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Sample records for columnar cell lesions

  1. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. Methods A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma) and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE-12), E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53) was perfomed. Results Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1%) of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2%) were without and 26 (38.8%) with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%). Sixty (89.5%) of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors). The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34βE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Conclusions Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions. PMID:20178635

  2. Columnar cell lesions and pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia like stroma: is there an epithelial-stromal interaction?

    PubMed

    Recavarren, Rosemary A; Chivukula, Mamatha; Carter, Gloria; Dabbs, David J

    2009-01-01

    The significance of association between cancer and its microenvironment has been increasingly recognized. It has been shown in animal models that interaction between neoplastic epithelial cells and adjacent stroma can modulate tumor behavior. Carcinoma associated stromal cells can transform normal epithelial cells into neoplastic cells. In breast, columnar cell lesions are non-obligate precursors of low grade ductal carcinoma in situ. Columnar cell lesions can be seen intimately associated with PASH-like-stroma, a lesion we termed as CCPLS. Our aim is to investigate epithelial-stromal interactions in CCPLS and compare them to PASH without columnar cell lesions in breast core needle biopsies. Normal terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) epithelium was seen in association with columnar cell lesions as well as PASH. Eight (8) cases of each category were examined by a panel of immunostains: CD117 (C-kit), CD34, CD105, bFGF, AR, ER-beta, MIB-1. We observed a markedly decreased expression of c-kit in columnar cell lesions compared to TDLU-epithelium. CD105 showed a quantitative increase in activated vessels in CCPLS compared to PASH. A subset of CCPLS and PASH were androgen receptor positive. A strong nuclear positivity for ER-beta is observed in the epithelium and stroma of all CCPLS cases. We conclude that (1) activated blood vessels predominate in CCPLS; (2) A molecular alteration is signified by c-kit loss in columnar cell lesions; (3) ER-beta and androgen receptor positivity indicate CCPLS are hormonally responsive lesions. Our study suggests an intimate vascular and hormone dependent epithelial-stromal interaction exists in CCPLS lesions. PMID:19918332

  3. Does flat epithelial atypia have rounder nuclei than columnar cell change/hyperplasia? A morphometric approach to columnar cell lesions of the breast.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoshiko; Ichihara, Shu; Moritani, Suzuko; Yoon, Han-Seung; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2016-06-01

    Columnar cell lesions of the breast encompass columnar cell change/hyperplasia (CCC/CCH) and flat epithelial atypia (FEA). These have attracted researchers because emerging data suggest that FEA may represent the earliest histologically detectable non-obligate precursor of breast cancer. However, it is occasionally difficult to distinguish FEA from CCC/CCH because of similar histology. Although the nuclei of FEA are frequently described as relatively round compared with those of CCC/CCH, there are few morphometric studies to support this statement. The aim of this study was to provide objective data as to the nuclear shape in columnar cell lesions. As a shape descriptor, we adopted ellipticity that is defined by the formula 2b/2a, where a is the length of the long axis of the ellipse and b is the length of the short axis. Contrary to circularity, ellipticity reflects the overall configuration of an ellipse irrespective of surface irregularity. Our image analysis included generating whole slide images, extracting glandular cell nuclei, measuring nuclear ellipticity, and superimposing graded colors based on execution of results on the captured images. A total of 7917 nuclei extracted from 22 FEA images and 5010 nuclei extracted from 13 CCC/CCH images were analyzed. There was a significant difference in nuclear roundness between FEA and CCC/CCH with mean ellipticity values of 0.723 and 0.679, respectively (p < 0.001, Welch's t test). Furthermore, FEA with malignancy had significantly rounder nuclei than FEA without malignancy (p < 0.001). Our preliminary results suggest that nuclear ellipticity is a key parameter in reproducibly classifying columnar cell lesions of the breast. PMID:27026270

  4. Progression risk of columnar cell lesions of the breast diagnosed in core needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Verschuur-Maes, Anoek H J; Witkamp, Arjen J; de Bruin, Peter C; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J

    2011-12-01

    Columnar cell lesions (CCLs) of the breast are recognized as putative precursor lesions of invasive carcinoma, but their management remains controversial. We therefore conducted a retrospective study on 311 CCLs, diagnosed in 4,164 14-gauge core needle biopsies (CNB): 221 CCLs without atypia (CCL), 69 with atypia (CCL-A), and 21 atypical ductal hyperplasias originating in CCL (ADH-CCL). Two groups were identified: "immediate treatment" group undergoing excision within four months after the CNB diagnosis of CCL (N = 52) and the "wait-and-see" group followed up to 8 years (median 3.5 years, N = 259). In 7 of 31 women (22.5%, 1 CCL, 4 CCL-A, 2 ADH-CCL) who underwent immediate surgical excision and were initially biopsied for microcalcifications, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was present and in 2/31 women (6.5%, 1 CCL, 1 CCL-A) invasive carcinoma. In 2/21 excisions (9.5%, 1 CCL, 1 CCL-A) initially biopsied for a density, DCIS was present and invasive carcinoma in 5/21 excisions (23.8%, 2 CCL, 3 CCL-A). In the wait-and-see group, 9/259 women (3.5%) developed invasive carcinoma, 6 ipsi, and 3 contralaterally. Progression risks of CCL-A and ADH-CCL were 18% and 22%,versus 2% for CCL without atypia (p < 0.001). In conclusion, CCL-A or ADH-CCL in a CNB were associated with a high risk of DCIS/invasive carcinoma in immediate surgical excision biopsies. The 8-years progression risks for CCL-A and ADH-CCL were around 20%. This illustrates that an atypical CCL in a CNB may signal the presence of concurrent lesions or development of advanced lesions in future and may justify ("mini") surgical excision. PMID:21225627

  5. Diagnosis of Columnar Cell Lesions and Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia by Ultrasound-Guided Core Biopsy: Findings Associated with Underestimation of Breast Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hye Shin; Jang, Mijung; Kim, Sun Mi; Yun, Bo La; Kim, Sung-Won; Kang, Eun Young; Park, So Yeon

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study described here was to determine underestimation rates and identify radiologic predictors of underestimation for columnar cell lesions (CCLs) and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) detected by ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy. A total of 103 CCLs and ADH lesions in 100 patients diagnosed by ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy were evaluated. Breast sonographic and mammographic findings were reviewed, and underestimation rates were determined by surgical excision, percutaneous vacuum-assisted excision or 2-y imaging follow-up. All underestimated lesions were ductal carcinoma in situ, and the underestimation rates of flat epithelial atypia (FEA), FEA + ADH and ADH were 5.9% (1/17), 44.4% (4/9) and 27.3% (12/44), respectively. There was no underestimation of CCLs without atypia. The presence of calcifications on ultrasound was significantly associated with underestimation (p = 0.010). Therefore, except for CCLs without atypia, all other lesions may require excision, especially when calcification is present on ultrasound or when FEA + ADH is found. PMID:27067419

  6. Ghost cell lesions

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, E.; Jimson, Sudha; Masthan, K. M. K.; Balachander, N.

    2015-01-01

    Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms. PMID:26015694

  7. Transition between columnar absorptive cells and goblet cells in the rat jejunal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Kurosumi, K; Shibuichi, I; Tosaka, H

    1981-11-01

    Electron microscopic observation of the jejunal epithelium of rats demonstrated morphological evidence of a transition between columnar absorptive cells and growing goblet cells. The columnar cells in both the villi and crypts have features suggestive of absorptive functions. They are provided with apical invaginations continuous to the intermicrovillous space. Absorbed lipid is observed in small vesicles in the terminal web layer, and chylomicrons derived here from are contained in large vacuoles near the Golgi apparatus. Ferritin particles artificially infused into the gut lumen were absorbed into the vacuoles in the subapical zone of columnar cells of suckling rats. Growing goblet cells situated in the crypt epithelium contain surface invaginations and lysosomes which are the same in structure as those found in absorptive cells nearby. Fat droplets evidently absorbed by the growing goblet cell were observed among immature mucus droplets. Artificially infused ferritin particles were found in vacuoles and lysosomes near the Golgi apparatus of some goblet cells of suckling rats. Some goblet cells on the intestinal villi of suckling rats looked immature and their microvilli and cytoplasmic matrix were clear like those of columnar absorptive cells. The transition between these goblet cells with clear cytoplasm and the mature goblet cells with dark cytoplasm was observed. These morphological evidences indicate that some of columnar cells already differentiated to absorptive cells are capable of transforming into mucus-producing (goblet) cells. It is suggested that not only undifferentiated columnar cells in the crypt base but also considerably differentiated columnar cells with absorptive function can differentiate into goblet cells. PMID:7325782

  8. Hexagonal columnar liquid crystal in the cells secreting spider silk.

    PubMed

    Knight, D; Vollrath, F

    1999-12-01

    The liquid crystallinity of spider dragline silk dope is thought to be important for both the spinning process and the extreme mechanical properties of the final thread. Although the formation of the liquid crystalline units is poorly understood, it has been suggested that spider silk proteins are secreted in a random coil and then aggregate end-to-end into rod-shaped units to form supramolecular liquid crystals. However, evidence presented here from transmission electron microscopy indicates that coat protein of the dragline silk of a Nephila spider is stored as hexagonal columnar liquid crystals within the intracellular secretory vesicles. This implies that this component is already folded into short rods within the gland cells and forms molecular rather than supramolecular liquid crystals. PMID:18627876

  9. Columnar cell change with atypia (flat epithelial atypia) on breast core biopsy-outcomes following open excision.

    PubMed

    Biggar, Magdalena A; Kerr, Kris M; Erzetich, Lisa M; Bennett, Ian C

    2012-01-01

    Columnar cell change with atypia (CCCA) is a relatively recently recognized pathologic breast entity considered to be a risk factor for subsequent development of breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of finding CCCA on breast core biopsy, by establishing the frequency of other breast pathology on subsequently performed surgical excision specimens. All cases with CCCA as the most advanced lesion on core biopsy were reviewed. After excision, another advanced proliferative lesion was identified in 17 (33%) patients, including three patients (6%) with in situ or invasive carcinoma. An additional five patients (10%) were concurrently diagnosed with primary breast carcinoma at other sites. These findings indicate that when CCCA is found on core biopsy, open surgical biopsy of the relevant area should be performed and that workup of both breasts should be undertaken to exclude coexistent breast carcinoma at alternative sites. PMID:23078374

  10. Adaptive response to starvation in the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: cell viability and ultrastructural changes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ecology of columnaris disease, caused by Flavobacterium columnare, is poorly understood despite the economic losses that this disease inflicts on aquaculture farms worldwide. Currently, the natural reservoir for this pathogen is unknown but limited data have shown its ability to survive in water for extended periods of time. The objective of this study was to describe the ultrastructural changes that F. columnare cells undergo under starvation conditions. Four genetically distinct strains of this pathogen were monitored for 14 days in media without nutrients. Culturability and cell viability was assessed throughout the study. In addition, cell morphology and ultrastructure was analyzed using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Revival of starved cells under different nutrient conditions and the virulence potential of the starved cells were also investigated. Results Starvation induced unique and consistent morphological changes in all strains studied. Cells maintained their length and did not transition into a shortened, coccus shape as observed in many other Gram negative bacteria. Flavobacterium columnare cells modified their shape by morphing into coiled forms that comprised more than 80% of all the cells after 2 weeks of starvation. Coiled cells remained culturable as determined by using a dilution to extinction strategy. Statistically significant differences in cell viability were found between strains although all were able to survive in absence of nutrients for at least 14 days. In later stages of starvation, an extracellular matrix was observed covering the coiled cells. A difference in growth curves between fresh and starved cultures was evident when cultures were 3-months old but not when cultures were starved for only 1 month. Revival of starved cultures under different nutrients revealed that cells return back to their original elongated rod shape upon encountering nutrients. Challenge

  11. Columnar deformation of human red blood cell by highly localized fiber optic Bessel beam stretcher

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungrae; Joo, Boram; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Im, Seongil; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2015-01-01

    A single human red blood cell was optically stretched along two counter-propagating fiber-optic Bessel-like beams in an integrated lab-on-a-chip structure. The beam enabled highly localized stretching of RBC, and it induced a nonlinear mechanical deformation to finally reach an irreversible columnar shape that has not been reported. We characterized and systematically quantified this optically induced mechanical deformation by the geometrical aspect ratio of stretched RBC and the irreversible stretching time. The proposed RBC mechanism can realize a versatile and compact opto-mechanical platform for optical diagnosis of biological substances in the single cell level. PMID:26601005

  12. Columnar deformation of human red blood cell by highly localized fiber optic Bessel beam stretcher.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungrae; Joo, Boram; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Im, Seongil; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2015-11-01

    A single human red blood cell was optically stretched along two counter-propagating fiber-optic Bessel-like beams in an integrated lab-on-a-chip structure. The beam enabled highly localized stretching of RBC, and it induced a nonlinear mechanical deformation to finally reach an irreversible columnar shape that has not been reported. We characterized and systematically quantified this optically induced mechanical deformation by the geometrical aspect ratio of stretched RBC and the irreversible stretching time. The proposed RBC mechanism can realize a versatile and compact opto-mechanical platform for optical diagnosis of biological substances in the single cell level. PMID:26601005

  13. Self-assembly Columnar Structure in Active Layer of Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Cheng; Segui, Jennifer; Yu, Yingjie; Li, Hongfei; Akgun, Bulent; Satijia, Sushil. K.; Gersappe, Dilip; Nam, Chang-Yong; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2012-02-01

    Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells are an area of intense interest due to their flexibility and relatively low cost. However, due to the disordered inner structure in active layer, the power conversion efficiency of BHJ solar cell is relatively low. Our research provides the method to produce ordered self-assembly columnar structure within active layer of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell by introducing polystyrene (PS) into the active layer. The blend thin film of polystyrene, poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) at different ratio are spin coated on substrate and annealed in vacuum oven for certain time. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show uniform phase segregation on the surface of polymer blend thin film and highly ordered columnar structure is then proven by etching the film with ion sputtering. TEM cross-section technology is also used to investigate the column structure. Neutron reflectometry was taken to establish the confinement of PCBM at the interface of PS and P3HT. The different morphological structures formed via phase segregation will be correlated with the performance of the PEV cells to be fabricated at the BNL-CFN.

  14. Asymmetric distribution of Spalt in Drosophila wing squamous and columnar epithelia ensures correct cell morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenqian; Wang, Dan; Shen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila wing imaginal disc is a sac-like structure that is composed of two opposing cell layers: peripodial epithelium (PE, also known as squamous epithelia) and disc proper (DP, also known as pseudostratified columnar epithelia). The molecular mechanism of cell morphogenesis has been well studied in the DP but not in the PE. Although proper Dpp signalling activity is required for proper PE formation, the detailed regulation mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we found that the Dpp target gene sal is only expressed in DP cells, not in PE cells, although pMad is present in the PE. Increasing Dpp signalling activity cannot activate Sal in PE cells. The absence of Sal in the PE is essential for PE formation. The ectopic expression of sal in PE cells is sufficient to increase the PE cell height. Down-regulation of sal in the DP reduced DP cell height. We further demonstrated that the known PE cell height regulator Lines, which can convert PE into a DP cell fate, is mediated by sal mis-activation in PE because sal-RNAi and lines co-expression largely restores PE cell morphology. By revealing the microtubule distribution, we demonstrated that Lines- and Sal-heightened PE cells are morphologically similar to the intermediate cell with cuboidal morphology. PMID:27452716

  15. Asymmetric distribution of Spalt in Drosophila wing squamous and columnar epithelia ensures correct cell morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wenqian; Wang, Dan; Shen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila wing imaginal disc is a sac-like structure that is composed of two opposing cell layers: peripodial epithelium (PE, also known as squamous epithelia) and disc proper (DP, also known as pseudostratified columnar epithelia). The molecular mechanism of cell morphogenesis has been well studied in the DP but not in the PE. Although proper Dpp signalling activity is required for proper PE formation, the detailed regulation mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we found that the Dpp target gene sal is only expressed in DP cells, not in PE cells, although pMad is present in the PE. Increasing Dpp signalling activity cannot activate Sal in PE cells. The absence of Sal in the PE is essential for PE formation. The ectopic expression of sal in PE cells is sufficient to increase the PE cell height. Down-regulation of sal in the DP reduced DP cell height. We further demonstrated that the known PE cell height regulator Lines, which can convert PE into a DP cell fate, is mediated by sal mis-activation in PE because sal-RNAi and lines co-expression largely restores PE cell morphology. By revealing the microtubule distribution, we demonstrated that Lines- and Sal-heightened PE cells are morphologically similar to the intermediate cell with cuboidal morphology. PMID:27452716

  16. Composite Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma and Columnar Cell Variant of Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Taconet, Sarah; Bosq, Jacques; Hartl, Dana; Schlumberger, Martin; Leboulleux, Sophie; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Al-Ghuzlan, Abir

    2016-06-01

    Primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) of the thyroid and columnar cell variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid (PCT) are uncommon neoplasms. We report the first case of composite MEC and columnar cell variant of PCT. An 86-year-old man consulted for a 47-mm thyroid nodule, cytologically compatible with PCT. Total thyroidectomy was performed. Histological diagnosis, with support of histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, was mixed primary carcinoma of the thyroid, associating an MEC component with predominantly columnar cell variant of PCT. Sixteen months after surgery and external beam radiation therapy, the patient was free of recurrence or distant metastasis. This case report offers an opportunity to highlight the potential pitfalls concerning the interpretation of mucin histochemistry in thyroid tumors. PMID:26755714

  17. Dielectrophoretic columnar focusing device

    DOEpatents

    James, Conrad D.; Galambos, Paul C.; Derzon, Mark S.

    2010-05-11

    A dielectrophoretic columnar focusing device uses interdigitated microelectrodes to provide a spatially non-uniform electric field in a fluid that generates a dipole within particles in the fluid. The electric field causes the particles to either be attracted to or repelled from regions where the electric field gradient is large, depending on whether the particles are more or less polarizable than the fluid. The particles can thereby be forced into well defined stable paths along the interdigitated microelectrodes. The device can be used for flow cytometry, particle control, and other process applications, including cell counting or other types of particle counting, and for separations in material control.

  18. Chemotaxis of Flavobacterium columnare: To Channel Catfish Mucus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is the etiological agent of columnaris disease in fresh water fish. The disease is characterized by chronic skin lesions and severe mortality. The skin mucus constitutes a large portion of body and many infectious organisms including F. columnare, is believed to invade throu...

  19. Adherence of human mesenchymal stem cells on Ti and TiO2 nano-columnar surfaces fabricated by glancing angle sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motemani, Yahya; Greulich, Christina; Khare, Chinmay; Lopian, Michael; Buenconsejo, Pio John S.; Schildhauer, Thomas A.; Ludwig, Alfred; Köller, Manfred

    2014-02-01

    The interaction of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with Ti and TiO2 nano-columnar surfaces fabricated using glancing angle sputter deposition was investigated. The adherence and proliferation of hMSCs on different nano-columnar surfaces, including vertical columns, slanted columns and chevrons, were examined with calcein-acetoxymethyl ester fluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy. For comparison, adherence of hMSCs on compact, dense films was also studied. After 24 h and 7 days, adherent and viable cells were observed on both, Ti nano-columns as well as dense Ti films, which confirms the biocompatibility of these nanostructures. Very small pseudopodia with width of approximately 20-35 nm and length varying from 20 to 200 nm were observed between the nano-columns, independent of the type of the nano-columnar morphology. Large inter-column spacing and effectively increased surface area make these nanostructures promising candidates for bio-functionalization or drug loading on the surface of Ti-based implants.

  20. GCR Transport in the Brain: Assessment of Self-Shielding, Columnar Damage, and Nuclear Reactions on Cell Inactivation Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Atwell, W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Radiation shield design is driven by the need to limit radiation risks while optimizing risk reduction with launch mass/expense penalties. Both limitation and optimization objectives require the development of accurate and complete means for evaluating the effectiveness of various shield materials and body-self shielding. For galactic cosmic rays (GCR), biophysical response models indicate that track structure effects lead to substantially different assessments of shielding effectiveness relative to assessments based on LET-dependent quality factors. Methods for assessing risk to the central nervous system (CNS) from heavy ions are poorly understood at this time. High-energy and charge (HZE) ion can produce tissue events resulting in damage to clusters of cells in a columnar fashion, especially for stopping heavy ions. Grahn (1973) and Todd (1986) have discussed a microlesion concept or model of stochastic tissue events in analyzing damage from HZE's. Some tissues, including the CNS, maybe sensitive to microlesion's or stochastic tissue events in a manner not illuminated by either conventional dosimetry or fluence-based risk factors. HZE ions may also produce important lateral damage to adjacent cells. Fluences of high-energy proton and alpha particles in the GCR are many times higher than HZE ions. Behind spacecraft and body self-shielding the ratio of protons, alpha particles, and neutrons to HZE ions increases several-fold from free-space values. Models of GCR damage behind shielding have placed large concern on the role of target fragments produced from tissue atoms. The self-shielding of the brain reduces the number of heavy ions reaching the interior regions by a large amount and the remaining light particle environment (protons, neutrons, deuterons. and alpha particles) may be the greatest concern. Tracks of high-energy proton produce nuclear reactions in tissue, which can deposit doses of more than 1 Gv within 5 - 10 cell layers. Information on rates of

  1. Three immobilized-cell columnar bioreactors for enhanced production of commodity chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Scott, C.D.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1993-07-01

    Immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRS) can be used with a variety of fermentations to increase production of fuels, solvents, organic acids, and other fermentation products. Part of the increased rates and yields are due to the immobilization of the biocatalyst at high concentrations. This FBR system with immobilized Zymomonas mobiles increased ethanol productivity more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. FBRs also offer several additional modes of operation for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production by removing the inhibitory products directly from the continuous fermentation. The production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus was augmented with the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. An immiscible organic extractant also was used to extract butanol from the acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Demonstrations with these FBR systems have already shown definite advantages by improved overall product yields (decreasing feed costs) and by increased rates (decreasing capital and operating costs). Further demonstration and scale-up continue.

