisp representatives. I. INTRODUCTION Image segmentation, i.e., the processOn Significant Crisp Representatives of Fuzzy Regions in <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Images B. Prados-Suárez, D. Sánchez</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40228174"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring coral bleaching using a <span class="hlt">colour</span> reference card</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>U. E. Siebeck; N. J. Marshall; A. Klüter; Ove Hoegh-Guldberg</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Assessment of the extent of coral bleaching has become an important part of studies that aim to understand the condition of coral reefs. In this study a reference card that uses differences in coral <span class="hlt">colour</span> was developed as an inexpensive, rapid and non-invasive method for the assessment of bleaching. The card uses a 6 point brightness\\/saturation scale within four <span class="hlt">colour</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2505553"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> text segmentation in web images based on human perception</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Dimosthenis Karatzas; Apostolos Antonacopoulos</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>There is a significant need to extract and analyse the text in images on Web documents, for effective indexing, semantic analysis and even presentation by non-visual means (e.g., audio). This paper argues that the challenging segmentation stage for such images benefits from a human perspective of <span class="hlt">colour</span> perception in preference to RGB <span class="hlt">colour</span> space analysis. The proposed approach enables the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://diwww.epfl.ch/w3lsp/publications/colour/potrsoticp.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of the Reflection Spectra of Three Ink <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Prints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Patrick Emmel; Roger David Hersch</p> <p></p> <p>We have developed a <span class="hlt">colour</span> prediction model and an ink- spreading model. The present study aims at confirming the validity of both models for the case of ink-jet prints using cyan, magenta and yellow inks. Our <span class="hlt">colour</span> prediction model, augmented by the ink-jet spreading model, predicts accurately the reflection spectra of halftoned samples printed on an HP printer and on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49301246"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling <span class="hlt">colour</span> changes of wood for architectural CAD simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Schnabel Thomas; Petutschnigg Alexander</p> <p></p> <p>It is a fact that the natural material wood changes its appearance during weathering. This study deals with the modelling of the discolouration process on wood <span class="hlt">colour</span> during natural weathering and the simulation of ageing effects on wood surfaces in computer graphics. A measurement-based technique was used to create a realistic simulation for weathered material.The surface <span class="hlt">colour</span> for larch and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.adelaide.edu.au/users/charles/OPN/postscript/pn95-paper.ps.gz"><span id="translatedtitle">From <span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Petri Nets to Object Petri Nets Charles Lakos,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Lakos, Charles</p> <p></p> <p>seeks to establish within a formal framework how <span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Petri Nets can be enhanced to produce ObjectFrom <span class="hlt">Coloured</span> Petri Nets to Object Petri Nets Charles Lakos, Computer Science Department: Theory of High­Level Petri Nets, Object­Orientation, Multiple Levels of Abstraction Abstract: This paper</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.macedonialab.com/uploads/7/8/3/3/7833444/22_white_et_al_2012.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The nanoanatomical basis of sexual dimorphism in iridescent butterfly <span class="hlt">colouration</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Macedonia, Joseph</p> <p></p> <p>The nanoanatomical basis of sexual dimorphism in iridescent butterfly <span class="hlt">colouration</span> Thomas E. White correlates and causes. Many butterflies exhibit bright and iridescent <span class="hlt">colour</span> signals that arise from in the expression of a sexually homologous ridge-lamellar trait (iridescent ultraviolet) is mediated by sex</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24457894"><span id="translatedtitle">Spray coating of superhydrophobic and angle-independent <span class="hlt">coloured</span> films.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ge, Dengteng; Yang, Lili; Wu, Gaoxiang; Yang, Shu</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Angle-independent <span class="hlt">coloured</span> films with superhydrophobicity were fabricated from quasi-amorphous arrays of monodispersed fluorinated silica nanoparticles via one-step spray coating. The film exhibited a high contact angle (>150°) and a low roll-off angle (~2°) and the <span class="hlt">colour</span> could be tuned to blue, green and moccasin by varying the size of the nanoparticles. PMID:24457894</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2982023"><span id="translatedtitle">Floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> versus phylogeny in structuring subalpine flowering communities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McEwen, Jamie R.; Vamosi, Jana C.