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1

Is colour vision impairment associated with cognitive impairment in solvent exposed workers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To determine whether acquired colour vision deficits in solvent exposed individuals are associated with cognitive impairment.Methods: A sample of 82 painters and 38 other subjects were studied. Alcohol, drug, and smoking histories were obtained. Colour vision was tested using the Lanthony D-15-d colour vision test. Cognitive impairment was measured using the Benton visual retention test, Trail making A, and

F Dick; S Semple; A Soutar; A Osborne; J W Cherrie; A Seaton

2004-01-01

2

All Vision Impairment  

MedlinePLUS

Home » Resources » Statistics and Data » Vision Impairment All Vision Impairment Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is defined as the best-corrected visual acuity less than 6/12 (‹20/40) in the ...

3

Colour vision requirements of firefighters.  

PubMed

To perform their job safely firefighters must be able to identify colours on industrial gas cylinders, portable fire extinguishers, road traffic signals and several pieces of firefighting equipment. Although good colour vision is necessary we believe that the existing colour vision standard, which bars entry to the fire service to applicants who fail more than two plates of the Ishihara test, is unnecessarily stringent. We have identified and quantified the colour coded information encountered by firefighters. Colours were plotted on the CIE chromaticity diagram (1931) and isochromatic zones, which document the colour confusions of colour deficient observers, superimposed. This novel technique established possible colour confusions in different types of colour deficiency. Analysis of the results showed that red/green dichromats (protanopes and deuteranopes), severe deuteranomalous trichromats who fail the Farnsworth D15 test, and protanomalous trichromats are unsuitable for firefighting work. However, people with slight deuteranomalous trichromatism who pass the D15 test, are not disadvantaged and can be employed safely as firefighters. A new colour vision standard and a new testing procedure is recommended. PMID:8776247

Margrain, T H; Birch, J; Owen, C G

1996-04-01

4

Neurological deficits in solvent-exposed painters: a syndrome including impaired colour vision, cognitive defects, tremor and loss of vibration sensation.  

PubMed

Five individuals are described who had participated in a study of former dockyard painters. All had worked between 16 years and 45 years as industrial painters, much of the time inside ships. All underwent structured neurological examination, colour vision testing (allowing calculation of a colour confusion index corrected for age and alcohol), and detailed psychometric testing. An occupational history sufficient to allow estimation of past exposure to solvents was taken. All gave a history of exposure to high concentrations of solvents at work, and several described episodes of acute narcosis. All showed neurological deficits and some had overt neurological disease, although in no case had this previously been linked to their work. The most striking features, sufficient to constitute a syndrome, were acquired blue-yellow colour vision deficits, coarse tremor, impaired vibration sensation in the legs and cognitive impairment. Their estimated cumulative exposures to solvents ranged between the equivalent of 13 and 37 calendar years working at the Occupational Exposure Standard concentration (OES years). This study for the first time gives an indication of the concentrations of solvents likely to lead to serious neurological disease in humans. It serves as a reminder to physicians to take an occupational history from patients with obscure neurological or psychological impairment. PMID:11029475

Dick, F; Semple, S; Chen, R; Seaton, A

2000-10-01

5

Colour vision of diabetics.  

PubMed Central

The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test has been assessed as a screening test for the detection of diabetic retinopathy likely to benefit from laser photocoagulation therapy. Two hundred and thirty-two diabetic eyes of 126 patients were tested. The results were assessed both for total error score relative to age and for the presence of polarity. Although the incidence of abnormal colour discrimination was found to correlate with the severity of retinopathy, the test was not sufficiently selective to be of value as a screening test in the detection of retinopathy requiring treatment.

Green, F D; Ghafour, I M; Allan, D; Barrie, T; McClure, E; Foulds, W S

1985-01-01

6

Evolution of colour vision in mammals  

PubMed Central

Colour vision allows animals to reliably distinguish differences in the distributions of spectral energies reaching the eye. Although not universal, a capacity for colour vision is sufficiently widespread across the animal kingdom to provide prima facie evidence of its importance as a tool for analysing and interpreting the visual environment. The basic biological mechanisms on which vertebrate colour vision ultimately rests, the cone opsin genes and the photopigments they specify, are highly conserved. Within that constraint, however, the utilization of these basic elements varies in striking ways in that they appear, disappear and emerge in altered form during the course of evolution. These changes, along with other alterations in the visual system, have led to profound variations in the nature and salience of colour vision among the vertebrates. This article concerns the evolution of colour vision among the mammals, viewing that process in the context of relevant biological mechanisms, of variations in mammalian colour vision, and of the utility of colour vision.

Jacobs, Gerald H.

2009-01-01

7

The handicap of abnormal colour vision.  

PubMed

All people with abnormal colour vision, except for a few mildly affected deuteranomals, report that they experience problems with colour in everyday life and at work. Contemporary society presents them with increasing problems because colour is now so widely used in printed materials and in computer displays. Equal opportunity law gives them protection against unfair discrimination in employment, so a decision to exclude a person from employment on the grounds of abnormal colour vision must now be well supported by good evidence and sound argument. This paper reviews the investigations that have contributed to understanding the nature and consequences of the problems they have. All those with abnormal colour vision are at a disadvantage with comparative colour tasks that involve precise matching of colours or discrimination of fine colour differences either because of their loss of colour discrimination or anomalous perception of metamers. The majority have problems when colour is used to code information, in man-made colour codes and in naturally occurring colour codes that signal ripeness of fruit, freshness of meat or illness. They can be denied the benefit of colour to mark out objects and organise complex visual displays. They may be unreliable when a colour name is used as an identifier. They are slower and less successful in search when colour is an attribute of the target object or is used to organise the visual display. Because those with the more severe forms of abnormal colour vision perceive a very limited gamut of colours, they are at a disadvantage in the pursuit and appreciation of those forms of art that use colour. PMID:15312030

Cole, Barry L

2004-07-01

8

Kids' Quest: Vision Impairment  

MedlinePLUS

... most important job. [ Return to Steps ] World-Wide Web Search Kids Health: What is Vision Impairment What ... for the Blind (AFB) created the Braille Bug web site to teach sighted children about braille, and ...

9

Colour vision in coral reef fish.  

PubMed

Over many millions of years, sea creatures have developed a range of light reflectance properties. One example is the large variation in the patterns and colours of fish inhabiting the world's coral reefs. Attempts to understand the significance of the colouration have been made, but all too often from the perspective of a human observer. A more ecological approach requires us to consider the visual system of those for whom the colours were intended, namely other sea life. A first step is to understand the sensitivity of reef fish themselves to colour. Physiological data has revealed wavelength-tuned photoreceptors in reef fish, and this study provides behavioural evidence for their application in colour discrimination. Using classical conditioning, freshly caught damselfish were trained to discriminate coloured patterns for a food reward. Within 3-4 days of capture the fish selected a target colour on over 75% of trials. Brightness of the distracter and target were systematically varied to confirm that the fish could discriminate stimuli on the basis of chromaticity alone. The study demonstrates that reef fish can learn to perform two-alternative discrimination tasks, and provides the first behavioural evidence that reef fish have colour vision. PMID:18203990

Siebeck, U E; Wallis, G M; Litherland, L

2008-02-01

10

The Physics of Colour Vision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An elementary physical model of cone receptor cells is explained and applied to complexities of human color vision. One-, two-, and three-receptor systems are considered, with the later shown to be the best model for the human eye. Color blindness is also discussed. (DH)|

Goldman, Martin

1985-01-01

11

The Physics of Colour Vision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An elementary physical model of cone receptor cells is explained and applied to complexities of human color vision. One-, two-, and three-receptor systems are considered, with the later shown to be the best model for the human eye. Color blindness is also discussed. (DH)

Goldman, Martin

1985-01-01

12

A Vision System for Providing the Blind with 3D Colour Perception of the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although various attempts have been made at providing the blind with substitute visual perception, no existing method provides useful colour perception of the environment. This paper describes a substitute vision system which provides perception of the three-dimensional profile and colour of the surrounding environment via haptic sensations alone. This is aimed at allowing visually-impaired people to avoid obstacles and navigate

SIMON MEERS; KOREN WARD

2005-01-01

13

Temporal resolution of colour vision in the honeybee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.The temporal resolution of colour vision was measured in freely-flying honeybees by testing the performance of trained bees in discriminating between two stimuli, one of which presented a steady, homogeneous mixture of two colours, while the other offered a heterochromatic flicker between the two colours at various temporal frequencies. Pairwise combinations of the colours uv, blue and green were

Mandyam Srinivasan; Miriam Lehrer

1985-01-01

14

Vision Impairment and Blindness  

MedlinePLUS

... age-related eye diseases: macular degeneration, cataract and glaucoma. Other eye disorders, eye injuries and birth defects can also cause vision loss. Whatever the cause, lost vision cannot be ... eye exams by an eye care professional. NIH: National Eye Institute

15

Behavioural evidence for colour vision in stomatopod crustaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

If an organism can be taught to respond in a particular way to a wavelength of light, irrespective of that light's intensity, then it must be able to perceive the colour of the stimulus. No marine invertebrate has yet been shown to have colour vision. Stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimps) are colourful animals and their eyes have many adaptations which indicate

N. J. Marshall; J. P. Jones; T. W. Cronin

1996-01-01

16

The Absolute Threshold of Colour Vision in the Horse  

PubMed Central

Arrhythmic mammals are active both during day and night if they are allowed. The arrhythmic horses are in possession of one of the largest terrestrial animal eyes and the purpose of this study is to reveal whether their eye is sensitive enough to see colours at night. During the day horses are known to have dichromatic colour vision. To disclose whether they can discriminate colours in dim light a behavioural dual choice experiment was performed. We started the training and testing at daylight intensities and the horses continued to choose correctly at a high frequency down to light intensities corresponding to moonlight. One Shetland pony mare, was able to discriminate colours at 0.08 cd/m2, while a half blood gelding, still discriminated colours at 0.02 cd/m2. For comparison, the colour vision limit for several human subjects tested in the very same experiment was also 0.02 cd/m2. Hence, the threshold of colour vision for the horse that performed best was similar to that of the humans. The behavioural results are in line with calculations of the sensitivity of cone vision where the horse eye and human eye again are similar. The advantage of the large eye of the horse lies not in colour vision at night, but probably instead in achromatic tasks where presumably signal summation enhances sensitivity.

Roth, Lina S. V.; Balkenius, Anna; Kelber, Almut

2008-01-01

17

Impact of congenital colour vision defects on occupation  

PubMed Central

Aims: To investigate whether there is an association between congenital colour vision defects (CVD) and occupational choice and employment history, in order to inform the debate about the value of universal childhood screening for these disorders. Methods: Participants were 6422 males and 6112 females from the 1958 British birth cohort, followed from birth to 33 years, whose colour vision was assessed (Ishihara test) at 11 years. Results: A total of 431 males (6.7%) had CVD. Men with CVD had pursued some careers for which normal colour vision is currently regarded as essential; for example, eight men (3.1%) with CVD were in the police, armed forces, or fire-fighting service at 33 years compared to 141 men (3.8%) with normal colour vision. They were, however, under-represented compared to those with normal colour vision, in other occupations; for example, no men with CVD were employed in electrical and electronic engineering at 33 years compared to 15 men (0.4%) with normal colour vision. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest there is little to be gained by continuing with existing school screening programmes for CVD, whose primary purpose is to advise affected children against certain careers. Other ways of informing young people about potential occupational difficulties and pathways for referral for specialist assessment are likely to be more useful.

Cumberland, P; Rahi, J; Peckham, C

2005-01-01

18

Colour vision in coral reef fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Over many millions of years, sea creatures have developed a range of light reflectance properties. One example is the large variation in the patterns and colours of fish inhabiting the world?s coral reefs. Attempts to understand the significance of the colouration have been made, but all too often from the perspective of a human observer. A more ecological approach

U. E. Siebeck; G. M. Wallis; L. Litherland

2008-01-01

19

Dark Adaptation of Colour Vision in Diabetic Subjects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eye disease, a late complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) occurs even under a careful glicemic control. It includes optic nerve, retina, vitreous humor, crystalline lens and pupillary affection. The physiopathological process could be independent of blood glucose levels or start at initial stages of the disease. Photoreceptors have specific physiological functions. The functional substrate of day light or colour vision in superior primates, the cones have different spectral sensitivity, 455, 530 and 560 nm. The rods, maximal sensitivity at 505 nm, are much more sensitive to light than are cones. Dark adaptation was tested to evaluate functional impairment differences in photoreceptors of diabetic subjects. 14 DM2 (type 2 DM), and 5 DM1 (type 1 DM) patients, as well as 9 healthy subjects were studied. Retinal affected individuals, were excluded. Dark adaptation curves seemed to be different between DM, and healthy subjects. Cones, specially those sensitive to 560 nm type, seems to be more labile to DM, as demonstrated by the lack of sensitivity to low, and medium intensity stimuli. Medical Physics and elementary Biomedical Engineering exhibited to be useful to discern malfunction between different types of photorreceptors. The inexpensive method used could be applied for early color vision alteration detection.

Márquez-Gamiño, S.; Cortés-Peñaloza, J. L.; Pérez-Hernández, J. U.; Cruz-Rodríguez, E.; Caudillo, C.

2004-09-01

20

Ultraviolet sensitivity and colour vision in raptor foraging.  

PubMed

Raptors have excellent vision, yet it is unclear how they use colour information. It has been suggested that raptors use ultraviolet (UV) reflections from vole urine to find good hunting grounds. In contrast, UV plumage colours in songbirds such as blue tits are assumed to be 'hidden' communication signals, inconspicuous to raptors. This ambiguity results from a lack of knowledge about raptor ocular media transmittance, which sets the limit for UV sensitivity. We measured ocular media transmittance in common buzzards (Buteo buteo), sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), red kites (Milvus milvus) and kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) so that, for the first time, raptor UV sensitivity can be fully described. With this information, and new measurements of vole urine reflectance, we show that (i) vole urine is unlikely to provide a reliable visual signal to hunting raptors and (ii) blue tit plumage colours are more contrasting to blue tits than to sparrowhawks because of UV reflectance. However, as the difference between blue tit and sparrowhawk vision is subtle, we suggest that behavioural data are needed to fully resolve this issue. UV cues are of little or no importance to raptors in both vole and songbird interactions and the role of colour vision in raptor foraging remains unclear. PMID:23785106

Lind, Olle; Mitkus, Mindaugas; Olsson, Peter; Kelber, Almut

2013-05-15

21

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF VISION MULTIPLEXING DEVICES FOR VISION IMPAIRMENTS  

PubMed Central

We have proposed a novel concept of vision multiplexing for the visually impaired – superimposing contour images over their natural view of a scene or over original images presented on a TV screen. We have implemented the concept using an optical see-through head mounted display to provide either visual field expansion to patients with peripheral field loss or vision enhancement to patients with central vision loss. We have also implemented the concept in a video player with dynamic magnification for patients with central vision loss. Results of initial testing in the lab and on the street are promising.

PELI, ELI; LUO, GANG; BOWERS, ALEX; RENSING, NOA

2009-01-01

22

Association between hearing and vision impairments in older adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine which, if any, vision variables are associated with moderate bilateral hearing loss in an elderly population. Methods Four hundred and forty six subjects completed a hearing screening in conjunction with measurements on a variety of vision tests including high contrast acuity, low contrast acuity measured under a variety of lighting conditions, contrast sensitivity, stereopsis, and colour vision. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between various vision variables and hearing impairment while controlling for demographic and other co-morbid conditions. Results In this sample of older adults with a mean age of 79.9 years, 5.4% of individuals were moderately visually impaired (binocular high contrast VA worse than 0.54 logMAR, Snellen equivalent 6/21 or 20/70) and 12.8% were moderately bilaterally hearing impaired (hearing none of the 40 dB tones at 500, 2000 or 4000 Hz in either ear). Three measures of low contrast acuity, but not high contrast acuity or other vision measures, were significantly associated with hearing loss when controlling for age, cataract surgery history, glaucoma history and self reported stroke, all of which were significantly associated with hearing loss, although the association of glaucoma with hearing loss was negative. Conclusions Poorer vision for low contrast targets was associated with an increased risk of hearing impairment in older adults. Audiologists and optometrists should enquire about the other sense in cases in which a deficit is measured as individuals with dual sensory loss are at a marked disadvantage in daily life

Schneck, Marilyn E.; Lott, Lori A.; Haegerstrom-Portnoy, Gunilla; Brabyn, John A

2011-01-01

23

Colour vision and response bias in a coral reef fish.  

PubMed

Animals use coloured signals for a variety of communication purposes, including to attract potential mates, recognize individuals, defend territories and warn predators of secondary defences (aposematism). To understand the mechanisms that drive the evolution and design of such visual signals, it is important to understand the visual systems and potential response biases of signal receivers. Here, we provide raw data on the spectral capabilities of a coral reef fish, the Picasso triggerfish Rhinecanthus aculeatus, which is potentially trichromatic with three cone sensitivities of 413 nm (single cone), 480 nm (double cone, medium sensitivity) and 528 nm (double cone, long sensitivity), and a rod sensitivity of 498 nm. The ocular media have a 50% transmission cut off at 405 nm. Behavioural experiments confirmed colour vision over their spectral range; triggerfish were significantly more likely to choose coloured stimuli over grey distractors, irrespective of luminance. We then examined whether response biases existed towards coloured and patterned stimuli to provide insight into how visual signals - in particular, aposematic colouration - may evolve. Triggerfish showed a preferential foraging response bias to red and green stimuli, in contrast to blue and yellow, irrespective of pattern. There was no response bias to patterned over monochromatic non-patterned stimuli. A foraging response bias towards red in fish differs from that of avian predators, who often avoid red food items. Red is frequently associated with warning colouration in terrestrial environments (ladybirds, snakes, frogs), whilst blue is used in aquatic environments (blue-ringed octopus, nudibranchs); whether the design of warning (aposematic) displays is a cause or consequence of response biases is unclear. PMID:23580729

Cheney, Karen L; Newport, Cait; McClure, Eva C; Marshall, N Justin

2013-04-11

24

A Standalone Vision Impairments Simulator for Java Swing Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lot of work has been done lately in an attempt to assess accessibility. For the case of web rich-client applications several tools exist that simulate how a vision impaired or colour-blind person would perceive this content. In this work we propose a simulation tool for non-web JavaTM Swing applications. Developers and designers face a real challenge when creating software that has to cope with a lot of interaction situations, as well as specific directives for ensuring an accessible interaction. The proposed standalone tool will assist them to explore user-centered design and important accessibility issues for their JavaTM Swing implementations.

Oikonomou, Theofanis; Votis, Konstantinos; Korn, Peter; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Likothanasis, Spriridon

25

Defective colour vision and taste sensitivity to PTC in the Maharashtrian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three caste groups of the Maharashtrian population, namely Brahmin (N=58), Maratha (N=989) and Scheduled caste (N=1073), were\\u000a studied for defective colour vision and for the ability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). Comparisons of defective colour\\u000a vision and PTC taste sensitivity were made with other Maharashtrian populations studied previously by various authors.\\u000a \\u000a The incidence of defective colour vision is lowest among the

N. Singh; A. Bagga

1994-01-01

26

Suitability of School Textbooks for 5 to 7 Year Old Children with Colour Vision Deficiencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine, through colorimetric analysis, whether school textbooks for children aged 5 to 7 years contained tasks requiring normal colour vision discrimination for their resolution. In addition, the performance of a group of observers with diverse colour vision deficiencies was evaluated while…

Torrents, Aurora; Bofill, Francesc; Cardona, Genis

2011-01-01

27

Environmental factors which may have led to the appearance of colour vision.  

PubMed Central

It is hypothesized that colour vision and opponent processing of colour signals in the visual system evolved as a means of overcoming the extremely unfavourable lighting conditions in the natural environment of early vertebrates. The significant flicker of illumination inherent in the shallow-water environment complicated the visual process in the achromatic case, in particular preventing early detection of enemies. The presence of two spectral classes of photoreceptors and opponent interaction of their signals at a subsequent retinal level allowed elimination of the flicker from the retinal image. This new visual function provided certain advantages concerning reaction times and favoured survival. This assumption explains why the building blocks for colour vision arose so early, i.e. just after the active predatory lifestyle was mastered. The principal functions of colour vision inherent in extant animals required a more complex neural machinery for colour processing and evolved later as the result of a change in visual function favouring colour vision.

Maximov, V V

2000-01-01

28

Peripheral vision enhancement for the AMD impaired  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image Jittering was explored as a way of enhancing the peripheral vision of the AMD-Impaired. In the experiments conducted we studied the visual response of 4 normal subjects to the jittering of a grating image. Results of this study indicate an enhancement in angular resolution of about 40% (14 cpd Vs. 10 cpd) upon image jittering with amplitudes varying between 5 and 10 pixels and temporal frequency varying between 0 to 15 Hz. No significant difference in enhancement was found between orthogonal and parallel jittering motion relative to the grating direction. There was also no significant difference between the 5 and 10 pixel amplitude used. These result suggest that image jittering can be used to enhance the impaired vision of AMD inflicted patients.

Weyl, Michael; Efron, Uzi

2009-08-01

29

Image Enhancement for Impaired Vision: the Challenge of Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aging of the population, the prevalence of eye diseases and thus of vision impairment is increasing. The TV watching habits of people with vision impairments are comparable to normally sighted people (1), however their vision loss prevents them from fully benefiting from this medium. For over 20 years we have been developing video image-enhancement techniques designed to assist

Eli Peli; Russell L. Woods

2009-01-01

30

22.4: Invited Paper: Augmented Vision Head-Mounted Systems for Vision Impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed, implemented and tested a novel concept of vision-multiplexing using augmented vision systems for people with vision impairments. Minified contour images from a head-mounted, miniature video camera are presented on a see-through display providing visual field expansion while still enabling the full resolution of the residual central vision to be maintained. 1. Background With normal vision we enjoy

Eli Peli; Gang Luo; Alex Bowers; Noa Rensing

2007-01-01

31

Research the mobile phone operation interfaces for vision-impairment.  

PubMed

Due to the vision-impaired users commonly having difficulty with mobile-phone function operations and adaption any manufacturer's user interface design, the goals for this research are established for evaluating how to improve for them the function operation convenience and user interfaces of either mobile phones or electronic appliances in the market currently. After applying collecting back 30 effective questionnaires from 30 vision-impairment, the comments have been concluded from this research include: (1) All mobile phone manufactures commonly ignorant of the vision-impairment difficulty with operating mobile phone user interfaces; (2) The vision-impairment preferential with audio alert signals; (3) The vision-impairment incapable of mobile-phone procurement independently unless with assistance from others; (4) Preferential with adding touch-usage interface design by the vision-impairment; in contrast with the least requirement for such functions as braille, enlarging keystroke size and diversifying-function control panel. With exploring the vision-impairment's necessary improvements and obstacles for mobile phone interface operation, this research is established with goals for offering reference possibly applied in electronic appliance design and . Hopefully, the analysis results of this research could be used as data references for designing electronic and high-tech products and promoting more usage convenience for those vision-impaired. PMID:22317456

Yao, Yen-Ting; Leung, Cherng-Yee

2012-01-01

32

Quality of life, impaired vision and social role in people with diabetes: a multicenter observational study.  

PubMed

Diabetic retinopathy may induce visual impairment. We evaluated vision-related quality of life in patients with visual acuity <5/10 in the better eye induced by retinopathy using the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). The NEI VFQ-25 was self-administered to 196 patients in 3 Italian centres (A, B and C; n = 64, 61 and 71, respectively) dedicated to DR screening and treatment. Patients in the 3 centres did not differ by age, gender, occupation and diabetes duration. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that reduced visual acuity was associated with decreased scores for General Vision, Near Activities, Distance Activities, Visual-Specific Social Functioning, Mental Health, Role Difficulties and Dependency, Driving, Colour Vision and Peripheral Vision (p < 0.01, all). Treatment by photocoagulation was associated with reduced scores in General Health (-8.3; p = 0.002), General Vision (-7.2; p = 0.001), Visual-Specific Role Difficulties (-8.8; p = 0.015) and Driving (-13.7; p = 0.003). Centre affiliation was associated with different scores for General Health, Ocular pain, Distance Activities, Visual-Specific Social Functioning and Role Difficulties and Peripheral Vision. Women had higher scores for General Vision (p = 0.015), Near Activities (p = 0.005), Distance Activities (p = 0.006), Visual-Specific Social Functioning (p = 0.03), Visual-Specific Mental Health (p = 0.035) and Colour Vision (p = 0.012). Diabetic retinopathy and vision loss modify the way people perceive their own ability to function autonomously. More data should be collected to confirm this interpretation and to guide the development of more appropriate settings to improve approach and support to patients. PMID:23526056

Trento, Marina; Passera, Pietro; Trevisan, Martina; Schellino, Francesca; Sitia, Elena; Albani, Stefano; Montanaro, Marcello; Bandello, Francesco; Scoccianti, Lucia; Charrier, Lorena; Cavallo, Franco; Porta, Massimo

2013-03-23

33

The spectral input systems of hymenopteran insects and their receptor-based colour vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral sensitivity functions S(?) of single photoreceptor cells in 43 different hymenopteran species were measured intracellularly with the fast spectral scan method. The distribution of maximal sensitivity values (?max) shows 3 major peaks at 340 nm, 430 nm and 535 nm and a small peak at 600 nm. Predictions about the colour vision systems of the different hymenopteran species are

Dagrnar Peitsch; Andrea Fietz; Horst Hertel; John de Souza; Dora Fix Ventura; Randolf Menzel

1992-01-01

34

Augmenting full colour-fused multi-band night vision imagery with synthetic imagery in real-time  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and first field trial results of an all-day all-weather enhanced and synthetic-fused multi-band colour night vision surveillance and observation system. The system augments a fused and dynamic three-band natural-colour night vision image with synthetic 3D imagery in real-time. The night vision sensor suite consists of three cameras, sensitive in, respectively, the visual (400–700?nm), the near-infrared (NIR,

Alexander Toet; Maarten A. Hogervorst; Rob van Son; Judith Dijk

2011-01-01

35

Unilateral colour vision defects and the dimensions of dichromat experience.  

PubMed

The standard view, that protanopes and deuteranopes see only varieties of yellow and blue, is often taken to be supported by the reports of people with one colour-blind eye and one normal (or near-normal) eye. Judd's survey of 89 years of unilateral cases might seem authoritative: 'The color perceptions of both protanopic and deuteranopic observers are confined to two hues, yellow and blue', corresponding to 575 and 470 nm (DB Judd, J Research National Bureau Standards, 41: 247-271, 1948). A critical re-examination reveals, however, that the cases do not support Judd's claim: the original publications indicate in most cases substantial (though limited) red-green discrimination with the dichromatic eye under favourable conditions (e.g. with large fields), and evidence of red/green sensation; in the main case where researchers find sensation only of yellow and blue, it is by using experimental methods that are almost guaranteed not to reveal the full range of the subject's sensation. More recent reports (from the 1950s and later) show that, if the colour experience space of a dichromat eye collapses to a 2D slice through the 3D space of a normal trichromat, the slice may be not flat but curved (and curved in more than one dimension): there are further reasons to think that dichromat colour experience, whether unilateral or bilateral, may not collapse to a plane at all. The unilateral cases are unclear in many ways, but they certainly give no support to a 'yellow-and-blue' view of dichromat experience. PMID:20883354

Broackes, Justin

2010-09-01

36

Polarizational colours could help polarization-dependent colour vision systems to discriminate between shiny and matt surfaces, but cannot unambiguously code surface orientation.  

PubMed

It was hypothesized that egg-laying Papilio butterflies could use polarizational colours as a cue to detect leaf orientation and to discriminate between shiny and matt leaves. These hypotheses would be supported if the following general questions were answered positively: (1) Can surface orientation be unambiguously coded by the polarizational colours perceived by polarization-sensitive colour vision systems? (2) Are the changes in the polarizational colours due to retinal rotation significantly different between shiny and matt surfaces? Using video polarimetry, we measured the reflection-polarizational characteristics of a shiny green hemisphere in the red, green and blue spectral ranges for different solar elevations and directions of view with respect to the solar azimuth as well as for sunlit and shady circumstances under clear skies. The continuously curving hemisphere models numerous differently oriented surfaces. Using the polarization- and colour-sensitive retina model developed earlier, we computed the polarizational colours of the hemisphere, and investigated the correlation between colours and local surface orientation. We also calculated the maximal changes of the polarizational colours of shiny and matt hemispheres induced by rotation of the retina. We found that a surface with any orientation can possess almost any polarizational colour under any illumination condition. Consequently, polarizational colours cannot unambiguously code surface orientation. Polarization sensitivity is even disadvantageous for the detection of surface orientation by means of colours. On the other hand, the colour changes due to retinal rotation can be significantly larger for shiny surfaces than for matt ones. Thus, polarizational colours could help discrimination between shiny and matt surfaces. The physical and perceptional reasons for these findings are explained in detail. Our results and conclusions are of general importance for polarization-dependent colour vision systems. PMID:15246750

Hegedüs, Ramón; Horváth, Gábor

2004-01-01

37

IMAGE ENHANCEMENT FOR IMPAIRED VISION: THE CHALLENGE OF EVALUATION  

PubMed Central

With the aging of the population, the prevalence of eye diseases and thus of vision impairment is increasing. The TV watching habits of people with vision impairments are comparable to normally sighted people1, however their vision loss prevents them from fully benefiting from this medium. For over 20 years we have been developing video image-enhancement techniques designed to assist people with visual impairments, particularly those due to central retinal vision loss. A major difficulty in this endeavor is the lack of evaluation techniques to assess and compare the effectiveness of various enhancement methods. This paper reviews our approaches to image enhancement and the results we have obtained, with special emphasis on the difficulties encountered in the evaluation of the benefits of enhancement and the solutions we have developed to date.

PELI, ELI; WOODS, RUSSELL L

2009-01-01

38

Beyond W3C: TruVision--Enhanced Online Learning for People Blind or Vision Impaired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the design and development of TruVision, an online learning environment designed to enable blind and vision impaired students to develop skills and expertise in elementary and advanced information processing strategies to enable them to seek full-time employment within industry in such positions as administrative assistants,…

Bate, Frank; Oliver, Ron

39

The spectral input systems of hymenopteran insects and their receptor-based colour vision.  

PubMed

Spectral sensitivity functions S(lambda) of single photoreceptor cells in 43 different hymenopteran species were measured intracellularly with the fast spectral scan method. The distribution of maximal sensitivity values (lambda max) shows 3 major peaks at 340 nm, 430 nm and 535 nm and a small peak at 600 nm. Predictions about the colour vision systems of the different hymenopteran species are derived from the spectral sensitivities by application of a receptor model of colour vision and a model of two colour opponent channels. Most of the species have a trichromatic colour vision system. Although the S(lambda) functions are quite similar, the predicted colour discriminability curves differ in their relative height of best discriminability in the UV-blue or blue-green area of the spectrum, indicating that relatively small differences in the S(lambda) functions may have considerable effects on colour discriminability. Four of the hymenopteran insects tested contain an additional R-receptor with maximal sensitivity around 600 nm. The R-receptor of the solitary bee Callonychium petuniae is based on a pigment (P596) with a long lambda max, whereas in the sawfly Tenthredo campestris the G-receptor appears to act as filter to a pigment (P570), shifting its lambda max value to a longer wavelength and narrowing its bandwidth. Evolutionary and life history constraints (e.g. phylogenetic relatedness, social or solitary life, general or specialized feeding behaviour) appear to have no effect on the S(lambda) functions. The only effect is found in UV receptors, for which lambda max values at longer wavelengths are found in bees flying predominantly within the forest. PMID:1573568

Peitsch, D; Fietz, A; Hertel, H; de Souza, J; Ventura, D F; Menzel, R

1992-01-01

40

Proposed protocol for a multi-centre study to compare clinical and trade tests of colour vision in firefighters.  

PubMed

Fire-brigade recruits in the UK have their colour vision screened using the Ishihara test. This is unsatisfactory because it rejects subjects with minor deficiencies in colour vision and does not test for blue defects. The Home Office is currently reviewing its recommendations on visual standards. This paper summarizes defects in colour vision, discusses alternative clinical and trade tests for the fire-brigade, and proposes a multi-centre study to collect data on the performance of fire-brigade recruits in clinical and trade tests. PMID:7841418

Rees, H

1994-12-01

41

Bank note recognition for the vision impaired.  

PubMed

Blind Australians find great difficulty in recognising bank notes. Each note has the same feel, with no Braille markings, irregular edges or other tangible features. In Australia, there is only one device available that can assist blind people recognise their notes. Internationally, there are devices available; however they are expensive, complex and have not been developed to cater for Australian currency. This paper discusses a new device, the MoneyTalker that takes advantage of the largely different colours and patterns on each Australian bank note and recognises the notes electronically, using the reflection and transmission properties of light. Different coloured lights are transmitted through the inserted note and the corresponding sensors detect distinct ranges of values depending on the colour of the note. Various classification algorithms were studied and the final algorithm was chosen based on accuracy and speed of recognition. The MoneyTalker has shown an accuracy of more than 99%. A blind subject has tested the device and believes that it is usable, compact and affordable. Based on the devices that are available currently in Australia, the MoneyTalker is an effective alternative in terms of accuracy and usability. PMID:16845929

Hinwood, A; Preston, P; Suaning, G J; Lovell, N H

2006-06-01

42

Colour, face, and visuospatial imagery abilities in low-vision individuals with visual field deficits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates to what extent visual perception integrity is necessary for visual mental imagery. Sixteen low-vision participants with severe peripheral visual field loss, 16 with severe central field loss, 6 left brain-damaged patients with right homonymous hemianopia, 6 right brain-damaged patients with left homonymous hemianopia, and 16 normally sighted controls performed perceptual and imagery tasks using colours, faces, and

David Dulin; Céline Cavezian; Coline Serrière; Anne-Catherine Bachoud-Levi; Paolo Bartolomeo; Sylvie Chokron

2011-01-01

43

Blue-Yellow Colour Vision Changes as Early Symptoms of Ethambutol Oculotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To find out the most sensitive parameter of early toxic ocular changes, a group of patients was extensively examined at regular intervals during therapy with ethambutol. Colour vision abnormalities could be detected using the desaturated panel of Lanthony in the presence of normal visual acuity, normal visual fields, normal visual-evoked potentials and a normal panel D-15 test. Maj or blue-yellow

B. C. P. Polak; M. Leys; G. H. M. van Lith

1985-01-01

44

Global cost of correcting vision impairment from uncorrected refractive error  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To estimate the global cost of establishing and operating the educational and refractive care facilities required to provide care to all individuals who currently have vision impairment resulting from uncorrected refractive error (URE). Methods The global cost of correcting URE was estimated using data on the population, the prevalence of URE and the number of existing refractive care practitioners in individual countries, the cost of establishing and operating educational programmes for practitioners and the cost of establishing and operating refractive care facilities. The assumptions made ensured that costs were not underestimated and an upper limit to the costs was derived using the most expensive extreme for each assumption. Findings There were an estimated 158 million cases of distance vision impairment and 544 million cases of near vision impairment caused by URE worldwide in 2007. Approximately 47?000 additional full-time functional clinical refractionists and 18?000 ophthalmic dispensers would be required to provide refractive care services for these individuals. The global cost of educating the additional personnel and of establishing, maintaining and operating the refractive care facilities needed was estimated to be around 20?000 million United States dollars (US$) and the upper-limit cost was US$ 28?000 million. The estimated loss in global gross domestic product due to distance vision impairment caused by URE was US$ 202?000 million annually. Conclusion The cost of establishing and operating the educational and refractive care facilities required to deal with vision impairment resulting from URE was a small proportion of the global loss in productivity associated with that vision impairment.

Fricke, TR; Wilson, DA; Schlenther, G; Naidoo, KS; Resnikoff, S; Frick, KD

2012-01-01

45

Visual impairment and the useful field of vision.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to measure the useful field of vision (UFoV) in people with visual impairment and to compare results with clinical measures of vision. UFoV, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and visual fields were measured in 36 participants with low vision and 22 age-matched controls in two age groups. For both the low vision and control groups the presence of distractors (cluttered field) increased the error rates on our UFoV measure but there was no significant effect of the presence of a central task (divided attention). Participants with low vision made more errors on UFoV than did controls, but this difference disappeared once their visual field defects were accounted for. By multiple regression analysis, age, visual fields and contrast sensitivity were shown to predict the different UFoV scores. As for observers with normal vision, standard clinical visual field tests may not fully describe the difficulties that may be encountered by people with visual impairment undertaking tasks in the cluttered environments and multiple demands of everyday life. PMID:16792739

Leat, Susan J; Lovie-Kitchin, Jan

2006-07-01

46

Developmental Growth Curves of Preschool Children with Vision Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used growth curve analysis to describe the development of 186 preschoolers with vision impairments. Found that mental retardation and developmental delay were associated with lower developmental ages and slower growth rates. Visual function of 20/800 or worse was associated with lower developmental ages and slower growth rates in personal-social…

Hatton, Deborah D.; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Ferrell, Kay Alicyn

1997-01-01

47

Photoreceptor sectral sensitivities in terrestrial animals: adaptations for luminance and colour vision  

PubMed Central

This review outlines how eyes of terrestrial vertebrates and insects meet the competing requirements of coding both spatial and spectral information. There is no unique solution to this problem. Thus, mammals and honeybees use their long-wavelength receptors for both achromatic (luminance) and colour vision, whereas flies and birds probably use separate sets of photoreceptors for the two purposes. In particular, we look at spectral tuning and diversification among ‘long-wavelength’ receptors (sensitivity maxima at greater than 500?nm), which play a primary role in luminance vision. Data on spectral sensitivities and phylogeny of visual photopigments can be incorporated into theoretical models to suggest how eyes are adapted to coding natural stimuli. Models indicate, for example, that animal colour vision—involving five or fewer broadly tuned receptors—is well matched to most natural spectra. We can also predict that the particular objects of interest and signal-to-noise ratios will affect the optimal eye design. Nonetheless, it remains difficult to account for the adaptive significance of features such as co-expression of photopigments in single receptors, variation in spectral sensitivities of mammalian L-cone pigments and the diversification of long-wavelength receptors that has occurred in several terrestrial lineages.

Osorio, D; Vorobyev, M

2005-01-01

48

Advanced IT Education for the Vision Impaired via e-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lack of accessibility in the design of e-learning courses continues to hinder students with vision impairment. E-learning materials are predominantly vision-centric, incorporating images, animation, and interactive media, and as a result students with acute vision impairment do not have equal opportunity to gain tertiary qualifications or skills…

Armstrong, Helen L.

2009-01-01

49

The effect of colour vision status on the detection and selection of fruits by tamarins (Saguinus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of trichromatic colour vision by the majority of anthropoid primates has been linked to the efficient detection and selection of food, particularly ripe fruits among leaves in dappled light. Modelling of visual signals has shown that trichromats should be more efficient than dichromats at distinguishing both fruits from leaves and ripe from unripe fruits. This prediction is tested

Andrew C. Smith; Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith; Alison K. Surridge; Daniel Osorio; Nicholas I. Mundy

2003-01-01

50

The Reliability of the CVI Range: A Functional Vision Assessment for Children with Cortical Visual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children who are identified as visually impaired frequently have a functional vision assessment as one way to determine how their visual impairment affects their educational performance. The CVI Range is a functional vision assessment for children with cortical visual impairment. The purpose of the study presented here was to examine the…

Newcomb, Sandra

2010-01-01

51

Blue-yellow colour vision in an onchocercal area of northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

AIM—To determine if the City University Tritan Test is a useful addition to visual function assessment in rural communities in northern Nigeria.?METHODS—The study was a cross sectional survey. The participants were 8394 people, aged 5 years and over, living in 37 rural communities, mesoendemic and non-endemic for onchocerciasis, in Kaduna State in northern Nigeria. The main outcome measures were the detection of a defect in blue-yellow colour vision by two criteria: (1) failure with the City University tritan screening plates; (2) failure with the City University grading plates to identify severe tritan defects.?RESULTS—91% of those aged 10 years and above could perform the test. Below this age, there were difficulties in comprehension. The test showed good inter- and intraobserver agreement. After adjustment for confounders the odds of failing the screening plates were significantly increased in the presence of optic atrophy or glaucoma (3.55 (2.48-5.08) and 15.9 (4.22-60.2) respectively). There was a greater increase in the adjusted odds of failing the grading plates in the presence of optic atrophy or glaucoma (5.30 (2.97-9.45) and 8.87 (1.61-48.7) respectively). Cataract had a smaller effect on the screening plates, adjusted odds 1.63 (0.95-2.80).?CONCLUSION—Blue-yellow colour vision testing is a useful addition to visual function assessment in those aged 10 years and above in rural northern Nigeria, particularly in the detection of optic nerve disease.?? Keywords: tritan defects; optic nerve disease; onchocerciasis; visual function assessment

Landers, A; Murdoch, I; Birch, J; Cousens, S; Babalola, O; Lawal, B; Abiose, A; Jones, B

1998-01-01

52

VISION PROBLEMS IN THE U.S.-PREVALENCE OF ADULT VISION IMPAIRMENT AND AGE-RELATED EYE DISEASES IN AMERICA  

EPA Science Inventory

Leading causes of vision impairment and blindness in the United States. Diabetic retinopathy? Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)? Cataract? Glaucoma? The Vision Problems in the U.S. study was the result of a 2001 consensus meeting, convened by the National Eye Institute and ...