  2. A Contemporary Approach to Classify Ghost Cells Comprising Oral Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sumit Kumar; Narwal, Anjali; Devi, Anju

    2015-01-01

    Ghost cells are swollen eosinophilic epithelial cells that have lost their nuclei but retain the cellular and nuclear outline. Pathologic ghost cell formation could be the process of aberrant keratinization or the result of coagulative necrosis. Ghost cells have been described in several odontogenic lesions, which include calcifying epithelial odontogenic cysts or tumours like odontomas, ameloblastic fibro-odontomas, and ameloblastomas. This article present a view on the formation of ghost cells with proposal/introduction of a classification for ghost cell lesions of the oral cavity in an attempt to organize these lesions for the better understanding and academic purpose. PMID:26501039

  3. Endothelial Cell Integrin Laminin Receptor Expression in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, Raymond A.; Hinojoza, Julian R.; Maeda, Atsuko; Chen, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Laminin, a major glycoprotein component of vessel basement membranes, is recognized by β1- and β3-integrins expressed on endothelial cells. To determine how endothelial cell integrins might function in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, integrin laminin receptors and laminin were analyzed in central nervous system samples from MS patients and controls by immunohistochemistry. In active MS lesions, endothelial cell VLA-6 and β1 subunits were decreased compared to controls whereas αv subunit and VLA-1 were increased. In chronic inactive lesions β1, VLA-6 and αv were the same as controls but VLA-1 remained increased. α3 subunit was constant in all samples. By immunoelectron microscopy VLA-1, VLA-6, β1, and laminin were distributed throughout endothelial cells; αv was adjacent to and on luminal surfaces; αv and VLA-1 were on intercellular junctions. These results indicate distinct regulation and functions of these integrins in different lesion stages. In active lesions decreased endothelial cell β1/VLA-6 could result in their detachment from laminin thereby facilitating leukocyte transvascular migration and blood-brain barrier breakdown. αv and VLA-1 on intercellular junctions may participate in re-establishing vessel integrity after leukocyte migration. Luminal surface αv also likely binds intraluminal ligands and cells. In chronic inactive plaques persistently elevated endothelial cell VLA-1 correlates with longstanding endothelial cell and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. PMID:9708801

  4. Estrogen Stimulates Homing of Endothelial Progenitor Cells to Endometriotic Lesions.

    PubMed

    Rudzitis-Auth, Jeannette; Nenicu, Anca; Nickels, Ruth M; Menger, Michael D; Laschke, Matthias W

    2016-08-01

    The incorporation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) into microvessels contributes to the vascularization of endometriotic lesions. Herein, we analyzed whether this vasculogenic process is regulated by estrogen. Estrogen- and vehicle-treated human EPCs were analyzed for migration and tube formation. Endometriotic lesions were induced in irradiated FVB/N mice, which were reconstituted with bone marrow from FVB/N-TgN (Tie2/green fluorescent protein) 287 Sato mice. The animals were treated with 100 μg/kg β-estradiol 17-valerate or vehicle (control) over 7 and 28 days. Lesion growth, cyst formation, homing of green fluorescent protein(+)/Tie2(+) EPCs, vascularization, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were analyzed by high-resolution ultrasonography, caliper measurements, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Numbers of blood circulating EPCs were assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro, estrogen-treated EPCs exhibited a higher migratory and tube-forming capacity when compared with controls. In vivo, numbers of circulating EPCs were not affected by estrogen. However, estrogen significantly increased the number of EPCs incorporated into the lesions' microvasculature, resulting in an improved early vascularization. Estrogen further stimulated the growth of lesions, which exhibited massively dilated glands with a flattened layer of stroma. This was mainly because of an increased glandular secretory activity, whereas cell proliferation and apoptosis were not markedly affected. These findings indicate that vasculogenesis in endometriotic lesions is dependent on estrogen, which adds a novel hormonally regulated mechanism to the complex pathophysiology of endometriosis. PMID:27315780

  5. Morphometric analysis of suprabasal cells in oral white lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Shabana, A H; el-Labban, N G; Lee, K W; Kramer, I R

    1989-01-01

    Surgical specimens from the cheek mucosa of 73 patients with white lesions were studied to determine various morphometric parameters that would help differentiate between the various types of oral mucosal white lesions that carry a risk of malignant change. Four cell types were represented: traumatic keratosis, leucoplakia, candidal leucoplakia and lichen planus, in addition to a control group of normal mucosa. The shape and size of the epithelial cells in two cell compartments, parabasal and spinous, were investigated by an interactive image analysis system (IBAS-1). The results showed an increase in the cell size in the parabasal cell compartment of all the white lesions compared with the normal mucosa. In the spinous cell compartment there was an increase in the cell size in lichen planus and traumatic keratosis; leucoplakia and candidal leucoplakia showed a slight decrease in cell size compared with the normal mucosa. Attempts to discriminate between the four groups of white lesions showed that these parameters can provide a high level of separation between lichen planus and the three other groups, but not between leucoplakia, candidal leucoplakia, and traumatic keratosis. PMID:2703543

  6. Peripheral giant cell granuloma: a potentially aggressive lesion in children.

    PubMed

    Flaitz, C M

    2000-01-01

    A slowly enlarging gingival mass with a reddish-purple surface is observed in a school-age boy. The lesion was first noted 3 months ago during a routine oral examination but recently it has increased in size and interferes with eating. A periapical radiograph demonstrated focal loss of the alveolar crestal bone in the mandibular incisor region. The diagnosis of peripheral giant cell granuloma, a benign reactive gingival lesion, is confirmed by histopathologic examination. Early detection and excision of this hyperplastic nodule is important to minimize potential dentoalveolar complications. PMID:10846736

  7. Hippocampal place cell instability after lesions of the head direction cell network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calton, Jeffrey L.; Stackman, Robert W.; Goodridge, Jeremy P.; Archey, William B.; Dudchenko, Paul A.; Taube, Jeffrey S.; Oman, C. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of cells that encode spatial location (place cells) or head direction (HD cells) in the rat limbic system suggests that these cell types are important for spatial navigation. We sought to determine whether place fields of hippocampal CA1 place cells would be altered in animals receiving lesions of brain areas containing HD cells. Rats received bilateral lesions of anterodorsal thalamic nuclei (ADN), postsubiculum (PoS), or sham lesions, before place cell recording. Although place cells from lesioned animals did not differ from controls on many place-field characteristics, such as place-field size and infield firing rate, the signal was significantly degraded with respect to measures of outfield firing rate, spatial coherence, and information content. Surprisingly, place cells from lesioned animals were more likely modulated by the directional heading of the animal. Rotation of the landmark cue showed that place fields from PoS-lesioned animals were not controlled by the cue and shifted unpredictably between sessions. Although fields from ADN-lesioned animals tended to have less landmark control than fields from control animals, this impairment was mild compared with cells recorded from PoS-lesioned animals. Removal of the prominent visual cue also led to instability of place-field representations in PoS-lesioned, but not ADN-lesioned, animals. Together, these findings suggest that an intact HD system is not necessary for the maintenance of place fields, but lesions of brain areas that convey the HD signal can degrade this signal, and lesions of the PoS might lead to perceptual or mnemonic deficits, leading to place-field instability between sessions.

  8. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma mimicking as a desquamative lesion

    PubMed Central

    Keshava, Abbayya; Gugwad, Sushma; Baad, Rajendra; Patel, Rufi

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most frequently encountered neoplasm in the oral cavity, which accounts for more than 90% of all cancers. Except for carcinoma of the lip vermilion, the most common sites of oral SCC are the tongue and floor of mouth, followed at a lower frequency by the soft palate, gingiva, and buccal mucosa. Clinically, it may be misdiagnosed because of its variable appearances. This case report presents a case of well-differentiated SCC of gingiva. A 48-year-old male patient reported to the Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Sciences, Karad, with a 1-year history of burning sensation and painful lesion on the gingiva from 35 to 37 (mandibular) regions. On clinical examination, desquamated gingival lesion was seen with no purulent exudation. Clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis indicated the lesion for an excisional biopsy. Histopathological examination confirmed the lesion to be a well-differentiated SCC. The patient was referred for the treatment consisting of surgical excision of the lesion. Since an early diagnosis and treatment was possible in this case, it resulted in a good prognosis. In these instances, dentist plays an important role in early detection of gingival SCC. PMID:27041843

  9. Cytologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid lesion.

    PubMed

    Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; Brumund, Kevin; Lin, Grace; Hasteh, Farnaz

    2013-08-01

    On fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, clear cell parathyroid lesions can be misdiagnosed as thyroid neoplasms, salivary gland neoplasms, paraganglioma, or even metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We report the clinicopathological, cytologic, and histologic findings of a clear cell parathyroid tumor in a 64-year-old HIV-positive patient. A computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast showed a heterogeneous and enhancing mass at the inferolateral aspect of the left thyroid lobe. FNA showed a cellular smear with many single and loosely clustered tumor cells with finely granular and vacuolated light-purple cytoplasm and central nuclei. Occasional microfollicular structures were noted. No colloid was seen. This FNA was misdiagnosed as a follicular neoplasm of the thyroid. Sections of the excised mass showed large polyhedral cells with well-defined cell membranes and clear cytoplasm with a small amount of eosinophilic granular material. These clear cells were positive for pancytokeratin and PTH immunohistochemical stains. These results favored a diagnosis of parathyroid Water Clear Cell Adenoma. This brief report highlights the cytologic findings of clear cell parathyroid lesions and their potential diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:22144114

  10. Molecular Characterization of Clear Cell Lesions of Head and Neck.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anshi; Shetty, Devi Charan; Juneja, Saurabh; Narwal, Nidhi

    2016-05-01

    The salivary glands, oral mucosa and jaws constitute a group of lesions which are heterogeneous in nature and are odontogenic, salivary or metastatic in origin. This group of tumours is termed as Clear Cell Tumours. Fixation artifacts are one of the most important reasons for the cell to appear clear but clearing of cells may also result from cytoplasmic accumulation of water, presence of glycogen within the cell, intermediate filaments, immature zymogen granules, or a paucity of cellular organelles. Clear cell Odontogenic neoplasms predominantly include odontogenic carcinoma, ameloblastoma and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour. Clear cell tumours of salivary gland origin are almost invariably malignant in nature but they do include two benign lesions. Very frequently, surgical pathologist encounters clear cells in many malignant neoplasms, the nature and sources of which are undetermined on the basis of conventional histopathology. This review will selectively discuss the clinicopathological features of neoplasms which at times may pose a diagnostic challenge and dilemma due to clear cell changes. PMID:27437379

  11. Molecular Characterization of Clear Cell Lesions of Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Devi Charan; Juneja, Saurabh; Narwal, Nidhi

    2016-01-01

    The salivary glands, oral mucosa and jaws constitute a group of lesions which are heterogeneous in nature and are odontogenic, salivary or metastatic in origin. This group of tumours is termed as Clear Cell Tumours. Fixation artifacts are one of the most important reasons for the cell to appear clear but clearing of cells may also result from cytoplasmic accumulation of water, presence of glycogen within the cell, intermediate filaments, immature zymogen granules, or a paucity of cellular organelles. Clear cell Odontogenic neoplasms predominantly include odontogenic carcinoma, ameloblastoma and calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour. Clear cell tumours of salivary gland origin are almost invariably malignant in nature but they do include two benign lesions. Very frequently, surgical pathologist encounters clear cells in many malignant neoplasms, the nature and sources of which are undetermined on the basis of conventional histopathology. This review will selectively discuss the clinicopathological features of neoplasms which at times may pose a diagnostic challenge and dilemma due to clear cell changes. PMID:27437379

  12. Cutaneous lesions as presentation form of mantle cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Merino de Paz, Nayra; Rodríguez-Martín, Marina; Contreras Ferrer, Patricia; García-Hernández, Sonia; Hernández-León, Nieves; Martín-Herrera, Antonio; Noda-Cabrera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that affects extranodal areas, especially, bone narrow, digestive tract and Waldeyer ring. Here we report a case of mantle cell lymphoma IV Ann Arbor stage with cutaneous lesions on nasal dorsum and glans penis as the first manifestations. Skin involvement is a very rare manifestation and less than 20 cases have been reported in the literature. The importance of establishing multidisciplinary relationships for a global approach has been shown by this clinical case. PMID:25386303

  13. Polyclonal T-Cells Express CD1a in Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) Lesions

    PubMed Central

    West, Jennifer A.; Olsen, Sharon L.; Mitchell, Jenée M.; Priddle, Ross E.; Luke, Jennifer M.; Åkefeldt, Selma Olsson; Henter, Jan-Inge; Turville, Christopher; Kannourakis, George

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a complex and poorly understood disorder that has characteristics of both inflammatory and neoplastic disease. By using eight-colour flow cytometry, we have identified a previously unreported population of CD1a+/CD3+ T-cells in LCH lesions. The expression of CD1a is regarded as a hallmark of this disease; however, it has always been presumed that it was only expressed by pathogenic Langerhans cells (LCs). We have now detected CD1a expression by a range of T-cell subsets within all of the LCH lesions that were examined, establishing that CD1a expression in these lesions is no longer restricted to pathogenic LCs. The presence of CD1a+ T-cells in all of the LCH lesions that we have studied to date warrants further investigation into their biological function to determine whether these cells are important in the pathogenesis of LCH. PMID:25343480

  14. Beyond Columnar Organization: Cell Type- and Target Layer-Specific Principles of Horizontal Axon Projection Patterns in Rat Vibrissal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Rajeevan T.; Egger, Robert; Johnson, Andrew S.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Sakmann, Bert; de Kock, Christiaan P.J.; Oberlaender, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Vertical thalamocortical afferents give rise to the elementary functional units of sensory cortex, cortical columns. Principles that underlie communication between columns remain however unknown. Here we unravel these by reconstructing in vivo-labeled neurons from all excitatory cell types in the vibrissal part of rat primary somatosensory cortex (vS1). Integrating the morphologies into an exact 3D model of vS1 revealed that the majority of intracortical (IC) axons project far beyond the borders of the principal column. We defined the corresponding innervation volume as the IC-unit. Deconstructing this structural cortical unit into its cell type-specific components, we found asymmetric projections that innervate columns of either the same whisker row or arc, and which subdivide vS1 into 2 orthogonal [supra-]granular and infragranular strata. We show that such organization could be most effective for encoding multi whisker inputs. Communication between columns is thus organized by multiple highly specific horizontal projection patterns, rendering IC-units as the primary structural entities for processing complex sensory stimuli. PMID:25838038

  15. Beyond Columnar Organization: Cell Type- and Target Layer-Specific Principles of Horizontal Axon Projection Patterns in Rat Vibrissal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Rajeevan T; Egger, Robert; Johnson, Andrew S; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Sakmann, Bert; de Kock, Christiaan P J; Oberlaender, Marcel

    2015-11-01

    Vertical thalamocortical afferents give rise to the elementary functional units of sensory cortex, cortical columns. Principles that underlie communication between columns remain however unknown. Here we unravel these by reconstructing in vivo-labeled neurons from all excitatory cell types in the vibrissal part of rat primary somatosensory cortex (vS1). Integrating the morphologies into an exact 3D model of vS1 revealed that the majority of intracortical (IC) axons project far beyond the borders of the principal column. We defined the corresponding innervation volume as the IC-unit. Deconstructing this structural cortical unit into its cell type-specific components, we found asymmetric projections that innervate columns of either the same whisker row or arc, and which subdivide vS1 into 2 orthogonal [supra-]granular and infragranular strata. We show that such organization could be most effective for encoding multi whisker inputs. Communication between columns is thus organized by multiple highly specific horizontal projection patterns, rendering IC-units as the primary structural entities for processing complex sensory stimuli. PMID:25838038

  16. Flavobacterium columnare: Chemotaxis and adhesion to channel catfish mucus is mediated by lectin-like capsular substances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is an important Gram-negative pathogen of fresh water fish that may cause chronic skin lesions and severe mortality. Isolates of F. columnare belong to either the virulent genomovar II or the less virulent genomovar I. Chemotaxis and adhesion assays were conducted in vitro...

  17. MODIFIED LIVE FLAVOBACTERIUM COLUMNARE VACCINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is an aquatic bacterium that is highly infectious in both warm and cold water species of fish. In the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry it causes columnaris disease and has a significant impact on production (~$30 million annually). Development of a successful...

  18. Genetic and Virulence Diversity of Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: To develop a method for conducting pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) on Flavobacterium columnare, to use PFGE to characterize F. columnare channel catfish isolates, and to determine whether variation in pathogenic potential exists in F. columnare isolates from channel catfish. Methods and...

  19. Carcinogenic HPV infection in the cervical squamo-columnar junction.

    PubMed

    Mirkovic, Jelena; Howitt, Brooke E; Roncarati, Patrick; Demoulin, Stephanie; Suarez-Carmona, Meggy; Hubert, Pascale; McKeon, Frank D; Xian, Wa; Li, Anita; Delvenne, Philippe; Crum, Christopher P; Herfs, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested the involvement of a unique population of cells at the cervical squamo-columnar junction (SCJ) in the pathogenesis of early (squamous intraepithelial lesion or SIL) and advanced (squamous cell and adeno-carcinomas) cervical neoplasia. However, there is little evidence to date showing that SCJ cells harbour carcinogenic HPV or are instrumental in the initial phases of neoplasia. This study was designed to (1) determine if normal-appearing SCJ cells contained evidence of carcinogenic HPV infection and (2) trace their transition to early SIL. Sections of cervix from high-risk reproductive age women were selected and SCJ cells were analysed by using several techniques which increasingly implicated HPV infection: HPV DNA (genotyping and in situ hybridization)/RNA (PCR), immunostaining for HPV16 E2 (an early marker of HPV infection), p16(ink4), Ki67, and HPV L1 protein. In 22 cases with a history of SIL and no evidence of preneoplastic lesion in the excision specimen, HPV DNA was isolated from eight of ten with visible SCJ cells, six of which were HPV16/18 DNA-positive. In five of these latter cases, the SCJ cells were positive for p16(ink4) and/or HPV E2. Transcriptionally active HPV infection (E6/E7 mRNAs) was also detected in microdissected SCJ cells. Early squamous atypia associated with the SCJ cells demonstrated in addition diffuse p16(ink4) immunoreactivity, elevated proliferative index, and rare L1 antigen positivity. We present for the first time direct evidence that normal-appearing SCJ cells can be infected by carcinogenic HPV. They initially express HPV E2 and their progression to SIL is heralded by an expanding metaplastic progeny with increased proliferation and p16(ink4) expression. Whether certain SCJs are more vulnerable than others to carcinogenic HPV genotypes and what variables determine transition to high-grade SIL remain unresolved, but the common event appears to be a vulnerable cell at the SCJ. PMID:25782708

  20. Chemotactic factors of Flavobacterium columnare to skin mucus of healthy channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain insight into chemotactic factors involved in chemotaxis, we exposed a virulent strain of Flavobacterium columnare to various treatments followed by analysis of its chemotactic activity. Chemotactic activity of F. columnare was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited when cells were pretreated by ...

  1. Chemotactic factors of Flavobacterium columnare to skin mucus of healthy channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain insight into chemotactic factors involved in chemotaxis, we exposed a virulent strain of Flavobacterium columnare to various treatments followed by analysis of its chemotactic activity. The chemotactic activity of F. columnare was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited when cells were pretreated...

  2. Composition of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) produced by Flavobacterium columnare isolated from tropical fish in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Alexandre Sebastião, Fernanda; Pilarski, Fabiana; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco

    2013-01-01

    Thirty nine isolates of Flavobacterium columnare from Brazilian fish farms had their carbohydrate composition of EPS evaluated by high efficiency liquid chromatography, using the phenol-sulfuric acid method of EPS. The occurrence of capsules on F. columnare cells was not directly related to biofilm formation, and the predominant monosaccharide is glucose. PMID:24516426

  3. Mesoscopic modelling of columnar solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Založnik, M.; Viardin, A.; Souhar, Y.; Combeau, H.; Apel, M.

    2016-03-01

    We used two complementary modeling approaches for the simulation of columnar growth in directional solidification of organic alloys: a phase-field model and a mesoscopic envelope model of dendritic growth. While the phase-field method captures the details of the dendritic structure and of the growth dynamics, the mesoscopic model approximates the complex dendritic morphology by its envelope. The envelope growth is deduced from the velocities of the dendrite tips, calculated by an analytical LGK-type tip model that is matched to the heat and concentration fields in the stagnant film around the envelope. The computational cost of the mesoscopic model is several orders of magnitude lower and can bridge the gap between phase-field and macroscopic models. We demonstrate the applicability of the mesoscopic model to columnar growth and discuss its possibilities and limitations by comparisons with phase-field simulations for the same conditions.

  4. Anchoring transition in confined discotic columnar liquid crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Thomas; Thiebaut, Olivier; Charlet, Émilie; Bock, Harald; Kelber, Julien; Grelet, Éric

    2011-01-01

    We report the achievement of ultrathin films (down to 25 nm thick) of thermotropic columnar liquid crystals in homeotropic alignment (columns normal to the interface) confined between a glass slide and a thin metallic electrode (about 150 nm thick). The face-on orientation of the discotic compound is obtained by anchoring transition of a columnar liquid crystalline phase from a degenerate planar orientation to the homeotropic alignment without any phase transition to the isotropic liquid phase. The kinetic dependence on temperature of such anchoring transition is investigated revealing various diffusive growth regimes of the homeotropic domains. Finally, confining effects are also considered by varying the thickness of the columnar liquid crystal film to reach the typical value required in organic solar cells thus demonstrating the reliability of such alignment process in a photovoltaic context.

  5. Laboratory experiments on columnar jointing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Morris, S. W.

    2003-12-01

    The mechanism causing columnar jointing has remained an enticing mystery since the basalt columns of the Giant's Causeway in N. Ireland were first reported to science in the 17th century. This phenomenon, in which shrinkage cracks form a quasi-hexagonal arrangement, has been shown to produce columns in starch, glass, coal, sandstone, and ice, as well as in a variety of lava flows. This suggests that this pattern-forming process is very general in nature. However, most studies of columnar jointing have been confined to field studies of basalt flows. Following Muller, we have experimented with desiccating corn starch in an effort to understand this pattern from a more general point of view. The diffusion and evaporation of water in starch is thought to be analogous to the diffusion and extraction of heat from a basalt flow. By combining direct sampling and x-ray tomography, fully 3D descriptions of columnar jointing were obtained with starch samples. We have characterized the pattern with several statistical indices, which describe its structure and relative disorder. These methods can resolve the ordering of the colonnade near the free surface. We identified two distinct mechanisms by which the mean column area increases during pattern evolution. We found both a slow, almost power-law increase in column area, as well as episodes of sudden catastrophic jumps in scale. The latter suggests that the column scale is not a simple single-valued function of drying rate, but rather a metastable state subject to hysteresis. Such metastable behaviour might explain a fundamental question about columnar jointing -- why the columns are so regular in the direction of their growth. Moreover, these experiments may help discriminate between the various theoretical models of this pattern forming process. Finally, our results lead to predictions that could be tested by field measurements on basaltic colonnades.