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The relative number of seeds produced by competing species can influence the community structure; yet, traits that influence seed production, such as pollinator attraction and floral <span class="hlt">colour</span>, have received little attention in community ecology. Here, we analyse floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> using reflectance spectra that include near-UV and examined the phylogenetic signal of floral <span class="hlt">colour</span>. We found that coflowering species within communities tended to be more divergent in floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> than expected by chance. However, coflowering species were not phylogenetically dispersed, in part due to our finding that floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> is a labile trait with a weak phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, while we found that locally rare and common species exhibited equivalent floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> distances from their coflowering neighbours, frequent species (those found in more communities) exhibited higher <span class="hlt">colour</span> distances from their coflowering neighbours. Our findings support recent studies, which have found that (i) plant lineages exhibit frequent floral <span class="hlt">colour</span> transitions; and (ii) traits that influence local population dynamics contribute to community structure. PMID:20484236</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.neurobiologie.fu-berlin.de/menzel/Pub_AGmenzel/Vorobyev-et-al_Visres_2001.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> thresholds and receptor noise: behaviour and physiology compared</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Misha Vorobyev; Robert Brandt; Dagmar Peitsch; Simon B. Laughlin; Randolf Menzel</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Photoreceptor noise sets an absolute limit for the accuracy of <span class="hlt">colour</span> discrimination. We compared <span class="hlt">colour</span> thresholds in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) with this limit. Bees were trained to discriminate an achromatic stimulus from monochromatic lights of various wavelengths as a function of their intensity. Signal-to-noise ratios were measured by intracellular recordings in the three spectral types of photoreceptor cells. To</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4129383"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vision</span> after 53 years of blindness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Šikl, Radovan; Šimec?ek, Michal; Porubanová-Norquist, Michaela; Bezdí?ek, Ond?ej; Kremlá?ek, Jan; Stod?lka, Pavel; Fine, Ione; Ostrovsky, Yuri</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Several studies have shown that visual recovery after blindness that occurs early in life is never complete. The current study investigated whether an extremely long period of blindness might also cause a permanent <span class="hlt">impairment</span> of visual performance, even in a case of adult-onset blindness. We examined KP, a 71-year-old man who underwent a successful sight-restoring operation after 53 years of blindness. A set of psychophysical tests designed to assess KP's face perception, object recognition, and visual space perception abilities were conducted six months and eight months after the surgery. The results demonstrate that regardless of a lengthy period of normal <span class="hlt">vision</span> and rich pre-accident perceptual experience, KP did not fully integrate this experience, and his visual performance remained greatly compromised. This was particularly evident when the tasks targeted finer levels of perceptual processing. In addition to the decreased robustness of his memory representations, which was hypothesized as the main factor determining visual <span class="hlt">impairment</span>, other factors that may have affected KP's performance were considered, including compromised visual functions, problems with perceptual organization, deficits in the simultaneous processing of visual information, and reduced cognitive abilities. PMID:25165507</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.nott.ac.uk/~rxq/files/EJOR2008.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptive Automated Construction of Hybrid Heuristics for Exam Timetabling and Graph <span class="hlt">Colouring</span> Problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Qu, Rong</p> <p></p> <p>- 1 - Adaptive Automated Construction of Hybrid Heuristics for Exam Timetabling and Graph <span class="hlt">Colouring</span> methods to design and adapt heuristics automatically. Experimental results on benchmark exam timetabling timetabling, graph <span class="hlt">colouring</span>, graph <span class="hlt">colouring</span> heuristics, hybridisation, hyper- heuristic 1 Introduction Since</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.exeter.ac.uk/media/universityofexeter/humanresources/documents/healthsafety/bottledgas/industrial-cylinder-colours.