53

World of Work: perceptions of people who are blind or vision impaired  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unemployment and underemployment have, for many years, been a social and economic problem for people with disabilities. This study looks at consumers’ perceptions of access to employment for people who are blind or vision impaired as one target group within the disability field. Using the Employment Access Questionnaire (EAQ), the perceptions of people who are blind or vision impaired were

Robyn M. Gillies; Karen Knight; A. J. Baglioni Jr

1998-01-01

54

Facilitating the Inclusion of Children with Vision Impairment: Perspectives of Itinerant Support Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children with vision impairment (VI) and blindness are largely educated in mainstream schools in Australia. Specialist itinerant support teachers--vision (ISTVs) travel from school to school to facilitate the education of these children. The purposes of this study were to examine the barriers that ISTVs face in this role, and to identify…

Morris, Christine; Sharma, Umesh

2011-01-01

55

A stereo vision-based aid for the visually impaired  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a portable vision-based obstacle detection system, intended for use by blind people. The system combines an obstacle detection system designed for AGVs with recalibration of ground position and a Kalman Filter based model of the person's walking movement. The system uses stereo vision. Obstacle detection is achieved through comparison of the disparity seen with that expected from

Nicholas Molton; Stephen Se; Michael Brady; David Lee; Penny Probert

1998-01-01

56

Optic aphasia for colours and colour agnosia: A distinction between visual and visuo-verbal impairments in the processing of colours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two patients, both of whom would have been described according to classic criteria as cases of colour agnosia, were studied. Three kinds of colour tasks were administered: Visual, verbal and visuo-verbal tasks. However this was not only done by manipulating the kind of stimulus and the kind of response—one being visual, the other verbal (Experiment 1)—as is standard in most

Marie-France Beauvois; Brigitte Saillant

1985-01-01

57

Parallel evolution of angiosperm colour signals: common evolutionary pressures linked to hymenopteran vision.  

PubMed

Flowering plants in Australia have been geographically isolated for more than 34 million years. In the Northern Hemisphere, previous work has revealed a close fit between the optimal discrimination capabilities of hymenopteran pollinators and the flower colours that have most frequently evolved. We collected spectral data from 111 Australian native flowers and tested signal appearance considering the colour discrimination capabilities of potentially important pollinators. The highest frequency of flower reflectance curves is consistent with data reported for the Northern Hemisphere. The subsequent mapping of Australian flower reflectances into a bee colour space reveals a very similar distribution of flower colour evolution to the Northern Hemisphere. Thus, flowering plants in Australia are likely to have independently evolved spectral signals that maximize colour discrimination by hymenoptera. Moreover, we found that the degree of variability in flower coloration for particular angiosperm species matched the range of reflectance colours that can only be discriminated by bees that have experienced differential conditioning. This observation suggests a requirement for plasticity in the nervous systems of pollinators to allow generalization of flowers of the same species while overcoming the possible presence of non-rewarding flower mimics. PMID:22673351

Dyer, Adrian G; Boyd-Gerny, Skye; McLoughlin, Stephen; Rosa, Marcello G P; Simonov, Vera; Wong, Bob B M

2012-06-06

58

Parallel evolution of angiosperm colour signals: common evolutionary pressures linked to hymenopteran vision  

PubMed Central

Flowering plants in Australia have been geographically isolated for more than 34 million years. In the Northern Hemisphere, previous work has revealed a close fit between the optimal discrimination capabilities of hymenopteran pollinators and the flower colours that have most frequently evolved. We collected spectral data from 111 Australian native flowers and tested signal appearance considering the colour discrimination capabilities of potentially important pollinators. The highest frequency of flower reflectance curves is consistent with data reported for the Northern Hemisphere. The subsequent mapping of Australian flower reflectances into a bee colour space reveals a very similar distribution of flower colour evolution to the Northern Hemisphere. Thus, flowering plants in Australia are likely to have independently evolved spectral signals that maximize colour discrimination by hymenoptera. Moreover, we found that the degree of variability in flower coloration for particular angiosperm species matched the range of reflectance colours that can only be discriminated by bees that have experienced differential conditioning. This observation suggests a requirement for plasticity in the nervous systems of pollinators to allow generalization of flowers of the same species while overcoming the possible presence of non-rewarding flower mimics.

Dyer, Adrian G.; Boyd-Gerny, Skye; McLoughlin, Stephen; Rosa, Marcello G. P.; Simonov, Vera; Wong, Bob B. M.

2012-01-01

59

Education of Children with Vision Impairments in the Sultanate of Oman.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the prevalence and patterns of vision impairment in the Sultanate of Oman. Reviews the types of special education and rehabilitation services offered and future priorities. Concludes that, although at present, few visually impaired children are receiving services, a special education system is evolving into a community-based approach to…

Hadidi, Muna S. Z.

1998-01-01

60

The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

2012-01-01

61

Impact of Pediatric Vision Impairment on Daily Life: Results of Focus Groups  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify through focus groups of visually impaired children and their parents, relevant content for a vision-targeted health-related quality of life questionnaire designed for children ages 6-12. Methods Six focus groups of children with vision impairment ages 6 -12 and six focus groups of their parents were conducted by trained facilitators using a guided script. Sessions were recorded, transcribed and coded per a standardized protocol for content analysis. Comments were placed in thematic categories and each coded as positive, negative or neutral. Results Twenty-four children (mean age 9.4 years) with vision impairment from a variety of causes and 23 parents participated. The child focus groups generated 1,163 comments, of which 52% (n=599) were negative, 12% (n=138) were neutral and 37% (n=426) were positive. The three most common topical areas among children were: glasses and adaptive equipment (18%), psychosocial (14%) and school (14%). The parent focus groups generated 1,952 comments of which 46% (n=895) were negative, 16% (n=323) were neutral and 38% (n=734) were positive. The three most common topical areas among parents were: school (21%), expectations or frustrations (14%) and psychosocial (13%). Conclusions Pediatric vision impairment has significant effects on health related quality of life, as reported by children with vision impairment and their parents in their own words. These findings will provide the content to guide construction of a survey instrument to assess vision-specific, health-related quality of life in children with vision impairment.

DeCarlo, Dawn K.; McGwin, Gerald; Bixler, Martha L.; Wallander, Jan; Owsley, Cynthia

2012-01-01

62

Impairment of color vision in aircraft maintenance workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The purpose of the study was to examine possible persisting effects to color vision in a group from the Royal Australian Air\\u000a Force who had exposure to formulations containing neurotoxins during F-111 fuel tank maintenance, relative to two contemporaneous\\u000a comparison groups.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Color vision was tested in 512 exposed personnel, 458 technical-trade comparisons, and 330 non-technical comparisons using\\u000a the Ishihara test

Maya Guest; Catherine D’Este; John Attia; May Boggess; Anthony Brown; Meredith Tavener; Richard Gibson; Ian Gardner; Warren Harrex; James Ross

63

LIMITS TO THE SALIENCE OF ULTRAVIOLET: LESSONS FROM COLOUR VISION IN BEES AND BIRDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultraviolet is an important component of the photic environment. It is used by a wide variety of animals and plants in mutualistic communication, especially in insect and flower inter-relationships. Ultraviolet reflections and sensitivity are also becoming well considered in the relationships between vertebrates and their environment. The relative importance of ultraviolet vis à vis other primary colours in trichromatic or

PETER G. KEVAN; LARS CHITTKA; ADRIAN G. DYER

64

Ultraviolet vision and band-colour preferences in female zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zebra finches have previously been found to have preferences for particular colours of both natural and artificial traits among opposite sex conspecifics. For example, in some studies female zebra finches preferred males wearing red leg bands to orange-banded and unbanded birds and rejected light green-banded males. In other studies, females also preferred males with red beaks to orange-beaked males. However,

SARAH HUNT; INNES C. CUTHILL; JOHN P. SWADDLE; ANDREW T. D. BENNETT

1997-01-01

65

Colour Perception in ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

2006-01-01

66

Towards Understanding the Role of Colour Information in Scene Perception using Night Vision Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aviation Night Vision Devices (NVDs) are used to enable air operations under conditions of low illumination. The current generation of devices uses a single sensitivity band in either the infrared or near-infrared range. The next generation of such device...

G. W. Stuart P. K. Hughes

2009-01-01

67

Tactual Comic Books for Children with Vision Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of tactual comic books is for children who are blind to become independent and integrated within the community, by preventing the delayed development of visually impaired children. It is a learning process. Establishing the concept of reality through imaginary cues, rather than visual cues, that sighted children would develop their concepts and social skills from.

Michael Sutjiadi

68

Functional Vision Assessment for the Severely Impaired/Visually Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper describes an approach to assessing the visual functioning of severely and/or profoundly impaired students. The assessment consists of three phases: identification, testing, and formal assessment. A checklist is used for identification. Testing considerations include medical factors (such as medications and effects of other handicaps),…

Dougherty, Shirley; Levy, Debra

69

Wearable Real-Time Stereo Vision for the Visually Impaired  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— Visually impaired find their navigation difficult as they often lack the needed information for bypassing obstacles and hazards. Electronic Travel Aids (ETAs) are devices that use sensor technology to assist and improve the blind user’s mobility interms of safety and speed. Modern ETAs does not provide distance information directly and clearly. This paper proposes a method for determining distance

G. Balakrishnan; G. Sainarayanan; R. Nagarajan; Sazali Yaacob

2007-01-01

70

Audio from Orbit: The Future of Libraries for Individuals Who Are Blind or Vision Impaired  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Free library service is a component of the foundations of democracy, citizenship, economic and social development, scholarship and education, in progressive societies. The evolution of libraries for people who are blind or vision impaired is briefly discussed and an innovative project, a talking book and daily newspaper delivery system that…

Steer, Michael; Cheetham, Leonie

2005-01-01

71

Students with Low Vision Describe Their Visual Impairments and Visual Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the study reported here, the responses to a survey that was designed to determine the knowledge of their visual impairment of 51 students with low vision were analyzed. Although the students described their visual weaknesses and strengths, they had limited knowledge of, and difficulty communicating about, the medical aspects of their…

Guerette, Amy R.; Lewis, Sandra; Mattingly, Cameron

2011-01-01

72

Audio from Orbit: The Future of Libraries for Individuals Who Are Blind or Vision Impaired  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Free library service is a component of the foundations of democracy, citizenship, economic and social development, scholarship and education, in progressive societies. The evolution of libraries for people who are blind or vision impaired is briefly discussed and an innovative project, a talking book and daily newspaper delivery system that…

Steer, Michael; Cheetham, Leonie

2005-01-01

73

A novel speech controller for radio amateurs with a vision impairment.  

PubMed

This paper describes a portable speech controller system for persons with a vision impairment to adjust the channel frequency of a radio set via speech commands. The speech commands are recognized on a general-purpose digital signal processor using a hidden Markov model (HMM), and are used to remotely control radio channel changes. PMID:10779112

Lin, C L; Bai, B R; Du, L C; Hu, C T; Young, S T; Kuo, T S

2000-03-01

74

An Overview of a UK Paediatric Visual Impaired Population and Low Vision Aid Provision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A retrospective study was carried out to evaluate the paediatric visual impaired population attending the Low Vision Clinic at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, over a period of 14 years. Data were collected and analysed for children less than 17 years for prevalence, demographics, registration status, aetiologies, and types of…

Theodorou, Nana; Shipman, Tracey

2013-01-01

75

Vision model based perceptual post filtering of JPEG2000 coded colour images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a perceptual post filtering coder for digital colour images in YCrCb colour space. The approach builds on our earlier perceptual coder (PC) and exploits intra-band and inter-orientation masking properties of Human Visual System (HVS) to identify, estimate and recover the amount of perceived visual information loss due to compression. The proposed technique applies to our earlier perceptual coder (PC) which retains most of the embedded Block Coding with Optimized Truncation (EBCOT) features and is bit-stream compliant to the JPEG2000 standard. We use PC coder to compress images with some information loss and hence loss of quality. The images are then reconstructed from the compressed bit-stream with our proposed post filtering coding technique that attempts to recover the perceived loss of visual information with a HVS model. The simulation results have shown that our proposed perceptual post filtering coder achieves comparable or superior visual performance over that of our PC, and that of JPEG2000 verification model 8.0 coder with both MSE and visual masking.

Tan, Chin Soon; Wu, Hong Ren

2005-07-01

76

Space Vision: Making Astronomy Accessible to Visually Impaired Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy, with good reason, is thought of as a visual science. Spectacular images of deep space objects or other worlds of our solar system inspire public interest in Astronomy. People encounter news about the universe during their daily life. Developing concepts about celestial objects presents an extra challenge of abstraction for people with visual impairments. The Texas Space Grant Consortium with educators at the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired have developed a 2 day workshop to be held in April 2004 to help students with visual impairments understand these concepts. Hands-on activities and experiments will emphasize non-visual senses. For example, students will learn about: - Constellations as historical ways of finding one's way across the sky. - The size and structure of the Solar System by building a scale model on a running track. They will also: - Plan a planetary exploration mission. - Explore wave phenomenon using heat and sound waves. In preparation for the workshop we worked with teens involved in the countywide 4-H Teens Leading with Character (TLC) program to create the tactile materials necessary for the activities. The teens attended solar system education training so they would have the skills necessary to make the tactile displays to be used during the workshop. The results and evaluation of the workshop will be presented at the meeting. Touch the Universe: A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy inspired this workshop, and it is supported by HST Grant HST-ED-90255.01-A.

Ries, J. G.; Baguio, M. R.; Jurgens, T. D.; Pruett, K. M.

2004-05-01

77

Colour Model for Outdoor Machine Vision for Tropical Regions and its Comparison with the CIE Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate modeling of daylight and surface reflectance are very useful for most outdoor machine vision applications specifically those which are based on color recognition. Existing daylight CIE model has drawbacks that limit its ability to predict the color of incident light. These limitations include lack of considering ambient light, effects of light reflected off the ground, and context specific information. Previously developed color model is only tested for a few geographical places in North America and its accountability is under question for other places in the world. Besides, existing surface reflectance models are not easily applied to outdoor images. A reflectance model with combined diffuse and specular reflection in normalized HSV color space could be used to predict color. In this paper, a new daylight color model showing the color of daylight for a broad range of sky conditions is developed which will suit weather conditions of tropical places such as Malaysia. A comparison of this daylight color model and daylight CIE model will be discussed. The colors of matte and specular surfaces have been estimated by use of the developed color model and surface reflection function in this paper. The results are shown to be highly reliable.

Sahragard, Nasrolah; Ramli, Abdul Rahman B.; Hamiruce Marhaban, Mohammad; Mansor, Shattri B.

2011-02-01

78

Parafoveal vision impairments and their influence on reading performance and self-evaluated reading abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose  Patients with homonymous hemianopic field defects (HFD) after postchiasmatic cerebral brain injuries often complain about\\u000a impairments in daily life activities, particularly problems in reading, and show considerable reductions of vision-related\\u000a quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to assess the relation of “objective” reading performance and self-reported “subjective”\\u000a reading abilities; it was further investigated whether parafoveal HFD characteristics

Carolin Gall; Caroline Wagenbreth; Susann Sgorzaly; Gabriele H. Franke; Bernhard A. Sabel

2010-01-01

79

Helping Hands versus ERSP Vision: Comparing Object Recognition Technologies for the Visually Impaired  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A major challenge for people with vision impairments ranging from severely low visual acuity to no light perception (NLP)\\u000a is identifying or distinguishing the difference between objects of similar size and shape. For many of these individuals,\\u000a locating and identifying specific objects can be an arduous task. This paper explores the design and evaluation of the “Helping\\u000a Hand”: A radio

Marc A. Lawson; Ellen Yi-Luen Do; James R. Marston; David A. Ross

80

Vision and hearing impairments are associated with depressive–anxiety syndrome in Italian elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between vision and hearing impairment and depressive–anxiety syndrome in a large population participating in the Faenza Project, Northern Italy.Method: The study population consisted of 7389 participants not affected by dementia, 4408 (59.7%), of whom were women, mean age?±?standard deviation (±SD) 71.9 (±7.7) years. Information about previous or current psychiatric

Virginia Bernabei; Valentina Morini; Francesca Moretti; Antonella Marchiori; Barbara Ferrari; Edoardo Dalmonte; Diana De Ronchi; Anna Rita Atti

2011-01-01

81

The Use of a Tactile-Vision Sensory Substitution System as an Augmentative Tool for Individuals with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The promise of novel technological strategies and solutions to assist persons with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) is frequently discussed and held to be widely beneficial in countless applications and daily activities. One such approach involving a tactile-vision sensory substitution modality as a mechanism…

Williams, Michael D.; Ray, Christopher T.; Griffith, Jennifer; De l'Aune, William

2011-01-01

82

Vision Impairment  

MedlinePLUS

... use . Home Symptom Checkup Injury Checkup Disease Checkup Women's Checkup Pregnancy Checkup Baby Checkup Mens Checkup Stephen J. Schueler, M.D. About Stephen J. Schueler, MD How it Works Testimonials FAQ for Consumers FAQ for Physicians News Advertising Terms of Use Contact Us Site Map How ...

83

Colour blindness.  

PubMed

The physiology of colour vision is discussed; as is the way in which the human eye can detect various combinations of red, green and blue. Red-green colour blindness, with X-linked inheritance, is the most common, but other types are also considered. Methods of testing relating to the age of the child are reviewed. The use of colours in teaching is widespread, but there is controversy over the difficulties this may cause a colour blind child. A review of the literature does not reveal much information on this, and any problems that do arise are likely to be individual to the child, and to depend on such factors as overall intelligence, the attitude of the teacher, and the personality of the child. There is not doubt that it is essential to recognise colour vision defects when it comes to choosing a career, and that tests must be done during secondary schooling, but in order to avoid some affected children being disadvantaged there is enough evidence to support testing at school entry. PMID:9581449

Gordon, N

1998-03-01

84

Photoreceptor optics of the honeybee and its eye colour mutants: the effect of screening pigments on the long-wave subsystem of colour vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of clarifying the role of screening pigments in photoreceptor optics of the compound eye, a comparative study of the optical properties of the honeybee eye in the visible region of the spectrum was carried out using wild-type bees and eye colour mutantssnow, snowlaranja, ivoryumberandchartreuse with total or partial blockage of the tryptophane-ommochrome pathway.1.The electroretinogram (ERG) of mutant

F. G. Gribakin

1988-01-01

85

Device for diagnosis and treatment of impairments on binocular vision and stereopsis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strabismus and amblyopia are two main impairments of our visual system, which are responsible for the loss of stereovision. A device is developed for diagnosis and treatment of strabismus and amblyopia, and for training and developing stereopsis. This device is composed of a liquid crystal glasses (LCG), electronics for driving LCG and synchronizing with an IBM PC, and a special software. The software contains specially designed patterns and graphics for enabling to train and develop stereopsis, and do objective measurement of some stereoscopic vision parameters such as horizontal and vertical phoria, fusion, fixation disparity, and stereoscopic visual threshold.

Bahn, Ji-Eun; Choi, Yong-Jin; Son, Jung-Young; Kodratiev, N. V.; Elkhov, Victor A.; Ovechkis, Yuri N.; Chung, Chan-sup

2001-06-01

86

The use of visual feedback during signing: evidence from signers with impaired vision.  

PubMed

The role of visual feedback during the production of American Sign Language was investigated by comparing the size of signing space during conversations and narrative monologues for normally sighted signers, signers with tunnel vision due to Usher syndrome, and functionally blind signers. The interlocutor for all groups was a normally sighted deaf person. Signers with tunnel vision produced a greater proportion of signs near the face than blind and normally sighted signers, who did not differ from each other. Both groups of visually impaired signers produced signs within a smaller signing space for conversations than for monologues, but we hypothesize that they did so for different reasons. Signers with tunnel vision may align their signing space with that of their interlocutor. In contrast, blind signers may enhance proprioceptive feedback by producing signs within an enlarged signing space for monologues, which do not require switching between tactile and visual signing. Overall, we hypothesize that signers use visual feedback to phonetically calibrate the dimensions of signing space, rather than to monitor language output. PMID:18495656

Emmorey, Karen; Korpics, Franco; Petronio, Karen

2008-05-20

87

Gender-specific associations of vision and hearing impairments with adverse health outcomes in older Japanese: a population-based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Several epidemiological studies have shown that self-reported vision and hearing impairments are associated with adverse health outcomes (AHOs) in older populations; however, few studies have used objective sensory measurements or investigated the role of gender in this association. Therefore, we examined the association of vision and hearing impairments (as measured by objective methods) with AHOs (dependence in activities of

Takehiro Michikawa; Yuji Nishiwaki; Yuriko Kikuchi; Makiko Nakano; Satoko Iwasawa; Keiko Asakura; Ai Milojevic; Kunio Mizutari; Hideyuki Saito; Susumu Ishida; Tomonori Okamura; Toru Takebayashi

2009-01-01

88

Epidemiological assessment of lens opacifications that impaired vision in patients injected with radium-224  

SciTech Connect

The incidence of lens opacifications that impaired vision (cataract) was analyzed among 831 patients who were injected with known dosages of /sup 224/Ra in Germany shortly after World War II. The dependence of the incidence on dosage, i.e., injected activity per unit body weight, and on time after treatment was determined. The observations are equally consistent with proportionality of the incidence of cataract to the square of dosage or with a linear dependence beyond a threshold of 0.5 MBq/kg. The possibility of a linear dependence without threshold was strongly rejected (P less than 0.001). The analysis of temporal dependences yielded a component that was correlated with the injected amount of /sup 224/Ra and a component that was uncorrelated. The former was inferred by a maximum likelihood analysis to increase approximately as the square of the time after treatment. The component unrelated to the treatment was found to increase steeply with age and to become dominant within the collective of patients between age 50 and 60. The relative magnitudes of the two components were such that a fraction of 55 to 60% of the total of 58 cataracts had to be ascribed to the dose-related incidence. Impaired vision due to cataract was diagnosed before age 54 in 25 cases. In terms of injected activity per unit body weight no dependence of the sensitivity on age was found; specifically there was no indication of a faster occurrence of the treatment-related cataracts in patients treated at older ages.

Chmelevsky, D.; Mays, C.W.; Spiess, H.; Stefani, F.H.; Kellerer, A.M.

1988-08-01

89

14 CFR 382.53 - What information must carriers give individuals with a vision or hearing impairment at airports?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...vision or hearing impairment at airports? (a)(1) As a...control at any U.S. or foreign airport, to the extent that this does...with employees' safety and security duties as set forth in FAA...or control at any U.S. airport. At foreign airports,...

2013-01-01

90

Visual search performance of patients with vision impairment: Effect of JPEG image enhancement  

PubMed Central

Purpose To measure natural image search performance in patients with central vision impairment. To evaluate the performance effect for a JPEG based image enhancement technique using the visual search task. Method 150 JPEG images were presented on a touch screen monitor in either an enhanced or original version to 19 patients (visual acuity 0.4 to 1.2 logMAR, 6/15 to 6/90, 20/50 to 20/300) and 7 normally sighted controls (visual acuity ?0.12 to 0.1 logMAR, 6/4.5 to 6/7.5, 20/15 to 20/25). Each image fell into one of three categories: faces, indoors, and collections. The enhancement was realized by moderately boosting a mid-range spatial frequency band in the discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of the image luminance component. Participants pointed to an object in a picture that matched a given target displayed at the upper-left corner of the monitor. Search performance was quantified by the percentage of correct responses, the median search time of correct responses, and an “integrated performance” measure – the area under the curve of cumulative correct response rate over search time. Results Patients were able to perform the search tasks but their performance was substantially worse than the controls. Search performances for the 3 image categories were significantly different (p?0.001) for all the participants, with searching for faces being the most difficult. When search time and correct response were analyzed separately, the effect of enhancement led to increase in one measure but decrease in another for many patients. Using the integrated performance, it was found that search performance declined with decrease in acuity (p=0.005). An improvement with enhancement was found mainly for the patients whose acuity ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 logMAR (6/15 to 6/38, 20/50 to 20/125). Enhancement conferred a small but significant improvement in integrated performance for indoor and collection images (p=0.025) in the patients. Conclusion Search performance for natural images can be measured in patients with impaired vision to evaluate the effect of image enhancement. Patients with moderate vision loss might benefit from the moderate level of enhancement used here.

Luo, Gang; Satgunam, PremNandhini; Peli, Eli

2012-01-01

91

Object knowledge modulates colour appearance  

PubMed Central

We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis.

Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

2011-01-01

92

Website image colour transformation for the colour blind  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we look into the colour transformation algorithm, which focuses on the red-green colour vision deficient individuals. Red-green colour deficiency is the most common category of color blindness which causes red and green to be seen as beige color. From the comparison, the RGB color space to HSV conversion technique is chosen to be modified, which only allows

Siew-Li Ching; Maziani Sabudin

2010-01-01

93

Book4All: A Tool to Make an e-Book More Accessible to Students with Vision/Visual-Impairments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empowering people who are blind or otherwise visually impaired includes ensuring that products and electronic materials incorporate a broad range of accessibility features and work well with screen readers and other assistive technology devices. This is particularly important for students with vision impairments. Unfortunately, authors and publishers often do not include specific criteria when preparing the contents. Consequently, e-books can be inadequate for blind and low vision users, especially for students. In this paper we describe a semi-automatic tool developed to support operators who adapt e-documents for visually impaired students. The proposed tool can be used to convert a PDF e-book into a more suitable accessible and usable format readable on desktop computer or on mobile devices.

Calabrò, Antonello; Contini, Elia; Leporini, Barbara

94

Screening older people for impaired vision in primary care: cluster randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effectiveness of screening for visual impairment in people aged 75 or over as part of a multidimensional screening programme. Design Cluster randomised trial. Setting General practices in the United Kingdom participating in the MRC trial of assessment and management of older people in the community. Participants 4340 people aged 75 years or over randomly sampled from 20 general practices, excluding people resident in hospitals or nursing homes. Intervention Visual acuity testing and referral to eye services for people with visual impairment. Universal screening (assessment and visual acuity testing) was compared with targeted screening, in which only participants with a range of health related problems were offered an assessment that included acuity screening. Main outcome measures Proportion of people with visual acuity less than 6/18 in either eye; mean composite score of 25 item version of the National Eye Institute visual function questionnaire. Results Three to five years after screening, the relative risk of having visual acuity < 6/18 in either eye, comparing universal with targeted screening, was 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.84 to 1.36; P = 0.58). The mean composite score of the visual function questionnaire was 85.6 in the targeted screening group and 86.0 in the universal group (difference 0.4, 95% confidence interval -1.7 to 2.5, P = 0.69). Conclusions Including a vision screening component by a practice nurse in a pragmatic trial of multidimensional screening for older people did not lead to improved visual outcomes.

Smeeth, Liam; Fletcher, Astrid E; Hanciles, Smita; Evans, Jennifer; Wormald, Richard

2003-01-01

95

Candidate genes for colour and vision exhibit signals of selection across the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding range.  

PubMed

The role of natural selection in shaping adaptive trait differentiation in natural populations has long been recognized. Determining its molecular basis, however, remains a challenge. Here, we search for signals of selection in candidate genes for colour and its perception in a passerine bird. Pied flycatcher plumage varies geographically in both its structural and pigment-based properties. Both characteristics appear to be shaped by selection. A single-locus outlier test revealed 2 of 14 loci to show significantly elevated signals of divergence. The first of these, the follistatin gene, is expressed in the developing feather bud and is found in pathways with genes that determine the structure of feathers and may thus be important in generating variation in structural colouration. The second is a gene potentially underlying the ability to detect this variation: SWS1 opsin. These two loci were most differentiated in two Spanish pied flycatcher populations, which are also among the populations that have the highest UV reflectance. The follistatin and SWS1 opsin genes thus provide strong candidates for future investigations on the molecular basis of adaptively significant traits and their co-evolution. PMID:22027894

Lehtonen, P K; Laaksonen, T; Artemyev, A V; Belskii, E; Berg, P R; Both, C; Buggiotti, L; Bureš, S; Burgess, M D; Bushuev, A V; Krams, I; Moreno, J; Mägi, M; Nord, A; Potti, J; Ravussin, P-A; Sirkiä, P M; Sætre, G-P; Winkel, W; Primmer, C R

2011-10-26

96

Colour monitor calibration based on CIE standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour monitors are widely used in today's computer systems. For many applications, such as those used in vision research, programs arc required to generate specific colours on the monitor. Unfortunately, monitors vary significantly in the colour characteristics of their phosphors and the amount of light emitted for a particular applied voltage. However, there exist reasonable models for characterizing the colour

Radu I. Campeanu; John D. McFall

1993-01-01

97

Vision and falls: a multidisciplinary review of the contributions of visual impairment to falls among older adults.  

PubMed

Falls are a leading cause of mortality among older adults worldwide. With the increasing aging population, falls are rapidly becoming a public health concern. Numerous internal and external factors have been associated with an older adult's increased risk of falling. Most notably visual impairments are gaining recognition for their critical role in fall events, particularly related to trips, slips and falls due to environmental hazards. This review presents the issue of vision and falls from a multidisciplinary health professional perspective. Discussions include the influence of visual impairment on mobility and activities of daily living, the effects of medications on vision, visual cognitive factors on falls risk and visual training interventions. Finally, implications for multidisciplinary health professional practice and suggestions for future research are offered. PMID:23434262

Reed-Jones, Rebecca J; Solis, Guillermina R; Lawson, Katherine A; Loya, Amanda M; Cude-Islas, Donna; Berger, Candyce S

2013-02-19

98

Interhemisphere Connections of Eye Dominance Columns in the Cat Visual Cortex in Conditions of Impaired Binocular Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from studies of interhemisphere connections in fields 17 and 18 of cats reared in conditions of impaired binocular vision\\u000a (monocular deprivation, uni- and bilateral strabismus) are presented. Monosynaptic connections between neurons were studied\\u000a by microiontophoretic application of horseradish peroxidase into cortical eye dominance columns and the distributions of retrograde\\u000a labeled callosal cells were analyzed. Spatial asymmetry and eye-specific interhemisphere

S. V. Alekseenko; S. N. Toporova; P. Yu. Shkorbatova

2009-01-01

99

Colour naming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study exploring colour ranges corresponding to different colour names has been conducted. Available colour terms in Turkish language have been identified and the most frequently known or used colour terms have been attained. Using the Munsell Color System, colour ranges reflecting the colour naming and colour perception of Turkish people, have been constructed for each colour term. The discussion of the findings and observations during the research are also included.

?ahin Ekici, Ebru; Yener, Cengiz; Camgöz, Nilgün

2006-06-01

100

Randomised controlled trial of treatment of unilateral visual impairment detected at preschool vision screening  

PubMed Central

Objectives To test the efficacy of treatment for unilateral visual loss detected by preschool vision screening and the extent to which effectiveness varies with initial severity. Design Randomised controlled trial of full treatment with glasses and patching, if required, compared with glasses only or no treatment. Masked assessment of best corrected acuity after one year of follow up. Setting Eight UK eye departments. Participants 177 children aged 3-5 years with mild to moderate unilateral impairment of acuity (6/9 to 6/36) detected by screening. Results Children in the full and glasses treatment groups had incrementally better visual acuity at follow up than children who received no treatment, but the mean treatment effect between full and no treatment was equivalent to only one line on a Snellen chart (0.11 log units; 95% confidence interval 0.050 to 0.171; P < 0.0001). The effects of treatment depended on initial acuity: full treatment showed a substantial effect in the moderate acuity group (6/36 to 6/18 at recruitment) and no significant effect in the mild acuity group (6/9 to 6/12 at recruitment) (P = 0.006 for linear regression interaction term). For 64 children with moderate acuity loss the treatment effect was 0.20 log units, equivalent to one to two lines on a Snellen chart. When all children had received treatment, six months after the end of the trial, there was no significant difference in acuity between the groups. Conclusions Treatment is worth while in children with the poorest acuity, but in children with mild (6/9 to 6/12) unilateral acuity loss there was little benefit. Delay in treatment until the age of 5 did not seem to influence effectiveness.

Clarke, M P; Wright, C M; Hrisos, S; Anderson, J D; Henderson, J; Richardson, S R

2003-01-01

101

The influence of manifest strabismus and stereoscopic vision on non-verbal abilities of visually impaired children.  

PubMed

This research was conducted in order to examine the influence of manifest strabismus and stereoscopic vision on non-verbal abilities of visually impaired children aged between 7 and 15. The sample included 55 visually impaired children from the 1st to the 6th grade of elementary schools for visually impaired children in Belgrade. RANDOT stereotest and polaroid glasses were used for the examination of stereoscopic vision, while Cover test and Hirschberg's pupils reflex test were used for the evaluation of strabismus. In the area of non-verbal abilities was evaluated visual discrimination, visuomotor integration, constructive praxia, visual memory, strategy formation, non-verbal reasoning and the representational dimension of drawings. Subtests of ACADIA test of developmental abilities were used for the evaluation of non-verbal abilities (Atkinson et al., 1972). Statistically significant relations between strabismus and constructive praxia (p=0.009), visual memory (p=0.037), strategy formation (0.040) and the quality of drawings were determined by the results analysis. According to our findings, children with divergent strabismus achieve the best results. Children with stereoscopic vision generally achieve better results in all the examined areas of non-verbal abilities, and statistically significant relations were determined in the areas of visuomotor coordination (0.002), constructive praxia (0.026) and non-verbal reasoning (0.015), which are directly connected to visuospatial abilities. Children with convergent strabismus achieve significantly lower results in the areas of constructive praxia, visual memory, strategy formation and representational dimension of drawings, and children with the lack of stereoscopic vision--in the areas of visuomotor integration, constructive praxia and non-verbal reasoning. PMID:21536409

Gligorovi?, Milica; Vu?ini?, Vesna; Eškirovi?, Branka; Jablan, Branka

2011-05-04

102

Design for Simulator Performance Evaluations of Driving with Vision Impairments and Visual Aids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driving simulator technology provides a safe method for evaluating the impact of vision loss on different components of the driving task and the potential efficacy of visual aids intended to compensate for a particular type of vision loss. Most previous investigations have used general driving scenarios. It is proposed here that scenarios with different task require- ments be designed specifically

E. Peli; A. R. Bowers; A. J. Mandel; K. Higgins; R. B. Goldstein; L. Bobrow

2005-01-01

103

Vision, Hearing, Balance, and Sensory Impairment in Americans Aged 70 Years and Over: United States, 1999-2006. NCHS Data Brief, No. 31, April 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sensory impairments such as problems with vision, hearing, postural balance, or loss of feeling in the feet, are known to increase with age. The prevalence of sensory impairments will increase as U.S. life expectancy increases. Important public health goa...

C. Ko C. F. Dillon H. J. Hoffman Q. Gu

2010-01-01

104

Gender-specific associations of vision and hearing impairments with adverse health outcomes in older Japanese: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Several epidemiological studies have shown that self-reported vision and hearing impairments are associated with adverse health outcomes (AHOs) in older populations; however, few studies have used objective sensory measurements or investigated the role of gender in this association. Therefore, we examined the association of vision and hearing impairments (as measured by objective methods) with AHOs (dependence in activities of daily living or death), and whether this association differed by gender. Methods From 2005 to 2006, a total of 801 residents (337 men and 464 women) aged 65 years or older of Kurabuchi Town, Gunma, Japan, participated in a baseline examination that included vision and hearing assessments; they were followed up through September 2008. Vision impairment was defined as a corrected visual acuity of worse than 0.5 (logMAR = 0.3) in the better eye, and hearing impairment was defined as a failure to hear a 30 dB hearing level signal at 1 kHz in the better ear. Information on outcomes was obtained from the town hall and through face-to-face home visit interviews. We calculated the risk ratios (RRs) of AHOs for vision and hearing impairments according to gender. Results During a mean follow-up period of 3 years, 34 men (10.1%) and 52 women (11.3%) had AHOs. In both genders, vision impairment was related to an elevated risk of AHOs (multi-adjusted RR for men and women together = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.05-2.44), with no statistically significant interaction between the genders. In contrast, a significant association between hearing impairment and AHOs (multi-adjusted RR = 3.10, 95% CI = 1.43-6.72) was found only in the men. Conclusion In this older Japanese population, sensory impairments were clearly associated with AHOs, and the association appeared to vary according to gender. Gender-specific associations between sensory impairments and AHOs warrant further investigation.

2009-01-01

105

Prevention of vision loss protects against age-related impairment in learning and memory performance in DBA/2J mice  

PubMed Central

The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age-related increases in intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 to 12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo-spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the “sensory impairment” hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic-XE, 0.00, 0.25, or 0.50%) daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age), mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50%) maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00%) exhibited impaired performance in visually-dependent, but not non-visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.

Wong, Aimee A.; Brown, Richard E.

2013-01-01

106

Prevention of vision loss protects against age-related impairment in learning and memory performance in DBA/2J mice.  

PubMed

The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age-related increases in intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 to 12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo-spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the "sensory impairment" hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic-XE, 0.00, 0.25, or 0.50%) daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age), mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50%) maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00%) exhibited impaired performance in visually-dependent, but not non-visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability. PMID:24065919

Wong, Aimée A; Brown, Richard E

2013-09-18

107

The Use of Visual Feedback during Signing: Evidence from Signers with Impaired Vision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The role of visual feedback during the production of American Sign Language was investigated by comparing the size of signing space during conversations and narrative monologues for normally sighted signers, signers with tunnel vision due to Usher syndrome, and functionally blind signers. The interlocutor for all groups was a normally sighted…

Emmorey, Karen; Korpics, Franco; Petronio, Karen

2009-01-01

108

Randomised controlled trial of treatment of unilateral visual impairment detected at preschool vision screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To test the efficacy of treatment for unilateral visual loss detected by preschool vision screening and the extent to which effectiveness varies with initial severity. Design Randomised controlled trial of full treatment with glasses and patching, if required, compared with glasses only or no treatment. Masked assessment of best corrected acuity after one year of follow up. Setting Eight

M P Clarke; C M Wright; S Hrisos; J D Anderson; J Henderson; S R Richardson

2003-01-01

109

Assistive obstacle detection and navigation devices for vision-impaired users.  

PubMed

Quality of life for the visually impaired is an urgent worldwide issue that needs to be addressed. Obstacle detection is one of the most important navigation tasks for the visually impaired. In this research, a novel range sensor placement scheme is proposed in this paper for the development of obstacle detection devices. Based on this scheme, two prototypes have been developed targeting at different user groups. This paper discusses the design issues, functional modules and the evaluation tests carried out for both prototypes. Implications for Rehabilitation Visual impairment problem is becoming more severe due to the worldwide ageing population. Individuals with visual impairment require assistance from assistive devices in daily navigation tasks. Traditional assistive devices that assist navigation may have certain drawbacks, such as the limited sensing range of a white cane. Obstacle detection devices applying the range sensor technology can identify road conditions with a higher sensing range to notify the users of potential dangers in advance. PMID:23350879

Ong, S K; Zhang, J; Nee, A Y C

2013-01-25

110

Measuring perceived video quality of MPEG enhancement by people with impaired vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a new method to measure the perceived quality of contrast-enhanced motion video. Patients with im- paired vision n=24 and normally sighted subjects n=6 adjusted the level of MPEG-based enhancement of 8 videos (4 min each) drawn from 4 categories. They selected the level of enhancement that provided the pre- ferred view of the videos, using a decreasing-step-size staircase

Matthew Fullerton; Russell L. Woods; Fuensanta A. Vera-Diaz; Eli Peli

2007-01-01

111

The Psychological Challenge of Late-Life Vision Impairment: Concepts, Findings, and Practical Implications  

PubMed Central

The intention is to summarize the body of evidence speaking to the psychological challenges faced by visually impaired older adults, as well as their coping efforts. This evidence is substantiated by a rich set of concepts, theories, and empirical findings that have accumulated under the umbrella of age-related psychoophthalmology (APO). I introduce the field of APO and continue with a discussion of important concepts and theories for a better understanding of adaptational processes in visually impaired older adults. I then summarize the most relevant and most recent data from four areas: (1) everyday competence, (2) cognitive functioning, (3) social functioning, and (4) subjective well-being-related outcomes, depression, and adaptational processes. Thereafter, major insights related to the current state-of-the art psychosocial interventions with visuallyimpaired older adults are reviewed. I close with the need that the public health community should become more aware of and address the psychosocial needs of visually impaired older adults.