  6. Papular Clear Cell Hyperplasia of the Eccrine Duct: A Precursor Lesion of Clear Cell Syringoma?

    PubMed

    Alonso-Riaño, Marina; Cámara-Jurado, Maria; Garrido, Maria C; Rodríguez-Peralto, Jose L

    2015-09-01

    We report the case of a 77-year-old diabetic patient with asymptomatic papular eruption developed over a cutaneous scar after the resection of a squamous cell carcinoma. Histological examination revealed a clear cell proliferation involving the secretory portion of the eccrine glands. This entity has been previously named as papular clear cell hyperplasia of the eccrine duct. This clear cell change might be caused by glycogen deposition because of diabetes. We postulate that papular clear cell hyperplasia could be a precursor lesion of clear cell syringoma. PMID:26291420

  7. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells in skin lesions of classic Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Karouni, Mirna; Kurban, Mazen; Abbas, Ossama

    2016-09-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the most potent producers of type I interferons (IFNs), which allows them to provide anti-viral resistance and to link the innate and adaptive immunity by controlling the function of myeloid DCs, lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. pDCs are involved in the pathogenesis of several infectious [especially viral, such as Molluscum contagiosum (MC)], inflammatory/autoimmune, and neoplastic entities. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal, systemic lympho-angioproliferative tumor associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection. Microscopy typically exhibits a chronic inflammatory lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate in addition to the vascular changes and spindle cell proliferation. Despite the extensive research done on the immune evasion strategies employed by KSHV, pDCs role in relation to KS has only rarely been investigated. Given this, we intend to investigate pDC occurrence and activity in the skin lesions of KS. Immunohistochemical staining for BDCA-2 (specific pDC marker) and MxA (surrogate marker for local type I IFN production) was performed on classic KS (n = 20) with the control group comprising inflamed MC (n = 20). As expected, BDCA-2+ pDCs were present in abundance with diffuse and intense MxA expression (indicative of local type I IFN production) in all inflamed MC cases (20 of 20, 100 %). Though present in all the KS cases, pDCs were significantly less abundant in KS than in inflamed MC cases, and MxA expression was patchy/weak in most KS cases. In summary, pDCs are part of the inflammatory host response in KS; however, they were generally low in number with decreased type I IFN production which is probably related to KSHV's ability to evade the immune system through the production of different viral proteins capable of suppressing IFN production as well as pDC function. PMID:27372661

  8. Frequent phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase mutations in proliferative breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Ang, Daphne C; Warrick, Andrea L; Shilling, Amy; Beadling, Carol; Corless, Christopher L; Troxell, Megan L

    2014-05-01

    The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway is one of the most commonly altered molecular pathways in invasive breast carcinoma, with phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase catalytic subunit (PIK3CA) mutations in 25% of invasive carcinomas. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), benign papillomas, and small numbers of columnar cell lesions harbor an analogous spectrum of PIK3CA and AKT1 mutations, yet there is little data on usual ductal hyperplasia and atypical ductal and lobular neoplasias. We screened 192 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast lesions from 75 patients for point mutations using a multiplexed panel encompassing 643 point mutations across 53 genes, including 58 PIK3CA substitutions. PIK3CA point mutations were identified in 31/62 (50%) proliferative lesions (usual ductal hyperplasia and columnar cell change), 10/14 (71%) atypical hyperplasias (atypical ductal hyperplasia and flat epithelial atypia), 7/16 (44%) lobular neoplasias (atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ), 10/21 (48%) DCIS, and 13/37 (35%) invasive carcinomas. In genotyping multiple lesions of different stage from the same patient/specimen, we found considerable heterogeneity; most notably, in 12 specimens the proliferative lesion was PIK3CA mutant but the concurrent carcinoma was wild type. In 11 additional specimens, proliferative epithelium and cancer contained different point mutations. The frequently discordant genotypes of usual ductal hyperplasia/columnar cell change and concurrent carcinoma support a role for PIK3CA-activating point mutations in breast epithelial proliferation, perhaps more so than transformation. Further, these data suggest that proliferative breast lesions are heterogeneous and may represent non-obligate precursors of invasive carcinoma. PMID:24186142

  9. The discovery of columnar jointing on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Rosiek, M.; Mattson, S.; Verba, C.; Beyer, R.A.; Geissler, P.E.; McEwen, A.S.; the HiRISE TEam

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of columnar jointing in Marte Valles, Mars. These columnar lavas were discovered in the wall of a pristine, 16-km-diameter impact crater and exhibit the features of terrestrial columnar basalts. There are discontinuous outcrops along the entire crater wall, suggesting that the columnar rocks covered a surface area of at least 200 km2, assuming that the rocks obliterated by the impact event were similarly jointed. We also see columns in the walls of other fresh craters in the nearby volcanic plains of Elysium Planitia–Amazonis Planitia, which include Marte Vallis, and in a well-preserved crater in northeast Hellas.

  10. Buoyancy-Induced, Columnar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Mark; Glezer, Ari

    2015-11-01

    Free buoyancy-induced, columnar vortices (dust devils) that are driven by thermal instabilities of ground-heated, stratified air in areas with sufficient insolation convert the potential energy of low-grade heat in the surface air layer into a vortex flow with significant kinetic energy. A variant of the naturally-occurring vortex is deliberately triggered and anchored within an azimuthal array of vertical, stator-like flow vanes that form an open-top enclosure and impart tangential momentum to the radially entrained air. This flow may be exploited for power generation by coupling the vortex to a vertical-axis turbine. The fundamental mechanisms associated with the formation, evolution, and dynamics of an anchored, buoyancy-driven columnar vortex within such a facility are investigated experimentally using a heated ground plane. Specific emphasis is placed on the manipulation of the vortex formation and structure and the dependence of the vorticity production and sustainment mechanisms on the thermal resources and characteristic scales of the anchoring flow vanes using stereo-PIV. It is shown that manipulation of the formation and advection of vorticity concentrations within the enclosure can be exploited for increasing the available kinetic energy. Supported by ARPA-E.

  11. Transcription bypass of DNA lesions enhances cell survival but attenuates transcription coupled DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wentao; Selvam, Kathiresan; Ko, Tengyu; Li, Shisheng

    2014-01-01

    Transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR) is a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER) dedicated to rapid removal of DNA lesions in the transcribed strand of actively transcribed genes. The precise nature of the TCR signal and how the repair machinery gains access to lesions imbedded in stalled RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) complexes in eukaryotic cells are still enigmatic. RNAP II has an intrinsic capacity for transcription bypass of DNA lesions by incorporation or misincorporation of nucleotides across the lesions. It has been suggested that transcription bypass of lesions, which exposes the lesions, may be required for TCR. Here, we show that E1103G mutation of Rpb1, the largest subunit of RNAP II, which promotes transcription bypass of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), increases survival of UV irradiated yeast cells but attenuates TCR. The increased cell survival is independent of any NER subpathways. In contrast, G730D mutation of Rpb1, which impairs transcription bypass of CPDs, enhances TCR. Our results suggest that transcription bypass of lesions attenuates TCR but enhances cell tolerance to DNA lesions. Efficient stalling of RNAP II is essential for efficient TCR. PMID:25389266

  12. Flavobacterium columnare chemotaxis to channel catfish mucus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative pathogen of many species of wild and cultured fish, especially channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). This motile microbe is responsible for severe economic losses to the catfish industry. Flavobacterium columnare isolates from diseased channel catfish b...

  13. Minimum inhibitory concentration testing of flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, accurate and reliable microdilution method has been developed to test the susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare to antibiotics. The method has been used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 23 F. columnare isolates. The developed method conducted at 28 °C for 4...

  14. Endothelial cell proliferation and monocyte adhesion to atherosclerotic lesions of white carneau pigeons.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R. G.; Lewis, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Two of the early changes that occur at sites of developing atherosclerotic lesions in pigeon aortas are monocyte adhesion and endothelial proliferation. We characterized these events in the abdominal aortas of lesion-free young pigeons and in mature birds that developed either naturally occurring or cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. Compared with mature animals, very young (7-day-old) pigeons had elevated endothelial cell labeling with 3H-thymidine in normal regions of aorta as quantitated by scanning electron microscopy. All regions of atherosclerosis exhibited at least a fivefold increase in both monocyte adhesion and endothelial proliferation. Adhesion and proliferation were highest at the developing edge of lesions. When naturally occurring lesions of 5-year-old birds were compared with lesions of younger birds fed a 0.5% cholesterol-supplemented diet for either 15 or 52 weeks, monocyte adhesion and endothelial cell proliferation were found to be similar. The same parameters were studied after regression of atherosclerosis in pigeons fed 0.5% cholesterol-supplemented diet for 1 year, followed by cholesterol-free diet for 2, 6, or 11 months. The regression regimen resulted in significant reduction in both monocyte adhesion and endothelial proliferation at lesion sites. It is concluded that progressing atherosclerotic lesions, whether occurring naturally or exacerbated by cholesterol feeding, have similar and significant increases in monocyte adhesion and endothelial cell proliferation. Regression of atherosclerotic lesions is accompanied by a decrease in these two cellular events. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3777132

  15. Dendritic Cells Cause Bone Lesions in a New Mouse Model of Histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Grosjean, Frédéric; Nasi, Sonia; Schneider, Pascal; Chobaz, Véronique; Liu, Alexandra; Mordasini, Vanessa; Moullec, Kristell; Vezzoni, Paolo; Lavanchy, Christine; Busso, Nathalie; Acha-Orbea, Hans; Ehirchiou, Driss

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease caused by the clonal accumulation of dendritic Langerhans cells, which is often accompanied by osteolytic lesions. It has been reported that osteoclast-like cells play a major role in the pathogenic bone destruction seen in patients with LCH and these cells are postulated to originate from the fusion of DCs. However, due to the lack of reliable animal models the pathogenesis of LCH is still poorly understood. In this study, we have established a mouse model of histiocytosis- recapitulating human disease for osteolytic lesions seen in LCH patients. At 12 weeks after birth, severe bone lesions were observed in our multisystem histiocytosis (Mushi) model, when CD8α conventional dendritic cells (DCs) are transformed (MuTuDC) and accumulate. Most importantly, our study demonstrates that bone loss in LCH can be accounted for the transdifferentiation of MuTuDCs into functional osteoclasts both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, we have shown that injected MuTuDCs reverse the osteopetrotic phenotype of oc/oc mice in vivo. In conclusion, our results support a crucial role of DCs in bone lesions in histiocytosis patients. Furthermore, our new model of LCH based on adoptive transfer of MuTuDC lines, leading to bone lesions within 1–2 weeks, will be an important tool for investigating the pathophysiology of this disease and ultimately for evaluating the potential of anti-resorptive drugs for the treatment of bone lesions. PMID:26247358

  16. Apoptotic Index and Proliferative Index in Premalignant and Malignant Squamous Cell Lesions of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Vidya; Juluri, Ravichandra; Goel, Seema; Madan, Jyotsna; Mitra, Subir K; Gopalakrishnan, Dharmarajan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell lesions are most commonly diagnosed lesions in India. Both premalignant and malignant lesions are frequently encountered. In this study, we evaluated the role and significance of apoptotic indices (AI) and proliferative indices (PI) in premalignant and malignant squamous cell lesions of the oral cavity. Materials and Methods: A total of 62 histologically proven cases of premalignant and malignant oral squamous cell lesions were analyzed. The biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and also with monoclonal antibody Ki-67. AI and PI were assessed using a light microscope. Results: AI was found to increase gradually from normal to dysplasia to carcinoma. The highest AI was seen in well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). PI also was found to increase significantly from normal to dysplasia to carcinoma. The highest PI was seen in poorly differentiated SCC. Conclusion: AI in conjunction with the PI offers an accurate idea as to the nature and course of the lesion and may help to plan timely surgical intervention that results in better clinical prognosis and outcome. PMID:25709366

  17. Characteristics of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Isolated from Human Endometrium and Endometriosis Lesions.

    PubMed

    Savilova, A M; Yushina, M N; Rudimova, Yu V; Khabas, G N; Chuprynin, V D; Sukhikh, G T

    2016-08-01

    Cell cultures isolated from endometriosis lesions by enzymatic dissociation consisted of fibroblast-like cells expressing CD90, CD73, and CD105; cell viability in these cultures was >90%, but this parameter decreased by passage 3. Zero passage cultures contained 10-25% epithelial cells expressing cytokeratin-7, but by passage 2, the cultures became more homogeneous and epithelial cells disappeared. The proportion of proliferating cells and population doubling level increased from passage 1 to passage 3. The cultures from the endometrium were induced to adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. The cultures derived from ectopic endometrium have properties of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells that exhibited in vitro similarities and differences from cell cultures from eutopic endometrium, which allows using this cell model for the search and testing of new drugs and technologies aimed at suppression of the growth and spread of endometriosis lesions. PMID:27590769

  18. Discovery of columnar jointing on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milazzo, M.P.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Rosiek, M.; Mattson, S.; Verba, C.; Beyer, R.A.; Geissler, P.E.; McEwen, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the discovery of columnar jointing in Marte Valles, Mars. These columnar lavas were discovered in the wall of a pristine, 16-km-diameter impact crater and exhibit the features of terrestrial columnar basalts. There are discontinuous outcrops along the entire crater wall, suggesting that the columnar rocks covered a surface area of at least 200 km2, assuming that the rocks obliterated by the impact event were similarly jointed. We also see columns in the walls of other fresh craters in the nearby volcanic plains of Elysium Planitia-Amazonis Planitia, which include Marte Vallis, and in a well-preserved crater in northeast Hellas. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  19. Cell surface morphology in epithelial malignancy and its precursor lesions.

    PubMed

    Kenemans, P; Davina, J H; de Haan, R W; van der Zanden, P; Vooys, G P; Stolk, J G; Stadhouders, A M

    1981-01-01

    The cell surface organization of cancer cells is of potentially great significance, as it may not only allow (early) diagnosis, but as it may also harbour markers for refined prognosis (degree of oncogenetic and metastatic potential), and targets for selective cancer (chemo- and immuno) therapy. With these aspects in mind, the present review deals with SEM work done on (pre-) malignant cells, both in vivo and in vitro, and in animal models. Attention, however, is focused on human cancer cells. Cancer cells in vitro may lose many of their original malignant characteristics, and show adaptations to culture conditions. Many other factors have been shown to influence cell surface morphology, such as cell cycle, cell contacts, and preparations technique. Cancer cells differ in their surface morphology from normal cells, and have an extra ordinary amount of surface activity. Human malignant epithelial cells show abundant long. pleomorphic microvilli, especially those present in effusions. In squamous epithelium (bladder, cervix) microridge system present on normal superficial cells are progressively replaced by microvilli which increase in number and degree of pleomorphism during experimental and clinical oncogenesis. The question of whether or not the appearance of long. Pleomorphic microvilli reflects an irreversible alteration of the epithelium, and thus provides an early marker of irreversible neoplastic transformation is considered and assessed on the basis of our work with (pre-) malignant cells of the human uterine cervix. Although SEM has contributed significantly to the description of oncogenesis, up to now it has no early diagnostic, prognostic or therapeutic significance. PMID:7199203

  20. Columnar liquid-crystalline dinaphthoperylenetetracarboxdiimides.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marli; Girotto, Edivandro; Bentaleb, Ahmed; Hillard, Elizabeth A; Gallardo, Hugo; Durola, Fabien; Bock, Harald

    2015-03-01

    Although the double Friedel-Crafts acylation of arenes with ethyl chloroglyoxylate is hindered by the strongly deactivating effect of the first-entering glyoxylic substituent, the double reaction is successful with the reactive arene perylene under long reaction times and with concomitant ester hydrolysis. The reaction is regiospecific, giving the 3,9-regioisomer exclusively. This perylenylenediglyoxylic acid is condensed first with o-bromophenylacetic acid and then with α-branched alkylamines to yield the title compounds. Whilst the corresponding tetraalkyl esters only show monotropic mesophases, these diimides show enantiotropic columnar mesophases that can be maintained at room temperature if racemically branched alkyl chains of moderate size are used. A palladium-induced C-C bond migration during the build-up of the arene system leads to an isomeric side product of reduced symmetry that can be isolated by aggregation-controlled chromatographic separation. The HOMO and LUMO energies of the title compounds are considerably higher than those of established perylenetetracarboxdiimides. PMID:25656752

  1. Biochemical Storage Lesions Occurring in Nonirradiated and Irradiated Red Blood Cells: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Adams, F.; Bellairs, G.; Bird, A. R.; Oguntibeju, O. O.

    2015-01-01

    Red blood cells undergo a series of biochemical fluctuations during 35–42-day storage period at 1°C to 6°C. The sodium/potassium pump is immobilised causing a decrease in intracellular potassium with an increase in cytoplasmic sodium levels, glucose levels decline, and acidosis occurs as a result of low pH levels. The frailty of stored erythrocytes triggers the formation of haemoglobin-containing microparticles and the release of cell-free haemoglobin which may add to transfusion difficulties. Lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress to band 3 structures, and other morphological and structural molecular changes also occur leading to spheroechinocytes and osmotic fragility. These changes that transpire in the red cells during the storage period are referred to as “storage lesions.” It is well documented that gamma irradiation exacerbates storage lesions and the reports of increased potassium levels leading to adverse reactions observed in neonates and infants have been of particular concern. There are, however, remarkably few systematic studies comparing the in vitro storage lesions of irradiated and nonirradiated red cell concentrates and it has been suggested that the impact of storage lesions on leucocyte reduced red blood cell concentrate (RBCC) is incomplete. The review examines storage lesions in red blood cells and their adverse effects in reference to blood transfusion. PMID:25710038

  2. Nucleosome repeat lengths and columnar chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Trifonov, Edward N

    2016-06-01

    Thorough quantitative study of nucleosome repeat length (NRL) distributions, conducted in 1992 by J. Widom, resulted in a striking observation that the linker lengths between the nucleosomes are quantized. Comparison of the NRL average values with the MNase cut distances predicted from the hypothetical columnar structure of chromatin (this work) shows a close correspondence between the two. This strongly suggests that the NRL distribution, actually, reflects the dominant role of columnar chromatin structure common for all eukaryotes. PMID:26208520

  3. T-Cell Apoptosis in Inflammatory Brain Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Jan; Bradl, Monika; Hickey, William F.; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Breitschopf, Helene; Linington, Chris; Wekerle, Hartmut; Lassmann, Hans

    1998-01-01

    Elimination of inflammatory T cells by apoptosis appears to play an important role in the down-regulation of inflammation in the central nervous system. Here we report that apoptosis of T lymphocytes occurs to a similar extent in different models of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Apoptosis is restricted to cells located in the neuroectodermal parenchyma, thereby leaving T cells present in the brain’s connective tissue compartments unharmed. Death of T cells in the parenchyma does not depend on antigen presentation by resident microglial cells or astrocytes. Adoptive transfer experiments with T lymphocytes carrying a specific genetic marker revealed that in the central nervous system these cells are destroyed regardless of their antigen specificity or state of activation. Although many of both antigen-dependent and -independent mechanisms in the induction of T-cell apoptosis may act simultaneously, our results suggest that the nervous system harbors a specific, currently undefined, mechanism that effectively eliminates infiltrating T lymphocytes. PMID:9736022

  4. Adult human nasal mesenchymal-like stem cells restore cochlear spiral ganglion neurons after experimental lesion.

    PubMed

    Bas, Esperanza; Van De Water, Thomas R; Lumbreras, Vicente; Rajguru, Suhrud; Goss, Garrett; Hare, Joshua M; Goldstein, Bradley J

    2014-03-01

    A loss of sensory hair cells or spiral ganglion neurons from the inner ear causes deafness, affecting millions of people. Currently, there is no effective therapy to repair the inner ear sensory structures in humans. Cochlear implantation can restore input, but only if auditory neurons remain intact. Efforts to develop stem cell-based treatments for deafness have demonstrated progress, most notably utilizing embryonic-derived cells. In an effort to bypass limitations of embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells that may impede the translation to clinical applications, we sought to utilize an alternative cell source. Here, we show that adult human mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) obtained from nasal tissue can repair spiral ganglion loss in experimentally lesioned cochlear cultures from neonatal rats. Stem cells engraft into gentamicin-lesioned organotypic cultures and orchestrate the restoration of the spiral ganglion neuronal population, involving both direct neuronal differentiation and secondary effects on endogenous cells. As a physiologic assay, nasal MSC-derived cells engrafted into lesioned spiral ganglia demonstrate responses to infrared laser stimulus that are consistent with those typical of excitable cells. The addition of a pharmacologic activator of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway concurrent with stem cell treatment promoted robust neuronal differentiation. The availability of an effective adult autologous cell source for inner ear tissue repair should contribute to efforts to translate cell-based strategies to the clinic. PMID:24172073

  5. Human neural progenitor cells in central nervous system lesions.

    PubMed

    Åkesson, Elisabet; Sundström, Erik

    2016-02-01

    Various immature cells can be isolated from human embryonic and fetal central nervous system (CNS) residual tissue and potentially be used in cell therapy for a number of neurological diseases and CNS insults. Transplantation of neural stem and progenitor cells is essential for replacing lost cells, particularly in the CNS with very limited endogenous regenerative capacity. However, while dopamine released from transplanted cells can substitute the lost dopamine neurons in the experimental models of Parkinson's disease, stem and progenitor cells primarily have a neuroprotective effect, probably through the release of trophic factors. Understanding the therapeutic effects of transplanted cells is crucial to determine the design of clinical trials. During the last few years, a number of clinical trials for CNS diseases and insults such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), stroke, and spinal cord trauma using neural progenitor cells have been initiated. Data from these early studies will provide vital information on the safety of transplanting these cells, which still is a major concern. That the beneficial results observed in experimental models also can be repeated in the clinical setting is highly hoped for. PMID:26803559

  6. Stem cell therapy: A novel treatment approach for oral mucosal lesions.

    PubMed

    Suma, G N; Arora, Madhu Pruthi; Lakhanpal, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells have enormous potential to alleviate sufferings of many diseases that currently have no effective therapy. The research in this field is growing at an exponential rate. Stem cells are master cells that have specialized capability for self-renewal, potency and capability to differentiate to many cell types. At present, the adult mesenchymal stem cells are being used in the head and neck region for orofacial regeneration (including enamel, dentin, pulp and alveolar bone) in lieu of their proliferative and regenerative properties, their use in the treatment of oral mucosal lesions is still in budding stages. Moreover, there is scanty literature available regarding role of stem cell therapy in the treatment of commonly seen oral mucosal lesions like oral submucous fibrosis, oral lichen planus, oral ulcers and oral mucositis. The present review will focus on the current knowledge about the role of stem cell therapies in oral mucosal lesions and could facilitate new advancements in this area (articles were obtained from electronic media like PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane and Medline etc., from year 2000 to 2014 to review the role of stem cell therapy in oral mucosal lesions). PMID:25709329

  7. Increased Sensitivity of DNA Damage Response-Deficient Cells to Stimulated Microgravity-Induced DNA Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; An, Lili; Hang, Haiying

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity is a major stress factor that astronauts have to face in space. In the past, the effects of microgravity on genomic DNA damage were studied, and it seems that the effect on genomic DNA depends on cell types and the length of exposure time to microgravity or simulated microgravity (SMG). In this study we used mouse embryonic stem (MES) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells to assess the effects of SMG on DNA lesions. To acquire the insight into potential mechanisms by which cells resist and/or adapt to SMG, we also included Rad9-deleted MES and Mdc1-deleted MEF cells in addition to wild type cells in this study. We observed significant SMG-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in Rad9-/- MES and Mdc1-/- MEF cells but not in their corresponding wild type cells. A similar pattern of DNA single strand break or modifications was also observed in Rad9-/- MES. As the exposure to SMG was prolonged, Rad9-/- MES cells adapted to the SMG disturbance by reducing the induced DNA lesions. The induced DNA lesions in Rad9-/- MES were due to SMG-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, Mdc1-/- MEF cells were only partially adapted to the SMG disturbance. That is, the induced DNA lesions were reduced over time, but did not return to the control level while ROS returned to a control level. In addition, ROS was only partially responsible for the induced DNA lesions in Mdc1-/- MEF cells. Taken together, these data suggest that SMG is a weak genomic DNA stress and can aggravate genomic instability in cells with DNA damage response (DDR) defects. PMID:25915950

  8. Molecular profiling of premalignant lesions in lung squamous cell carcinomas identifies mechanisms involved in stepwise carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Aik T; Gower, Adam C; Zhang, Kelvin X; Vick, Jessica L; Hong, Longsheng; Nagao, Brian; Wallace, W Dean; Elashoff, David A; Walser, Tonya C; Dubinett, Steven M; Pellegrini, Matteo; Lenburg, Marc E; Spira, Avrum; Gomperts, Brigitte N

    2014-05-01

    Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is thought to arise from premalignant lesions in the airway epithelium; therefore, studying these lesions is critical for understanding lung carcinogenesis. Previous microarray and sequencing studies designed to discover early biomarkers and therapeutic targets for lung SCC had limited success identifying key driver events in lung carcinogenesis, mostly due to the cellular heterogeneity of patient samples examined and the interindividual variability associated with difficult to obtain airway premalignant lesions and appropriate normal control samples within the same patient. We performed RNA sequencing on laser-microdissected representative cell populations along the SCC pathologic continuum of patient-matched normal basal cells, premalignant lesions, and tumor cells. We discovered transcriptomic changes and identified genomic pathways altered with initiation and progression of SCC within individual patients. We used immunofluorescent staining to confirm gene expression changes in premalignant lesions and tumor cells, including increased expression of SLC2A1, CEACAM5, and PTBP3 at the protein level and increased activation of MYC via nuclear translocation. Cytoband enrichment analysis revealed coordinated loss and gain of expression in chromosome 3p and 3q regions, respectively, during carcinogenesis. This is the first gene expression profiling study of airway premalignant lesions with patient-matched SCC tumor samples. Our results provide much needed information about the biology of premalignant lesions and the molecular changes that occur during stepwise carcinogenesis of SCC, and it highlights a novel approach for identifying some of the earliest molecular changes associated with initiation and progression of lung carcinogenesis within individual patients. PMID:24618292

  9. Molecular profiling of premalignant lesions in lung squamous cell carcinomas identifies mechanisms involved in stepwise carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Aik T.; Gower, Adam C.; Zhang, Kelvin X.; Vick, Jessica L.; Hong, Longsheng; Nagao, Brian; Wallace, W. Dean; Elashoff, David A.; Walser, Tonya C.; Dubinett, Steven M.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Lenburg, Marc E.; Spira, Avrum; Gomperts, Brigitte N.