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Industrial Gas Cylinder <span class="hlt">Colours</span> While the cylinder label is the primary means of identifying the</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Bearhop, Stuart</p> <p></p> <p>. Cylinder shoulder - European standard <span class="hlt">colour</span> coding The <span class="hlt">colour</span> applied to the shoulder, or curved part 1089-3), which has replaced the old cylinder <span class="hlt">colour</span> scheme (BS349), is to help improve safety standards</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48231430"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Vision</span> of William Porterfield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Nicholas J. Wade</p> <p></p> <p>In eighteenth-century Britain, research on <span class="hlt">vision</span> was conducted in the context of either optics or medicine, and both were\\u000a influenced by philosophy. These threads were woven together by William Porterfield (ca. 1696–1771) in his essays on eye movements\\u000a and in his treatise on the eye and <span class="hlt">vision</span>. The scene for investigating <span class="hlt">vision</span> was set by Isaac Newton (1642–1727) in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25308677"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> and carotenoid changes of pasteurised orange juice during storage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wibowo, Scheling; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Tomic, Jovana; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Lemmens, Lien; Panozzo, Agnese; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann</p> <p>2015-03-15</p> <p>The correlation of carotenoid changes with <span class="hlt">colour</span> degradation of pasteurised single strength orange juice was investigated at 20, 28, 35 and 42°C for a total of 32 weeks of storage. Changes in <span class="hlt">colour</span> were assessed using the CIELAB system and were kinetically described by a zero-order model. L(?), a(?), b(?), ?E(?), Cab(?) and hab were significantly changed during storage (p<0.05). Activation energies for all <span class="hlt">colour</span> parameters were 64-73 kJ mol(-1). Several carotenoids showed important changes and appeared to have different susceptibilities to storage. A decrease of ?-cryptoxanthin was observed at higher temperatures, whereas antheraxanthin started to decrease at lower temperatures. Depending on the time and temperature, changes in carotenoids could be due to isomerisation reactions, which may lead to a perceptible <span class="hlt">colour</span> change. Although the contribution of carotenoids was recognised to some extent, other reactions seem of major importance for <span class="hlt">colour</span> degradation of orange juice during storage. PMID:25308677</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AASP....3..145P"><span id="translatedtitle">Tests of commercial <span class="hlt">colour</span> CMOS cameras for astronomical applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pokhvala, S. M.; Reshetnyk, V. M.; Zhilyaev, B. E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We present some results of testing commercial <span class="hlt">colour</span> CMOS cameras for astronomical applications. <span class="hlt">Colour</span> CMOS sensors allow to perform photometry in three filters simultaneously that gives a great advantage compared with monochrome CCD detectors. The Bayer BGR <span class="hlt">colour</span> system realized in <span class="hlt">colour</span> CMOS sensors is close to the astronomical Johnson BVR system. The basic camera characteristics: read noise (e^{-}/pix), thermal noise (e^{-}/pix/sec) and electronic gain (e^{-}/ADU) for the commercial digital camera Canon 5D MarkIII are presented. We give the same characteristics for the scientific high performance cooled CCD camera system ALTA E47. Comparing results for tests of Canon 5D MarkIII and CCD ALTA E47 show that present-day commercial <span class="hlt">colour</span> CMOS cameras can seriously compete with the scientific CCD cameras in deep astronomical imaging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21790744"><span id="translatedtitle">Conscious <span class="hlt">vision</span> for action versus unconscious <span class="hlt">vision</span> for action?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brogaard, Berit</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>David Milner and Melvyn Goodale's dissociation hypothesis is commonly taken to state that there are two functionally specialized cortical streams of visual processing originating in striate (V1) cortex: a dorsal, action-related "unconscious" stream and a ventral, perception-related "conscious" stream. As Milner and Goodale acknowledge, findings from blindsight studies suggest a more sophisticated picture that replaces the distinction between unconscious <span class="hlt">vision</span> for action and conscious <span class="hlt">vision</span> for perception with a tripartite division between unconscious <span class="hlt">vision</span> for action, conscious <span class="hlt">vision</span> for perception, and unconscious <span class="hlt">vision</span> for