Wahl, Hans-Werner

2013-01-01

112

Visualizing Without Vision at the Microscale: Students With Visual Impairments Explore Cells With Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science instruction is typically highly dependent on visual representations of scientific concepts that are communicated through textbooks, teacher presentations, and computer-based multimedia materials. Little is known about how students with visual impairments access and interpret these types of visually-dependent instructional materials. This study explored the efficacy of new haptic (simulated tactile feedback and kinesthetics) instructional technology for teaching cell morphology

M. Gail Jones; James Minogue; Tom Oppewal; Michelle P. Cook; Bethany Broadwell

2006-01-01

113

Visualizing Without Vision at the Microscale: Students With Visual Impairments Explore Cells With Touch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science instruction is typically highly dependent on visual representations of scientific concepts that are communicated through textbooks, teacher presentations, and computer-based multimedia materials. Little is known about how students with visual impairments access and interpret these types of visually-dependent instructional materials. This study explored the efficacy of new haptic (simulated tactile feedback and kinesthetics) instructional technology for teaching cell morphology and function to middle and high school students with visual impairments. The study examined students' prior experiences learning about the cell and cell functions in classroom instruction, as well as how haptic feedback technology impacted students' awareness of the 3-D nature of an animal cell, the morphology and function of cell organelles, and students' interest in the haptic technology as an instructional tool. Twenty-one students with visual impairment participated in the study. Students explored a tactile model of the cell with a haptic point probe that allowed them to feel the cell and its organelles. Results showed that students made significant gains in their ability to identify cell organelles and found the technology to be highly interesting as an instructional tool. The need for additional adaptive technology for students with visual impairments is discussed.

Jones, M. Gail; Minogue, James; Oppewal, Tom; Cook, Michelle P.; Broadwell, Bethany

2006-12-01

114

Visualizing without Vision at the Microscale: Students with Visual Impairments Explore Cells with Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science instruction is typically highly dependent on visual representations of scientific concepts that are communicated through textbooks, teacher presentations, and computer-based multimedia materials. Little is known about how students with visual impairments access and interpret these types of visually-dependent instructional materials. This…

Jones, M. Gail; Minogue, James; Oppewal, Tom; Cook, Michelle P.; Broadwell, Bethany

2006-01-01

115

Construction of an Evaluating System of Tactile Walking Surface Indicators for Persons with Vision Impairments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment to evaluate a tactile walking surface indicator for visually impaired persons was usually carried out in the outdoor environment, and the weather and the seasons affected on the schedule and the result. We constructed the evaluation system within the building so we could conduct walking experiments that were unaffected by the weather regardless of the four seasons. The subjects of this system were not only a visually impaired person and a sighted deaf person but also general person. The laboratory provided a soundproof and shaded structure consisting of the walls and the ceiling. External sound and light were blocked. The hue could be adjusted by three-color fluorescent lamps, and the light could be adjusted from daytime brightness to a dim moon light. Research into the walking of visually impaired persons at nighttime is a pressing problem as the barrier-free transportation law has been enacted in Japan. An international standard has been discussed, and a scientific basis for that standard is now required.

Sueda, Osamu; Fujisawa, Shoichiro; Xin, Wang

116

Monitor, a Vibrotactile Aid for Environmental Perception: A Field Evaluation by Four People with Severe Hearing and Vision Impairment  

PubMed Central

Monitor is a portable vibrotactile aid to improve the ability of people with severe hearing impairment or deafblindness to detect, identify, and recognize the direction of sound-producing events. It transforms and adapts sounds to the frequency sensitivity range of the skin. The aid was evaluated in the field. Four females (44–54 years) with Usher Syndrome I (three with tunnel vision and one with only light perception) tested the aid at home and in traffic in three different field studies: without Monitor, with Monitor with an omnidirectional microphone, and with Monitor with a directional microphone. The tests were video-documented, and the two field studies with Monitor were initiated after five weeks of training. The detection scores with omnidirectional and directional microphones were 100% for three participants and above 57% for one, both in their home and traffic environments. In the home environment the identification scores with the omnidirectional microphone were 70%–97% and 58%–95% with the directional microphone. The corresponding values in traffic were 29%–100% and 65%–100%, respectively. Their direction perception was improved to some extent by both microphones. Monitor improved the ability of people with deafblindness to detect, identify, and recognize the direction of events producing sounds.

Stenstrom, Ingeborg

2013-01-01

117

[Disorders of color vision].  

PubMed

This review gives a summary of all colour vision disorders (dyschromatopsias) and diagnostic methods and tests. Colour vision is inadequately treated in current literature with regard to the choice of diagnostic methods and the interpretation of results for a single disorder, which contributes to wrong dyschromatopsia diagnosing seen every day in specialist practice. Examination for colour disorders is usually outpatient and is carried out by ophthalmology or neurology departments or occupational health services under the supervision of an ophthalmologist to prevent misinterpretation of results and wrong occupational choices. The problem is very serious, and proper education should be able to provide guidelines for correct and early diagnosis of dyschromatopsia. As the examination is not well defined, it is very important to set unique criteria in diagnosing any single colour vision disorder. PMID:14679665

Rogosi?, Veljko; Boji?, Lovro; Karaman, Ksenija; Ivanisevi?, Milan; Lesin, Mladen; Plestina Borjan, Ivna; Titli?, Marina; Kovaci?, Zeljko

2003-06-01

118

Visual Impairment  

MedlinePLUS

... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual problem ... could from 200 feet away. Continue What Causes Visual Impairment? People rarely lose their eyesight during their teen ...

119

Ultraviolet vision in a bat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most mammals, with the exception of primates, have dichromatic vision and correspondingly limited colour perception. Ultraviolet vision was discovered in mammals only a decade ago, and in the few rodents and marsupials where it has been found, ultraviolet light is detected by an independent photoreceptor. Bats orient primarily by echolocation, but they also use vision. Here we show that a

York Winter; Jorge López; Otto von Helversen

2003-01-01

120

Applying colour science in colour design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although colour science has been widely used in a variety of industries over the years, it has not been fully explored in the field of product design. This paper will initially introduce the three main application fields of colour science: colour specification, colour-difference evaluation and colour appearance modelling. By integrating these advanced colour technologies together with modern colour imaging devices such as display, camera, scanner and printer, some computer systems have been recently developed to assist designers for designing colour palettes through colour selection by means of a number of widely used colour order systems, for creating harmonised colour schemes via a categorical colour system, for generating emotion colours using various colour emotional scales and for facilitating colour naming via a colour-name library. All systems are also capable of providing accurate colour representation on displays and output to different imaging devices such as printers.

Luo, Ming Ronnier

2006-06-01

121

Simultaneous and successive colour discrimination in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour discrimination of individual free-flying honeybees (Apis mellifera) was tested with simultaneous and successive viewing conditions for a variety of broadband reflectance stimuli. For simultaneous viewing bees used form vision to discriminate patterned target stimuli from homogeneous coloured distractor stimuli, and for successive discrimination bees were required to discriminate between homogeneously coloured stimuli. Bees were significantly better at a

Adrian G Dyer; Christa Neumeyer

2005-01-01

122

Blood groups, ABH saliva secretion and colour vision deficiency in Hindu castes and religious groups of West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

The distribution of A1A2B0 and Rh(D) blood groups, ABH saliva secretion and red-green colour blindness among fourteen Hindu caste groups, besides Christian and Muslim populations of West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India, is reported. All the Hindu castes except Brahmin, Kshatriya and Reddy exhibit relatively higher frequency of group B over group A. The subtyping of group A reveals that group A2 records an incidence ranging from 0.98% to 7.78%. The interpopulation chi-square tests for A1A2B0 blood group distribution indicate significant variation between several Hindu castes. The Vysya, Reddy and Adi Andhra castes not only differ from each other but also register significant variation from a majority of other populations. In the ABH saliva secretion also Vysya deviate from all other populations by recording the highest incidence (37.70%) of non-secretors, while the lowest frequency (19.98%) was observed among Kamma. The Rh(D) negative blood group is observed in all Hindu castes and religious groups with an incidence ranging from 1.04% in Vysya to 8.11% in Kamma. All the sixteen populations investigated exhibit prevalence of red-green colour blindness with a relatively higher frequency of deutan type over protan. PMID:7840536

Vijayalakshmi, M; Naidu, J M; Suryanarayana, B

1994-12-01

123

Faerg-och Symbolupptattning vid Foerhoejd +Gz-Belastning (Colour Identification, Symbol Identification, and Colour Discrimination during Moderately Elevated G2-Load).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Colour is used today in displays in modern fighter aircraft. As the knowledge of elevated +Gz-load on foveal colour vision is insufficient, further studies are needed. Foveal colour and symbol identification and colour discrimination were studied in two e...

P. Andersson G. Derefeldt L. Eriksson O. Eiken R. Koelegard P. Andersson B. Lindborg H. Oemhagen

2000-01-01

124

Present Vision--Future Vision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper addresses issues of current and future technology use for and by individuals with visual impairments and blindness in Florida. Present technology applications used in vision programs in Florida are individually described, including video enlarging, speech output, large inkprint, braille print, paperless braille, and tactual output…

Fitterman, L. Jeffrey

125

14 CFR 382.119 - What information must carriers give individuals with vision or hearing impairment on aircraft?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...information must carriers give individuals...impairment on aircraft? 382.119... Services on Aircraft § 382.119...information must carriers give individuals...impairment on aircraft? (a) As a carrier, you...

2010-01-01

126

Colour and urban landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour regards urban landscape of important elements, it can reflect a city's history, local features and cultural tradition. This paper discusses to colour aesthetic application in urban landscape design, namely how to play a landscape of natural colour and artificial colour features and create urban landscape beauty of colours. Keywords-colour; urban landscape; urban colour \\

Xueping Wu; Shicheng Xu

2011-01-01

127

Colour discrimination and categorisation in Williams syndrome.  

PubMed

Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) present with impaired functioning of the dorsal visual stream relative to the ventral visual stream. As such, little attention has been given to ventral stream functions in WS. We investigated colour processing, a predominantly ventral stream function, for the first time in nineteen individuals with Williams syndrome. Colour discrimination was assessed using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test. Colour categorisation was assessed using a match-to-sample test and a colour naming task. A visual search task was also included as a measure of sensitivity to the size of perceptual colour difference. Results showed that individuals with WS have reduced colour discrimination relative to typically developing participants matched for chronological age; performance was commensurate with a typically developing group matched for non-verbal ability. In contrast, categorisation was typical in WS, although there was some evidence that sensitivity to the size of perceptual colour differences was reduced in this group. PMID:23911545

Farran, Emily K; Cranwell, Matthew B; Alvarez, James; Franklin, Anna

2013-07-31

128

Low Vision Training in Sweden.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The article describes the team work approach used in Sweden to provide services to the four main categories of visual impairment: central scotoma, nystagmus, loss of peripheral vision while retaining central vision, and amblyopia. (Author/PHR)|

Inde, Krister

1978-01-01

129

Light Vision Color  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

Valberg, Arne

2005-04-01

130

The colour centre in the cerebral cortex of man  

Microsoft Academic Search

ANATOMICAL and physiological studies have shown that there is an area specialized for the processing of colour (area V4) in the prestriate cortex of macaque monkey brain1. Earlier this century, suggestive clinical evidence for a colour centre in the brain of man2,3 was dismissed4-8 because of the association of other visual defects with the defects in colour vision4,5,7. However, since

C. J. Lueck; S. Zeki; K. J. Friston; M.-P. Deiber; P. Cope; V. J. Cunningham; A. A. Lammertsma; C. Kennard; R. S. J. Frackowiak

1989-01-01

131

Colour models for characterising CRT colour monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate reproduction of colour images is needed to transform between the device dependent and device independent coordinates, thereby the appearance of all colours can be colorimetrically specified. In general, colour device characterisation can be defined as the provision of data to enable development of a mathematical transformation which determines the conversion between device specific data and colorimetric data based

Byoung-Ho Kang; Hong-Gee Kim; Maeng-Sub Cho; M. R. Luo

1999-01-01

132

Changes in colour appearance following post-receptoral adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CURRENT models of colour vision assume that colour is represented by activity in three independent post-receptoral channels: two encoding chromatic information and one encoding luminance1. An important feature of these models is that variations in certain directions in colour space modulate the response of only one of the channels. We have tested whether such models can predict how colour appearance is altered by adaptation-induced changes in post-receptoral sensitivity. In contrast to the changes predicted by three independent channels, colour appearance is always distorted away from the direction in colour space to which the observer has adapted. This suggests that at the level at which the adaptation effects occur, there is no colour direction that invariably isolates only a single post-receptoral channel.

Webster, Michael A.; Mollon, J. D.

1991-01-01

133

The unsuitability of html-based colour charts for estimating animal colours - a comment on Berggren and Meril? (2004)  

PubMed Central

Background A variety of techniques are used to study the colours of animal signals, including the use of visual matching to colour charts. This paper aims to highlight why they are generally an unsatisfactory tool for the measurement and classification of animal colours and why colour codes based on HTML (really RGB) standards, as advocated in a recent paper, are particularly inappropriate. There are many theoretical arguments against the use of colour charts, not least that human colour vision differs markedly from that of most other animals. However, the focus of this paper is the concern that, even when applied to humans, there is no simple 1:1 mapping from an RGB colour space to the perceived colours in a chart (the results are both printer- and illumination-dependent). We support our criticisms with data from colour matching experiments with humans, involving self-made, printed colour charts. Results Colour matching experiments with printed charts involving 11 subjects showed that the choices made by individuals were significantly different between charts that had exactly the same RGB values, but were produced from different printers. Furthermore, individual matches tended to vary under different lighting conditions. Spectrophotometry of the colour charts showed that the reflectance spectra of the charts varied greatly between printers and that equal steps in RGB space were often far from equal in terms of reflectance on the printed charts. Conclusion In addition to outlining theoretical criticisms of the use of colour charts, our empirical results show that: individuals vary in their perception of colours, that different printers produce strikingly different results when reproducing what should be the same chart, and that the characteristics of the light irradiating the surface do affect colour perception. Therefore, we urge great caution in the use of colour charts to study animal colour signals. They should be used only as a last resort and in full knowledge of their limitations, with specially produced charts made to high industry standards.

Stevens, Martin; Cuthill, Innes C

2005-01-01

134

The coloured quantum plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the quantum plane associated to the coloured quantum group GLq?,?(2) and solve the problem of constructing the corresponding differential geometric structure. This is achieved within the /R-matrix framework generalising the Wess-Zumino formalism and leads to the concept of coloured quantum space. Both the coloured Manin plane as well as the bicovariant differential calculus exhibit the colour exchange symmetry. The coloured /h-plane corresponding to the coloured Jordanian quantum group GLh?,?(2) is also obtained by contraction of the coloured /q-plane.

Parashar, Deepak

2003-01-01

135

Two international colour meetings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two international Colour meetings held in May 1961 have given an opportunity or scientists working in this field to meet and compare notes. The first was the Maxwell Colour Centenary in London, organized by the Colour Group, with the Institute of Physics and Physical Society, and the Jnter–Society Colour Council (of the U.S.A.), to celebrate the first demonstration of colour

R. W. Brocklebank

1962-01-01

136

Sensory impairment in hip-fracture patients 65 years or older and effects of hearing/vision interventions on fall frequency  

PubMed Central

Aim: Examine the effect of nursing interventions to improve vision and hearing, systematic assessment, and referral to sensory specialists on falling. Methods: Controlled intervention trial targeting hip fracture patients, 65 years and older, living at home and having problems seeing/reading regular print (VI) or hearing normal speech (HI). Intervention group = 200, control group = 131. The InterRAI-AcuteCare (RAI-AC) and the Combined-Serious-Sensory-Impairment interview guide (KAS-Screen) were used. Follow-up telephone calls were done every third month for one year. Results: Mean age was 84.2 years, 79.8% were female, and 76.7% lived alone. HI was detected in 80.7% and VI in 59.8%. Falling was more frequent among the intervention group (P = 0.003) and they also more often moved to a nursing home (P < 0.001) and were dependent walking up stairs (P = 0.003). Conclusions: This study could not document the effect of intervention on falling, possibly because of different base line characteristics (more females, P = 0.018, and more living alone P = 0.011 in the intervention group), differences in nursing care between subjects, and different risk factors. Interventions to improve sensory function remain important in rehabilitation, but have to be studied further.

Grue, Else V; Kirkevold, Marit; Mowinchel, Petter; Ranhoff, Anette H

2009-01-01

137

Does Colour Preference Have a Role in Colour Term Acquisition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A developmental association exists between colour preference and emerging colour term acquisition in young children. Colour preference might influence colour term acquisition by directing attention towards or away from a particular colour, making it more or less memorable. To investigate the role that colour preference may have in the acquisition…

Pitchford, Nicola J.; Davis, Emma E.; Scerif, Gaia

2009-01-01

138

(Computer) Vision without Sight  

PubMed Central

Computer vision holds great promise for helping persons with blindness or visual impairments (VI) to interpret and explore the visual world. To this end, it is worthwhile to assess the situation critically by understanding the actual needs of the VI population and which of these needs might be addressed by computer vision. This article reviews the types of assistive technology application areas that have already been developed for VI, and the possible roles that computer vision can play in facilitating these applications. We discuss how appropriate user interfaces are designed to translate the output of computer vision algorithms into information that the user can quickly and safely act upon, and how system-level characteristics affect the overall usability of an assistive technology. Finally, we conclude by highlighting a few novel and intriguing areas of application of computer vision to assistive technology.

Manduchi, Roberto; Coughlan, James

2012-01-01

139

Colour and lighting in hospital design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little information or guidance has been available to assist the development of a hospital's visual environment. A report on lighting and colour design schemes, accessible to non professionals with responsibility for refurbishment strategies, was required by NHS Estates. Firstly, 20 hospitals were audited to establish a picture of current practice and to identify key issues where colour design could broadly enhance the environment for patients, staff and visitors. Critical areas were outlined in this report, where colour design can be utilised and applied, for the benefit of all users, from ambience to essential legal requirements such as colour contrast for the visually impaired. Provision of staff relaxation rooms that are different in terms of colour and lux levels from immediate work spaces, or thoughtfully designed areas for patients awaiting intensive treatment, have been shown to have some beneficial effects on a sense of well being. Colour and design have not been established as a definite cure for sickness and ill health, but certainly monotony and poor conditions in premises that have not been refurbished with any care, have had a detrimental affect on recovery rates and staff morale. The realisation that a well balanced and attractive environment is of major importance to patients’ health is, in no way new; Florence Nightingale observed that ‘a variety of form and brilliance of colour in the objects presented to patients are an actual means of recovery’.

Dalke, Hilary; Little, Jenny; Niemann, Elga; Camgoz, Nilgun; Steadman, Guillaume; Hill, Sarah; Stott, Laura

2006-06-01

140

Patient-reported visual function outcomes improve after ranibizumab treatment in patients with vision impairment due to diabetic macular edema: randomized clinical trial.  

PubMed

IMPORTANCE Few data are available on relative changes in vision-related function after treatment for diabetic macular edema (DME). OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of intravitreal ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, compared with laser on patient-reported visual function. DESIGN Phase 3, randomized, double-masked, 12-month study (RESTORE). SETTING Outpatient retina practices in Australia, Canada, and Europe. PARTICIPANTS Patients 18 years or older with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus and visual impairment due to DME. INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomized to ranibizumab plus sham laser (n?=?116), ranibizumab plus laser (n?=?118), or sham injections plus laser (n?=?111). Ranibizumab and sham injections were given for 3 consecutive months then as needed; laser or sham laser treatment was given at baseline then as needed. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25 (NEI VFQ-25) scores at 0, 3, and 12 months for patients receiving 1 or more study treatments with 1 or more postbaseline NEI VFQ-25 assessments and last observation carried forward for missing data. RESULTS Mean baseline NEI VFQ-25 composite scores were 72.8, 73.5, and 74.1 in the ranibizumab, laser, and ranibizumab plus laser groups, respectively. At 12 months, the mean composite scores (95% CIs) improved by 5.0 (ranibizumab vs laser, 2.6 to 7.4; P?=?.01 vs laser) and 5.4 (ranibizumab plus laser vs laser alone, 3.3 to 7.4; P?=?.004 vs laser) from baseline in the ranibizumab and ranibizumab plus laser groups, respectively, compared with 0.6 (-1.8 to 3.0) for the laser group. Near activities scores improved by 9.0 (ranibizumab vs laser, 5.0 to 13.0; P?=?.01) and 9.1 (ranibizumab plus laser vs laser, 5.6 to 12.6; P?=?.006) compared with 1.1 (-3.0 to 5.2) for the laser group, whereas distance activities scores improved by 5.3 (ranibizumab vs laser, 1.8 to 8.9; P?=?.04) and 5.6 (ranibizumab plus laser vs laser, 2.3 to 9.0; P?=?.03) compared with 0.4 (-3.1 to 3.8) for the laser group. Patients with better baseline visual acuity or lower central retinal thickness had greater improvements with ranibizumab treatment compared with laser in composite and some subscale scores compared with patients with worse visual acuity or higher central retinal thickness. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These data provide vision-related, patient-reported outcome evidence that mirrors visual acuity outcomes and supports benefits from ranibizumab or ranibizumab plus laser treatment for patients with DME and characteristics similar to those enrolled in this randomized clinical trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00687804. PMID:23974915

Mitchell, Paul; Bressler, Neil; Tolley, Keith; Gallagher, Meghan; Petrillo, Jennifer; Ferreira, Alberto; Wood, Robert; Bandello, Francesco

2013-10-01

141

The colour preference control based on two-colour combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a framework of colour preference control to satisfy the consumer's colour related emotion. A colour harmony algorithm based on two-colour combinations is developed for displaying the images with several complementary colour pairs as the relationship of two-colour combination. The colours of pixels belonging to complementary colour areas in HSV colour space are shifted toward the target hue colours and there is no colour change for the other pixels. According to the developed technique, dynamic emotions by the proposed hue conversion can be improved and the controlled output image shows improved colour emotions in the preference of the human viewer. The psychophysical experiments are conducted to investigate the optimal model parameters to produce the most pleasant image to the users in the respect of colour emotions.

Hong, Ji Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Park, Du-Sik; Kim, Chang Yeong

2008-03-01

142

Coloured overlays, text, and texture.  

PubMed

In four studies children were asked to read aloud a passage of randomly ordered common words with and without a coloured sheet of plastic (overlay) placed upon the page. The children's rate of reading increased with the overlay, for some children more than for others. The children were also asked to undertake a test of texture segmentation in which targets consisting of a structured texture had to be distinguished from within a random background texture. The texture segmentation was improved when the overlay was used, again for some children more than for others. The improvement in texture segmentation was, in general, correlated with the improvement in rate of reading. Slower readers were generally poorer at texture segmentation. The implications for reading, for texture segmentation, and for clinical tests of vision are discussed. PMID:10664760

Wilkins, A; Lewis, E

1999-01-01

143

Towards a fully-autonomous vision-based vehicle navigation system in outdoor environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour Stereo visions are the primary perception system of the most Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs), which can provide not only 3D perception of the terrain but also its colour and texture information. The downside with present stereo vision technologies and processing algorithms is that they are limited by the cameras' field of view and maximum range, which causes the vehicles

Peyman Moghadam; Wijerupage Sardha Wijesoma; M. D. P. Moratuwage

2010-01-01

144

Nocturnal hunting of a brightly coloured sit-and-wait predator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have shown that colour signals are important in spidereinsect interactions. The bright body coloration of certain orb-weaving spiders seems to serve as a visual lure to diurnal prey. However, no studies have examined whether this coloration affects spiders' nocturnal hunting. Some nocturnal lepi- dopteran pollinators use colour vision to locate their food resources, so orb-weaving spiders' bright color-

I.-Min Tso; Jen-Pan Huang; Chen-Pan Liao

2007-01-01

145

The Sensation of Colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROF. CLERK MAXWELL in his valuable paper on Colour in NATURE (vol. iv. p. 13) commits himself to the opinion that there must be three distinct sets of retinal nerves, one for each of the three primary sensations of colour. It is obvious that demonstrative proof or disproof of this is unattainable : we can only reason analogically. The analogy

Joseph John Murphy

1871-01-01

146

Increased conspicuousness can explain the match between visual sensitivities and blue plumage colours in fairy-wrens.  

PubMed

Colour signals are expected to match visual sensitivities of intended receivers. In birds, evolutionary shifts from violet-sensitive (V-type) to ultraviolet-sensitive (U-type) vision have been linked to increased prevalence of colours rich in shortwave reflectance (ultraviolet/blue), presumably due to better perception of such colours by U-type vision. Here we provide the first test of this widespread idea using fairy-wrens and allies (Family Maluridae) as a model, a family where shifts in visual sensitivities from V- to U-type eyes are associated with male nuptial plumage rich in ultraviolet/blue colours. Using psychophysical visual models, we compared the performance of both types of visual systems at two tasks: (i) detecting contrast between male plumage colours and natural backgrounds, and (ii) perceiving intraspecific chromatic variation in male plumage. While U-type outperforms V-type vision at both tasks, the crucial test here is whether U-type vision performs better at detecting and discriminating ultraviolet/blue colours when compared with other colours. This was true for detecting contrast between plumage colours and natural backgrounds (i), but not for discriminating intraspecific variability (ii). Our data indicate that selection to maximize conspicuousness to conspecifics may have led to the correlation between ultraviolet/blue colours and U-type vision in this clade of birds. PMID:23118438

Delhey, Kaspar; Hall, Michelle; Kingma, Sjouke A; Peters, Anne

2012-10-31

147

Development and evaluation of vision rehabilitation devices.  

PubMed

We have developed a range of vision rehabilitation devices and techniques for people with impaired vision due to either central vision loss or severely restricted peripheral visual field. We have conducted evaluation studies with patients to test the utilities of these techniques in an effort to document their advantages as well as their limitations. Here we describe our work on a visual field expander based on a head mounted display (HMD) for tunnel vision, a vision enhancement device for central vision loss, and a frequency domain JPEG/MPEG based image enhancement technique. All the evaluation studies included visual search paradigms that are suitable for conducting indoor controllable experiments. PMID:22255516

Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

2011-01-01

148

Generalised leptonic colour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is conceivable that there is an SUN ‘colour’ gauge group for leptons, analogous to the gauged SU3 colour group of the quarks. The standard model emerges as the low energy effective theory when the leptonic colour is spontaneously broken. The simplest such generalised leptonic colour models are constructed. We show that the see-saw mechanism for small neutrino masses, along with the theoretical constraint of electric charge quantisation, suggests that the models with N=3, 5, 7 are the theoretically most promising cases. A striking feature of generalised leptonic colour is the physics associated with the extra leptonic degrees of freedom—the liptons. These particles can potentially be discovered at future colliders, such as the LHC, making the idea testable in the near future.

Foot, R.; Volkas, R. R.

2007-02-01

149

The colour hexagon: a chromaticity diagram based on photoreceptor excitations as a generalized representation of colour opponency  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chromaticity diagram which plots the 3 photoreceptor excitations of trichromatic colour vision systems at an angle of 120° is presented. It takes into acount the nonlinear transduction process in the receptors. The resulting diagram has the outline of an equilateral hexagon. It is demonstrated by geometrical means that excitation values for any type of spectrally opponent mechanism can be

Lars Chittka

1992-01-01

150

Colour perception in pseudophakia.  

PubMed

Minor differences in colour perception between pseudophakic, phakic, and spectacle aphakic eyes were identified by the Pickford-Nicholson anomaloscope and the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test. The results suggest that pseudophakic eyes are more sensitive to red and less sensitive to blue than aphakic eyes corrected with spectacles. Spectrophotometer measurements reveal that the Rayner-Pearce posterior chamber intraocular lens used in this study transmits an evenly balanced colour spectrum, whereas an aphakic spectacle lens exhibits significant colour distortion, reducing the red and enhancing the blue transmission. This distortion may possibly be attributed to the increased chromatic aberration in the spectacle lens compared with the intraocular lens. PMID:6981423

Jay, J L; Gautam, V B; Allan, D

1982-10-01

151

Can Impaired Vision be Easily, Quickly and Safely Restored toward Health and Maintained Wellness, Using McLeod's Patent Pending Naturoptics Methods?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A healthy eye has its large set of diffraction patterns, generated by the viewed scene, spread across the visible spectrum. Only the two of these simultaneously coincident with foveal cones, and rods, or with extra-foveal cones, are visually useful. This fact and pupil diameter changes with illumination, which cause proportional wavelength changes, drives the healthy visual state. A quasi-monochromatic interval is coincident with foveal cones, and rods. A shorter, partially overlapping interval aligns with extrafoveal cones, with about twenty nanometers separation. Wavelengths follow the Airy disk radius formula. An unhealthy eye is an eyeball deformed by self- induced vision abuse. Incorrect and effectively static stresses in the large external eye muscles displace and distort the patterns. Rebalancing the proper vision and muscle state are safely, quickly and rapidly restored by mimicking natural eye and head movements with naturoptics.

Courtmanche, Amanda; McLeod, Roger; McLeod, David

2006-10-01

152

Colour Mixing Based on Daylight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Colour science is based on the sensation of monochromatic light. In contrast to that, surface colours are caused by reflection of wide sections of the daylight spectrum. Non-spectral colours like magenta and purple appear homologous to colours with spectral hue, if the approach of mixing monochromatic light is abandoned. It is shown that a large…

Meyn, Jan-Peter

2008-01-01

153

Medicare coverage for vision assistive equipment.  

PubMed

Vision loss that cannot be corrected medically, surgically, or by refractive means is considered low vision. Low vision often results in impairment of daily activities, loss of independence, increased risk of fractures, excess health care expense, and reduced physical functioning, quality of life, and life expectancy. Vision rehabilitation can enable more independent functioning for individuals with low vision. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recognizes the importance of rehabilitation for achieving medically necessary goals but has denied Medicare coverage for vision assistive equipment that is necessary to complete these goals, although they provide coverage for assistive equipment to provide compensation for other disabilities. We believe that this is discriminatory and does not comport with congressional intent. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services should provide coverage for vision assistive equipment, allowing beneficiaries with vision loss to benefit fully from Medicare-covered rehabilitation to achieve the cost-effective results of these services. PMID:20938006

Morse, Alan R; Massof, Robert W; Cole, Roy G; Mogk, Lylas G; O'Hearn, Annemarie M; Hsu, Yu-Pin; Faye, Eleanor E; Wainapel, Stanley F; Jackson, Mary Lou

2010-10-01

154

Inattentional blindness and augmented-vision displays: effects of cartoon-like filtering and attended scene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Augmented-vision devices that we are developing to aid people with low vision (impaired vision) employ vision multiplexing - the simultaneous presentation of two different views to one or both eyes. This approach enables compensation for vision deficits without depriving the wearers of their normal views of the scene. Ideally, wearers would make use of the simultaneous views to alert them

Henry L. Apfelbaum; Doris H. Apfelbaum; Russell L. Woods; Eli Peli

2008-01-01

155

Cadmium colours: composition and properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition and the properties of cadmium aquarelle colours are discussed. The examined colours were 24 different aquarelle cadmium colours from six different manufacturers. The colours ranged from light, bright yellows to dark, deep-red tones. The aim of this research was to find out if the pigments contain cadmium salts: sulphides and/or selenides. This information will help in choosing watercolours in conservation processes. Today, aquarelle colours not containing cadmium pigments are being sold as cadmium colours; thus their properties might be different from actual cadmium colours. The aim of the research was to verify that the colour samples contained cadmium pigments and to estimate their compositions and ageing properties. Element analyses were performed from colour samples using micro-chemical tests and X-ray fluorescence measurements. Thin-layer chromatography was used for analysing gum Arabic as a possible binding medium in the chosen colour samples. Through ageing tests, the resistance of the colour samples to the exposure to light, heat and humidity was studied. Visible-light spectroscopy was used in determining the hues and hue changes of the aquarelle colour samples. The spectrophotometer used the CIE L*a*b* tone colour measuring system. From the colour measurements the changes in the lightness/darkness, the redness, the yellowness and the saturation of the samples were examined.

Paulus, J.; Knuutinen, U.

156

Color vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among basic vision research, which aim to reveal higher levels of the human visual function, I review recent advances in color vision, focusing on color memory and categorical color perception research. It is known that color varies continuously in color space. At the same time, however, we recognize colors as categories: such as, red, green, yellow, and blue although there

Keiji Uchikawa

1999-01-01

157

Shape and colour measurement of colourful objects by fringe projection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a novel method to measure shape and colour information of a colourful object by projecting separate red, green and blue colour fringe patterns onto the object surface. With regard to the object surface's colour, the modulation at each pixel position in the three colour channels has different values. For example, when projecting blue fringe patterns onto a red point, the corresponding pixel has too low a fringe modulation to accurately calculate the phase (shape) information; but with red fringe patterns a high fringe modulation is obtained. Therefore, phase information of the red point can be calculated by projecting red fringe patterns. For each object point, by comparing the modulation values from the three colour channels, it is possible to choose the channel having maximum modulation, and hence phase information can be reliably obtained by the phase-shifting algorithm. The fringe order information is obtained by using the optimum three-frequency selection method, so there is a maximum reliability in determining the fringe order and the 3-D shape of an object with step or large slopes on the surface. Since three colour channels are used, colour information of the object surface can be extracted with high dynamic range from the same fringe patterns. Chromatic aberration between colour channels is unavoidable and can be eliminated by a software-based method. Using the recently developed colour fringe projection system, separate colour fringe patterns are projected onto a mug having different colour patterns, a colourful box and plate, and a colour checker card to test the proposed method. The results show the range of colours that can be measured and that shape and colour information of colourful objects can be reliably obtained.

Zhang, Zonghua; Towers, Catherine E.; Towers, David P.

2008-08-01

158

Research of Binocular Colour Fusion Limit on Peripheral Visual Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, we measured the wavelength difference limit for binocular colour vision about peripheral visual field, by using a three-dimensional display to present dichoptic stimuli to the left and right eye respectively. The wavelength range of the stimuli was selected from 450 nm to 650 nm. The size of stimulus was 2° arc of visual angle, and the brightness was set 15 cd/m2. The results show that colour fusion occurs more difficult with central visual field than peripheral visual field. More importantly, it offers the basis of important fundamental data for some important optical instruments, for example the designs of optical microscopes.

Qin, Xiaolin; Nakashima, Yoshio; Takamatsu, Mamoru; Kidoh, Yasuaki

159

[The detection of vision disorders in children].  

PubMed

Using recognized criteria, the author discusses the merit of preschool vision screening programs and presents a number of recommendations for the detection of amblyopia, strabismus, and other visual impairments. PMID:8324413

Grégoire, J

1993-06-01

160

Transmission of colour and acuity signals by parvocellular cells in marmoset monkeys  

PubMed Central

Abstract The red–green axis of colour vision evolved recently in primate evolutionary history. Signals serving red–green colour vision travel together with signals serving spatial vision, in the parvocellular (PC) division of the subcortical visual pathway. However, the question of whether receptive fields of PC pathway cells are specialized to transmit red–green colour signals remains unresolved. We addressed this question in single-cell recordings from the lateral geniculate nucleus of anaesthetized marmosets. Marmosets show a high proportion of dichromatic (red–green colour-blind) individuals, allowing spatial and colour tuning properties of PC cells to be directly compared in dichromatic and trichromatic visual systems. We measured spatial frequency tuning for sine gratings that provided selective stimulation of individual photoreceptor types. We found that in trichromatic marmosets, the foveal visual field representation is dominated by red–green colour-selective PC cells. Colour selectivity of PC cells is reduced at greater eccentricities, but cone inputs to centre and surround are biased to create more selectivity than predicted by a purely ‘random wiring’ model. Thus, one-to-one connections in the fovea are sufficient, but not necessary, to create colour-selective responses. The distribution of spatial tuning properties for achromatic stimuli shows almost complete overlap between PC cells recorded in dichromatic and trichromatic marmosets. These data indicate that transmission of red–green colour signals has been enabled by centre–surround receptive fields of PC cells, and has not altered the capacity of PC cells to serve high-acuity vision at high stimulus contrast.

Martin, Paul R; Blessing, Esther M; Buzas, Peter; Szmajda, Brett A; Forte, Jason D

2011-01-01

161

Social Work in a Low Vision Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Veterans Affairs VICTORS (Vision Impairment Center To Optimize Remaining Sight) Program emphasizes individual independence through the use of low vision devices and training. The social worker's role combines traditional counseling with administrative responsibilities, such as interviewing the patient to identify needs and…

Lanning, William A.; McClelland, Gus

1995-01-01

162

Neurological Vision Rehabilitation: Description and Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have been notable for the high rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that have been incurred by the troops. Visual impairments often occur following TBI and present new challenges for rehabilitation. We describe a neurological vision rehabilitation therapy that addresses the unique needs of patients with vision

Kingston, John; Katsaros, Jennifer; Vu, Yurika; Goodrich, Gregory L.

2010-01-01

163

Neurological Vision Rehabilitation: Description and Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have been notable for the high rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that have been incurred by the troops. Visual impairments often occur following TBI and present new challenges for rehabilitation. We describe a neurological vision rehabilitation therapy that addresses the unique needs of patients with vision

Kingston, John; Katsaros, Jennifer; Vu, Yurika; Goodrich, Gregory L.

2010-01-01

164

Colouring of Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

ON reading the very interesting and suggestive article on ``Experiments on the Autumn Colouring of Plants,'' by E. Overton, in NATURE for January 26, it occurred to me that the following observation might be of interest. While I was in Switzerland last summer, I noticed that different plants of Sempervivum arachnoideum, L., growing under apparently very similar conditions, differed much

May Rathbone

1899-01-01

165

Colour and photosensitive epilepsy.  

PubMed

Red-coloured flicker is claimed to be more epileptogenic than white or that of other colours matched for subjective intensity. A feature of the colour opponent system is that the response of luminosity-sensitive cortical units to stimulation of ganglion cells of a particular spectral sensitivity is reduced when cells of other sensitivities are simultaneously stimulated. We hypothesized that the apparent effect of colour on photosensitivity was not a property of red light per se but arose simply from the fact that, with commercially available filters a light can be provided to stimulate only red sensitive cones, but owing to the overlap of the absorption spectra of the visual pigments it is difficult to stimulate only green or blue sensitive cones. Such stimulation of a single cone population can be achieved by the 'silent substitution method' which has been used for evoked response studies. In 12 photosensitive epileptic patients we find that, using stimulus intensities (less than 20 nits) at which white flicker is without effect, stimulation of either red or green cones by the silent substitution method may produce epileptiform discharges, there being a slight (and not significant) excess of patients showing a greater sensitivity for green than for red cone stimulation. The findings are considered to support the hypothesis set out above. PMID:6208004

Binnie, C D; Estevez, O; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G; Peters, A

1984-11-01

166

The colours of cloaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a survey of results from various research groups under the unifying viewpoint of transformational physics, which has been recently introduced for the design of metamaterials in optics and acoustics. We illustrate the versatility of underlying geometric transforms in order to bridge wave phenomena (the different 'colours' of waves) ranging from transverse electric waves, to linear surface water waves

Sébastien Guenneau; Ross C. McPhedran; Stefan Enoch; Alexander B. Movchan; Mohamed Farhat; Nicolae-Alexandru P. Nicorovici

2011-01-01

167

The Colour of Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

I AM reminded by Lord Rayleigh's lecture on this subject of the splendid light-blue colour presented by the tanks of water in which some of the water companies allow the sedimentation to take place of ``hard water'' which has been treated by Clark's process. I am thinking of those near Caterham and of those at Plumstead. The tanks-to the best

E. Ray Lankester

1910-01-01

168

Cultural preferences for hair colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to compare colour preference between Japanese and British people who have a different culture, we examined hair colour preference by questionnaire1-4), visual assessment5,6) and SD method7). We found several key differences between two countries. They were 'beauty' and 'fashion'. British students want hair colour beautiful, in contrast Japanese students want hair colour fashionable. From the factor analysis, we

Y. Kato; T. L. V. Cheung; S. Kitaguchi; S. Westland; H. Yasunaga; T. Sato

169

The Four-Colour Theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four-colour theorem, that every loopless planar graph admits a vertex-colouring with at most four different colours, was proved in 1976 by Appel and Haken, using a computer. Here we give another proof, still using a computer, but simpler than Appel and Haken's in several respects.

Neil Robertson; Daniel P. Sanders; Paul D. Seymour; Robin Thomas

1997-01-01

170

Russia and the colour revolutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour revolutions, and especially the Orange Revolution in Ukraine, are widely perceived as major international setbacks to Putin's Russia. The Ukrainian events alarmed Russian elites, who feared the possibility of a local colour revolution during the 2007–2008 electoral cycle. To thwart the perceived colour revolution threat, Russian authorities adopted strategies that combined a political, administrative and intellectual assault on

Evgeny Finkel; Yitzhak M. Brudny

2012-01-01

171

Comparing colour discrimination and proofreading performance under compact fluorescent and halogen lamp lighting.  

