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Sample records for columbia river

  1. Columbia River Impact Evaluation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    A preliminary impact evaluation was conducted to assess the adequacy of existing data and proposed data collection programs for evaluating cumulative health and environmental impacts to the Columbia River due to past practices at the Hanford Site. The results of this evaluation were used to develop this plan to ensure collection of sufficient data for adequate characterization of the Columbia River along the 100 Area for CERCLA purposes. The evaluation used to develop the plan is not a risk assessment; the plan presented here is only a mechanism to collect additional data to support a future risk assessment.

  2. Columbia River Component Data Evaluation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    C.S. Cearlock

    2006-08-02

    The purpose of the Columbia River Component Data Compilation and Evaluation task was to compile, review, and evaluate existing information for constituents that may have been released to the Columbia River due to Hanford Site operations. Through this effort an extensive compilation of information pertaining to Hanford Site-related contaminants released to the Columbia River has been completed for almost 965 km of the river.

  3. 33 CFR 117.869 - Columbia River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Columbia River. 117.869 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.869 Columbia River. (a) The draws of the... 6 p.m. Monday through Friday except federal holidays. (b) The draw of the Port of Hood River...

  4. 33 CFR 117.869 - Columbia River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Columbia River. 117.869 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.869 Columbia River. (a) The draws of the... 6 p.m. Monday through Friday except federal holidays. (b) The draw of the Port of Hood River...

  5. 106. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ROWENA LOOPS AT COLUMBIA RIVER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ROWENA LOOPS AT COLUMBIA RIVER. I-84, RAILROAD AND COLUMBIA RIVER HIGHWAY TO RIGHT, MASONRY RAIL IN FOREGROUND. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  6. 33 CFR 117.1035 - Columbia River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Columbia River. 117.1035 Section 117.1035 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1035 Columbia River. (a) The term drawtender, as used in this section means...

  7. 33 CFR 117.869 - Columbia River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Columbia River. 117.869 Section 117.869 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.869 Columbia River. (a) The draws of the Interstate 5 Bridges, mile 106.5,...

  8. 33 CFR 117.1035 - Columbia River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Columbia River. 117.1035 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1035 Columbia River. (a) The term drawtender, as used in this section means the operator of the drawspan, whether that person may be a...

  9. 33 CFR 117.1035 - Columbia River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Columbia River. 117.1035 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1035 Columbia River. (a) The term drawtender, as used in this section means the operator of the drawspan, whether that person may be a...

  10. The Columbia River System : the Inside Story.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Columbia Ricer is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Northwest-from providing the world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying the clean natural fuel for over 75 percent of the region's electrical generation. Since early in the century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system. And through cooperative efforts, the floods that periodically threaten developments near the river can be controlled. This publication presents a detailed explanation of the planning and operation of the multiple-use dams and reservoirs of the Columbia River system. It describes the river system, those who operate and use it, the agreements and policies that guide system operation, and annual planning for multiple-use operation.

  11. Columbia River Component Data Gap Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2007-10-23

    This Data Gap Analysis report documents the results of a study conducted by Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) to compile and reivew the currently available surface water and sediment data for the Columbia River near and downstream of the Hanford Site. This Data Gap Analysis study was conducted to review the adequacy of the existing surface water and sediment data set from the Columbia River, with specific reference to the use of the data in future site characterization and screening level risk assessments.

  12. The Columbia River System Inside Story

    SciTech Connect

    2001-04-01

    The Columbia River is one of the greatest natural resources in the western United States. The river and its tributaries touch the lives of nearly every resident of the Pacific Northwest—from fostering world-famous Pacific salmon to supplying clean natural fuel for 50 to 65 percent of the region’s electrical generation. Since early in the 20th century, public and private agencies have labored to capture the benefits of this dynamic river. Today, dozens of major water resource projects throughout the region are fed by the waters of the Columbia Basin river system.

  13. Columbia River impact evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    As a result of past practices, four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980. To accomplish the timely cleanup of the past-practice units, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), was signed by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), EPA, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). To support the Tri-Party Agreement, milestones were adopted. These milestones represent the actions needed to ensure acceptable progress toward Hanford Site compliance with CERCLA, RCRA, and the Washington State Hazardous Waste Management Act of 1976. This report was prepared to fulfill the requirement of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-30-02, which requires a plan to determine cumulative health and environmental impacts to the Columbia River. This plan supplements the CERCLA remedial investigations/feasibility studies (RI/FS) and RCRA facility investigations/corrective measures studies (RFI/CMSs) that will be undertaken in the 100 Area. To support the plan development process, existing information was reviewed and a preliminary impact evaluation based on this information was performed. The purpose of the preliminary impact evaluation was to assess the adequacy of existing data and proposed data collection activities. Based on the results of the evaluation, a plan is proposed to collect additional data or make changes to existing or proposed data collection activities.

  14. Emplacement of Columbia River flood basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.)

    1997-11-01

    Evidence is examined for the emplacement of the Umatilla, Wilbur Creek, and the Asotin Members of Columbia River Basalt Group. These flows erupted in the eastern part of the Columbia Plateau during the waning phases of volcanism. The Umatilla Member consists of two flows in the Lewiston basin area and southwestern Columbia Plateau. These flows mixed to form one flow in the central Columbia Plateau. The composition of the younger flow is preserved in the center and the composition of the older flow is at the top and bottom. There is a complete gradation between the two. Flows of the Wilbur Creek and Asotin Members erupted individually in the eastern Columbia Plateau and also mixed together in the central Columbia Plateau. Comparison of the emplacement patterns to intraflow structures and textures of the flows suggests that very little time elapsed between eruptions. In addition, the amount of crust that formed on the earlier flows prior to mixing also suggests rapid emplacement. Calculations of volumetric flow rates through constrictions in channels suggest emplacement times of weeks to months under fast laminar flow for all three members. A new model for the emplacement of Columbia River Basalt Group flows is proposed that suggests rapid eruption and emplacement for the main part of the flow and slower emplacement along the margins as the of the flow margin expands.

  15. Emplacement of Columbia River flood basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.

    1998-11-01

    Evidence is examined for the emplacement of the Umatilla, Wilbur Creek, and the Asotin Members of Columbia River Basalt Group. These flows erupted in the eastern part of the Columbia Plateau during the waning phases of volcanism. The Umatilla Member consists of two flows in the Lewiston basin area and southwestern Columbia Plateau. These flows mixed to form one flow in the central Columbia Plateau. The composition of the younger flow is preserved in the center and the composition of the older flow is at the top and bottom. There is a complete gradation between the two. Flows of the Wilbur Creek and Asotin Members erupted individually in the eastern Columbia Plateau and also mixed together in the central Columbia Plateau. Comparison of the emplacement patterns to intraflow structures and textures of the flows suggests that very little time elapsed between eruptions. In addition, the amount of crust that formed on the earlier flows prior to mixing also suggests rapid emplacement. Calculations of volumetric flow rates through constrictions in channels suggest emplacement times of weeks to months under fast laminar flow for all three members. A new model for the emplacement of Columbia River Basalt Group flows is proposed that suggests rapid eruption and emplacement for the main part of the flow and slower emplacement along the margins as the of the flow margin expands.

  16. American shad in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, J.H.; Hinrichsen, R.A.; Gadomski, D.M.; Feil, D.H.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima from the Hudson River, New York, were introduced into the Sacramento River, California, in 1871 and were first observed in the Columbia River in 1876. American shad returns to the Columbia River increased greatly between 1960 and 1990, and recently 2-4 million adults have been counted per year at Bonneville Dam, Oregon and Washington State (river kilometer 235). The total return of American shad is likely much higher than this dam count. Returning adults migrate as far as 600 km up the Columbia and Snake rivers, passing as many as eight large hydroelectric dams. Spawning occurs primarily in the lower river and in several large reservoirs. A small sample found returning adults were 2-6 years old and about one-third of adults were repeat spawners. Larval American shad are abundant in plankton and in the nearshore zone. Juvenile American shad occur throughout the water column during night, but school near the bottom or inshore during day. Juveniles consume a variety of zooplankton, but cyclopoid copepods were 86% of the diet by mass. Juveniles emigrate from the river from August through December. Annual exploitation of American shad by commercial and recreational fisheries combined is near 9% of the total count at Bonneville Dam. The success of American shad in the Columbia River is likely related to successful passage at dams, good spawning and rearing habitats, and low exploitation. The role of American shad within the aquatic community is poorly understood. We speculate that juveniles could alter the zooplankton community and may supplement the diet of resident predators. Data, however, are lacking or sparse in some areas, and more information is needed on the role of larval and juvenile American shad in the food web, factors limiting adult returns, ocean distribution of adults, and interactions between American shad and endangered or threatened salmonids throughout the river. ?? 2003 by the American Fisheries Society.

  17. Organic carbon transport in the Columbia River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahm, Clifford N.; Gregory, Stanley V.; Kilho Park, P.

    1981-12-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC) levels in the Columbia River measured monthly from May 1973 to December 1974 ranged from a maximum of 270 μmol l -1 during late spring and early summer to a minimum of 150 μmol l -1 during late autumn. Sampling locations were directly behind the spillway at the Bonneville Dam, 230 km upstream, and at Kalama, Washington, 128km upstream from the river mouth. The average annual TOC contribution from the Columbia River drainage to the north-eastern Pacific is 4·9×10 10 mol with an average concentration of approximately 195μmol l -1. Of this TOC annual export, 89% is dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and 11% is particulate organic carbon (OOC). The TOC and DOC levels were most highly correlated with increased oxygen saturation and dischange, while POC correlated more closely to high instream primary productivy as indicated by higher pH and oxygen supersaturation. Variability of DOC in the main channel of the Columbia River from Portland, Oregon, to the estuary during a June 1974 cruise was minimal. The DOC concentrations ranged from 221-260 μmol l -1 with no significant upstream or downstream gradients. Diel variation also was slight, varying randomly during 24h between 235-257 μmol l -1. The relative annual constancy of the DOC is indicative of the refractory nature of a significant proportion of the dissolved organic load of the Columbia River.

  18. 33 CFR 165.1308 - Columbia River, Vancouver, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Columbia River, Vancouver, WA... Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1308 Columbia River, Vancouver, WA. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Columbia River...

  19. 33 CFR 110.128 - Columbia River at Portland, Oreg.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Columbia River at Portland, Oreg... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.128 Columbia River at Portland, Oreg. The waters of the Columbia River between Sand Island and Government Island, bounded on the west by pile...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1308 - Columbia River, Vancouver, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Columbia River, Vancouver, WA... Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1308 Columbia River, Vancouver, WA. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Columbia River...

  1. 78 FR 23487 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA AGENCY... across the Columbia River, mile 106.5, between Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington. This deviation... Transportation has requested that the I-5 Bridges across the Columbia River remain closed to vessel traffic...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1308 - Columbia River, Vancouver, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Columbia River, Vancouver, WA... Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1308 Columbia River, Vancouver, WA. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Columbia River...

  3. 78 FR 15293 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA AGENCY... (BNSF) Railway Bridge across the Columbia River, mile 105.6, at Vancouver, WA. This deviation is...: BNSF has requested that the BNSF Swing Bridge across the Columbia River, mile 105.6, remain closed...

  4. 77 FR 38004 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA AGENCY... across the Columbia River, mile 106.5, between Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington. This deviation... Columbia River remain closed to vessel traffic to facilitate heavier than normal roadway traffic...

  5. 33 CFR 162.230 - Columbia River, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulation in this section shall be enforced by the Chief, Power Field Division, Columbia Basin Project, U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Columbia River, Wash. 162.230...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.230 Columbia River, Wash....

  6. 33 CFR 162.230 - Columbia River, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulation in this section shall be enforced by the Chief, Power Field Division, Columbia Basin Project, U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Columbia River, Wash. 162.230...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.230 Columbia River, Wash....

  7. 33 CFR 162.230 - Columbia River, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulation in this section shall be enforced by the Chief, Power Field Division, Columbia Basin Project, U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Columbia River, Wash. 162.230...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.230 Columbia River, Wash....

  8. View from west side of Columbia River (at transformer spread ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from west side of Columbia River (at transformer spread yard from No. 3 Powerhouse), looking east to downstream face of Grand Coulee Dam. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  9. Coast and river mouths, Columbia, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Numerous rivers in Ecuador and Columbia stand out in this South American Pacific coastal scene (1.5N, 79.0W). This region has one of the highest rainfalls in the world with the consequent heavy cloud cover and it is rare to be able to photograph the surface. The Pacific mountain drainage area is small but produces a large volume of runoff and sediment flow into the ocean.

  10. SURVEY OF COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN STREAMS FOR COLUMBIA PEBBLESNAIL Fluminicola columbiana AND SHORTFACE LANX Fisherola nuttalli

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D. A.; Frest, T. J.

    1993-05-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington; the lower Salmon River and middle Snake River, Idaho; and possibly in Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon; and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historical range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde, Washington and Oregon; Imnaha and John Day rivers, Oregon; Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River: Columbia pebblesnail to a population in the Hanford Reach plus six other sites that are separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major mbutaries shortface lanx to two populations (in the Hanford Reach and near Bonneville Dam) plus nine other sites that are separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries.

  11. Columbia River monitoring: Distribution of tritium in Columbia River water at the Richland Pumphouse

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents the results of a special study conducted as part of the SESP to supplement the routine Columbia River monitoring program and provide information relative to the dispersion and distribution of Hanford origin contaminants entering the river through the seepage of ground water along the Hanford Site. Sampling was conducted along cross sections to determine the distribution of tritium within the Columbia River at Richland, Washington. The investigation was also designed to evaluate the relationship between the average tritium concentrations in the river water at this location and in water collected from the routine SESP river monitoring system located at the city of Richland drinking water intake (Richland Pumphouse). This study was conducted during the summers of 1987 and 1988. Water samples were collected along cross sections located at or near the Richland Pumphouse monitoring station.

  12. The CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-11-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the CHPRC Columbia River Protection Project (hereafter referred to as the Columbia River Project). This is a follow-on project, funded by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, LLC (CHPRC), to the Fluor Hanford, Inc. Columbia River Protection Project. The work scope consists of a number of CHPRC funded, related projects that are managed under a master project (project number 55109). All contract releases associated with the Fluor Hanford Columbia River Project (Fluor Hanford, Inc. Contract 27647) and the CHPRC Columbia River Project (Contract 36402) will be collected under this master project. Each project within the master project is authorized by a CHPRC contract release that contains the project-specific statement of work. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Columbia River Project staff.

  13. COLUMBIA/SNAKE RIVER TEMPERATURE TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD (TMDL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA and the States of Idaho, Oregon and Washington are working in coordination with the Columbia River Tribes to establish a temperature TMDL for the mainstems of the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Both rivers are on state 303(d) lists of impaired waters for exceedances of water qua...

  14. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Hydrogeomorphic Reach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  15. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Ecosystem Complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith Marcoe

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  16. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Geomorphic Catena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  17. Rivers Run Through It: Discovering the Interior Columbia River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shelley; Wojtanik, Brenda Lincoln; Rieben, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Explores the Columbia River Basin, its ecosystems, and challenges faced by natural resource managers. By studying the basin's complexity, students can learn about common scientific concepts such as the power of water and effects of rain shadows. Students can also explore social-scientific issues such as conflicts between protecting salmon runs and…

  18. Snake and Columbia Rivers Sediment Sampling Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M. R.; Word, J. Q.; Barrows, E. S.; Mayhew, H. L.; Clark, D. R.

    1992-12-01

    The disposal of dredged material in water is defined as a discharge under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and must be evaluated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR 230. Because contaminant loads in the dredged sediment or resuspended sediment may affect water quality or contaminant loading, the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Walla Walla District, has requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to collect and chemically analyze sediment samples from areas that may be dredged near the Port Authority piers on the Snake and Columbia rivers. Sediment samples were also collected at River Mile (RM) stations along the Snake River that may undergo resuspension of sediment as a result of the drawdown. Chemical analysis included grain size, total organic carbon, total volatile solids, ammonia, phosphorus, sulfides, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and 21 congeners of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

  19. Survey of Columbia River Basin Streams for Giant Columbia River Spire Snail Fluminicola columbiana and Great Columbia River limpet Fisherola nuttalli

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Frest, T.J.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA )

    1989-10-01

    Surveys have confirmed the survival of both the giant Columbia River spire snail Fluminicola columbiana and the great Columbia River limpet Fisherola nuttalli in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington State, as well as other sites in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. A review of historical collection records suggests that both species exist in still other sites of the Columbia River Basin. At present, there is insufficient information to allow adequate appraisal of either species relative to possible federal or state listing as endangered or threatened species. The results of our studies suggest that additional undiscovered populations of both species exist. There is a relatively good chance that pristine habitat required by spire snails and limpets remains in 37 streams or portions of streams in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana (British Columbia was considered outside the project scope). For a thorough survey, visits to more than 600 sites will be required. 20 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Survey of Columbia River Basin streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Frest, T.J.

    1992-08-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnails Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, and the lower Salmon River, Idaho, and possibly in the middle Snake River, Idaho; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species` historic range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherolla nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach and Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; Hens Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde Washington and Oregon; Imnaha, and John Day rivers, Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River to populations in the Hanford Reach and possibly other sites that are now separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river`s major tributaries.

  1. Survey of Columbia River Basin streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A. ); Frest, T.J. )

    1992-08-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnails Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, and the lower Salmon River, Idaho, and possibly in the middle Snake River, Idaho; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historic range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherolla nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach and Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; Hens Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde Washington and Oregon; Imnaha, and John Day rivers, Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River to populations in the Hanford Reach and possibly other sites that are now separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries.

  2. 77 FR 24146 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA AGENCY... (BNSF) Railway Bridge across the Columbia River, mile 105.6, at Vancouver, WA. This deviation is necessary to accommodate maintenance of the train signaling system scheduled for April 30, 2012....

  3. COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN CONTAMINANT AQUATIC BIOTA AND SEDIMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous studies have been done to determine the levels of chemical contaminants in fish and sediment in the Columbia River Basin. These studies were done because of concern that releases of toxic Chemicals into the Columbia River Basin may be impacting health and the environment...

  4. 33 CFR 162.230 - Columbia River, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Columbia River, Wash. 162.230 Section 162.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.230 Columbia River, Wash. (a) Grand Coulee Dam discharge...

  5. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

  6. Columbia River Treaty History and 2014/2024 Review

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    The Columbia River, the fourth largest river on the continent as measured by average annual flow, generates more power than any other river in North America. While its headwaters originate in British Columbia, only about 15 percent of the 259,500 square miles of the Columbia River Basin is actually located in Canada. Yet the Canadian waters account for about 38 percent of the average annual volume, and up to 50 percent of the peak flood waters, that flow by The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River between Oregon and Washington. In the 1940s, officials from the United States and Canada began a long process to seek a joint solution to the flooding caused by the unregulated Columbia River and to the postwar demand for greater energy resources. That effort culminated in the Columbia River Treaty, an international agreement between Canada and the United States for the cooperative development of water resources regulation in the upper Columbia River Basin. It was signed in 1961 and implemented in 1964.

  7. LOWER COLUMBIA RIVER ESTUARY PROGRAM COMPREHENSIVE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    An estuary is the area where the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of an ocean. In the Columbia River system, this occurs in the lower 46 river miles. In an estuary, the river has a direct, natural connection with the open sea. This transition from fresh to salt water c...

  8. 100 Area Columbia River sediment sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, S.G.

    1993-09-08

    Forty-four sediment samples were collected from 28 locations in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to assess the presence of metals and man-made radionuclides in the near shore and shoreline settings of the Hanford Site. Three locations were sampled upriver of the Hanford Site plutonium production reactors. Twenty-two locations were sampled near the reactors. Three locations were sampled downstream of the reactors near the Hanford Townsite. Sediment was collected from depths of 0 to 6 in. and between 12 to 24 in. below the surface. Samples containing concentrations of metals exceeding the 95 % upper threshold limit values (DOE-RL 1993b) are considered contaminated. Contamination by arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc was found. Man-made radionuclides occur in all samples except four collected opposite the Hanford Townsite. Man-made radionuclide concentrations were generally less than 1 pCi/g.

  9. 78 FR 28743 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in the Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone Columbia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in the Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone Columbia River Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of... displays in the Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone from May 2013 until October 2013....