perception. The combination excluded by the tripartite division is the possibility of conscious <span class="hlt">vision</span> for action. But are there good grounds for concluding that there is no conscious <span class="hlt">vision</span> for action? There is now overwhelming evidence that illusions and perceived size can have a significant effect on action (Bruno & Franz, 2009; Dassonville & Bala, 2004; Franz & Gegenfurtner, 2008; McIntosh & Lashley, 2008). There is also suggestive evidence that any sophisticated visual behavior requires collaboration between the two visual streams at every stage of the process (Schenk & McIntosh, 2010). I nonetheless want to make a case for the tripartite division between unconscious <span class="hlt">vision</span> for action, conscious <span class="hlt">vision</span> for perception, and unconscious <span class="hlt">vision</span> for perception. My aim here is not to refute the evidence showing that conscious <span class="hlt">vision</span> can affect action but rather to argue (a) that we cannot gain cognitive access to action-guiding dorsal stream representations, and (b) that these representations do not correlate with phenomenal consciousness. This vindicates the semi-conservative view that the dissociation hypothesis is best understood as a tripartite division. PMID:21790744</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15127178"><span id="translatedtitle">Micro-Raman analysis of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> lithographs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Castro, K; Vandenabeele, P; Rodríguez-Laso, M D; Moens, L; Madariaga, J M</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>Raman micro-spectroscopy was chosen for analysis and identification of the pigments present in four nineteenth-century hand-<span class="hlt">coloured</span> lithographs, as this technique has several advantages over others for this purpose. The possibility of performing completely non-destructive analysis without any sampling is probably one of its most favourable qualities for art analysis. Raman spectroscopy can also be used to determine some pigments that cannot be detected using FTIR, such as vermilion, carbon blacks, cadmium pigments, etc. Among others, Prussian blue, ultramarine blue, carbon black, chrome yellow, yellow ochre, red lead, red iron oxide, burnt Sienna, indigo blue, chrome orange, phthalocyanine green, and some other organic pigments, were determined in the specimens. The results obtained have led to doubts about the age of the lithographs. PMID:15127178</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://geosci.uchicago.edu/~rtp1/papers/NatureSnowballMelt.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">can significantly improve the performance of <span class="hlt">colour</span>-conversion In addition to applications as efficient <span class="hlt">colour</span> converters, nano-</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Pierrehumbert, Raymond</p> <p></p> <p>as efficient <span class="hlt">colour</span> converters, nano- crystals have been considered promising building blocks for <span class="hlt">colour</span> in the regime of electrical injection by combining nano- crystals with an electrically driven InGaN quantum well of high-efficiency, electrically driven, hybrid nano- crystal/quantum-well devices. A Received 9 February</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.ivl.disco.unimib.it/papers2003/AIC2005-1175_1178.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">AIC <span class="hlt">Colour</span> 05 -10th Congress of the International <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Association The 3D Color Printer Explorer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Schettini, Raimondo</p> <p></p> <p>AIC <span class="hlt">Colour</span> 05 - 10th Congress of the International <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Association 1175 The 3D Color Printer Milano (ITALY) Corresponding author: R. Schettini (schettini@disco.unimib.it) ABSTRACT The 3D Color describe here the main features of the 3D Color Printer Explorer, an interactive visual evaluation system</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24971896"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical application of low <span class="hlt">vision</span> rehabilitation strategies after completion of a computer-based training module.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nipp, Cheri M; Vogtle, Laura K; Warren, Mary</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>This study evaluated changes in occupational therapists' practice behaviors after completion of an online continuing education (CE) program delivered over a hospital Intranet system. The setting was a large rural medical system covering parts of two southeastern states. A convenience sample of 28 occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants was recruited from the facility therapy staff. A CE module on low <span class="hlt">vision</span> assessment and treatment was delivered using the hospital Intranet and a follow-up survey assessing practice change was carried out 8 weeks later. Most participants reported an increase in their comfort level when treating clients with low <span class="hlt">vision</span> after course completion. Fifty percent of participants reported