PubMed

Legislation in many countries has banned inefficient household lighting. Consequently, classic incandescent lamps have to be replaced by more efficient alternatives such as halogen and compact fluorescent lamps (CFL). Alternatives differ in their spectral power distributions, implying colour-rendering differences. Participants performed a colour discrimination task - the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test - and a proofreading task under CFL or halogen lighting of comparable correlated colour temperatures at low (70 lx) or high (800 lx) illuminance. Illuminance positively affected colour discrimination and proofreading performance, whereas the light source was only relevant for colour discrimination. Discrimination was impaired with CFL lighting. There were no differences between light sources in terms of self-reported physical discomfort and mood state, but the majority of the participants correctly judged halogen lighting to be more appropriate for discriminating colours. The findings hint at the colour-rendering deficiencies associated with energy-efficient CFLs. Practitioner Summary: In order to compare performance under energy-efficient alternatives of classic incandescent lighting, colour discrimination and proofreading performance was compared under CFL and halogen lighting. Colour discrimination was impaired under CFLs, which hints at the practical drawbacks associated with the reduced colour-rendering properties of energy-efficient CFLs. PMID:23923999

Mayr, Susanne; Köpper, Maja; Buchner, Axel

2013-08-07

172

Specifying colour and maintaining colour accuracy for 3D printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in rapid prototyping technologies have led to the emergence of three-dimensional printers which can fabricate physical artefacts, including the application of surface colours. In light of these developments, this paper asserts that the need to print colour accurately is just as important for designers using three-dimensional colour printing as it is for two-dimensional inkjet printing. Parallels can be made with two-dimensional digital Inkjet printing and 2D common problems include: on screen previsualisation, colour management methods, colour gamut and maintaining colour accuracy. However, for three dimensional colour printed objects, there are more variables that will affect the finished colour. These are: the powder and process inks, unevenness of the surface, wax post-processing and other infiltration media and procedures. Furthermore, in some 3D printers, the K channel is replaced by the binder and so the printer is only using the cyan, magenta and yellow channels. The paper will suggest methods for improving pre-visualisation and accurate pre-viewing of the colours through the manufacture of three-dimensional colour charts as a reference guide for designers so that they can make accurate coloured artefacts. A series of case studies will be demonstrated.

Parraman, Carinna; Walters, Peter; Reid, Brendan; Huson, David

2008-03-01

173

Teaching Visually Impaired Children. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Intended for either the general educator or the specialist, this text offers principles and teaching strategies for teaching students with visual impairments including both blind students and those with low vision. The book is organized into three sections: "Vision,""Learning," and "Testing and Transitions." The four chapters in the "Vision"…

Bishop, Virginia E.

174

Local and Global Factors in Spatially- contingent Coloured Aftereffects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dodwell and O'Shea's 1(1987) Vision Research, 27, 569-5801 conclusions that contingent coloured aftereffects (CAEs) depend on gobal pattern organization were investigated in four experiments. In Expt 1, we replicated findings that CAEs can be induced with complex patterns (concentric circles; radial spokes) under conditions of systematic eye movements. Contrary to Dodwell and O'Shea's argument that eye movements should uniformly cancel

JACK BROERSE; ROBERT P. O'SHEAt

1995-01-01

175

Early-onset Alzheimers and Cortical Vision Impairment in a Woman With Valosin-containing Protein Disease Associated With 2 APOE [Latin Small Letter Open E]4/APOE [Latin Small Letter Open E]4 Genotype.  

PubMed

Hereditary inclusion body myopathy is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by rimmed vacuoles and by the presence of filamentous cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions. Inclusion body myopathy with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia is a progressive autosomal dominant disorder associated with a mutation in valosin-containing protein (VCP) with typical onset of symptoms in the 30s. APOE [Latin Small Letter Open E]4 is a major risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects memory, thinking, behavior, and emotion as a result of the excessive buildup and decreased clearance of ?-amyloid proteins resulting in the appearance of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In conclusion, we report a unique patient with an APOE [Latin Small Letter Open E]4/APOE [Latin Small Letter Open E]4 genotype and atypical VCP disease associated with early Alzheimer disease and severe vision impairment. Future studies will elucidate the interaction of VCP mutations and APOE [Latin Small Letter Open E]4 alleles in understanding common mechanisms in AD and VCP disease. PMID:23715207

Shamirian, Sharis; Nalbandian, Angèle; Khare, Manaswitha; Castellani, Rudolph; Kim, Ronald; Kimonis, Virginia E

2013-05-24

176

Specifying colour and maintaining colour accuracy for 3D printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in rapid prototyping technologies have led to the emergence of three-dimensional printers which can fabricate physical artefacts, including the application of surface colours. In light of these developments, this paper asserts that the need to print colour accurately is just as important for designers using three-dimensional colour printing as it is for two-dimensional inkjet printing. Parallels can be made

Carinna Parraman; Peter Walters; Brendan Reid; David Huson

2008-01-01

177

Panoramic Vision and Laser Range Finder Fusion for Multiple Person Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a fusion of panoramic vision and laser range data to track multiple persons simultaneously from a stationary robot. Particle filters are used to track people in the plane of the laser and a mixture of Gaussians background subtraction algorithm is used to maintain a colour model for each person being tracked. Colour information is used to recognize

Punarjay Chakravarty; Ray Jarvis

2006-01-01

178

Colour image compression by grey to colour conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Instead of de-correlating image luminance from chrominance, some use has been made of using the correlation between the luminance component of an image and its chromatic components, or the correlation between colour components, for colour image compression. In one approach, the Green colour channel was taken as a base, and the other colour channels or their DCT subbands were approximated as polynomial functions of the base inside image windows. This paper points out that we can do better if we introduce an addressing scheme into the image description such that similar colours are grouped together spatially. With a Luminance component base, we test several colour spaces and rearrangement schemes, including segmentation. and settle on a log-geometric-mean colour space. Along with PSNR versus bits-per-pixel, we found that spatially-keyed s-CIELAB colour error better identifies problem regions. Instead of segmentation, we found that rearranging on sorted chromatic components has almost equal performance and better compression. Here, we sort on each of the chromatic components and separately encode windows of each. The result consists of the original greyscale plane plus the polynomial coefficients of windows of rearranged chromatic values, which are then quantized. The simplicity of the method produces a fast and simple scheme for colour image and video compression, with excellent results.

Drew, Mark S.; Finlayson, Graham D.; Jindal, Abhilash

2011-02-01

179

Low-cost wearable low-vision aid using a handmade retinal light-scanning microdisplay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wearable Low Vision Aid (WLVA) is a portable system that uses machine vision to track potential walking hazards for the visually impaired. A scanning fiber display couples a laser diode to a vibrating optical fiber that projects a virtual image onto the retina to display warning icons that the visually impaired can recognize. Initial low-vision subject testing has given

Ryland C. Bryant; Eric J. Seibel; Cameron M. Lee; Konrad E. Schroder

2004-01-01

180

Colour invariant target recognition in multiple camera CCTV surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People tracking in crowded scene have been a popular, and at the same time a very difficult topic in computer vision. It is mainly because of the difficulty for the acquisition of intrinsic signatures of targets from a single view of the scene. Many factors, such as variable illumination conditions and viewing angles, will induce illusive modification of intrinsic signatures of targets. The objective of this paper is to verify if colour constancy (CC) approach really helps people tracking in CCTV network system. We have testified a number of CC algorithms together with various colour descriptors, to assess the efficiencies of people recognitions from multi-camera i-LIDS data set via receiver operation characteristics (ROC). It is found that when CC is applied together with some form of colour restoration mechanisms such as colour transfer, it does improve people recognition by at least a factor of 2. An elementary luminance based CC coupled with a pixel based colour transfer algorithm have been developed and it is reported in this paper.

Soori, Umair; Yuen, P. W. T.; Ibrahim, I.; Han, J.; Tsitiridis, A.; Hong, K.; Chen, T.; Jackman, J.; James, D.; Richardson, M.

2011-10-01

181

Agrarian Visions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new feature in "Country Teacher,""Agrarian Visions" reminds rural teachers that they can do something about rural decline. Like to populism of the 1890s, the "new populism" advocates rural living. Current attempts to address rural decline are contrary to agrarianism because: (1) telecommunications experts seek to solve problems of rural…

Theobald, Paul

182

Qualitative Vision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to understand the principles behind a body of work that could be characterized as qualitative vision, we should view it in the context of the rest of the research in the field, as it has been evolving over time. This is what this introduction doe...

Y. Aloimonos

1995-01-01

183

Training Visions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, "Training" asks the 2011 winners to give their predictions for what training--either in general or specifically at their companies--will look like in the next five to 10 years. Perhaps their "training visions" will spark some ideas in one's organization--or at least help prepare for what might be coming in the next decade or so.

Training, 2011

2011-01-01

184

Agrarian Visions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new feature in "Country Teacher,""Agrarian Visions" reminds rural teachers that they can do something about rural decline. Like to populism of the 1890s, the "new populism" advocates rural living. Current attempts to address rural decline are contrary to agrarianism because: (1) telecommunications experts seek to solve problems of rural…

Theobald, Paul

185

ASIC vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in VLSI vision sensor design that enable high-quality, analog images to be formed through devices fabricated using standard 5 V CMOS ASIC processes are reported. The potential for integrating mixed sensor-processor systems, using an integrated VLSI camera system as an example, is reported. The feasibility of the techniques is confirmed by results obtained from working prototype CMOS sensor arrays.

D. Renshaw; P. B. Denyer; G. Wang; M. Lu

1990-01-01

186

The Role of Organizations in Reaching Older Adults about Vision Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vision impairment affects approximately 17% of Americans age 45 and older. Yet, 94% of adults with self-reported vision loss did not receive any type of vision rehabilitation services to help them retain independence. These findings underscore the need for promoting awareness about what can be done when vision fails. A national dissemination…

Sussman-Skalka, Carol J.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Stuen, Cynthia

2006-01-01

187

Complementary colours for a physicist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing colours and their physically exact complements using cellophane is presented. The origin of the colours lies in the transmission of polarized light through the birefringent cellophane, and therefore the optics of birefringent materials is briefly presented. A set-up which will be described in the following can be used in a laboratory experiment at an undergraduate level.

Babi?, Vitomir; ?epi?, Mojca

2009-07-01

188

Giovanni Schiaparelli: Visions of a colour blind astronomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greatest observer of Mars of the nineteenth century was the Italian astronomer Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli. In his classic compilation of Martian observations, La Planete Mars, published in 1892, Camille Flammarion readily conceded that Schiaparelli's was 'the greatest work which has been carried out with regard to Mars,'1 while another eminent Martian, Percival Lowell, referred to the Italian astronomer alone as his Martian master ('cher maitre Martien').

Sheehan, W.

1997-02-01

189

A New Colour ConsciousnessColour in the Digital Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

A film's visual design is increasingly determined digitally, after principal cinematography. This essay charts the nature of the digital revolution in relation to digital colour grading. Faced with the new digital devices, filmmakers are casting about for appropriate, respectable functions. The paper examines how the first two mainstream Hollywood releases to feature digital colour designs, Gary Ross's Pleasantville (1998), and

Scott Higgins

2003-01-01

190

The colours of cloaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a survey of results from various research groups under the unifying viewpoint of transformational physics, which has been recently introduced for the design of metamaterials in optics and acoustics. We illustrate the versatility of underlying geometric transforms in order to bridge wave phenomena (the different 'colours' of waves) ranging from transverse electric waves, to linear surface water waves at an air-fluid interface, to pressure waves in fluids and out-of-plane shear waves in elastic media: these waves are all governed by a second order scalar partial differential equation (PDE) invariant under geometric transform. Moreover, flexural waves propagating in thin plates represent a very peculiar situation whereby the displacement field satisfies a fourth order scalar PDE which also retains its form under geometric transform (unlike for the Navier equation in elastodynamics). Control of flexural wave trajectories is illustrated with a multilayered cloak and a carpet. Interestingly, the colours of waves can be revealed through an analysis of the band spectra of invisibility cloaks. In the context of acoustics, this suggests one can hear the shape of a drum. Alternative avenues towards cloaking based upon anomalous resonances of a negatively refracting coating (which can be seen as the result of folding the space back onto itself), and even plasmonic shells reducing the scattering cross-section of nano-objects are also addressed.

Guenneau, Sébastien; McPhedran, Ross C.; Enoch, Stefan; Movchan, Alexander B.; Farhat, Mohamed; Nicorovici, Nicolae-Alexandru P.

2011-02-01

191

Across light: through colour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The speed at which our world is changing is reflected in the shifting way artistic images are created and produced. Holography can be used as a medium to express the perception of space with light and colour and to make the material and the immaterial experiments with optical and digital holography. This paper intends to be a reflection on the final product of that process surrounding a debate of ideas for new experimental methodologies applied to holographic images. Holography is a time-based medium and the irretrievable linear flow of time is responsible for a drama, unique to traditional cinematography. If the viewers move to left or right, they see glimpses of the next scene or the previous one perceived a second ago. This interaction of synthetic space arises questions such as: can we see, in "reality", two forms in the same space? Trying to answer this question, a series of works has been created. These concepts are embryonic to a series of digital art holograms and lenticulars technique's titled "Across Light: Through Colour". They required some technical research and comparison between effects from different camera types, using Canon IS3 and Sony HDR CX105.

Azevedo, Isabel; Richardson, Martin; Bernardo, Luis Miguel

2012-02-01

192

Machine vision  

SciTech Connect

To keep up with the speeds of modern production lines, most machine vision applications require very powerful computers (often parallel-processing machines), which process millions of points of data in real time. The human brain performs approximately 100 billion logical floating-point operations each second. That is 400 times the speed of a Cray-1 supercomputer. The right software must be developed for parallel-processing computers. The NSF has awarded Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (Troy, N.Y.) a $2 million grant for parallel- and image-processing software research. Over the last 15 years, Rensselaer has been conducting image-processing research, including work with high-definition TV (HDTV) and image coding and understanding. A similar NSF grant has been awarded to Michigan State University (East Lansing, Mich.) Neural networks are supposed to emulate human learning patterns. These networks and their hardware implementations (neurocomputers) show a great deal of promise for machine vision systems because they allow the systems to understand the use sensory data input more effectively. Neurocomputers excel at pattern-recognition tasks when input data are fuzzy or the vision algorithm is not optimal and is difficult to ascertain.

Horn, D.

1989-06-01

193

Virtual Vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer vision and sensor networks researchers are increasingly motivated to investigate complex multi-camera sensing and control issues that arise in the automatic visual surveillance of extensive, highly populated public spaces such as airports and train stations. However, they often encounter serious impediments to deploying and experimenting with large-scale physical camera networks in such real-world environments. We propose an alternative approach called "Virtual Vision", which facilitates this type of research through the virtual reality simulation of populated urban spaces, camera sensor networks, and computer vision on commodity computers. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by developing two highly automated surveillance systems comprising passive and active pan/tilt/zoom cameras that are deployed in a virtual train station environment populated by autonomous, lifelike virtual pedestrians. The easily reconfigurable virtual cameras distributed in this environment generate synthetic video feeds that emulate those acquired by real surveillance cameras monitoring public spaces. The novel multi-camera control strategies that we describe enable the cameras to collaborate in persistently observing pedestrians of interest and in acquiring close-up videos of pedestrians in designated areas.

Terzopoulos, Demetri; Qureshi, Faisal Z.

194

Artificial vision.  

PubMed

A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases. PMID:21775943

Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R

2011-09-01

195

The Number of Discriminable Colours  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH a calculation of the approximate number of discriminable colours must depend upon the individual concerned, `normal' persons may be expected to furnish data which agree to the correct order of magnitude. The method used here involves the choice of an arbitrary colour solid, the well-known Titchener-Ebbhighaus double pyramid, to which available experimental data are applied with simplifying assumptions, in

George B. Welch

1937-01-01

196

Colours due to Intermittent Illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

MR. C. T. WHITMELL (NATURE, September 1, p. 424) describes a method of producing coloured patches by means of a rotating disc, furnished with a ring of holes. It will be found that the phenomenon can also be produced by intermittent reflection. In the year 1881 I described in NATURE (vol. xxiv. p. 140) a method whereby colour patches of

F. J. Jervis-Smith

1904-01-01

197

Complementary Colours for a Physicist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing…

Babic, Vitomir; Cepic, Mojca

2009-01-01

198

Analogy of Colour and Music  

Microsoft Academic Search

I FIND in your number of January 13 an interesting paper by Mr. Barrett on the Correlation of Colour and Sound. It seems to me that Mr. Barrett depreciates the phenomenon of Newton's rings by saying that the ``connection between the relative spaces occupied by each colour and the relative vibrations of the notes of the scale'' ... ``cannot be

W. S. Okely

1870-01-01

199

Genetics of colouration in birds.  

PubMed

Establishing the links between phenotype and genotype is of great importance for resolving key questions about the evolution, maintenance and adaptive function of phenotypic variation. Bird colouration is one of the most studied systems to investigate the role of natural and sexual selection in the evolution of phenotypic diversity. Given the recent advances in molecular tools that allow discovering genetic polymorphisms and measuring gene and protein expression levels, it is timely to review the literature on the genetics of bird colouration. The present study shows that melanin-based colour phenotypes are often associated with mutations at melanogenic genes. Differences in melanin-based colouration are caused by switches of eumelanin to pheomelanin production or by changes in feather keratin structure, melanoblast migration and differentiation, as well as melanosome structure. Similar associations with other types of colourations are difficult to establish, because our knowledge about the molecular genetics of carotenoid-based and structural colouration is quasi inexistent. This discrepancy stems from the fact that only melanin-based colouration shows pronounced heritability estimates, i.e. the resemblance between related individuals is usually mainly explained by genetic factors. In contrast, the expression of carotenoid-based colouration is phenotypically plastic with a high sensitivity to variation in environmental conditions. It therefore appears that melanin-based colour traits are prime systems to understand the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. In this context, birds have a great potential to bring us to new frontiers where many exciting discoveries will be made on the genetics of phenotypic traits, such as colouration. In this context, a major goal of our review is to suggest a number of exciting future avenues. PMID:23665152

Roulin, Alexandre; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse

2013-05-09

200

An adaptation of the Cambridge Colour Test for use with animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, molecular biological techniques have presented new opportunities for addressing questions concerning the neural mechanisms involved in color coding, thereby rousing renewed interest in animal color vision testing. We have modified a computer-based assessment tool, the Cambridge Colour Test, to make it suitable for use with animals. Here, the validity and reliability of the testing method were evaluated using squirrel

KATHERINE MANCUSO; MAUREEN NEITZ; JAY NEITZ

2006-01-01

201

The Gradual Transformation of Historical Situations: Understanding "Change and Continuity" through Colours and Timelines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The small-scale research that Yosanne Vella reports in this article was driven by concern to help pupils develop "big picture" visions of the past and to engage effectively with the idea of change as a process rather than an event. The strategy that she adopts--asking groups of students to colour in a timeline recording their judgement in…

Vella, Yosanne

2011-01-01

202

Vision Therapy News Backgrounder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The booklet provides an overview on vision therapy to aid writers, editors, and broadcasters help parents, teachers, older adults, and all consumers learn more about vision therapy. Following a description of vision therapy or vision training, information is provided on how and why vision therapy works. Additional sections address providers of…

American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

203

Extrasolar Visions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Extrasolar Visions Web site provides a searchable guide to extra solar planets. These include planets of normal stars, pulsar planets, brown dwarfs, protoplanetary disks and protoplanets, extragalactic worlds, massive compact halo objects, and disproven or doubtful worlds. Visitors can search for these objects or view the week's 20 most popular systems, 20 most interesting systems, or the 20 most recently updated systems. Once chosen, the objects name, mass, average distance, and type is given along with a link for further information. This well designed site does a good job of combining quality information and graphics resulting in a pleasurable surfing experience for anyone exploring it.

1996-01-01

204

Accuracy of shade matching performed by colour blind and normal dental students using 3D Master and Vita Lumin shade guides.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether 3D Master or VitaLumin shade guides could improve colour selection in individuals with normal and defective colour vision. First, colour perception of 260 dental students was evaluated. Afterwards, 9 colour blind and 9 matched normal subjects tried to detect colours of 10 randomly selected tabs from each kit and the correct/false answers were counted. Of the colour-defective subjects, 47.8% and 33.3% correctly detected the shade using 3D Master and VitaLumin, respectively. These statistics were 62.2% and 42.2% in normal subjects. In normal participants, but not in colour blind ones, 3D Master significantly improved shade matching accuracy compared to VitaLumin. PMID:22474932

Vafaee, F; Rakhshan, V; Vafaei, M; Khoshhal, M

2012-03-01

205

Artful visions.  

PubMed

Visual artists and visual scientists are often concerned with examining the same spatial phenomena, but the methods they adopt differ radically. Scientists try to discover new facts regarding old phenomena; they rarely discover new phenomena but different conditions under which the old ones operate (perhaps using some novel apparatus for generating stimuli). Artists are concerned with arranging phenomena in a manner that has not been seen before, or perhaps to increase the spectators' awareness of the phenomena. This typically involves complicating the effects rather than simplifying pattern elements. Thus, scientists rarefy and isolate phenomena to control them in the laboratory, whereas artists embrace complexity and manipulate phenomena intuitively. The differences in method have resulted in divergent vocabularies for describing similar effects, and the two approaches can appear more disparate than their phenomenal commonality would suggest. It could be argued that for spatial vision, prior to the advent of computer graphics, visual scientists have not represented adequately the subject matter of their own enquiry; this want was supplied by visual artists. Not only have artists provided more engaging examples of spatial phenomena, but they have also enhanced their range in ways that are scientifically novel. The opposite argument applies to motion perception, where scientists developed techniques that were eagerly adopted in the arts. The interactions between art and both spatial and motion vision were influenced by instruments invented in the early nineteenth century for manipulating the representation of space and time - the stereoscope and the stroboscopic disc. PMID:18073050

Wade, Nicholas J

2007-01-01

206

Optimal colour quality of LED clusters based on memory colours.  

PubMed

The spectral power distributions of tri- and tetrachromatic clusters of Light-Emitting-Diodes, composed of simulated and commercially available LEDs, were optimized with a genetic algorithm to maximize the luminous efficacy of radiation and the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour quality metric developed by the authors. The trade-off of the colour quality as assessed by the memory colour metric and the luminous efficacy of radiation was investigated by calculating the Pareto optimal front using the NSGA-II genetic algorithm. Optimal peak wavelengths and spectral widths of the LEDs were derived, and over half of them were found to be close to Thornton's prime colours. The Pareto optimal fronts of real LED clusters were always found to be smaller than those of the simulated clusters. The effect of binning on designing a real LED cluster was investigated and was found to be quite large. Finally, a real LED cluster of commercially available AlGaInP, InGaN and phosphor white LEDs was optimized to obtain a higher score on memory colour quality scale than its corresponding CIE reference illuminant. PMID:21451716

Smet, Kevin; Ryckaert, Wouter R; Pointer, Michael R; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

2011-03-28

207

Colour preferences of flower-naive honeybees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flower-naive honeybees Apis mellifera L. flying in an enclosure were tested for their colour preferences. Bees were rewarded once on an achromatic (grey, aluminium or hardboard), or on a chromatic (ultraviolet) disk. Since naive bees never alighted on colour stimuli alone, a scent was given in combination with colour. Their landings on twelve colour stimuli were recorded. Results after one

M. Giurfa; J. Núñez; L. Chittka; R. Menzel

1995-01-01

208

What Colour Is a Shadow?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What colour is a shadow? Black, grey, or some other colour? This article describes how to use a digital camera to test the hypothesis that a shadow under a clear blue sky has a blue tint. A white sheet of A4 paper was photographed in full sunlight and in shadow under a clear blue sky. The images were analysed using a shareware program called…

Hughes, S. W.

2009-01-01

209

Artificial vision.  

PubMed

Outer retinal degenerations such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) lead to blindness because of photoreceptor degeneration. To test whether controlled electrical stimulation of the remaining retinal neurons could provide form vision, we electrically stimulated the inner retinal surface with micro-electrodes inserted through the sclera/eye wall of 14 of these patients (12 RP and 2 AMD). This procedure was performed in the operating room under local anaesthesia and all responses were recorded via a video camera mounted on the surgical microscope. Electrical stimulation of the inner retinal surface elicited visual perception of a spot of light (phosphene) in all subjects. This perception was retinotopically correct in 13 of 14 patients. In a resolution test in a subject with no light perception, the patient could resolve phosphenes at 1.75 degrees centre-to-centre distance (i.e. visual acuity compatible with mobility; Snellen visual acuity of 4/200). PMID:9775223

Humayun, M S; de Juan, E

1998-01-01

210

Binocular Vision  

PubMed Central

This essay reviews major developments –empirical and theoretical –in the field of binocular vision during the last 25 years. We limit our survey primarily to work on human stereopsis, binocular rivalry and binocular contrast summation, with discussion where relevant of single-unit neurophysiology and human brain imaging. We identify several key controversies that have stimulated important work on these problems. In the case of stereopsis those controversies include position versus phase encoding of disparity, dependence of disparity limits on spatial scale, role of occlusion in binocular depth and surface perception, and motion in 3D. In the case of binocular rivalry, controversies include eye versus stimulus rivalry, role of “top-down” influences on rivalry dynamics, and the interaction of binocular rivalry and stereopsis. Concerning binocular contrast summation, the essay focuses on two representative models that highlight the evolving complexity in this field of study.

Blake, Randolph; Wilson, Hugh

2010-01-01

211

The neurophysiological correlates of colour induction, colour and brightness contrast.  

PubMed

Psychophysical experiments suggest that colour contrast and colour induction by surround lights can be explained as brightness contrasts (darkness induction) in the spectral region of the surround colour. It follows from this model that a chromatic surround reduces the gain of receptor-ganglion cell channels if the surround colour is in their excitatory spectral region. Thus, a green-sensitive cell (G+/R- or WS in our nomenclature) would respond less to a blue-green stimulus flashed into its receptive field when the surround (5 degrees/20 degrees inner/outer diameter) is illuminated with blue light. Neurophysiological experiments show that this is indeed the case and that such surround-induced response changes are present already in relay cells of the parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus (P-LGN) and their retinal afferents. These surround-induced response changes are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with psychophysical experiments. Since the neuronal signal for white consists of a balanced excitation of the M-cone excited, green-blue-sensitive WS-cells and the L-cone excited, yellow-red-sensitive WL-cells, the findings also explain colour induction on white surfaces as well as coloured shadows: during blue surround illumination, white signals from the WS-cells, and during red surround the white signals from the WL-cells are reduced. The neurophysiological surround effects on P-LGN cells are identical but weaker than those produced by light of the same colour shone into the receptive field centres. They are therefore undistinguishable from direct adaptation of those receptors which feed directly into the receptive field of the respective cells. This suggests that they are caused by scattered light reaching the receptive field from the surround. PMID:8493352

Creutzfeldt, O D

1993-01-01

212

Animat Vision: Active Vision in Artificial Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose and demonstrate a new paradigm for active vision r e- search that draws upon recent advances in the fields of artific ial life and computer graphics. A software alternative to the pr evailing hardware vision mindset, animat vision prescribes artifici al animals, or animats, situated in physics-based virtual worlds as aut onomous virtual robots possessing active perception systems.

Demetri Terzopoulos; Tamer F. Rabie

1995-01-01

213

Density Conditions for Panchromatic Colourings of Hypergraphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Let be a hypergraph. A panchromatic t-colouring of is a t-colouring of its vertices such that each edge has at least one vertex of each colour; and is panchromatically t-choosable if, whenever each vertex is given a list of t colours, the vertices can be coloured from their lists in such a way that each edge receives at least t

Alexandr V. Kostochka; Douglas R. Woodall

2001-01-01

214

Spectral filters in low-vision correction.  

PubMed

Coloured filters are used to protect the lens, retina and other ocular tissues against the hazard of light damage and to improve the quality of vision mainly in cases of ocular media opacities. Four types of yellow, amber and orange filters have been designed as tinted glasses, shields and colour covering of spectacles. They were tested on 15 adult patients with partial cataract and on 80 children with congenital pathology (i.e. macular hypoplasia, albinism, aphakia after congenital cataract). The majority of the children had nystagmus. The filters with particular spectral characteristics provide reduction of light intensity in the light-damaging range by at least a factor of five. Optimal filters were selected by examination of visual acuity, contrast frequency sensitivity, glare sensitivity and subjective selection by the patients. The effects of filters were: 11-43% increase in corrected visual acuity, 27-34% increase in contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for all frequencies and a marked reduction in glare sensitivity. All patients reported subjective improvement including reduction of photophobia, eye-strain and eye discomfort. It is concluded that coloured filters are able to contribute substantially to rehabilitation of low-vision patients. PMID:10962699

Rosenblum, Y Z; Zak, P P; Ostrovsky, M A; Smolyaninova, I L; Bora, E V; Dyadina, U V; Trofimova, N N; Aliyev, A G

2000-07-01

215

Generic and customized digital image enhancement filters for the visually impaired.  

PubMed

This study compares the effectiveness of various image enhancement filters for improving the perceived visibility of coloured digital natural images for people with visual impairment. Generic filters were compared with Peli's adaptive enhancement and adaptive thresholding and custom-devised filters based on each subject's contrast sensitivity loss. Subjects with low vision made within filter rankings followed by between filter ratings. In general, subjects preferred filters with lower gains. Unsharp masking resulted in a significant increase in perceived visibility for some image types (p < or = 0.05) while Peli's adaptive enhancement, edge enhancement and histogram equalization resulted in borderline improvements. Adaptive thresholding and the custom devised filter did not result in overall improvements in perceived visibility. PMID:15820517

Leat, Susan J; Omoruyi, Gloria; Kennedy, Andrew; Jernigan, Ed

2005-07-01

216

The assessment of cognition in visually impaired older adults.  

PubMed

Background: visual and cognitive impairments are common in later life. Yet there are very few cognitive screening tests for the visually impaired. Objective: to screen for cognitive impairment in the visually impaired. Methods: case-control study including 150 elderly participants with visual impairment (n = 74) and a control group without visual impairment (n = 76) using vision-independent cognitive tests and cognitive screening tests (MMSE and clock drawing tests (CDT)) which are in part vision dependent. Results: the scoring of the two groups did not differ in the vision-independent cognitive tests. Visually impaired patients performed poorer than controls in the vision-dependent items of the MMSE (T = 7.3; df: 148; P < 0.001) and in CDT (T = 3.1; df: 145; P = 0.003). No group difference was found when vision-independent items were added to MMSE and CDT. The test score gain by the use of vision-independent items correlated with the severity of visual impairment (P < 0.002). Conclusion: visually impaired patients benefit from cognitive tests, which do not rely on vision. The more visually impaired the greater the benefit. PMID:23108164

Killen, Alison; Firbank, Michael J; Collerton, Daniel; Clarke, Michael; Jefferis, Joanna Mary; Taylor, John-Paul; McKeith, Ian G; Mosimann, Urs Peter

2012-10-28

217

Adjustable typography: an approach to enhancing low vision text accessibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of people have low vision, a disability condition caused by uncorrectable or partially correctable disorders of the eye. The primary goal of low vision rehabilitation is increasing access to printed material. This paper describes how adjustable typography, a computer graphic approach to enhancing text accessibility, can play a role in this process, by allowing visually-impaired users to customize fonts

Aries Arditi

2004-01-01

218

Low Vision Aids—Is our service cost effective?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire and telephone survey was carried out on a Scottish population of patients with impaired vision, in order to ascertain the proportion of patients who gain benefit from Low Vision Aids (LVA) and to determine the number of LVAs which are retained but unused. One third of the patients who answered the questionnaire never use their LVAs, and one

Gawn G McIlwaine; John A Bell; Gordon N Dutton

1991-01-01

219

All about Low Vision  

MedlinePLUS

... About Low Vision & Blindness > All About Low Vision All About Low Vision Due to an increase in the number of aging baby boomers and the growing ... sensitivity, a significantly obstructed field of vision -- or all three. Watch simulations of some of the most ...

220

The colour of gender stereotyping.  

PubMed

Despite legislative attempts to eliminate gender stereotyping from society, the propensity to evaluate people on the basis of their sex remains a pernicious social problem. Noting the critical interplay between cultural and cognitive factors in the establishment of stereotypical beliefs, the current investigation explored the extent to which culturally transmitted colour-gender associations (i.e., pink is for girls, blue is for boys) set the stage for the automatic activation and expression of gender stereotypes. Across six experiments, the results demonstrated that (1) consumer choice for children's goods is dominated by gender-stereotyped colours (Experiment 1); (2) colour-based stereotypic associations guide young children's behaviour (Experiment 2); (3) colour-gender associations automatically activate associated stereotypes in adulthood (Experiments 3-5); and (4) colour-based stereotypic associations bias impressions of male and female targets (Experiment 6). These findings indicate that, despite prohibitions against stereotyping, seemingly innocuous societal practices may continue to promote this mode of thought. PMID:21752009

Cunningham, Sheila J; Macrae, C Neil

2011-04-19

221

[Pathology of opsins and vision disorders].  

PubMed

Mutations of the gene encoding rhodopsin are responsible for 30% of the cases autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Rhodopsin molecules are key G-coupled transmembrane proteins initiating the visual transduction cascade in rods. These cells are specialized retinal cells allowing the detection of low intensity lights. Mutations in the rhodopsin gene lead to the progressive destruction of rods, clinically translated by night blindness, a progressive bilateral loss of the peripheral visual field, and predominant alterations of the rod component of the electroretinograms. Inherited colour vision deficiencies are mainly caused by alterations of the genes encoding coloured opsins. These proteins are G-coupled receptors specialized in visual transduction in the cones. These sensorial cells are localized in the center of the neural retina where they allow the detection of refined details and chromatic lights. Rearrangements of the genes encoding the green and the red color pigments are responsible for daltonism. PMID:7939339

Abitbol, M; Eppelbaum, M; Dolfuss, H; Dufier, J L

1994-05-01

222

Vision, Educational Level, and Empowering Work Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-one machinists (blind, sighted, and visually impaired) answered questions about trust, resource sharing, and empowerment in work relationships. Employees with low vision were the least trusting and trusted, received the fewest shared resources, and reported proportionately more disempowering relationships. More educated employees saw more…

Johnson, G. M.

1995-01-01

223

Vision, Educational Level, and Empowering Work Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thirty-one machinists (blind, sighted, and visually impaired) answered questions about trust, resource sharing, and empowerment in work relationships. Employees with low vision were the least trusting and trusted, received the fewest shared resources, and reported proportionately more disempowering relationships. More educated employees saw more…

Johnson, G. M.

1995-01-01

224

Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students  

PubMed Central

Background: Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim: To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design: Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods: Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen's E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Statistical Analysis: Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. Results: The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24%) had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%), but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3%) children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6%) children. Conclusion: Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense.

Gogate, Parikshit; Rishikeshi, Nikhil; Mehata, Reshma; Ranade, Satish; Kharat, Jitesh; Deshpande, Madan

2009-01-01

225

Resources for Adapting Low Vision Training Materials for the Adult with Low Literacy Skills. Practice Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adults with low vision who seek clinical low vision services need to be able to read (that is, to interpret or understand words, numbers, and symbols in print meaningfully). Reading difficulties that adults encounter during low vision therapy may be directly connected to a visual impairment or may be related to other reading problems, such as…

Tucker, Laurel A.

2004-01-01

226

Use of a Noncycloplegic Autorefractor to Perform Vision Screening in Preschools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early detection and treatment of vision disorders in children are important to avoid lifelong visual impairment; however, preschool vision-screening rates are low. Traditional methods of screening lack the precision of objective tests and are difficult to administer in preschoolers. This study adopted a method using school nurses to conduct vision

Clarke, Noreen; Shacks, Janice; Kerr, Amanda R. E.; Bottrell, Christine L.; Poulsen, Marie Kanne; Yin, Larry

2008-01-01

227

Vitamin D: in the evolution of human skin colour.  

PubMed

The natural selection hypothesis suggests that lighter skin colour evolved to optimise vitamin D production. Some authors question if vitamin D deficiency leads to sufficient health problems to act as a selection pressure. This paper reviews the numerous effects of vitamin D deficiency on human health and argues that vitamin D deficiency is sufficient to pose as a potent selection pressure for lighter skin colour. Vitamin D deficiency manifesting as rickets and osteomalacia are sufficient to impair reproductive success, but additionally, animal studies and some clinical observations suggest that vitamin D may have more direct impact on human fertility. Vitamin D deficiency may lead to a whole host of clinical conditions which impair health and increase mortality rates: increase susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections; rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis, with increased risk of falls and fractures; increased risk of cancers; hypertension and cardiovascular disease; maturity onset diabetes; autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and Type 1 diabetes; and gum disease. We submit that at higher latitudes, lighter skin colour evolved to facilitate vitamin D production under conditions of low ultra-violet B radiation in order to avoid a plethora of ill health, reproductive difficulties and early mortality. PMID:19717244

Yuen, A W C; Jablonski, N G

2009-08-29

228

Understanding Older Americans' Attitudes, Knowledge, and Fears About Vision Loss and Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to identify factors associated with attitudes, knowledge, and fear of age-related vision impairment in a representative sample of US adults age 55 and older. Data were obtained from a national telephone survey. Attitudes toward vision impairment and aging were positive, but fears were extensive and knowledge was lacking. Higher socioeconomic status and experience

Mark Brennan; Amy Horowitz; Joann P. Reinhardt

2004-01-01

229

Music organisation using colour synaesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement of music from physical discs to digital resources managed on a computer has had an effect on the listening habits of users. We explore using the potential of the innate synaesthesia that some people report feeling between colour and mood in a novel interface that enables a user to explore their music collection and create musical playlists in

Michael Voong; Russell Beale

2007-01-01

230

Colour Glass Condensate: An Introduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures a...

E. Iancu A. Leonidov L. McLerran

2002-01-01

231

Segmentation of Colour Layers in Historical Maps Based on Hierarchical Colour Sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A colour image segmentation (CIS) process for scanned historical maps is presented to overcome common problems associated with segmentation of old documents such as (1) variation in colour values of the same colour layer within one map page, (2) differences in typical colour values between homogeneous areas and thin line-work, which belong both to the same colour layer, and (3) extensive parameterization that results in a lack of robustness. The described approach is based on a two-stage colour layer prototype search using a constrained sampling design. Global colour layer prototypes for the identification of homogeneous regions are derived based on colour similarity to the most extreme colour layer values identified in the map page. These global colour layer prototypes are continuously adjusted using relative distances between prototype positions in colour space until a reliable sample is collected. Based on this sample colour layer seeds and directly connected neighbors of the same colour layer are determined resulting in the extraction of homogeneous colour layer regions. In the next step the global colour layer prototypes are recomputed using a new sample of colour values along the margins of identified homogeneous coloured regions. This sampling step derives representative prototypes of map layer sections that deviate significantly from homogeneous regions of the same layers due to bleaching, mixed or false colouring and ageing of the original scanned documents. A spatial expansion process uses these adjusted prototypes as start criterion to assign the remaining colour layer parts. The approach shows high robustness for map documents that suffer from low graphical quality indicating some potential for general applicability due to its simplicity and the limited need for preliminary information. The only input required is the colours and number of colour layers present in the map.

Leyk, Stefan

232

Colouring of moulded plastic products by the addition of colour masterbatches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colouring of moulded plastic products can be achieved by adding a small percentage of colour masterbach into the main bulk of plastic resin during processing. Indeed, this practice has been accepted widely in the industry. Since the primary objective of this practice is to colour the products, the amount of the colour masterbatch added being normally less than 4

A. C.-Y. Wong; N. S. K. Ng; V. L. F. Ng

1997-01-01

233

Search for colour singlet and colour reconnection effects in hadronic Z decays at LEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search is performed in symmetric 3-jet hadronic Z-decay events for evidence of colour singlet production or colour reconnection effects. Asymmetries in the angular separation of particles are found to be sensitive indicators of such effects. Upper limits on the level of colour singlet production or of colour reconnection effects are established for a variety of models.