    2014-01-01

    Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is thought to arise from premalignant lesions in the airway epithelium; therefore studying these lesions is critical for understanding lung carcinogenesis. Previous microarray and sequencing studies designed to discover early biomarkers and therapeutic targets for lung SCC had limited success identifying key driver events in lung carcinogenesis, mostly due to the cellular heterogeneity of patient samples examined and the inter-individual variability associated with difficult to obtain airway premalignant lesions and appropriate normal control samples within the same patient. We performed RNA sequencing on laser-microdissected representative cell populations along the SCC pathological continuum of patient-matched normal basal cells, premalignant lesions, and tumor cells. We discovered transcriptomic changes and identified genomic pathways altered with initiation and progression of SCC within individual patients. We used immunofluorescent staining to confirm gene expression changes in premalignant lesions and tumor cells, including increased expression of SLC2A1, CEACAM5, and PTBP3 at the protein level and increased activation of MYC via nuclear translocation. Cytoband enrichment analysis revealed coordinated loss and gain of expression in chromosome 3p and 3q regions, respectively, during carcinogenesis. This is the first gene expression profiling study of airway premalignant lesions with patient-matched SCC tumor samples. Our results provide much needed information about the biology of premalignant lesions and the molecular changes that occur during stepwise carcinogenesis of SCC, and it highlights a novel approach for identifying some of the earliest molecular changes associated with initiation and progression of lung carcinogenesis within individual patients. PMID:24618292

  10. Activated Conventional T-Cells Are Present in Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Lesions Despite the Presence of Immune Suppressive Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Quispel, Willemijn T; Stegehuis-Kamp, Janine A; Santos, Susy J; Egeler, R Maarten; van Halteren, Astrid G S

    2015-10-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) lesions are characterized by neoplastic CD1a(+)/Langerin(+) histiocytes (LCH-cells) and display many features of chronic inflammation. Cancer cells can escape immune-surveillance through intra-tumoral secretion of immune-suppressive cytokines. We therefore studied by immunohistochemistry the local cytokine milieu and phenotypic characteristics of T-cells and LCH-cells present in LCH lesions collected from 25 therapy naïve patients. LCH biopsies predominantly expressed interleukin-10 (IL-10) (10/25), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) (9/25), or both cytokines (6/25). The absolute number of CD3(+)T-cells and the CD3(+)FOXP3(-) conventional cell (T-CONV) versus the CD3(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T-cell (T-REG) was comparable for each suppressive cytokine profile (5:1). IL-10-expressing lesions contained, however, a higher proportion of T-CONV expressing the activation markers CD25 98% (38%-100%) and inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS) 86% (47%-100%) than lesions wherein solely TGF-β was detected (CD25(+) 20% (6%-54%); ICOS(+) 29% (7%-51%)). Virtually all T-REG expressed CD25 and ICOS in IL-10 lesions, whereas TGF-β(+) lesions contained a lower proportion of ICOS(+) T-REG (P=0.05). IL-10(+) lesions contained more LCH-cells expressing high intensity of ICOS ligand (ICOSL) compared with TGF-β(+) lesions (P=0.03). ICOS expression by lesion-infiltrating T-CONV and T-REG positively correlated to the extent of ICOSL expression by LCH-cells (P=0.004). Our study points out that the combined detection of interlesional IL-10 and ICOSL expression by LCH-cells is associated with the highest prevalence of activated T-CONV. Immune profiling of LCH-affected tissues obtained at the time of diagnosis may set the stage for the development of new types of therapies, which aim at local boosting of immune cells that recognize and eliminate neoplastic LCH-cells. PMID:26381039

  11. Identification of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Marker STRO-1 in Oral Reactive Lesions by Immunofluorescence Method

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani Nazhvani, Ali; Hosseini, Seyed-Mojtaba; Tahoori, Bita; Tavangar, Maryam-Sadat; Attar, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Stem cells are considered as new implement for tissue regeneration. Several niches in adult human body are colonized by multipotent stem cells but access to these potential reservoirs is often limited. Although human dental pulp stem cells isolated from healthy teeth have been extensively characterized, it is still unknown whether stem cells also exist in reactive lesions of oral cavity such as pyogenic granuloma and peripheral ossifying fibroma which are deliberated as inflammatory proliferation of different cell families. Purpose The aim of this study was to explore for clues to see whether pyogenic granuloma or peripheral ossifying fibroma contain dental mesenchymal stem cell (DMSC). Materials and Method Four pyogenic granuloma and four peripheral ossifying fibroma specimens were collected by excisional biopsy and preserved in PBS-EDTA at -86 °C. Then we cut them in 5µm diameter using Cryostat. Having been rinsed with PBS, the samples were stained with a primary mouse anti-human STRO-1 monoclonal IgM antibody. Afterward, a secondary goat anti-mouse IgM-FITC antibody was applied to detect STRO-1+ cells as probable stem cells by immunofluorescence technique. Results Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed presence of STRO-1+ cells in these lesions, particularly localized on perivascular zone. The negative control group was not glowing. Conclusion Based on these results, it was found that reactive lesions of pyogenic granuloma and peripheral ossifying fibroma have STRO-1 positive cells, which raises the possibility that these cells may be DMSCs. PMID:26535404

  12. Wong-Type Dermatomyositis Showing Porokeratosis-Like Changes (Columnar Dyskeratosis): A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Umanoff, Nicole; Fisher, Ari; Carlson, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Wong-type dermatomyositis (DM) exhibits simultaneous pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) features. Case Report A 50-year-old woman presented with a heliotrope rash, Gottron's papules, and a poikilodermic, erythematous rash in shawl distribution without evidence of muscle weakness. Despite topical corticosteroids, the eruption progressed 9 months later to include generalized hyperkeratotic follicular papules, islands of sparing, and atrophic macules with a collarette of scale suggestive of porokeratosis. Mild dysphonia was the only sign of muscle weakness. Serology showed positive ANA. Histopathology revealed interface dermatitis with dermal mucin and melanophages, irregular psoriasiform hyperplasia, alternating mounds of para- and orthokeratosis, and tiers of dyskeratotic cells (columnar dyskeratosis). Systemic corticosteroid therapy was not tolerated; acitretin diminished the hyperkeratosis. While hyperpigmentation persisted, no progression of cutaneous or muscular symptoms has occurred after 22 months of follow-up and cessation of the therapy. Overall, her course did not differ from the natural history documented in the literature review of Wong-type DM. The most similar case also exhibited pseudocornoid lamella changes. Conclusion Wong-type DM is a clinicopathologic DM-PRP hybrid that can also exhibit porokeratosis-like features best described as columnar dyskeratosis. Recognizing these types of lesions in DM is warranted in order to make an accurate assessment of their prognostic significance. PMID:27047930

  13. Evaluation of cell proliferation in malignant and potentially malignant oral lesions

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Mani; Chandra, Shaleen; Raj, Vineet; Madan, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the cell proliferation rate by the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and argyrophilic nucleolar organizing region (AgNOR) counts and to assess its usefulness as a marker for malignant potential in oral epithelial lesions. Materials and Methods: The study group included 30 cases of leukoplakia, 15 nondysplastic (NDL), 15 dysplastic (DL), 15 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 5 cases of normal oral mucosa. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for PCNA and AgNOR technique. The PCNA labeling index (LI) and the AgNOR dots were evaluated for the entire sample. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA, Tukey honestly significant difference, Pearson's correlation. Results: In this study, the AgNOR count of OSCC was lower than the DL lesions moreover the AgNOR counts were found to be higher in normal mucosa as compared to the DL and the NDL epithelium. The study results also showed that the mean AgNOR count failed to distinguish between DL and NDL lesions. Overall we observed increased PCNA expression from normal epithelium to NDL to DL lesion. Conclusions: Based on the findings of the present study on oral epithelial precancerous and cancerous lesions we conclude that mean AgNOR count alone cannot be a valuable parameter to distinguish between the normal, NDL, DL epithelium and OSCC but, on the other hand, we found out that PCNA can be a useful biomarker for delineating normal epithelium from DL epithelium and OSCC. PMID:26980956

  14. Quantitative analysis of disturbed cell maturation in dysplastic lesions of the respiratory tract epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.; Nettesheim, P.; Topping, D.C.; Olson, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    Autoradiographic patterns of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation, nuclear/cytoplasmic ratios (N/C), and the percentage of dark epithelial cells were analyzed in a group of epithelial lesions induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in rat tracheal transplants. It was found that similar lesions of different age exhibit the same labeling indices (LIs), therefore the lesions of different age were subsequently pooled in the following groups and studied by high resolution light microscopic autoradiography: squamous metaplasia without or with only mild atypia, squamous metaplasia with moderate atypia, squamous metaplasia with severe atypia, carcinoma in situ, and microinvasive carcinoma. Normal tracheal and esophageal epithelia were also analyzed. Gradients of increasing N/C (nucleus-cytoplasm ratios) values could be observed as the lesions increased in severity, especially in the middle and surface layers (e.g., in the surface layer regular metaplasia N/C = 0.08, squamous metaplasia with moderate atypia N/C = 0.26, and carcinoma in situ N/C = 0.50). Dark cells were absent in the normal esophageal epithelium, were present in moderate numbers in the basal layer of regular squamous metaplasia (18%), and increased markedly in the atypical epithelial lesions (approximately 50% in the atypical squamous metaplasias and 70% in carcinoma in situ). In the suprabasal layer dark cells increased from 3% in squamous metaplasia with moderate atypia to 28% in metaplasia with severe atypia and 56% in carcinoma in situ. The results confirm in a quantitative fashion that disturbances of cell maturation and cell proliferation are key features of dysplastic lesions induced by chemical carcinogens, and suggest the use of objective parameters for evaluation and classification of preneoplastic alterations.

  15. Endothelial cell proliferation associated with lesions of murine systemic candidiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Ashman, R B; Papadimitriou, J M

    1994-01-01

    Neovascularization is associated with tumor growth and some inflammatory diseases but has not been reported to be induced by infectious agents. In a mouse model of systemic Candida albicans infection, extensive endothelial cell proliferation was seen in the periphery of brain abscesses and in the areas of fungal pyelonephritis in the kidney. This finding is important for an understanding of the pathogenesis of fungal infections and may contribute to an analysis of the mechanisms of angiogenesis. Images PMID:7523305

  16. Established and theoretical factors to consider in assessing the red cell storage lesion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The collection and storage of red blood cells (RBCs) is a logistical necessity to provide sufficient blood products. However, RBC storage is an unnatural state, resulting in complicated biological changes, referred to collectively as the “storage lesion.” Specifics of the storage lesion have been studied for decades, including alterations to cellular properties, morphology, molecular biology of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, and basic metabolism. Recently, mass spectrometry–based “omics” technology has been applied to the RBC storage lesion, resulting in many new observations, the initial effects of which are more information than understanding. Meanwhile, clinical research on RBC transfusion is considering both the efficacy and also the potential untoward effects of transfusing stored RBCs of different ages and storage conditions. The myriad biological changes that have now been observed during the storage lesion have been extensively reviewed elsewhere. This article focuses rather on an analysis of our current understanding of the biological effects of different elements of the storage lesion, in the context of evolving new clinical understanding. A synopsis is presented of both established and theoretical considerations of the RBC storage lesion and ongoing efforts to create a safer and more efficacious product. PMID:25651844

  17. Epithelial lesions associated with invasive penile squamous cell carcinoma: a pathologic study of 288 cases.

    PubMed

    Cubilla, Antonio L; Velazquez, Elsa F; Young, Robert H

    2004-10-01

    A heterogeneous spectrum of epithelial alterations and atypical lesions affect the squamous epithelium of penile mucosal anatomical compartments. Analogous to other genital sites, the terminology utilized to define the lesions is variable. The few pathologic studies of penile precancerous lesions are mostly related to carcinoma in situ and human papilloma virus (HPV), and the information on low-grade atypical lesions is limited. The objective of this study was to comprehensively describe the morphologic features of all epithelial alterations, benign and atypical, low grade and high grade, associated with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis and to investigate their relation with each other and with subtypes of invasive carcinoma. We also propose herein a simple and reproducible nomenclature for penile precancerous abnormalities until more biological, molecular, or epidemiologic information on the lesions is available. Two hundred and eighty-eight penectomy and circumcision specimens with invasive squamous cell carcinoma were pathologically evaluated. Carcinomas were classified as usual, verrucous, papillary not otherwise specified, warty (condylomatous), basaloid, and mixed. Associated lesions were classified as squamous hyperplasia and squamous intraepithelial lesions of low and high grade (LGSIL and HGSIL). In LGSIL, atypia was confined to the lower third, and in HGSIL, atypical cells affected at least two thirds of the squamous epithelium. Subtypes of SIL were squamous, warty, basaloid, warty-basaloid, and papillary. Squamous hyperplasia, the most common lesion, was found in 83% of the cases, followed by LGSIL (59%) and HGSIL (44%). In 62% of the cases more than 1 associated lesion was present per specimen. A sequence from squamous hyperplasia to low-grade to high-grade SIL was seen frequently. Squamous hyperplasia was more commonly associated with usual squamous, papillary, and verrucous than with warty and basaloid invasive carcinomas. LGSIL was

  18. Radioautographic visualization of differences in the pattern of (/sup 3/H)uridine and (/sup 3/H)orotic acid incorporation into the RNA of migrating columnar cells in the rat small intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, M.; Altmann, G.G.; Leblond, C.P.

    1984-05-01

    The epithelium of rat small intestine was radioautographed to examine whether RNA is synthesized by the salvage pathway as shown after (/sup 3/H)uridine injection or by the de novo pathway as shown after (/sup 3/H)orotic acid injection. The two modes of RNA synthesis were thus investigated during the migration of columnar cells from crypt base to villus top, and the rate of synthesis was assessed by counting silver grains over the nucleolus and nucleoplasm at six levels along the duodenal epithelium - that is, in the base, mid, and top regions of the crypts and in the base, mid, and top regions of the villi. Concomitant biochemical analyses established that, after injection of either (5-/sup 3/H)uridine or (5-/sup 3/H)orotic acid: (a) buffered glutaraldehyde fixative was as effective as perchloric acid or trichloroacetic acid in insolubilizing the nucleic acids of rat small intestine; (b) a major fraction of the nucleic acid label was in RNA, that is, 91% after (/sup 3/H)uridine and 72% after (/sup 3/H)orotic acid, with the rest in DNA; and (c) a substantial fraction of the RNA label was in poly A/sup +/ RNA (presumed to be messenger RNA). In radioautographs of duodenum prepared after (/sup 3/H)uridine injection, the count of silver grains was high over nucleolus and nucleoplasm in crypt base cells and gradually decreased at the upper levels up to the villus base. In the rest of the villus, the grain count over the nucleolus was negligible, while over the nucleoplasm it was low but significant.

  19. Aggressive giant cell lesion of the jaws: a review of management options and report of a mandibular lesion treated with denosumab.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, John Edward; Bowe, Conor; Murphy, Colm; Toner, Mary; Kearns, Gerard J

    2015-11-01

    Giant cell lesions (GCLs), previously referred to as giant cell granulomas, are benign tumors of the jaws of unknown etiology. Surgical management of aggressive GCLs is challenging, as these lesions demonstrate a tendency to recur following surgical removal. In addition, surgical treatment can be associated with significant morbidity. In an attempt to reduce both the extent of morbidity and the recurrence rate following surgery, a number of pharmacologic therapies have been advocated on the basis of assumptions about the predominant cell types and receptors, for the management of these lesions. This report describes the use of denosumab, an agent originally used for its anti-resorptive effects, in the management of an aggressive GCL of the mandible in an older patient, who was unsuitable for extensive surgery and in whom treatment with intralesional triamcinolone had proved unsuccessful. Denosumab may be a viable alternative or adjunct to surgery in the management of GCLs of the jaws. PMID:26340897

  20. Columnar Liquid-Crystalline Dibenzopentacenodithiophenes by Photocyclization.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Marilia G Belarmino; Pereira de Oliveira Santos, Deise M; Bentaleb, Ahmed; Hillard, Elizabeth A; Cristiano, Rodrigo; Gallardo, Hugo; Durola, Fabien; Bock, Harald

    2016-06-01

    The twofold glyoxylic Perkin reaction of perylene-3,9-diglyoxylic acid with thiophene-diacetic acid followed by oxidative photocylization and reaction with α-branched primary alkylamines yields columnar liquid-crystalline diimides with two sulfur atoms in the condensed arene system. A broad temperature range of the hexagonal columnar mesophase is induced by racemic doubly branched alkyl chains. The HOMO and LUMO energy levels of these thiophene-derived diimides qualify them as electron donors with respect to perylene diimides. PMID:27141916

  1. The immunoprofile of interstitial Cajal cells within adenomyosis/endometriosis lesions.

    PubMed

    Drăghici, Isabela Magdalena; Drăghici, Liviu; Cojocaru, Manole; Gorgan, Carmen Loredana; Vrabie, Camelia Doina

    2015-01-01

    Adenomyosis and endometriosis are lesions which have aroused the interest for the investigation of antibodies specific to the structures from the composition, but also for the cause behind the appearance of these lesions in completely different structures. The impact they have on fertility is not known entirely, for they are difficult to diagnose. Endometriosis causes infertility and it is a hard to treat lesion. The research performed in the last years has been focused on the so-called linkage analysis, or reverse genetics. It refers to identifying the genes which are prone to developing this affection. We investigated clinically 40 female inpatients (n=40) who had underwent genital surgery and received a variegate diagnosis in the "Sf. Ioan" Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, between January-September 2014 and also their histopathology and immunohistochemistry. We proceeded with the histopathology examination in order to establish a diagnosis in respect to the admission diagnosis and then, using the ABC (Avidin-Biotin complex) method, we analyzed the immunohistochemistry of the following markers: S100 protein (for detection of ganglia and nerve cells), CD117÷c-kit (selective detection of interstitial Cajal cells - ICC), desmin and vimentin (intermediary filaments for detecting ICC-like cells, which cohabit with uterine myocytes and are not contractile cells) and CD10 (a sensitive and useful immunomarker in the diagnosis of endometrial stroma and, in some cases, of neoplasia). Our study, regarding the immunoprofile of some markers of adenomyosis÷endometriosis lesions, supports the hypothesis that the interstitial Cajal cells are non-reactive, they are not in relationship with investigated lesions, but CD10 is a very useful marker to highlight the endometrial stroma in query cases. PMID:25826497

  2. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma - precursor lesions and early diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Antonio Barros; Fagundes, Renato Borges

    2012-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCCE) carries a poor prognosis due to late diagnosis. Early detection is highly desirable, since surgical and endoscopic resection offers the only possible cure for esophageal cancer. Population screening should be undertaken in high risk areas, and in low or moderate risk areas for people with risk factors (alcoholics, smokers, mate drinkers, history of head and neck cancer, achalasia and lye stricture of the esophagus). Esophageal balloon cytology is an easy and inexpensive sampling technique, but the current methods are insufficient for primary screening due to sampling errors. Conventional endoscopy with biopsy remains the standard procedure for the identification of pre-malignant and early malignant changes in esophageal mucosa and endoscopic detection. It may be enhanced by several techniques such as dye and optic chromoendoscopy, magnifying endoscopy, and optical-based spectroscopic and imaging modalities. Since more than 80% of SCCE deaths occur in developing countries, where expensive techniques such as narrow band imaging (NBI) and autofluorescence imaging are unavailable, the most cost-effective tool for targeting biopsies may be Lugol dye chromoendoscopy, since it is easy, accurate, inexpensive and available worldwide. In ideal conditions, or in developed countries, is it reasonable to think that optimal detection will require a combination of techniques, such as the combination of Lugol’s chromoendoscopy and NBI to identify esophageal areas that require further characterization by a high resolution technique. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness will determine whether these modalities will become part of standard endoscopy practice. PMID:22267978

  3. Passive immunization of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus with anti-Flavobacterium columnare sera.

    PubMed

    Shelby, R A; Shoemaker, C A; Klesius, P H

    2007-09-14

    Passive immunization of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque) was conducted to determine if anti-Flavobacterium columnare serum was protective when injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) into channel catfish. The anti-F. columnare serum was produced by actively immunizing (i.p. injection) channel catfish with sonicated whole cells or purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of F. columnare in Freund's adjuvant. Serum anti-F. columnare activity was verified by Western blotting and ELISA of serum. Normal serum and sterile culture broth were used as controls. Complement was inactivated in all sera by heating. After 48 h, passively immunized fish were challenged with virulent F. columnare by i.p. injection. A group of unchallenged fish served as controls. The immune response of catfish to the antigenic fractions was different when examined by Western blotting. Antibody produced with whole-cell antigen responded to a broad range of molecular weight components, while LPS antigens were restricted to a pair of bands near 20 kDa. Control fish injected with culture medium experienced 100% mortality 14 d post-challenge. Relative percent survival was 77 and 73 for catfish passively immunized with anti-LPS and anti-whole-cell serum, respectively. Results suggest that antibodies in the serum are involved in the protective immune response against columnaris disease in channel catfish. PMID:17972756

  4. Quantitative analysis of disturbed cell maturation in dysplastic lesions of the respiratory tract epithelium.

    PubMed

    Klein-Szanto, A J; Nettesheim, P; Topping, D C; Olson, A C

    1980-01-01

    Autoradiographic patterns of [3H]thymidine incorporation, nuclear/cytoplasmic ratios (N/C), and the percentage of dark epithelial cells were analyzed in a group of epithelial lesions induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in rat tracheal transplants. It was found that similar lesions of different age exhibit the same labeling indices (LIs), therefore the lesions of different age were subsequently pooled in the following groups and studied by high resolution light microscopic autoradiography: squamous metaplasia without or with only mild atypia, squamous metaplasia with moderate atypia, squamous metaplasia with severe atypia, carcinoma in situ, and microinvasive carcinoma. Normal tracheal and esophageal epithelia were also analyzed. Whereas the normal tracheal basal layer exhibited an LI smaller than 1%, a clear difference between the carcinomas (in situ and invasive) on one hand (LI approximately 32%) and all the remaining epithelia on the other hand (LI approximately 18%) was detected. The LIs of the suprabasal cells exhibited a statistically significant difference between the squamous epithelia without atypia (LI approximately 2%) and the group comprising all the atypical lesions (LI approximately 9%). Gradients of increasing N/C (nucleus-cytoplasm ratios) values could be observed as the lesions increased in severity, especially in the middle and surface layers (e.g., in the surface layer regular metaplasia N/C = 0.08, squamous metaplasia with moderate atypia N/C = 0.26, and carcinoma in situ N/C = 0.50). Dark cells were absent in the normal esophageal epithelium, were present in moderate numbers in the basal layer of regular squamous metaplasia (18%), and increased markedly in the atypical epithelial lesions (approximately 50% in the atypical squamous metaplasias and 70% in carcinoma in situ). In the suprabasal layer dark cells increased from 3% in squamous metaplasia with moderate atypia to 28% in metaplasia with severe atypia and 56% in carcinoma in

  5. Genome sequence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare ATCC 49512

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative, rod shaped, motile, and highly prevalent fish pathogen causing columnaris disease in freshwater fish worldwide. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of F. columnare strain ATCC 49512. ...