  10. The Columbia River--on the Leading Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, J. E.

    2005-05-01

    On the leading edge of the North American plate, the Columbia River is the largest of the world's 40 or so rivers with drainage areas greater than 500,000 square kilometers to drain toward a convergent plate boundary. This unique setting results in a unique continental river basin; marked by episodic and cataclysmic geologic disturbance, but also famously fecund with perhaps 10 to 16 million salmon historically spawning in its waters each year. Now transformed by dams, transportation infrastructure, dikes and diversions, the Columbia River presents an expensive conundrum for management of its many values. Inclusion of river ecology and geomorphology in discussions of river management is generally limited to observations of the last 200 years-a time period of little natural disturbance and low sediment transport. However, consideration of longer timescales provides additional perspective of historical ecologic and geomorphic conditions. Only 230 km from its mouth, the Columbia River bisects the volcanic arc of the Cascade Range, forming the Columbia River Gorge. Cenozoic lava flows have blocked the river, forcing diversions and new canyon cutting. Holocene eruptions of Mount Mazama (Crater Lake), Mount Hood, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Rainier have shed immense quantities of sediment into the lower Columbia River, forming a large percentage of the Holocene sediment transported through the lower river. Quaternary landslides, perhaps triggered by great earthquakes, have descended from the 1000-m-high gorge walls, also blocking and diverting the river, one as recently as 550 years ago. These geologic disturbances, mostly outside the realm of historical observation and operating at timescales of 100s to 1000s of years in the gorge and elsewhere, have clearly affected basin geomorphology, riverine ecology, and past and present cultural utilization of river resources. The historic productivity of the river, however, hints at extraordinary resilience (and perhaps

  11. Acoustical Characterization of the Columbia River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeder, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Investigations of near-shore and in-shore environments have, rightly, focused on geological, thermodynamic and hydrodynamic parameters. A complementary acoustical characterization of the estuarine environment provides another layer of information to facilitate a more complete understanding of the physical environment. Relatively few acoustical studies have been carried out in rivers, estuaries or other energetic environments; nearly all acoustical work in such environments has been done at high acoustic frequencies—in the 10's and 100's of kHz. To this end, within the context of a larger hydrodynamic field experiment (RIVET II), a small acoustic field experiment was carried out in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE), the acoustic objective of which was to characterize the acoustic environment in the CRE in terms of ambient noise field statistics and acoustic propagation characteristics at low-to-mid-frequencies. Acoustically, the CRE salt wedge consists of two isospeed layers separated by a thin, three-dimensional high-gradient layer. Results demonstrate that (1) this stratification supports ducting of low-angle acoustic energy in the upper layer and the creation of an acoustic shadow zone in the lower layer; (2) the spatiotemporal dynamics of the salt wedge structure during the very energetic flood and ebb tides induce significant variability in the acoustic environment, as well as significant flow noise across the acoustic transducer; and (3) this flow noise correlates to current velocity and complicates acoustical observations at low frequencies.

  12. 33 CFR 162.230 - Columbia River, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Grand Coulee Dam discharge channel; restricted area—(1) The area. That portion of the Columbia River between Grand Coulee Dam (situated at river mile 596.6) and river mile 593.7. (2) The regulations. (i) No.... Department of the Interior, Coulee Dam, Washington....

  13. Historical changes in the Columbia River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Jay, David A.; Bradford Harvey, R.; Hamilton, Peter; Simenstad, Charles A.

    Historical changes in the hydrology, sedimentology, and physical oceanography of the Columbia River Estuary have been evaluated with a combination of statistical, cartographic, and numerical-modelling techniques. Comparison of data digitized from US Coast and Geodetic Survey bathymetric surveys conducted in the periods 1867-1875, 1926-1937, and 1949-1958 reveals that large changes in the morphology of the estuary have been caused by navigational improvements (jetties, dredged channels, and pile dikes) and by the diking and filling of much of the wetland area. Lesser changes are attributable to natural shoaling and erosion. There has been roughly a 15% decrease in tidal prism and a net accumulation of about 68 × 10 6m 3 of sediment in the estuary. Large volumes of sediment have been eroded from the entrance region and deposited on the continental shelf and in the balance of the estuary, contributing to formation of new land. The bathymetric data indicate that, ignoring erosion at the entrance, 370 to 485 × 10 6m 3 of sediment has been deposited in the estuary since 1868 at an average rate of about 0.5 cm y -1, roughly 5 times the rate at which sea level has fallen locally since the turn of the century. Riverflow data indicate that the seasonal flow cycle of the Columbia River has been significantly altered by regulation and diversion of water for irrigation. The greatest changes have occurred in the last thirty years. Flow variability over periods greater than a month has been significantly damped and the net discharge has been slightly reduced. These changes in riverflow are too recent to be reflected in the available in the available bathymetric data. Results from a laterally averaged, multiple-channel, two-dimensional numerical flow model (described in HAMILTON, 1990) suggest that the changes in morphology and riverflow have reduced mixing, increased stratification, altered the response to fortnightly (neap-spring) changes in tidal forcing, and decreased the

  14. The Volcanic Story of the Columbia River Gorge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, John Eliot

    1982-01-01

    Uses maps, diagrams, and geological accounts to describe the Columbia River Gorge which separates Oregon from Washington and exposes an unexcelled record of Cenozoic volcanic stratigraphy, sedimentation, flooding, and landsliding for the visiting tourists, geologists, or students. (Author/DC)

  15. Benthic primary production in the Columbia River Estuary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McIntire, C.D.; Amspoker, M.C.

    1984-02-01

    The general objective of the research associated with the Benthic Primary Production Work Unit of Columbia River Estuary Development Program was to determine mechanisms that control the production dynamics and species composition of benthic plant assemblages in the Columbia River Estuary. In particular, the work was concerned with effects of selected physical variables on structural and functional attributes of micro- and macro- vegetation, and on the productivity and biomass of benthic autotrophs on the tidal flats of the estuary.

  16. Data Compendium for the Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, P.W.; Huesties, L.R.; Maughan, A.D.; Miley, T.B.; Walters, W.H.

    1994-04-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). The CRCIA is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The purpose of the CRCIA is to evaluate the current human and ecological risk from the Columbia River attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. Human risk will be addressed for radioactive and hazardous materials over a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The initial effort for the CRCIA is the development of a compendium of existing data on Columbia River contamination. This document provides the data compendium. It also includes a discussion of data sources, descriptions of the physical format of the data, and descriptions of the search process used to identify data.

  17. What lies below the Columbia River Basalt?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidel, S.; Kauffman, J.; Garwood, D.; Bush, J.

    2006-12-01

    More than 200,000 sq km of the Pacific Northwest are covered by the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (CRB). The lavas were erupted onto a complex structural setting dominated by cratonic rocks, and accreted terranes at a convergent plate margin. Few boreholes penetrate the basalt so the sub-basalt structure must be deduced from geophysical data, the surrounding area and structures within the basalt. In Oregon (OR) and Idaho (ID) the eastern edge of the basalt follows the boundary between the craton and accreted terranes but the suture zone becomes lost beneath the basalt in eastern WA. In northern OR and Washington (WA), a thick basalt sequence in the western part of the province overlies an early Tertiary basin with kms of sediment fill which, in turn, overlies accreted terranes. In eastern WA and western ID, a much thinner basalt sequence overlies cratonic and accreted terrane rocks without thick intervening Tertiary sediments. This basin began in the Eocene and continued into the present; the sediment now controls the location of the Yakima fold belt (YFB). Prior to basalt eruptions, a rugged mountainous terrane existed in eastern WA and ID that probably extended to the west. NW faults and folds (e.g. the Orofino fault zone ID, and Chiwaukum graben and White River-Naches River fault zone, Cascade Range) dominate the prebasalt rocks and must extend under the basalt. Remanents of this NW trend are present in YFB (e.g. Rattlesnake-Wallula fault zone) but these are less prominent than the large basalt anticlinal folds that are decoupled from the basement. CRB dikes have a NW to N trend and are thought to reflect a basement structural weakness. In the basalt province many folds and faults follow this dike trend. Major NE trending faults in the basalts do not have major counterparts beyond the basalt. One fault, the Hite Fault, must form a significant sub-basalt boundary. Dikes to the east of the Hite fault trend N-N20W whereas dikes to the west trend N40-50W

  18. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  19. Identification of contaminants of concern Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Batishko, N.C.; Heise-Craff, D.A.; Jarvis, M.F.; Snyder, S.F.

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating the current human and ecological risks from contaminants in the Columbia River. The risks to be studied are those attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southcentral Washington State near the town of Richland. Human risk from exposure to radioactive and hazardous materials will be addressed for a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The overall purpose of the project is to determine if enough contamination exists in the Columbia River to warrant cleanup actions under applicable environmental regulations. This report documents an initial review, from a risk perspective, of the wealth of historical data concerning current or potential contamination in the Columbia River. Sampling data were examined for over 600 contaminants. A screening analysis was performed to identify those substances present in such quantities that they may pose a significant human or ecological risk. These substances will require a more detailed analysis to assess their impact on humans or the river ecosystem.

  20. Sediments from the lower columbia river and origin of graywacke.

    PubMed

    Whetten, J T

    1966-05-20

    The mineral and chemical composition of sediments deposited in the three lowermost reservoirs of the Columbia River is remarkably similar to the composition of many graywackes. Lithic fragments are abundant. In comparison with an "average" sandstone, the sediments have low concentrations of silica and high concentrations of all other major constituents, except calcium. Sodium is more abundant than potassium. The sediments are generally better sorted than graywackes. If graywacke texture is post-depositional in origin, Columbia River-type sediments could be expected to form graywackes upon deep burial without any significant addition or removal of material. PMID:17754814

  1. Topographic view of McCord Creek Bridge and the Columbia River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topographic view of McCord Creek Bridge and the Columbia River Gorge - McCord Creek Bridge, Spanning McCord Creek at Milepost 38.62 on Old Columbia River Highway (Highway No. 30), Warrendale, Multnomah County, OR

  2. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Columbia River Mainstem Facilities, 1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, Jack; Hwang, Diana

    1984-11-01

    This report reviews the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation programs at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Each hydropower facility report is abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  3. 76 FR 13676 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program AGENCY... Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 4(h) of the Northwest Power Act, the Council has amended its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to add...

  4. 75 FR 64752 - Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... POWER AND CONSERVATION PLANNING COUNCIL Amended Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program AGENCY... Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Section 4(h) of the Northwest Power Act, the Council has amended its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to add...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1365 - Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1365 Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the Columbia River North Jetty (above water)...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1365 - Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1365 Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the Columbia River North Jetty (above water)...

  7. 76 FR 34862 - Safety Zones: Fireworks Displays in the Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... without permission of the Captain of the Port, Columbia River or his designated representative. DATES: The... regulation in 33 CFR 165.1315 for fireworks displays in the Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone during... Port, Columbia River or his designated representative. See 33 CFR 165.1315 and 33 CFR 165 subparts...

  8. 77 FR 32021 - Safety Zones: Fireworks Displays in the Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... Guard will enforce the safety zones for fireworks displays in the Sector Columbia River Captain of the... safety zone without permission of the Captain of the Port Columbia River or his designated representative... zone regulation in 33 CFR 165.1315 for fireworks displays in the Columbia River Captain of the...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1365 - Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1365 Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the Columbia River North Jetty (above water)...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1365 - Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1365 Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the Columbia River North Jetty (above water)...

  11. 76 FR 17341 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Columbia River, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Columbia River, OR CFR Correction In Title 33 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1 to 124, revised as of July 1, 2010, on page 624,...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1308 - Columbia River, Vancouver, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Columbia River, Vancouver, WA. 165.1308 Section 165.1308 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited...

  13. 77 FR 66714 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  14. COLUMBIA BASIN SALMON POPULATIONS AND RIVER ENVIRONMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data Access in Real Time (DART) provides an interactive data resource designed for research and management purposes relating to the Columbia Basin salmon populations and river environment. Currently, daily data plus historic information dating back to 1962 is accessible online. D...

  15. 33 CFR 110.128 - Columbia River at Portland, Oreg.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waters of the Columbia River between Sand Island and Government Island, bounded on the west by pile dike... Sand Island and bounded on the east by a line bearing 339°15′ true, from a point on Government Island at latitude 45°35′10″, longitude 122°32′41″, to the southerly shore of Sand Island....

  16. 33 CFR 110.128 - Columbia River at Portland, Oreg.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waters of the Columbia River between Sand Island and Government Island, bounded on the west by pile dike... Sand Island and bounded on the east by a line bearing 339°15′ true, from a point on Government Island at latitude 45°35′10″, longitude 122°32′41″, to the southerly shore of Sand Island....

  17. 33 CFR 110.128 - Columbia River at Portland, Oreg.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waters of the Columbia River between Sand Island and Government Island, bounded on the west by pile dike... Sand Island and bounded on the east by a line bearing 339°15′ true, from a point on Government Island at latitude 45°35′10″, longitude 122°32′41″, to the southerly shore of Sand Island....

  18. 77 FR 53141 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Columbia River, Vancouver, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... necessary to facilitate heavy maintenance on the bridges lift-spans. This deviation allows height-restricted... mile 106.5 only be required to lift to a reduced height of 130 feet above Columbia River Datum for a 30 day period. The height restricted lifts are necessary to facilitate heavy maintenance on the...

  19. Columbia River : Terminal Fisheries Research Report : Annual Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Paul; Miller, Marc; Hill, Jim

    1996-12-01

    In 1993 the Northwest Power Planning Council recommended in its Strategy for Salmon that terminal fishing sites be identified and developed. The Council called on the Bonneville Power Administration to fund a 10-year study to investigate the feasibility of creating and expanding terminal known stock fisheries in the Columbia River Basin.

  20. 33 CFR 110.128 - Columbia River at Portland, Oreg.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waters of the Columbia River between Sand Island and Government Island, bounded on the west by pile dike... Sand Island and bounded on the east by a line bearing 339°15′ true, from a point on Government Island at latitude 45°35′10″, longitude 122°32′41″, to the southerly shore of Sand Island....

  1. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2010-01-29

    This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

  2. Pomona Member of the Columbia River Basalt Group: an intracanyon flow in the Columbia River Gorge, Oregon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Pomona Member of the Saddle Mountains Basalt (Columbia River Basalt Group) occurs as an intracanyon flow greater than 75m (250ft) thick along the S side of the Columbia River Gorge between Mitchell Point and Shellrock Mountain, Oregon. Best exposures are at Mitchell Point, where this flow caps more than 70m (230ft) of cobble conglomerate that partially fills a canyon cut into flows of the underlying Frenchman Springs Member. These exposures provide a necessary link between outcrops of the Pomona Member in the Columbia Plateau and western Washington. Post-Frenchman Springs, pre-Pomona canyon cutting implies deformation in the ancestral Cascade Range between about 14.5 and 12Ma ago.-Author

  3. 76 FR 8345 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan Module for Columbia River Estuary Salmon and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ...NMFS announces the adoption of the Columbia River Estuary Endangered Species Act (ESA) Recovery Plan Module for Salmon and Steelhead (Estuary Module). The Estuary Module addresses the estuary recovery needs of all ESA-listed salmon and steelhead in the Columbia River Basin. All Columbia Basin salmon and steelhead ESA recovery plans will incorporate the Estuary Module by...

  4. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  5. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  6. The Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-03-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers are working on the Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Project. This project is a U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies, and technologies for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Technologies Project staff.

  7. Elutriation study of Willamette River bottom material and Willamette-Columbia River water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, Joseph F.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

    1977-01-01

    Bottom material from the Willamette River was collected and mixed with Willamette and Columbia River waters on May 17, 1977. The elutriate, as well as each sample, was analyzed for selected nutrients, metals, and pesticides. Results show that the average dissolved ammonia, manganese, and zinc concentrations would require dilution by receiving water to achieve aquatic-life criteria levels. 

  8. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification — Concept and application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simenstad, Charles A.; Burke, Jennifer L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Cannon, Charles; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Waite, Ian R.; Counihan, Timothy D.; Jones, Krista L.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the concept, organization, and application of a hierarchical ecosystem classification that integrates saline and tidal freshwater reaches of estuaries in order to characterize the ecosystems of large flood plain rivers that are strongly influenced by riverine and estuarine hydrology. We illustrate the classification by applying it to the Columbia River estuary (Oregon-Washington, USA), a system that extends about 233 river kilometers (rkm) inland from the Pacific Ocean. More than three-quarters of this length is tidal freshwater. The Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification ("Classification") is based on six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. We define and map Levels 1-3 for the entire Columbia River estuary with existing geospatial datasets, and provide examples of Levels 4-6 for one hydrogeomorphic reach. In particular, three levels of the Classification capture the scales and categories of ecosystem structure and processes that are most tractable to estuarine research, monitoring, and management. These three levels are the (1) eight hydrogeomorphic reaches that embody the formative geologic and tectonic processes that created the existing estuarine landscape and encompass the influence of the resulting physiography on interactions between fluvial and tidal hydrology and geomorphology across 230 kilometers (km) of estuary, (2) more than 15 ecosystem complexes composed of broad landforms created predominantly by geologic processes during the Holocene, and (3) more than 25 geomorphic catenae embedded within ecosystem complexes that represent distinct geomorphic landforms, structures, ecosystems, and habitats, and components of the estuarine landscape most likely to change over short time periods.

  9. Columbia River Fishes of the Lewis and Clark Expedition

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.

    2007-06-21

    The Lewis and Clark expedition crossed the Continental Divide in 1805 on the way west to the Pacific Ocean. Based on journal entries, members of the expedition probably encountered two species of resident salmonids and four of the six species of anadromous salmonids and steelhead (Family Salmonidae, genus Oncorhynchus). The salmonid species were called common salmon (now known as Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha), red char (sockeye salmon O.nerka) white salmon trout (coho salmon [also known as silver salmon] O. kisutch), salmon trout (steelhead O. mykiss), and spotted trout (cutthroat trout O. clarkii). There was no evidence of the expedition encountering pink salmon O. gorbuscha, chum salmon O. keta, or species of true char Salvelinus spp. Common fishes procured from Indian tribes living along the lower Columbia River included eulachon Thaleichthys pacificus and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. The identity of three additional resident freshwater species is questionable. Available descriptions suggest that what they called mullet were largescale sucker Catastomus macrocheilus, and that chubb were peamouth Mylocheilus caurinus. The third questionable fish, which they called bottlenose, was probably mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni, although there is no evidence that the species was observed in the Columbia River drainage. Missing from the species list were more than 20 other fishes known to Sahaptin-speaking people from the mid-Columbia region. More complete documentation of the icthyofauna of the Pacific Northwest region did not occur until the latter half of the 19th century. However, journals from the Lewis and Clark expedition provide the first documentation of Columbia River fishes.

  10. 33 CFR 165.1322 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1322 Section 165.1322 Navigation and..., Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1322 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1322 Section 165.1322 Navigation and..., Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1322 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1322 Section 165.1322 Navigation and..., Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area...

  13. The Columbia River: Its Future and You. Teacher's Manual for Grades 5-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Marcia

    Designed as a part of a multidisciplinary set of curricula and educational materials on the Columbia River, this teacher's guide focuses on the many uses of the river and the conflicts arising from those uses. This unit's major purpose is to help students in grades 5-8 to start thinking about how the resources of the Columbia River should be…

  14. Scappoose Formation, Columbia County, Oregon: new evidence of age and relation to Columbia River basalt group

    SciTech Connect

    VanAtta, R.O.; Kelty, K.B.

    1985-05-01

    The Scappoose Formation, considered to be late Oligocene to early Miocene in age, was originally believed to be disconformably separated from both the underlying Pittsburg Bluff Formation and the overlying Yakima subgroup of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Recent mapping and petrography show that it lies disconformably on both the Keasey and Pittsburg Bluff Formations, and interfingers with the Yakima Basalt. The Scappoose is composed of fluvial sandstone, conglomerate, and carbonaceous to coal-bearing mud rock, intertongued with shallow neritic to estuarine siltstone, mud rock, and minor sandstone. Chemistry of basalt clasts from fluvial conglomerates reveals that they are derived from the Yakima subgroup. Basalt conglomerate and palagonitic sediments in the upper part of the formation are intercalated with Grande Ronde basalt (Yakima subgroup) flows at many localities. Flows of Yakima Basalt are also invasive into originally wet, unconsolidated Scappoose sediment. Grande Ronde basalt and the Frenchman Springs Member of the Wanapum basalt overlie conglomerate of the Scappoose. In places, the Scappoose Formation is absent, and Yakima Basalt lies directly on the Pittsburg Bluff and Keasey Formations. The thickness of both the Scappoose Formation and the Columbia River Basalt Group varies widely, indicating that both were deposited over a paleotopography with a relief up to 800 ft (245 m). The definition of the boundaries of the Scappoose Formation should be revised, owing to the disconformable relation of the Scappoose to both the underlying Keasey and Pittsburg Bluff Formations and to the Scappoose's intercalation with the overlying Yakima Basalt. Definition of age must also be revised, inasmuch as sedimentation of the formation was coeval with Columbia River Basalt volcanism.

  15. Lower Columbia River Terminal Fisheries Research Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-04-01

    This notice announces BPA`S`s decision to fund the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the Clatsop Economic Development Committee for the Lower Columbia River Terminal Fisheries Research Project (Project). The Project will continue the testing of various species/stocks, rearing regimes, and harvest options for terminal fisheries, as a means to increase lower river sport and commercial harvest of hatchery fish, while providing both greater protection of weaker wild stocks and increasing the return of upriver salmon runs to potential Zone 6 Treaty fisheries. The Project involves relocating hatchery smolts to new, additional pen locations in three bays/sloughs in the lower Columbia River along both the Oregon and Washington sides. The sites are Blind Slough and Tongue Point in Clatsop County, Oregon, and Grays Bay/Deep River, Wahkiakum County, Washington. The smolts will be acclimated for various lengths of time in the net pens and released from these sites. The Project will expand upon an existing terminal fisheries project in Youngs Bay, Oregon. The Project may be expanded to other sites in the future, depending on the results of this initial expansion. BPA`S has determined the project is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and BPA`S is issuing this FONSI.

  16. PROTECTING GROUNDWATER & THE COLUMBIA RIVER AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    GERBER, M.S.

    2006-06-29

    Along the remote shores of the Columbia River in southeast Washington state, a race is on. Fluor Hanford, a prime cleanup contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford Site, is managing a massive, multi-faceted project to remove contaminants from the groundwater before they can reach the Columbia. Despite the daunting nature and size of the problem--about 80 square miles of aquifer under the site contains long-lived radionuclides and hazardous chemicals--significant progress is being made. Many groups are watching, speaking out, and helping. A large. passionate, diverse, and geographically dispersed community is united in its desire to protect the Columbia River--the eighth largest in the world--and have a voice in Hanford's future. Fluor Hanford and the DOE, along with the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) interact with all the stakeholders to make the best decisions. Together, they have made some remarkable strides in the battle against groundwater contamination under the site.