P. Achard; O. Adriani; M. Aguilar-Benitez; J. Alcaraz; G. Alemanni; J. Allaby; A. Aloisio; M. G. Alviggi; H. Anderhub; V. P. Andreev; F. Anselmo; A. Arefiev; T. Azemoon; T. Aziz; P. Bagnaia; A. Bajo; G. Baksay; L. Baksay; S. V. Baldew; S. Banerjee; A. Barczyk; R. Barillère; P. Bartalini; M. Basile; N. Batalova; R. Battiston; A. Bay; F. Becattini; U. Becker; F. Behner; L. Bellucci; R. Berbeco; J. Berdugo; P. Berges; B. Bertucci; B. L. Betev; M. Biasini; M. Biglietti; A. Biland; J. J. Blaising; S. C. Blyth; G. J. Bobbink; A. Böhm; L. Boldizsar; B. Borgia; S. Bottai; D. Bourilkov; M. Bourquin; S. Braccini; J. G. Branson; F. Brochu; J. D. Burger; W. J. Burger; X. D. Cai; M. Capell; G. Carlino; A. Cartacci; J. Casaus; F. Cavallari; N. Cavallo; C. Cecchi; M. Cerrada; M. Chamizo; Y. H. Chang; M. Chemarin; A. Chen; G. Chen; H. F. Chen; H. S. Chen; G. Chiefari; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; I. Clare; R. Clare; G. Coignet; N. Colino; S. Costantini; S. Cucciarelli; P. Déglon; J. Debreczeni; A. Degré; K. Dehmelt; K. Deiters; E. Delmeire; P. Denes; F. Denotaristefani; M. Diemoz; M. Dierckxsens; C. Dionisi; M. Dittmar; A. Doria; M. T. Dova; D. Duchesneau; M. Duda; B. Echenard; A. Eline; A. Engler; F. J. Eppling; P. Extermann; M. A. Falagan; S. Falciano; A. Favara; J. Fay; O. Fedin; M. Felcini; T. Ferguson; H. Fesefeldt; E. Fiandrini; J. H. Field; F. Filthaut; P. H. Fisher; W. Fisher; I. Fisk; G. Forconi; K. Freudenreich; C. Furetta; Yu. Galaktionov; S. N. Ganguli; P. Garcia-Abia; M. Gataullin; S. Gentile; S. Giagu; Z. F. Gong; G. Grenier; O. Grimm; M. W. Gruenewald; M. Guida; V. K. Gupta; A. Gurtu; L. J. Gutay; D. Haas; D. Hatzifotiadou; T. Hebbeker; A. Hervé; J. Hirschfelder; H. Hofer; M. Hohlmann; G. Holzner; S. R. Hou; Y. Hu; B. N. Jin; L. W. Jones; I. Josa-Mutuberr??a; D. Käfer; M. Kaur; M. N. Kienzle-Focacci; J. K. Kim; J. Kirkby; W. Kittel; A. Klimentov; A. C. König; M. Kopal; V. Koutsenko; M. Kräber; R. W. Kraemer; A. Krüger; A. Kunin; I. Laktineh; G. Landi; M. Lebeau; A. Lebedev; P. Lebrun; P. Lecomte; P. Lecoq; R. Leiste; M. Levtchenko; P. Levtchenko; C. Li; S. Likhoded; C. H. Lin; W. T. Lin; F. L. Linde; L. Lista; Z. A. Liu; W. Lohmann; E. Longo; Y. S. Lu; C. Luci; L. Luminari; W. Lustermann; W. G. Ma; L. Malgeri; A. Malinin; J. Mans; J. P. Martin; F. Marzano; K. Mazumdar; R. R. McNeil; S. Mele; L. Merola; M. Meschini; W. J. Metzger; A. Mihul; H. Milcent; G. Mirabelli; J. Mnich; G. B. Mohanty; G. S. Muanza; A. J. M. Muijs; B. Musicar; M. Musy; S. Nagy; S. Natale; M. Napolitano; F. Nessi-Tedaldi; H. Newman; A. Nisati; T. Novak; H. Nowak; R. Ofierzynski; G. Organtini; I. Pal; C. Palomares; P. Paolucci; R. Paramatti; G. Passaleva; S. Patricelli; T. Paul; M. Pauluzzi; C. Paus; F. Pauss; M. Pedace; S. Pensotti; D. Perret-Gallix; B. Petersen; D. Piccolo; F. Pierella; M. Pioppi; P. A. Piroué; E. Pistolesi; V. Plyaskin; M. Pohl; V. Pojidaev; J. Pothier; D. Prokofiev; J. Quartieri; G. Rahal-Callot; M. A. Rahaman; P. Raics; N. Raja; R. Ramelli; P. G. Rancoita; R. Ranieri; A. Raspereza; P. Razis; D. Ren; M. Rescigno; S. Reucroft; S. Riemann; K. Riles; B. P. Roe; L. Romero; A. Rosca; S. Rosier-Lees; S. Roth; C. Rosenbleck; J. A. Rubio; G. Ruggiero; H. Rykaczewski; A. Sakharov; S. Saremi; S. Sarkar; J. Salicio; E. Sanchez; C. Schäfer; V. Schegelsky; H. Schopper; D. J. Schotanus; C. Sciacca; L. Servoli; S. Shevchenko; N. Shivarov; V. Shoutko; E. Shumilov; A. Shvorob; D. Son; C. Souga; P. Spillantini; M. Steuer; D. P. Stickland; B. Stoyanov; A. Straessner; K. Sudhakar; G. Sultanov; L. Z. Sun; S. Sushkov; H. Suter; J. D. Swain; Z. Szillasi; X. W. Tang; P. Tarjan; L. Tauscher; L. Taylor; B. Tellili; D. Teyssier; C. Timmermans; Samuel C. C. Ting; S. M. Ting; S. C. Tonwar; J. Tóth; C. Tully; K. L. Tung; J. Ulbricht; E. Valente; R. T. Van de Walle; R. Vasquez; V. Veszpremi; G. Vesztergombi; I. Vetlitsky; D. Vicinanza; G. Viertel; S. Villa; M. Vivargent; S. Vlachos; I. Vodopianov; H. Vogel; H. Vogt; I. Vorobiev; A. A. Vorobyov; M. Wadhwa; Q. Wang; X. L. Wang; Z. M. Wang; M. Weber; P. Wienemann; H. Wilkens; S. Wynhoff; L. Xia; Z. Z. Xu; J. Yamamoto; B. Z. Yang; C. G. Yang; H. J. Yang; M. Yang; S. C. Yeh; An. Zalite; Yu. Zalite; Z. P. Zhang; J. Zhao; G. Y. Zhu; R. Y. Zhu; H. L. Zhuang; A. Zichichi; B. Zimmermann; M. Zöller

2004-01-01

234

Cerebral visual impairment in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the brain is devoted to vision. Damage causes visual problems ranging from profound impairment, to cognitive visual problems only. A child with cerebral blindness may have intact perception of movement. The principal cognitive visual pathways comprise the dorsal and the ventral streams. The dorsal stream runs between the occipital lobes (which process incoming visual data), the posterior parietal

Gordon N. Dutton; Lena K. Jacobson

2001-01-01

235

Biological Components of Colour Preference in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adult colour preference has been summarized quantitatively in terms of weights on the two fundamental neural processes that underlie early colour encoding: the S-(L+M) ("blue-yellow") and L-M ("red-green") cone-opponent contrast channels ( Ling, Hurlbert & Robinson, 2006; Hurlbert & Ling, 2007). Here, we investigate whether colour preference in…

Franklin, Anna; Bevis, Laura; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya

2010-01-01

236

Colour space models for soil science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil colour is an important soil property. It is frequently used by soil scientists for the identification and classification of soil. It is also used as an indicator of field soil physical, chemical and biological properties as well as of the occurrence of soil processes. Measurements of soil colour are commonly made using the Munsell soil colour charts. A number

R. A. Viscarra Rossel; B. Minasny; P. Roudier; A. B. McBratney

2006-01-01

237

Choosing effective colours for data visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a technique for choosing multiple colours for use during data visualization. Our goal is a systematic method for maximizing the total number of colours available for use, while still allowing an observer to rapidly and accurately search a display for any one of the given colours. Previous research suggests that we need to consider three

Christopher G. Healey

1996-01-01

238

MAJORITY ORDERING FOR COLOUR MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binary and grayscale mathematical morphology have many applications in different domains. On the other hand, colour morphology is not widespread. The reason is the lack of a suitable colour ordering strategy that makes the extension of grayscale morphology to colour images not straightforward. We will introduce a new majority sorting scheme (MSS) that can be applied to binary, grayscale and

Alessandro Ledda; Wilfried Philips

239

What You Need to Know about Low Vision  

MedlinePLUS

... Vision It is not uncommon for students with visual impairments to see several different types of eye specialists in their life. This may be confusing not only for parents and their children, but also for administrators ... with visual impairments also rely on different doctors to provide ...

240

Nonmedical economic consequences attributable to visual impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nonmedical costs of visual impairment are crucial when allocating resources for prevention or treatment programs. Were analyzed the data from two representative nationwide French surveys aimed at documenting impairments that included 14,603 subjects living in institutions and 16,945 in the community. Three groups were identified: blind (light perception), low vision (loss of shape perception, LV), and controls. Item consumption

Antoine Lafuma; Antoine Brezin; Francis Fagnani; Viviane Mimaud; Mounir Mesbah; Gilles Berdeaux

2006-01-01

241

Develop a vision.  

PubMed

The Vision stage is the development of the agreed-upon framework for the study, including identifying the issue, the community, the stakeholders, and major aspects of the approach. Achieving the Vision requires planning through a Framing Committee, agreeing on a vision by sharing perspectives and identifying commonalities or "win-wins" that hold the partnership together for community benefit, and evaluating the emergence of the Vision and the partnership. Here, we review tools and strategies. PMID:20088078

Jones, Loretta; Meade, Barbara; Norris, Keith; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Jones, Felica; Moini, Moraya; Jones, Andrea; Koegel, Paul

2009-01-01

242

Vision based fire detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vision based fire detection is potentially a useful technique. With the increase in the number of surveillance cameras being installed, a vision based fire detection capability can be incorporated in existing surveillance systems at relatively low additional cost. Vision based fire detection offers advantages over the traditional methods. It will thus complement the existing devices. In this paper, we present

Che-Bin Liu; Narendra Ahuja

2004-01-01

243

Vision Based Fire Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vision based fire detection is potentially a useful technique. With the increase in the number of surveillance cameras being installed, a vision based fire detection capability can be incorporated in existing surveillance systems at rela- tively low additional cost. Vision based fire detection of- fers advantages over the traditional methods. It will thus complement the existing devices. In this paper,

Che-bin Liu; Narendra Ahuja

2004-01-01

244

Night Vision Camcorder System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to obtain night vision device imagery, a portable lightweight night vision camcorder system has been designed. This system has the capability to record night vision imagery in confined quarters (e.g., cockpits) and other remote sites under variou...

J. H. Allen R. C. Hebb

1993-01-01

245

Topological Geometrodynamics: Three Visions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I will discuss three basic visions about quantum Topological Geometrody- namics (TGD). It is somewhat matter of taste which idea one should call a vision and the selection of these three in a special role is what I feel natural just now. 1. The rst vision is generalization of Einstein's geometrization program based on the idea that

M. Pitkanen

246

Operationalising vision and mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses an exploratory investigation into vision and mission, the starting points of the classical strategic planning process (Ginter, Rucks and Duncan 1985). Constructs measuring vision and mission are identified, as well as three other items that are frequently cited in the literature as being critical for effective formulation and implementation of vision and mission statements (latent abilities, market

Steven NJ French; Stephen J Kelly; Jennifer L Harrison

2001-01-01

247

Communicating Your Vision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One part of a leader's job is to create commitment to their organization's vision. In order to do this, the leader must communicate the vision effectively. This guidebook suggests many ways to communicate a vision. It also discusses how to deal with a resistant audience and what to do in the event that one as a leader finds themselves resistant.…

Cartwright, Talula; Baldwin, David

2006-01-01

248

Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit.  

PubMed

The highest possible resolution for printed colour images is determined by the diffraction limit of visible light. To achieve this limit, individual colour elements (or pixels) with a pitch of 250 nm are required, translating into printed images at a resolution of ?100,000 dots per inch (d.p.i.). However, methods for dispensing multiple colourants or fabricating structural colour through plasmonic structures have insufficient resolution and limited scalability. Here, we present a non-colourant method that achieves bright-field colour prints with resolutions up to the optical diffraction limit. Colour information is encoded in the dimensional parameters of metal nanostructures, so that tuning their plasmon resonance determines the colours of the individual pixels. Our colour-mapping strategy produces images with both sharp colour changes and fine tonal variations, is amenable to large-volume colour printing via nanoimprint lithography, and could be useful in making microimages for security, steganography, nanoscale optical filters and high-density spectrally encoded optical data storage. PMID:22886173

Kumar, Karthik; Duan, Huigao; Hegde, Ravi S; Koh, Samuel C W; Wei, Jennifer N; Yang, Joel K W

2012-08-12

249

Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highest possible resolution for printed colour images is determined by the diffraction limit of visible light. To achieve this limit, individual colour elements (or pixels) with a pitch of 250 nm are required, translating into printed images at a resolution of ~100,000 dots per inch (d.p.i.). However, methods for dispensing multiple colourants or fabricating structural colour through plasmonic structures have insufficient resolution and limited scalability. Here, we present a non-colourant method that achieves bright-field colour prints with resolutions up to the optical diffraction limit. Colour information is encoded in the dimensional parameters of metal nanostructures, so that tuning their plasmon resonance determines the colours of the individual pixels. Our colour-mapping strategy produces images with both sharp colour changes and fine tonal variations, is amenable to large-volume colour printing via nanoimprint lithography, and could be useful in making microimages for security, steganography, nanoscale optical filters and high-density spectrally encoded optical data storage.

Kumar, Karthik; Duan, Huigao; Hegde, Ravi S.; Koh, Samuel C. W.; Wei, Jennifer N.; Yang, Joel K. W.

2012-09-01

250

Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices as a Measure of Cognitive Functioning in Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Cognitive dysfunction is frequent in Cerebral Palsy (CP). CP motor impairment and associated speech deficits often hinder cognitive assessment, with the result being that not all CP studies consider cognitive dysfunction. Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices is a simple, rapid test which can be used in persons with severe motor…

Pueyo, R.; Junque, C.; Vendrell, P.; Narberhaus, A.; Segarra, D.

2008-01-01

251

Principles of modern low vision rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Low vision rehabilitation is a new emerging subspecialty drawing from the traditional fields of ophthalmology, optometry, occupational therapy, and sociology, with an ever-increasing impact on our customary concepts of research, education, and services for the visually impaired patient. A multidisciplinary approach and coordinated effort are necessary to take advantage of new scientific advances and achieve optimal results for the patient. Accordingly, the intent of this paper is to outline the principles and details of a modern low vision rehabilitation service. All rehabilitation attempts must start with a first hand interview (the intake) for assessing functionality and priority tasks for rehabilitation, as well as assessing the patient's all-important cognitive skills. The assessment of residual visual functions follows the intake and offers a unique opportunity to measure, evaluate, and document accurately the extent of functional loss sustained by the patient from disease. An accurate assessment of residual visual functions includes assessment of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, binocularity, refractive errors, perimetry, oculomotor functions, cortical visual integration, and light characteristics affecting visual functions. Functional vision assessment in low vision rehabilitation measures how well one uses residual visual functions to perform routine tasks, using different items under various conditions, throughout the day. Of the many functional vision skills known, reading skills is an obligatory item for all low vision rehabilitation assessments. Results of assessment guide rehabilitation professionals in developing rehabilitation plans for the individual and recommending appropriate low vision devices. The outcome from assessing residual visual functions is detection of visual functions that can be improved with the use of optical devices. Methods for prescribing devices such as image relocation with prisms to a preferred retinal locus, field displacement to primary gaze position, field expansion, and manipulation of light are practiced today in addition to, or instead of, magnification. Correction of refractive errors, occlusion therapy, enhancement of oculomotor skills, and field restitution are additional methods now available for prescribing devices leading to rehabilitation of visual functions. The outcome from assessing residual functional vision is detection of functional vision that can be improved with the use of vision therapy training. After restoration of optimal residual visual functions is achieved with optical devices, one can follow with training programs for restoration of lost vision-related skills. If an optical dispensary is available where prescribing of low vision devices routinely take place, this will help ensure familiarity and specialization of the dispensary and staff with low vision devices and their special dispensing requirements. The dispensing of low vision devices is an opportunity to introduce the device to the patient, train the patient in the correct use of the device for the task selected, and create a direct and continuous connection with the patient until the next encounter. Following assessment, prescribing, and dispensing of devices, a low vision practitioner, ophthalmologist or optometrist, is responsible for recommending and prescribing vision therapy training to improve residual functional vision. An attempt to present a template for a comprehensive modern low vision rehabilitation practice is made here by summarizing scientific developments in the field and stressing the multidisciplinary involvement required for this kind of practice. It is hoped that this paper and other initiatives from colleagues, the public, and government will promote and raise awareness of modern low vision rehabilitation for the benefit of all. PMID:16767184

Markowitz, Samuel N

2006-06-01

252

Selection on quantitative colour variation in Centaurea cyanus: the role of the pollinator's visual system.  

PubMed

Even though the importance of selection for trait evolution is well established, we still lack a functional understanding of the mechanisms underlying phenotypic selection. Because animals necessarily use their sensory system to perceive phenotypic traits, the model of sensory bias assumes that sensory systems are the main determinant of signal evolution. Yet, it has remained poorly known how sensory systems contribute to shaping the fitness surface of selected individuals. In a greenhouse experiment, we quantified the strength and direction of selection on floral coloration in a population of cornflowers exposed to bumblebees as unique pollinators during 4 days. We detected significant selection on the chromatic and achromatic (brightness) components of floral coloration. We then studied whether these patterns of selection are explicable by accounting for the visual system of the pollinators. Using data on bumblebee colour vision, we first showed that bumblebees should discriminate among quantitative colour variants. The observed selection was then compared to the selection predicted by psychophysical models of bumblebee colour vision. The achromatic but not the chromatic channel of the bumblebee's visual system could explain the observed pattern of selection. These results highlight that (i) pollinators can select quantitative variation in floral coloration and could thus account for a gradual evolution of flower coloration, and (ii) stimulation of the visual system represents, at least partly, a functional mechanism potentially explaining pollinators' selection on floral colour variants. PMID:24070120

Renoult, J P; Thomann, M; Schaefer, H M; Cheptou, P-O

2013-09-24

253

Structural colour: Colour mixing in wing scales of a butterfly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Green coloration in the animal kingdom, as seen in birds' feathers and reptile integument, is often an additive mixture of structurally effected blue and pigmentary yellow. Here we investigate the origin of the bright green coloration of the wing scales of the Indonesian male Papilio palinurus butterfly, the microstructure of which generates an extraordinary combination of both yellow and blue iridescence. The dual colour arises from a modulation imposed on the multilayer, producing the blue component as a result of a previously undiscovered retro-reflection process.

Vukusic, P.; Sambles, J. R.; Lawrence, C. R.

2000-03-01

254

The multiple disguises of spiders: web colour and decorations, body colour and movement  

PubMed Central

Diverse functions have been assigned to the visual appearance of webs, spiders and web decorations, including prey attraction, predator deterrence and camouflage. Here, we review the pertinent literature, focusing on potential camouflage and mimicry. Webs are often difficult to detect in a heterogeneous visual environment. Static and dynamic web distortions are used to escape visual detection by prey, although particular silk may also attract prey. Recent work using physiological models of vision taking into account visual environments rarely supports the hypothesis of spider camouflage by decorations, but most often the prey attraction and predator confusion hypotheses. Similarly, visual modelling shows that spider coloration is effective in attracting prey but not in conveying camouflage. Camouflage through colour change might be used by particular crab spiders to hide from predator or prey on flowers of different coloration. However, results obtained on a non-cryptic crab spider suggest that an alternative function of pigmentation may be to avoid UV photodamage through the transparent cuticle. Numerous species are clearly efficient locomotory mimics of ants, particularly in the eyes of their predators. We close our paper by highlighting gaps in our knowledge.

Thery, Marc; Casas, Jerome

2008-01-01

255

The visually impaired child.  

PubMed

This article discusses the causes of childhood blindness and how the primary care provider may begin the appropriate steps toward diagnosing and managing the visually impaired child. Community resources (see Box 3) and low-vision programs in schools should be used so that parents do not need to reinvent strategies to raise a blind child. Worldwide, childhood blindness, which places is a tremendous burden on families and communities of the third world, is mostly preventable with improved hygiene, diet, and immunization. PMID:12713115

Thompson, Lisa; Kaufman, Lawrence M

2003-02-01

256

Colour Consideration for Waiting areas in hospitals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colour is one the most important factors in the nature that can have some affects on human behaviour. Many years ago, it was proven that using colour in public place can have some affect on the users. Depend of the darkness and lightness; it can be vary from positive to negative. The research will mainly focus on the colour and psychological influences and physical factors. The statement of problem in this research is what is impact of colour usually applied to waiting area? The overall aim of the study is to explore the visual environment of hospitals and to manage the colour psychological effect of the hospital users in the waiting area by creating a comfortable, pleasant and cozy environment for users while spend their time in waiting areas. The analysisconcentrate on satisfaction and their interesting regarding applied colour in two private hospital waiting area in Malaysia.

Zraati, Parisa

2012-08-01

257

Colour model analysis for microscopic image processing  

PubMed Central

This article presents a comparative study between different colour models (RGB, HSI and CIEL*a*b*) applied to a very large microscopic image analysis. Such analysis of different colour models is needed in order to carry out a successful detection and therefore a classification of different regions of interest (ROIs) within the image. This, in turn, allows both distinguishing possible ROIs and retrieving their proper colour for further ROI analysis. This analysis is not commonly done in many biomedical applications that deal with colour images. Other important aspects is the computational cost of the different processing algorithms according to the colour model. This work takes these aspects into consideration to choose the best colour model tailored to the microscopic stain and tissue type under consideration and to obtain a successful processing of the histological image.

Bueno, Gloria; Gonzalez, Roberto; Deniz, Oscar; Gonzalez, Jesus; Garcia-Rojo, Marcial

2008-01-01

258

Colour-independent partition functions in coloured vertex models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study lattice configurations related to Sn, the scalar product of an off-shell state and an on-shell state in rational An integrable vertex models, n?{1,2}. The lattice lines are colourless and oriented. The state variables are n conserved colours that flow along the line orientations, but do not necessarily cover every bond in the lattice.Choosing boundary conditions such that the positions where the colours flow into the lattice are fixed, and where they flow out are summed over, we show that the partition functions of these configurations, with these boundary conditions, are n-independent. Our results extend to trigonometric An models, and to all n.This n-independence explains, in vertex-model terms, results from recent studies of S2 (Caetano and Vieira, 2012, [1], Wheeler, arXiv:1204.2089, [2]). Namely, 1.S2, which depends on two sets of Bethe roots, {b1} and {b2}, and cannot (as far as we know) be expressed in single determinant form, degenerates in the limit {b1}??, and/or {b2}??, into a product of determinants, 2. Each of the latter determinants is an A1 vertex-model partition function.

Foda, O.; Wheeler, M.

2013-06-01

259

Night vision camcorder system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to obtain night vision device imagery, a portable lightweight night vision camcorder system has been designed. This system has the capability to record night vision imagery in confined quarters (e.g., cockpits) and other remote sites under various environmental conditions. The system is composed of a commercial third generation night vision monocular, a special optical coupler, and a consumer camcorder. Engineering drawings for the optical coupler are included as an appendix. Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the night vision camcorder system imaging characteristics. The results of these experiments indicate that the limiting resolution of recorded night vision video is about 30% to 40% of the limiting resolution of the third generation monocular, depending upon the type of video filming method used.

Allen, John H.; Hebb, Richard C.

1993-10-01

260

Myopia and iris colour: a possible connection?  

PubMed

Myopia is a common ocular disease in the world. Its prevalence has increased rapidly worldwide, especially in some East-Asian countries. Genetic factors and environmental factors both affect myopia's onset and its progress. Iris colour is an important characteristic of a person. It is a possible risk factor for myopia by affecting the amount and the colour of light entering eyes. The study of iris colour may contribute to the understanding of myopia mechanism and provide good suggestive evidence for studies on other eye diseases. In this article, the possible connection between myopia and iris colour is proposed. Approaches to dissect any link are suggested. PMID:22465466

Meng, Weihua; Butterworth, Jacqueline; Calvas, Patrick; Malecaze, Francois

2012-03-31

261

Visualization Without Vision: Students with Visual  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex science phenomena are often described with visual imagery. Research has shown that visual representations are not\\u000a only motivating but are also critical in the communication of science concepts (citeauthorch12:mathewson1999, citeyearch12:mathewson1999).\\u000a Yet very little is known about how students with little or no vision learn without access to these representations. This chapter\\u000a explores how students with visual impairment learn science

M. Gail Jones; Bethany Broadwell

262

A machine vision system for seeds quality evaluation using fuzzy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an automatic system for monitoring seed germination by means of a software tool incorporating an artificial vision system and a fuzzy logic-based classifier. The system employs a colour CCD camera to image trays in which seeds have been planted in cells and an image processing system to identify the seedlings and their leaf area. This information enters

R Ureña; F Rodr??guez; M Berenguel

2001-01-01

263

Rhetorical visions of unmarried mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bormann's fantasy theme analysis and Q?methodology are combined to examine the symbolic reality of unmarried mothers. A dramatistic humanistic analysis of rhetoric produced by and about unmarried mothers identifies three rhetorical visions: the Down and Out Vision, the Making the Best Vision, and the Yummie Vision. The visions are composed of fantasy themes, types, and cues in relation to the

Thomas G. Endres

1989-01-01

264

Impaired Driving  

MedlinePLUS

... the Facts Research & Activities Data & Statistics Policy Impact Distracted Driving Pedestrian Safety Get the Facts National Strategies for ... Publications Injury Home Motor Vehicle Safety Impaired Driving Impaired Driving: Get the Facts On this Page How big ...

265

The Challenge of Colour: Eighteenth-Century Botanists and the Hand-Colouring of Illustrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colourful plant images are often taken as the icon of natural history illustration. However, so far, little attention has been paid to the question of how this beautiful colouring was achieved. At a case study of the eighteenth-century Nuremberg doctor and botanist, Christoph Jacob Trew, the process of how illustrations were hand-coloured, who was involved in this work, and how

Kärin Nickelsen

2006-01-01

266

Colour Image Segmentation by Non-Parametric Density Estimation in Colour Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel colour image segmentation routine, based on clustering pixels in colour space using non-parametric density estimation, is described. Although the basic methodology is well known, several important improvements to the previous work in this area are introduced. The density is estimated at a series of knot points in the colour space, and clustering is performed by hill climb- ing

Paul A. Bromiley; Neil A. Thacker; Patrick Courtney

2001-01-01

267

Enhancing Visual Performance for People with Central Vision Loss  

PubMed Central

People with central vision loss must use peripheral vision for visual tasks. It is well known that performance for almost all spatial tasks is worse in the normal periphery than in the normal fovea. The primary goal of my ongoing research is to understand the limiting factors and the potential for enhancing vision for people with central vision loss. Here I review previous work related to understanding the limiting factors on reading, a task that is the primary complaint of many patients with age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of visual impairment in the elderly. I also review my work related to enhancing visual functions in the normal periphery and how it may be applied to people with central vision loss.

Chung, Susana T. L.

2010-01-01

268

Machine vision metal inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new procedure is presented to introduce machine vision into a rolling mill environment for real-time on-line metal bar and rod inspection for flaw detection and characterization. Results are presented relating machine vision metal flaw signatures to flaw type and characteristics.

Morris, John W.; Notarangelo, Joseph

1994-03-01

269

Jung's Kabbalistic Visions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jung's 1944 kabbalistic visions are examined from the standpoint of Jung's ear- lier provocative remarks about Jewish psychology and National Socialism, his atti- tude towards the Jewish sources of his own theories, and from the perspective of both Jungian and kabbalistic dream theory. The author suggests that (1) Jung's visions sig- naled a change in his attitudes and personality that

Sanford Drob

2005-01-01

270

Your Child's Vision  

MedlinePLUS

... in class.) Kids who wear prescription glasses or contacts should have annual checkups by an eye doctor to screen for vision changes. Continue Spotting Eye Problems Signs that a child may have vision problems include: constant eye rubbing extreme light sensitivity poor focusing poor ...

271

The critical vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neglected tradition of artistic expression exists in the United States. It combines technical excellence with a critical vision of society. From before the Revolutionary War to the present, artists working in this tradition have created a powerful monument to political dissent and moral conscience. These men and women, sharing a vision of the harsh realities of life, have used

Paul von Blum

1993-01-01

272

INSIGHT: Vision & Leadership, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication focuses on promising new and emerging technologies and what they might mean to the future of K-12 schools. Half of the volume contains articles devoted in some way to "Vision," and articles in the other half are under the heading of "Leadership." Contents in the "Vision" section include: "The Future of Reading and Learning To…

McGraw, Tammy, Ed.

2002-01-01

273

Neuroplasticity in vision dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation is critical to the survival of any species and is present in many systems within the brain. Rehabilitation can evoke neuroplasticity through adaptive mechanisms. Four subjects with the vision dysfunction of convergence insufficiency where two have mild traumatic brain injury and two were congenital participated in 18 hours of vision training. Clinical, behavioral, functional imaging and diffusion tensor imaging

Tara L. Alvarez; Yelda Alkan; Eun Kim; Rajbir Jaswal; Diana Ludlam; Phillipe Moinot; Bharat B. Biswal; Vincent R. Vicci

2009-01-01

274

Computer Vision on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing the level of spacecraft autonomy is essential for broadening the reach of solar system exploration. Computer vision has and will continue to play an important role in increasing autonomy of both spacecraft and Earth- based robotic vehicles. This article addresses progress on computer vision for planetary rovers and landers and has four main parts. First, we review major milestones

Larry Matthies; Mark W. Maimone; Andrew Edie Johnson; Yang Cheng; Reg G. Willson; Carlos Villalpando; Steve B. Goldberg; Andres Huertas; Andrew Stein; Anelia Angelova

2007-01-01

275

Enactive Robot Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enactivism claims that sensory-motor activity and embodiment are crucial in perceiving the environment and that machine vision could be a much simpler business if considered in this context. However, computational models of enactive vision are very rare and often rely on handcrafted control systems. In this article, we argue that the apparent complexity of the environment and of the robot

Mototaka Suzuki; Dario Floreano

2008-01-01

276

Colour biases are a question of taste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unpalatable insects often advertise their defences to avian predators by conspicuous colours, such as red and yellow. Therefore, perhaps not surprisingly, birds tend to have unlearned biases against warningly coloured food. These biases are particularly evident when other components of insect warning displays, such as novel sounds and odours, are also present. We tested whether bitter taste, often associated with

Candy Rowe; John Skelhorn

2005-01-01

277

Representing Object Colour in Language Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Embodied theories of cognition hold that mentally representing something "red" engages the neural subsystems that respond to environmental perception of that colour. This paper examines whether implicit perceptual information on object colour is represented during sentence comprehension even though doing so does not necessarily facilitate task…

Connell, Louise

2007-01-01

278

Colour, Usability and Security: A Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of colour in user interfaces is extensive. It is typically a usability issue, and has rarely caused any security concerns. In this article, we show that the use of colours in the design of CAPTCHA, a standard security technology that has found wid...

A. S. E. Ahmad L. Yan

2010-01-01

279

Colour Mathematics: With Graphs and Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The different combinations involved in additive and subtractive colour mixing can often be difficult for students to remember. Using transmission graphs for filters of the primary colours and a numerical scheme to write out the relationships are good exercises in analytical thinking that can help students recall the combinations rather than just…

LoPresto, Michael C.

2009-01-01

280

Visual Star Colours from Instrumental Photometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to display graphically the visual colours of stars and other astronomical objects, photometric broadband R, V, B colours are used to proxy for the r, g, b colours of the three visual sensors of the eye. From photometric Johnson B-V and V-R colour indices, R, V, and B magnitudes (V = 0) are calculated, and from these the respective brightnesses (r, v = 1 = g, and b) are calculated. After suitable normalization these are then placed in a ternary diagram having r, g, and b as the vertices. All B-V and V-R are adjusted so that the Sun falls in the same place as a blackbody at 5800 K. The resulting ternary plot shows all of its objects (stars, planets) in their visual colours at their relative positions in the ternary diagram. The star colours displayed on a computer monitor screen or as a print with a colour printer are more vivid than the usual visual impressions of isolated stars, undoubtedly because of properties of the dark-adapted eye, but double-star pairs with contrasting colours correspond nicely to telescopic visual impressions.

Kohman, Truman P.

2005-06-01

281

Colour triplet-valued wavelets and splines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of colour and and multispectral image recognition connects all the topics we are considering. Colour (multispectral) image processing is investigated using an algebraic approach based on triplet numbers. In the algebraic approach, each image element is considered not as a 3D vector, but as a triplet number. The main goal of the paper is to show that triplet

Valeri Labunets; Alexei Maidan; Ekaterina Labunets-Rundblad; Jaakko Astola

2001-01-01

282

The Social Lives of Canadian Youths with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This survey of the social and leisure experiences of Canadian youths with visual impairments found that, in general, youths with low vision experienced more social challenges than did their peers who were blind. Levels of social support were not found to differ on the basis of level of vision, sex, or age. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)|

Gold, Deborah; Shaw, Alexander; Wolffe, Karen

2010-01-01

283

The coevolution theory of autumn colours.  

PubMed Central

According to the coevolution theory of autumn colours, the bright colours of leaves in autumn are a warning signal to insects that lay their eggs on the trees in that season. If the colour is linked to the level of defensive commitment of the tree and the insects learn to avoid bright colours, this may lead to a coevolutionary process in which bright trees reduce their parasite load and choosy insects locate the most profitable hosts for the winter. We try to clarify what the theory actually says and to correct some misunderstandings that have been put forward. We also review current research on autumn colours and discuss what needs to be done to test the theory.

Archetti, Marco; Brown, Sam P

2004-01-01

284

The global burden of trachomatous visual impairment: II. assessing burden  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper builds on results of a previous paper on the prevalence of trachomatous visual impairment as the foundation for assessing the global burden of trachomatous blindness and low vision: approximately 2.9 million cases of trachomatous blindness and 3.8 million low visioned corresponding to a global prevalence of trachomatous visual impairment equal to 1.3\\/1,000 in 1990 was estimated. For each

Timothy G. Evans; M. Kent Ranson

1995-01-01

285

Postural and visual loads at VDT workplaces II. Lighting conditions and visual impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four groups of office tasks were studied: data entry terminals, conversational terminals, traditional office work and typing. Eye impairments were observed in every group of office employees but the impairments were more frequent in VDT operators. The impairments persisted during leisure time. Vision screening tests showed the same incidence of functional eye impairments in office tasks with and without VDTs.

T. H. LÄUBLI; W. HÜNTING; E. GRANDJEAN

1981-01-01

286

From dichoptic to dichotic: historical contrasts between binocular vision and binaural hearing.  

PubMed

Phenomena involving vision with two eyes have been commented upon for several thousand years whereas those concerned with hearing with two ears have a much more recent history. Studies of binocular vision and binaural hearing are contrasted with respect to the singleness of the percept, experimental manipulations of dichoptic and dichotic stimuli, eye and ear dominance, spatial localisation, and the instruments used to stimulate the paired organs. One of the principal phenomena that led to studies of dichotic hearing was dichoptic colour mixing. There was similar disagreement regarding whether colours or sounds could be combined when presented to different paired organs. Direction and distance in visual localisation were analysed before those for auditory localisation, partly due to difficulties in controlling the stimuli. Instruments for investigating binocular vision, like the stereoscope and pseudoscope, were invented before those for binaural hearing, like the stethophone and pseudophone. PMID:16042189

Wade, Nicholas J; Ono, Hiroshi

2005-01-01

287

The Colour of Pain: Can Patients Use Colour to Describe Osteoarthritis Pain?  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore patients' views on the acceptability and feasibility of using colour to describe osteoarthritis (OA) pain, and whether colour could be used to communicate pain to healthcare professionals. METHODS: Six group interviews were conducted with 17 patients with knee OA. Discussion topics included first impressions about using colour to describe pain, whether participants could associate their pain with colour, how colours related to changes to intensity and different pain qualities, and whether they could envisage using colour to describe pain to healthcare professionals. RESULTS: The group interviews indicated that, although the idea of using colour was generally acceptable, it did not suit all participants as a way of describing their pain. The majority of participants chose red to describe high-intensity pain; the reasons given were because red symbolized inflammation, fire, anger and the stop signal in a traffic light system. Colours used to describe the absence of pain were chosen because of their association with positive emotional feelings, such as purity, calmness and happiness. A range of colours was chosen to represent changes in pain intensity. Aching pain was consistently identified as being associated with colours such as grey or black, whereas sharp pain was described using a wider selection of colours. The majority of participants thought that they would be able to use colour to describe their pain to healthcare professionals, although issues around the interpretability and standardization of colour were raised. CONCLUSIONS: For some patients, using colour to describe their pain experience may be a useful tool to improve doctor-patient communication. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23495128

Wylde, Vikki; Wells, Victoria; Dixon, Samantha; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

2013-03-13

288

Colour reproduction for advanced manufacture of soft tissue prostheses.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to develop a colour reproduction system in advanced manufacture technology for accurate and automatic processing of soft tissue prostheses. METHODS: The manufacturing protocol was defined to effectively and consistently produce soft tissue prostheses using a 3D printing system. Within this protocol printer colour profiles were developed using a number of mathematical models for the proposed 3D colour printing system based on 240 training colours. On this basis, the colour reproduction system was established and their system errors including accuracy of colour reproduction, performance of colour repeatability and colour gamut were evaluated using 14 known human skin shades. RESULTS: The printer colour profile developed using the third-order polynomial regression based on least-square fitting provided the best model performance. The results demonstrated that by using the proposed colour reproduction system, 14 different skin colours could be reproduced and excellent colour reproduction performance achieved. Evaluation of the system's colour repeatability revealed a demonstrable system error and this highlighted the need for regular evaluation. The colour gamut for the proposed 3D printing system was simulated and it was demonstrated that the vast majority of skin colours can be reproduced with the exception of extreme dark or light skin colour shades. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the proposed colour reproduction system can be effectively used to reproduce a range of human skin colours for application in advanced manufacture of soft tissue prostheses. PMID:23643832

Xiao, Kaida; Zardawi, Faraedon; van Noort, Richard; Yates, Julian M

2013-05-01

289

Innovative modelling techniques in computer vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is concerned with two of main research activities currently carried on at the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence lab of DIE. The first part deals with hybrid artificial vision models, intended to provide object recognition and classification capabilities to an autonomous intelligen system. In this framework, a system recovering 3-D shape information from grey-level images of a scene, building a geometric representation of the scene in terms of superquadrics at the geometric level, and reasoning about the scene at the symbolic level is described. In the second part, attention is focused on automatic indexing of image databases. JACOB, a prototypal system allowing for the automatic extraction from images of salient features like colour and texture, and for content-based browsing and querying in image and video databases is briefly described.

Ardizzone, Edoardo; Chella, Antonio

290

The World Water Vision: From Developing a Vision to Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Water Vision exercise was initiated by the World Water Commission under the auspices of the World Water Council. The goal of the World Water Vision project was to develop a widely shared vision on the actions required to achieve a common set of water-related goals and the necessary commitment to carry out these actions. The Vision should be

S. Gangopadhyay; W. Cosgrove; F. Rijsberman; K. Strzepek

2001-01-01

291

Physicochemical and physiological basis of dichromatic colour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Out of three perceptual characteristics of the colour of any substance, the hue depends mostly on the spectral properties of a substance, while the brightness and saturation depend also on the concentration of a substance and its thickness. Here, we report that evident change of the hue of the colour (i.e., from green to red) is due to a change in concentration or the thickness of a layer in some exceptional substances such as pumpkin seed oil or an aqueous solution of bromophenol blue. In some regions of Central Europe, salad dressing is made preferably with the pumpkin seed oil, which has a strong characteristic nut-like taste and remarkable properties of the colour: it appears red in a bottle, but green when served as a salad dressing. The colour of the pumpkin seed oil was previously described as brownish yellow, dark green, dark green to red ochre or dark reddish brown to light yellow green. We elucidated the physicochemical and physiological basis of such dichromatism by Beer-Lambert law and by the characteristics of human colour perception. Our concept was corroborated by the outcome of calculations of colour from spectral properties using colour matching functions. We found that dichromatism is observed if the absorption spectrum of any substance has at least two local minima: one wide but shallow and one narrow but deep local minimum.

Kreft, Samo; Kreft, Marko

2007-11-01

292

On a predictive scheme for colour image quantization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we proposed an improved colour image quantization scheme based on predictive coding. Since the neighbouring colour pixels are quite similar in most colour images, the similarity among the encoded pixels is exploited. In the proposed scheme the encoded distinct neighbouring colours are collected to form a smaller state-palette. If the closest colour in the state-palette is quite similar to the current encoding colour pixel, the index of the closest colour in the state-palette is recorded. Otherwise, the closest colour in original colour palette for the current encoding colour pixel is searched and the corresponding index is recorded. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves good image qualities while requiring much lower bit rates for colour image compression.

Hu, Y.-C.; Chen, W.-L.; Lo, C.-C.; Wu, C.-M.