  6. Nitric oxide decreases intestinal haemorrhagic lesions in rat anaphylaxis independently of mast cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, J. Carvalho; Moreno, A.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the intestinal lesions of passive anaphylaxis, since this experimental model resembles necrotizing enterocolitis. Sprague-Dawley rats were sensitized with IgE anti-dinitrophenol monoclonal antibody. Extravasation of protein-rich plasma and haemorrhagia were measured in the small intestine. Plasma histamine was measured to assess mast cell activation. The effect of exogenous NO on the lesions was assessed by using two structurally unrelated NO-donors: sodium nitroprusside and S-nitroso-Nacetyl-penicillamine (SNAP). An increased basal production of NO was observed in cells taken after anaphylaxis, associated with a reduced response to platelet-activating factor, interleukin 1beta, and IgE/DNP-bovine serum albumin complexes. The response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) was enhanced 24 h after challenge, but at earlier times was not significantly different from that observed in controls. Treatment with either sodium nitroprusside or SNAP produced a significant reduction of the haemorrhagic lesions, which are a hallmark of rat anaphylaxis. The extravasation of protein-rich plasma was not influenced by NO-donors. The increase of plasma histamine elicited by the anaphylactic challenge was not influenced by SNAP treatment. NO-donors protect intestinal haemorrhagic lesions of rat anaphylaxis by a mechanism apparently independent of mast cell histamine release. PMID:18472830

  7. Epidermal Merkel cells in psoriatic lesions: immunohistochemical investigations on neuroendocrine antigen expression.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Mahrle, G

    1992-05-01

    Biopsy specimens from lesional psoriatic skin and from normal controls were investigated by immunohistochemistry for the presence of epidermal Merkel cells (MC). MC were defined as epidermal cells expressing simple-type keratins, i.e. nos. 8, 18, and 19. A significant number of MC could be found at the bottom of the rete ridges of psoriatic lesions (about 19.6 MC per square mm skin surface area) and of normal skin (about 14.0 MC per square mm surface area). In contrast to normal skin, MC of psoriatic lesions were positive for synaptophysin (21.7% of simple-type keratin positive epidermal cells, i.e. MC), pancreatic polypeptide (14.8%), somatostatin (7.0%), and chromogranin A (less than 3%). The immunostaining was rather faint though significantly different from normal skin. The findings suggest that in psoriasis, epidermal MC show variations of the expression of neuropeptides compared to normal skin. Since some of the neuropeptides are thought to be involved in hyperproliferation and/or skin immunology, our findings might suggest a functional activity of epidermal MC in psoriatic lesions different from normal controls. PMID:1498093

  8. Congenital granular cell lesion of the tongue: a report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yancoskie, Aaron E; Reebye, Uday N; Segal, Joshua D; Aldape Barrios, Beatriz C; Velasco, Araceli Andrade; Fantasia, John E

    2016-07-01

    The congenital granular cell lesion most commonly occurs on the maxillary or mandibular alveolus of neonates. Extra-alveolar congenital granular cell lesion is exceptionally rare, with only 10 cases reported. Two additional cases occurring on the tongue are presented with a description of the clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features. The differential diagnosis is discussed, and the literature reviewed. PMID:26712684

  9. Parasitism enhances tilapia susceptibility to Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare, a Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of columnaris disease. Many commercially important freshwater fish worldwide are susceptible to columnaris disease that can result in high fish mortality. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is a protozoan parasite in many ...

  10. Complementary DNA sequences of the constant regions of T-cell antigen receptors α, β and γ in mandarin fish, Siniperca chuatsi Basilewsky, and their transcriptional changes after stimulation with Flavobacterium columnare.

    PubMed

    Tian, J Y; Qi, Z T; Wu, N; Chang, M X; Nie, P

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the constant-region genes (Cα, Cβ and Cγ) that encode the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) α, β and γ chains were cloned from mandarin fish, Siniperca chuatsi Basilewsky, an important freshwater fish species in China. The complementary DNA sequences of Cα, Cβ and Cγ were 843, 716 and 906 base pairs (bp) in length and had a 465-, 289- and 360-bp 3' untranslated region, encoding 125, 142 and 182 amino acids, respectively. The amino-acid sequences of the constant regions of mandarin fish TCR α, β and γ chains (encoded by Cα, Cβ and Cγ, respectively) were most similar to those of their teleost counterparts, showing 60% similarity with pufferfish, 48% similarity with Atlantic salmon and 57% similarity with flounder, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the mandarin fish Cα, Cβ and Cγ were clustered, respectively, with their vertebrate counterparts. The mandarin fish Cα, Cβ and Cγ could also be separated into four domains: immunoglobulin; connecting peptide (CP); transmembrane (TM); and cytoplasmic tail. Several conserved features in mammalian TCRs were also found in those of mandarin fish, such as a conserved cysteine residue in the CP domain of Cα, necessary for creating an interchain disulphide bond with the TCR β chain, and a conserved antigen receptor TM motif in Cα and Cβ. Meanwhile, transcripts of Cα, Cβ and Cγ were detectable in all examined organs, with a stronger signal observed in lymphoid organs. In addition, the temporal transcriptional changes for Cα and Cγ were investigated, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8 weeks after stimulation with Flavobacterium columnare, in head kidney, spleen, blood, thymus, gill and intestine, using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated stimulation-dependent up-regulations in almost all tissues examined, which indicates that T cells may play important roles in preventing mandarin fish from bacterial invasion. In particular, apart from thymus, T cells were

  11. Multinucleate Giant Cells in FNAC of Benign Breast Lesions: Its Significance

    PubMed Central

    R, Kalyani; Murthy V, Srinivasa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multinucleate giant cells are described in breast aspirates. However, due to its rarity very few cases have been described cytologically. Hence recognition and correct interpretation of their presence is difficult, yet crucial for accurate diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The prospective study of FNAC (fine needle aspirate cytology) of breast lumps was conducted for a period of six months. Direct smears were prepared from the material aspirated. In case of fluid aspirates, centrifuge done and cell sediment was used for making smears. Smears were alcohol fixed and stained with PAP/H&E or air dried smears were stained with Leishman stain. Further smears were subjected to immunocytochemistry using vimentin and CD34 markers to know the origin of multinucleate giant cells. Results: We have reported 11 cases of breast lesions, which showed multinucleate giant cells on FNAC. Out of the 11 cases, Cytologically six cases showed granuloma debris with relative proportion of epithelioid histiocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils and multinucleate giant cells. Two cases were diagnosed as acute suppurative granulomatous mastitis. Two cases of fibroadenoma and one case of fat necrosis showed multinucleate giant cells. Immunocytochemistry showed vimentin positivity in both stromal and histiocytic type of multinucleate giant cells and in isolated histiocytes. CD34 was focally positive in histiocytic type of giant cells. Conclusion: An effort is made to distinguish between the stromal and histiocytic type giant cells in non-neoplastic breast lesions. Further molecular studies have to be done to know the exact histogenesis and role of these multinucleate giant cells in benign lesions. PMID:25653953

  12. Cortisol directly impacts Flavobacterium columnare in vitro growth characteristics.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Annelies Maria; Aerts, Johan; Ampe, Bart; Haesebrouck, Freddy; De Saeger, Sarah; Decostere, Annemie

    2016-01-01

    Teleost fish faced with stressful stimuli launch an endocrine stress response through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis to release glucocorticoids, in particular cortisol, into the blood. For the majority of bacterial fish pathogens, stress is considered a key factor in disease outbreaks. Based upon studies in mammals, there is considerable evidence to suggest that, besides impairing the immune system, cortisol can have a direct effect on bacterial cells. Hitherto, this intriguing field of microbial endocrinology has remained largely unexplored in aquatic diseases. The present study investigated in vitro the impact of cortisol on phenotypic traits of the fresh water fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare. Colonies obtained from the highly virulent (HV) isolates resulted in significantly larger and more spreading colonies compared to those from the low virulent (LV) isolates. High cortisol doses added displayed a direct effect on the bacterial cells and induced a significant decrease in colony size. An additional intriguing finding was the inverse relationship between cortisol concentrations added to the broth and the spreading character of colonies retrieved, with higher cortisol doses resulting in less rhizoid to rough and even smooth colony formation (the latter only in the LV trout isolate), suggesting a dose-response effect. The loss of the rhizoid appearance of the F. columnare colonies upon administration of cortisol, and hence the loss of motility, might indicate a phenotypic change to the biofilm state. These findings form the basis for further research on the impact of glucocorticoids on other virulence factors and biofilm formation of F. columnare. PMID:27530746

  13. Glutathione Depletion and Carbon Ion Radiation Potentiate Clustered DNA Lesions, Cell Death and Prevent Chromosomal Changes in Cancer Cells Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Hanot, Maïté; Boivin, Anthony; Malésys, Céline; Beuve, Michaël; Colliaux, Anthony; Foray, Nicolas; Douki, Thierry; Ardail, Dominique; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Poor local control and tumor escape are of major concern in head-and-neck cancers treated by conventional radiotherapy or hadrontherapy. Reduced glutathione (GSH) is suspected of playing an important role in mechanisms leading to radioresistance, and its depletion should enable oxidative stress insult, thereby modifying the nature of DNA lesions and the subsequent chromosomal changes that potentially lead to tumor escape. This study aimed to highlight the impact of a GSH-depletion strategy (dimethylfumarate, and l-buthionine sulfoximine association) combined with carbon ion or X-ray irradiation on types of DNA lesions (sparse or clustered) and the subsequent transmission of chromosomal changes to the progeny in a radioresistant cell line (SQ20B) expressing a high endogenous GSH content. Results are compared with those of a radiosensitive cell line (SCC61) displaying a low endogenous GSH level. DNA damage measurements (γH2AX/comet assay) demonstrated that a transient GSH depletion in resistant SQ20B cells potentiated the effects of irradiation by initially increasing sparse DNA breaks and oxidative lesions after X-ray irradiation, while carbon ion irradiation enhanced the complexity of clustered oxidative damage. Moreover, residual DNA double-strand breaks were measured whatever the radiation qualities. The nature of the initial DNA lesions and amount of residual DNA damage were similar to those observed in sensitive SCC61 cells after both types of irradiation. Misrepaired or unrepaired lesions may lead to chromosomal changes, estimated in cell progeny by the cytome assay. Both types of irradiation induced aberrations in nondepleted resistant SQ20B and sensitive SCC61 cells. The GSH-depletion strategy prevented the transmission of aberrations (complex rearrangements and chromosome break or loss) in radioresistant SQ20B only when associated with carbon ion irradiation. A GSH-depleting strategy combined with hadrontherapy may thus have considerable advantage in the

  14. B regulatory cells are increased in hypercholesterolaemic mice and protect from lesion development via IL-10.

    PubMed

    Strom, Asa C; Cross, Amanda J; Cole, Jennifer E; Blair, Paul A; Leib, Christoph; Goddard, Michael E; Rosser, Elizabeth C; Park, Inhye; Hultgårdh Nilsson, Anna; Nilsson, Jan; Mauri, Claudia; Monaco, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    Whilst innate B1-B cells are atheroprotective, adaptive B2-B cells are considered pro-atherogenic. Different subsets of B regulatory cells (B(reg)) have been described. In experimental arthritis and lupus-like disease, B(reg) are contained within the CD21(hi)CD23(hi)CD24(hi) B cell pool. The existence and role of B(reg) in vascular disease is not known. We sought to investigate the existence, identity and location of B(reg) in vascular disease. The representation of B2-B cell subsets in the spleens and lymph nodes (LNs) of Apolipoprotein E(-/-) (ApoE(-/-)) mice compared to controls was characterised by flow cytometry. Additionally, we utilised a model of neointima formation based on the placement of a perivascular collar around the carotid artery in ApoE(-/-) mice to ascertain whether B cells and B cell subsets confer protection against lesion development. Adoptive transfer of B cells was performed from wild type or genetically modified mice. We showed that CD21(hi)CD23(hi)CD24(hi) B cells are unexpectedly increased in the draining LNs of ApoE(-/-) mice. Adoptive transfer of LN-derived B2-B cells or purified CD21(hi)CD23(hi)CD24(hi) B cells to syngeneic mice reduced lesion size and inflammation without changing serum cholesterol levels. Follicular B2-B cells did not confer protection. IL-10 blockade or transfer of IL10-deficient B cells prevented LN-derived B cell-mediated protection. This is the first identification of a specific LN-derived B2-B(reg) subset that confers IL-10 mediated protection from neointima formation. This may open the way for immune modulatory approaches in cardiovascular disease. PMID:26063196

  15. Tumor response assessment by the single-lesion measurement per organ in small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Soong Goo; Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Hyeong Su; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Yang, Ik

    2016-01-01

    Background: The criterion of two target lesions per organ in the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1 is an arbitrary one, being supported by no objective evidence. The optimal number of target lesions per organ still needs to be investigated. We compared tumor responses using the RECIST 1.1 (measuring two target lesions per organ) and modified RECIST 1.1 (measuring the single largest lesion in each organ) in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Methods: We reviewed medical records of patients with SCLC who received first-line treatment between January 2004 and December 2014 and compared tumor responses according to the two criteria using computed tomography. Results: There were a total of 34 patients who had at least two target lesions in any organ according to the RECIST 1.1 during the study period. The differences in the percentage changes of the sum of tumor measurements between RECIST 1.1 and modified RECIST 1.1 were all within 13%. Seven patients showed complete response and fourteen showed partial response according to the RECIST 1.1. The overall response rate was 61.8%. When assessing with the modified RECIST 1.1 instead of the RECIST 1.1, tumor responses showed perfect concordance between the two criteria (k=1.0). Conclusions: The modified RECIST 1.1 showed perfect agreement with the original RECIST 1.1 in the assessment of tumor response of SCLC. Our result suggests that it may be enough to measure the single largest target lesion per organ for evaluating tumor response. PMID:27199513

  16. Multiple giant cell lesions in a patient with Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Henk; Schreuder, Willem Hans; Jongmans, Marjolijn; van Bommel-Slee, Danielle; Witsenburg, Bart; de Lange, Jan

    2016-08-01

    A patient with Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) and multiple giant cell lesions (MGCL) in mandibles and maxillae is described. A mutation p.Thr468Met in the PTPN11-gene was found. This is the second reported NSML patient with MGCL. Our case adds to the assumption that, despite a different molecular pathogenesis and effect on the RAS/MEK pathway, NSML shares the development of MGCL, with other RASopathies. PMID:27238887

  17. DNA Damage in CD133-Positive Cells in Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Thanan, Raynoo; Ma, Ning; Hiraku, Yusuke; Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) caused by gastroesophageal reflux is a major risk factor of Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma (BEA), an inflammation-related cancer. Chronic inflammation and following tissue damage may activate progenitor cells under reactive oxygen/nitrogen species-rich environment. We previously reported the formation of oxidative/nitrative stress-mediated mutagenic DNA lesions, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-nitroguanine, in columnar epithelial cells of BE tissues and cancer cells of BEA tissues. We investigated the mechanisms of BEA development in relation to oxidative/nitrative DNA damage and stem cell hypothesis. We examined 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG formation and the expression of stem cell marker (CD133) in biopsy specimens of patients with BE and BEA by immunohistochemical analysis in comparison with those of normal subjects. CD133 was detected at apical surface of columnar epithelial cells of BE and BEA tissues, and the cytoplasm and cell membrane of cancer cells in BEA tissues. DNA lesions and CD133 were colocalized in columnar epithelial cells and cancer cells. Their relative staining intensities in these tissues were significantly higher than those in normal subjects. Our results suggest that BE columnar epithelial cells with CD133 expression in apical surface undergo inflammation-mediated DNA damage, and mutated cells acquire the property of cancer stem cells with cytoplasmic CD133 expression. PMID:27069317

  18. Nonequilibrium scale selection mechanism for columnar jointing

    PubMed Central

    Goehring, Lucas; Mahadevan, L.; Morris, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    Crack patterns in laboratory experiments on thick samples of drying cornstarch are geometrically similar to columnar joints in cooling lava found at geological sites such as the Giant's Causeway. We present measurements of the crack spacing from both laboratory and geological investigations of columnar jointing, and show how these data can be collapsed onto a single master scaling curve. This is due to the underlying mathematical similarity between theories for the cracking of solids induced by differential drying or by cooling. We use this theory to give a simple quantitative explanation of how these geometrically similar crack patterns arise from a single dynamical law rooted in the nonequilibrium nature of the phenomena. We also give scaling relations for the characteristic crack spacing in other limits consistent with our experiments and observations, and discuss the implications of our results for the control of crack patterns in thin and thick solid films. PMID:19129495

  19. Atmospheric Columnar Vortices (Paper 7R0104)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, John T.

    1987-04-01

    The family of atmospheric columnar vortices includes tornadoes, waterspouts, firewhirls, dust devils and a variety of other whirlwinds. Each member of the family is characterized by the presence of a relatively tall, concentrated vortical core. Descriptions of such swirling flows are inherently complex, reflecting the presence of a multiplicity of length and velocity scales. In many cases, the flow is both three-dimensional and unsteady.

  20. The path of anti-tuberculosis drugs: from blood to lesions to mycobacterial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dartois, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    For the successful treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, drugs need to penetrate complex lung lesions and permeate the mycobacterial cell wall in order to reach their intracellular targets. However, most currently used anti-tuberculosis drugs were introduced into clinical use without considering the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties that influence drug distribution, and this has contributed to the long duration and limited success of current therapies. In this Progress article, I describe new methods to quantify and image drug distribution in infected lung tissue and in mycobacterial cells, and I explore how this technology could be used to design optimized multidrug regimens. PMID:24487820

  1. Nuclear expression of Rac1 in cervical premalignant lesions and cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Abnormal expression of Rho-GTPases has been reported in several human cancers. However, the expression of these proteins in cervical cancer has been poorly investigated. In this study we analyzed the expression of the GTPases Rac1, RhoA, Cdc42, and the Rho-GEFs, Tiam1 and beta-Pix, in cervical pre-malignant lesions and cervical cancer cell lines. Methods Protein expression was analyzed by immunochemistry on 102 cervical paraffin-embedded biopsies: 20 without Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL), 51 Low- grade SIL, and 31 High-grade SIL; and in cervical cancer cell lines C33A and SiHa, and non-tumorigenic HaCat cells. Nuclear localization of Rac1 in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells was assessed by cellular fractionation and Western blotting, in the presence or not of a chemical Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Results Immunoreacivity for Rac1, RhoA, Tiam1 and beta-Pix was stronger in L-SIL and H-SIL, compared to samples without SIL, and it was significantly associated with the histological diagnosis. Nuclear expression of Rac1 was observed in 52.9% L-SIL and 48.4% H-SIL, but not in samples without SIL. Rac1 was found in the nucleus of C33A and SiHa cells but not in HaCat cells. Chemical inhibition of Rac1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells. Conclusion Rac1 is expressed in the nucleus of epithelial cells in SILs and cervical cancer cell lines, and chemical inhibition of Rac1 reduces cellular proliferation. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Rho-GTPases in cervical cancer progression. PMID:22443139

  2. 99mTc red blood cell scintigraphy in evaluating focal liver lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, S.A.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-07-01

    To determine the accuracy of blood-pool imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas, 39 patients with various focal hepatic lesions were studied. The diagnoses in these patients were made by biopsy, angiography, surgical exploration, or clinical stability for a minimum of 14 months. The diagnoses were: hemangiomas (13 patients), hepatoma (three), metastases (19), abscesses (two), and liver cysts (two). After modified in vivo labeling of red blood cells with 20 mCi (740 MBq) of 99mTc pertechnetate, an initial flow study and early (1-15 min) and delayed (1-2 hr) static images were obtained. Increased blood-pool activity with a discordant flow pattern was seen in 11 of 13 patients with hemangiomas. False-negative scans occurred in two hemangiomas with extensive fibrosis. Two of three hepatomas had increased blood-pool activity associated with increased flow in a pattern identical to the increased blood-pool activity. None of the metastatic, abscess, or cystic lesions had increased blood-pool activity at any time after injection. It is concluded that 99mTc red blood cell imaging can distinguish hemangiomas from other focal liver lesions.

  3. /sup 99m/Tc red blood cell scintigraphy in evaluating focal liver lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, S.A.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-07-01

    To determine the accuracy of blood-pool imaging in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas, 39 patients with various focal hepatic lesions were studied. The diagnoses in these patients were made by biopsy, angiography, surgical exploration, or clinical stability for a minimum of 14 months. The diagnoses were: hemangiomas (13 patients), hepatoma (three), metastases (19), abscesses (two), and liver cysts (two). After modified in vivo labeling of red blood cells with 20 mCi (740 MBq) of /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate, an initial flow study and early (1-15 min) and delayed (1-2 hr) static images were obtained. Increased blood-pool activity with a discordant flow pattern was seen in 11 of 13 patients with hemangiomas. False-negative scans occurred in two hemangiomas with extensive fibrosis. None of the metastatic, abscess, or cystic lesions had increased blood-pool activity at any time after injection. It is concluded that /sup 99m/Tc red blood cell imaging can distinguish hemangiomas from other focal liver lesions.