screening for <span class="hlt">vision</span> <span class="hlt">impairments</span>, increased use of environmental modifications, and more referrals to other <span class="hlt">vision</span> specialists. Outcomes suggest that Internet-delivered CE programs can improve knowledge and affect practice. PMID:24971896</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54805170"><span id="translatedtitle">A universal ultraviolet-optical <span class="hlt">colour-colour</span>-magnitude relation of galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Igor V. Chilingarian; Ivan Yu. Zolotukhin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The bimodal galaxy distribution in the optical <span class="hlt">colour</span>-magnitude diagram (CMD) comprises a narrow 'red sequence' populated mostly by early-type galaxies and a broad 'blue cloud' dominated by star-forming systems. Although the optical CMD allows one to select red sequence objects, neither can it be used for galaxy classification without additional observational data such as spectra or high-resolution images, nor to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15955664"><span id="translatedtitle">Blindness and visual <span class="hlt">impairment</span> from severe midface trauma in Nigerians.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ugboko, V I; Udoye, C; Olateju, S O; Amole, A O D</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>Reports have shown that severe midface trauma causes blindness and visual <span class="hlt">impairment</span> but information from sub-Saharan Africa is sparse. A retrospective analysis was carried out of patients who sustained trauma to the midface and subsequently lost <span class="hlt">vision</span> in one or both eyes. There were 25 males and 7 females whose ages ranged from 5 to 65 years (mean +/- SD, 33 +/- 13.3 years). All patients presented between 1 h and 7 days of sustaining injury (mean +/- SD, 1.9 +/- 1.9 days). Road traffic accidents (37.5%) and gunshot injuries (34.4%) were the commonest causes. Of the 32 patients identified with loss of <span class="hlt">vision</span>, half sustained fractures of the zygomatic complex while a total of 54 soft-tissue and bony injuries were recorded. The majority of patients (68.8%) had a ruptured globe, followed by vitreoretinal haemorrhage and traumatic optic neuropathy in 18.7% and 12.5%, respectively. Visual acuity ranged from 6/60 to 'no light perception'. Surgical exploration, enucleation, evisceration or exenteration was the treatment method used for those with ruptured globes. About 10.8% of patients with severe midface trauma also sustained loss of <span class="hlt">vision</span> in one eye. Loss of <span class="hlt">vision</span> associated with severe midface trauma is most likely to occur with road traffic accidents and gunshot injuries. High impact from such incidents often causes extensive damage to the eyeball resulting in immediate and irreversible blindness. PMID:15955664</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25540157"><span id="translatedtitle">Marked <span class="hlt">colour</span> divergence in the gliding membranes of a tropical lizard mirrors population differences in the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of falling leaves.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klomp, D A; Stuart-Fox, D; Das, I; Ord, T J</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Populations of the Bornean gliding lizard, Draco cornutus, differ markedly in the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of their gliding membranes. They also differ in local vegetation type (mangrove forest versus lowland rainforest) and consequently, the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of falling leaves (red and brown/black in mangrove versus green, brown and black in rainforest). We show that the gliding membranes of these lizards closely match the <span class="hlt">colours</span> of freshly fallen leaves in the local habitat as they appear to the visual system of birds (their probable predators). Furthermore, gliding membranes more closely resembled <span class="hlt">colours</span> of local fallen leaves than standing foliage or fallen leaves in the other population's habitat. This suggests that the two populations have diverged in gliding membrane coloration to match the <span class="hlt">colours</span> of their local falling leaves, and that mimicking falling leaves is an adaptation that functions to reduce predation by birds. PMID:25540157</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989OptLE..10..265H"><span id="translatedtitle">Photogrammetric machine <span class="hlt">vision</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haggrén, Henrik</p> <p></p> <p>Photogrammetry is the art, science and technology of obtaining reliable three-dimensional information about physical objects and the environment through processes of recording, measuring, and interpreting photographic images and patterns of electromagnetic radiant energy and other phenomena. In real-time photogrammetry, and specifically when applied to machine <span class="hlt">vision</span>, the solid state video cameras act as dynamic two-dimensional records of scences containing all the actual information for continuous gathering of three-dimensional object space data. Both passive and active real-time photogrammetric systems are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stereopsis&id=EJ295819"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vision</span> by Man and Machine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Poggio, Tomaso</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Studies of stereo <span class="hlt">vision</span> guide research on how animals see and how computers might accomplish this human activity. Discusses a sequence of algorithms to first extract information from visual images and then to calculate the depths of objects in the three-dimensional world, concentrating on stereopsis (stereo <span class="hlt">vision</span>). (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://sole.dimi.uniud.it/~christian.micheloni/lessons/AV/5.ObjectRecognition2011.