  17. Regional Sediment Budget of the Columbia River Littoral Cell, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buijsman, Maarten C.; Sherwood, C.R.; Gibbs, A.E.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Kaminsky, G.M.; Ruggiero, P.; Franklin, J.

    2002-01-01

    Summary -- In this Open-File Report we present calculations of changes in bathymetric and topographic volumes for the Grays Harbor, Willapa Bay, and Columbia River entrances and the adjacent coasts of North Beach, Grayland Plains, Long Beach, and Clatsop Plains for four intervals: pre-jetty - 1920s (Interval 1), 1920s - 1950s (Interval 2), 1950s - 1990s (Interval 3), and 1920s 1990s (Interval 4). This analysis is part of the Southwest Washington Coastal Erosion Study (SWCES), the goals of which are to understand and predict the morphologic behavior of the Columbia River littoral cell on a management scale of tens of kilometers and decades. We obtain topographic Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data from a joint project by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (DOE) and bathymetric data from the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (USC&GS), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), USGS, and the DOE. Shoreline data are digitized from T-Sheets and aerial photographs from the USC&GS and National Ocean Service (NOS). Instead of uncritically adjusting each survey to NAVD88, a common vertical land-based datum, we adjust some surveys to produce optimal results according to the following criteria. First, we minimize offsets in overlapping surveys within the same era, and second, we minimize bathymetric changes (relative to the 1990s) in deep water, where we assume minimal change has taken place. We grid bathymetric and topographic datasets using kriging and triangulation algorithms, calculate bathymetric-change surfaces for each interval, and calculate volume changes within polygons that are overlaid on the bathymetric-change surfaces. We find similar morphologic changes near the entrances to Grays Harbor and the Columbia River following jetty construction between 1898 and 1916 at the Grays Harbor entrance and between 1885 and

  18. Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, R.G.; Garrett, M.G. ); Schuler, C.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Eggs, blood, and carcasses of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and fish were collected and breeding success of eagles was monitored in the Columbia River estuary, 1980-87, to determine if contaminants were having an effect on productivity. High levels of dichloro diphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were found in eggs, blood from adults, and 2 eagle carcasses. Detectable levels of DDE and PCB's were found in blood of nestlings indicating they were exposed to these contaminants early in life. Increasing concentrations of DDE and PCB's with age also indicated accumulation of these contaminants. Adult eagles also had higher levels of mercury (Hg) in blood than subadults or young indicating accumulation with age. The high levels of DDE and PCB's were associated with eggshell thinning ([bar x] = 10%) and with productivity ([bar x] = 0.56 young/occupied site) that was lower than that of healthy populations (i.e., [ge]1.00 young/occupied site). DDE and PCB's had a deleterious effect on reproduction of bald eagles in the estuary. The role dioxins play in eagle reproduction remains unclear, but concentrations in eagle eggs were similar to those in laboratory studies on other species where dioxins adversely affected hatchability of eggs. Probable source of these contaminants include dredged river sediments and hydroelectric dams, and the proper management of each may reduce the amount of contaminants released into the Columbia River estuary. 46 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Record of recent river channel instability, Cheakamus Valley, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, John J.; Turner, Robert J. W.; Reyes, Alberto V.

    2003-07-01

    Rivers flowing from glacier-clad Quaternary volcanoes in southwestern British Columbia have high sediment loads and anabranching and braided planforms. Their floodplains aggrade in response to recurrent large landslides on the volcanoes and to advance of glaciers during periods of climate cooling. In this paper, we document channel instability and aggradation during the last 200 years in lower Cheakamus River valley. Cheakamus River derives much of its flow and nearly all of its sediment from the Mount Garibaldi massif, which includes a number of volcanic centres dominated by Mount Garibaldi volcano. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon and dendrochronological dating of recent floodplain sediments at North Vancouver Outdoor School in Cheakamus Valley show that Cheakamus River aggraded its floodplain about 1-2 m and buried a valley-floor forest in the early or mid 1800s. The aggradation was probably caused by a large (ca. 15-25×10 6 m 3) landslide from the flank of Mount Garibaldi, 15 km north of our study site, in 1855 or 1856. Examination of historical aerial photographs dating back to 1947 indicates that channel instability triggered by this event persisted until the river was dyked in the late 1950s. Our observations are consistent with data from many other mountain areas that suggest rivers with large, but highly variable sediment loads may rapidly aggrade their floodplains following a large spike in sediment supply. Channel instability may persist for decades to centuries after the triggering event.

  20. Columbia River: Terminal fisheries research project. 1994 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, P.; Miller, M.; Hill, J.

    1996-12-01

    Columbia River terminal fisheries have been conducted in Youngs Bay, Oregon, since the early 1960`s targeting coho salmon produced at the state facility on the North Fork Klaskanine River. In 1977 the Clatsop County Economic Development Council`s (CEDC) Fisheries Project began augmenting the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife production efforts. Together ODFW and CEDC smolt releases totaled 5,060,000 coho and 411,300 spring chinook in 1993 with most of the releases from the net pen acclimation program. During 1980-82 fall commercial terminal fisheries were conducted adjacent to the mouth of Big Creek in Oregon. All past terminal fisheries were successful in harvesting surplus hatchery fish with minimal impact on nonlocal weak stocks. In 1993 the Northwest Power Planning Council recommended in its` Strategy for Salmon that terminal fishing sites be identified and developed. The Council called on the Bonneville Power Administration to fund a 10-year study to investigate the feasibility of creating and expanding terminal known stock fisheries in the Columbia River Basin. The findings of the initial year of the study are included in this report. The geographic area considered for study extends from Bonneville Dam to the river mouth. The initial year`s work is the beginning of a 2-year research stage to investigate potential sites, salmon stocks, and methodologies; a second 3-year stage will focus on expansion in Youngs Bay and experimental releases into sites with greatest potential; and a final 5-year phase establishing programs at full capacity at all acceptable sites. After ranking all possible sites using five harvest and five rearing criteria, four sites in Oregon (Tongue Point, Blind Slough, Clifton Channel and Wallace Slough) and three in Washington (Deep River, Steamboat Slough and Cathlamet Channel) were chosen for study.

  1. Portland, Mount Hood, & Columbia River Gorge, Oregon, Perspective View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Portland, the largest city in Oregon, is located on the Columbia River at the northern end of the Willamette Valley. On clear days, Mount Hood highlights the Cascade Mountains backdrop to the east. The Columbia is the largest river in the American Northwest and is navigable up to and well beyond Portland. It is also the only river to fully cross the Cascade Range, and has carved the Columbia River Gorge, which is seen in the left-central part of this view. A series of dams along the river, at topographically favorable sites, provide substantial hydroelectric power to the region.

    This perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), a Landsat satellite image, and a false sky. Topographic expression is vertically exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data substantially help in analyzing Landsat images by revealing the third dimension of Earth's surface, topographic height. The Landsat archive is managed by the U.S. Geological Survey's Eros Data Center (USGS EDC).

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet

  2. Columbia River food webs: Developing a broader scientific foundation for river restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, J. Richard; Beauchamp, David; Bisson, Peter A.; Congleton, James; Henny, Charles; Huntly, Nancy; Lamberson, Roland; Levings, Colin; Naiman, Robert J.; Pearcy, William; Rieman, Bruce; Ruggerone, Greg; Scarnecchia, Dennis; Smouse, Peter; Wood, Chris C.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this report are to provide a fundamental understanding of aquatic food webs in the Columbia River Basin and to illustrate and summarize their influences on native fish restoration efforts. The spatial scope addresses tributaries, impoundments, the free-flowing Columbia and Snake rivers, as well as the estuary and plume. Achieving the Council's vision for the Columbia River Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCC 2009-09) of sustaining a "productive and diverse community" that provides "abundant" harvest, is best accomplished through a time-prioritized action plan, one that complements other approaches while addressing important challenges and uncertainties related to the Basin's food webs. Note that the oceanic food webs, although of immense importance in sustaining fish populations, are not considered beyond the plume since they involve an additional set of complex and rapidly evolving issues. An analysis of oceanic food webs of relevance to the Columbia River requires a separately focused effort (e.g., Hoegh- Guldberg and Bruno 2010).

  3. 76 FR 21253 - Safety Zone; M/V DAVY CROCKETT, Columbia River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; M/V DAVY CROCKETT, Columbia River AGENCY... the emergency safety zone established on the waters of the Columbia River surrounding the M/V DAVY... state of and ongoing response operations involving the M/V DAVY CROCKETT. All persons and vessels...

  4. 75 FR 61354 - Safety Zone; Interstate 5 Bridge Repairs, Columbia River, Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Interstate 5 Bridge Repairs, Columbia River... Interstate 5 Bridge. The safety zone is necessary to ensure the safety of the workers involved as well as the...; Interstate 5 Bridge Repairs, Columbia River, Portland, OR. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1365 - Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA. 80.1365 Section 80.1365 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1365 Columbia River Entrance, OR/WA. A line drawn from the...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1316 - Safety Zone; Columbia River, Astoria, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 CFR 165.7, or any other reasonable method. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Columbia River....1316 Safety Zone; Columbia River, Astoria, Oregon. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1316 - Safety Zone; Columbia River, Astoria, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 CFR 165.7, or any other reasonable method. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone; Columbia River....1316 Safety Zone; Columbia River, Astoria, Oregon. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1316 - Safety Zone; Columbia River, Astoria, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 CFR 165.7, or any other reasonable method. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone; Columbia River....1316 Safety Zone; Columbia River, Astoria, Oregon. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1316 - Safety Zone; Columbia River, Astoria, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 CFR 165.7, or any other reasonable method. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone; Columbia River....1316 Safety Zone; Columbia River, Astoria, Oregon. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1316 - Safety Zone; Columbia River, Astoria, Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 CFR 165.7, or any other reasonable method. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone; Columbia River....1316 Safety Zone; Columbia River, Astoria, Oregon. (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

  11. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix J: Recreation.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix J of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on the recreational activities in the region. Major sections include the following: scope and processes; recreation in the Columbia River Basin today - by type, location, participation, user characteristics, factors which affect usage, and managing agencies; recreation analysis procedures and methodology; and alternatives and their impacts.

  12. 76 FR 34862 - Safety Zone; M/V DAVY CROCKETT, Columbia River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; M/V DAVY CROCKETT, Columbia River AGENCY... enforcement of a safety zone established on the waters of the Columbia River surrounding the M/ V DAVY... hazards associated with ongoing salvage operations involving the M/ V DAVY CROCKETT. All persons...

  13. 76 FR 49664 - Safety Zone; M/V DAVY CROCKETT, Columbia River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; M/V DAVY CROCKETT, Columbia River AGENCY... enforcement of a safety zone established on the waters of the Columbia River surrounding the M/ V DAVY... hazards associated with ongoing salvage operations involving the M/ V DAVY CROCKETT. All persons...

  14. Human scenarios for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Harper, B.L.; Lane, N.K.; Strenge, D.L.; Spivey, R.B.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Impact Assessment (CRCIA) was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to humans. Because humans affected by the Columbia river are involved in a wide range of activities, various scenarios have been developed on which to base the risk assessments. The scenarios illustrate the range of activities possible by members of the public coming in contact with the Columbia River so that the impact of contaminants in the river on human health can be assessed. Each scenario illustrates particular activity patterns by a specific group. Risk will be assessed at the screening level for each scenario. This report defines the scenarios and the exposure factors that will be the basis for estimating the potential range of risk to human health from Hanford-derived radioactive as well as non-radioactive contaminants associated with the Columbia River.

  15. 33 CFR 165.1335 - Security Zone; Vessels Carrying Hazardous Cargo, Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Zone as defined in 33 CFR 3.65-15 and the COTP Columbia River determines that a security zone is... Hazardous Cargo, Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone. 165.1335 Section 165.1335 Navigation and... Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: All...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1335 - Security Zone; Vessels Carrying Hazardous Cargo, Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Zone as defined in 33 CFR 3.65-15 and the COTP Columbia River determines that a security zone is... Hazardous Cargo, Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone. 165.1335 Section 165.1335 Navigation and... Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: All...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1335 - Security Zone; Vessels Carrying Hazardous Cargo, Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Zone as defined in 33 CFR 3.65-15 and the COTP Columbia River determines that a security zone is... Hazardous Cargo, Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone. 165.1335 Section 165.1335 Navigation and... Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: All...

  18. Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Dan

    2009-04-16

    Puget Sound/Coastal Washington hatchery programs, followed by the development in 2005 of a suite of analytical tools to support application of the principles (all reports and tools are available at www.hatcheryreform.us). In 2005, Congress directed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) to replicate the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project in the Columbia River Basin. The HSRG was expanded to 14 members to include individuals with specific knowledge about the Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations. This second phase was initially envisioned as a one-year review, with emphasis on the Lower Columbia River hatchery programs. It became clear however, that the Columbia River Basin needed to be viewed as an inter-connected ecosystem in order for the review to be useful. The project scope was subsequently expanded to include the entire Basin, with funding for a second year provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The objective of the HSRG's Columbia River Basin review was to change the focus of the Columbia River hatchery system. In the past, these hatchery programs have been aimed at supplying adequate numbers of fish for harvest as mitigation primarily for hydropower development in the Basin. A new, ecosystem-based approach is founded on the idea that harvest goals are sustainable only if they are compatible with conservation goals. The challenge before the HSRG was to determine whether or not conservation and harvest goals could be met by fishery managers and, if so, how. The HSRG determined that in order to address these twin goals, both hatchery and harvest reforms are necessary. The HSRG approach represents an important change of direction in managing hatcheries in the region. It provides a clear demonstration that current hatchery programs can indeed be redirected to better meet both

  19. Update of Columbia River flow and temperature data measured at Priest Rapids Dam and Vernita Bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Newbill, C.A.

    1983-09-01

    Columbia River temperatures and flow rates are collected daily at Priest Rapids Dam and Vernita Bridge. These data are necessary for assessing trends or changes in river conditions downstream of Priest Rapids Dam. In order to analyze this data, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a computerized data base using existing US Geological Survey flow and temperature records at Priest Rapids Dam and Vernita Bridge. Daily-averaged temperature and daily flow information on the Columbia River just downstream of Priest Rapids Dam and upstream of river mile 380 were collected and stored in a data base. A newly developed computer model, COLSTAT (Columbia River Statistical Update), used the data base to statistically analyze temperature and flow conditions by computing the frequency of occurrence and duration of selected temperatures and flow rates for the Columbia River. Information regarding the data base is presented, as well as, a description of the COLSTAT model.

  20. 33 CFR 165.1323 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Willamette River Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1323 Section 165.1323 Navigation and Navigable... Columbia River Zone. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the...″ W thence to 45°34′44″ N, 122°44′51″ W thence to 45°34′45″ N, 122°44′53″ W thence to 45°34′47” N,...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1323 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Willamette River Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1323 Section 165.1323 Navigation and Navigable... Columbia River Zone. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the...″ W thence to 45°34′44″ N, 122°44′51″ W thence to 45°34′45″ N, 122°44′53″ W thence to 45°34′47” N,...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1323 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Willamette River Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1323 Section 165.1323 Navigation and Navigable... Columbia River Zone. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the...″ W thence to 45°34′44″ N, 122°44′51″ W thence to 45°34′45″ N, 122°44′53″ W thence to 45°34′47” N,...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1323 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Willamette River Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1323 Section 165.1323 Navigation and Navigable... Columbia River Zone. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area (RNA): All waters of the...″ W thence to 45°34′44″ N, 122°44′51″ W thence to 45°34′45″ N, 122°44′53″ W thence to 45°34′47” N,...

  4. Assessing Pacific Lamprey Status in the Columbia River Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Mary L.; Close, David A.

    2003-06-01

    In the Columbia River drainage, salmonid-based monitoring programs have historically been used to assess status of both adult and juvenile Pacific lamprey. We compared adult lamprey counts at hydropower dams to recent radiotelemetry results and found that the counts underestimated losses between some dams and overestimated passage times through reservoirs. Count data were not correlated with trap captures of adults conducted in the same area and at the same time, likely due to lamprey-specific behaviors that result in inaccurate counts. We recommend maintenance of traditional count protocols, but emphasize the need for continued research to develop an accurate correction factor to apply to these data. Existing salmonid-based sampling for juvenile lamprey is inadequate and we highlight the need for standardized larval lamprey monitoring that provides both abundance and size distributions. Our electrofishing survey for juvenile lamprey indicated that this technique provides critical information on lamprey recruitment and is feasible over large spatial scales.

  5. Causes of haze in the Columbia River Gorge

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Green; Jin Xu

    2007-08-15

    Visibility impairment in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area is an area of concern. A field study conducted from July 2003 to February 2005 was followed by data analysis and receptor modeling to better understand the temporal and spatial patterns of haze and the sources contributing to the haze in the Columbia River Gorge in the states of Washington and Oregon. The nephelometer light scattering and surface meteorological data at eight sites along the gorge showed five distinct wind patterns, each with its characteristic diurnal and spatial patterns in light scattering by particles (b{sub sp}). In summer, winds were nearly always from west to east (upgorge) and showed decreasing b{sub sp} with distance into the gorge and a pronounced effect of the Portland, OR, metropolitan area on haze, especially in the western portions of the gorge. Winter often had winds from the east with very high levels of b{sub sp}, especially at the eastern gorge sites, with sources east of the gorge responsible for much of the haze. The major chemical components responsible for haze were organic carbon, sulfate, and nitrate. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) using chemically speciated Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments data indicated seven source factors in the western gorge and five factors in the eastern gorge. Organic mass is a large contributor to haze in the gorge in all seasons, with a peak in fall. Approximately half of the organic mass is biomass smoke, with mobile sources as the second largest contributor. PMF analysis showed nitrates mainly attributed to a generic secondary nitrate factor. Sulfate is a significant contributor in all seasons, with peak sulfate concentrations in summer. Sources east of the gorge, likely a coal-fired power plant, nearby dairy farm, and upriver cities, appear to be major contributors to wintertime haze in the gorge. 22 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Hierarchical Mapping of Landforms along the Columbia River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Mapping and hierarchical classification of landforms along the Columbia River estuary provides insight into formative geologic, hydrologic, and biologic processes and their associated ecosystems, thereby aiding assessment of future trajectories and restoration approaches. The Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification includes an inventory of landforms along 230 km of riverine estuary between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam in Oregon and Washington, USA. Landforms were mapped by interpretation of lidar topography supplemented with high-resolution bathymetry, aerial photographs, soil maps, and historical maps. Groupings of landforms were assigned to formative process regimes. These landform groupings relate ecosystems to geophysical processes. Assessment of historical changes to the processes that form and maintain landforms thus has implications for the types of ecosystems that can form and persist along the estuary. The estuary was historically a complex system of channels with a floodplain dominated by extensive tidal wetlands in the lower reaches and backswamp lakes and wetlands in upper reaches. Natural levees flank most channels in the upper reaches, locally including areas of ridge and swale topography and crevasse splays that intrude into backswamps. Other Holocene process regimes affecting floodplain morphology have included volcanogenic deltas, tributary fans, eolian dunes, and landslides. Pre-Holocene landforms are locally prominent and include ancient fluvial deposits and bedrock. Historical changes to streamflow regimes, floodplain isolation, and direct anthropogenic disturbance have resulted in channel narrowing and limited the amount of floodplain that can be shaped by flowing water. Floodplain isolation has caused relative subsidence of tidal floodplains along much of the lower estuary. Most extant landforms are on trajectories strongly influenced by humans and new landforms are mostly created by humans.

  7. Columbia River Pathway Dosimetry Report, 1944-1992. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Farris, W.T.; Napier, B.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Snyder, S.F.; Shipler, D.B.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of radionuclide emissions since 1944 from the Hanford Site. One objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate doses to individuals who were exposed to the radionuclides released to the Columbia River (the river pathway). This report documents the last in a series of dose calculations conducted on the Columbia River pathway. The report summarizes the technical approach used to estimate radiation doses to three classes of representative individuals who may have used the Columbia River as a source of drinking water, food, or for recreational or occupational purposes. In addition, the report briefly explains the approaches used to estimate the radioactivity released to the river, the development of the parameters used to model the uptake and movement of radioactive materials in aquatic systems such as the Columbia River, and the method of calculating the Columbia River`s transport of radioactive materials. Potential Columbia River doses have been determined for representative individuals since the initiation of site activities in 1944. For this report, dose calculations were performed using conceptual models and computer codes developed for the purpose of estimating doses. All doses were estimated for representative individuals who share similar characteristics with segments of the general population.

  8. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix N: Wildlife.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River System is a vast and complex combination of Federal and non-Federal facilities used for many purposes including power production, irrigation, navigation, flood control, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat and municipal and industrial water supply. Each river use competes for the limited water resources in the Columbia River Basin. This technical appendix addresses only the effects of alternative system operating strategies for managing the Columbia River system. The environmental impact statement (EIS) itself and some of the other appendices present analyses of the alternative approaches to the other three decisions considered as part of the SOR. This document is the product of the Wildlife Work Group, focusing on wildlife impacts but not including fishes. Topics covered include the following: scope and process; existing and affected environment, including specific discussion of 18 projects in the Columbia river basin. Analysis, evaluation, and alternatives are presented for all projects. System wide impacts to wildlife are also included.