  4. Undifferentiated metastatic renal cell carcinoma presenting as a cutaneous nodular lesion.

    PubMed

    Paolino, Giovanni; Lido, Paolo; Bei, Roberto; Polisca, Patrizio

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous metastases may be the first sign of clinically silent visceral cancer. Approximately 30% of patients with primary renal cell carcinoma present with metastatic disease, and only 8% of them have skin metastases. We present the case of a 59-year-old male patient with a subcutaneous nodular on the upper chest extending to the jugular region. The lesion appeared skin colored and was not painful and 5 cm × 3.5 cm in diameter. The histological examination of the cutaneous biopsy showed an infiltration of undifferentiated epithelial cells positive to cytokeratins AE1/AE3, whereas they were negative to CK-20, CK5/6, cluster of differentiation 10, vimentin, thyroid transcription factor-1, S-100, human melanoma black-45, hepatocyte-specific antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, and chromogranin A. A total-body computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a tumoral lesion in the left kidney with multiple metastases in the lung, brain, and bones. According to the cutaneous biopsy and total-body CT, a final diagnosis of an undifferentiated renal carcinoma presenting as a subcutaneous metastasis was made. A chemotherapeutic treatment with gemcitabine and cisplatin resulted in the stabilization of the renal and metastatic lesions with an improvement in the quality of life of the patient. Considering that the prognosis of patients with cutaneous metastases is very poor, it is necessary to obtain an appropriate diagnosis in order to identify patients with treatable disease with the purpose of starting a therapeutic protocol. PMID:26623153

  5. Iron porphyrinate Fe(TPPS) reduces brain cell damage in rats intrastriatally lesioned by quinolinate.

    PubMed

    González-Cortés, Carolina; Salinas-Lara, Citlaltepetl; Gómez-López, Marcos Artemio; Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Rembao-Bojórquez, Daniel; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Gómez-Ruiz, Celedonio; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Ali, Syed F; Santamaría, Abel

    2008-01-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is involved in the neurotoxic pattern produced by quinolinic acid in the rat brain [V. Pérez-De La Cruz, C. González-Cortés, S. Galván-Arzate, O.N. Medina-Campos, F. Pérez-Severiano, S.F. Ali, J. Pedraza-Chaverrí, A. Santamaría, Excitotoxic brain damage involves early peroxynitrite formation in a model of Huntington's disease in rats: protective role of iron porphyrinate 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinate iron (III), Neuroscience 135 (2005) 463-474.]. The aim of this work was to investigate whether ONOO(-) can also be responsible for morphological alterations and inflammatory events in the same paradigm. For this purpose, we evaluated the effect of a pre-treatment with the iron porphyrinate Fe(TPPS), a well-known ONOO(-) decomposition catalyst (10 mg/kg, i.p., 120 min before lesion), on the quinolinate-induced striatal cell damage and immunoreactivities to glial-fibrilar acidic protein (GFAP), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), one and seven days after the intrastriatal infusion of quinolinate (240 nmol/microl) to rats. The striatal tissue from animals lesioned by quinolinate showed a significant degree of damage and enhanced immunoreactivities to GFAP, IL-6 and iNOS, both at 1 and 7 days post-lesion. Pre-treatment of rats with Fe(TPPS) significantly attenuated or prevented all these markers at both post-lesion times tested, except for GFAP immunoreactivity at 7 days post-lesion and iNOS immunoreactivity at 1 day post-lesion. Altogether, our results suggest that ONOO(-) is actively participating in triggering inflammatory events and morphological alterations in the toxic model produced by quinolinate, since the use of agents affecting its formation, such as Fe(TPPS), are effective experimental tools to reduce the brain lesions associated to excitotoxic and oxidative damage. PMID:18579343

  6. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines with Lesions in FOXP3 and NF1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hui; Behr, Barry; Reddy, Vikrant V.; Hughes, Mark; Pan, Yuqiong; Baker, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst staged embryos. Spare blastocyst staged embryos were obtained by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and donated for research purposes. hESCs carrying specific mutations can be used as a powerful cell system in modeling human genetic disorders. We obtained preimplantation genetic diagnosed (PGD) blastocyst staged embryos with genetic mutations that cause human disorders and derived hESCs from these embryos. We applied laser assisted micromanipulation to isolate the inner cell mass from the blastocysts and plated the ICM onto the mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Two hESC lines with lesions in FOXP3 and NF1 were established. Both lines maintain a typical undifferentiated hESCs phenotype and present a normal karyotype. The two lines express a panel of pluripotency markers and have the potential to differentiate to the three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. The hESC lines with lesions in FOXP3 and NF1 are available for the scientific community and may serve as an important resource for research into these disease states. PMID:26990425

  7. Relapsing nodular lesions in the course of adult pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Tazi, A; Montcelly, L; Bergeron, A; Valeyre, D; Battesti, J P; Hance, A J

    1998-06-01

    In most patients with pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), clinical and radiological abnormalities initially either stabilize or regress, often without treatment. Little information is available, however, concerning the subsequent evolution of disease in patients who initially follow a benign course. We describe four patients with biopsy-confirmed pulmonary LCH whose initial course was characterized by regression of parenchymal nodular lesions, but who subsequently developed one or more episodes of active disease 7 mo to 7.5 yr after their initial presentation. In each case, the subsequent episodes of active disease were characterized by the reappearance or marked increase in nodular radiographic abnormalities, whose presence was confirmed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Thus, initial regression of nodular lesions in pulmonary LCH does not preclude the reappearance of one or more episodes of active disease, and may have important consequences on the long-term prognosis of these patients. PMID:9620939

  8. Nano-scale twinning associated with columnar defects in YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yong; Kirk, M. A.

    1998-03-01

    Transmission electron microscopy study reveals that high energy ( GeV) heavy ion (U+, Xe+, and Au+) irradiation in high-Tc superconductors leads to the formation of aligned columnar defects which are usually amorphous. The associated volume expansion causes strain in surrounding matrix. Our study shows that the stress field induced by ion irradiation along the c axis direction of YBa2Cu3O7-d can be relaxed by local oxygen re-ordering in the ab planes which gives a 90o reorientation of the orthorhombic unit cell in the affected area. As the ion dose increases (>1011/cm2), a characteristic microstructure, the joining of oxygen re-ordering regions, has been observed. Thus a number of local ``twin'' boundaries are formed between two or more amorphous cores. The local a/b interfaces between the matrix and the oxygen re-ordering regions tend to either 110 plane of YBa2Cu3O7-d. These interfaces are similar to the pre-existing twin boundaries formed during the tetragonal to orthorhombic transformation, but they are more diffuse. Cross-sectional TEM study shows that the diameter of aligned amorphous columns is far from uniform along the ion path. Three typical morphologies: discontinuous, modulated, and uniform columns were observed in our study, which certainly must affect the degree of local twinning associated with the columnar defect.

  9. A Comparative Study of Immunohistochemical Myoepithelial Cell Markers in Cutaneous Benign Cystic Apocrine Lesions.

    PubMed

    Wood, Andrew; Houghton, Sinatra L; Biswas, Asok

    2016-07-01

    The use of immunohistochemical markers for myoepithelial cells (MEC) is a useful tool in the distinction of benign from malignant epithelial neoplasms. Although their use in breast tumors is well recognized, little is known concerning its application in comparable cutaneous lesions. Using benign cutaneous cystic apocrine lesions as a study model, the aim of this study was to compare 5 immunohistochemical markers [calponin, p63, smooth muscle actin (SMA), cytokeratin 14, and CD10] in their effectiveness to highlight MEC. Cases of apocrine hidrocystoma and cystadenoma (n = 44) were reviewed with a particular emphasis on proliferative features and apocrine change. The MEC staining pattern and the intensity and distribution scores in proliferative (n = 29) and nonproliferative (n = 15) lesions were assessed, and the differences between the 2 groups were statistically analyzed using Fisher exact test. Calponin and SMA stained MEC in the most consistent manner. Being a nuclear stain, p63 was easy to interpret but typically showed discontinuous staining. Cytokeratin 14 not only effectively highlighted MEC but also stained some luminal epithelial cells in an unpredictable manner. Because of prominent background dermal fibroblast staining, CD10 was often difficult to interpret. Only SMA and p63 showed a statistically significant difference in MEC staining intensity scores between the proliferative and nonproliferative groups. Our results show that immunohistological staining for MEC in benign cystic apocrine lesions of the skin is variable. The authors recommend that a panel of markers that includes calponin and p63 be used and highlight the need for awareness of specific caveats associated with individual markers. PMID:26630681

  10. Histological Lesions, Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and T Cell Subsets Changes of Spleen in Chicken Fed Aflatoxin-contaminated Corn

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xi; Zhang, Keying; Bai, Shiping; Ding, Xuemei; Zeng, Qiufeng; Yang, Jun; Fang, Jing; Chen, Kejie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B2 on pathological lesions, apoptosis, cell cycle phases and T lymphocyte subsets of spleen, and to provide an experimental basis for understanding the mechanism of aflatoxin-induced immunosuppression. A total of 900 COBB500 male broilers were randomly allocated into five groups with six replicates per group and 30 birds per replicate. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks and the five dietary treatments consisted of control, 25% contaminated corn, 50% contaminated corn, 75% contaminated corn and 100% contaminated corn groups. The histopathological spleen lesions from the contaminated corn groups was characterized as congestion of red pulp, increased necrotic cells and vacuoles in the splenic corpuscle and periarterial lymphatic sheath. The contaminated corn intake significantly increased relative weight of spleen, percentages of apoptotic splenocytes, induced cell cycle arrest of splenocytes, increased the percentages of CD3+CD8+ T cells and decreased the ratios of CD3+CD4+ to CD3+CD8+. The results suggest that AFB-induced immunosuppression maybe closely related to the lesions of spleen. PMID:25141002

  11. Detection of circulating pancreas epithelial cells in patients with pancreatic cystic lesions.

    PubMed

    Rhim, Andrew D; Thege, Fredrik I; Santana, Steven M; Lannin, Timothy B; Saha, Trisha N; Tsai, Shannon; Maggs, Lara R; Kochman, Michael L; Ginsberg, Gregory G; Lieb, John G; Chandrasekhara, Vinay; Drebin, Jeffrey A; Ahmad, Nuzhat; Yang, Yu-Xiao; Kirby, Brian J; Stanger, Ben Z

    2014-03-01

    Hematogenous dissemination is thought to be a late event in cancer progression. We recently showed in a genetic model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma that pancreas cells can be detected in the bloodstream before tumor formation. To confirm these findings in humans, we used microfluidic geometrically enhanced differential immunocapture to detect circulating pancreas epithelial cells in patient blood samples. We captured more than 3 circulating pancreas epithelial cells/mL in 7 of 21 (33%) patients with cystic lesions and no clinical diagnosis of cancer (Sendai criteria negative), 8 of 11 (73%) with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and in 0 of 19 patients without cysts or cancer (controls). These findings indicate that cancer cells are present in the circulation of patients before tumors are detected, which might be used in risk assessment. PMID:24333829

  12. Laser-induced autofluorescence properties of base-cell lesions: analysis and algorithms for diagnosis and differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, E.; Troyanova, P.; Avramov, L.

    2006-09-01

    The goals of this work were investigation of base-cell skin lesions by the method of laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectra were obtained from benign base-cell papilloma and malignant base-cell carcinoma, as well as from healthy skin areas near to the lesions that were used posteriori to reveal changes between healthy and lesion skin spectra. Preliminarily lesions were classified by dermatoscopic method (MoleMax II, DERMA Instruments). All suspicious lesions were excised and were investigated histologically. The experimental set-up consists of a nitrogen laser (337 nm, 14 μJ, 10 Hz), lenses, filters, optical fibers, and a microspectrometer (PC2000, "Ocean Optics"). A computer controls this system. Spectrum of healthy skin consists of one main maximum at 470-500 nm spectral region and secondary maxima at in the regions around 400 and 440 nm. In cases of papilloma and base-cell carcinoma an intensity decrease was observed, related to accumulation of pigments in these cutaneous lesions. An relative increase of the fluorescence peak at 440 nm were registered in the case of base-cell carcinoma, related to metabolism activity increase, and appearance of green fluorescence, related to increase of keratin content in benign papilloma lesions were detected. The results, obtained were used to develop multispectral diagnostic algorithm of these base-cell lesions. An sensitivity of 89,4% and 91,0% and specificity of 99,6% and 97,4% for differentiation between normal skin and papilloma and carcinoma respectively were obtained. The capability of the human skin fluorescence spectroscopy for early diagnosis and differentiation of cutaneous lesions is shown.

  13. Barrett oesophagus: lessons on its origins from the lesion itself.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Stuart A C; Lavery, Danielle; Wright, Nicholas A; Jansen, Marnix

    2015-01-01

    Barrett oesophagus develops when the lower oesophageal squamous epithelium is replaced with columnar epithelium, which shows both intestinal and gastric differentiation. No consensus has been reached on the origin of Barrett oesophagus. Theories include a direct origin from the oesophageal-stratified squamous epithelium, or by proximal migration of the gastric cardiac epithelium with subsequent intestinalization. Variations of this theory suggest the origin is a distinctive cell at the squamocolumnar junction, the oesophageal gland ducts, or circulating bone-marrow-derived cells. Much of the supporting evidence comes from experimental models and not from studies of Barrett mucosa. In this Perspectives article, we look at the Barrett lesion itself: at its phenotype, its complexity, its clonal architecture and its stem cell organization. We conclude that Barrett glands are unique structures, but share many similarities with gastric glands undergoing the process of intestinal metaplasia. We conclude that current evidence most strongly supports an origin from stem cells in the cardia. PMID:25365976

  14. Intramuscular Therapeutic Vaccination Targeting HPV16 Induces T Cell Responses That Localize in Mucosal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Jotova, Iveta; Wu, T. C.; Wang, Chenguang; Desmarais, Cindy; Boyer, Jean D.; Tycko, Benjamin; Robins, Harlan S.; Clark, Rachael A.; Trimble, Cornelia L.

    2014-01-01

    About 25% of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN2/3) caused by human papillomavirus serotype 16 (HPV16) undergo complete spontaneous regression. However, to date, therapeutic vaccination strategies for HPV disease have yielded limited success when measured by their ability to induce robust peripheral blood T cell responses to vaccine antigen. We report marked immunologic changes in the target lesion microenvironment after intramuscular therapeutic vaccination targeting HPV16 E6/E7 antigens, in subjects with CIN2/3 who had modest detectable responses in circulating T lymphocytes. Histologic and molecular changes, including markedly (average threefold) increased intensity of CD8+ T cell infiltrates in both the stromal and epithelial compartments, suggest an effector response to vaccination. Postvaccination cervical tissue immune infiltrates included organized tertiary lymphoid-like structures in the stroma subjacent to residual intraepithelial lesions and, unlike infiltrates in unvaccinated lesions, showed evidence of proliferation induced by recognition of cognate antigen. At a molecular level, these histologic changes in the stroma were characterized by increased expression of genes associated with immune activation (CXCR3) and effector function (Tbet and IFNβ), and were also associated with an immunologic signature in the overlying dysplastic epithelium. High-throughput T cell receptor sequencing of unmanipulated specimens identified clonal expansions in the tissue that were not readily detectable in peripheral blood. Together, these findings indicate that peripheral therapeutic vaccination to HPV antigens can induce a robust tissue-localized effector immune response, and that analyses of immune responses at sites of antigen are likely to be much more informative than analyses of cells that remain in the circulation. PMID:24477000

  15. Intramuscular therapeutic vaccination targeting HPV16 induces T cell responses that localize in mucosal lesions.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Leonel; Teague, Jessica E; Morrow, Matthew P; Jotova, Iveta; Wu, T C; Wang, Chenguang; Desmarais, Cindy; Boyer, Jean D; Tycko, Benjamin; Robins, Harlan S; Clark, Rachael A; Trimble, Cornelia L

    2014-01-29

    About 25% of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN2/3) caused by human papillomavirus serotype 16 (HPV16) undergo complete spontaneous regression. However, to date, therapeutic vaccination strategies for HPV disease have yielded limited success when measured by their ability to induce robust peripheral blood T cell responses to vaccine antigen. We report marked immunologic changes in the target lesion microenvironment after intramuscular therapeutic vaccination targeting HPV16 E6/E7 antigens, in subjects with CIN2/3 who had modest detectable responses in circulating T lymphocytes. Histologic and molecular changes, including markedly (average threefold) increased intensity of CD8(+) T cell infiltrates in both the stromal and epithelial compartments, suggest an effector response to vaccination. Postvaccination cervical tissue immune infiltrates included organized tertiary lymphoid-like structures in the stroma subjacent to residual intraepithelial lesions and, unlike infiltrates in unvaccinated lesions, showed evidence of proliferation induced by recognition of cognate antigen. At a molecular level, these histologic changes in the stroma were characterized by increased expression of genes associated with immune activation (CXCR3) and effector function (Tbet and IFNβ), and were also associated with an immunologic signature in the overlying dysplastic epithelium. High-throughput T cell receptor sequencing of unmanipulated specimens identified clonal expansions in the tissue that were not readily detectable in peripheral blood. Together, these findings indicate that peripheral therapeutic vaccination to HPV antigens can induce a robust tissue-localized effector immune response, and that analyses of immune responses at sites of antigen are likely to be much more informative than analyses of cells that remain in the circulation. PMID:24477000

  16. Olig2-expressing progenitor cells preferentially differentiate into oligodendrocytes in cuprizone-induced demyelinated lesions.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Shyful; Tatsumi, Kouko; Okuda, Hiroaki; Shiosaka, Sadao; Wanaka, Akio

    2009-01-01

    Many oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are found in acute or chronic demyelinated area, but not all of them differentiate efficiently into mature oligodendrocytes in the demyelinated central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies have shown that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Olig2, which stimulates OPCs to differentiate into oligodendrocyte, is strongly up-regulated in many pathological conditions including acute or chronic demyelinating lesions in the adult CNS. Despite their potential role in the treatment of demyelinating diseases, the long-term fate of these up-regulated Olig2 cells has not been identified due to the lack of stable labeling methods. To trace their fate we have used double-transgenic mice, in which we were able to label Olig2-positive cells conditionally with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Demyelination was induced in these mice by feeding cuprizone, a copper chelator. After 6 weeks of cuprizone exposure, GFP-positive (GFP(+)) cells were processed for a second labeling with antibodies to major neural cell markers APC (mature oligodendrocyte marker), GFAP (astrocyte marker), NeuN (neuron marker), Iba1 (microglia marker) and NG2 proteoglycan (oligodendrocyte progenitor marker). More than half of the GFP(+) cells in the external capsule showed co-localization with NG2 proteoglycan. While the percentages of NG2-positive (NG2(+)) and APC-positive (APC(+)) oligodendrocyte lineage cells in cuprizone-treated mice were significantly higher than those in the normal diet group, no significant difference was observed for GFAP-positive (GFAP(+)) astrocytic lineage cells. Our data therefore provide direct evidence that proliferation and differentiation of local and/or recruited Olig2 progenitors contribute to remyelination in demyelinated lesions. PMID:19070638

  17. Distribution, activation and tryptase/chymase phenotype of mast cells in the rheumatoid lesion.

    PubMed Central

    Tetlow, L C; Woolley, D E

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the distribution, activation, and tryptase/chymase phenotype of mast cells (MCs) in the rheumatoid lesion. METHODS--MC tryptase and chymase were studied by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies and examination by brightfield, interference, and fluorescent microscopy. Thirty four specimens of cartilage-pannus junction and 26 specimens of rheumatoid synovium, all derived from knee surgery, were examined. RESULTS--MCs were identified in all specimens examined, but their distribution and local concentrations varied, both within and between specimens. As a proportion of total synovial cells, there were more MCs in fibrous synovial tissues than in those with active inflammatory cell infiltrations; MCs usually showed a peripheral distribution around lymphocytic/mononuclear cell infiltrations. Most cartilage-pannus specimens demonstrated local concentrations of MCs at, or close to, sites of cartilage erosion, a significant proportion of which showed extracellular tryptase indicative of MC degranulation. MC degranulation was often associated with localised oedema and disruption of the stromal matrix. Two MC phenotypes were identified: one population contained tryptase alone (MCT) whilst another contained both tryptase and chymase (MCTC). The ratio MCT:MCTC approximated 8:1. CONCLUSIONS--This histological study demonstrated that local concentrations of MCs and their activation/degranulation are commonly observed in the rheumatoid lesion, and especially at sites of cartilage erosion. Such observations add weight to the concept that MCs contribute to the processes of inflammation, matrix degradation and tissue remodelling. Images PMID:7668897

  18. Mycobacterium-Host Cell Relationships in Granulomatous Lesions in a Mouse Model of Latent Tuberculous Infection.

    PubMed

    Ufimtseva, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a dangerous infectious disease characterized by a tight interplay between mycobacteria and host cells in granulomatous lesions (granulomas) during the latent, asymptomatic stage of infection. Mycobacterium-host cell relationships were analyzed in granulomas obtained from various organs of BALB/c mice with chronic TB infection caused by in vivo exposure to the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. Acid-fast BCG-mycobacteria were found to be morphologically and functionally heterogeneous (in size, shape, and replication rates in colonies) in granuloma macrophages, dendritic cells, and multinucleate Langhans giant cells. Cord formation by BCG-mycobacteria in granuloma cells has been observed. Granuloma macrophages retained their ability to ingest damaged lymphocytes and thrombocytes in the phagosomes; however, their ability to destroy BCG-mycobacteria contained in these cells was compromised. No colocalization of BCG-mycobacteria and the LysoTracker dye was observed in the mouse cells. Various relationships between granuloma cells and BCG-mycobacteria were observed in different mice belonging to the same line. Several mice totally eliminated mycobacterial infection. Granulomas in the other mice had mycobacteria actively replicating in cells of different types and forming cords, which is an indicator of mycobacterial virulence and, probably, a marker of the activation of tuberculous infection in animals. PMID:26064970

  19. Squamous Cell Carcinoma as the Most Common Lesion of the Tongue in Iranians: a 22-Year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, Nafiseh; Lotfi, Ali; Motazadian, Hamid Reza; Mortazavi, Hamed; Baharvand, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    The tongue has been globally considered as an indicator of general health for millennia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and distribution of tongue lesions in an Iranian population. In this retrospective study, data from 6,435 oral biopsy reports over a 22-year period (1992-2014) were retrieved from archives of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Department, Shahid Beheshti Dental School, Tehran, Iran. These reports were analyzed according to age, sex, type of lesion and location. Prevalence of tongue lesions were reported as percentages. Out of total oral lesions, 238 (3.7%) were found in the tongue, with the incidence peak (42%) being between 41-60 years. Men constituted 53% and women 47%of patients. The youngest patient was a 3-year-old girl with pyogenic granuloma and the oldest one was a 93-year-old man with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC was the most common (25%) lesion generally found in the lateral border of the tongue with a male predilection. The second and third most prevalent lesions of the tongue were benign keratosis (frictional keratosis) (13.4%) and leukoplakia (13%).White-red lesions (38.6%) were the most frequent subgroup followed by neoplastic lesions (28%). Moreover, irritation fibroma, non-specific ulcers, squamous papilloma, and hemangioma were found as the most frequent lesions in their related subgroups.Given the high rate of SCC of the tongue in Iranian patients, this area should be examined more carefully by dental practitioners and physicians. PMID:27039782

  20. Automatic detection of basal cell carcinoma using telangiectasia analysis in dermoscopy skin lesion images

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Beibei; Erdos, David; Stanley, Ronald J.; Stoecker, William V.; Calcara, David A.; Gómez, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Telangiectasia, dilated blood vessels near the surface of the skin of small, varying diameter, are critical dermoscopy structures used in the detection of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Distinguishing these vessels from other telangiectasia, that are commonly found in sun-damaged skin, is challenging. Methods Image analysis techniques are investigated to find vessels structures found in BCC automatically. The primary screen for vessels uses an optimized local color drop technique. A noise filter is developed to eliminate false-positive structures, primarily bubbles, hair, and blotch and ulcer edges. From the telangiectasia mask containing candidate vessel-like structures, shape, size and normalized count features are computed to facilitate the discrimination of benign skin lesions from BCCs with telangiectasia. Results Experimental results yielded a diagnostic accuracy as high as 96.7% using a neural network classifier for a data set of 59 BCCs and 152 benign lesions for skin lesion discrimination based on features computed from the telangiectasia masks. Conclusion In current clinical practice, it is possible to find smaller BCCs by dermoscopy than by clinical inspection. Although almost all of these small BCCs have telangiectasia, they can be short and thin. Normalization of lengths and areas helps to detect these smaller BCCs. PMID:23815446

  1. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Developing in a Cutaneous Lichen Planus Lesion: A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Kotne, Sivasankar; Ananda Rao, P. B.; Turlapati, S. P. V.; Kumar Soren, Dillip

    2014-01-01

    Lichen planus is a benign disorder characterized by an itchy, noninfectious skin rash. Though lichen planus is a common papulosquamous disorder affecting about 1-2% of the population, neoplastic transformation of cutaneous lichen planus lesions occurs very rarely and should be borne in mind while treating nonhealing longstanding lesions of lichen planus. Studies suggest an estimated 0.3–3% risk of malignancy in patients with oral lichen planus, however, cutaneous lichen planus does not carry an increased risk of malignant degeneration. We present a case of a 36-year-old male with a 10-year-long history of hypertrophic lichen planus who presented with a nonhealing ulcer in the left popliteal fossa. The patient underwent wide local excision with superficial skin grafting. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed verrucous squamous cell carcinoma complicating lichen planus. In view of underlying structure involvement, adjuvant radiation therapy was given. This case is being reported to emphasize the infrequent possibility of development of malignancy in cutaneous lichen planus, especially if it presents as a longstanding, nonhealing, itchy lesion with patchy areas of depigmentation in the lower limbs. PMID:24839562

  2. Predictive value of red blood cell distribution width for coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiyan; Fu, Songling; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Jian; Gao, Lichao; Zhu, Weihua; Gong, Fangqi