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Artificial <span class="hlt">Vision</span> OBJECT RECOGNITIONOBJECT RECOGNITION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Artificial <span class="hlt">Vision</span> OBJECT RECOGNITIONOBJECT RECOGNITION Dr. Claudio Piciarelli Department of Computer Science University of Udine, ITALY #12;Artificial <span class="hlt">Vision</span> IntroductionIntroduction · The general pattern Video Flow Class N . . classification Pattern classification Klagenfurt, April 6-11 PAGE 2 #12</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830013570&hterms=Lota+lota&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DLota%2Blota"><span id="translatedtitle">An overview of computer <span class="hlt">vision</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gevarter, W. B.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>An overview of computer <span class="hlt">vision</span> is provided. Image understanding and scene analysis are emphasized, and pertinent aspects of pattern recognition are treated. The basic approach to computer <span class="hlt">vision</span> systems, the techniques utilized, applications, the current existing systems and state-of-the-art issues and research requirements, who is doing it and who is funding it, and future trends and expectations are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=school+AND+library+AND+management%5d&pg=4&id=EJ720819"><span id="translatedtitle">Management Matters. Nurture Your <span class="hlt">Vision</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pappas, Marjorie L.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In many professional roles, long-term <span class="hlt">vision</span> may help guide short-term decisions. This is especially true for school library professionals as library media programs are constantly evolving. This author suggests strategies to assist library media specialists to nurture their <span class="hlt">vision</span> and provides reviews of several sources and experts in the field…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=facility+AND+management&pg=7&id=EJ662853"><span id="translatedtitle">The IT <span class="hlt">Vision</span> in FM.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>NeSmith, Jerry</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Provides a forward-looking <span class="hlt">vision</span>, including goals, objectives, and principles, of information technology (IT) use within facilities management (FM). This <span class="hlt">vision</span> includes the evolution of the FM/IT organization from an operational role to a strategic role--from an FM divisional role to an enterprise role. (EV)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4609244"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vision</span>-Guided Intelligent Robots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Volker Graefe; Rainer Bischoff</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>We introduce three <span class="hlt">vision</span>-guided robots that have been designed and built for studying intelligent and adaptive behavior of technical systems in the real world. They are, in the order of commissioning, an autonomous indoor vehicle, a stationary calibration-free manipulator, and a humanoid robot with an omnidirectional wheelbase and two arms. They all use <span class="hlt">vision</span> as their main sensor modal- ity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.nei.nih.gov/eyeclinic/pdf/NEI_Clinical_Trials_Brochure.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical Trials in <span class="hlt">Vision</span> Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Bandettini, Peter A.</p> <p></p> <p>Clinical Trials in <span class="hlt">Vision</span> Research Information for Volunteers U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH research have led to new medications, surgeries, and methods for disease detection. #12;Contents Clinical Trials in <span class="hlt">Vision</span> Research 1 Basics of Clinical Trials 3 How a Clinical Trial is Conducted 7 Participating</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0805.2612v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Galaxy Zoo: the dependence of morphology and <span class="hlt">colour</span> on environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Steven P. Bamford; Robert C. Nichol; Ivan K. Baldry; Kate Land; Chris J. Lintott; Kevin Schawinski; Anze Slosar; Alexander S. Szalay; Daniel Thomas; Mehri Torki; Dan Andreescu; Edward M. Edmondson; Christopher J. Miller; Phil