  9. Impacts of the Columbia River Hydroelectric System on Mainstem Habitats of Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, Dennis D.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Parsley, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    Salmonid habitats in mainstem reaches of the Columbia and Snake rivers have changed dramatically during the past 60 years because of hydroelectric development and operation. Only about 13 and 58% of riverine habitats in the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, remain. Most riverine habitat is found in the upper Snake River; however, it is upstream of Hells Canyon Dam and not accessible to anadromous salmonids. We determined that approximately 661 and 805 km of the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, were once used by fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for spawning. Fall chinook salmon currently use only about 85 km of the mainstem Columbia River and 163 km of the mainstem Snake River for spawning. We used a geomorphic model to identify three river reaches downstream of present migration barriers with high potential for restoration of riverine processes: the Columbia River upstream of John Day Dam, the Columbia-Snake-Yakima River confluence, and the lower Snake River upstream of Little Goose Dam. Our analysis substantiated the assertion that historic spawning areas for fall chinook salmon occurred primarily within wide alluvial floodplains once common in the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers. These areas possessed more unconsolidated sediment, more bars and islands, and had lower water surface slopes than areas not extensively used. Because flows in the mainstem are now highly regulated, the pre-development alluvial river ecosystem is not expected to be restored simply by operational modification of one or more dams. Establishing more normative flow regimes, specifically sustained peak flows for scouring, is essential to restoring the functional characteristics of existing, altered habitats. Restoring production of fall chinook salmon to any of these reaches also requires that population genetics and viability of potential seed populations (i.e., from tributaries and tailrace spawning areas, and hatcheries) be considered.

  10. Impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauble, D.D.; Hanrahan, T.P.; Geist, D.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Salmonid habitats in main-stem reaches of the Columbia and Snake rivers have changed dramatically during the past 60 years because of hydroelectric development and operation. Only about 13% and 58% of riverine habitats in the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, remain. Most riverine habitat is found in the upper Snake River; however, it is upstream of Hells Canyon Dam and not accessible to anadromous salmonids. We determined that approximately 661 and 805 km of the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, were once used by fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for spawning. Fall chinook salmon currently use only about 85 km of the main-stem Columbia River and 163 km of the main-stem Snake River for spawning. We used a geomorphic model to identify three river reaches downstream of present migration barriers with high potential for restoration of riverine processes: the Columbia River upstream of John Day Dam, the Columbia-Snake-Yakima River confluence, and the lower Snake River upstream of Little Goose Dam. Our analysis substantiated the assertion that historic spawning areas for fall chinook salmon occurred primarily within wide alluvial floodplains, which were once common in the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers. These areas possessed more unconsolidated sediment and more bars and islands and had lower water surface slopes than did less extensively used areas. Because flows in the main stem are now highly regulated, the predevelopment alluvial river ecosystem is not expected to be restored simply by operational modification of one or more dams. Establishing more normative flow regimes - specifically, sustained peak flows for scouring - is essential to restoring the functional characteristics of existing, altered habitats. Restoring production of fall chinook salmon to any of these reaches also requires that population genetics and viability of potential seed populations (i.e., from tributaries, tailrace spawning areas, and hatcheries) be considered.

  11. Development of a high-resolution bathymetry dataset for the Columbia River through the Hanford Reach

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.; Larson, Kyle B.; Lettrick, Joseph W.

    2010-10-08

    A bathymetric and topographic data collection and processing effort involving existing and newly collected data has been performed for the Columbia River through the Hanford Reach in central Washington State, extending 60-miles from the tailrace of Priest Rapids Dam (river mile 397) to near the vicinity of the Interstate 182 bridge just upstream of the Yakima River confluence (river mile 337). The contents of this report provide a description of the data collections, data inputs, processing methodology, and final data quality assessment used to develop a comprehensive and continuous merged 1m resolution bathymetric and topographic surface dataset for the Columbia River through the Hanford Reach.

  12. Developing a broader scientific foundation for river restoration: Columbia River food webs.

    PubMed

    Naiman, Robert J; Alldredge, J Richard; Beauchamp, David A; Bisson, Peter A; Congleton, James; Henny, Charles J; Huntly, Nancy; Lamberson, Roland; Levings, Colin; Merrill, Erik N; Pearcy, William G; Rieman, Bruce E; Ruggerone, Gregory T; Scarnecchia, Dennis; Smouse, Peter E; Wood, Chris C

    2012-12-26

    Well-functioning food webs are fundamental for sustaining rivers as ecosystems and maintaining associated aquatic and terrestrial communities. The current emphasis on restoring habitat structure--without explicitly considering food webs--has been less successful than hoped in terms of enhancing the status of targeted species and often overlooks important constraints on ecologically effective restoration. We identify three priority food web-related issues that potentially impede successful river restoration: uncertainty about habitat carrying capacity, proliferation of chemicals and contaminants, and emergence of hybrid food webs containing a mixture of native and invasive species. Additionally, there is the need to place these food web considerations in a broad temporal and spatial framework by understanding the consequences of altered nutrient, organic matter (energy), water, and thermal sources and flows, reconnecting critical habitats and their food webs, and restoring for changing environments. As an illustration, we discuss how the Columbia River Basin, site of one of the largest aquatic/riparian restoration programs in the United States, would benefit from implementing a food web perspective. A food web perspective for the Columbia River would complement ongoing approaches and enhance the ability to meet the vision and legal obligations of the US Endangered Species Act, the Northwest Power Act (Fish and Wildlife Program), and federal treaties with Northwest Indian Tribes while meeting fundamental needs for improved river management. PMID:23197837

  13. Developing a broader scientific foundation for river restoration: Columbia River food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naiman, Robert J.; Alldredge, Richard; Beauchamp, David A.; Bisson, Peter A.; Congleton, James; Henny, Charles J.; Huntly, Nancy; Lamberson, Roland; Levings, Colin; Merrill, Erik N.; Pearcy, William G.; Rieman, Bruce E.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Scarnecchia, Dennis; Smouse, Peter E.; Wood, Chris C.

    2012-01-01

    Well-functioning food webs are fundamental for sustaining rivers as ecosystems and maintaining associated aquatic and terrestrial communities. The current emphasis on restoring habitat structure—without explicitly considering food webs—has been less successful than hoped in terms of enhancing the status of targeted species and often overlooks important constraints on ecologically effective restoration. We identify three priority food web-related issues that potentially impede successful river restoration: uncertainty about habitat carrying capacity, proliferation of chemicals and contaminants, and emergence of hybrid food webs containing a mixture of native and invasive species. Additionally, there is the need to place these food web considerations in a broad temporal and spatial framework by understanding the consequences of altered nutrient, organic matter (energy), water, and thermal sources and flows, reconnecting critical habitats and their food webs, and restoring for changing environments. As an illustration, we discuss how the Columbia River Basin, site of one of the largest aquatic/riparian restoration programs in the United States, would benefit from implementing a food web perspective. A food web perspective for the Columbia River would complement ongoing approaches and enhance the ability to meet the vision and legal obligations of the US Endangered Species Act, the Northwest Power Act (Fish and Wildlife Program), and federal treaties with Northwest Indian Tribes while meeting fundamental needs for improved river management.

  14. Developing a broader scientific foundation for river restoration: Columbia River food webs

    PubMed Central

    Naiman, Robert J.; Alldredge, J. Richard; Beauchamp, David A.; Bisson, Peter A.; Congleton, James; Henny, Charles J.; Huntly, Nancy; Lamberson, Roland; Levings, Colin; Merrill, Erik N.; Pearcy, William G.; Rieman, Bruce E.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Scarnecchia, Dennis; Smouse, Peter E.; Wood, Chris C.

    2012-01-01

    Well-functioning food webs are fundamental for sustaining rivers as ecosystems and maintaining associated aquatic and terrestrial communities. The current emphasis on restoring habitat structure—without explicitly considering food webs—has been less successful than hoped in terms of enhancing the status of targeted species and often overlooks important constraints on ecologically effective restoration. We identify three priority food web-related issues that potentially impede successful river restoration: uncertainty about habitat carrying capacity, proliferation of chemicals and contaminants, and emergence of hybrid food webs containing a mixture of native and invasive species. Additionally, there is the need to place these food web considerations in a broad temporal and spatial framework by understanding the consequences of altered nutrient, organic matter (energy), water, and thermal sources and flows, reconnecting critical habitats and their food webs, and restoring for changing environments. As an illustration, we discuss how the Columbia River Basin, site of one of the largest aquatic/riparian restoration programs in the United States, would benefit from implementing a food web perspective. A food web perspective for the Columbia River would complement ongoing approaches and enhance the ability to meet the vision and legal obligations of the US Endangered Species Act, the Northwest Power Act (Fish and Wildlife Program), and federal treaties with Northwest Indian Tribes while meeting fundamental needs for improved river management. PMID:23197837

  15. Seasonal Juvenile Salmonid Presence and Migratory Behavior in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Welch, Ian D.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.

    2009-04-30

    To facilitate preparing Biological Assessments of proposed channel maintenance projects, the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to consolidate and synthesize available information about the use of the lower Columbia River and estuary by juvenile anadromous salmonids. The information to be synthesized included existing published documents as well as data from five years (2004-2008) of acoustic telemetry studies conducted in the Columbia River estuary using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System. For this synthesis, the Columbia River estuary includes the section of the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam at river kilometer (Rkm) 235 downstream to the mouth where it enters the Pacific Ocean. In this report, we summarize the seasonal salmonid presence and migration patterns in the Columbia River estuary based on information from published studies as well as relevant data from acoustic telemetry studies conducted by NOAA Fisheries and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) between 2004 and 2008. Recent acoustic telemetry studies, conducted using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS; developed by the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers), provided information on the migratory behavior of juvenile steelhead (O. mykiss) and Chinook salmon in the Columbia River from Bonneville Dam to the Pacific Ocean. In this report, Section 2 provides a summary of information from published literature on the seasonal presence and migratory behavior of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Section 3 presents a detailed synthesis of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead migratory behavior based on use of the JSATS between 2004 and 2008. Section 4 provides a discussion of the information summarized in the report as well as information drawn from literature reviews on potential effects of channel maintenance activities to juvenile salmonids rearing in

  16. Goldschmidt Conference 2005: Field Trip Guide to the Columbia River Basalt Group

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Barton S.; Petcovic, Heather L.; Reidel, Steve P.

    2005-06-16

    This field trip guide was prepared for the 2005 Goldschmidt Conference held in Moscow, Idaho. The field trip guide provides a two day introduction to the features of the Columbia River Basalt Group in eastern Washington.

  17. Operational Hydrologic Forecasts in the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, K. Y.; Curry, J. A.; Webster, P. J.; Toma, V. E.; Jelinek, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Columbia River Basin (CRB) covers an area of ~670,000 km2 and stretches across parts of seven U.S. states and one Canadian province. The basin is subject to a variable climate, and moisture stored in snowpack during the winter is typically released in spring and early summer. These releases contribute to rapid increases in flow. A number of impoundments have been constructed on the Columbia River main stem and its tributaries for the purposes of flood control, navigation, irrigation, recreation, and hydropower. Storage reservoirs allow water managers to adjust natural flow patterns to benefit water and energy demands. In the past decade, the complexity of water resource management issues in the basin has amplified the importance of streamflow forecasting. Medium-range (1-10 day) numerical weather forecasts of precipitation and temperature can be used to drive hydrological models. In this work, probabilistic meteorological variables from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) are used to force the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. Soil textures were obtained from FAO data; vegetation types / land cover information from UMD land cover data; stream networks from USGS HYDRO1k; and elevations from CGIAR version 4 SRTM data. The surface energy balance in 0.25° (~25 km) cells is closed through an iterative process operating at a 6 hour timestep. Output fluxes from a number of cells in the basin are combined through one-dimensional flow routing predicated on assumptions of linearity and time invariance. These combinations lead to daily mean streamflow estimates at key locations throughout the basin. This framework is suitable for ingesting daily numerical weather prediction data, and was calibrated using USGS mean daily streamflow data at the Dalles Dam (TDA). Operational streamflow forecasts in the CRB have been active since October 2012. These are 'naturalized' or unregulated forecasts. In 2013, increases of ~2600 m3/s (~48% of

  18. 77 FR 74781 - Safety Zones; Columbia Grain and United Grain Corporation Facilities; Columbia and Willamette Rivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Columbia Grain and United Grain.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing temporary safety zones around the Columbia Grain facility on...

  19. Climate Change Impacts on Stream Temperatures in the Columbia River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yearsley, J. R.; Crozier, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Columbia River system, a drainage basin of 668,000 sq. km that includes the Columbia and Snake River rivers, supports a large population of anadromous, cold-water fishes. 13 species of these fishes are listed under the Endangered Species Act and are vulnerable to impacts of climate change. Bioenergetics models for these species have been developed by the federal agencies that operate the Federal Columbia River Power System. These models simulate the impacts on anadromous fishes as they move through the power system both upstream as adults and downstream as juveniles. Water temperature simulations required for input to the bioenergetics models were made for two different segments of the Columbia River system; one being the portions from the Canadian border to Bonneville Dam and the Snake River from Brownlee Dam in Idaho to its confluence and the other, the Salmon River basin in Idaho. Simulations were performed for the period 1928-1998 with the semi-Lagrangian stream temperature model, RBM, for existing conditions and for a two 2040 climate scenarios, a cool, dry condition (ECHO_g model) and a warm, wet condition (MIROC_3.2 model). Natural flows were simulated with the variable infiltration capacity model, VIC, and modified for Columbia River project operations using HYDSIM, a hydro system regulation model that simulates month-to-month operation of the Pacific Northwest hydropower system.

  20. Proceedings of the Columbia River Estuary Conference on Ecosystem Restoration.

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Bonneville Power Administration

    2008-08-01

    The 2008 Columbia River Estuary Conference was held at the Liberty Theater in Astoria, Oregon, on April 19-20. The conference theme was ecosystem restoration. The purpose of the conference was to exchange data and information among researchers, policy-makers, and the public, i.e., interrelate science with management. Conference organizers invited presentations synthesizing material on Restoration Planning and Implementation (Session 1), Research to Reduce Restoration Uncertainties (Session 2), Wetlands and Flood Management (Session 3), Action Effectiveness Monitoring (Session 4), and Management Perspectives (Session 5). A series of three plenary talks opened the conference. Facilitated speaker and audience discussion periods were held at the end of each session. Contributed posters conveyed additional data and information. These proceedings include abstracts and notes documenting questions from the audience and clarifying answers from the presenter for each talk. The proceedings also document key points from the discussion periods at the end of each session. The conference program is outlined in the agenda section. Speaker biographies are presented in Appendix A. Poster titles and authors are listed in Appendix B. A list of conference attendees is contained in Appendix C.

  1. Adaptive Governance and Resilience: the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosens, B.; Boll, J.; Fremier, A. K.

    2012-12-01

    Ecologists have made progress in developing criteria for describing the resilience of an ecological system. Expansion of that effort to social-ecological systems has begun the identification of institutional changes to the social system necessary to foster ecological resilience including the use of adaptive management and integrated ecosystem management. But the changes in governance needed to foster ecosystem resilience will not be adopted by democratic societies without careful attention to their effect on the social system itself. Increased flexibility by resource management agencies in the form of adaptive management must be exercised in a manner that is legitimate and responsive to the social system. In addition, any change in governance must begin with the current complexities in which jurisdictional boundaries do not mimic those of ecosystems, and economic dependency on development imposes risk on any management change. We use the concept of legitimacy in governance as a necessary component of any change to achieve greater social-ecological resilience and turn to network theory as a means to facilitate legitimacy across existing geographic and subject matter jurisdictional boundaries. In application to the Columbia River Basin shared by the US and Canada, we explore the concept of resilience in a complex multi-jurisdictional watershed, taking the position that while adaptive management may foster ecological resilience, it is only one factor in the institutional changes needed to foster social-ecological resilience captured in the concept of adaptive governance.

  2. Alteration of Rock Fragments from Columbia River Basalt Microcosms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Velbel, Michael A.; McKay, David S.; Stevens, Todd O.

    1999-01-01

    During an earlier study, microorganisms were grown microcosms consisting of sterilized chips of Columbia River Basalt (CRB) and natural CRB ground water with its natural microflora; environmental conditions simulated a deep subsurface, anaerobic, dark environment. Subsequent scanning and transmission electron microscope (SEM and TEM) studies revealed the presence of several types of bacteria and biofilm, some of which were mineralized. Some of these biological features are very similar to possible biogenic features found in two meteorites from Mars, ALH84001 (found in Antarctica) and Nakhla (observed to fall in Egypt). Both ALH84001 and Nakhla contain traces of low-temperature aqueous alteration of silicates, oxides, and sulfides. The goals of this study are to use high-resolution field-emission SEM (FE-SEM) to examine the CRB samples for evidence of alteration features similar to those in the martian meteorites, to determine the extent of alteration during the CRB microcosm experiments, and to determine whether effects of biological activity can be distinguished from inorganic effects.

  3. The Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2007-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted interim groundwater remedial activities on the Hanford Site since the mid-1990s for several groundwater contamination plumes. DOE established the Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Project (Technologies Project) in 2006 to evaluate alternative treatment technologies. The objectives for the technology project are as follows: develop a 300 Area polyphosphate treatability test to immobilize uranium, design and test infiltration of a phosphate/apatite technology for Sr-90 at 100-N, perform carbon tetrachloride and chloroform attenuation parameter studies, perform vadose zone chromium characterization and geochemistry studies, perform in situ biostimulation of chromium studies for a reducing barrier at 100-D, and perform a treatability test for phytoremediation for Sr-90 at 100-N. This document provides the quality assurance guidelines that will be followed by the Technologies Project. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is based on the quality assurance requirements of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance, and 10 CFR 830, Subpart A--Quality Assurance Requirements as delineated in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Standards-Based Management System. In addition, the technology project is subject to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA/240/B-01/003, QA/R-5). The Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD, DOE/RL-96-68) apply to portions of this project and to the subcontractors. HASQARD requirements are discussed within applicable sections of this plan.

  4. Predictability of wind ramps in the Columbia River Gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C.

    2013-12-01

    Wind generation capacity in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) system, which stands at 4,500 MW currently, can at time account for 70% of total electricity demand. With 2,500 additional MW of wind generation capacity expected by 2015, increasingly accurate forecasts are required to avoid water quality issues associated with hydropower dam overspill. Wind ramps, or large increases or decreases in wind generation over a short period of time, are particularly difficult to accurately forecast in the Columbia River Gorge area. Industry standard computational resources, combined with turbulence grey-zone issues associated with planetary boundary (PBL) schemes, suggest a leveling off of numerical weather prediction (NWP) model skill score with respect to increasing grid resolution until eddy resolving scales are resolved. However, we show that dispersion errors, which associated with wind ramps, continue to decrease for locations and seasons in which meso-scale and topographically forced diurnal motions account for a significant portion of the power spectral density of hub-height wind speeds.

  5. Monitoring groundwater and river interaction along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, M.D.

    1994-04-01

    As an adjunct to efficient Hanford Site characterization and remediation of groundwater contamination, an automatic monitor network has been used to measure Columbia River and adjacent groundwater levels in several areas of the Hanford Site since 1991. Water levels, temperatures, and electrical conductivity measured by the automatic monitor network provided an initial database with which to calibrate models and from which to infer ground and river water interactions for site characterization and remediation activities. Measurements of the dynamic river/aquifer system have been simultaneous at 1-hr intervals, with a quality suitable for hydrologic modeling and for computer model calibration and testing. This report describes the equipment, procedures, and results from measurements done in 1993.

  6. Summary of radiological monitoring of Columbia River water along the Hanford Reach, 1980 through 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Columbia River monitoring program, conducted as part of the SESP, provides a historical record of contaminant concentrations in the river attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and operations conducted at the Hanford Site. In addition to ongoing monitoring, special studies are conducted periodically to enhance the understanding of the transport and fate of contaminants in the river. The Columbia River monitoring program includes sampling of river water, river sediment, river-bank springs entering the river, and various types of aquatic biota found in or along the river. These samples are analyzed for radiological constituents and a wide range of chemical parameters. This report describes the water sampling component of the overall Columbia River monitoring program conducted during the years 1980 through 1989 and summarizes the radiological results generated through the program during this time period. The only radionuclides found in the river that were consistently influenced by Hanford were tritium and iodine-129. Strontium-90 and uranium, also attributable to Hanford operations, were present in localized areas within the river near ground-water discharge points; however, these contaminants are quickly dispersed within the river to concentrations similar to background.

  7. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  8. Isotopic Tracking of Hanford 300 Area Derived Uranium in the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, John N.; Dresel, P. Evan; Conrad, Mark E.; Patton, Gregory W.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2010-10-31

    Our objectives in this study are to quantify the discharge rate of uranium (U) to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site's 300 Area, and to follow that U down river to constrain its fate. Uranium from the Hanford Site has variable isotopic composition due to nuclear industrial processes carried out at the site. This characteristic makes it possible to use high-precision isotopic measurements of U in environmental samples to identify even trace levels of contaminant U, determine its sources, and estimate discharge rates. Our data on river water samples indicate that as much as 3.2 kg/day can enter the Columbia River from the 300 Area, which is only a small fraction of the total load of dissolved natural background U carried by the Columbia River. This very low-level of Hanford derived U can be discerned, despite dilution to < 1 percent of natural background U, 350 km downstream from the Hanford Site. These results indicate that isotopic methods can allow the amounts of U from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site entering the Columbia River to be measured accurately to ascertain whether they are an environmental concern, or are insignificant relative to natural uranium background in the Columbia River.

  9. Reconnaissance of contaminants in selected wastewater-treatment-plant effluent and stormwater runoff entering the Columbia River, Columbia River Basin, Washington and Oregon, 2008-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morace, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    With a better understanding of the presence of these contaminants in the environment, future work can focus on developing research to characterize the effects of these contaminants on aquatic life and prioritize toxic-reduction efforts for the Columbia River Basin.

  10. Investigation of groundwater seepage from the Hanford shoreline of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, W.D.; Carlile, J.M.V.