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that elevated red blood cell distribution width is associated with poor outcome in cardiovascular diseases. In order to assess the predictive value of red blood cell distribution width, before treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins, for coronary artery lesions in patient with Kawasaki disease, we compared 83 patients with coronary artery lesions and 339 patients without coronary artery lesions before treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinical, echocardiographic, and biochemical values were evaluated along with red blood cell distribution width. A total of 422 consecutive patients with Kawasaki disease were enrolled into our study. According to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the optimal red blood cell distribution width cut-off value for predicting coronary artery lesions was 14.55% (area under the curve was 0.721; p=0.000); eighty-three patients (19.7%) had coronary artery lesions, and 70% of the patients with coronary artery lesions had red blood cell distribution width level >14.55%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that fever duration >14 days (odds ratio was 3.42, 95% confidence interval was 1.27-9.22; p=0.015), intravenous immunoglobulin resistance (odds ratio was 2.33, 95% confidence interval was 1.02-5.29; p=0.04), and red blood cell distribution width >14.55% (odds ratio was 3.49, 95% confidence interval was 2.01-6.05; p=0.000) were independent predictors of coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease. In Conclusion, red blood cell distribution width may be helpful for predicting coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease. PMID:26435202

  3. Role of Liquid-based Cytology and Cell Block in the Diagnosis of Endometrial Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Wen, Jia; Xu, Pi-Li; Chen, Rui; Yang, Xi; Zhou, Lian-Er; Jiang, Ping; Wan, An-Xia; Liao, Qin-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC) offers an alternative method to biopsy in screening endometrial cancer. Cell block (CB), prepared by collecting residual cytological specimen, represents a novel method to supplement the diagnosis of endometrial cytology. This study aimed to compare the specimen adequacy and diagnostic accuracy of LBC and CB in the diagnosis of endometrial lesions. Methods: A total of 198 women with high risks of endometrial carcinoma (EC) from May 2014 to April 2015 were enrolled in this study. The cytological specimens were collected by the endometrial sampler (SAP-1) followed by histopathologic evaluation of dilatation and curettage or biopsy guided by hysteroscopy. The residual cytological specimens were processed into paraffin-embedded CB after LBC preparation. Diagnostic accuracies of LBC and CB for detecting endometrial lesions were correlated with histological diagnoses. Chi-square test was used to compare the specimen adequacies of LBC and CB. Results: The specimen inadequate rate of CB was significantly higher than that of LBC (22.2% versus 7.1%, P < 0.01). There were 144 cases with adequate specimens for LBC and CB preparation. Among them, 29 cases were atypical endometrial hyperplasia (11 cases) or carcinoma (18 cases) confirmed by histology evaluation. Taking atypical hyperplasia and carcinoma as positive, the diagnostic accuracy of CB was 95.1% while it was 93.8% in LBC. When combined LBC with CB, the diagnostic accuracy was improved to 95.8%, with a sensitivity of 89.7% and specificity of 97.4%. Conclusions: CB is a feasible and reproducible adjuvant method for screening endometrial lesions. A combination of CB and LBC can improve the diagnostic accuracy of endometrial lesions. PMID:27270542

  4. Murine but not human mesenchymal stem cells generate osteosarcoma-like lesions in the lung.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Susana; Nye, Emma; Chan, Jerry; Loebinger, Michael; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Fisk, Nick; Stamp, Gordon; Bonnet, Dominique; Janes, Sam M

    2007-06-01

    Murine mesenchymal stem cells are capable of differentiation into multiple cell types both in vitro and in vivo and may be good candidates to use as cell therapy for diseased or damaged organs. We have previously reported a method of enriching a population of murine MSCs that demonstrated a diverse differentiation potential both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we show that this enriched population of murine mesenchymal stem cells embolize within lung capillaries following systemic injection and then rapidly expand within, and invade into, the lung parenchyma, forming tumor nodules. These lesions rarely contain cells bearing the immunohistochemical characteristics of lung epithelium, but they do show the characteristics of immature bone and cartilage that resembles exuberant fracture callus or well-differentiated osteosarcoma. Our findings indicate that murine mesenchymal stem cells can behave in a manner similar to tumor cells, with dysregulated growth and aberrant differentiation within the alveolar microenvironment after four passages. We demonstrate that unlike human MSCs, MSCs from different mouse strains can acquire chromosomal abnormalities after only a few in vitro passages. Moreover, other parameters, such as mouse strain used, might also play a role in the induction of these tumors. These findings might be clinically relevant for future stem cell therapy studies. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article. PMID:17363552

  5. Embryonic MGE Precursor Cells Grafted into Adult Rat Striatum Integrate and Ameliorate Motor Symptoms in 6-OHDA-Lesioned Rats

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica; Noctor, Stephen C.; Espinosa, Ana; Ariza, Jeanelle; Parker, Philip; Orasji, Samantha; Daadi, Marcel M.; Bankiewicz, Krystof; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Kriegstein, Arnold R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY We investigated a strategy to ameliorate the motor symptoms of rats that received 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions, a rodent model of Parkinson’s disease, through transplantation of embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) cells into the striatum. During brain development, embryonic MGE cells migrate into the striatum and neocortex where they mature into GABAergic interneurons and play a key role in establishing the balance between excitation and inhibition. Unlike most other embryonic neurons, MGE cells retain the capacity for migration and integration when transplanted into the postnatal and adult brain. We performed MGE cell transplantation into the basal ganglia of control and 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Transplanted MGE cells survived, differentiated into GABA+ neurons, integrated into host circuitry, and modifed motor behavior in both lesioned and control rats. Our data suggest that MGE cell transplantation into the striatum is a promising approach to investigate the potential benefits of remodeling basal ganglia circuitry in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20207227

  6. Detection of Circulating Pancreas Epithelial Cells in Patients with Pancreatic Cystic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Rhim, Andrew D.; Thege, Fredrik I.; Santana, Steven M.; Lannin, Timothy B.; Saha, Trisha N.; Tsai, Shannon; Maggs, Lara R.; Kochman, Michael L.; Ginsberg, Gregory G.; Lieb, John G.; Chandrasekhara, Vinay; Drebin, Jeffrey A.; Ahmad, Nuzhat; Yang, Yu-Xiao; Kirby, Brian J.; Stanger, Ben Z.

    2014-01-01

    Hematogenous dissemination is thought to be a late event in cancer progression. We showed recently that pancreas cells can be detected in the bloodstream before tumor formation, in a genetic model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). To confirm these findings in humans, we used microfluidic geometrically enhanced immunocapture to detect circulating pancreas epithelial cells (CECs) in patient blood samples. We captured >3 CECs/ml in 7 of 21 (33%) of patients with cystic lesions and no clinical diagnosis of cancer (Sendai criteria negative), 8 of 11 (73%) with PDAC, and in 0 of 19 patients without cysts or cancer (controls). These findings indicate that cancer cells are present in the circulation of patients before tumors develop, which might be used in risk assessment. PMID:24333829

  7. Somatostatin immunoreactive cells in lesional psoriatic human skin during peptide T treatment.

    PubMed

    Johansson, O; Hilliges, M; Talme, T; Marcusson, J A; Wetterberg, L

    1994-03-01

    Peptide T has been shown to be an effective treatment in psoriasis. The mechanism through which peptide T works in psoriasis is at present unknown. Furthermore, a clearance of psoriasis has also been registered using the inhibitory peptide somatostatin. These observations all focus on the fact that peptide T, somatostatin, and/or other peptides, might provide a clue to understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of psoriasis. Therefore, the effect of peptide T administration on somatostatin containing cutaneous cell populations was investigated. Ten psoriatic patients were treated with peptide T (D-Ala-peptide T amide; 2 mg/day i.v.) for 28 days. Serial biopsies were obtained from the psoriatic lesions before, once weekly during and 4 weeks after discontinuation of the peptide T treatment. An indirect immunofluorescence procedure was performed using a polyclonal antiserum against somatostatin. Clinically, most of the patients responded successfully to the treatment. Immunohistochemical investigations of the serial biopsies revealed the appearance of extensive changes in the number of dermal somatostatin immunoreactive dendritic cells. We believe that peptide T may stimulate the local synthesis and/or release of somatostatin, or proliferation and/or migration of certain dendritic cell populations in psoriatic lesions during healing. Since the benefits of peptide T treatment of psoriatic patients parallel earlier investigations using somatostatin infusions, it is likely that somatostatin given exogenously or synthesized/released endogenously plays a vital role in inducing the healing process.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7911613

  8. An approach to the diagnosis of spindle cell lesions of the breast.

    PubMed

    Rakha, Emad A; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A; Lee, Andrew H S; Ellis, Ian O

    2016-01-01

    Although most breast spindle cell lesions (BSCLs) are rare, they constitute a wide spectrum of diseases, ranging from reactive processes to aggressive malignant tumours. Despite their varied histogenesis and behaviour, some lesions show an overlap of morphological features, making accurate diagnosis a challenging task, particularly in needle core biopsies. Clinical history and immunohistochemistry can help in making a correct diagnosis in morphologically challenging cases. To make an accurate diagnosis, it is important to maintain a wide differential diagnosis and be familiar with the diverse morphological appearances of these different entities. BSCLs can generally be classified into bland-looking and malignant-looking categories. In the former, the commonest diagnosis is scarring. However, it is important to distinguish low-grade spindle cell metaplastic breast carcinoma from other benign entities, as the management is clearly different. In the malignant category, it is important to differentiate metaplastic carcinoma from other malignant primary and metastatic malignant spindle cell tumours of the breast, such as malignant phyllodes tumour, angiosarcoma, and melanoma. This review focuses on the classification and histological and molecular diagnosis of various BSCLs, with an emphasis on the diagnostic approach, including in core biopsies. PMID:26768028

  9. Anomalous columnar order of charged colloidal platelets.

    PubMed

    Morales-Anda, L; Wensink, H H; Galindo, A; Gil-Villegas, A

    2012-01-21

    Monte Carlo computer simulations are carried out for a model system of like-charged colloidal platelets in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble (NpT). The aim is to elucidate the role of electrostatic interactions on the structure of synthetic clay systems at high particle densities. Short-range repulsions between particles are described by a suitable hard-core model representing a discotic particle. This potential is supplemented with an electrostatic potential based on a Yukawa model for the screened Coulombic potential between infinitely thin disklike macro-ions. The particle aspect-ratio and electrostatic parameters were chosen to mimic an aqueous dispersion of thin, like-charged, rigid colloidal platelets at finite salt concentration. An examination of the fluid phase diagram reveals a marked shift in the isotropic-nematic transition compared to the hard cut-sphere reference system. Several statistical functions, such as the pair correlation function for the center-of-mass coordinates and structure factor, are obtained to characterize the structural organization of the platelets phases. At low salinity and high osmotic pressure we observe anomalous hexagonal columnar structures characterized by interpenetrating columns with a typical intercolumnar distance corresponding to about half of that of a regular columnar phase. Increasing the ionic strength leads to the formation of glassy, disordered structures consisting of compact clusters of platelets stacked into finite-sized columns. These so-called "nematic columnar" structures have been recently observed in systems of charge-stabilized gibbsite platelets. Our findings are corroborated by an analysis of the static structure factor from a simple density functional theory. PMID:22280777

  10. Protooncogene expression identifies a transient columnar organization of the forebrain within the late embryonic ventricular zone

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.G.; Van Der Kooy, D. )

    1989-02-01

    Immunocytochemical studies using monoclonal antibodies directed against oncogenic peptides revealed a heterogeneous distribution of the peptides within the ventricular zone of the embryonic day 18 rat forebrain. This sis-, src-, ras-, and myc-encoded peptides were concentrated in the same isolated clusters of 5-25 radial glial cells (also identified by vimentin staining), providing a transient columnar compartmentalization to the ventricular zone. An increased number of ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled ventricular zone cells were observed within the protooncogene stained radial glial cell columns as compared to noncolumn areas. The columnar heterogeneity of radial glial cells reveals the mosaicism of the embryonic ventricular zone and the differential proliferation of its cells.

  11. Neither IL-17A mRNA Nor IL-17A Protein Are Detectable in Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Tricia L; McClain, Kenneth L; Allen, Carl E

    2011-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease characterized by heterogeneous lesions including CD207+/CD1a+ dendritic cells that can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The etiology of LCH remains speculative, and neoplastic and inflammatory origins have been debated for decades. A recent study identified abundant interleukin-17 (IL-17A) protein in dendritic cells in LCH lesions as well as in plasma from patients with active disease. Furthermore, it identified dendritic cells as a novel source of IL-17A expression. However, subsequent studies from our research group failed to identify any IL-17A gene expression from CD207+ dendritic cells or CD3+ T cells in LCH lesions. In this study, further investigation once again fails to identify any cells in LCH lesions with IL-17A gene expression. Furthermore, IL-17A antigen is undetectable in LCH lesion lysates with western blotting, immunoprecipitation, spectral analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blots, immunoprecipitation, and ELISA experiments also demonstrate that antibodies used in original studies that established the IL-17A hypothesis for pathogenesis of LCH recognize nonspecific proteins. We conclude that evidence for IL-17A as a significant factor in LCH remains inadequate and clinical trials targeting IL-17A remain unjustified. PMID:21654633

  12. The involvement of cation leaks in the storage lesion of red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Flatt, Joanna F.; Bawazir, Waleed M.; Bruce, Lesley J.

    2014-01-01

    Stored blood components are a critical life-saving tool provided to patients by health services worldwide. Red cells may be stored for up to 42 days, allowing for efficient blood bank inventory management, but with prolonged storage comes an unwanted side-effect known as the “storage lesion”, which has been implicated in poorer patient outcomes. This lesion is comprised of a number of processes that are inter-dependent. Metabolic changes include a reduction in glycolysis and ATP production after the first week of storage. This leads to an accumulation of lactate and drop in pH. Longer term damage may be done by the consequent reduction in anti-oxidant enzymes, which contributes to protein and lipid oxidation via reactive oxygen species. The oxidative damage to the cytoskeleton and membrane is involved in increased vesiculation and loss of cation gradients across the membrane. The irreversible damage caused by extensive membrane loss via vesiculation alongside dehydration is likely to result in immediate splenic sequestration of these dense, spherocytic cells. Although often overlooked in the literature, the loss of the cation gradient in stored cells will be considered in more depth in this review as well as the possible effects it may have on other elements of the storage lesion. It has now become clear that blood donors can exhibit quite large variations in the properties of their red cells, including microvesicle production and the rate of cation leak. The implications for the quality of stored red cells from such donors is discussed. PMID:24987374

  13. Step by step approach to rare breast lesions containing spindle cells.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Betül; Erdoğan, Gülgün; Karaveli, Fatma Şeyda

    2015-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of spindle cell lesions of breast is challenging for certain reasons. The most important reason is the presence of cytological atypia and mitosis in all three conditions: reactive, benign, and malignant. Patients diagnosed with benign and malignant tumor/tumor-like lesions that had spindle cell components following the histopathological examination were included in the study. The patients' medical records were accessed to obtain the clinical history, follow-up notes, and radiological findings. Following histopathological, immunohistochemical, and clinical evaluations, the patients were diagnosed as follows: pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH), bilateral desmoid-type fibromatosis (FM), adenomyoepithelioma (AME), myofibroblastoma (MFB), malignant phyllodes tumor (MF), high-grade AS, post-chemotherapy osteosarcoma (OS) + Paget's disease, and metaplastic carcinoma (MC). An algorithmic approach should be used in the diagnosis; cellular structure, presence and grade of atypia, growth pattern, mitotic activity, immunohistochemical staining, and clinical and radiological features should be evaluated together. Detection of some molecular changes can be useful in differential diagnosis. PMID:26558181

  14. Mast cells, cytokines, and metalloproteinases at the rheumatoid lesion: dual immunolocalisation studies.

    PubMed Central

    Tetlow, L C; Woolley, D E

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To examine the distribution and activation of mast cells (MCs) in the rheumatoid lesion (cartilage-pannus junctions demonstrating cartilage erosion), and to determine whether or not their tissue distribution is related to that for tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1), stromelysin-1, and collagenase. METHODS--Immunolocalisation of MC-tryptase was used to identify MCs and their states of degranulation in 35 specimens of cartilage-pannus junctions. Dual immunolocalisation techniques using alkaline phosphatase and peroxidase conjugated antibodies were used to compare the distributions of MCs with the proinflammatory cytokines TNF alpha and IL-1, and the cartilage or matrix degrading enzymes stromelysin-1 and collagenase. RESULTS--Stromelysin-1, TNF alpha, and IL-1 beta were especially prominent at the cartilage-pannus junctions, albeit with patchy distributions. Extracellular MC tryptase, indicative of MC activation/degranulation, was commonly observed at sites of cartilage erosion, and was often associated with the microenvironmental expression of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, stromelysin-1, and collagenase. Such observations were often associated with localised sites of tissue oedema and stromal disruption. CONCLUSION--MC activation was frequently associated with proinflammatory cytokine and metalloproteinase expression by neighbouring cells, thereby suggesting an important contributory role for the MC in mediating matrix degradation and oedematous changes within microfoci of the rheumatoid lesion. Images PMID:7492239

  15. Homonymous Ganglion Cell Layer Thinning After Isolated Occipital Lesion: Macular OCT Demonstrates Transsynaptic Retrograde Retinal Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Meier, Paolo G; Maeder, Philippe; Kardon, Randy H; Borruat, François-Xavier

    2015-06-01

    A 48-year-old man was examined 24 months after medial and surgical treatment of an isolated well-circumscribed right occipital lobe abscess. An asymptomatic residual left homonymous inferior scotoma was present. Fundus examination revealed temporal pallor of both optic discs, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed mild temporal loss of retinal nerve fiber layer in both eyes. No relative afferent pupillary defect was present. Assessment of the retinal ganglion cell layer demonstrated homonymous thinning in a pattern corresponding to the homonymous visual field loss. There were no abnormalities of the lateral geniculate nuclei or optic tracts on review of the initial brain computed tomography and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. We believe our patient showed evidence of transsynaptic retrograde degeneration after an isolated right occipital lobe lesion, and the homonymous neuronal loss was detected on OCT by assessing the retinal ganglion cell layer. PMID:25285723

  16. Efficacy of a modified live Flavobacterium columnare vaccine in fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is an aquatic bacterium that is responsible for columnaris disease. This aquatic pathogen has a worldwide distribution and is highly infectious to both warm and cold water fish. A modified live F. columnare vaccine was developed through repeated passage of a virulent strai...

  17. Complete genome sequence of Flavobacterium columnare strain 94-081

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish is one of the most important commodities in Mississippi and the largest aquaculture industry in the United States. Columnaris disease, caused by Flavobacterium columnare, affects many commercially important freshwater fish species. F. columnare strain 94-081 was isolated from disease...

  18. Improved method for minimum inhibitory concentration testing of flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple and reliable microdilution method has been developed to test the susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare to antibiotics in vitro. The method has been used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 23 F. columnare isolates. The tests were conducted at 28 °C using a stan...

  19. Flavobacterium Columnare Genomovar virulence toward rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent for columnaris disease and responsible for significant economic loss in the aquaculture industry. F. columnare is a gram negative bacteria with several genomovar classifications, based on the restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S rDNA gen...

  20. VIRULENCE OF Flavobacterium columnare GENOMOVARS IN RAINBOW TROUT (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease and is responsible for significant economic losses in aquaculture. F. columnare is a Gram-negative bacterium, and five genetic types or genomovars have been described based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S rR...

  1. Immunohistological comparison of granulated cell proteins in induced immediate urticarial dermographism and delayed pressure urticaria lesions.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, M T; Peterson, E A; Kobza-Black, A; English, J S; Dover, J S; Murphy, G M; Bhogal, B; Greaves, M W; Winkelmann, R K; Leiferman, K M

    1995-12-01

    Urticarial dermographism and delayed pressure urticaria are two forms of physical urticaria which are well defined clinically and histologically. Previous studies have shown eosinophil granule protein deposition in urticarial reactions, including chronic urticaria, solar urticaria and delayed pressure urticaria. To evaluate and compare the involvement of granulated inflammatory cells in urticarial dermographism and delayed pressure urticaria, we studied sequential biopsies of induced lesions of urticarial dermographism and delayed pressure urticaria by indirect immunofluorescence, to detect eosinophil granule major basic protein (MBP) and neutrophil granule elastase. Biopsies from dermographic lesions at time 0, 5 min, 15 min, 2 h and 24 h, showed few infiltrating eosinophils, with minimal extracellular MBP deposition, and a few infiltrating neutrophils, with minimal neutrophil elastase deposition, throughout the evolution of the lesions. Sequential biopsies of delayed pressure urticaria at time 0, 20 min, 6, 12 and 24 h, showed eosinophil infiltration with extensive MBP deposition beginning at 20 min, and neutrophil infiltration with variable elastase deposition beginning at 20 min. Control tissue specimens from normal volunteers showed neutrophil infiltration and slight degranulation, but no eosinophil infiltration or degranulation. Comparison of urticarial dermographism with delayed pressure urticaria showed marked differences in the patterns of infiltration. Delayed pressure urticaria, with eosinophil and neutrophil degranulation, was strikingly similar to the IgE-mediated late phase reaction. In contrast, eosinophil and neutrophil involvement in urticarial dermographism was minimal. Considering the extent of eosinophil granule protein deposition and the biological activities of the eosinophil granule proteins, the findings in delayed pressure urticaria point to an important pathophysiological role of eosinophils in the disease. PMID:8547035

  2. Regulatory T cells with reduced repressor capacities are extensively amplified in pulmonary sarcoid lesions and sustain granuloma formation.

    PubMed

    Rappl, Gunter; Pabst, Stefan; Riemann, Dagmar; Schmidt, Annette; Wickenhauser, Claudia; Schütte, Wolfgang; Hombach, Andreas A; Seliger, Barbara; Grohé, Christian; Abken, Hinrich

    2011-07-01

    Sarcoidosis can evolve into a chronic disease with persistent granulomas accompanied by progressive fibrosis. While an unlimited inflammatory response suggests an impaired immune control in sarcoid lesions, it stands in contrast to the massive infiltration with CD4(+)CD25(high)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. We here revealed that those Treg cells in affected lung lesions were mainly derived from activated natural Treg cells with GARP (LRRC32)-positive phenotype but exhibited reduced repressor capacities despite high IL-10 and TGF-beta 1 levels. The repressive capacity of blood Treg cells, in contrast, was not impaired compared to age-matched healthy donors. Treg derived cells in granuloma lesions have undergone extensive rounds of amplifications indicated by shortened telomeres compared to blood Treg cells of the same patient. Lesional Treg derived cells moreover secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-4 which sustains granuloma formation through fibroblast amplification and the activation of mast cells, the latter indicated by the expression of membrane-bound oncostatin M. PMID:21482483

  3. Dendritic Cells Are the Major Antigen Presenting Cells in Inflammatory Lesions of Murine Mycoplasma Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiangle; Jones, Harlan P.; Dobbs, Nicole; Bodhankar, Sheetal; Simecka, Jerry W.