2012-06-01

293

The colour wheels of art, perception, science and physiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colour is not the domain of any one discipline be it art, philosophy, psychology or science. Each discipline has its own colour wheel and this presentation examines the origins and philosophies behind the colour circles of Art, Perception, Science and Physiology (after image) with reference to Aristotle, Robert Boyle, Leonardo da Vinci, Goethe, Ewald Hering and Albert Munsell. The paper analyses and discusses the differences between the four colour wheels using the Natural Colour System® notation as the reference for hue (the position of colours within each of the colour wheels). Examination of the colour wheels shows the dominance of blue in the wheels of art, science and physiology particularly at the expense of green. This paper does not consider the three-dimensionality of colour space its goal was to review the hue of a colour with regard to its position on the respective colour wheels.

Harkness, Nick

2006-06-01

294

The Greatest Generation Meets Its Greatest Challenge: Vision Loss and Depression in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Having lived through the Great Depression and World War II, older adults now face the challenge of vision loss in record numbers. Depression is closely associated with functional loss and social isolation in late-life vision loss. The principles of assisting those who are aging will also benefit those who are aging with a visual impairment. They…

O'Donnell, Coleen

2005-01-01

295

Use of a Noncycloplegic Autorefractor to Perform Vision Screening in Preschools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Early detection and treatment of vision disorders in children are important to avoid lifelong visual impairment; however, preschool vision-screening rates are low. Traditional methods of screening lack the precision of objective tests and are difficult to administer in preschoolers. This study adopted a method using school nurses to conduct…

Clarke, Noreen; Shacks, Janice; Kerr, Amanda R. E.; Bottrell, Christine L.; Poulsen, Marie Kanne; Yin, Larry

2008-01-01

296

The contribution of low birth weight to severe vision loss in a geographically defined population  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo describe the birthweight specific rate of severe vision loss among babies born between 1 January 1984 and 31 December 1987 to mothers resident in a geographically defined area, to classify the causes of vision loss by time of origin, and to describe the associated sensory and motor impairments and disabilities.METHODSCases were identified from a population register of children with

Barbara J Crofts; Rosemary King; Ann Johnson

1998-01-01

297

Wearable Mobility Aid for Low Vision Using Scene Classification in a Markov Random Field Model Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes work on a novel approach to vision enhancement for people with severe visual impairments. This approach utilizes computer vision techniques to classify scene content so that visual enhancement of the scene can identify semanti- cally important concepts. The mediated view of a scene presented to the user is in the form of a highly-saturated color image in

Mark Everingham; Barry T. Thomas; Tom Troscianko

2003-01-01

298

The role of vision processing in prosthetic vision.  

PubMed

Prosthetic vision provides vision which is reduced in resolution and dynamic range compared to normal human vision. This comes about both due to residual damage to the visual system from the condition that caused vision loss, and due to limitations of current technology. However, even with limitations, prosthetic vision may still be able to support functional performance which is sufficient for tasks which are key to restoring independent living and quality of life. Here vision processing can play a key role, ensuring that information which is critical to the performance of key tasks is available within the capability of the available prosthetic vision. In this paper, we frame vision processing for prosthetic vision, highlight some key areas which present problems in terms of quality of life, and present examples where vision processing can help achieve better outcomes. PMID:23365891

Barnes, Nick; He, Xuming; McCarthy, Chris; Horne, Lachlan; Kim, Junae; Scott, Adele; Lieby, Paulette

2012-01-01

299

Coherent modulation of stimulus colour can affect visually induced self-motion perception.  

PubMed

The effects of dynamic colour modulation on vection were investigated to examine whether perceived variation of illumination affects self-motion perception. Participants observed expanding optic flow which simulated their forward self-motion. Onset latency, accumulated duration, and estimated magnitude of the self-motion were measured as indices of vection strength. Colour of the dots in the visual stimulus was modulated between white and red (experiment 1), white and grey (experiment 2), and grey and red (experiment 3). The results indicated that coherent colour oscillation in the visual stimulus significantly suppressed the strength of vection, whereas incoherent or static colour modulation did not affect vection. There was no effect of the types of the colour modulation; both achromatic and chromatic modulations turned out to be effective in inhibiting self-motion perception. Moreover, in a situation where the simulated direction of a spotlight was manipulated dynamically, vection strength was also suppressed (experiment 4). These results suggest that observer's perception of illumination is critical for self-motion perception, and rapid variation of perceived illumination would impair the reliabilities of visual information in determining self-motion. PMID:21425698

Nakamura, Shinji; Seno, Takeharu; Ito, Hiroyuki; Sunaga, Shoji

2010-01-01

300

Detection of colour change in moving objects: temporal order judgment and reaction time analysis.  

PubMed

The time needed to detect changes in the colouration of a single moving stimulus becomes shorter with its increasing velocity (Kreegipuu et al, 2006 Vision Research 46 1848-1855). We examined the ability to detect colour change in moving chromatic bars or sinusoidal gratings through temporal order judgment (TOJ) and reaction time (RT) tasks to test whether the effect of velocity found in a previous study is universal and holds for different tasks and stimuli. The results demonstrate that the TOJ and simple RT to the colour change of a moving grating are insensitive to stimulus velocity. Therefore, we conclude that the process of comparison of the two internal representations of external events does not have access to temporal information precise enough to estimate the exact time when something enters our subjective awareness. The motion effect on colour-change perception seems to be confined to a single stimulus that moves across the visual field, to events that contain some spatial predictability, and to tasks that reflect the time of the change relatively directly. PMID:20120263

Murd, Carolina; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Allik, Jüri

2009-01-01

301

Structural colours in blue-banded bee  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Periodic, micro-textured biological materials are ubiquitous in nature. Electromagnetic waves at different frequencies are selectively reflected by such materials. This phenomenon is the origin of structural colours observed in variety of insects. In this work, we analyze the mechanisms that lead to the bluish-green colour of the blue-banded bee feathers. The reflection spectrum of the blue-banded bee feather was calculated by the transfer matrix method (TMM). The reflection peaks found are compatible within the experimental data. In addition to Bragg scattering, guided resonance has been observed in our theoretical calculation, which leads to a novel understanding of the structural colours in blue-banded bees.

Wan, Jones; Dai, Lixiin; Li, Jensen; Fung, Kwok-Kwong; Chan, Che-Ting

2006-03-01

302

Healthy Living, Healthy Vision  

MedlinePLUS

... vision loss if you: Avoid Smoking ? Avoid Smoking ? Quitting smoking can have many good effects on your health. ... also protect the health of your eyes. By quitting smoking, you can help to possibly reduce your risk ...

303

Overview of Computer Vision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an overview of computer vision. The emphasis is on image understanding and scene analysis, though pertinent aspects of pattern recognition are treated. Image processing for sensor correction, rectification, image enhancement, etc., is...

W. B. Gevarter

1982-01-01

304

Low Vision Devices  

MedlinePLUS

... 1.9M, TIFF) Description: A simple guide for writing checks helps people with low vision. Credit: National ... Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about this website can be addressed to ...

305

Vision and Motion Pictures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

Grambo, Gregory

1998-01-01

306

Eyeglasses for Vision Correction  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Eyeglasses for Vision Correction Tweet Eye Health Lifestyle Topics Preventing Eye Injuries ... objects that comes with age. Bifocals have a correction for reading on the bottom half of the ...

307

Artificial Vision: Vision of a Newcomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Japanese Consortium for an Artificial Retina has developed a new stimulating method named Suprachoroidal-Transretinal Stimulation (STS). Using STS, electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) were effectively elicited in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats and in rabbits and cats with normal vision, using relatively small stimulus currents, such that the spatial resolution appeared to be adequate for a visual prosthesis. The histological analysis showed no damage to the rabbit retina when electrical currents sufficient to elicit distinct EEPs were applied. It was also shown that transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) to the retina prevented the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). STS, which is less invasive than other retinal prostheses, could be one choice to achieve artificial vision, and the optimal parameters of electrical stimulation may also be effective for the neuroprotection of residual RGCs.

Fujikado, Takashi; Sawai, Hajime; Tano, Yasuo

308

Binocular peripheral vision system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of the whole space on a 360 degree(s) angle, as well as the reconstruction of a 3D scene, presumed unknown, presents an unquestionable interest in the field of robotic vision. The object of this paper is the description of a system dedicated to binocular peripheral vision, its conception being specifically linked to the problem at stake. The architecture of our system of image capture lies on the key principle which is simplification of calculation.

Maniere, Thierry; Benosman, Ryad; Gastaud, Claude; Devars, Jean

1997-04-01

309

Prevalence of Low Vision in Elderly Patients Admitted to an Acute Geriatric Unit in Liverpool: Elderly People Who Fall Are More Likely to Have Low Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of visual impairment among elderly patients admitted to hospital is unknown. This group of patients may be particularly at risk from poor vision which could jeopardise their independence. A prospective study of visual impairment and its aetiology in acute geriatric admissions assessed after the acute illness had settled was performed. Subjects were all patients aged 65 years or

C. I. A. Jack; T. Smith; C. Neoh; M. Lye; J. N. McGalliard

1995-01-01

310

Artist's colour rendering of HDR scenes in 3D Mondrian colour-constancy experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presentation provides an update on ongoing research using three-dimensional Colour Mondrians. Two still life arrangements comprising hand-painted coloured blocks of 11 different colours were subjected to two different lighting conditions of a nearly uniform light and directed spotlights. The three-dimensional nature of these test targets adds shadows and multiple reflections, not found in flat Mondrian targets. Working from exactly

Carinna E. Parraman; John J. McCann; Alessandro Rizzi

2010-01-01

311

Improving preschool vision screening programs.  

PubMed

Early detection of amblyopia is important, but many preschool-aged children do not receive vision screening. Factors that account for missed opportunities in detecting vision problems in early childhood include the difficulty of evaluating vision in an uncooperative child or in an infant and toddler. Methods need to be found to improve the low rate of preschool vision screening. In Missouri, a study has begun on preschool vision screening to find the most cost-effective method. PMID:15754619

Giangiacomo, Joseph; Morey, Sharon Scott

312

Salience of Primary and Secondary Colours in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Primary colour terms ("black", "white", "red", "green", "yellow", and "blue") are more fundamental in colour language than secondary colour terms ("pink", "purple", "orange", "brown", and "grey"). Here, we assess whether this distinction exists in the absence of language, by investigating whether primary colours attract and sustain preverbal…

Franklin, Anna; Pitchford, Nicola; Hart, Lynsey; Davies, Ian R. L.; Clausse, Samantha; Jennings, Siobhan

2008-01-01

313

Canvas: An Intelligent Colour Selection Tool For VDU Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

CANVAS is a palette-driven system for colour selection in the density slicing of single-band imagery. By incorporating intelligence on the visual distinction and ordering of colours, the system can operate in several modes. Colours can be selected individually from the palettes or by the system, which maximises the apparent distinction between them. Colour series with unipolar, repeating unipolar and bipolar

G. A. Gill; A. D. Trigg

1988-01-01

314

Colour association influences honey bee choice between sucrose concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain colours associated with floral food resources are more quickly learned by honey bees (Apis mellifera) than are other colours. But the impact of colour, and other floral cues, on bee choice behaviour has not yet been determined. In these experiments, colour association and sugar concentration of reward were varied to assess how they interact to affect bee choice behaviour.

V. S. Banschbach

1994-01-01

315

The theory and phenomenology of coloured quark models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general introduction to coloured quark models is given and their phenomenology is described with particular reference to the new particles. It is shown that there are essentially three types of colour models with colour excitation when the colour group is SU(3)- Han-Nambu, Greenberg and a model which has the same charges as that of Tati and which can be

F E Close

1975-01-01

316

Colour and product choice: a study of gender roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Research in to how colour can stimulate interest and subsequently increase the appeal power of products. There has been very little or no research in the colour-impact domain in Malaysia. Gender has also been presented as an important factor of colour penchant and proclivity. Seeks to understand the influence of colour on consumer choice of automobile as well

Debby Funk; Nelson Oly Ndubisi

2006-01-01

317

COLOUR and SPACE: An Investigation of Three Dimensionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monica Billger, in her doctoral dissertation, states 'The feasibility of working consciously with colours is limited by our knowledge about how the appearance of coloured materials varies with context, that is, how a coloured surface is affected by its spatial situation' (Billger, 1999, p. 5). In association, however, we can also seek to understand how the application of colour provides

Dianne Smith

318

Effect of polysaccharides on the colour of anthocyanins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a variety of plant polysaccharides and sugars on anthocyanin colour was investigated. The colour intensity (absorbance), but not the ?max, of solutions of different anthocyanins was found to be diminished in the presence of amylose, amylopectin and ?- and ?-cyclodextrins whilst glucose, maltose and sucrose caused an increase in colour. This colour change was more apparent at

Jane E Lancaster

1995-01-01

319

Environmental and Personal Safety: No Vision Required. Practice Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personal safety is an important issue for all people, regardless of their physical capabilities. For people with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision), real concerns exist regarding their vulnerability to crime and their greater risk of attack. With a nationwide increase in crime in the United States, "Three out of…

Bozeman, Laura A.

2004-01-01

320

Structural colours in blue-banded bee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodic, micro-textured biological materials are ubiquitous in nature. Electromagnetic waves at different frequencies are selectively reflected by such materials. This phenomenon is the origin of structural colours observed in variety of insects. In this work, we analyze the mechanisms that lead to the bluish-green colour of the blue-banded bee feathers. The reflection spectrum of the blue-banded bee feather was calculated

Jones Wan; Lixiin Dai; Jensen Li; Kwok-Kwong Fung; Che-Ting Chan

2006-01-01

321

Flower colour and cytochromes P450  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids are major constituents of flower colour. Plants accumulate specific flavonoids and thus every species often exhibits a limited flower colour range. Three cytochromes P450 play critical roles in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Flavonoid 3?-hydroxylase (F3?H, CYP75B) and flavonoid 3?,5?-hydroxylase (F3?5?H, CYP75A) catalyze the hydroxylation of the B-ring of flavonoids and are necessary to biosynthesize cyanidin-(red to magenta) and delphinidin-(violet

Yoshikazu Tanaka

2006-01-01

322

Globular Clusters: Chemical Abundance - Integrated Colour calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we improve the chemical abundance - integrated colour cali- bration presented in Forte, Faifer & Geisler, 2007 (FFG07 hereafter) using a new (g-i) vs. (C-T1) colours calibration obtained from M87. Using this calibration and better values of the reddening for the galactic globulars, we found that a quadratic calibration is still enough to represent the observa- tional data, as in FFG07.

Moyano Loyola, G.; Faifer, F. R.; Forte, J. C.

323

Tracking colour objects using adaptive mixture models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The use of adaptive Gaussian mixtures to model the colour distributions of objects is described. These models are used to perform robust, real-time tracking under varying illumination, viewing geometry and camera parameters. Observed log-likelihood measurements were used to perform selective adaptation. q,1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Real-time tracking; Colour model; Gaussian mixture model; Adaptive learning

Stephen J. Mckenna; Yogesh Raja; Shaogang Gong

1999-01-01

324

Modelling colour changes during the caramelisation reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sucrose solutions, with concentrations near or superior to saturation, present high potentialities for the candy and pastry industries. The development of colour in a neutral and highly concentrated sucrose solution (16.32%(w\\/w) water content) subjected to isothermal heat treatment (in the 100–160°C range) was investigated. Under such conditions, sucrose degrades through caramelisation and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed. Colour development was monitored

Mafalda A. C. Quintas; Teresa R. S. Brandão; Cristina L. M. Silva

2007-01-01

325

THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect

In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.

IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.

2001-08-06

326

Spelling Performance of Visually Impaired Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Visual processes undoubtedly play an important role in print reading as well as in spelling. In the present study we intend to compare the spelling performance of visually impaired individuals (both individuals who are blind and individuals with low vision) with that of their fully sighted peers. An analysis of errors (misspelled words and…

Papadopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Arvaniti, Evmorfia K.; Dimitriadi, Despina I.; Gkoutsioudi, Vasiliki G.; Zantali, Christina I.

2009-01-01

327

Colourful parrot feathers resist bacterial degradation.  

PubMed

The brilliant red, orange and yellow colours of parrot feathers are the product of psittacofulvins, which are synthetic pigments known only from parrots. Recent evidence suggests that some pigments in bird feathers function not just as colour generators, but also preserve plumage integrity by increasing the resistance of feather keratin to bacterial degradation. We exposed a variety of colourful parrot feathers to feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis and found that feathers with red psittacofulvins degraded at about the same rate as those with melanin and more slowly than white feathers, which lack pigments. Blue feathers, in which colour is based on the microstructural arrangement of keratin, air and melanin granules, and green feathers, which combine structural blue with yellow psittacofulvins, degraded at a rate similar to that of red and black feathers. These differences in resistance to bacterial degradation of differently coloured feathers suggest that colour patterns within the Psittaciformes may have evolved to resist bacterial degradation, in addition to their role in communication and camouflage. PMID:20926430

Burtt, Edward H; Schroeder, Max R; Smith, Lauren A; Sroka, Jenna E; McGraw, Kevin J

2010-10-06

328

Colourful parrot feathers resist bacterial degradation  

PubMed Central

The brilliant red, orange and yellow colours of parrot feathers are the product of psittacofulvins, which are synthetic pigments known only from parrots. Recent evidence suggests that some pigments in bird feathers function not just as colour generators, but also preserve plumage integrity by increasing the resistance of feather keratin to bacterial degradation. We exposed a variety of colourful parrot feathers to feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis and found that feathers with red psittacofulvins degraded at about the same rate as those with melanin and more slowly than white feathers, which lack pigments. Blue feathers, in which colour is based on the microstructural arrangement of keratin, air and melanin granules, and green feathers, which combine structural blue with yellow psittacofulvins, degraded at a rate similar to that of red and black feathers. These differences in resistance to bacterial degradation of differently coloured feathers suggest that colour patterns within the Psittaciformes may have evolved to resist bacterial degradation, in addition to their role in communication and camouflage.

Burtt, Edward H.; Schroeder, Max R.; Smith, Lauren A.; Sroka, Jenna E.; McGraw, Kevin J.

2011-01-01

329

Colour Duplex imaging through wound dressings.  

PubMed

Colour flow Duplex scanning is becoming the method of choice to determine patency and haemodynamic status in infrainguinal grafts and native arteries. Due to surgical wounds and ulcers, there are often dressings covering the leg above the vessel to be scanned. There is no data as to the effect of different wound dressings on colour flow Duplex signals. Ten normal superficial femoral arteries were scanned by a blinded operator. Initially the artery was visualised to assess the normal image produced for each artery on B-mode and colour flow ultrasound and a Doppler reading was taken. Then each of five commonly used dressings were applied to the skin above the artery, in random order and the blinded operator graded the signal produced on a linear analogue scale. Primapore, an absorbent material dressing and Spyroflex, a bilaminate membrane dressing, did not transmit ultra-sound at all. Granuflex extra thin allowed a clear B-mode image of each artery to be visualised and an adequate Doppler waveform to be obtained. However colour flow mapping was less than optimal although it was possible in each of the arteries. Opsite and Tegaderm, two thin membrane dressings allowed excellent B-mode and colour flow images, in addition to clear Doppler signals. In patients who require dressings and who may require colour flow Duplex scanning of vessels in the same area, we would suggest the use of a product that permits ultrasound transmission, thus saving the necessity of removing the dressing for the assessment. PMID:8270077

Whiteley, M S; Magee, T R; Harris, R; Horrocks, M

1993-11-01

330

Factors Affecting the Reading Media Used by Visually Impaired Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to examine reading media (braille, cassettes, screen-reader, screen-magnifier, large print, low vision aids, CCTV) used by visually impaired adults. This article reports the results of a research project involving 100 people with visual impairment. The participants were interviewed and asked to fill in a questionnaire to…

Goudiras, Dimitrios B.; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios Ch.; Papageorgiou, Virginia E.; Stergiou, Maria S.

2009-01-01

331

Blind hero: enabling guitar hero for the visually impaired  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very few video games have been designed or adapted to allow people with vision impairment to play. Music\\/rhythm games however are particularly suitable for such people as they are perfectly capable of perceiving audio signals. Guitar Hero is a popular rhythm game yet it is not accessible to the visually impaired as it relies on visual stimuli. This paper explores

Bei Yuan; Eelke Folmer

2008-01-01

332

THE EFFECTS OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT ON COMPETITION SWIM PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several factors contribute to successful swim performance, but how are they affected by impaired vision? The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between degree of visual impairment and performance variables during the 100m freestyle and backstroke events in Paralympic swimmers and to compare the performances with those of Olympic swimmers. A competition video analysis conducted at the

Laurie A. Malone; Daniel J. Daly; Robert D. Steadward

333

Factors Affecting the Reading Media Used by Visually Impaired Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine reading media (braille, cassettes, screen-reader, screen-magnifier, large print, low vision aids, CCTV) used by visually impaired adults. This article reports the results of a research project involving 100 people with visual impairment. The participants were interviewed and asked to fill in a questionnaire to…

Goudiras, Dimitrios B.; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Koutsoklenis, Athanasios Ch.; Papageorgiou, Virginia E.; Stergiou, Maria S.

2009-01-01

334

Training motor skills of children with low vision.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to study the effectiveness of a motor training program for visually impaired children. 40 children with low vision took part in the study. 20 children (10 boys, 10 girls), mean age 8:9 yr.:mo. (SD= 1:6), were in a Training group and 20 children (10 boys, 10 girls), mean age 8:10 yr.:mo. (SD= 1:65), were in a Home Training group. The Snellen Chart and Bruininks Oseretsky Motor Proficiency Test were used for assessment. Training program included training balance, coordination, strength, visuomotor control, and finger dexterity. Significant differences were found on all skills after training in the Training group, but no significant differences were observed, other than visual motor control, in the Home Training group. Children with low vision have some useable vision and learning to use the available vision depends on proper rehabilitation. PMID:17879667

Aki, Esra; Atasavun, Songül; Turan, Ay?e; Kayihan, Hülya

2007-06-01

335

Role of proprioception and vision in handwriting.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to better understand the role of proprioception in handwriting and test earlier conclusions stating that the automated shaping of letters was not impaired by the removal of visual control in deafferentation. To this aim we compared the performance of the deafferented patient GL, who suffers from a complete loss of cutaneous and proprioceptive sensation, with that of eight healthy age- and sex-matched subjects. The word "Parallele", written within a short sentence with and without visual control, was quantified using a digital writing tablet. Three of the 13 analyzed parameters were strikingly different in patient GL compared to healthy subjects, both with and without vision: increase of number of pen touches, increase in number of inversions in velocity, and decrease of mean stroke frequency. The changes in these three parameters indicate a strong impairment in automated behaviour in the absence of proprioception and touch. This impairment is also supported by the significantly longer movement duration, which is also significantly increased by the removal of visual control. The present study provides for the first time a quantification of handwriting in a completely deafferented patient and reveals the central role of proprioception for the storage, updating, and maintenance of skilled motor programs. The fact that the deficits are already present with visual feedback suggests that the role of vision in handwriting is only secondary. PMID:19463909

Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Chakarov, Vihren; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Huethe, Frank; Kristeva, Rumyana

2009-05-20

336

Impact of colour adjustment on flavour stability of pale lager beers with a range of distinct colouring agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of colour adjustment on the flavour stability of five pale lager beers with a range of colouring agents such as specialty malts, colouring beer and artificial caramel colourant was investigated. The research focused on determination of the endogenous anti-oxidative potential (EAP) of the beer samples using a novel Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) method. The results were correlated with

Andrés Furukawa Suárez; Thomas Kunz; Natalia Cortés Rodríguez; James MacKinlay; Paul Hughes; Frank-Jürgen Methner

2011-01-01

337

A Handheld LED Coloured-Light Mixer for Students to Learn Collaboratively the Primary Colours of Light  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To overcome students' inaccurate prior knowledge on primary additive colours, a coloured-light mixer has been constructed to enable students to observe directly the colours produced and reach the conclusion by themselves that the three primary colours of light are red, green, and blue (NOT red, yellow, and blue). Three closely packed tiny…

Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Panijpan, Bhinyo

2009-01-01

338

The Control of Colour by Using Measurement and Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour simulation on CAD computer screens is a potentially important aid to rapid response in product development. Control of screen colour in high-resolution CRT monitors can be achieved on the basis of the principles of additive colour-mixing. The use of trichromatic-unit colour specifications is extended to include RGB drive values and provide a measured feedback signal for correcting colour. Measurement

D. P. Oulton; I. Porat

1992-01-01

339

Taste - impaired  

MedlinePLUS

... senses Causes of impaired taste include: Bell's palsy Common cold Flu Nasal infection, nasal polyps , sinusitis Pharyngitis and ... the diet. For taste problems due to the common cold or flu, normal taste should return when the ...

340

Computer vision for CARMEL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we discuss the implementation and uses of the object recognition system used for CARMEL, the University of Michigan's winning entry in the AAAI-92 Autonomous Robot Competition. Following the rules of the competition, the robot was required to navigate within a large, unstructured environment performing exploration, and then a directed search, for objects placed throughout the arena. CARMEL was completely autonomous and performed these tasks, in part, using computer vision techniques. The tasks required of the computer vision system consisted of actively searching for objects (four inch diameter tubes marked with black and white stripe patterns), detecting them in images, uniquely identifying each object based upon its distinguishing pattern, and determining each object's position from orientation and distance estimates measured from the image. We briefly describe the design of the various computer vision algorithms that were developed to perform these tasks. Because of the accuracy and robustness of the vision system, we were able to perform absolute positioning, where the robot accurately updated its position through backward triangulation from previously located objects. The success of CARMEL stemmed largely from the use and implementation of the vision system to perform the tasks listed above. Other teams chose to approach these same tasks using different sensory systems and/or techniques. We analyze the general approaches, looking at where they excelled and failed, in terms of their actual performance and in general, perhaps giving insight into how to build autonomous robots that can successfully operate in 'natural' environments.

Huber, Marcus J.; Bidlack, Clint R.; Kortenkamp, David; Mangis, Kevin; Baker, Douglas; Wu, Annie S.; Weymouth, Terry E.

1993-05-01

341

Structural colour and iridescence in plants: the poorly studied relations of pigment colour  

PubMed Central

Background Colour is a consequence of the optical properties of an object and the visual system of the animal perceiving it. Colour is produced through chemical and structural means, but structural colour has been relatively poorly studied in plants. Scope This Botanical Briefing describes the mechanisms by which structures can produce colour. In plants, as in animals, the most common mechanisms are multilayers and diffraction gratings. The functions of structural colour are then discussed. In animals, these colours act primarily as signals between members of the same species, although they can also play roles in camouflaging animals from their predators. In plants, multilayers are found predominantly in shade-plant leaves, suggesting a role either in photoprotection or in optimizing capture of photosynthetically active light. Diffraction gratings may be a surprisingly common feature of petals, and recent work has shown that they can be used by bees as cues to identify rewarding flowers. Conclusions Structural colour may be surprisingly frequent in the plant kingdom, playing important roles alongside pigment colour. Much remains to be discovered about its distribution, development and function.

Glover, Beverley J.; Whitney, Heather M.

2010-01-01

342

CONDOR Advanced Visionics System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Covert Night/Day Operations for Rotorcraft (CONDOR) program is a collaborative research and development program between the governments of the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to develop and demonstrate an advanced visionics concept coupled with an advanced flight control system to improve rotorcraft mission effectiveness during day, night, and adverse weather conditions in the Nap- of-the-Earth environment. The Advanced Visionics System for CONDOR is the flight- ruggedized head mounted display and computer graphics generator with the intended use of exploring, developing, and evaluating proposed visionic concepts for rotorcraft including; the application of color displays, wide field-of-view, enhanced imagery, virtual displays, mission symbology, stereo imagery, and other graphical interfaces.

Kanahele, David L.; Buckanin, Robert M.

1996-06-01

343

Optics for machine vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current developments in manufacturing technologies have caused a demand for automated inspection and assembly tools. A key requirement regarding such tools is related to machine vision. The term 'machine vision', as used in this discussion, includes any automated acquisition of information via optical sensors. The primary information to be sought with vision systems is spatial information. The normal detection scheme provides all but one of the generally desired variables. The variable not provided is the longitudinal position variable. Information regarding this variable is called 'range information'. The present investigation is mainly concerned with the means of acquiring the range variable. Attention is given to geometric range measurement techniques, time-of-flight range measurement techniques, interferometric techniques, and diffraction range measurement techniques.

Strand, T. C.

1984-01-01

344

Piaget's Water-Level Task: The Impact of Vision on Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the present study, the aim was to examine the differences in performance between children and adolescents with visual impairment and sighted peers in the water-level task. Twenty-eight individuals with visual impairments, 14 individuals with blindness and 14 individuals with low vision, and 28 sighted individuals participated in the present…

Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni

2011-01-01

345

Colour preferences in nest-building zebra finches.  

PubMed

Some bird species are selective in the materials they choose for nest building, preferring, for example, materials of one colour to others. However, in many cases the cause of these preferences is not clear. One of those species is the zebra finch, which exhibits strong preferences for particular colours of nest material. In an attempt to determine why these birds strongly prefer one colour of material over another, we compared the preferences of paired male zebra finches for nest material colour with their preferences for food of the same colours. We found that birds did indeed prefer particular colours of nest material (in most cases blue) but that they did not generally prefer food of one colour over the other colours. It appears, then, that a preference for one colour or another of nest material is specific to the nest-building context. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. PMID:23860278

Muth, Felicity; Steele, Matthew; Healy, Susan D

2013-07-13

346

Correlation of consumer assessment of longissimus dorsi beef palatability with image colour, marbling and surface texture features.  

PubMed

A new study was conducted to apply computer vision methods successfully developed using trained sensory panel palatability data to new samples with consumer panel palatability data. The computer vision methodology utilized the traditional approach of using beef muscle colour, marbling and surface texture as palatability indicators. These features were linked to corresponding consumer panel palatability data with the traditional approach of partial least squares regression (PLSR). Best subsets were selected by genetic algorithms. Results indicate that accurate modelling of likeability with regression models was possible (r(2)=0.86). Modelling of other important palatability attributes proved encouraging (tenderness r(2)=0.76, juiciness r(2)=0.69, flavour r(2)=0.78). Therefore, the current study provides a basis for further expanding computer vision methodology to correlate with consumer panel palatability data. PMID:20374825

Jackman, Patrick; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul; Brandon, Karen; White, Anna-Marie

2009-10-20

347

Grounding Our Vision: Brain Research and Strategic Vision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While recognizing the value of "vision," it could be argued that vision alone--at least in schools--is not enough to rally the financial and emotional support required to translate an idea into reality. A compelling vision needs to reflect substantive, research-based knowledge if it is to spark the kind of strategic thinking and insight capable of…

Walker, Mike

2011-01-01

348

Insect-vision inspired collision warning vision processor for automobiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vision is expected to play important roles for car safety enhancement. Imaging systems can be used to enlarging the vision field of the driver. For instance capturing and displaying views of hidden areas around the car which the driver can analyze for safer decision-making. Vision systems go a step further. They can autonomously analyze the visual information, identify dangerous situations

Gustavo Linan-Cembrano; Luis Carranza; Claire Rind; Akos Zarandy; Martti Soininen; Angel Rodriguez-Vazquez

2008-01-01

349

Progress in Vision and Robotics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Summary of selected vision topics; Shedding light on shadows; A vision potpourri; Recognition of real objects; A heterarchical program for recognition of polyhedra; VISNEM: a bag of 'robotics' formulae.

P. H. Winston

1973-01-01

350

Contact Lenses for Vision Correction  

MedlinePLUS

... Health News Consumer Alerts Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Tweet What are contacts? Contact lenses are thin, ... to see close up). Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Contact Lens Types Important Things to Know About ...

351

Physical Impairment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many health conditions can lead to physical impairments that impact computer and Web access. Musculoskeletal conditions such as arthritis and cumulative trauma disorders can make movement stiff and painful. Movement disorders such as tremor, Parkinsonism and dystonia affect the ability to control movement, or to prevent unwanted movements. Often, the same underlying health condition also has sensory or cognitive effects. People with dexterity impairments may use a standard keyboard and mouse, or any of a wide range of alternative input mechanisms. Examples are given of the diverse ways that specific dexterity impairments and input mechanisms affect the fundamental actions of Web browsing. As the Web becomes increasingly sophisticated, and physically demanding, new access features at the Web browser and page level will be necessary.

Trewin, Shari

352

Photonic-crystal full-colour displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our information-rich world, it is becoming increasingly important to develop technologies capable of displaying dynamic and changeable data, for reasons ranging from value-added advertising to environmental sustainability. There is an intense drive at the moment towards paper-like displays, devices having a high reflectivity and contrast to provide viewability in a variety of environments, particularly in sunlight where emissive or backlit devices perform very poorly. The list of possible technologies is extensive, including electrophoretic, cholesteric liquid crystalline, electrochromic, electrodewetting, interferometric and more. Despite tremendous advances, the key drawback of all these existing display options relates to colour. As soon as an RGB (red, green and blue) colour filter or spatially modulated colour scheme is implemented, substantial light losses are inevitable even if the intrinsic reflectivity of the material is very good.

Arsenault, André C.; Puzzo, Daniel P.; Manners, Ian; Ozin, Geoffrey A.

2007-08-01

353

Temporal analysis of the chromatic flash VEP--separate colour and luminance contrast components.  

PubMed

Temporal analysis of the chromatic flash visual evoked potential (VEP) was studied in human subjects with normal and anomalous colour vision using a deterministic pseudo-random binary stimulus (VERIS). Five experiments were carried out on four normal subjects investigating heterochromatic red-green exchange and single colour/achromatic (either red/grey or green/grey) exchange over a wide range of luminance ratios for the two stimuli, the effects of lowered mean luminance on the chromatic VEP and the effects of colour desaturation at constant mean luminance and constant luminance contrast. Finally, the performance of three dichromats, a protanope and two deuteranopes, on heterochromatic exchange VEP and on colour desaturation were investigated. In contrast to the chromatic electroretinogram, which shows great symmetry with respect to luminance ratio on opposite sides of the isoluminant point, the chromatic VEP demonstrated a distinct asymmetry when the colours exchanged included red. On the red side of isoluminance (red more luminant than green), a wave with longer latency and altered waveform became dominant. The effects of green stimulation were indistinguishable from those of achromatic stimulation at the same luminance contrast over the whole range of chromatic contrast and for all levels of desaturation studied. Desaturation of red with constant luminance contrast (desaturated red/grey stimulation) resulted in a systematic alteration in the evoked waveform. Subtraction of the achromatic first- and second-order responses from responses recorded in the red desaturation series resulted in remarkably uniform waveforms, with peak amplitudes growing linearly with saturation. The absence of interaction between achromatic and coloured components for all (including the most intense colour) stimulus parameters used suggests that the generators of these components are separate. Recordings from the dichromats showed that the contrast response minimum shifted from the point of photopic isoluminance to the point of zero cone contrast (at the silent substitution point) for the remaining cone type. The waveforms recorded with a series of luminance ratios were much simpler than those recorded from trichromats and symmetrical with respect to their isoluminant points. Despite the indication of the presence of L cones of apparently normal spectral sensitivity in the deuteranopes (on the basis of flicker photometry), there was no evidence for a red-sensitive component in the desaturation or heterochromatic stimulation series. The results are discussed in terms of the possibility of separate generation of chromatic and achromatic contributions to the VEP. PMID:10211389

Klistorner, A; Crewther, D P; Crewther, S G

1998-12-01

354

VISION AND READING ABILITY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF VISION AND READING DISABILITY IS SURVEYED. CONCLUSIONS BASED ON THE LITERATURE IN THE FIELD ARE DISCUSSED. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 70 REFERENCES AND A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ARE APPENDED. A TABLE SUMMARIZING REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND EYE DEFECTS CONTRIBUTING TO READING DISABILITY IS INCLUDED.…

MANGRUM, CHARLES T.

355

Two Visions of America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since the seventeenth century, there have been two narratives about modernity in general and America in particular. The author uses the term "narrative" to include (a) facts, (b) arguments, and most important, (c) a larger vision of how one sees the world and chooses to engage the world. The first and originalist narrative is the Lockean Liberty…

Capaldi, Nicholas

2012-01-01

356

Vision, Learning, and Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It seems to be a common feeling that animals learn to see, and this feeling, together with the reemergence of computer learning paradigms that mimic many forms of human learning, has raised hopes that learning is the key to the computer vision problem. In...

C. M. Brown

1994-01-01

357

VISION AND READING ABILITY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF VISION AND READING DISABILITY IS SURVEYED. CONCLUSIONS BASED ON THE LITERATURE IN THE FIELD ARE DISCUSSED. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 70 REFERENCES AND A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ARE APPENDED. A TABLE SUMMARIZING REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND EYE DEFECTS CONTRIBUTING TO READING DISABILITY IS INCLUDED.…

MANGRUM, CHARLES T.

358

Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

359

Low Vision Bicycling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article considers bicycling as a means of transportation, not recreation, for individuals with low vision. Considered are evaluation of capabilities, watching for child cyclists, central and peripheral field loss, necessary equipment, potential problems, seasonal and weather considerations, night riding, route planning, basic visual skills…

Connor, M.

1992-01-01

360

Tele-visioning Terror  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to the relationship between terrorism and media, with a special focus on the theoretical notions of “icon”, “mass” and “distance”. It aims to show how the phenomenon of modern terrorism calls into question the essence of modern democracies and their systems of information, based on the distance between vision and event.

Caroline Zekri

2011-01-01

361

Visions of Mobile Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is almost a foregone conclusion that the mobile device will become an indispensable tool for learning in the future. That's why "T.H.E. Journal" asked a number of educators to let their imaginations go wild and conjure up visions of the future of the device in the classroom. This paper presents the views of educators who conjure up the mobile…

T.H.E. Journal, 2011

2011-01-01

362

MARR: active vision model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier, the biologically plausible active vision, model for multiresolutional attentional representation and recognition (MARR) has been developed. The model is based on the scanpath theory of Noton and Stark and provides invariant recognition of gray-level images. In the present paper, the algorithm of automatic image viewing trajectory formation in the MARR model, the results of psychophysical experiments, and possible applications of the model are considered. Algorithm of automatic image viewing trajectory formation is based on imitation of the scanpath formed by operator. Several propositions about possible mechanisms for a consecutive selection of fixation points in human visual perception inspired by computer simulation results and known psychophysical data have been tested and confirmed in our psychophysical experiments. In particular, we have found that gaze switch may be directed (1) to a peripheral part of the vision field which contains an edge oriented orthogonally to the edge in the point of fixation, and (2) to a peripheral part of the vision field containing crossing edges. Our experimental results have been used to optimize automatic algorithm of image viewing in the MARR model. The modified model demonstrates an ability to recognize complex real world images invariantly with respect to scale, shift, rotation, illumination conditions, and, in part, to point of view and can be used to solve some robot vision tasks.

Podladchikova, Lubov N.; Gusakova, Valentina I.; Shaposhnikov, Dmitry G.; Faure, Alain; Golovan, Alexander V.; Shevtsova, Natalia A.

1997-09-01

363

LAMPMAN'S FLEETING VISION  

Microsoft Academic Search

reminded again of the Victorian capacity for dualism : he appears to accept both the Socialist vision of human progress and the Calvinist sense of man's inesca- pable evil; a professed non-believer, he explores the ways of stoic and hedonist without ever losing his own devotion to a reinstated Pale Galilean; a pacifist of sorts, he shrinks from violence yet

Sandra Djwa

364

Vision Screening For Head Starters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine which children in the Head Start program may have vision problems, Head Start teachers and staff do vision "screening." This booklet demonstrates how to do the screening using the Snellen "E Chart." Trouble signs that the test administrator should be aware of are listed, and vision scores are explained simply. Amblyopia is defined,…

Foley, Celia

365

Vision for a UAV helicopter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and overview of the basic and applied research carried out by the Computer Vision Laboratory, Linkoping University, in the WITAS UAV Project. This work includes customizing and redesigning vision methods to t the particular needs and restrictions imposed by the UAV platform, e.g., for low-level vision, motion estimation, navigation, and tracking. It also includes a new learning

Klas Nordberg; Gunnar Farneback; Gosta Granlund; Anders Moe; Johan Wiklund

366

Kalman filter for vision tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kalman filter has been used successfully in di erent prediction applications or state determination of a system. One important field in computer vision is the object tracking. Di erent movement conditions and occlusions can hinder the vision tracking of an object. In this report we present the use of the Kalman filter in the vision tracking. We consider the

Erik Cuevas; Daniel Zaldivar; Raul Rojas

367

Is School Vision Screening Effective?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study followed children retrospectively from kindergarten through 12th grade to examine incidence of abnormal school vision screening tests and rates of follow-up by specialists. School vision screening provided first indication of abnormal visual acuity in 76% of the children. Results support the notion that school vision screening is…

Yawn, Barbara P.; And Others

1996-01-01

368

Active Vision in Artificial Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose and demonstrate a new paradigm for active vision re- search that draws upon recent advances in the fields of artificial life and computer graphics. A software alternative to the prevailing hardware vision mindset, animat vision prescribes artificial animals, or animats, situated in physics-based virtual worlds as autonomous virtual robots possessing active perception systems. To be opera- tive in

Demetri Terzopoulos; Tamer F. Rabie

369

Vision care: a compensation cornerstone.  