    1984-11-01

    Groundwater discharges to the Columbia River are evaluated by the Hanford Environmental Surveillance and Groundwater Surveillance Programs via monitoring of the Columbia River and Hanford groundwater. Both programs concluded that Hanford groundwater has not adversely affected Columbia River water quality. This report supplements the above programs by investigating the general characteristics of groundwater entering the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Specific objectives of the investigation were to identify general shoreline areas where Hanford-related materials were entering the river, and to evaluate qualitatively the physical characteristics and relative magnitudes of those discharges. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved visual inspection of Columbia River shoreline, within the Hanford Site, for indications of groundwater seepage. As a result of that inspection, 115 springs suspected of discharging groundwater were recorded. During Phase 2, water samples were collected from these springs and analyzed for Hanford-related materials known to be present in the groundwater. The specific materials used as indicators for the majority of samples were tritium or uranium and nitrate. The magnitude and distribution of concentrations measured in the spring samples were consistent with concentrations of these materials measured in groundwater near the sampled spring locations. Water samples were also collected from the Columbia River to investigate the localized effects of groundwater discharges occurring above and below river level. These samples were collected within 2 to 4 m of the Hanford shoreline and analyzed for tritium, nitrate, and uranium. Elevated concentrations were measured in river samples collected near areas where groundwater and spring concentrations were elevated. All concentrations were below applicable DOE Concentration Guides. 8 references, 6 figures, 7 tables.

  11. Predicting historic riparian vegetation in the Columbia River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaki, H.; Beechie, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    We developed a GIS data set that depicts pre-settlement riparian vegetation in the Columbia River basin to guide stream restoration for endangered salmon. To do this, we first created a data layer of historic riparian vegetation information from survey notes that were taken mid 19th to early 20th century during the Public Land Survey System (PLSS) conducted by General Land Office (GLO). Our reconstructed riparian vegetation data include randomly sampled basin-wide data (drainage area >200,000 km2), as well as intensively reconstructed watershed-level data (>3,000 km2). Second, based on the reconstructed riparian vegetation points, which are arrayed along a 1-mile (1600 m) grid, we are developing statistical models to estimate potential historic riparian vegetation types (conifer, hardwood, willow-shrub, grass, sage) as well as the probability of occurrence of individual species at stream reach level (~ 200 m) in the basin. We examined environmental variables, such as mean annual precipitation, average minimum and maximum temperature, channel gradient, channel bankfull width, floodplain width, and fine sediment supply potential, against five vegetation types and found that precipitation and temperature discriminate vegetation groups. We also developed vegetation response curves against each variable using kernel density estimates to describe the probability of each vegetation type occurring across the range of each environmental variable. Using a decision tree, we found that reaches greater than 8 m bankfull width (bfw) tended to develop riparian vegetation that is distinctly different from upland vegetation, whereas in small streams the riparian and upland vegetation were similar. Therefore, we analyzed the two channel size classes separately. It is notable that this 8-m threshold is identical to the threshold of channel migration in the study area, which was identified in a previous study (Hall et al. 2007). We adopted linear discriminant analysis (LDA), support

  12. 33 CFR 165.1322 - Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area: Willamette River Portland, Captain of the Port Columbia River Zone. 165.1322 Section 165.1322 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  13. 76 FR 73511 - Safety Zone; M/V DAVY CROCKETT, Columbia River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; M/V DAVY CROCKETT, Columbia River AGENCY... cofferdam at the M/V DAVY CROCKETT removal sight at approximate river mile 117. The original safety zone was... viewing the docket, call Renee V. Wright, Program Manager, Docket Operations, telephone (202)...

  14. 76 FR 58112 - Safety Zone; M/V DAVY CROCKETT, Columbia River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; M/V DAVY CROCKETT, Columbia River AGENCY... cofferdam at the M/V DAVY CROCKETT removal sight at approximate river mile 117. The original safety zone was... viewing the docket, call Renee V. Wright, Program Manager, Docket Operations, telephone...

  15. 76 FR 18397 - Safety Zones; M/V Davy Crockett, Columbia and Willamette Rivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; M/V Davy Crockett, Columbia and Willamette... Willamette Rivers surrounding the M/V DAVY CROCKETT. The Coast Guard is also reducing the size of the stationary emergency safety zone surrounding the M/V DAVY CROCKETT at approximately river mile 117 on...

  16. Preliminary subsurface hydrologic considerations: Columbia River Plateau Physiographic Province. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Veatch, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    This report contains a discussion of the hydrologic conditions of the Columbia River Plateau physiographic province. The Columbia River Plateau is underlain by a thick basalt sequence. The Columbia River basalt sequence contains both basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. These sedimentary interbeds, which are layers of sedimentary rock between lava flows, are the main aquifer zones in the basalt sequence. Permeable interflow zones, involving the permeable top and/or rubble bottom of a flow, are also water-transmitting zones. A number of stratigraphic units are present in the Pasco Basin, which is in the central part of the Columbia River Plateau. At a conceptual level, the stratigraphic sequence from the surface downward can be separated into four hydrostratigraphic systems. These are: (1) the unsaturated zone, (2) the unconfined aquifer, (3) the uppermost confined aquifers, and (4) the lower Yakima basalt hydrologic sequence. A conceptual layered earth model (LEM) has been developed. The LEM represents the major types of porous media (LEM units) that may be encountered at a number of places on the Columbia Plateau, and specifically in the Pasco Basin. The conceptual LEM is not representative of the actual three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic sequence and hydrologic conditions existing at any specific site within the Columbia Plateau physiographic province. However, the LEM may be useful for gaining a better understanding of how the hydrologic regime may change as a result of disruptive events that may interact with a waste repository in geologic media.

  17. Monitoring water-quality during pilot-dredging operations in the Willamette and Columbia Rivers, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, Joseph F.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

    1978-01-01

    Water quality was monitored in the Willamette and Columbia Rivers during a pilot dredging operation on December 16, 1977. Monitoring included in-situ measurements of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity in the Willamette and Columbia Rivers; analyses of dissolved ammonia, dissolved manganese, suspended-sediment concentration and particle size, loss on ignition, and total organic carbon in river-water samples; and analyses of percent moisture, particle size, density, selected nutrients, total organic carbon, and loss on ignition in dredged material and barge-overflow samples.

  18. Cataclysms and controversy -- aspects of the geomorphology of the Columbia River Gorge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, Jim; Burns, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Landslides and floods of lava and water tremendously affected the Columbia River during its long history of transecting the Cascade Volcanic Arc. This field trip touches on aspects of the resulting geology of the scenic Columbia River Gorge, including the river-blocking Bonneville landslide of ~550 years ago and the great late- Pleistocene Missoula floods. Not only did these events create great landscapes, but they inspired great geologists. Mid-nineteenth century observations of the Columbia River and Pacific Northwest by James Dwight Dana and John Strong Newberry helped germinate the “school of fluvial” erosion later expanded upon by the southwestern United States topographic and geologic surveys. Later work on features related to the Missoula floods framed the career of J Harlen Bretz in one of the great geologic controversies of the twentieth century.

  19. Additions and corrections to the bibliography of geologic studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Besalt) and adjacent Areas, in Idaho, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Strowd, W.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography is an update to Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 78-6, Bibliography of Geological Studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt Group) and adjacent areas in Idaho (also known as Rockwell Hanford Operations' contractor report RHO-BWI-C-44). To keep the original document current, this additions and corrections report was prepared for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project of Rockwell Hanford Operations. This update is supplementary; therefore, references cited in the original document have not been included here. What is included are materials that have become available since the original publication and pertinent literature that had originally been overlooked. Accompany this updated bubliography are index maps that show locations of geologic studies and geochemical petrographic, remanent paleomagnetic, and radiometric age-dated sites within the Columbia River Basalt Group field within Idaho; also identified are archeological sites, test wells, mines, quarries, and other types of excavations. References on the index maps are keyed to the bibliography and cover the Spokane, Pullman, Hamilton, Grangeville, Elk City, Baker, Boise, and Jordan Valley Army Map Service two-degree quadrangles.

  20. Field Summary Report for Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington, Collection of Surface Water, River Sediments, and Island Soils

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2009-09-28

    This report has been prepared in support of the remedial investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River and describes the 2008/2009 data collection efforts. This report documents field activities associated with collection of sediment, river water, and soil in and adjacent to the Columbia River near the Hanford Site and in nearby tributaries.

  1. The Columbia River Basalt Group: from the gorge to the sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Ray E.; Niem, Alan R.; Evarts, Russell C.; Hagstrum, Jonathan T.

    2009-01-01

    Miocene flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group inundated eastern Washington, Oregon, and adjacent Idaho between 17 and 6 Ma. Some of the more voluminous flows followed the ancestral Columbia River across the Cascade arc, Puget-Willamette trough, and the Coast Range to the Pacific Ocean. We have used field mapping, chemistry, and paleomagnetic directions to trace individual flows and flow packages from the Columbia River Gorge westward into the Astoria Basin, where they form pillow palagonite complexes and mega-invasive bodies into older marine sedimentary rocks. Flows of the Grande Ronde, Wanapum, and Saddle Mountains Basalts all made it to the ocean; at least 33 flows are recognized in the western Columbia River Gorge, 50 in the Willamette Valley, 16 in the lower Columbia River Valley, and at least 12 on the Oregon side of the Astoria Basin. In the Astoria Basin, the basalt flows loaded and invaded the wet marine sediments, producing peperite breccias, soft sediment deformation, and complex invasive relations. Mega-invasive sills up to 500 m thick were emplaced into strata as old as Eocene, and invasive dikes up to 90 m thick can be traced continuously for 25 km near the basin margin. Mega-pillow complexes up to a kilometer thick are interpreted as the remains of lava deltas that prograded onto the shelf and a filled submarine canyon southeast of Astoria, possibly providing the hydraulic head for injection of invasive sills and dikes at depth.

  2. Juvenile salmonid migratory behavior at the mouth of the Columbia River and within the plume

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; O'Toole, Amanda C.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Trott, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 8,159 acoustic-tagged salmonid smolts were detected at the mouth of the Columbia River. Of the fish detected at the mouth, 14% of yearling Chinook salmon, 9% of steelhead, and 22% of subyearling Chinook salmon were detected on a sparse array deployed in the Columbia River plume. Chinook salmon smolts decreased travel rate as they left the river and entered the plume, while steelhead increased travel rate. Chinook salmon also spent more time in the transitional area between the river mouth and plume as compared to steelhead. In early spring, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead predominately migrated past the plume array towards the edge of the shelf and to the south. Later in the season, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts tended to migrate out of the river mouth in a northerly direction. Subyearling Chinook salmon migrated predominately past the portion of the plume array to the north of the river mouth.

  3. Multi-scale analysis of the fluxes between terrestrial water storage, groundwater, and stream discharge in the Columbia River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    The temporal relationships between the measurements of terrestrial water storage (TWS), groundwater, and stream discharge were analyzed at three different scales in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) for water years 2004 - 2012. Our nested watershed approach examined the Snake River ...

  4. Residence Times of Juvenile Salmon and Steelhead in Off-Channel Tidal Freshwater Habitats, Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Sather, Nichole K.; Teel, D. J.

    2015-05-01

    We estimated seasonal residence times of acoustic-tagged juvenile salmonids in off-channel, tidal freshwater habitats of the Columbia River near the Sandy River delta (rkm 198; 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011) and Cottonwood Island (rkm 112; 2012).

  5. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix D: Exhibits.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    The Columbia River and its tributaries are the primary water system in the Pacific Northwest, draining some 219,000 square miles in seven states and another 39,500 square miles in British Columbia. Beginning in the 1930`s, the Columbia River has been significantly modified by construction of 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries, along with dozens of non-Federal projects. Construction and subsequent operation of these water development projects have contributed to eight primary uses of the river system, including navigation, flood control, irrigation, electric power generation, fish migration, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water supply and quality considerations. Increasing stress on the water development of the Columbia River and its tributaries has led primary Federal agencies to undertake intensive analysis and evaluation of the operation of these projects. These agencies are the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, who operate the large Federal dams on the river, and the Bonneville Power Administration who sells the power generated at the dams. This review, termed the System Operation Review (SOR), has as its ultimate goal to define a strategy for future operation of the major Columbia River projects which effectively considers the needs of all river uses. This volume, Appendix D: Cultural resources appendix, Technical imput includes the following: Development of geomorphology based framework for cultural resources management, Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho; Impact profiles for SOR reservoirs; comments from the following Native American tribes: Burns Paiute Tribe; Coville Confederated Tribes; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Indian Reservation; Confederated Tribes and bands of the Yakama Indian Nation (comments); Nez Perce Tribe; Coeur D`Alene Tribe; Spokane Tribe of Indians; The confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation.

  6. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize historical data on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River, (2) determine present-day radionuclide tissue burdens from different locations in the Columbia River, and (3) compare historical data with current data. We first reviewed and summarized the historical literature on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Hanford Reach. Field studies were then conducted to evaluate the relationship among sample locations, age/length of white sturgeon, and present radionuclide tissue burdens. Results and comparisons are discussed in the remainder of this report.

  7. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1988.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1987-10-01

    The FY 1988 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan (Work Plan) presents Bonneville Power Administration's plans for implementing the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) in FY 1988. The Work Plan focuses on individual Action Items found in the amended Program for which Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has determined it has authority and responsibility to implement. The FY 1988 Work Plan emphasizes continuation of 95 ongoing projects, most of which involve protection, mitigation, or enhancement of anadromous fishery resources. These continuing activities are summarized briefly by Program area: (1) mainstem passage; (2) artificial propagation; (3) natural propagation; (4) resident fish and wildlife; and (5) planning activities.

  8. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2003-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  9. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2004-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  10. Laboratory Assessment of Potential Impacts to Dungeness Crabs from Disposal of Dredged Material from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Vavrinec, John; Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.; Lee, Cheegwan; Hall, Kathleen D.; Romano, Brett A.; Miller, Martin C.; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2007-05-07

    Dredging of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about dredging-related impacts on Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in the estuary, mouth of the estuary, and nearshore ocean areas adjacent to the Columbia River. The Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers engaged the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to review the state of knowledge and conduct studies concerning impacts on Dungeness crabs resulting from disposal during the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and annual maintenance dredging in the mouth of the Columbia River. The present study concerns potential effects on Dungeness crabs from dredged material disposal specific to the mouth of the Columbia River.

  11. Annual Report of the Columbia River Treaty, Canadian and United States Entities, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River Treaty Operating Committee; B.C. Hydro; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1996-11-01

    Agreements approved by the Entities during the period of this report include: (1) Columbia River Treaty Entity Agreement on the Detailed Operating Plan for Columbia River Storage for 1 August 1995 through 31 July 1996, signed 31 January 1996. (2) Columbia River Treaty Entity Agreement on the Detailed Operating Plan for Columbia River Storage for 1 August 1996 through 31 July 1997, signed 29 August 1996. (3) Columbia River Treaty Entity Agreement on Resolving the Dispute on Critical Period Determination, the Capacity Entitlement for the 1998/99, 1999/00, and 2000/01 AOP/DDPB`s, and Operating Procedures for the 2001/02 and Future AOP`s, signed 29 August 1996.

  12. Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River - 13603

    SciTech Connect

    Lerch, J.A.; Hulstrom, L.C.; Sands, J.P.

    2013-07-01

    In south-central Washington State, the Columbia River flows through the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. A primary objective of the Hanford Site cleanup mission is protection of the Columbia River, through remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater that resulted from its weapons production mission. Within the Columbia River system, surface water, sediment, and biota samples related to potential Hanford Site hazardous substance releases have been collected since the start of Hanford operations. The impacts from release of Hanford Site radioactive substances to the Columbia River in areas upstream, within, and downstream of the Hanford Site boundary have been previously investigated as mandated by the U.S. Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act. The Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River [1] was issued in 2008 to initiate assessment of the impacts under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 [2]. The work plan established a phased approach to characterize contaminants, assess current risks, and determine whether or not there is a need for any cleanup actions. Field investigation activities over a 120-mile stretch of the Columbia River began in October 2008 and were completed in 2010. Sampled media included surface water, pore water, surface and core sediment, island soil, and fish (carp, walleye, whitefish, sucker, small-mouth bass, and sturgeon). Information and sample results from the field investigation were used to characterize current conditions within the Columbia River and assess whether current conditions posed a risk to ecological or human receptors that would merit additional study or response actions under CERCLA. The human health and ecological risk assessments are documented in reports that were published in 2012 [3, 4]. Conclusions from the risk assessment reports are being summarized and integrated with remedial investigation

  13. Leachable particulate iron in the Columbia River, estuary, and near-field plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippiatt, Sherry M.; Brown, Matthew T.; Lohan, Maeve C.; Berger, Carolyn J. M.; Bruland, Kenneth W.

    2010-03-01

    This study examines the distribution of leachable particulate iron (Fe) in the Columbia River, estuary, and near-field plume. Surface samples were collected during late spring and summer of 2004-2006 as part of four River Influence on Shelf Ecosystems (RISE) cruises. Tidal amplitude and river flow are the primary factors influencing the estuary leachable particulate Fe concentrations, with greater values during high flow and/or spring tides. Near the mouth of the estuary, leachable particulate Fe [defined as the particulate Fe solubilized with a 25% acetic acid (pH 2) leach containing a weak reducing agent to reduce Fe oxyhydroxides and a short heating step to access intracellular Fe] averaged 770 nM during either spring tide or high flow, compared to 320 nM during neap tide, low flow conditions. In the near-field Columbia River plume, elevated leachable particulate Fe concentrations occur during spring tides and/or higher river flow, with resuspended shelf sediment as an additional source to the plume during periods of coastal upwelling and spring tides. Near-field plume concentrations of leachable particulate Fe (at a salinity of 20) averaged 660 nM during either spring tide or high flow, compared to 300 nM during neap tide, low flow conditions. Regardless of tidal amplitude and river flow, leachable particulate Fe concentrations in both the river/estuary and near-field plume are consistently one to two orders of magnitude greater than dissolved Fe concentrations. The Columbia River is an important source of reactive Fe to the productive coastal waters off Oregon and Washington, and leachable particulate Fe is available for solubilization following biological drawdown of the dissolved phase. Elevated leachable Fe concentrations allow coastal waters influenced by the Columbia River plume to remain Fe-replete and support phytoplankton production during the spring and summer seasons.

  14. Genetic structure of Columbia River redband trout populations in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana, revealed by microsatellite and allozyme loci

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, K.-L.; Muhlfeld, C.C.; Sage, G.K.; Leary, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the genetic divergence among 10 populations of redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri from the upper Columbia River drainage. Resident redband trout from two watersheds in the Kootenai River drainage and hatchery stocks of migratory Kamloops redband trout from Kootenay Lake, British Columbia, were analyzed using allele frequency data from microsatellite and allozyme loci. The Kamloops populations have significantly different allele frequencies from those of the Kootenai River drainage. Of the total genetic variation detected in the resident redband trout, 40.7% (microsatellites) and 15.5% (allozymes) were due to differences between populations from the two Kootenai River watersheds. The divergence among populations within each watershed, however, was less than 3.5% with both techniques. Our data indicate that watershed-specific broodstocks of redband trout are needed by fisheries managers for reintroduction or the supplementation of populations at risk of extinction.

  15. Columbia River monitoring: Summary of chemical monitoring along cross sections at Vernita Bridge and Richland

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkes, R.L.; Patton, G.W.; Tiller, B.L.

    1993-05-01

    This report presents the results of the chemical monitoring performed by the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) along cross sections of the Columbia River established at Vernita Bridge and the Richland Pumphouse. Potential Hanford-origin chemical constituents of interest were selected based on their presence in ground water near the river, past surveillance efforts that have documented their entry into the river, and reviews of special study reports, CERCIA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) documentation, RCRA facility investigation/corrective measure (FI/CW) study plans, and preliminary risk assessments. Results presented in this report include volatile organic compounds, metals, and anions. The data were generated as part of the routine Columbia River monitoring program currently conducted as part of the SESP.

  16. Valuing the salmon resource: Columbia River stocks under climate change and fishery enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.; Scott, M.J.

    1993-04-01

    This paper represents an update to ongoing multidisciplinary research in the area of climate change and associated regional impacts to fisheries and economies. This work particularly deals with the total value of Columbia River salmon and the idea that fish have capital value, articulated here as spawning value. Earlier work dealt solely with the Yakima River spring chinook fishery`s response to climate change and fishery enhancement programs and the associated direct economic effects (Anderson et al. 1992). We have expanded our modeling attempts to examine similar impacts in the Grande Ronde River subbasin of the Columbia River basin, and added the summer steelhead stock to the analysis. Relatively recent developments and improvements in climate change modeling and fishery modeling enabled us to attempt such an endeavor.

  17. Pollution in the lower Columbia Basin in 1948 with particular reference to the Willamette River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.; Rucker, R.R.

    1950-01-01

    Development of the salmon resources of the lower Columbia River Basin appears as sound insurance against the threat of a serious reduction in the runs to the upper river areas through the multiple-purpose programs of water development now under way by the Corps of Engineers, the Bureau of Reclamation, and private interests. Any comprehensive plan for the full development of the fisheries resources in the lower Columbia Basin must be predicated upon accurate knowledge of the waters therein polluted to a degree affecting fish life. Pollution surveys have been made in the lower Columbia Basin at various times in the past -- the most intensive studies having been made in the Willamette Valley.

  18. Microbial community composition and metagenomes across the river-to-ocean continuum of the Columbia and Amazon Rivers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crump, B. C.; Doherty, M.; Fortunato, C.; Simon, H. M.; Smit, M. W.; Krusche, A. V.; Brito, D.; Cunha, A.; Fernandes, M.; Zielinski, B.; Paul, J. H.; Ward, N. D.; Richey, J. E.; Satinsky, B. M.; Sharma, S.; Smith, C. B.; Moran, M.; Yager, P. L.