Murray; M. Jordan Raddick; Jan Vandenberg</p> <p>2008-11-14</p> <p>We analyse the relationships between galaxy morphology, <span class="hlt">colour</span>, environment and stellar mass using data for over 100,000 objects from Galaxy Zoo, the largest sample of visually classified morphologies yet compiled. We conclusively show that <span class="hlt">colour</span> and morphology fractions are very different functions of environment. Both are sensitive to stellar mass; however, at fixed stellar mass, while <span class="hlt">colour</span> is also highly sensitive to environment, morphology displays much weaker environmental trends. Only a small part of both relations can be attributed to variation in the stellar mass function with environment. Galaxies with high stellar masses are mostly red, in all environments and irrespective of their morphology. Low stellar-mass galaxies are mostly blue in low-density environments, but mostly red in high-density environments, again irrespective of their morphology. The <span class="hlt">colour</span>-density relation is primarily driven by variations in <span class="hlt">colour</span> fractions at fixed morphology, in particular the fraction of spiral galaxies that have red <span class="hlt">colours</span>, and especially at low stellar masses. We demonstrate that our red spirals primarily include galaxies with true spiral morphology. We clearly show there is an environmental dependence for <span class="hlt">colour</span> beyond that for morphology. Before using the Galaxy Zoo morphologies to produce the above results, we first quantify a luminosity-, size- and redshift-dependent classification bias that affects this dataset, and probably most other studies of galaxy population morphology. A correction for this bias is derived and applied to produce a sample of galaxies with reliable morphological type likelihoods, on which we base our analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2707868"><span id="translatedtitle">Phylogenetic analysis reveals a scattered distribution of autumn <span class="hlt">colours</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Archetti, Marco</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background and Aims Leaf <span class="hlt">colour</span> in autumn is rarely considered informative for taxonomy, but there is now growing interest in the evolution of autumn <span class="hlt">colours</span> and different hypotheses are debated. Research efforts are hindered by the lack of basic information: the phylogenetic distribution of autumn <span class="hlt">colours</span>. It is not known when and how autumn <span class="hlt">colours</span> evolved. Methods Data are reported on the autumn <span class="hlt">colours</span> of 2368 tree species belonging to 400 genera of the temperate regions of the world, and an analysis is made of their phylogenetic relationships in order to reconstruct the evolutionary origin of red and yellow in autumn leaves. Key Results Red autumn <span class="hlt">colours</span> are present in at least 290 species (70 genera), and evolved independently at least 25 times. Yellow is present independently from red in at least 378 species (97 genera) and evolved at least 28 times. Conclusions The phylogenetic reconstruction suggests that autumn <span class="hlt">colours</span> have been acquired and lost many times during evolution. This scattered distribution could be explained by hypotheses involving some kind of coevolutionary interaction or by hypotheses that rely on the need for photoprotection. PMID:19126636</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25369035"><span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional plasmonic stereoscopic prints in full <span class="hlt">colour</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goh, Xiao Ming; Zheng, Yihan; Tan, Shawn J; Zhang, Lei; Kumar, Karthik; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Yang, Joel K W</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Metal nanostructures can be designed to scatter different <span class="hlt">colours</span> depending on the polarization of the incident light. Such spectral control is attractive for applications such as high-density optical storage, but challenges remain in creating microprints with a single-layer architecture that simultaneously enables full-spectral and polarization control of the scattered light. Here we demonstrate independently tunable biaxial <span class="hlt">colour</span> pixels composed of isolated nanoellipses or nanosquare dimers that can exhibit a full range of <span class="hlt">colours</span> in reflection mode with linear polarization dependence. Effective polarization-sensitive full-<span class="hlt">colour</span> prints are realized. With this, we encoded two <span class="hlt">colour</span> images within the same area and further use this to achieve depth perception by realizing three-dimensional stereoscopic <span class="hlt">colour</span> microprint. Coupled with the low cost and durability of aluminium as the functional material in our pixel design, such polarization-sensitive encoding can realize a wide spectrum of applications in <span class="hlt">colour</span> displays, data storage and anti-counterfeiting technologies. PMID:25369035</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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