PubMed

Vision care is a benefit that provides advantages for both employers and employees, and it has become an essential element of most competitive benefit packages. Well-designed vision care programs offer participants choice, options, self-help and value. An option that employers may want to consider is reduced prices on laser vision correction procedures. PMID:11272517

Steere, R W

2001-03-01

370

Vision in water.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to determine visual performance in water, including the influence of pupil size. The water environment was simulated by placing goggles filled with saline in front of the eyes with apertures placed at the front of the goggles. Correction factors were determined for the different magnification under this condition in order to estimate vision in water. Experiments were conducted on letter visual acuity (seven participants), grating resolution (eight participants), and grating contrast sensitivity (one participant). For letter acuity, mean loss of vision in water, compared to corrected vision in air, varied between 1.1 log min of arc resolution (logMAR) for a 1 mm aperture to 2.2 logMAR for a 7 mm aperture. The vision in min of arc was described well by a linear relationship with pupil size. For grating acuity, mean loss varied between 1.1 logMAR for a 2 mm aperture to 1.2 logMAR for a 6 mm aperture. Contrast sensitivity for a 2 mm aperture deteriorated as spatial frequency increased with a 2 log unit loss by 3 c/°. Superimposed on this deterioration were depressions (notches) in sensitivity with the first three notches occurring at 0.45, 0.8, and 1.3 c/° with estimates for water of 0.39, 0.70, and 1.13 c/°. In conclusion, vision in water is poor. It becomes worse as pupil size increases, but the effects are much more marked for letter targets than for grating targets. PMID:24013866

Atchison, David A; Valentine, Emma L; Gibson, Georgina; Thomas, Hannah R; Oh, Sera; Pyo, Young Ah; Lacherez, Philippe; Mathur, Ankit

2013-09-06

371

Evolution of ultraviolet vision in the largest avian radiation - the passerines  

PubMed Central

Background Interspecific variation in avian colour vision falls into two discrete classes: violet sensitive (VS) and ultraviolet sensitive (UVS). They are characterised by the spectral sensitivity of the most shortwave sensitive of the four single cones, the SWS1, which is seemingly under direct control of as little as one amino acid substitution in the cone opsin protein. Changes in spectral sensitivity of the SWS1 are ecologically important, as they affect the abilities of birds to accurately assess potential mates, find food and minimise visibility of social signals to predators. Still, available data have indicated that shifts between classes are rare, with only four to five independent acquisitions of UV sensitivity in avian evolution. Results We have classified a large sample of passeriform species as VS or UVS from genomic DNA and mapped the evolution of this character on a passerine phylogeny inferred from published molecular sequence data. Sequencing a small gene fragment has allowed us to trace the trait changing from one stable state to another through the radiation of the passeriform birds. Their ancestor is hypothesised to be UVS. In the subsequent radiation, colour vision changed between UVS and VS at least eight times. Conclusions The phylogenetic distribution of SWS1 cone opsin types in Passeriformes reveals a much higher degree of complexity in avian colour vision evolution than what was previously indicated from the limited data available. Clades with variation in the colour vision system are nested among clades with a seemingly stable VS or UVS state, providing a rare opportunity to understand how an ecologically important trait under simple genetic control may co-evolve with, and be stabilised by, associated traits in a character complex.

2011-01-01

372

Blue colour preference in honeybees distracts visual attention for learning closed shapes.  

PubMed

Spatial vision is an important cue for how honeybees (Apis mellifera) find flowers, and previous work has suggested that spatial learning in free-flying bees is exclusively mediated by achromatic input to the green photoreceptor channel. However, some data suggested that bees may be able to use alternative channels for shape processing, and recent work shows conditioning type and training length can significantly influence bee learning and cue use. We thus tested the honeybees' ability to discriminate between two closed shapes considering either absolute or differential conditioning, and using eight stimuli differing in their spectral characteristics. Consistent with previous work, green contrast enabled reliable shape learning for both types of conditioning, but surprisingly, we found that bees trained with appetitive-aversive differential conditioning could additionally use colour and/or UV contrast to enable shape discrimination. Interestingly, we found that a high blue contrast initially interferes with bee shape learning, probably due to the bees innate preference for blue colours, but with increasing experience bees can learn a variety of spectral and/or colour cues to facilitate spatial learning. Thus, the relationship between bee pollinators and the spatial and spectral cues that they use to find rewarding flowers appears to be a more rich visual environment than previously thought. PMID:23918312

Morawetz, Linde; Svoboda, Alexander; Spaethe, Johannes; Dyer, Adrian G

2013-08-06

373

Loss of Central Vision and Audiovisual Speech Perception  

PubMed Central

Communication impairments pose a major threat to an individual's quality of life. However, the impact of visual impairments on communication is not well understood, despite the important role that vision plays in the perception of speech. Here we present 2 experiments examining the impact of discrete central scotomas on speech perception. In the first experiment, 4 patients with central vision loss due to unilateral macular holes identified utterances with conflicting auditory-visual information, while simultaneously having their eye movements recorded. Each eye was tested individually. Three participants showed similar speech perception with both the impaired eye and the unaffected eye. For 1 participant, speech perception was disrupted by the scotoma because the participant did not shift gaze to avoid obscuring the talker's mouth with the scotoma. In the second experiment, 12 undergraduate students with gaze-contingent artificial scotomas (10 visual degrees in diameter) identified sentences in background noise. These larger scotomas disrupted speech perception, but some participants overcame this by adopting a gaze strategy whereby they shifted gaze to prevent obscuring important regions of the face such as the mouth. Participants who did not spontaneously adopt an adaptive gaze strategy did not learn to do so over the course of 5 days; however, participants who began with adaptive gaze strategies became more consistent in their gaze location. These findings confirm that peripheral vision is sufficient for perception of most visual information in speech, and suggest that training in gaze strategy may be worthwhile for individuals with communication deficits due to visual impairments.

Wilson, Amanda; Wilson, Adam; ten Hove, Martin W.; Pare, Martin; Munhall, Kevin G.

2009-01-01

374

A Three-Phase Qualitative Study of Dual-Certified Vision Education Professionals in the Southwestern United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this qualitative study was to develop a comprehensive understanding of the roles and responsibilities of vision education professionals who are dual-certified as teachers of students with visual impairments and orientation and mobility specialists. Through three phases, the study combined interviews and observations of the vision

Griffin-Shirley, Nora; Pogrund, Rona L.; Smith, Derrick W.; Duemer, Lee

2009-01-01

375

Floral colour versus phylogeny in structuring subalpine flowering communities  

PubMed Central

The relative number of seeds produced by competing species can influence the community structure; yet, traits that influence seed production, such as pollinator attraction and floral colour, have received little attention in community ecology. Here, we analyse floral colour using reflectance spectra that include near-UV and examined the phylogenetic signal of floral colour. We found that coflowering species within communities tended to be more divergent in floral colour than expected by chance. However, coflowering species were not phylogenetically dispersed, in part due to our finding that floral colour is a labile trait with a weak phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, while we found that locally rare and common species exhibited equivalent floral colour distances from their coflowering neighbours, frequent species (those found in more communities) exhibited higher colour distances from their coflowering neighbours. Our findings support recent studies, which have found that (i) plant lineages exhibit frequent floral colour transitions; and (ii) traits that influence local population dynamics contribute to community structure.

McEwen, Jamie R.; Vamosi, Jana C.

2010-01-01

376

The dark side of galaxy colour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present age distribution matching, a theoretical formalism for predicting how galaxies of luminosity L and colour C occupy dark matter haloes. Our model supposes that there are just two fundamental properties of a halo that determine the colour and brightness of the galaxy it hosts: the maximum circular velocity Vmax and the redshift zstarve that correlates with the epoch at which the star formation in the galaxy ceases. The halo property zstarve is intended to encompass physical characteristics of halo mass assembly that may deprive the galaxy of its cold gas supply and, ultimately, quench its star formation. The new, defining feature of the model is that, at fixed luminosity, galaxy colour is in monotonic correspondence with zstarve, with the larger values of zstarve being assigned redder colours. We populate an N-body simulation with a mock galaxy catalogue based on age distribution matching and show that the resulting mock galaxy distribution accurately describes a variety of galaxy statistics. Our model suggests that halo and galaxy assembly are indeed correlated. We make publicly available our low-redshift, Sloan Digital Sky Survey Mr < -19 mock galaxy catalogue, and main progenitor histories of all z = 0 haloes, at http://logrus.uchicago.edu/~aphearin

Hearin, Andrew P.; Watson, Douglas F.

2013-10-01

377

Eight-Fold Way to Colour Geometrodynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Colour models of strong interactions are generalized to a GL(8,C)sup(f) x GL(8,C)sup(c) gauge theory incorporating space-time curvature and Cartan's torsion. Following Salam, the dynamics is determined by an Einstein-Dirac-type Lagrangian. The resulting f...

E. W. Mielke

1980-01-01

378

Flesh colour dominates consumer preference for chicken  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing research investigating interactions between visual and oral sensory cues has tended to use model food systems. In contrast, this study compared product quality assessments of corn-fed and wheat-fed chicken products among persons recruited in Northern Ireland. Three approaches have been adopted to investigate the effect of colour upon consumer choice of chicken: sensory assessment under normal lighting; focus group

Orla B. Kennedy; Barbara J. Stewart-Knox; Peter C. Mitchell; David I. Thurnham

2005-01-01

379

Reflections on colourful ommatidia of butterfly eyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eye shine of butterflies from a large number of ommatidia was observed with a modified epi-illumination apparatus equipped with an objective lens of large numerical aperture. A few representative cases are presented: the satyrine Bicyclus anynana, the heliconian Heliconius melpomene, the small white Pieris rapae and the small copper Lycaena phlaeas. The colour of the eye shine is determined

Doekele G. Stavenga

2002-01-01

380

Demonstration of the Colour Range of Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the construction of a box that is filled with indicator of a particular concentration. A little acid is added to one side and a little alkali to the other so that the complete colour range of the indicator is observable. (GS)|

Woods, G. T.

1975-01-01

381

How feather colour reflects its carotenoid content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Many birds sequester carotenoid pigments in colourful patches of feathers to advertise or compete for mates. Because carotenoids can be scarce in nature and serve valuable physiological functions, only the highest-quality individuals are thought to acquire or allocate more pigments for use in sexual displays. 2. A critical but rarely tested assumption of carotenoid-based signals is that the

Lauri Saks; Kevin McGraw; Peeter Horak

2003-01-01

382

Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation compensation may preserve vision in patients with OPA1-linked autosomal dominant optic atrophy.  

PubMed

Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy (ADOA) is the most common inherited optic atrophy where vision impairment results from specific loss of retinal ganglion cells of the optic nerve. Around 60% of ADOA cases are linked to mutations in the OPA1 gene. OPA1 is a fission-fusion protein involved in mitochondrial inner membrane remodelling. ADOA presents with marked variation in clinical phenotype and varying degrees of vision loss, even among siblings carrying identical mutations in OPA1. To determine whether the degree of vision loss is associated with the level of mitochondrial impairment, we examined mitochondrial function in lymphoblast cell lines obtained from six large Australian OPA1-linked ADOA pedigrees. Comparing patients with severe vision loss (visual acuity [VA]<6/36) and patients with relatively preserved vision (VA>6/9) a clear defect in mitochondrial ATP synthesis and reduced respiration rates were observed in patients with poor vision. In addition, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymology in ADOA patients with normal vision revealed increased complex II+III activity and levels of complex IV protein. These data suggest that OPA1 deficiency impairs OXPHOS efficiency, but compensation through increases in the distal complexes of the respiratory chain may preserve mitochondrial ATP production in patients who maintain normal vision. Identification of genetic variants that enable this response may provide novel therapeutic insights into OXPHOS compensation for preventing vision loss in optic neuropathies. PMID:21731710

Van Bergen, Nicole J; Crowston, Jonathan G; Kearns, Lisa S; Staffieri, Sandra E; Hewitt, Alex W; Cohn, Amy C; Mackey, David A; Trounce, Ian A

2011-06-22

383

Tooth root colour as a measure of chronological age.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess a possible colour shift in the root surfaces of adult human teeth and if so, whether this colour change is related to chronological age. Teeth extracted from persons of known age and gender were obtained from Ontario dental practitioners and grouped into five-year age ranges. Three experiments were undertaken: (1) to identify a possible difference in yellow colouration between the four surfaces of tooth roots (mesial, distal, lingual, and buccal), (2) to investigate the difference in yellow colouration of tooth roots between non-molar teeth and molar teeth and (3) to assess the correlation between the age of teeth and root colour saturation for yellow, magenta, cyan and black. The teeth in all investigations were scanned by a flat-bed digital colour scanner with a Kodak colour scale control and viewed on a colour computer monitor. In the first two experiments the yellow colour saturation of the root surfaces was measured at six points on each root using Photoshop 5.0 software. A significant difference was observed in the percentage yellow colour saturation between the mesial and the other three anatomical surfaces (p < 0.01), and between the root surfaces of non-molar and molar teeth (p < 0.01) (ANOVA with Bonferroni post-test). The authors then randomly assigned tooth surfaces to select an equivalent number of posterior and anterior teeth in the study, assessing the relationship between age and root colouration. Four points of colour measurement on 40 teeth (sample size permitting, see Table 1) for each known age and gender were assessed for colour saturation (cyan, magenta, yellow and black). The correlation of chronological age to colour saturation was linear for all colours, with correlation coefficients ranging from r = 0.81 to r = 0.94. The high correlation values strongly support the conclusion that chronological age is related to increased root colouration. PMID:11324269

Lackovic, K P; Wood, R E

2000-12-01

384

The cause of 50 million-year-old colour.  

PubMed Central

Multilayer reflectors cause structural, 'metallic' colours in a diversity of animals today, yet are unknown in extinct species. We identify a multilayer reflector, causing structural colour, in a 50-million-year-old beetle from Messel, Germany. It is proposed that the original material of this reflector has been preserved, although this is not a precondition for determining original colours from ancient multilayer reflectors. Therefore, the potential exists to reveal the original colours of other (particularly arthropod) extinct species.

Parker, Andrew R; McKenzie, David R

2003-01-01

385

What weta want: colour preferences of a frugivorous insect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants use colours as signals to attract mutualists and repel antagonists. Fleshy-fruits are often conspicuously coloured\\u000a to signal different types of information including fruit maturity and spatial location. Previous work on fruit colour selection\\u000a focus on large diurnal vertebrates, yet fruit colours are perceived differently by frugivores with different types of visual\\u000a systems. Here, we tested whether a nocturnal, frugivorous,

Nik Fadzly; K. C. Burns

2010-01-01

386

Modelling X-ray colour-colour changes in Z sources.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the X-ray colour-colour variations of Z sources. We use a Monte Carlo code to model the scattering of radiation emitted from the hot central corona (HCC) as it passes through a (non-uniform) radially accreting region. We find that the horizontal branch of the Z track of Cyg X-2 can be produced by changes in the radial accretion structure with increasing mass transfer rate. The normal branch however, requires changes in the spectrum emerging from the HCC. The effect of the non-uniform bulk motion of the plasma is shown to be important in determining both the position of the Z track in colour-colour space, and also the extent and orientation of the horizontal branch.

Litchfield, S. J.; Kylafis, N. D.

1996-10-01

387

Advanced night vision goggles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Night Vision Goggle (ANVG) program is developing integrated wide field of view (WFOV) helmet-mounted image intensifier night vision goggle systems. ANVG will provide a FOV of approximately 40° (vertical) × 100° (horizontal) and an integrated heads-up display for overlay of flight symbology and/or FLIR imagery. The added FLIR complements the I2 imagery in out of the window or ground applications. ANVG will significantly improve safety, situational awareness, and mission capabilities in differing environments. ANVG achieves the ultra wide FOV using four image intensifier tubes in a head-mounted configuration. Additional features include a miniature flat panel display and a lightweight uncooled FLIR. The integrated design will demonstrate the capability of helmet-mounted I2 and FLIR image fusion. Fusion will be accomplished optically and will offer significant opportunities for ground applications. This paper summarizes the basic technologies, lessons learned, and program status.

Thacker, Clinton

2003-02-01

388

Coloured Filters Enhance the Visual Perception of Social Cues in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Coloured filters have been found to reduce visual distortion of text in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We investigated the effect of the overlays on the “mind in the eye” task in children with ASD and controls matched for age, gender, and nonverbal IQ. Children were shown photographs of the periocular region of various faces and were asked to judge which emotion was being expressed in the eyes. In children with ASD, the perception of the emotion was significantly improved when the photograph was covered by a coloured overlay. The improvement was significantly greater than in the controls, who showed no significant effect of the overlay. A perceptual impairment may contribute to the social difficulties shown in ASD.

Ludlow, Amanda K.; Taylor-Whiffen, Elaine; Wilkins, Arnold J.

2012-01-01

389

Perception of colour in unilateral tritanopia.  

PubMed Central

The unilateral tritanope described in the previous paper (Alpern, Kitahara & Krantz, 1983) was able to match every narrow-band light presented to his tritanopic eye with lights from a tristimulus colorimeter viewed in the adjacent field by the normal eye. In two regions of the spectrum (called isochromes) physically identical lights appeared identical to the observer's two eyes. One isochrome was close to 'blue' for the normal eye, the other was in the long-wave spectral region seen by the normal eye predominantly as 'red'. Between these isochromes the normal eye required less than spectral purity to match, dropping to near zero purity at 560-570 nm. A mixture of the two isochromes that appeared purple to the normal eye appeared neutral to the tritanopic eye. Hence dichoptic matches grossly violate Grassmann's additivity law. For the normal eye colour naming conformed to typical normal results. For the tritanopic eye the results were coherent with those found by dichoptic matching: the spectrum was divided into two regions by the achromatic neutral band. To the short-wave side, only the colour names 'blue' and 'white' were ever used. To the long-wave side the predominant colour names were 'red' and 'white' with some 'yellow'. Spectral lights appeared neither 'red-blue' nor greenish. Surrounding the test with an annulus either 430 nm, 650 nm, or a mixture of these, fails to induce any greenish appearance, although the achromatic band shifted in the expected directions. It is concluded that there must be exactly three functionally independent, essentially non-linear central codes for colour perception, and that these codes are different from those suggested in existing theories of colour perception.

Alpern, M; Kitahara, K; Krantz, D H

1983-01-01

390

The representation of colours in the cerebral cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

New insights into how colour is represented in the cerebral cortex and what variables govern the responses of single cortical colour-coded cells have been gained by the discovery of specific visual cortical areas rich in colour-coded cells.

S. Zeki

1980-01-01

391

A theory of selection for gamut mapping colour constancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamut mapping colour constancy attempts to determine the set of diagonal matrices taking the gamut of image colours under an unknown illuminant into the gamut of colours observed under a standard illuminant. Forsyth (1990) developed such an algorithm in rgb sensor space which Finlayson (1996) later modified to work in a 2-d chromaticity space. In this paper we prove that

G. Finlayson; S. Hordley

1998-01-01

392

A Combined Physical and Statistical Approach to Colour Constancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational colour constancy tries to recover the colour of the scene illuminant of an image. Colour constancy algorithms can, in general, be divided into two groups: statistics-based approaches that exploit statistical knowledge of common lights and surfaces, and physics-based algorithms which are based on an understanding of how physical processes such as highlights manifest themselves in images. A combined physical

Gerald Schaefer; Steven D. Hordley; Graham D. Finlayson

2005-01-01

393

An Interaction of Screen Colour and Lesson Task in CAL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Colour is a common feature in computer-aided learning (CAL), though the instructional effects of screen colour are not well understood. This investigation considers the effects of different CAL study tasks with feedback on posttest performance and on posttest memory of the lesson colour scheme. Graduate students (n=68) completed a computer-based…

Clariana, Roy B.

2004-01-01

394

Towards more adequate colour histograms for in-body images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is a growing number of scientific papers describing classification of in-body images, most of it is based on traditional colour histograms. In this paper we explain why these might not be the most adequate visual features for in-body image classification. Based on a colour dynamic range maximization criterion, we propose a methodology for creating more adequate colour histograms,

A. Sousa; M. Dinis-Ribeiro; M. Areia; M. Correia; M. Coimbra

2008-01-01

395

A Subset Expansion of the Coloured Tutte Polynomial  

Microsoft Academic Search

as and Riordan introduce a Tutte polynomial for coloured graphs and matroids in (3). We observe that this polynomial has an expansion as a sum indexed by the subsets of the ground-set of a coloured matroid, generalizing the subset expansion of the Tutte polynomial. We also discuss similar expansions of other contraction-deletion invariants of graphs and matroids. 1. The coloured

LORENZO T RALDI

2004-01-01

396

Enhancing the low quality images using Unsupervised Colour Correction Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater images are affected by reduced contrast and non-uniform colour cast due to the absorption and scattering of light in the aquatic environment. This affects the quality and reliability of image processing and therefore colour correction is a necessary pre-processing stage. In this paper, we propose an Unsupervised Colour Correction Method (UCM) for underwater image enhancement. UCM is based on

Kashif Iqbal; Michael Odetayo; Anne E. James; Rosalina Abdul Salam; Abdullah Zawawi Talib

2010-01-01

397

Treatment of paper coating colour effluents by membrane filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilute coating colour effluents are created during the coating of paper and board. After treating the colour effluents with ultrafiltration, the retentate can be reused as coating colour and the permeate can replace fresh water. At the same time, the load on the external treatment plant is reduced. In this investigation, pilot-plant experiments were performed at a paper mill. A

A.-S. Jönsson; C. Jönsson; M. Teppler; P. Tomani; S. Wännström

1996-01-01

398

Colour histogram analysis for melanoma discrimination in clinical images  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer, has a good prognosis if treated in the curable early stages. Colour provides critical discriminating information for the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Methods This research introduces a three-dimensional relative colour histogram analysis technique to identify colours characteristic of melanomas and then applies these ‘melanoma colours’ to differentiate benign skin lesions from melanomas. The relative colour of a skin lesion is determined based on subtracting a representative colour of the surrounding skin from each lesion pixel. Acolour mapping for ‘melanoma colours’ is determined using a training set of images. Apercent melanoma colour feature, defined as the percentage of the lesion pixels that are melanoma colours, is used for discriminating melanomas from benign lesions. The technique is evaluated using a clinical image data set of 129 malignant melanomas and 129 benign lesions consisting of 40 seborrheic keratoses and 89 nevocellular nevi. Results Using the percent melanoma colour feature for discrimination, experimental results yield correct melanoma and benign lesion discrimination rates of 84.3 and 83.0%, respectively. Conclusions The results presented in this work suggest that lesion colour in clinical images is strongly related to the presence of melanoma in that lesion. However, colour information should be combined with other information in order to further reduce the false negative and false positive rates.

Faziloglu, Yunus; Stanley, R. Joe; Moss, Randy H.; Van Stoecker, William; McLean, Rob P.

2011-01-01

399

Screening and specification of colour changes of nitritometric indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specification of colour changes of nitritometric indicators, viz., cresyl fast violet acetate, amethyst violet, safranine O, neutral red, methylene violet, neutral violet, phenosafranine, brilliant cresyl blue and lissamine blue BF, in the titration of sulphanilamide has been carried out with the help of tristimulus colorimetry. Apart from the determination of true colour co-ordinates and complementary colour co-ordinates, the quantitative

Chilukuri S. P. Sastry; Kommula R. Srinivas; Dasari Narasimha Rao; Kommuri M. M. Krishna Prasad

1995-01-01

400

A new method for colour measurements in graphic arts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for colour measurements directly on printed half-tone multicoloured pictures. The paper introduces the concept of colour impression. By this concept we mean the CMY or CMYK vector (colour vector), which lives in the three- or four-dimensional space of printing inks. Two factors contribute to values of the vector components, namely, the percentage of the area

A. Verikas; K. Malmqvist; L. Malmqvist; L. Bergman

1999-01-01

401

Equating the perceived intensity of coloured lights to hens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Previous investigations of the effects of light colour on the productivity or behaviour of chickens have not equated the intensity of the different coloured lights.2. Ten pullets (Warren Studler 128) were used to determine the perceived intensity of two colours at opposite ends of the visible spectrum (blue, peak wavelength 415 nm and red, peak wavelength 635 nm).3. Initially

D. S. Prayitno; C. J. C. Phillips

1997-01-01

402

Induction operators for a computational colour-texture representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to outline a perceptual approach to a computational colour-texture representation based on some colour induction phenomena. The extension of classical grey level methods for texture processing to the RGB channels of the corresponding colour texture is not the best solution to simulate human perception. Chromatic induction mechanisms of the human visual system, that has

Maria Vanrell; Ramón Baldrich; Anna Salvatella; Robert Benavente; Francesc Tous

2004-01-01

403

"We Are Multiculturalism": A Self-Study of Faculty of Colour with Pre-Service Teachers of Colour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports a self-study of three faculty of colour engaged in teaching a special summer session geared to recruiting people of colour to teaching. Given our past experiences in institutions of higher education, we recognised the unique situation and potential of faculty of colour teaching a class made up almost exclusively of students of…

Prado-Olmos, Patricia; Rios, Francisco; Castaneda, Lillian Vega

2007-01-01

404

Visual impairment, visual functioning, and quality of life assessments in patients with glaucoma.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To determine the relation between visual impairment, visual functioning, and the global quality of life in patients with glaucoma. METHODS: Visual impairment, defined with the American Medical Association Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment; visual functioning, measured with the VF-14 and the Field Test Version of the National Eye Institute-Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ); and the global quality of life, assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), were determined in 147 consecutive patients with glaucoma. RESULTS: None of the SF-36 domains demonstrated more than a weak correlation with visual impairment. The VF-14 scores were moderately correlated with visual impairment. Of the twelve NEI-VFQ scales, distance activities and vision specific dependency were moderately correlated with visual impairment. Of the twelve NEI-VFQ scales, distance activities and vision specific dependency were moderately correlated with visual field impairment; vision specific social functioning, near activities, vision specific role difficulties, general vision, vision specific mental health, color vision, and driving were modestly correlated; visual pain was weakly correlated; and two were not significantly correlated. Correcting for visual actuity weakened the strength of the correlation coefficients. CONCLUSIONS: The SF-36 is unlikely to be useful in determining visual impairment in patients with glaucoma. Based on the moderate correlation between visual field impairment and the VF-14 score, this questionnaire may be generalizable to patients with glaucoma. Several of the NEI-VFQ scales correlate with visual field impairment scores in patients with a wide range of glaucomatous damage.

Parrish, R K

1996-01-01

405

Genetic analyses of the human eye colours using a novel objective method for eye colour classification.  

PubMed

In this study, we present a new objective method for measuring the eye colour on a continuous scale that allows researchers to associate genetic markers with different shades of eye colour. With the use of the custom designed software Digital Iris Analysis Tool (DIAT), the iris was automatically identified and extracted from high resolution digital images. DIAT was made user friendly with a graphical user interface. The software counted the number of blue and brown pixels in the iris image and calculated a Pixel Index of the Eye (PIE-score) that described the eye colour quantitatively. The PIE-score ranged from -1 to 1 (brown to blue). The software eliminated the need for user based interpretation and qualitative eye colour categories. In 94% (570) of 605 analyzed eye images, the iris region was successfully extracted and a PIE-score was calculated. A very high correlation between the PIE-score and the human perception of eye colour was observed. The correlations between the PIE-scores and the six IrisPlex SNPs (HERC2 rs12913832, OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399, TYR rs1393350, SLC45A2 rs16891982 and IRF4 rs12203592) were analyzed in 570 individuals. Significant differences (p<10(-6)) in the PIE-scores of the individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G (PIE=0.99) and rs12913832 GA (PIE=-0.71) or A (PIE=-0.87) were observed. We adjusted for the effect of HERC2 rs12913832 and showed that the quantitative PIE-scores were significantly associated with SNPs with minor effects (OCA2 rs1800407, SLC24A4 rs12896399 and TYR rs1393350) on the eye colour. We evaluated the two published prediction models for eye colour (IrisPlex [1] and Snipper[2]) and compared the predictions with the PIE-scores. We found good concordance with the prediction from individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 G. However, both methods had difficulties in categorizing individuals typed as HERC2 rs12913832 GA because of the large variation in eye colour in HERC2 rs12913832 GA individuals. With the use of the DIAT software and the PIE-score, it will be possible to automatically compare the iris colour of large numbers of iris images obtained by different studies and to perform large meta-studies that may reveal loci with small effects on the eye colour. PMID:23948321

Andersen, Jeppe D; Johansen, Peter; Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R; Delgado, Mikaela C; Henriksen, Sarah T; Nielsen, Mette M; Sørensen, Erik; Ullum, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas; Dahl, Anders L; Paulsen, Rasmus R; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

2013-06-28

406

Adjustable typography: an approach to enhancing low vision text accessibility.  

PubMed

Millions of people have low vision, a disability condition caused by uncorrectable or partially correctable disorders of the eye. The primary goal of low vision rehabilitation is increasing access to printed material. This paper describes how adjustable typography, a computer graphic approach to enhancing text accessibility, can play a role in this process, by allowing visually-impaired users to customize fonts to maximize legibility according to their own visual needs. Prototype software and initial testing of the concept is described. The results show that visually-impaired users tend to produce a variety of very distinct fonts, and that the adjustment process results in greatly enhanced legibility. But this initial testing has not yet demonstrated increases in legibility over and above the legibility of highly legible standard fonts such as Times New Roman. PMID:15204299

Arditi, Aries

2004-04-15

407

Is Green the Colour of Cash or Conviction? Colour Culture in China as Seen by Managers of Finnish MNCs: Report on a Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite anecdotes on differences in colour usage in, say, Europe and the Far-East, cultural colour conventions are not thoroughly comprehended. There is a lack of knowledge on how to use colours to support successful cross-cultural business communications, and even less understanding of why a particular colour or colour combination is interpreted in a specific way. The theoretical framework of this

Kirsi Mantua

408

Methods of Reading Information on Labels of Prescription Medications by Persons Who Are Visually Impaired  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of visual impairment (that is, blindness and low vision) is increasing in the United States, especially in persons aged 65 and older, with more than half of all people who are blind in this age demographic. It has been estimated that about 6.5 million Americans aged 55 and older report vision loss, and this number is expected to…

McMahon, John M.; Curtis, Amy

2009-01-01

409

Age and Visual Impairment Decrease Driving Performance as Measured on a Closed-Road Circuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the effects of visual impairment and age on driving were investigated and related to visual function. Participants were 139 licensed drivers (young, middle-aged, and older participants with normal vision, and older participants with ocular disease). Driving performance was assessed during the daytime on a closed-road driving circuit. Visual performance was assessed using a vision testing battery. Age

Joanne M. Wood

2002-01-01

410

Methods of Reading Information on Labels of Prescription Medications by Persons Who Are Visually Impaired  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The prevalence of visual impairment (that is, blindness and low vision) is increasing in the United States, especially in persons aged 65 and older, with more than half of all people who are blind in this age demographic. It has been estimated that about 6.5 million Americans aged 55 and older report vision loss, and this number is expected to…

McMahon, John M.; Curtis, Amy

2009-01-01

411

A versatile optoelectronic aid for low vision patients.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to describe a versatile optoelectronic aid for low vision rehabilitation based on reconfigurable hardware. This aid is easily adaptable to diverse pathologies (with different associated processing tasks) and to the progression of the visual impairment. This platform has a mobile configuration that uses a see-through head-mounted display (Nomad). We have implemented different types of vision enhancement on this versatile platform, and briefly summarize here their computational costs (in terms of hardware resource requirements). We have evaluated two representative capabilities of this aid (Augmented View and digital zoom) with measurements of visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and visual field. We have tested the Nomad head-mounted display and the Augmented View modality, in eight subjects with retinitis pigmentosa: the digital zoom was tested in six low vision subjects and nine normally-sighted subjects. We show that the Nomad display with Augmented View configuration does not impair the residual vision; and that there is an increase in visual acuity (VA) with the digital zoom configuration. The major advantage of this platform is that it can easily embed different image processing tasks and since it is based on a FPGA device, it can be specifically configured to tasks requiring real-time processing. PMID:19689551

Peláez-Coca, María Dolores; Vargas-Martín, Fernando; Mota, Sonia; Díaz, Javier; Ros-Vidal, Eduardo

2009-09-01

412

Peripheral vision benefits spatial learning by guiding eye movements.  

PubMed

The loss of peripheral vision impairs spatial learning and navigation. However, the mechanisms underlying these impairments remain poorly understood. One advantage of having peripheral vision is that objects in an environment are easily detected and readily foveated via eye movements. The present study examined this potential benefit of peripheral vision by investigating whether competent performance in spatial learning requires effective eye movements. In Experiment 1, participants learned room-sized spatial layouts with or without restriction on direct eye movements to objects. Eye movements were restricted by having participants view the objects through small apertures in front of their eyes. Results showed that impeding effective eye movements made subsequent retrieval of spatial memory slower and less accurate. The small apertures also occluded much of the environmental surroundings, but the importance of this kind of occlusion was ruled out in Experiment 2 by showing that participants exhibited intact learning of the same spatial layouts when luminescent objects were viewed in an otherwise dark room. Together, these findings suggest that one of the roles of peripheral vision in spatial learning is to guide eye movements, highlighting the importance of spatial information derived from eye movements for learning environmental layouts. PMID:22930007

Yamamoto, Naohide; Philbeck, John W

2013-01-01

413

Diagnosing synaesthesia with online colour pickers: maximising sensitivity and specificity.  

PubMed

The most commonly used method for formally assessing grapheme-colour synaesthesia (i.e., experiencing colours in response to letter and/or number stimuli) involves selecting colours from a large colour palette on several occasions and measuring consistency of the colours selected. However, the ability to diagnose synaesthesia using this method depends on several factors that have not been directly contrasted. These include the type of colour space used (e.g., RGB, HSV, CIELUV, CIELAB) and different measures of consistency (e.g., city block and Euclidean distance in colour space). This study aims to find the most reliable way of diagnosing grapheme-colour synaesthesia based on maximising sensitivity (i.e., ability of a test to identify true synaesthetes) and specificity (i.e., ability of a test to identify true non-synaesthetes). We show, applying ROC (receiver operating characteristics) to binary classification of a large sample of self-declared synaesthetes and non-synaesthetes, that the consistency criterion (i.e., cut-off value) for diagnosing synaesthesia is considerably higher than the current standard in the field. We also show that methods based on perceptual CIELUV and CIELAB colour models (rather than RGB and HSV colour representations) and Euclidean distances offer an even greater sensitivity and specificity than most currently used measures. Together, these findings offer improved heuristics for the behavioural assessment of grapheme-colour synaesthesia. PMID:23458658

Rothen, Nicolas; Seth, Anil K; Witzel, Christoph; Ward, Jamie

2013-03-01

414

Relationship between natural tooth shade and skin colour.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation of skin colour and tooth shade. One hundred and twenty six individuals aging between 18 to 25 years participated in this study. Colour of the maxillary central incisors was examined by VITA easy shade. Tooth shades were assigned to four ordinal values. Nivea Beauty Protect Foundation shade sample was used as a guide to assess facial skin colour Shin colours were also assigned to four ordinal values. Spearman test revealed that there was a significant relationship between tooth shade and skin colour Total co-relation factor was 51.6% (p <0 .01). Co-relation factors were 57% for women and 27% for men (p <0 .01). The highest tooth shade prevalence belonged to the second group and the highest skin colour prevalence was also in the second skin colour group. PMID:23888526

Nourbakhsh, M; Mousavinejad, N; Adli, A R; Harati, M

2013-06-01

415

Quantification of Japanese quail eggshell colour by image analysis.  

PubMed

The Japanese quail lays eggs with colourful and patterned shells which make the eggshell colour difficult to classify. In this study, the method of measuring colour of patchy eggs using image analyses and its power to discriminate among individual variation were established. Estimated repeatability for egg colour and proportion of patterned areas was high (>0.58), suggesting intermedíate or high heritability of eggshell colour characteristics. Three components have been identified as significant in discriminant function analysis. These three components explained 91.4% of the total variance in egg colour characteristics. In cluster analysis, 78.3% of the eggs that were collected from 15 females were correctly classified. This study indicates that eggshell colour characteristics can be reliably studied by image analyses and that this method can provide a unified character list for future examinations and interpretations of quail egg characteristics. PMID:19621137

Sezer, Metin; Tekelioglu, Oguz

2009-06-11

416

Basic mechanisms in pinniped vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pinnipeds are amphibious mammals. The amphibious lifestyle is challenging for all sensory systems including vision, and specific\\u000a adaptations of the eyes have evolved in response to the changed requirements concerning vision in two optically very different\\u000a media, water and air. The present review summarizes the information available on pinniped eyes with an emphasis on harbour\\u000a seal vision for which most

Frederike D. Hanke; Wolf Hanke; Christine Scholtyssek; Guido Dehnhardt

2009-01-01

417

Colour vision and speciation in Lake Victoria cichlids of the genus Pundamilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Victoria cichlids are one of the most speciose groups of vertebrates. Selection on colora- tion is likely playing an important role in their rapid speciation. To test the hypothesis that sensory biases could explain species differences in mating preferences and nuptial coloration, we studied seven populations of four closely related species of the genus Pundamilia that differ in visual

KAREN L. C ARLETON; JULIET W. L. P ARRY; JAMES K. B OWMAKER; DAVID M. H UNT; OLE SEEHAUSEN

2005-01-01

418

Teaching Math to Visually Impaired Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page has the following resources for math teachers of the visually impaired: teaching strategies, math education and Nemeth Code, tactile math graphics, abacus information, calculators, math tools, math resources, adaptive tools and technology for accessible mathematics, suggested adaptive tools and materials for low vision students in algebra and geometry, suggested adaptive tools and materials for Braille students in algebra and geometry, and adaptive tools and technology for accessible mathematics equipment.

Osterhaus, Susan

2007-02-07

419

Open source technologies for visually impaired people  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe two open source applications which we have experienced as very useful aids for the integration of people suffering\\u000a from visual impairments, from hypovision to actual blindness. The first application is based on speech synthesis and has been\\u000a experienced by disabled university students. The second experience is oriented to schoolchildren with low residual vision,\\u000a and it provides their educators

Patrizia Boccacci; Veronica Carrega; Gabriella Dodero

2007-01-01

420

Visioning: an important management tool.  

PubMed

Visioning is a powerful process that assists us in creating a picture of an ideal future. A vision is a dream, personally created, of how we would like our world to be. In sharing our visions we find common ground and a sense of connection. Today, in an unprecedented way, nurses at all levels are expected to exhibit leadership in setting direction for nursing practice. Assisting nurses to create and share their vision of the future is a mark of transformational leadership. It is an act of empowerment and an expression of caring. PMID:8008119

Tyrrell, R A

421

Ultrathin fiberscope for stereoscopic vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endoscope for stereoscopic vision is in great demand for medical field to diagnose and treat disease parts of patients more precisely. The authors are convinced that the silica-based imagefiber is suitable for making a thinner fiberscope for stereoscopic vision and have developed an ultrathin fiberscope with silica-based imagefibers for stereoscopic vision. The diameter of fiberscope is only 2 mm with two transmitting systems that consist of two imagefibers with 10000 pixels and lightguide for illumination and objective lenses. This fiberscope for stereoscopic vision can be used for the microsurgery, such as the laparoscopic surgery and the thoracoscopic surgery required for the thin diameter.

Kaneda, Keiji; Ohashi, T.; Tsumanuma, Takashi; Sanada, Kazuo

1993-09-01

422

Birth and evolution of visionics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of the U.S. Army's Night Vision Program at Fort Belvoir, VA was significantly influenced by the evolution and timely culmination of Visionics technology which was initiated by Mr. John Johnson. In the late 1950's, Visionics technology started with concern for Near Infrared (NIR) and Image Intensifier (II) Night Vision developments. It resulted in the Johnson Criteria which coupled system physical characteristics to visual performance by using resolution of line pairs across the minimum dimension of a target. This led to development of image evaluation procedures and standardized laboratory testing. Later the Visionics team addressed the Far Infrared (FIR) system performance and developed a series of FLIR Performance Models. The Visionic's Static Performance Model computer code was accepted and proliferated widely by the mid-70's. Visionics moved from static viewing to address the problems of search effectiveness. Then came more work on target signatures and the consideration of the effects of fog, rain, snow, artillery barrages, and realistic battlefield conditions on system performance in order to assure the utility of fielded equipments for all theaters of interest. The general use of the various Visionics models and methodology throughout Government and Industry is recognition of the contributions made by Mr. John Johnson and his Visionics staff.

Wiseman, Robert S.