    2013-12-01

    Rivers are the primary conduits for land-to-ocean transfer of materials including terrestrial organic matter, nutrients and anthropogenic pollutants. Microbial communities in rivers, estuaries, and plumes regulate the nutrient concentrations and biogeochemistry of these riverborne materials and mediate their impact on carbon cycling. Despite their importance little is known about the composition and genetic capabilities of these organisms. Here we describe and compare the phylogeny and metagenomic profiles of microbial communities across the river-to-ocean gradients of two very large rivers: the tropical Amazon and temperate Columbia rivers. For the Amazon, samples were collected from the lower 600 km of the river and from surface waters across 1300 km of the plume in 2010 and 2011. For the Columbia, samples were collected along the gradient from river to deep ocean during 14 cruises between 2007 and 2010. Amplicon pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that bacterial communities were similar along the length of the lower Amazon River with variability caused by inputs from major tributaries. Freshwater taxa from both rivers were very rare in plume waters, but in the Columbia River estuary freshwater taxa mixed with marine communities. Communities in both rivers shifted with local seasons, likely due to changes in river environmental conditions including dissolved and particulate organic matter, river flow, and light availability. Seasonal variability was less pronounced in river plumes where spatial variability was greater than temporal variability. Bacterial community composition was very different between the two systems, and was most similar at the marine end of the gradient outside the plumes. Illumina-based metagenomic analyses of a subset of these samples showed similarity in the relative abundance of many annotated gene categories despite differences in phylogeny across salinity gradients. However, several categories of genes varied in relative

  19. The non-fisheries biological resources of the Hanford reach of the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, W.H.; Hanson, W.C.; Fitzner, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Hanford Reach is the only undammed segment of the Columbia River in the United States upstream from Bonneville Dam. The non-agricultural and non-recreational land-use policies imposed by the Department of Energy have permitted the Hanford Site to function as a refugium for wildlife for 35 years. The protection offered by the Hanford Site has been especially important for the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leurocephalus), mule deer (Odocileus hemionus), coyote (Canis latrans), and resident Great Basin Canada Goose (Branta canadensis moffitti). Island habitats are especially important for nesting geese and for mule deer fawning. Coyotes are important predators upon nesting geese and mule deer fawns. Salmon carcasses are an important winter food for Bald Eagles. Riparian plant communities along the Columbia River have been changing in response to changing water level fluctuations largely regulated by power generation schedules at upstream hydroelectric dams. There are no studies presently established to record the response of Columbia River shoreline plant communities to these kinds of fluctuating water levels. The existing information is summarized on birds and mammals closely allied with the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. High trophic level wild animals are discussed as indicators of chemical contamination of food chains.

  20. Integrated Hatchery Operations : Existing Policy Affecting Hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shelldrake, Tom

    1993-05-01

    Collected together in this document is relevant laws and policy of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington State Department of Wildlife, Oregon State, Washington Department of Fisheries, and Idaho Department of Fish and Game as they affect hatcheries in the Columbia River Basin.

  1. 33 CFR 165.1314 - Safety Zone; Fort Vancouver Fireworks Display, Columbia River, Vancouver, Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone; Fort Vancouver Fireworks Display, Columbia River, Vancouver, Washington. 165.1314 Section 165.1314 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  2. Supplemental Groundwater Remediation Technologies to Protect the Columbia River at the Hanford Site, Washington - An Update

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K. M.; Rowley, R. B.; Petersen, Scott W.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2008-06-02

    This paper provides an update on supplemental groundwater remediation technologies to protect the Columbia River at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Major groundwater contaminants at the Hanford Site are described, along with the technologies and remedial activities that will address these environmental challenges.

  3. Gateway to the Pacific: The Columbia River. Teacher's Resource Book, Grades 5-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osis, Vicki; And Others

    Developed as part of an international curriculum effort, this unit aims to provide information to students about the interdependence of Pacific nations and the importance of the Columbia River and its ports in international trade. Geared for grades 5-7, the materials focus on harbors both as natural ecosystems and as locations of international…

  4. 33 CFR 165.T13-175 - Safety Zone; M/V DAVY CROCKETT, Columbia River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the M/V DAVY CROCKETT. (b) Regulations. In accordance with the general regulations in 33 CFR Part 165... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone; M/V DAVY CROCKETT....T13-175 Safety Zone; M/V DAVY CROCKETT, Columbia River. (a) Location: The following area is a...

  5. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1994.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1994-02-01

    This document is part of Bonneville Power Administration`s program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The Fiscal Year 1994 (FY 1994) Annual Implementation Work Plan (AIWP) presents Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA`s) plan for implementation of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program). The purpose of the Program is to guide BPA and other federal agencies in carrying out their responsibilities to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin. Phase I began the work of salmon recovery with certain fast-track measures completed in August 1991. Phase II dealt with Snake and Columbia river flow and salmon harvest and was completed in December 1991. Phase III dealt with system-wide habitat and salmon production issues and was completed in September 1992. Phase IV planning, focusing on resident fish and wildlife, began in August 1993, and was finished and adopted in November 1993. This report provides summaries of the ongoing and new projects for FY 1994 within the areas of juvenile migration, adult migration, salmon harvest, production and habitat, coordinated implementation, monitoring and evaluation, resident fish, and wildlife.

  6. 78 FR 2725 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Designation of Critical Habitat for Lower Columbia River Coho...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... component in the evolutionary legacy of the biological species (56 FR 58612, November 20, 1991). We... significant to its taxon (61 FR 4722, February 7, 1996; 71 FR 834, January 5, 2006). In previous rulemaking we determined that lower Columbia River coho (70 FR 37160, June 28, 2005) and Puget Sound steelhead (72 FR...

  7. An Inventory of Catch and Escapement Data for Columbia River Salmon and Steelhead, 1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Douglas J.; Stull, Elizabeth Ann

    1987-03-01

    The work described in this report was part of a larger project conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to determine appropriate methods for assessing the cumulative effects of hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. One portion of that project was to develop an inventory of catch and escapement data for Columbia River salmon and steelhead and to determine if enough relevant data are available for spawner-recruit analysis. This inventory was to include not the actual data but, rather, only the source, nature, and the extent of data needed to conduct a spawner-recruit analysis. Spawner-recruit analysis is one of several methodologies with possible utility for assessing the cumulative effects of hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The information presented in this report is not a complete inventory of catch and escapement data for Columbia River salmonids. Some information was omitted, either because of delays in responses by agencies to information requests, or because certain data sources, not widely known to exist, could not be located. 77 refs., 73 tabs.

  8. 77 FR 3111 - Safety Zone; Export Grain Terminal (EGT), Columbia River, Longview, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... 3111-3114] [FR Doc No: 2012-1170] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Background and.... C. Jones, Captain, U. S. Coast Guard, Captain of the Port, Columbia River. [FR Doc. 2012-1170...

  9. Protocols for Monitoring Habitat Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Roegner, G. Curtis; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.; Thom, Ronald M.; Dawley, Earl M.; Whiting, Allan H.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2008-04-25

    Protocols for monitoring salmon habitat restoration projects are essential for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' environmental efforts in the Columbia River estuary. This manual provides state-of-the science data collection and analysis methods for landscape features, water quality, and fish species composition, among others.

  10. 76 FR 63547 - Security Zone; Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Dredge Vessels Patriot and Liberty

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... Vessels Patriot and Liberty AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Liberty while the vessels are underway, anchored, or conducting dredging operations in the vicinity of... Patriot and Liberty would have started their operations on the Columbia and Willamette Rivers by the...

  11. Summary of Radiological Monitoring of Columbia and Snake River Sediment, 1988 Through 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Gregory W.; Dirkes, Roger L.

    2007-10-01

    From 1988 through 2004, samples of upper-layer sediments from the Columbia River and Snake River were collected under the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project to document concentrations and trends of radionuclides. Low concentrations of potassium-40, cesium-137, uranium isotopes, and plutonium isotopes were detected consistently in sediment samples over the entire sampling period. The concentrations of most radionuclides were similar to values measured upstream of the Hanford Site behind Priest Rapids Dam. For all locations, the concentrations of radionuclides in sediment samples from the Columbia and Snake rivers were below concentrations that would result in a 1-mrem effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical exposed individual using a shoreline exposure scenario (i.e., 500 hr/yr of external dose). The DOE limit for public exposure is 100 mrem/yr.

  12. Incidence of Renibacterium salmoninarum infections in juvenile hatchery spring chinook salmon in the Columbia and Snake Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, A.G.; Rondorf, D.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Haner, P.V.

    1996-01-01

    From 1988 through 1992, we assessed the prevalence (frequency of occurrence) and severity (degree of infection) of Renibacterium salmoninarum (RS) among fish in marked groups of Columbia River basin and Snake River basin hatchery spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha before release and during their seaward migration. During the study, prevalence of RS infection decreased (from >90% to <65%) in six of the eight hatchery groups. We attributed this decrease to changes in hatchery practices that reduced vertical and horizontal transmission. Fish from Snake River hatcheries had a higher prevalence of infection when sampled at dams (mean >90%) than in the hatchery (mean <70%), but there were no differences in similar comparisons of Columbia River fish. Although prevalence and severity of RS infection were not correlated in the groups studied, it appears that fish from the Snake River were more severely infected than those from the Columbia River. Some groups of Snake River fish had higher severity of infection at dams than in the hatchery, but infection in fish from Columbia River hatcheries did not change. These differences between Snake River and Columbia River fish might have resulted from differences in river conditions and the distances from hatcheries to dams.

  13. Hydrogeologic controls on ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River near the Hanford Townsite

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, S.P.; Newcomer, D.R.; Teel, S.S.; Vermeul, V.R.

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River in the Hanford Townsite vicinity. The primary objectives of the work are to: describe the hydrogeologic setting and controls on ground-water movement and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; understand the river/aquifer relationship and its effects on contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; quantify the ground-water and contaminant mass discharge to the Columbia River; and provide data that may be useful for a three-dimensional model of ground-water flow and contaminant transport in the Hanford Townsite study area. The majority of ground-water contamination occurs within the unconfined aquifer; therefore, ground-water and contaminant discharge from the unconfined aquifer is the emphasis of this study. The period of study is primarily from June 1990 through March 1992.

  14. Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2009-06-12

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to the reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than one-half million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present-day spawners. Harvest, habitat degradation, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for this decline. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam, where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Prior to 1997, only two chum salmon populations were recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning had been documented in many Lower Columbia River tributaries. The first population was in the Grays River (RKm 34), a tributary of the Columbia River, and the second was a group of spawners utilizing the mainstem Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks. Using additional DNA samples, Small et al. (2006) grouped chum salmon spawning in the mainstem Columbia River and the Washington State tributaries into three groups: the Coastal, the Cascade and the Gorge. The Coastal group comprises those spawning in the Grays River, Skamokawa Creek and the broodstock used at the Sea Resources facility on the Chinook River. The Cascade group comprises those spawning in the Cowlitz (both summer and fall stocks), Kalama, Lewis, and East Fork Lewis rivers, with most supporting unique populations. The Gorge group comprises those spawning in the mainstem Columbia River from the I-205 Bridge up to

  15. Isotopic Tracking of Hanford 300 Area Derived Uranium in the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, John N.; Dresel, P. Evan; Conrad, Mark E.; Patton, Gregory W.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2010-12-01

    A portion of the subsurface contamination at the Hanford Site, the former plutonium production facility in Washington State, affects the Columbia River. A component of this contamination, uranium (U), has variable isotopic composition due to nuclear industrial processes carried out at the site. This characteristic makes it possible to use high-precision isotopic measurements of U in environmental samples to identify even trace levels of contaminant U, determine its sources, and estimate discharge rates. Our data on river water samples indicate that as much as 3.2 kg/day can enter the Columbia River from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, which is only a small fraction of the total load of dissolved natural background U carried by the Columbia River. This very low–level contamination can be discerned, despite further dilution to <1% of natural background U, as far as 350 km downstream from the Hanford Site. These results indicate that isotopic methods can allow the amounts of U contamination from the Hanford Site to be measured accurately enough to ascertain where they are an environmental concern, and where they are insignificant.

  16. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS : Appendices.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described. The document concludes with an evaluation of the potential effects that could result from implementing proposed actions. The conclusions are based on evaluation of existing data, utilization of numerical models, and application of logical inference. This volume contains the appendices.

  17. Columbia River Statistical Update Model, Version 4. 0 (COLSTAT4): Background documentation and user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Damschen, D.W.; Brockhaus, R.D.

    1987-08-01

    Daily-averaged temperature and flow information on the Columbia River just downstream of Priest Rapids Dam and upstream of river mile 380 were collected and stored in a data base. The flow information corresponds to discharges that were collected daily from October 1, 1959, through July 28, 1986. The temperature information corresponds to values that were collected daily from January 1, 1965, through May 27, 1986. The computer model, COLSTAT4 (Columbia River Statistical Update - Version 4.0 model), uses the temperature-discharge data base to statistically analyze temperature and flow conditions by computing the frequency of occurrence and duration of selected temperatures and flow rates for the Columbia River. The COLSTAT4 code analyzes the flow and temperature information in a sequential time frame (i.e., a continuous analysis over a given time period); it also analyzes this information in a seasonal time frame (i.e., a periodic analysis over a specific season from year to year). A provision is included to enable the user to edit and/or extend the data base of temperature and flow information. This report describes the COLSTAT4 code and the information contained in its data base.

  18. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Putman, Douglas A.; Roegner, G. C.; Thom, Ronald M.; Vavrinec, John; Whiting, Allan H.

    2007-12-06

    This report is the third annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration action in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). The project is being conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) by the Marine Sciences Laboratory of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Pt. Adams Biological Field Station of the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce. Measurement of the cumulative effects of ecological restoration projects in the Columbia River estuary is a formidable task because of the size and complexity of the estuarine landscape and the meta-populations of salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Despite the challenges presented by this system, developing and implementing appropriate indicators and methods to measure cumulative effects is the best way to enable estuary managers to track the overall effectiveness of investments in estuarine restoration projects. This project is developing methods to quantify the cumulative effects of multiple restoration activities in the CRE. The overall objectives of the 2006 study were to continue to develop techniques to assess cumulative effects, refine the standard monitoring protocols, and initiate development of an adaptive management system for Corps of Engineers’ habitat restoration monitoring efforts in the CRE. (The adaptive management effort will be reported at a later date.) Field studies during 2006 were conducted in tidal freshwater at Kandoll Farm on the lower Grays River and tidal brackish water at Vera Slough on Youngs Bay. Within each of area, we sampled one natural reference site and one restoration site. We addressed the overall objectives with field work in 2006 that, coupled with previous field data, had specific objectives and resulted in some important findings that are summarized here by chapter in this report. Each chapter of the report contains data on particular monitored variables for pre- and post

  19. Stock Assessment of Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids : Final Report, Volume I, Chinook, Coho, Chum and Sockeye Salmon Summaries.

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Philip J.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose was to identify and characterize the wild and hatchery stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia River Basin on the basis of currently available information. This report provides a comprehensive compilation of data on the status and life histories of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks.

  20. Columbia River Treaty 2014/2024 Review • Phase 1 Report

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    Under the Columbia River Treaty (Treaty or CRT) of 1964, Canada and the United States (U.S.) jointly regulate and manage the Columbia River as it flows from British Columbia into the U.S. The Treaty has provided substantial flood control and power generation benefits to both nations. The Treaty established Canadian and U.S. Entities as implementing agents for each government. British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority (BC Hydro) was designated as the Canadian Entity. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Administrator and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) Division Engineer, Northwestern Division, were designated as the U.S. Entity. The Canadian and U.S. Entities are empowered by their respective governments with broad discretion to implement the existing Columbia River Treaty. They are not, however, authorized to terminate, renegotiate, or otherwise modify the Treaty. In the U.S., authority over international treaties rests with the President, assisted in foreign relations and international negotiations by the Department of State and subject in certain cases to the advice and consent of the U.S. Senate. In Canada, international treaties are within the prerogative of the executive branch of the federal government. Under current policy, treaties are tabled in the House of Commons, and are subject to a waiting period before the executive branch brings the treaty into effect. In the case of the Columbia River Treaty, Canada has assigned certain rights and obligations relating to the Treaty to British Columbia pursuant to the Canada-B.C. Agreement. The Phase 1 report is provided to those respective governmental bodies to support possible independent and/or joint decisions that may be made with respect to the future of the Treaty. The Treaty contains two important provisions that take effect on and after September 16, 2024, that could impact the current power and flood control benefits: 1. Canadian flood control obligations automatically change from a pre

  1. Disease Susceptibility of Hatchery Snake River Spring-Summer Chinook Salmon with Different Juvenile Migration Histories in the Columbia River.

    PubMed

    Arkoosh, Mary R; Kagley, Anna N; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Boylen, Deborah A; Sandford, Benjamin P; Loge, Frank J; Johnson, Lyndal L; Collier, Tracy K

    2006-12-01

    Various methods have been developed to mitigate the effects of dams on juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. migrating to the Pacific Ocean through the Columbia River basin. In this study, we examined the health of hatchery Snake River spring and summer Chinook salmon relative to two mitigating strategies: dam bypass and transportation (e.g., barging). The health of out-migrants was assessed in terms of the difference in the incidence of mortality among fish, categorically grouped into no-bypass, bypass, and transportation life histories, in response to challenge with the marine pathogen Listonella anguillarum during seawater holding. These three life histories were defined as follows: (1) fish that were not detected at any of the juvenile bypass systems above Bonneville Dam were classified as having a no-bypass life history; (2) fish that were detected at one or more juvenile bypass systems above Bonneville Dam were classified as having a bypass life history; and (3) fish that were barged were classified as having the transportation life history. Barged fish were found to be less susceptible to L. anguillarum than in-river fish-whether bypassed or not-which suggests that transportation may help mitigate the adverse health effects of the hydropower system of the Columbia River basin on Snake River spring-summer Chinook salmon. The findings of this study are not necessarily transferable to other out-migrant stocks in the Columbia River basin, given that only one evolutionarily significant unit, that is, Snake River spring-summer Chinook salmon, was used in this study. PMID:26599158

  2. Potential Effects of Dams on Migratory Fish in the Mekong River: Lessons from Salmon in the Fraser and Columbia Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, John W.; Healey, Michael; Dugan, Patrick; Barlow, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effects of water resource development on migratory fish in two North American rivers using a descriptive approach based on four high-level indicators: (1) trends in abundance of Pacific salmon, (2) reliance on artificial production to maintain fisheries, (3) proportion of adult salmon that are wild- versus hatchery-origin, and (4) number of salmon populations needing federal protection to avoid extinction. The two rivers had similar biological and physical features but radically different levels of water resource development: the Fraser River has few dams and all are located in tributaries, whereas the Columbia River has more than 130 large mainstem and tributary dams. Not surprisingly, we found substantial effects of development on salmon in the Columbia River. We related the results to potential effects on migratory fish in the Mekong River where nearly 200 mainstem and tributary dams are installed, under construction, or planned and could have profound effects on its 135 migratory fish species. Impacts will vary with dam location due to differential fish production within the basin, with overall effects likely being greatest from 11 proposed mainstem dams. Minimizing impacts will require decades to design specialized fish passage facilities, dam operations, and artificial production, and is complicated by the Mekong's high diversity and productivity. Prompt action is needed by governments and fisheries managers to plan Mekong water resource development wisely to prevent impacts to the world's most productive inland fisheries, and food security and employment opportunities for millions of people in the region.

  3. Potential effects of dams on migratory fish in the Mekong River: lessons from salmon in the Fraser and Columbia Rivers.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, John W; Healey, Michael; Dugan, Patrick; Barlow, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effects of water resource development on migratory fish in two North American rivers using a descriptive approach based on four high-level indicators: (1) trends in abundance of Pacific salmon, (2) reliance on artificial production to maintain fisheries, (3) proportion of adult salmon that are wild- versus hatchery-origin, and (4) number of salmon populations needing federal protection to avoid extinction. The two rivers had similar biological and physical features but radically different levels of water resource development: the Fraser River has few dams and all are located in tributaries, whereas the Columbia River has more than 130 large mainstem and tributary dams. Not surprisingly, we found substantial effects of development on salmon in the Columbia River. We related the results to potential effects on migratory fish in the Mekong River where nearly 200 mainstem and tributary dams are installed, under construction, or planned and could have profound effects on its 135 migratory fish species. Impacts will vary with dam location due to differential fish production within the basin, with overall effects likely being greatest from 11 proposed mainstem dams. Minimizing impacts will require decades to design specialized fish passage facilities, dam operations, and artificial production, and is complicated by the Mekong's high diversity and productivity. Prompt action is needed by governments and fisheries managers to plan Mekong water resource development wisely to prevent impacts to the world's most productive inland fisheries, and food security and employment opportunities for millions of people in the region. PMID:20924582

  4. Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Roegner, G. Curtis; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Skalski, John R.; Borde, Amy B.; Dawley, Earl; Coleman, Andre M.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Cameron, April; Corbett, C.; Donley, Erin E.; Jay, D. A.; Ke, Yinghai; Leffler, K.; McNeil, C.; Studebaker, Cindy; Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2012-05-01

    This is the seventh and final annual report of a project (2004–2010) addressing evaluation of the cumulative effects of habitat restoration actions in the 235-km-long lower Columbia River and estuary. The project, called the Cumulative Effects (CE) study, was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District by a collaboration of research agencies led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We achieved the primary goal of the CE study to develop a methodology to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat actions in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program. We delivered 1) standard monitoring protocols and methods to prioritize monitoring activities; 2) the theoretical and empirical basis for a CE methodology using levels-of-evidence; 3) evaluations of cumulative effects using ecological relationships, geo-referenced data, hydrodynamic modeling, and meta-analyses; and 4) an adaptive management process to coordinate and coalesce restoration efforts in the LCRE. A solid foundation has been laid for future comprehensive evaluations of progress made by the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program to understand, conserve, and restore ecosystems in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  5. 76 FR 28315 - Security Zone; Vessels Carrying Hazardous Cargo, Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ..., Sector Columbia River Captain of the Port Zone in the Federal Register (75 FR 76328). No comments were..., anhydrous ammonia, and chlorine. The security zones that will be created by this rule will help ensure...

  6. Columbia River Basin Seasonal Volumes and Statistics, 1928-1989. 1990 Level Modified Streamflows Computed Seasonal Volumes 61-Year Statistics.

    SciTech Connect

    A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the A.G. Crook Company, under contract to Bonneville Power Administration, and provides statistics of seasonal volumes and streamflow for 28 selected sites in the Columbia River Basin.

  7. Relationships Between Landscape Habitat Variables and Chinook Salmon Production in the Columbia River Basin, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, William L.; Lee, Danny C.

    1999-09-01

    This publication concerns the investigation of potential relationships between various landscape habitat variables and estimates of fish production from 25 index stocks of spring/summer chinook salmon with the Columbia River Basin.

  8. Trends in selected water-quality characteristics, Flathead River at Flathead, British Columbia, and at Columbia Falls, Montana, water years, 1975-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cary, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Data for selected water quality variables were evaluated for trends at two sampling stations--Flathead River at Flathead, British Columbia (Flathead station) and Flathead River at Columbia Falls, Montana (Columbia Falls station). The results were compared between stations. The analyses included data from water years 1975-86 at the Flathead station and water years 1979-86 at the Columbia Falls station. The seasonal Kendall test was applied to adjusted concentrations for variables related to discharge and to unadjusted concentrations for the remaining variables. Slope estimates were made for variables with significant trends unless data were reported as less than the detection limit. At the Flathead station, concentrations of dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen (total and dissolved), total organic nitrogen, and total phosphorus increased during the study period. Concentrations of total nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen and dissolved iron decreased during the same period. At the Columbia Falls station, concentrations increased for calcium and magnesium and decreased for sulfate and dissolved phosphorus. No trends were detected for 10 other variables tested at each station. Data for the Flathead station were reanalyzed for water years 1979-86. Trends in the data increased for magnesium and dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen and decreased for dissolved iron. Magnesium was the only variable that displayed a trend (increasing) at both stations. The increasing trends that were detected probably will not adversely affect the water quality of the Flathead River in the near future. (USGS)

  9. Interim Columbia and Snake rivers flow improvement measures for salmon: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Public comments are sought on this final SEIS, which supplements the 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis (OA)/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The Corps of Engineers, in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation proposes five alternatives to improve flows of water in the lower Columbia-Snake rivers in 1993 and future years to assist the migration of juvenile and adult anadromous fish past eight hydropower dams. These are: (1) Without Project (no action) Alternative, (2) the 1992 Operation, (3) the 1992 Operation with Libby/Hungry Horse Sensitivity, (4) a Modified 1992 Operation with Improvements to Salmon Flows from Dworshak, and (5) a Modified 1992 Operation with Upper Snake Sensitivity. Alternative 4, Modified 1992 Operations, has been identified as the preferred alternative.

  10. Capture of white sturgeon larvae downstream of The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Wild-spawned white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) larvae captured and reared in aquaculture facilities and subsequently released, are increasingly being used in sturgeon restoration programs in the Columbia River Basin. A reconnaissance study was conducted to determine where to deploy nets to capture white sturgeon larvae downstream of a known white sturgeon spawning area. As a result of the study, 103 white sturgeon larvae and 5 newly hatched free-swimming embryos were captured at 3 of 5 reconnaissance netting sites. The netting, conducted downstream of The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River during June 25–29, 2012, provided information for potentially implementing full-scale collection efforts of large numbers of larvae for rearing in aquaculture facilities and for subsequent release at a larger size in white sturgeon restoration programs.

  11. References for radioactive releases to the Columbia River from Hanford Operations, 1944--1957

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.B.

    1991-11-01

    A search was made for published documents related to discharges of radioactive material from Hanford Site facilities to the Columbia River from 1944--1957. The purpose was to list documents that contain data that might be useful in developing a source term for waterborne releases. Source term development work will take place in FY 1992, and FY 1993. This tabulation of published summaries of release data shows the type of measurements that were being made from 1944--1957 and the magnitude of discharges to the Columbia River. In the early years, very little data were collected that related to specific radionuclides. However, most of the key radionuclides were known to be present in effluents from occasional specific radionuclide analyses.

  12. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council; Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1992-09-01

    The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in accordance with Public Law 96-501, the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act). The purpose of the Program is to guide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and other Federal agencies in carrying out their responsibilities to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife of the Columbia River Basin. The Annual Implementation World Plan (AIWP) presents BPA`s plans for implementing the Program during fiscal year (FY) 1993. The FY 1993 AIWP emphasizes continuation of 143 ongoing or projecting ongoing Program projects, tasks, or task orders, most of which involve protection, mitigation, or enhancement of anadromous fishery resources. The FY 1993 AIWP also contains three new Program projects or tasks that are planned to start in FY 1993.

  13. Thiaminase activity and life history investigations in American Shad in the Columbia river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Parsley, Michael J; van der Leeuw, Bjorn K.; Larsen, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    American shad Alosa sapidissima fry were successfully transplanted from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast in 1871 and have subsequently proliferated. The Columbia River population is in the millions, yet few investigations have been conducted to better understand their life history, population dynamics, or potential impacts on other species. In 2007 and 2008 we captured American shad from the Columbia River to assess levels of thiaminase activity and to characterize some aspects of American shad life history. Thiaminase levels in age-0 and adult fish were high and ranged from 4,113-20,874 pmol/g/min. Ages of spawning American shad ranged from 3-7 years and iteroparity was approximately 33-36% in the spawning population. Males were typically younger and smaller and had a higher degree of iteroparity than females

  14. Radionuclide releases to the Columbia River from Hanford Operations, 1944--1971. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.; Bates, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of radionuclide emissions since 1944 from the Hanford Site. One source of radionuclide releases to the Columbia River was from production reactor operations. This report provides a quantitative estimate of the amount of radioactivity released each month (1944--1971) to the Columbia River from eleven radionuclides as well as from gross beta activity.

  15. Data Summary Report for teh Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Hulstrom, L.

    2011-02-07

    This data summary report summarizes the investigation results to evaluate the nature and distribution of Hanford Site-related contaminants present in the Columbia River. As detailed in DOE/RL-2008-11, more than 2,000 environmental samples were collected from the Columbia River between 2008 and 2010. These samples consisted of island soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater upwelling (pore water, surface water, and sediment), and fish tissue.

  16. Radionuclide releases to the Columbia River from Hanford Operations, 1944--1971. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.; Bates, D.J.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of radionuclide emissions since 1944 from the Hanford Site. One source of radionuclide releases to the Columbia River was from production reactor operations. This report provides a quantitative estimate of the amount of radioactivity released each month (1944--1971) to the Columbia River from eleven radionuclides as well as from gross beta activity.

  17. Sediment-quality assessment of Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake and the upstream reach of the Columbia River, Washington, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bortleson, Gilbert Carl; Cox, S.E.; Munn, M.D.; Schumaker, R.J.; Block, E.K.

    2001-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of trace elements were found in bed sediment of Lake Roosevelt and the Columbia River, its principal source of inflow. Trace-element concentrations in whole water samples did not exceed criteria for freshwater organisms. Bed sediments of Lake Roosevelt were analyzed for organic compounds associated with wood-pulp waste. Dioxins and furans were found in suspended sediment and water of the Columbia River. Abundance and diversity of benthic invertebrate communities were analyzed.

  18. Climate-change scenario for the Columbia River basin. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, S.A.

    1997-04-01

    This work describes the method used to generate a climate-change scenario for the Columbia River basin. The scenario considers climate patterns that may change if the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), or its greenhouse gas equivalent, were to double over pre-Industrial Revolution values. A composite approach was taken to generate a climate scenario that considers knowledge of current regional climate controls, available output from general circulation and regional climate models, and observed changes in climate.

  19. SUPPLEMENTAL COLUMBIA RIVER PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE: 2006 TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, B; Dawn Kaback; Gene Leboeuf; Jason Mulvihill-Kuntz; Lynn Lefkoff

    2006-12-20

    Prompted by a $10 million Congressional allocation to identify supplemental actions to protect the Columbia River from groundwater contamination beneath the Hanford Reservation, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Clean-up Technology identified twenty-three potential technical projects and then down-selected ten of these for further evaluation. An independent expert peer review was conducted for the ten down-selected proposals. The review panel consisted of twenty-three recognized subject matter experts that broadly represented academia, industry, and federal laboratories. Of the initial ten proposals reviewed, one was given unconditional support, six were given conditional support, and three were not supported as proposed. Three additional proposals were then submitted by DOE for review--these proposals were structured, in part, to respond to the initial round of technical peer review comments. Peer reviews of these additional proposals provided conditional support. For those proposals that received conditional support, DOE requested specific implementation and work plans and assessed whether the plans adequately addressed the technical conditions identified by the review panel. The final list of technology proposals receiving support, or conditional support, primarily focused on understanding and reducing the potential impacts of uranium, chromium, and strontium from facilities adjacent to the Columbia River, with a secondary focus on understanding and limiting the future Columbia River impacts from the large carbon tetrachloride groundwater plume underlying and downgradient of the Hanford Central Plateau facilities. The results and recommendations of the peer reviews informed the final DOE project selections and supported implementation of the selected projects to protect the Columbia River and address groundwater contamination at Hanford.

  20. Environmental monitoring at Hanford for 1987: Surface and Columbia River data

    SciTech Connect

    Jaquish, R.E.

    1988-08-01

    Environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State is conducted for the US Department of Energy. The data collected provide a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford operations. Data are also collected to monitor the status of chemicals on the site and in the Columbia River. This volume contains the actual raw data used to create the summaries in PNL--6464.

  1. Columbia River : Select Area Fishery Evaluation project : 1995-96 Annual Reports.

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Paul; Miller, Marc; Hill, Jim

    1998-06-01

    Water quality monitoring was conducted from November 1994 through October 1996 at five Oregon and three Washington select area study sites in the lower Columbia River. Physicochemical monitoring and aquatic biomonitoring programs were established to profile baseline parameters at each study site and document differences between study sites. Data collected at study sites where fish rearing operations were initiated indicate a potential negative impact on the surrounding benthic invertebrate communities.

  2. Multi-Scale Action Effectiveness Research in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Johnson, Jeff; Skalski, J. R.; Teel, D. J.; Brewer, Taylor; Bryson, Amanda J.; Dawley, Earl M.; Kuligowski, D. R.; Whitesel, T.; Mallette, Christine

    2013-11-30

    The study reported herein was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), University of Washington (UW), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The goal of the study was to evaluate the ecological benefits of restoration actions for juvenile salmon in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE; rkm 0–234).

  3. Air quality climate in the Columbia River Basin. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, S.A.

    1998-08-01

    Aspects of climate that influence air quality in the Columbia River Basin of the Northwestern United States are described. A few, relatively simple, analytical tools were developed to show the spatial and temporal patterns of mean-monthly mixing heights, precipitation scavenging, upper level and surface trajectory winds, and drought that inhibit pollution uptake. Also, potential changes in air quality from the effects of increasing greenhouse gases are discussed.

  4. Habitat Evaluation and Monitoring in the Columbia River Basin, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everson, Larry B.; Campbell, Charles J.; Craven, Richard E.; Welsh, Thomas L.

    1986-12-01

    The law established the Northwest Power Planning Council to prepare and adopt a regional conservation and electric power plan, and a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife. The objectives are the development of regional plans and programs related to energy conservation, renewable resources, other resources, and protecting mitigating, and enhancing fish and wildlife resources and to protect, mitigate, and enhance the fish and wildlife, including related spawning grounds and habitat, of the Columbia River and its tributaries. 4 refs.

  5. Form and composition of secondary mineralization in fractures in Columbia River basalts

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, J.P.; Rawson, S.A.; Horton, D.G.

    1986-05-01

    Examination of basalt alteration rinds suggests that pyroxene is altered, along with mesostasis, from the inception of hydrothermal alteration along cooling fractures in Columbia River basalts. The only phyllosilicate secondary mineral in fractures is trioctahedral smectite of Fe-saponite composition, throughout the examined thickness of the basalt column. This smectite is compositionally distinct from the minor amounts of mesostasis smectite found in otherwise unaltered outcrop samples of basalt.

  6. Diel and seasonal movements of white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, in the mid-Columbia river

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, J.M.; Gray, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    To evaluate seasonal movements in the free-flowing Hanford reach of the Columbia River, white sturgeon with radio transmitters in spring and early summer 1977 were monitored along with fish that had been tagged in 1975 and 1976. Daily environmental temperature records indicated sturgeon did not consistently engage in a diel movement pattern. It was concluded that although temperature is a major influence stimulating seasonal movements, light cycle and feeding probably influence diel movements. (JMT)

  7. Snout dimorphism in white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, from the Columbia River at Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Crass, D.W.; Gray, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Although differences in snout length and shape between young and adult sturgeon are known, morphological divergence in snout type of similar sized individuals has not been reported. Field observations in the Hanford reach of the Columbia River on 99 white sturgeon ranging from 35 to 205 cm total length showed two snout types based on size and shape. The occurrence of this dimorphism at Hanford may reflect isolating mechanisms, such as physical barriers which block fish movements. (RAF)

  8. Data for the screening assessment. Volume 1: Text, Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, T.B.; O`Neil, T.K.; Gilbert, R.O.; Klevgard, L.A.; Walters, T.B.

    1996-06-01

    The Columbia River is a critical resource for residents of the Pacific Northwest. This resource drew the Manhattan Project`s planners to the site now called Hanford to produce nuclear weapon materials. Production of those materials has left behind a legacy of chemical and radioactive contamination and materials that have, are, and will continue to pose a threat to the Columbia river for the foreseeable future. To evaluate the impact to the river from this Hanford-derived contamination, the US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, and State of Washington Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party agencies) initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, stakeholder, tribal, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. A major CRCIA Team decision was to organize CRCIA into phases, with additional phases to be identified as warranted after completion of the initial phase. The initial phase is comprised of two parts: (1) a screening assessment to evaluate the current impact to the river resulting from Hanford-derived contamination and (2) identification of requirements considered necessary by the CRCIA Management Team for a comprehensive assessment of impact to the river. The purpose of the screening assessment is to support cleanup decisions. The scope of the screening assessment is to evaluate the current risk to humans and the environment resulting from Hanford-derived contaminants. The screening assessment has the primary components of: identifying contaminants to be assessed; identifying a variety of exposure scenarios to evaluate human contaminant exposure; identifying a variety of other species to evaluate ecological contaminant exposure; and assessing risks posed by exposure of humans and other species to the contaminants.

  9. Effects of Columbia River water on early life-stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Tompsett, Amber R; Vardy, David W; Higley, Eric; Doering, Jon A; Allan, Marcie; Liber, Karsten; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population that resides in the Columbia River in British Columbia (BC), Canada, has suffered recruitment failures for more than three decades. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, studies were performed to determine whether exposure to water downstream of a metal smelter in Trail, BC affected survival or growth of early life-stages of white sturgeon through 60+ days post-fertilization (dpf). In both years, there were no significant differences in survival of fish that were exposed to water from downstream compared to water from upstream of the smelter. At 20-21dpf, average mortality was 2.4 percent and 12 percent in upstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively, which was similar to the average mortality of 3.8 percent and 7.2 percent in downstream water for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Relatively great mortality after 20-21dpf complicated analysis of the subchronic exposure, but use of a survival analysis indicated that the average fish died at 25-29dpf, regardless of whether the water to which they were exposed came from upstream or downstream of the smelter. In addition, measured concentrations of metals in river water were less than the threshold for adverse effects on early life stages of white sturgeon. Based upon these analyses, it is not likely that current concentrations of metals in the Columbia River in southern BC are adversely affecting survival of early life stages of white sturgeon larvae. PMID:24507122

  10. A lithospheric instability origin for Columbia River flood basalts and Wallowa Mountains uplift in northeast Oregon.

    PubMed

    Hales, T C; Abt, D L; Humphreys, E D; Roering, J J

    2005-12-01

    Flood basalts appear to form during the initiation of hotspot magmatism. The Columbia River basalts (CRB) represent the largest volume of flood basalts associated with the Yellowstone hotspot, yet their source appears to be in the vicinity of the Wallowa Mountains, about 500 km north of the projected hotspot track. These mountains are composed of a large granitic pluton intruded into a region of oceanic lithosphere affinity. The elevation of the interface between Columbia River basalts and other geological formations indicates that mild pre-eruptive subsidence took place in the Wallowa Mountains, followed by syn-eruptive uplift of several hundred metres and a long-term uplift of about 2 km. The mapped surface uplift mimics regional topography, with the Wallowa Mountains in the centre of a 'bull's eye' pattern of valleys and low-elevation mountains. Here we present the seismic velocity structure of the mantle underlying this region and erosion-corrected elevation maps of lava flows, and show that an area of reduced mantle melt content coincides with the 200-km-wide topographic uplift. We conclude that convective downwelling and detachment of a compositionally dense plutonic root can explain the timing and magnitude of Columbia River basalt magmatism, as well as the surface uplift and existence of the observed melt-depleted mantle. PMID:16341011

  11. A spatial model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, J.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns over the potential effects of in-water placement of dredged materials prompted us to develop a GIS-based model that characterizes in a spatially explicit manner white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, USA. The spatial model was developed using water depth, riverbed slope and roughness, fish positions collected in 2002, and Mahalanobis distance (D2). We created a habitat suitability map by identifying a Mahalanobis distance under which >50% of white sturgeon locations occurred in 2002 (i.e., high-probability habitat). White sturgeon preferred relatively moderate to high water depths, and low to moderate riverbed slope and roughness values. The eigenvectors indicated that riverbed slope and roughness were slightly more important than water depth, but all three variables were important. We estimated the impacts that fill might have on sturgeon habitat by simulating the addition of fill to the thalweg, in 3-m increments, and recomputing Mahalanobis distances. Channel filling simulations revealed that up to 9 m of fill would have little impact on high-probability habitat, but 12 and 15 m of fill resulted in habitat declines of ???12% and ???45%, respectively. This is the first spatially explicit predictive model of white sturgeon rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River, and the first to quantitatively predict the impacts of dredging operations on sturgeon habitat. Future research should consider whether water velocity improves the accuracy and specificity of the model, and to assess its applicability to other areas in the Columbia River.

  12. Gas bubble disease in smallmouth bass and northern squawfish from the Snake and Columbia Rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, J.C.; Becker, C.D.

    1980-11-01

    In 1975 and 1976, 179 smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and 85 northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were collected by angling from the lower Snake and mid-Columbia rivers, southeastern Washington. All fish were examined externally for gas bubble syndrome. Emboli were found beneath membranes of the opercula, body, and fins of 72% of the smallmouth bass and 84% of the northern squawfish. Hemorrhage was also noted on the caudal, anal, and pectoral fins of several smallmouth bass. Presence of gas bubble syndrome corresponded to the spring runoff when total dissolved gas supersaturations in river water exceeded 115%.

  13. Diet of juvenile and adult American Shad in the Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.; Blubaugh, J, Timothy; Parsley, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The diet of juvenile and adult American shad Alosa sapidissima captured from various locations in the Columbia River was investigated during 2007 and 2008. Collection efforts in 2007 were restricted to fish collected from existing adult and juvenile fish collection facilities located at Bonneville Dam and to adult shad captured by angling downstream from Bonneville Dam. In 2008, we used gillnets, electrofishing, beach seining, or cast nets to collect juvenile and adult shad from the saline estuary near Astoria (approximately river km 24) to just upstream from McNary Dam (approximately river km 472). We examined the stomach contents of 436 American shad captured in 2007 and 1,272 captured in 2008. Fish caught within the river were much more likely to contain food items than fish removed from fish collection facilities.


    The diet of age-0 American shad varied spatially and temporally, but was comprised primarily of crustaceans and insects. Prey diversity of age-0 American shad, as assessed by the Shannon Diversity Index, increased with decreasing distance to the estuary. Pre- and partial-spawn American shad primarily consumed Corophium spp. throughout the Columbia River; however, post-spawn adults primarily consumed gastropods upstream of McNary Dam

  14. Total dissolved gas, barometric pressure, and water temperature data, lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Harrison, Howard E.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

    1996-01-01

    Increased levels of total dissolved gas pressure can cause gas-bubble trauma in fish downstream from dams on the Columbia River. In cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Geological Survey collected data on total dissolved gas pressure, barometric pressure, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen pressure at 11 stations on the lower Columbia River from the John Day forebay (river mile 215.6) to Wauna Mill (river mile 41.9) from March to September 1996. Methods of data collection, review, and processing are described in this report. Summaries of daily minimum, maximum, and mean hourly values are presented for total dissolved gas pressure, barometric pressure, and water temperature. Hourly values for these parameters are presented graphically. Dissolved oxygen data are not presented in this report because the quality-control data show that the data have poor precision and high bias. Suggested changes to monitoring procedures for future studies include (1) improved calibration procedures for total dissolved gas and dissolved oxygen to better define accuracy at elevated levels of supersaturation and (2) equipping dissolved oxygen sensors with stirrers because river velocities at the shoreline monitoring stations probably cannot maintain an adequate flow of water across the membrane surface of the dissolved oxygen sensor.