1992-09-01

423

Two-Year Evolution of Perchloroethylene-lnduced Color-Vision Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progression of perchloroethylene-induced color-vision impairment was studied in 33 dry-cleaner workers at 12 establishments in Modena, Italy. In an initial survey, we evaluated exposure with personal passive samplers, and we assessed color vision with the Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel. Two years later, workers were reexamined. In 19 workers (subgroup A), exposure to perchloroethylene had increased (median of 1.7 ppm versus

Fabriziomaria Gobba; Elena Righi; Guglielmina Fantuzzi; Guerrino Predieri; Lucia Cavazzuti; Gabriella Aggazzotti

1998-01-01

424

Prevalence and causes of blindness and low vision in the Casteldaccia Eye Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a population-based survey performed on the middleaged and elderly population of Casteldaccia, Sicily, we found that the prevalence of blindness was 0.47% and the prevalence of low vision 1.22%. Unilateral blindness affected 2.81% of the population and unilateral low vision 4.12%. Visual impairment was much more frequently seen in subjects aged 70 years or more than in younger persons.

Francesco Ponte; Giuseppe Giuffre; Raimondo Giammanco

1994-01-01

425

Evolution of ultraviolet vision in shorebirds (Charadriiformes)  

PubMed Central

Diurnal birds belong to one of two classes of colour vision. These are distinguished by the maximum absorbance wavelengths of the SWS1 visual pigment sensitive to violet (VS) and ultraviolet (UVS). Shifts between the classes have been rare events during avian evolution. Gulls (Laridae) are the only shorebirds (Charadriiformes) previously reported to have the UVS type of opsin, but too few species have been sampled to infer that gulls are unique among shorebirds or that Laridae is monomorphic for this trait. We have sequenced the SWS1 opsin gene in a broader sample of species. We confirm that cysteine in the key amino acid position 90, characteristic of the UVS class, has been conserved throughout gull evolution but also that the terns Anous minutus, A. tenuirostris and Gygis alba, and the skimmer Rynchops niger carry this trait. Terns, excluding Anous and Gygis, share the VS conferring serine in position 90 with other shorebirds but it is translated from a codon more similar to that found in UVS shorebirds. The most parsimonious interpretation of these findings, based on a molecular gene tree, is a single VS to UVS shift and a subsequent reversal in one lineage.

Odeen, Anders; Hastad, Olle; Alstrom, Per

2010-01-01

426

Evolution of Vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of photoreception, giving rise to eye, offers a kaleidoscopic view on selection acting at both the organ and molecular levels. The molecular level is mainly considered in the lecture. The greatest progress to date has been made in relation to the opsin visual pigments. Opsins appeared before eyes did. Two- and three-dimensional organization for rhodopsin in the rod outer segment disk membrane, as well as molecular mechanisms of visual pigments spectral tuning, photoisomerization and also opsin as a G-protein coupled receptor are considered. Molecular mechanisms of visual pigments spectral tuning, namely switching of chromophore (physiological time scale) and amino acid changes in the chromophore site of opsin (evolutionary time scale) is considered in the lecture. Photoisomerization of rhodopsin chromophore, 11-cis retinal is the only photochemical reaction in vision. The reaction is extemely fast (less that 200 fs) and high efficient (. is 0.65). The rhodopsin photolysis and kinetics of the earlier products appearance, photo- and bathorhodopsin, is considered. It is known that light is not only a carrier of information, but also a risk factor of damage to the eye. This photobiological paradox of vision is mainly due to the nature of rhodopsin chromophore. Photooxidation is the base of the paradox. All factors present in the phototrceptor cells to initiate free-radical photooxidation: photosensitizers, oxygen and substrates of oxidation: lipids and proteins (opsin). That is why photoprotective system of the eye structures appeared in the course of evolution. Three lines of protective system to prevent light damage to the retina and retina pigment epithelium is known: permanent renewal of rod and cone outer segment, powerful antioxidant system and optical media as cut-off filters where the lens is a key component. The molecular mechanisms of light damage to the eye and photoprotective system of the eye is considered in the lecture. The molecular mechanisms of phototransduction in vertebrates eye is also briefly considered in the lecture. Evolution of vision is an enormous subject for thought and investigation. In the postgenomic era evolutionary molecular physiology as a whole and evolutionary molecular physiology of vision can be considered as a key approach for understanding how genome is working.

Ostrovsky, Mikhail

427

Goals with limited vision: A qualitative study of coping with vision-related goal interference in midlife  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate how middle-aged adults manage their goal pursuits in the face of visual disability. Design Cross-sectional qualitative study Setting Vision rehabilitation agency Subjects 216 middle-aged adults with visual impairment Methods Telephone interviews composed of structured and open-ended assessments of life goals and the strategies used to cope with vision-related goal interference. Results Individuals reported strategies that reflected the broader domains found in prior research with older adults: Internal Resource Use, New Approach Use, Technology Use, Help Use, and Psychological Self-regulation. The most frequently reported strategy was Help Use (N = 192), followed by New Approach Use (N = 166), Internal Resource Use (N = 162), Technology Use (N = 159) and Psychological Self-regulation (N = 130). Across domains, the most frequently reported strategies were Instrumental Informal Help, Instrumental Formal Help, Optical Aids, and Invest Effort. Specific strategy domains emerged as more typical in response to interference with particular types of goals; for example, Help Use was reported by a majority for interference with functional and psychological goals, but only by half for interference with social goals. Conclusions Study findings revealed a rich array of strategies used by middle-aged adults with vision impairment in their daily lives to deal with vision-related goal interference. Results suggest that rehabilitation services should consider multiple methods of coping and their goal-related function when working with middle-aged adults with disabilities.

Boerner, Kathrin; Wang, Shu-wen

2011-01-01

428

The dark colour of black cotton soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Black cotton soil from Indore (Madhya Pradesh) which is predominantly composed of montmorillonite contained 0·45% organic\\u000a matter. A sensible reduction of the organic content by any method was invariably followed by a corresponding reduction in\\u000a its dark colour. Treatment with 10% sodium hexametaphosphate at boiling point or with H2O2 at 80° C. or the dichromate were effective in removing the

V. S. Ramachandran; F. U. Ahmad; L. C. Jain

1959-01-01

429

Background complexity affects colour preference in bumblebees.  

PubMed

Flowers adapted for hummingbird pollination are typically red. This correlation is usually explained by the assertion that nectar- or pollen-stealing bees are "blind" to red flowers. However, laboratory studies have shown that bees are capable of locating artificial red flowers and often show no innate preference for blue over red. We hypothesised that these findings might be artefacts of the simplified laboratory environment. Using bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) that had been trained to visit red and blue artificial flowers, we tested whether colour preference was influenced by complexity of the background on which they were foraging. Many bees were indifferent to flower colour when tested using a uniform green background like those commonly used in laboratory studies, but all bees showed strong colour preferences (usually for blue) when flowers were presented against a photograph of real foliage. Overall, preference for blue flowers was significantly greater on the more realistic, complex background. These results support the notion that the red of "hummingbird syndrome" flowers can function to reduce bee visits despite the ability of bees to detect red and highlight the need to consider context when drawing inferences about pollinator preferences from laboratory data. PMID:19444425

Forrest, Jessica; Thomson, James D

2009-05-15

430

Artist's colour rendering of HDR scenes in 3D Mondrian colour-constancy experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presentation provides an update on ongoing research using three-dimensional Colour Mondrians. Two still life arrangements comprising hand-painted coloured blocks of 11 different colours were subjected to two different lighting conditions of a nearly uniform light and directed spotlights. The three-dimensional nature of these test targets adds shadows and multiple reflections, not found in flat Mondrian targets. Working from exactly the same pair of scenes, an author painted them using watercolour inks and paints to recreate both LDR and HDR Mondrians on paper. This provided us with a second set of appearance measurements of both scenes. Here we measured appearances by measuring reflectances of the artist's rendering. Land's Colour Mondrian extended colour constancy from a pixel to a complex scene. Since it used a planar array in uniform illumination, it did not measure the appearances of real life 3-D scenes in non-uniform illumination. The experiments in this paper, by simultaneously studying LDR and HDR renditions of the same array of reflectances, extend Land's Mondrian towards real scenes in non-uniform illumination. The results show that the appearances of many areas in complex scenes do not correlate with reflectance.

Parraman, Carinna E.; McCann, John J.; Rizzi, Alessandro

2010-01-01

431

Automated human vision assessment using computer vision and artificial intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an automated system to assess human vision to identify early signs of vision disorders such as amblyopia (lazy eye), so that potential problems can be addressed as early as possible by having the system refer children to a specialist (pediatric ophthalmologist). The system does not require extensive operator training or patient cooperation. This paper explores the application

Jonathan Van Eenwyk; Arvin Agah; Gerhard W. Cibis

2008-01-01

432

Preschool vision screening.  

PubMed

Although a good case for preschool screening for vision defects can be made there is very little evidence that existing programmes are effective in practice. A comparative trial of three different methods of preschool vision screening is described. Some 7000 children initially aged 5 months (younger cohorts) and 30 months (older cohorts) in three matched areas entered the trial during 1987. During 18 months of follow up new visual and ocular defects among these children were ascertained through ophthalmology outpatients and from optician records. Screening at 35 months by an orthoptist based in the community is superior to conventional health visitor surveillance at 30 months and to an agreed programme of primary care screening for squint at 30-36 months as judged by screening sensitivity (100% v 50% v 50%) and the incidence of treated target conditions (17 v 3 v 5 per 1000 person years). A notable feature in the area served by the orthoptist is that 13 children received treatment for straight eyed visual acuity loss from among 1000 children whereas there were no such cases among 2500 in the comparison areas. In the younger cohorts (that is, screening at age 5-9 months) all three programmes showed equally poor results, only one of the eight treated target conditions arising from all 3500 younger children being screen detected. PMID:2025002

Jarvis, S N; Tamhne, R C; Thompson, L; Francis, P M; Anderson, J; Colver, A F

1991-03-01

433

2020 Vision Project Summary  

SciTech Connect

Since the 2020 Vision project began in 1996, students from participating schools have completed and submitted a variety of scenarios describing potential world and regional conditions in the year 2020 and their possible effect on US national security. This report summarizes the students' views and describes trends observed over the course of the 2020 Vision project's five years. It also highlights the main organizational features of the project. An analysis of thematic trends among the scenarios showed interesting shifts in students' thinking, particularly in their views of computer technology, US relations with China, and globalization. In 1996, most students perceived computer technology as highly beneficial to society, but as the year 2000 approached, this technology was viewed with fear and suspicion, even personified as a malicious, uncontrollable being. Yet, after New Year's passed with little disruption, students generally again perceived computer technology as beneficial. Also in 1996, students tended to see US relations with China as potentially positive, with economic interaction proving favorable to both countries. By 2000, this view had transformed into a perception of China emerging as the US' main rival and ''enemy'' in the global geopolitical realm. Regarding globalization, students in the first two years of the project tended to perceive world events as dependent on US action. However, by the end of the project, they saw the US as having little control over world events and therefore, we Americans would need to cooperate and compromise with other nations in order to maintain our own well-being.

Gordon, K.W.; Scott, K.P.

2000-11-01

434

Research in Information Science & Technology: Machine Vision.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Machine Vision is fast becoming a key technology, and advances in machine vision are occurring along several fronts. This report outlines the progress being made at Columbia University in developing new machine vision algorithms and applications, and the ...

P. Allen J. Kender S. Nayar T. Boult

1998-01-01

435

Wavelet characteristics of early vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in wavelet theory are affording great opportunities for signal processing applications. Natural neuronal networks exhibit wavelet behavior from which structural and functional paradigms could be exploited for machine-vision applications. Provided here is a summary of the ways vertebrate vision systems naturally exhibit wavelet characteristics

Geoffrey Brooks; Eglin AFE

1997-01-01

436

Is Binocular Vision Always Monocular?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual sensitivity of one eye was determined under binocular stimulus conditions yielding apparent fusion, stereopsis, monocular dominance, and monocular suppression. Marked losses in sensitivity accompanied monocular suppression but were not evident during stable single vision. The results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that suppression alone mediates binocular single vision.

Randolph Blake; John Camisa

1978-01-01

437

Parallel Programming for Computer Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Unix environments developed for programming parallel computers to handle image-processing and vision applications are described. Visx is a portable environment for the development of vision applications that has been used for many years on serial computers in research. Visx was adapted to run on a multiprocessor with modest parallelism by using functional decomposition and standard operating-system capabilities to exploit

Anthony P. Reeves

1991-01-01

438

Computer vision and airport security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development are in progress in signal processing for explosive detection for airport security. The recent advancements in real-time computer vision, however, will provide possibilities of far more new and innovative ways to augment airport's human security force. For example, a computer vision system with real-time object tracking capability can monitor the behavior of large groups of people, computers

Takeo Kanade

1993-01-01

439

Putting the Vision into Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It's almost a year since the revolution--the "Learning Revolution," that is. This was the Government's long-term vision for the development of "informal adult learning", as laid out in the White Paper of March 2009. The vision was expansive, embracing informal learning in the workplace, promoting a "new" culture of involving the arts,…

Ravenhall, Mark

2010-01-01

440

Vision correction with excimer lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Excimer lasers were invented in 1975, and the first human eye treatment with VISX laser technology was in 1987. Since then many advances in LASIK surgery and related diagnostic and control techniques have led to improved vision correction with over 95% of patients corrected to 20\\/20 vision or better. This paper describes the development of excimer

D. V. Turnquist

2004-01-01

441

Putting the Vision into Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It's almost a year since the revolution--the "Learning Revolution," that is. This was the Government's long-term vision for the development of "informal adult learning", as laid out in the White Paper of March 2009. The vision was expansive, embracing informal learning in the workplace, promoting a "new" culture of involving the arts, broadcasting…

Ravenhall, Mark

2010-01-01

442

Sharpness Metric for Vision Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A vision metric, called the sharpness metric, indicates the subjective sharpness of a patient's vision by taking into account both the wavefront aberration and the retinal response to the image. A retinal image quality function such as the point spread fu...

D. R. Williams

2006-01-01

443

Inheritance of flower and pod colour in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inheritance of flower colour and pod colour in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) has followed a qualitative pattern. Purple\\u000a flower colour is dominant over white flower colour, whereas black pod colour is partially dominant over white pod colour.\\u000a A segregation ratio of 3 purple:1 white flowers in F2 generations of two crosses indicated that white flower colour is controlled by

R. S. Sangwan; G. P. Lodhi

1998-01-01

444

A universal ultraviolet-optical colour-colour-magnitude relation of galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bimodal galaxy distribution in the optical colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) comprises a narrow 'red sequence' populated mostly by early-type galaxies and a broad 'blue cloud' dominated by star-forming systems. Although the optical CMD allows one to select red sequence objects, neither can it be used for galaxy classification without additional observational data such as spectra or high-resolution images, nor to identify blue galaxies at unknown redshifts. We show that adding the near ultraviolet (NUV) colour [Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) NUV ?eff= 227 nm] to the optical (g - r versus Mr) CMD reveals a tight relation in the 3D colour-colour-magnitude space smoothly continuing from the 'blue cloud' to the 'red sequence'. We found that 98 per cent of 225 000 low-redshift (Z < 0.27) galaxies follow a smooth surface ? with a standard deviation of 0.03-0.07 mag making it the tightest known galaxy photometric relation, given the ˜0.9 mag range of k-corrected g - r colours. Similar relations exist in other NUV-optical colours. There is a strong correlation between morphological types and integrated ? colours of galaxies, while the connection with g - r is ambiguous. Rare galaxy classes such as E+A or tidally stripped systems become outliers that occupy distinct regions in the 3D parameter space. Using stellar population models for galaxies with different star formation histories, we show that (a) the (?) distribution at a given luminosity is formed by objects having constant and exponentially declining star formation rates with different characteristic time-scales with the red sequence part consistent also with simple stellar population; (b) colour evolution for exponentially declining models goes along the relation suggesting a weak evolution of its shape up to a redshift of 0.9; (c) galaxies with truncated star formation histories have very short transition phase offset from the relation thus explaining the rareness of E+A galaxies. This relation can be used as a powerful galaxy classification tool when morphology remains unresolved. Its mathematical consequence is the possibility of precise and simple redshift estimates from only three broad-band photometric points. We show that this simple approach being applied to Sloan Digital Sky Survey and GALEX data works better than most existing photometric redshift techniques applied to multicolour data sets. Therefore, the relation can be used as an efficient search technique for galaxies at intermediate redshifts (0.3 < Z < 0.8) using optical imaging surveys. Footnotes<label>1</label> <label>2</label> <label>3</label> <label>4</label></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chilingarian, Igor V.; Zolotukhin, Ivan Yu.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">445</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1312119"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vision</span> in albinism.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to study <span class="hlt">vision</span> in albinism from 3 perspectives: first, to determine the characteristics of grating acuity development in children with albinism; second, to study the effect of illumination on grating acuity; and third, to define the effect of melanin pigment in the macula on visual acuity. METHODS: I. Binocular and monocular grating acuity was measured with the acuity card procedure in 40 children with albinism during the first 3 years of life. Recognition acuity was eventually measured in 27 of these patients. Ocular pigment was documented by a previously established method of grading iris transillumination and macular transparency. II. Grating acuity under standard and increased illumination levels was measured in 20 adults with albinism (group I) compared with that in 20 adults with nystagmus due to conditions other than albinism (group II) and 20 adults without ocular abnormalities (group III). Recognition acuity measured with the ETDRS charts was also recorded for each group. III. Best-corrected binocular acuity was measured in 29 patients with albinism who were identified with melanin pigment in their maculas by direct ophthalmoscopy. RESULTS: I. Both binocular and monocular grating acuity was reduced 2 to 3 octaves below the norm for ages 6 months to 3 years. Limited data available in the first 6 months of life did not show failure of <span class="hlt">vision</span> to develop. Grating acuity measurements overestimated eventual recognition acuity. Mean recognition acuity was 20/111. A relationship between grating acuity development and presence or absence of ocular pigment was not found. II. Grating acuity was significantly better for groups I and II under the condition of increased illumination (P < .03). For patients with albinism, grating acuity under standard illumination was significantly better than recognition acuity (P < .001). For all groups, grating acuity under increased illumination was significantly better than recognition acuity (P < .01). III. Mean recognition acuity in patients with albinism and melanin pigment in their maculas (20/47) was significantly better than measured recognition acuity in Project I (P < .001). All had foveal hypoplasia, but 8 patients had an incompletely developed annular reflex in the macula, 6 patients showed stereoacuity, and 3 patients had no nystagmus. CONCLUSIONS: I. Grating acuity development in albinism seems to progress along a curve that is asymptotic to visual development in a normal population. II. Increasing illumination does not reduce grating acuity in patients with albinism. Grating acuity overestimates recognition acuity in these patients. III. Ophthalmoscopic detection of melanin pigment in the macula in patients with albinism is associated with better <span class="hlt">vision</span>. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10A FIGURE 10B FIGURE 13A FIGURE 13B</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Summers, C G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">446</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21470228"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aggregate <span class="hlt">colour</span> centres in impurity LiF crystals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">LiF crystals with <span class="hlt">colour</span> centres exhibiting a zero-phonon line (ZPL) at 1080 nm in absorption and luminescence are studied. The decay time of luminescence of <span class="hlt">colour</span> centres at 10 K is 260 - 280 ns, the ZPL half-width is 4.7 cm{sup -1}, and <span class="hlt">colour</span> centres are characterised by a weak electron - phonon interaction (the Huang - Rhys factor is S < 0.11). The polarisation analysis of luminescence showed that the transition dipole moments of <span class="hlt">colour</span> centres are oriented along the crystal axes [100], [010], and [001]. The model of aggregate F{sub 4} <span class="hlt">colour</span> centres having a spatial structure with three symmetry axes C{sub 2} may correspond to the <span class="hlt">colour</span> centres studied in the paper. (active media. lasers)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Basiev, Tasoltan T; Karasik, Aleksandr Ya; Konyushkin, V A; Papashvili, A G; Pukhov, K K [Laser Materials and Technology Research Center, A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ermakov, I V; Gellermann, V [Department of Physics, University of Utah (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-08-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">447</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1698012"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conspicuous, ultraviolet-rich mouth <span class="hlt">colours</span> in begging chicks.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is as yet no clear consensus on the function of vivid mouth <span class="hlt">colours</span> in begging chicks. A major obstacle to our understanding has been that no studies have measured gape <span class="hlt">colours</span> independently of human <span class="hlt">colour</span> perception. Here, we present the first study, to our knowledge, to use UV-VIS spectrometry to quantify the gape <span class="hlt">colour</span>, background nest <span class="hlt">colour</span> and nest light environment of eight European passerines. Both mouths and the surrounding flanges show striking and previously unreported peaks of reflectance in the ultraviolet, coupled with high long-wavelength reflectance responsible for the human-visible appearance of the gape. High ultraviolet reflectance is likely to have an important effect on the conspicuousness of nestling mouths, since contrast with the nest background is maximal in the ultraviolet. Furthermore, the dual-peak nature of the spectra suggests that gapes are avian non-spectral <span class="hlt">colours</span> analogous to human purple.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hunt, Sarah; Kilner, Rebecca M; Langmore, Naomi E; Bennett, Andrew T D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">448</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CG.....48..117B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional <span class="hlt">colour</span> functions for stress state visualisation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three-dimensional <span class="hlt">colour</span> functions were designed for visually agreeable and computationally efficient stress state visualisation in failure analysis. The <span class="hlt">colours</span> they generate depend on three aspects of the stress state: the distance to failure, the stress character (compressive or tensile), and the relative magnitude of the intermediate principal stress. Thus, the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of a single pixel carries information about all three scalar components of the stress tensor at a point. By discarding the intermediate principal stress information, a three-dimensional <span class="hlt">colour</span> function degenerates to a family of two-dimensional <span class="hlt">colour</span> functions with free palette choice parameter. We demonstrate the performance of our <span class="hlt">colouring</span> technique in the application example - visualisation of the stress field in the Brazilian test.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bednárik, Martin; Kohút, Igor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">449</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NaPho...7..248N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficient <span class="hlt">colour</span> splitters for high-pixel-density image sensors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">When the pixel size of image sensors shrinks to the wavelength of light, this results in low signal levels for a given photon flux per pixel as a result of scaling laws. Because many image sensors require <span class="hlt">colour</span> filters, it becomes crucial for small-pixel sensors to have an efficient filtering method that can capture all incident photons without absorbing them. Here, we propose a new method to split <span class="hlt">colours</span> by using a microscale plate-like structure with a transparent medium that has a higher refractive index than the surrounding material. We experimentally demonstrate that this principle of <span class="hlt">colour</span> splitting based on near-field deflection can generate <span class="hlt">colour</span> images with minimal signal loss. From comparisons of the sum of the total integrated values for the <span class="hlt">colour</span> channels, we confirm the amount of light received is 1.85 times that of the conventional <span class="hlt">colour</span> filter method of the Bayer array, while maintaining the same level of resolution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nishiwaki, Seiji; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Hiramoto, Masao; Fujii, Toshiya; Suzuki, Masa-Aki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">450</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985RLSBB.......68."> <span id="translatedtitle">Technical <span class="hlt">vision</span> for robots</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new invention by scientists who have copied the structure of a human eye will help replace a human telescope-watching astronomer with a robot. It will be possible to provide technical <span class="hlt">vision</span> not only for robot astronomers but also for their industrial fellow robots. So far, an artificial eye with dimensions close to those of a human eye discerns only black-and-white images. But already the second model of the eye is to perceive colors as well. Polymers which are suited for the role of the coat of an eye, lens, and vitreous body were applied. The retina has been replaced with a bundle of the finest glass filaments through which light rays get onto photomultipliers. They can be positioned outside the artificial eye. The main thing is to prevent great losses in the light guide.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">451</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989SPIE.1117..187H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vision</span> restriction device (VRD)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In geographical areas where low-level nighttime training with high-speed aircraft is restricted, it becomes imperative to employ a <span class="hlt">vision</span> restriction device (VRD) that simulates nighttime conditions during daytime training. In response to this requirement, a new 'bifocal' visor has been designed and evaluated. It consists of spectrally selective filters centered on the eyes, a neutral density lower portion, and is opaque elsewhere. The filters increase the contrast of the navigation forward-looking infrared (FLIR) image projected onto the heads up display (HUD). The neutral density portion allows the pilot to see all displays in full color by simply glancing down. The remainder of the visor is opaque so that the pilot cannot see the outside world and, as such, the visor simulates nighttime conditions. Initial pilot response has been favorable and flight tests are currently underway for evaluation purposes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holst, Gerald C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">452</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012chip.book..315H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Vision</span> Sensors and Cameras</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Silicon charge-coupled-device (CCD) imagers have been and are a specialty market ruled by a few companies for decades. Based on CMOS technologies, active-pixel sensors (APS) began to appear in 1990 at the 1 ?m technology node. These pixels allow random access, global shutters, and they are compatible with focal-plane imaging systems combining sensing and first-level image processing. The progress towards smaller features and towards ultra-low leakage currents has provided reduced dark currents and ?m-size pixels. All chips offer Mega-pixel resolution, and many have very high sensitivities equivalent to ASA 12.800. As a result, HDTV video cameras will become a commodity. Because charge-integration sensors suffer from a limited dynamic range, significant processing effort is spent on multiple exposure and piece-wise analog-digital conversion to reach ranges >10,000:1. The fundamental alternative is log-converting pixels with an eye-like response. This offers a range of almost a million to 1, constant contrast sensitivity and constant colors, important features in professional, technical and medical applications. 3D retino-morphic stacking of sensing and processing on top of each other is being revisited with sub-100 nm CMOS circuits and with TSV technology. With sensor outputs directly on top of neurons, neural focal-plane processing will regain momentum, and new levels of intelligent <span class="hlt">vision</span> will be achieved. The industry push towards thinned wafers and TSV enables backside-illuminated and other pixels with a 100% fill-factor. 3D <span class="hlt">vision</span>, which relies on stereo or on time-of-flight, high-speed circuitry, will also benefit from scaled-down CMOS technologies both because of their size as well as their higher speed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hoefflinger, Bernd</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">453</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22499498"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geriatric <span class="hlt">vision</span> loss due to cataracts, macular degeneration, and glaucoma.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The major causes of <span class="hlt">impaired</span> <span class="hlt">vision</span> in the elderly population of the United States are cataracts, macular degeneration, and open-angle glaucoma. Cataracts and macular degeneration usually reduce central <span class="hlt">vision</span>, especially reading and near activities, whereas chronic glaucoma characteristically attacks peripheral <span class="hlt">vision</span> in a silent way, impacting balance, walking, and driving. Untreated, these visual problems lead to issues with regard to taking medications, keeping track of finances and personal information, walking, watching television, and attending the theater, and often create social isolation. Thus, visually <span class="hlt">impaired</span> individuals enter nursing homes 3 years earlier, have twice the risk of falling, and have 4× the risk of hip fracture. Consequently, many elderly with low <span class="hlt">vision</span> exercise greater demands on community services. With the prospect of little improvement and sustained visual loss, in the face of poor tolerance of low-<span class="hlt">vision</span> services and not accepting magnification as the only way to read, clinical depression is common. In many instances, however, early and accurate diagnosis can result in timely treatment and can preserve quality of life. This review will look at current diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Currently, about 20.5 million people in the United States have cataracts. The number will reach 30 million by 2020. About 1.75 million Americans currently have some form of macular degeneration, and the number is estimated to increase to 2.95 million in 2020. Approximately 2.2 million Americans have glaucoma, and by 2020 that number is estimated to be close to 3.4 million people. It is projected that by 2030 there will be 72.1 million seniors. With some overlap of the above 3 groups conservatively estimated (if you add the 2030 cataract group to the macular degeneration and glaucoma groups), then about 1 in 2 senior individuals by 2030 may have some significant ocular disease, which could account for about 50% of the healthcare budget for the elderly. PMID:22499498</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eichenbaum, Joseph W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">454</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.machinevisiononline.org/public/articles/index.cfm?cat=6"> <span id="translatedtitle">Machine <span class="hlt">Vision</span> Online: Tips for Successfully Applying Machine <span class="hlt">Vision</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Web site provides many articles and educational resources related to machine <span class="hlt">vision</span>. Most of the materials come from companies with significant experience with the topic, including Ford Motor Company, Adept Technology, and many others. Visitors to the site can read about the basics of machine <span class="hlt">vision</span> and learn how to successfully implement and design a system. Inexperienced people should start with the Strategies for New Users section, which contains a glossary of terms and a couple brief introductions. The Technical Papers section has information on the various components of a machine <span class="hlt">vision</span> system, and Applications by Industry has case studies of several different operations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">455</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7588655"> <span id="translatedtitle">Causes of visual <span class="hlt">impairment</span> in central Ethiopia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A survey conducted on a stable, mainly rural population of 60,820 in Central Ethiopia revealed an overall blindness prevalence of 1.1%. A follow up study was carried out to accurately determine the etiologies and causes of visual loss and <span class="hlt">impairment</span>. A detailed ophthalmic evaluation was done on 523 out of 872 individuals identified as being visually <span class="hlt">impaired</span>. The results showed that 194 (37%) were blind (Categories 3, 4, and 5 = maximum visual acuity less than 3/60 in the better eye). One hundred and seven (21%) (Categories 1 & 2 = maximum visual acuity better than 3/60 to less than 6/18 in the better eye using the WHO categories of visual <span class="hlt">impairment</span>). The rest 222 (43%) were blind in one eye only. The commonest anatomical cause of blindness is corneal (32%). Cataract (25%), atrophied globe(s) (20%) and glaucoma (17%) follow as the other leading causes. Trachoma (35%), degenerative conditions (35%) and other infections (9%) were the major etiologies of blindness. Similar pattern of anatomical causation was observed in those classified under categories of visual <span class="hlt">impairment</span> 1 and 2, referred to as "low <span class="hlt">vision</span>". The most important etiologies of low <span class="hlt">vision</span> were trachoma (30%), degenerative (24%), trauma (13%) and other infections (8%). Trauma was the most important etiology of monocular blindness (39%). Blindness was either preventable or curable in 74% of the cases. PMID:7588655</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alemayehu, W; Tekle-Haimanot, R; Forsgren, L; Erkstedt, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">456</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fadu.uba.ar/sitios/sicyt/color/aic2004/198-202.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prefabricated rolls of oil paint: Le Corbusier's 1931 <span class="hlt">colour</span> keyboards</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The creation of two <span class="hlt">colour</span> collections by the Swiss born painter, architect and theorist Le Corbusier (1887-1965) stands out as a considerable achievement of his exceptionally remarkable career. Produced for the wallpaper factory Salubra S.A. in Basel in 1931 and 1959,1 the <span class="hlt">colour</span> collections were specially designated by Le Corbusier as <span class="hlt">colour</span> keyboards —claviers de couleurs— in reference to the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verena M. SCHINDLER</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">457</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009MNRAS.393..171M"> <span id="translatedtitle">CRASH2: <span class="hlt">coloured</span> packets and other updates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we report on the improvements implemented in the cosmological radiative transfer code CRASH. In particular, we present a new multi-frequency algorithm for spectra sampling which makes use of <span class="hlt">coloured</span> photon packets: we discuss the need for the multi-frequency approach, describe its implementation and present the improved CRASH performance in reproducing the effects of ionizing radiation with an arbitrary spectrum. We further discuss minor changes in the code implementation which allow for more efficient performance and an increased precision.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maselli, A.; Ciardi, B.; Kanekar, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">458</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8794E..37L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> simplex coding for brillouin distributed sensors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The possibility to customize Simplex coding for long range Brillouin Optical Time Domain Analysis is demonstrated by "<span class="hlt">colouring</span>" the sequences in the frequency domain. The coding gain is identical to the traditional intensity-modulated Simplex code, though with much simplified series of sequences. The frequency-hopping pulses in return-to-zero intensity-modulated format are generated with a Direct-Digital Synthesizer. The proof-of-concept is experimentally demonstrated with measurements over a 50 km range (100 km fibre-loop) and a 2 meter spatial resolution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Le Floch, Sébastien; Sauser, Florian; Llera, Miguel; Soto, Marcelo A.; Thévenaz, Luc</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">459</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8833E..0AC"> <span id="translatedtitle">Uses of spatial light modulators for <span class="hlt">colour</span> optical processing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work we review the use of spatial light modulators (SLMs) for optical processing applications involving <span class="hlt">colour</span> management. We include pioneering results in collaboration with H. J. Caulfield, where <span class="hlt">colour</span> information was introduced onto an optical correlator by means of gratings with different orientation, frequency and amplitude. Nowadays SLMs are used to manage <span class="hlt">colour</span> in applications that include <span class="hlt">colour</span> digital holography, multispectral and hyperspectral filtering, polarimetric sensing, or pulse shaping systems. Here we review techniques for the spectral characterization of liquid crystal SLMs and some of the advances in their use for some of the above-mentioned applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Campos, Juan; Moreno, Ignacio; Nicolas, Josep; Yzuel, María. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">460</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10819142"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span> affects aspects of single-species population dynamics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Single-species populations of ciliates (Colpidium and Paramecium) experienced constant temperature or white or reddened temperature fluctuations in aquatic microcosms in order to test three hypotheses about how environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span> influences population dynamics. (i) Models predict that the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of population dynamics is tinged by the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the environmental variability. However, environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span> had no effect on the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of population dynamics. All population dynamics in this experiment were reddened, regardless of environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span>. (ii) Models predict that populations will track reddened environmental variability more closely than white environmental variability and that populations with a higher intrinsic growth rate (r) will track environmental variability more closely than populations with a low r. The experimental populations behaved as predicted. (iii) Models predict that population variability is determined by interaction between r and the environmental variability. The experimental populations behaved as predicted. These results show that (i) reddened population dynamics may need no special explanation, such as reddened environments, spatial subdivision or interspecific interactions, and (ii) and (iii) that population dynamics are sensitive to environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span>, in agreement with population models. Correct specification of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the environmental variability in models is required for accurate predictions. Further work is needed to study the effects of environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span> on communities and ecosystems. PMID:10819142</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Petchey, O L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-04-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">461</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1690600"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span> affects aspects of single-species population dynamics.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Single-species populations of ciliates (Colpidium and Paramecium) experienced constant temperature or white or reddened temperature fluctuations in aquatic microcosms in order to test three hypotheses about how environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span> influences population dynamics. (i) Models predict that the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of population dynamics is tinged by the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the environmental variability. However, environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span> had no effect on the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of population dynamics. All population dynamics in this experiment were reddened, regardless of environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span>. (ii) Models predict that populations will track reddened environmental variability more closely than white environmental variability and that populations with a higher intrinsic growth rate (r) will track environmental variability more closely than populations with a low r. The experimental populations behaved as predicted. (iii) Models predict that population variability is determined by interaction between r and the environmental variability. The experimental populations behaved as predicted. These results show that (i) reddened population dynamics may need no special explanation, such as reddened environments, spatial subdivision or interspecific interactions, and (ii) and (iii) that population dynamics are sensitive to environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span>, in agreement with population models. Correct specification of the <span class="hlt">colour</span> of the environmental variability in models is required for accurate predictions. Further work is needed to study the effects of environmental <span class="hlt">colour</span> on communities and ecosystems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Petchey, O L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">462</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010RScI...81a4302S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Machine <span class="hlt">vision</span> for digital microfluidics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Machine <span class="hlt">vision</span> is widely used in an industrial environment today. It can perform various tasks, such as inspecting and controlling production processes, that may require humanlike intelligence. The importance of imaging technology for biological research or medical diagnosis is greater than ever. For example, fluorescent reporter imaging enables scientists to study the dynamics of gene networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such high-throughput imaging is increasingly demanding the use of machine <span class="hlt">vision</span> for real-time analysis and control. Digital microfluidics is a relatively new technology with expectations of becoming a true lab-on-a-chip platform. Utilizing digital microfluidics, only small amounts of biological samples are required and the experimental procedures can be automatically controlled. There is a strong need for the development of a digital microfluidics system integrated with machine <span class="hlt">vision</span> for innovative biological research today. In this paper, we show how machine <span class="hlt">vision</span> can be applied to digital microfluidics by demonstrating two applications: machine <span class="hlt">vision</span>-based measurement of the kinetics of biomolecular interactions and machine <span class="hlt">vision</span>-based droplet motion control. It is expected that digital microfluidics-based machine <span class="hlt">vision</span> system will add intelligence and automation to high-throughput biological imaging in the future.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Bong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">463</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17687890"> <span id="translatedtitle">A precise <span class="hlt">colour</span> determination method for tablets--an application of instrumental <span class="hlt">colour</span> measurement in the pharmaceutical development.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ICH guideline Q6A requires a quantitative procedure to investigate changes in <span class="hlt">colour</span>. For such purpose, it is necessary to conduct the instrumental <span class="hlt">colour</span> measurement according to USP 28 <1061>. An adequate, precise, reproducible, and reliable equipment is introduced and the equipment qualification data presented. The <span class="hlt">colour</span> of tablets coated with inorganic pigments like red and yellow ferric oxide, and white titanium dioxide shows the within-batch and batch-to-batch variabilities the extent of which is tested by CIELAB. Visual <span class="hlt">colour</span> matching data reveal a considerable variability during the stability program while the mean CIELAB values do not vary. The visual matching should rather be replaced by the instrumental <span class="hlt">colour</span> matching because the latter is free from the variabilities caused by human perception. The instrumental <span class="hlt">colour</span> matching method is presented and proven to be reproducible, reliable and precise. PMID:17687890</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hayauchi, Y</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">464</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ip.usp.br/laboratorios/visual/2004VisNeuroscienceworkersandmercury.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multifocal and full-field electroretinogram changes associated with color-<span class="hlt">vision</span> loss in mercury vapor exposure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We evaluated the color <span class="hlt">vision</span> of mercury-contaminated patients and investigated possible retinal origins of losses using electroretinography. Participants were retired workers from a fluorescent lamp industry diagnosed with mercury contamination (n 5 43) and age-matched controls ~n 5 21). Color discrimination was assessed with the Cambridge <span class="hlt">Colour</span> Test (CCT). Retinal function was evaluated by using the ISCEV protocol for full-field</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DORA F. VENTURA; MARCELO T. V. COSTA; MARCELO F. COSTA; ADRIANA BEREZOVSKY; SOLANGE R. SALOMÃO; ANA LUÍZA SIMÕES; MARCOS LAGO; LUIZ H. M. CANTO PEREIRA; MARCÍLIA A. M. FARIA; JOHN M. DE SOUZA; LUIZ CARLOS L. SILVEIRA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">465</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=video&pg=4&id=EJ1008201"> <span id="translatedtitle">A National Video Library for Teacher Preparation in Visual <span class="hlt">Impairments</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article presents the findings of the first phase of a multiyear funded project whose ultimate purpose is to clearly define and then create a video clip library of 8- to 10-minute video clips that demonstrate exemplary teaching practices for working with students who are visually <span class="hlt">impaired</span> (that is, those who are blind or have low <span class="hlt">vision</span>).…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Trief, Ellen; Lengel, Jim; Baecher, Laura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">466</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18534109"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial <span class="hlt">vision</span> anomalies in Renaissance art: Raphael, Giorgione, Dürer.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two-dimensional views of three-dimensional space are based on conventions. Renaissance perspectival drawing invented by Brunelleschi is one of them. It caused difficulties to fifteenth and sixteenth century and later artists, although readily taken up by those understanding mathematics. Raphael was amongst those who did not seem to have understood some of its elements: this is illustrated in the first section. The second addresses the question of whether a squint may manifest in an artist's work. Giorgione's ocular anomaly was well documented by several of his self-portraits, and reference is made to some of his paintings with a special analysis of The Tempest. The final section deals with chromatic stereoscopy, with particular reference to the work of Dürer. His apparently anomalous spatial sense is tentatively explained with the suggestion that he may have suffered from a defect of <span class="hlt">colour</span> <span class="hlt">vision</span> (protanomaly). PMID:18534109</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weale, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">467</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40906060"> <span id="translatedtitle">The safety and regulatory status of food, drug and cosmetics <span class="hlt">colour</span> additives exempt from certification</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Colour</span> additives exempt from certification (also known as ‘natural <span class="hlt">colour</span> additives’) are commonly used in the United States to <span class="hlt">colour</span> foods, drugs and cosmetics. The US Food and Drug Administration established regulations governing the use of these <span class="hlt">colour</span> additives, and the labelling of the products that contain them. The safety of these <span class="hlt">colour</span> additives has been demonstrated by safety testing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. B. Hallagan; D. C. Allen; J. F. Borzelleca</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">468</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/1715734"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ratio rule and homomorphic filter for enhancement of digital <span class="hlt">colour</span> image</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Digital <span class="hlt">colour</span> image enhancement using a homomorphic filter provides good dynamic range compression, but it fails in <span class="hlt">colour</span> rendition. In this letter, we propose to perform natural <span class="hlt">colour</span> rendition in a digital <span class="hlt">colour</span> image that is enhanced by a homomorphic filter. A novel neural network learning algorithm, named Ratio rule, is us