  15. Stock Identification of Columbia River Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, Carl B.; Li, Hiran W.; Hjort, Randy C.

    1986-08-01

    For the first time genetic similarities among chinook salmon and among steelhead trout stocks of the Columbia River were determined using a holistic approach including analysis of life history, biochemical, body shape and meristic characters. We examined between year differences for each of the stock characteristics and we also correlated the habitat characteristics with the wild stock characteristics. The most important principle for managing stocks of Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead trout is that geographically proximal stocks tend to be like each other. Run timing and similarity of the stream systems should be taken into account when managing stocks. There are similarities in the classifications derived for chinook salmon and steelhead trout. Steelhead trout or chinook salmon tend to be genetically similar to other steelhead or chinook stocks, respectively, that originate from natal streams that are geographically close, regardless of time of freshwater entry. The primary exception Lo this trend is between stocks of spring and fall chinook in the upper Columbia River where fish with the different run timings are dissimilar, though geographically proximate stocks within a run form are generally very similar. Spring chinook stocks have stronger affinities to other spring chinook stocks that originate in the same side of the Cascade Range than to these Spring chinook stock: spawned on the other side of the Cascade Range. Spring chinook from west of the Cascades are more closely related to fall chinook than they are to spring chinook from east of the Cascades. Summer chinook can be divided into two main groups: (1) populations in the upper Columbia River that smolt as subyearlings and fall chinook stocks; and (2) summer chinook stocks from the Salmon River, Idaho, which smolt as yearlings and are similar to spring chinook stocks from Idaho. Fall chinook appear to comprise one large diverse group that is not easily subdivided into smaller subgroups. In

  16. Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Fishes of the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, Kathy E.; Dawley, Earl; Geist, David R.

    2006-03-31

    Gas supersaturation problems generated by spill from dams on the Columbia River were first identified in the 1960s. Since that time, considerable research has been conducted on effects of gas supersaturation on aquatic life, primarily juvenile salmonids. Also since that time, modifications to dam structures and operations have reduced supersaturated gas levels produced by the dams. The limit for total dissolved gas saturation (TDGS) as mandated by current Environmental Protection Agency water quality standards is 110%. State management agencies issue limited waivers to water quality, allowing production of levels of up to 120% TDGS to facilitate the downstream migration of juvenile salmonids. Recently, gas supersaturation as a water quality issue has resurfaced as concerns have grown regarding chronic effects of spill-related total dissolved gas on salmonids, including incubating embryos and larvae, resident fish species, and other aquatic organisms. Because of current concerns, and because the last comprehensive review of research on supersaturation effects on fishes was conducted in 1997, we reviewed recent supersaturation literature to identify new or ongoing issues that may not be adequately addressed by the current 110% TDGS limit and the 120% TDGS water quality waiver. We found that recent work supports older research indicating that short-term exposure to levels up to 120% TDGS does not produce acute effects on migratory juvenile or adult salmonids when compensating depths are available. Monitoring programs at Snake and Columbia river dams from 1995 to the early 2000s documented a low incidence of significant gas bubble disease or mortality in Columbia River salmonids, resident fishes, or other taxa. We did, however, identify five areas of concern in which total dissolved gas levels lower than water quality limits may produce sublethal effects on fishes of the Columbia River. These areas of concern are 1) sensitive and vulnerable species or life stages, 2

  17. Evaluation of the Contribution of Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1986-12-01

    FY 1986 was the eighth year of a study to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook on the Columbia River. Tagging of hatchery fall chinook was completed in FY81. Sampling of sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and Columbia River hatcheries and adjacent streams occurred in 1986 as planned. Catches and returns of one brood year tagged for this study (1981) could have occurred in 1986. Returns of fall chinook to Columbia River facilities as of December 1, 1986 are 108,154. This return is already the fourth largest of the past seven years. Several facilities (Cowlitz, Grays River, and Washougal) are having the greatest returns since inception of the study. However, Spring Creek and Lewis River hatcheries are having the smallest return. Estimated Catches of coded wire tagged salmonids are available through 1984 for all fisheries except Alaska in 1981 and Washington in 1984. Catch proportions by fishery for the 1978 brood are .01, .39, .34, .07, 0, and .19 for the Alaska, Canada, Washington, Oregon, California, and Columbia River fisheries respectively. Catch proportions for the 1979 brood are similar to those for the 1978 brood (.03, .33, .37, .05, .01, and . 21) for the same fisheries respectively. The proportion of recoveries for the four age groups of 1978-brood fish caught are .07, .69, .23, .01 for the two-through five-year-old chinook respectively.

  18. Experimental Real-time Seasonal Hydrologic Forecasting for the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettenmaier, D. P.; Wood, A. W.; Hamlet, A. F.; Kumar, A.

    2001-12-01

    We describe an "end-to-end" streamflow forecasting approach that uses National Centers for Atmospheric Prediction (NCEP) Global Spectral Model (GSM) climate forecasts to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) macroscale hydrologic model over the eastern U.S. and Columbia River basins. A key aspect of the method is a downscaling approach that compensates for bias in the atmospheric model ensembles, and downscales from the temporal (monthly aggregates) and spatial (two degrees latitude by longitude) of the atmospheric model to the finer temporal (daily) and spatial (one-eighth degree) resolution at which the hydrologic model is run. The method has been applied on an experimental basis during summers of 2000 in the eastern U.S., and the summer of 2001 in the Columbia River basin, both periods of severe drought in the respective regions. Each month during the test periods, 21-member global precipitation and temperature ensembles were provided by the NCEP Climate Modeling Branch, along with a rolling 240-member set of climatology ensembles. Initial hydrologic conditions for the forecasts were estimated using archived data streams produced by the Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) retrospective data sets, updated for the most recent three months using archived real-time LDAS forcings. Forecasts were produced on an approximately monthly update cycle beginning in April 2000 for the eastern U.S., and April 2001 for the Columbia basin. In the Columbia, the basin-wide land surface initial conditions for forecasts made during the spring were quite sensitive to the real-time datastream used for hydrologic model initialization, and various methods were used to improve the reliability of the forcing data, especially in data-sparse mountainous regions. The forecast simulations predicted, among other effects, the migration of the center of the most severe area of soil moisture deficits in the eastern U.S. in 2000, and the severe deficit in snowpack, runoff and soil

  19. Environmental data for calendar year 1992: Surface and Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Bisping, L.E.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1993-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory publishes an annual environmental report for the Hanford Site each calendar year. The Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1992 describes the Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, and environmental monitoring activities and results. The report includes a summary of offsite and onsite environmental monitoring data collected during 1992 by PNL`s Environmental Monitoring Program. Appendix A of that report contains data summaries created from raw surface and river monitoring data. This volume contains the actual raw data used to create the summaries. Ground-water monitoring data are available in a separate volume (Hanford Site Environmental Data for Calendar Year 1992--Ground Water).

  20. Screening assessment and requirements for a comprehensive assessment: Volume 1, Draft. Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate the impact to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site-derived contaminants, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, tribal, stockholder, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. The Team agreed to conduct CRCIA using a phased approach. The initial phase, includes two components: 1) a screening assessment to evaluate the potential impact to the river, resulting from current levels of Hanford-derived contaminants in order to support decisions on Interim Remedial Measures, and 2) a definition of the essential work remaining to provide an acceptable comprehensive river impact assessment. The screening assessment is described in Part I of this report. The essential work remaining is Part II of this report. The objective of the screening assessment is to identify areas where the greatest potential exists for adverse effects on humans or the environment. Part I of this report discusses the scope, technical approach, and results of the screening assessment. Part II defines a new paradigm for predecisional participation by those affected by Hanford cleanup decisions.

  1. Reconstructions of Columbia River streamflow from tree-ring chronologies in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littell, Jeremy; Pederson, Gregory T.; Gray, Stephen T.; Tjoelker, Michael; Hamlet, Alan F.; Woodhouse, Connie A.

    2016-01-01

    We developed Columbia River streamflow reconstructions using a network of existing, new, and updated tree-ring records sensitive to the main climatic factors governing discharge. Reconstruction quality is enhanced by incorporating tree-ring chronologies where high snowpack limits growth, which better represent the contribution of cool-season precipitation to flow than chronologies from trees positively sensitive to hydroclimate alone. The best performing reconstruction (back to 1609 CE) explains 59% of the historical variability and the longest reconstruction (back to 1502 CE) explains 52% of the variability. Droughts similar to the high-intensity, long-duration low flows observed during the 1920s and 1940s are rare, but occurred in the early 1500s and 1630s-1640s. The lowest Columbia flow events appear to be reflected in chronologies both positively and negatively related to streamflow, implying low snowpack and possibly low warm-season precipitation. High flows of magnitudes observed in the instrumental record appear to have been relatively common, and high flows from the 1680s to 1740s exceeded the magnitude and duration of observed wet periods in the late-19th and 20th Century. Comparisons between the Columbia River reconstructions and future projections of streamflow derived from global climate and hydrologic models show the potential for increased hydrologic variability, which could present challenges for managing water in the face of competing demands

  2. Factors affecting stranding of juvenile salmonids by wakes from ship passage in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Skalski, John R.

    2011-09-01

    The effects of deep-draft vessel traffic in confined riverine channels on shorelines and fish are of widespread concern. In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, wakes and subsequent beach run-up from ships transiting the Lower Columbia River have been observed to strand juvenile salmon and other fish. As part of a before-and-after study to assess stranding effects that may be associated with channel deepening, we measured 19 co-variables from observations of 126 vessel passages at three low-slope beaches and used multiple logistic regression to discern the significant factors influencing the frequency of stranding. Subyearling Chinook salmon were 82% of the fish stranded over all sites and seasons. Given a low-slope beach, stranding frequencies for juvenile salmon were significantly related to river location, salmon density in the shallows, a proxy for ship kinetic energy, tidal height, and two interactions. The beach types selected for our study do not include all the beach types along the Lower Columbia River so that the stranding probabilities described here cannot be extrapolated river-wide. A more sophisticated modeling effort, informed by additional field data, is needed to assess salmon losses by stranding for the entire lower river. Such modeling needs to include river-scale factors such as beach type, berms, proximity to navigation channel, and perhaps, proximity to tributaries that act as sources of out-migrating juvenile salmon. At both river and beach scales, no one factor produces stranding; rather interactions among several conditions produce a stranding event and give stranding its episodic nature.

  3. Toxicity of copper to early-life stage Kootenai River white sturgeon, Columbia River white sturgeon, and rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Little, E E; Calfee, R D; Linder, G

    2012-10-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) populations throughout western North America are in decline, likely as a result of overharvest, operation of dams, and agricultural and mineral extraction activities in their watersheds. Recruitment failure may reflect the loss of early-life stage fish in spawning areas of the upper Columbia River, which are contaminated with metals from effluents associated with mineral-extraction activities. Early-life stage white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) from the Columbia River and Kootenai River populations were exposed to copper during 96-h flow-through toxicity tests to determine their sensitivity to the metal. Similar tests were conducted with rainbow trout (RBT [Oncorhynchus mykiss]) to assess the comparative sensitivity of this species as a surrogate for white sturgeon. Exposures were conducted with a water quality pH 8.1-8.3, hardness 81-119 mg/L as CaCO(2), and dissolved organic carbon 0.2-0.4 mg/L. At approximately 30 days posthatch (dph), sturgeon were highly sensitive to copper with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values ranging from 4.1 to 6.8 μg/L compared with 36.5 μg/L for 30 dph RBT. White sturgeon at 123-167 dph were less sensitive to copper with LC(50) values ranging from 103.7 to 268.9 μg/L. RBT trout, however, remained more sensitive to copper at 160 dph with an LC(50) value of 30.9 μg/L. The results indicate that high sensitivity to copper in early-life stage white sturgeon may be a factor in recruitment failure occurring in the upper Columbia and Kootenai rivers. When site-specific water-quality criteria were estimated using the biotic ligand model (BLM), derived values were not protective of early-life stage fish, nor were estimates derived by water-hardness adjustment. PMID:22890615

  4. Toxicity of copper to early-life stage Kootenai River white sturgeon, Columbia River white sturgeon, and rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

    2012-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) populations throughout western North America are in decline, likely as a result of overharvest, operation of dams, and agricultural and mineral extraction activities in their watersheds. Recruitment failure may reflect the loss of early-life stage fish in spawning areas of the upper Columbia River, which are contaminated with metals from effluents associated with mineral-extraction activities. Early-life stage white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) from the Columbia River and Kootenai River populations were exposed to copper during 96-h flow-through toxicity tests to determine their sensitivity to the metal. Similar tests were conducted with rainbow trout (RBT [Oncorhynchus mykiss]) to assess the comparative sensitivity of this species as a surrogate for white sturgeon. Exposures were conducted with a water quality pH 8.1-8.3, hardness 81-119 mg/L as CaCO2, and dissolved organic carbon 0.2-0.4 mg/L. At approximately 30 days posthatch (dph), sturgeon were highly sensitive to copper with median lethal concentration (LC50) values ranging from 4.1 to 6.8 μg/L compared with 36.5 μg/L for 30 dph RBT. White sturgeon at 123-167 dph were less sensitive to copper with LC50 values ranging from 103.7 to 268.9 μg/L. RBT trout, however, remained more sensitive to copper at 160 dph with an LC50 value of 30.9 μg/L. The results indicate that high sensitivity to copper in early-life stage white sturgeon may be a factor in recruitment failure occurring in the upper Columbia and Kootenai rivers. When site-specific water-quality criteria were estimated using the biotic ligand model (BLM), derived values were not protective of early-life stage fish, nor were estimates derived by water-hardness adjustment.

  5. Influence of multiple dam passage on survival of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Columbia River estuary and coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Rechisky, Erin L; Welch, David W; Porter, Aswea D; Jacobs-Scott, Melinda C; Winchell, Paul M

    2013-04-23

    Multiple dam passage during seaward migration is thought to reduce the subsequent survival of Snake River Chinook salmon. This hypothesis developed because juvenile Chinook salmon from the Snake River, the Columbia River's largest tributary, migrate >700 km through eight hydropower dams and have lower adult return rates than downstream populations that migrate through only 3 or 4 dams. Using a large-scale telemetry array, we tested whether survival of hatchery-reared juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon is reduced in the estuary and coastal ocean relative to a downstream, hatchery-reared population from the Yakima River. During the initial 750-km, 1-mo-long migration through the estuary and coastal ocean, we found no evidence of differential survival; therefore, poorer adult returns of Snake River Chinook may develop far from the Columbia River. Thus, hydrosystem mitigation efforts may be ineffective if differential mortality rates develop in the North Pacific Ocean for reasons unrelated to dam passage. PMID:23576733

  6. Determining indicator taxa across spatial and seasonal gradients in the Columbia River coastal margin

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Caroline S; Eiler, Alexander; Herfort, Lydie; Needoba, Joseph A; Peterson, Tawnya D; Crump, Byron C

    2013-01-01

    Bacterioplankton communities are deeply diverse and highly variable across space and time, but several recent studies demonstrate repeatable and predictable patterns in this diversity. We expanded on previous studies by determining patterns of variability in both individual taxa and bacterial communities across coastal environmental gradients. We surveyed bacterioplankton diversity across the Columbia River coastal margin, USA, using amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from 596 water samples collected from 2007 to 2010. Our results showed seasonal shifts and annual reassembly of bacterioplankton communities in the freshwater-influenced Columbia River, estuary, and plume, and identified indicator taxa, including species from freshwater SAR11, Oceanospirillales, and Flavobacteria groups, that characterize the changing seasonal conditions in these environments. In the river and estuary, Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria indicator taxa correlated strongly with seasonal fluctuations in particulate organic carbon (ρ=−0.664) and residence time (ρ=0.512), respectively. In contrast, seasonal change in communities was not detected in the coastal ocean and varied more with the spatial variability of environmental factors including temperature and dissolved oxygen. Indicator taxa of coastal ocean environments included SAR406 and SUP05 taxa from the deep ocean, and Prochlorococcus and SAR11 taxa from the upper water column. We found that in the Columbia River coastal margin, freshwater-influenced environments were consistent and predictable, whereas coastal ocean community variability was difficult to interpret due to complex physical conditions. This study moves beyond beta-diversity patterns to focus on the occurrence of specific taxa and lends insight into the potential ecological roles these taxa have in coastal ocean environments. PMID:23719153

  7. Determining indicator taxa across spatial and seasonal gradients in the Columbia River coastal margin.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Caroline S; Eiler, Alexander; Herfort, Lydie; Needoba, Joseph A; Peterson, Tawnya D; Crump, Byron C

    2013-10-01

    Bacterioplankton communities are deeply diverse and highly variable across space and time, but several recent studies demonstrate repeatable and predictable patterns in this diversity. We expanded on previous studies by determining patterns of variability in both individual taxa and bacterial communities across coastal environmental gradients. We surveyed bacterioplankton diversity across the Columbia River coastal margin, USA, using amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from 596 water samples collected from 2007 to 2010. Our results showed seasonal shifts and annual reassembly of bacterioplankton communities in the freshwater-influenced Columbia River, estuary, and plume, and identified indicator taxa, including species from freshwater SAR11, Oceanospirillales, and Flavobacteria groups, that characterize the changing seasonal conditions in these environments. In the river and estuary, Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria indicator taxa correlated strongly with seasonal fluctuations in particulate organic carbon (ρ=-0.664) and residence time (ρ=0.512), respectively. In contrast, seasonal change in communities was not detected in the coastal ocean and varied more with the spatial variability of environmental factors including temperature and dissolved oxygen. Indicator taxa of coastal ocean environments included SAR406 and SUP05 taxa from the deep ocean, and Prochlorococcus and SAR11 taxa from the upper water column. We found that in the Columbia River coastal margin, freshwater-influenced environments were consistent and predictable, whereas coastal ocean community variability was difficult to interpret due to complex physical conditions. This study moves beyond beta-diversity patterns to focus on the occurrence of specific taxa and lends insight into the potential ecological roles these taxa have in coastal ocean environments. PMID:23719153

  8. Evaluating Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary, Annual Report 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Roegner, G. C.; Whiting, Allan H.; Johnson, Gary E.; Dawley, Earl; Skalski, John R.; Vavrinec, John; Ebberts, Blaine D.

    2006-12-20

    This report is the second annual report of a six-year project to evaluate the cumulative effects of habitat restoration projects in the Columbia River Estuary, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Marine Sciences Laboratory, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Pt. Adams Biological Field Station, and the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce for the US Army Corps of Engineers. In 2005, baseline data were collected on two restoration sites and two associated reference sites in the Columbia River estuary. The sites represent two habitat types of the estuary--brackish marsh and freshwater swamp--that have sustained substantial losses in area and that may play important roles for salmonids. Baseline data collected included vegetation and elevation surveys, above and below-ground biomass, water depth and temperature, nutrient flux, fish species composition, and channel geometry. Following baseline data collection, three kinds of restoration actions for hydrological reconnection were implemented in several locations on the sites: tidegate replacements (2) at Vera Slough, near the city of Astoria in Oregon State, and culvert replacements (2) and dike breaches (3) at Kandoll Farm in the Grays River watershed in Washington State. Limited post-restoration data were collected: photo points, nutrient flux, water depth and temperature, and channel cross-sections. In subsequent work, this and additional post-restoration data will be used in conjunction with data from other sites to estimate net effects of hydrological reconnection restoration projects throughout the estuary. This project is establishing methods for evaluating the effectiveness of individual projects and a framework for assessing estuary-wide cumulative effects including a protocol manual for monitoring restoration and reference sites.

  9. Physicochemical Characteristics of the Hyporheic Zone Affect Redd Site Selection of Chum and Fall Chinook Salmon, Columbia River.

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.

    2001-10-01

    Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) may historically have been the most abundant species of Columbia River salmon, contributing as much as 50% of the total biomass of all salmon in the Pacific Ocean prior to the 1940's (Neave 1961). By the 1950's, however, run sizes to the Columbia River dropped dramatically and in 1999 the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Columbia River chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA; NMFS 1999). Habitat degradation, water diversions, harvest, and artificial propagation are the major human-induced factors that have contributed to the species decline (NMFS 1998). Columbia River chum salmon spawn exclusively in the lower river below Bonneville Dam, including an area near Ives Island. The Ives Island chum salmon are part of the Columbia River evolutionary significant unit (ESU) for this species, and are included in the ESA listing. In addition to chum salmon, fall chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) also spawn at Ives Island. Spawning surveys conducted at Ives Island over the last several years show that chum and fall chinook salmon spawned in clusters in different locations (US Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpublished data). The presence of redd clusters suggested that fish were selecting specific habitat features within the study area (Geist and Dauble 1998). Understanding the specific features of these spawning areas is needed to quantify the amount of habitat available to each species so that minimum flows can be set to protect fish and maintain high quality habitat.

  10. 9000 years of salmon fishing on the Columbia River, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, V.L.; O'Connor, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    A large assemblage of salmon bones excavated 50 yr ago from an ???10,000-yr-old archaeological site near The Dalles, Oregon, USA, has been the primary evidence that early native people along the Columbia River subsisted on salmon. Recent debate about the human role in creating the deposit prompted excavation of additional deposits and analysis of archaeologic, geologic, and hydrologic conditions at the site. Results indicate an anthropogenic source for most of the salmonid remains, which have associated radiocarbon dates indicating that the site was occupied as long ago as 9300 cal yr B.P. The abundance of salmon bone indicates that salmon was a major food item and suggests that migratory salmonids had well-established spawning populations in some parts of the Columbia Basin by 9300-8200 yr ago. ?? 2004 University of Washington. All rights reserved.