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasmas cause chronic respiratory diseases in animals and humans, and to date, development of vaccines have been problematic. Using a murine model of mycoplasma pneumonia, lymphocyte responses, specifically T cells, were shown to confer protection as well as promote immunopathology in mycoplasma disease. Because T cells play such a critical role, it is important to define the role of antigen presenting cells (APC) as these cells may influence either exacerbation of mycoplasma disease pathogenesis or enhancement of protective immunity. The roles of APC, such as dendritic cells and/or macrophages, and their ability to modulate adaptive immunity in mycoplasma disease are currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify individual pulmonary APC populations that may contribute to the activation of T cell responses during mycoplasma disease pathogenesis. The present study indeed demonstrates increasing numbers of CD11c− F4/80+ cells, which contain macrophages, and more mature/activated CD11c+ F4/80− cells, containing DC, in the lungs after infection. CD11c− F4/80+ macrophage-enriched cells and CD11c+ F4/80− dendritic cell-enriched populations showed different patterns of cytokine mRNA expression, supporting the idea that these cells have different impacts on immunity in response to infection. In fact, DC containing CD11c+ F4/80− cell populations from the lungs of infected mice were most capable of stimulating mycoplasma-specific CD4+ Th cell responses in vitro. In vivo, these CD11c+F4/80− cells were co-localized with CD4+ Th cells in inflammatory infiltrates in the lungs of mycoplasma-infected mice. Thus, CD11c+F4/80− dendritic cells appear to be the major APC population responsible for pulmonary T cell stimulation in mycoplasma-infected mice, and these dendritic cells likely contribute to responses impacting disease pathogenesis. PMID:23390557

  4. Computer-aided vaccine designing approach against fish pathogens Edwardsiella tarda and Flavobacterium columnare using bioinformatics softwares

    PubMed Central

    Mahendran, Radha; Jeyabaskar, Suganya; Sitharaman, Gayathri; Michael, Rajamani Dinakaran; Paul, Agnal Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Edwardsiella tarda and Flavobacterium columnare are two important intracellular pathogenic bacteria that cause the infectious diseases edwardsiellosis and columnaris in wild and cultured fish. Prediction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) binding is an important issue in T-cell epitope prediction. In a healthy immune system, the T-cells must recognize epitopes and induce the immune response. In this study, T-cell epitopes were predicted by using in silico immunoinformatics approach with the help of bioinformatics tools that are less expensive and are not time consuming. Such identification of binding interaction between peptides and MHC alleles aids in the discovery of new peptide vaccines. We have reported the potential peptides chosen from the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of E. tarda and F. columnare, which interact well with MHC class I alleles. OMPs from E. tarda and F. columnare were selected and analyzed based on their antigenic and immunogenic properties. The OMPs of the genes TolC and FCOL_04620, respectively, from E. tarda and F. columnare were taken for study. Finally, two epitopes from the OMP of E. tarda exhibited excellent protein–peptide interaction when docked with MHC class I alleles. Five epitopes from the OMP of F. columnare had good protein–peptide interaction when docked with MHC class I alleles. Further in vitro studies can aid in the development of potential peptide vaccines using the predicted peptides. PMID:27284239

  5. Computer-aided vaccine designing approach against fish pathogens Edwardsiella tarda and Flavobacterium columnare using bioinformatics softwares.

    PubMed

    Mahendran, Radha; Jeyabaskar, Suganya; Sitharaman, Gayathri; Michael, Rajamani Dinakaran; Paul, Agnal Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Edwardsiella tarda and Flavobacterium columnare are two important intracellular pathogenic bacteria that cause the infectious diseases edwardsiellosis and columnaris in wild and cultured fish. Prediction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) binding is an important issue in T-cell epitope prediction. In a healthy immune system, the T-cells must recognize epitopes and induce the immune response. In this study, T-cell epitopes were predicted by using in silico immunoinformatics approach with the help of bioinformatics tools that are less expensive and are not time consuming. Such identification of binding interaction between peptides and MHC alleles aids in the discovery of new peptide vaccines. We have reported the potential peptides chosen from the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of E. tarda and F. columnare, which interact well with MHC class I alleles. OMPs from E. tarda and F. columnare were selected and analyzed based on their antigenic and immunogenic properties. The OMPs of the genes TolC and FCOL_04620, respectively, from E. tarda and F. columnare were taken for study. Finally, two epitopes from the OMP of E. tarda exhibited excellent protein-peptide interaction when docked with MHC class I alleles. Five epitopes from the OMP of F. columnare had good protein-peptide interaction when docked with MHC class I alleles. Further in vitro studies can aid in the development of potential peptide vaccines using the predicted peptides. PMID:27284239

  6. Erythropoietin reduces storage lesions and decreases apoptosis indices in blood bank red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Penuela, Oscar Andrés; Palomino, Fernando; Gómez, Lina Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent evidence shows a selective destruction of the youngest circulating red blood cells (neocytolysis) trigged by a drop in erythropoietin levels. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin beta on the red blood cell storage lesion and apoptosis indices under blood bank conditions. Methods Each one of ten red blood cell units preserved in additive solution 5 was divided in two volumes of 100 mL and assigned to one of two groups: erythropoietin (addition of 665 IU of recombinant human erythropoietin) and control (isotonic buffer solution was added). The pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin were estimated and the following parameters were measured weekly, for six weeks: Immunoreactive erythropoietin, hemolysis, percentage of non-discocytes, adenosine triphosphate, glucose, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, and annexin-V/esterase activity. The t-test or Wilcoxon's test was used for statistical analysis with significance being set for a p-value <0.05. Results Erythropoietin, when added to red blood cell units, has a half-life >6 weeks under blood bank conditions, with persistent supernatant concentrations of erythropoietin during the entire storage period. Adenosine triphosphate was higher in the Erythropoietin Group in Week 6 (4.19 ± 0.05 μmol/L vs. 3.53 ± 0.02 μmol/L; p-value = 0.009). The number of viable cells in the Erythropoietin Group was higher than in the Control Group (77% ± 3.8% vs. 71% ± 2.3%; p-value <0.05), while the number of apoptotic cells was lower (9.4% ± 0.3% vs. 22% ± 0.8%; p-value <0.05). Conclusions Under standard blood bank conditions, an important proportion of red blood cells satisfy the criteria of apoptosis. Recombinant human erythropoietin beta seems to improve storage lesion parameters and mitigate apoptosis. PMID:26969770

  7. Pineal mixed germ cell tumor with a synchronous sellar lesion in the sixth decade.

    PubMed

    Bohara, Manoj; Hirano, Hirofumi; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Yonezawa, Hajime; Campos, Francia; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Sugata, Sei; Arita, Kazunori

    2011-04-01

    Intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs) typically affect children and adolescents. We here report on a 59-year-old male patient presenting with diplopia, polydipsia and polyuria. On clinical examination, slight restriction of the upward gaze was seen on the left side. Computed tomography demonstrated calcifications in the pineal region and enhanced neurohypophysis. Magnetic resonance imaging displayed a heterogeneous pineal mass of 3-cm diameter, which was multicystic with an enhanced cyst wall, and also swelling of the pituitary stalk. The pineal lesion of the tumor, which included calcifications and keratinaceous components, was totally excised using an occipital transtentorial approach. Histopathological examination showed it to be a mixed GCT with germinoma and mature teratoma components. Postoperative chemoradiotherapy provided complete disappearance of the suprasellar lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first case of mixed bifocal GCT in an older adult reported in the literature, although a few cases of tumors with a single histological component have been reported. Hence, our case further underlines the possibility of the occurrence of GCTs in older adults and advocates the consideration of GCTs in the differential diagnosis of such cases for appropriate management. PMID:21287366

  8. Disseminated Mycobacterium marinum Infection With a Destructive Nasal Lesion Mimicking Extranodal NK/T Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Takanori; Ishii, Makoto; Kikuchi, Taku; Kameyama, Kaori; Namkoong, Ho; Nakata, Noboru; Sugita, Kayoko; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Shimizu, Takayuki; Hoshino, Yoshihiko; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mycobacterium marinum is a ubiquitous waterborne organism that mainly causes skin infection in immunocompetent patients, and its disseminated infection is rare. Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL) usually localizes at the nasal and/or paranasal area, but occasionally disseminates into the skin/soft tissue and gastrointestinal tract. Compromised immunity is a risk factor for developing nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection and malignant lymphoma, and the 2 diseases may share similar clinical presentation; however, only a few reports have described NTM infection mimicking malignant lymphoma. A 43-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital complaining of multiple progressive skin nodules and purulent nasal discharge for 3 weeks. He was diagnosed with Crohn disease with refractory enteropathic arthritis and has been treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents for 25 years. Fiberoptic nasal examination revealed septal perforation with hemorrhagic mucus and purulent rhinorrhea. Histological examination of the nasal septum revealed the infiltration of atypical medium-to-large-sized cells with erosion. The cells were positive for cytoplasmic CD3, granzyme B, and Epstein–Barr virus-encoded small RNA. Histological examination of the skin nodules and auricle also showed infiltration of atypical lymphocytes. The patient was tentatively diagnosed with ENKL, and chemotherapy was considered. However, the skin lesions decreased in size after discontinuation of immunosuppressive agents and minocycline administration. Two weeks later, nasal septum and lavage fluid and left leg skin cultures were positive for M marinum, and minocycline was discontinued. The skin and the nasal lesions improved after 2 months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of disseminated M marinum infection with a destructive nasal lesion mimicking ENKL. The differentiation between M marinum infection and ENKL is clinically important because

  9. Columnar liquid crystals in cylindrical nanoconfinement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruibin; Zeng, Xiangbing; Kim, Bongseock; Bushby, Richard J; Shin, Kyusoon; Baker, Patrick J; Percec, Virgil; Leowanawat, Pawaret; Ungar, Goran

    2015-02-24

    Axial orientation of discotic columnar liquid crystals in nanopores of inorganic templates, with the columns parallel to the axis of the nanochannels, is considered desirable for applications such as production of molecular wires. Here, we evaluate experimentally the role of the rigidity of the LC columns in achieving such orientation in nanopores where the planar anchoring (i.e., columns parallel to wall surface) is enforced. We studied the columnar phase of several discotic compounds with increasing column rigidity in the following order: dendronized carbazole, hexakis(hexyloxy)triphenylene (HAT6), a 1:1 HAT6-trinitrofluorenone (TNF) complex, and a helicene derivative. Using 2-D X-ray diffraction, AFM, grazing incidence diffraction, and polarized microscopy, we observed that the orientation of the columns changes from circular concentric to axial with increasing column rigidity. Additionally, when the rigidity is borderline, increasing pore diameter can change the configuration from axial back to circular. We derive expressions for distortion free energy that suggest that the orientation is determined by the competition between, on the one hand, the distortion energy of the 2-d lattice and the mismatch of its crystallographic facets with the curved pore wall in the axial orientation and, on the other hand, the bend energy of the columns in the circular configuration. Furthermore, the highly detailed AFM images of the core of the disclinations of strength +1 and +1/2 in the center of the pore reveal that the columns spiral down to the very center of the disclination and that there is no amorphous or misaligned region at the core, as suggested previously. PMID:25626118

  10. Gene deletion strategy to examine the involvement of the two chondroitin lyases in Flavobacterium columnare virulence.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Qin, Ting; Zhang, Xiao Lin; Huang, Bei; Liu, Zhi Xin; Xie, Hai Xia; Zhang, Jin; McBride, Mark J; Nie, Pin

    2015-11-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is an important bacterial pathogen of freshwater fish that causes high mortality of infected fish and heavy economic losses in aquaculture. The pathogenesis of this bacterium is poorly understood, in part due to the lack of efficient methods for genetic manipulation. In this study, a gene deletion strategy was developed and used to determine the relationship between the production of chondroitin lyases and virulence. The F. johnsoniae ompA promoter (PompA) was fused to sacB to construct a counterselectable marker for F. columnare. F. columnare carrying PompA-sacB failed to grow on media containing 10% sucrose. A suicide vector carrying PompA-sacB was constructed, and a gene deletion strategy was developed. Using this approach, the chondroitin lyase-encoding genes, cslA and cslB, were deleted. The ΔcslA and ΔcslB mutants were both partially deficient in digestion of chondroitin sulfate A, whereas a double mutant (ΔcslA ΔcslB) was completely deficient in chondroitin lyase activity. Cells of F. columnare wild-type strain G4 and of the chondroitin lyase-deficient ΔcslA ΔcslB mutant exhibited similar levels of virulence toward grass carp in single-strain infections. Coinfections, however, revealed a competitive advantage for the wild type over the chondroitin lyase mutant. The results indicate that chondroitin lyases are not essential virulence factors of F. columnare but may contribute to the ability of the pathogen to compete and cause disease in natural infections. The gene deletion method developed in this study may be employed to investigate the virulence factors of this bacterium and may have wide application in many other members of the phylum Bacteroidetes. PMID:26253667

  11. Modelling of Columnar-to-Equiaxed and Equiaxed-to- Columnar Transitions in Ingots Using a Multiphase Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leriche, N.; Combeau, H.; Gandin, Ch-A.; Založnik, M.

    2015-06-01

    We present a new method to handle a representative elementary volume (REV) with a mixture of columnar and equiaxed grains in ingot castings in the framework of an Eulerian volume averaged model. The multiscale model is based on a previously established fully equiaxed model. It consists of a three-phase (extra-granular liquid, intra-granular liquid and solid) grain-growth stage coupled with a two-phase (solid and liquid) macroscopic transport stage accounting for grain and nuclei movement. In this context, we take into account the formation of a columnar structure and its development using a simplified front-tracking method. Columnar solidification is coupled with the growth of equiaxed grains ahead of the columnar front. The particularity of the model is the treatment of concurrent growth of mixed columnar and equiaxed structures only in the volumes that contain the columnar front. Everywhere else, the structure is considered either fully columnar or fully equiaxed. This feature allows for reasonable computational times even in industrial size castings, while describing the solutal and mechanical blocking phenomena responsible for the Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition. After a validation of the model, we discuss the numerical results for a 6.2-ton industrial steel ingot by comparison with experimental measurements. Final maps for macrosegregation and grain structures size and morphology are analysed. Furthermore, we quantify the impact of nuclei formation through fragmentation along the columnar front on the result. An attempt at predicting the occurrence of the Equiaxed-to-Columnar Transition in the later phases of the process is also made.

  12. Distribution of glial cells in the auditory brainstem: Normal development and effects of unilateral lesion

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Minhan L.; Koppel, Scott J.; Korn, Matthew J.; Cramer, Karina S.

    2014-01-01

    Auditory brainstem networks facilitate sound source localization through binaural integration. A key component of this circuitry is the projection from the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), a relay nucleus that provides inhibition to the superior olivary complex. This strictly contralateral projection terminates in the large calyx of Held synapse. The formation of this pathway requires spatiotemporal coordination of cues that promote cell maturation, axon growth, and synaptogenesis. Here we have examined the emergence of distinct classes of glial cells, which are known to function in development and in response to injury. Immunofluorescence for several astrocyte markers revealed unique expression patterns. ALDH1L1 was expressed earliest in both nuclei, followed by S100β, during the first postnatal week. GFAP expression was seen in the second postnatal week. GFAP-positive cell bodies remained outside the boundaries of VCN and MNTB, with a limited number of labeled fibers penetrating into the margins of the nuclei. OLIG2 expression revealed the presence of oligodendrocytes in VCN and MNTB from birth until after hearing onset. In addition, IBA1-positive microglia were observed after the first postnatal week. Following hearing onset, all glial populations were found in MNTB. We then determined the distribution of glial cells following early (P2) unilateral cochlear removal, which results in formation of ectopic projections from the intact VCN to ipsilateral MNTB. We found that following perturbation, astrocytic markers showed expression near the ectopic ipsilateral calyx. Taken together, the developmental expression patterns are consistent with a role for glial cells in the maturation of the calyx of Held and suggest that these cells may have a similar role in maturation of lesion-induced connections. PMID:25158674

  13. Mutational spectrum of Barrett's stem cells suggests paths to initiation of a precancerous lesion

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yusuke; Wang, Xia; Bertrand, Denis; Kern, Florian; Zhang, Ting; Duleba, Marcin; Srivastava, Supriya; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Hu, Yuanyu; Wilson, Lane H.; Blaszyk, Hagen; Rolshud, Daniil; Teh, Ming; Liu, Jianjun; Howitt, Brooke E.; Vincent, Matthew; Crum, Christopher P.; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Ho, Khek Yu; McKeon, Frank; Xian, Wa

    2016-01-01

    The precancerous lesion known as Barrett's oesophagus can evolve to oesophageal adenocarcinoma in decades-long processes of regenerative growth. Here we report the isolation and propagation of distinct, patient-matched stem cells of Barrett's, gastric and oesophageal epithelia that yield divergent tumour types following in vitro transformation and xenografting. Genomic analyses reveal a broad mutational spectrum unique to Barrett's stem cells that likely reflects their risk for oncogenesis. Remarkably, 25% of cases show no cancer-related genomic changes, suggesting that Barrett's initiates without driver mutations. Most cases, however, sustain patterns of deletions almost identical to adenocarcinoma though tumour-associated gene amplifications were absent. Notably, those suspected of low-grade dysplasia have p53 mutations or undergo amplifications of proto-oncogenes and receptor tyrosine kinases, implicating these events in lethal transitions. Our findings suggest paths for the initiation and progression of Barrett's and define a discrete stem cell underlying its regenerative growth whose eradication could prevent oesophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:26783136

  14. The early history of odontogenic ghost cell lesions: from Thoma to Gorlin.

    PubMed

    Ide, Fumio; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Miyazaki, Yuji; Kusama, Kaoru; Saito, Ichiro; Muramatsu, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    To reappraise the early history of odontogenic ghost cell lesions (OGCL), the extensive world literature published from 1838 to 1962 was reviewed. In light of the long history of OGCL, the term "calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe" first appeared in a 1931 French report, and the term "ghost cells" had its origin in two American seminal articles by Thoma and Goldman in 1946. Although Gorlin et al. coined the term "calcifying odontogenic cyst" (COC) in 1962, this type of cyst was initially reported three decades earlier by Rywkind in Russia, and almost concurrently by Blood good in the United States and Sato in Japan. In 1948, Willis provided the initial histological evidence of a peripheral COC in his British pathology textbook. Credit for the earliest clinical presentation of odontoma associated calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor belongs to the American radiology textbook by Thoma in 1917. A Scandinavian journal report published in 1953 by Husted and Pindborg was the first to address a dentinogenic ghost cell tumor, and its peripheral counterpart was originally reported in the Swiss literature 7 years later. The current concept of COC was undoubtedly established by Gorlin et al. but the history of OGCL really started with Thoma's pioneering work about a century ago. PMID:24972654

  15. Influence of colchicine and vinblastine on the intracellular migration of secretory and membrane glycoproteins: III. Inhibition of intracellular migration of membrane glycoproteins in rat intestinal columnar cells and hepatocytes as visualized by light and electron-microscope radioautography after 3H-fucose injection

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.; Carlet, E.; Wild, G.; Parsons, S.

    1984-08-01

    In the present work, the effects of these drugs on migration of membrane glycoproteins have been examined at the ultrastructural level in duodenal villous columnar cells and hepatocytes. Young (40 gm) rats were given a single intravenous injection of colchicine (4.0 mg) or vinblastine (2.0 mg). At 10 min after colchicine and 30 min after vinblastine administration, the rats were injected with 3H-fucose. Control rats received 3H-fucose only. All rats were sacrificed 90 min after 3H-fucose injection and their tissues processed for radioautography. In duodenal villous columnar cells, 3H-fucose labeling of the apical plasma membrane was reduced by 51% after colchicine and by 67% after vinblastine treatment; but there was little change in labeling of the lateral plasma membrane. Labeling of the Golgi apparatus increased. This suggests that labeled glycoproteins destined for the apical plasma membrane were inhibited from leaving the Golgi region, while migration to the lateral plasma membrane was not impaired. In hepatocytes, labeling of the sinusoidal plasma membrane was reduced by 83% after colchicine and by 85% after vinblastine treatment. Labeling of the lateral plasma membrane also decreased, although not so dramatically. Labeling of the Golgi apparatus and neighboring secretory vesicles increased. This indicates that the drugs inhibited migration of membrane glycoproteins from the Golgi region to the various portions of the plasma membrane. Accumulation of secretory vesicles at the sinusoidal front suggests that exocytosis may also have been partially inhibited. In both cell types, microtubules almost completely disappeared after drug treatment. Microtubules may, therefore, be necessary for intracellular transport of membrane glycoproteins, although the possibility of a direct action of these drugs on Golgi or plasma membranes must also be considered.

  16. Characterization of antigen presenting cells and T-cells in progressing scabietic skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Stemmer, B L; Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S; Rapp, C M; Moore, P F

    1996-12-31

    Experimentally infested dogs expressed successful adaptive immunity and self-cured of scabies after previously having scabies that required treatment to cure. A biphasic increase and decrease of CD1a+ Langerhans cells (LCs) in the epidermis of hosts infested the first time (sensitized) and infested a second time (challenged) suggested that these cells were actively involved in the hosts' early immune response to scabies. In contrast, in the dermis CD1a+ cell densities during both infestations increased to a single peak that followed the first peak of these cells in the epidermis. In addition, there was an influx of T-lymphocytes (CD3 epsilon + cells) and CD11c+ cells into the dermis following the first peak of LCs in the epidermis. The influx of T-lymphocytes in the dermis coincided with the peak density of CD1a+ cells in the dermis and epidermis during the second infestation. In both the epidermis and dermis, MHC Class II+ cell density profiles were similar to that of CD1a during the first infestation and then exhibited single peaks during the second infestation. The increases in CD1a+, CD3 epsilon + (T-lymphocytes), CD11c+, and MHC Class II+ cell responses in the dermis occurred earlier and were more intense in the challenge infestation compared with the first infestation. These data indicate that T-lymphocytes (CD3 epsilon +), CD11c+, MHC Class II+, and CD1a+ cells in the dermis played a major role in the successful immune response to scabies mites. PMID:9017872

  17. Morphological and genetic characteristics of Flavobacterium columnare isolates: correlations with virulence in fish.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Jinu, S; Goodwin, A E

    2004-01-01

    Variability in pathogenicity of Flavobacterium columnare makes disease treatment difficult because there is currently no way to easily recognize those strains that warrant aggressive treatments. In order to identify suitable virulence markers, 17 isolates of F. columnare were cultured from six different fish species. The DNA from all isolates was analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Bootstrap analysis of the RAPD data produced a tree with three major groups supported by bootstrap scores of 80-100%. Virulence of the isolates was determined by bath exposure of channel catfish, Ictaluruspunctatus (Rafinesque), and golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas (Mitchill), to broth cultures of F. columnare. In channel catfish, 13 of 17 isolates produced 100% mortality within 48 h post-exposure. All isolates of cyprinid fish origin clustered in a single RAPD group. At least two of the four isolates that were not virulent in channel catfish were of cyprinid fish origin. There was a wide variation in cell morphology between isolates with lengths of cells or cell chains ranging from 3 to 11 microm, even under identical culture conditions. Most of the shorter or single cell isolates fell into a single RAPD group. No clear association was identified between virulence and any other characteristic, including RAPD group. PMID:14986937

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Alterations in Bone Marrow Lesions in Patients With Hip Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, T. Mark; Churchman, Sarah M.; Gomez, Alejandro; McGonagle, Dennis; Conaghan, Philip G.; Ponchel, Frederique

    2016-01-01

    Objective In patients with osteoarthritis (OA), bone marrow lesions (BMLs) are intimately linked to disease progression. We hypothesized that aberrant multipotential stromal cell (also known as mesenchymal stem cell [MSC]) responses within bone tissue contributes to BML pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to investigate BML and non‐BML native subchondral bone MSCs for numeric, topographic, in vitro functional, and gene expression differences. Methods Ex vivo 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the femoral heads of 20 patients with hip OA was performed. MRI‐determined BML and non‐BML regions were excised and enzymatically treated to extract cells and quantify MSCs using flow cytometry and colony‐forming unit–fibroblast (CFU‐F) assay. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to determine in vivo CD271+ MSC distribution. Culture‐expanded CD271+ cells were analyzed for tripotentiality and gene expression. Results BML regions were associated with greater trabecular bone area and cartilage damage compared with non‐BML regions. The proportion of CD45−CD271+ MSCs was higher in BML regions compared with non‐BML regions (median difference 5.6‐fold; P < 0.001); the CFU‐F assay showed a similar trend (median difference 4.3‐fold; P = 0.013). Immunohistochemistry revealed CD271+ cell accumulation in bone adjacent to cartilage defects and areas of osteochondral angiogenesis. BML MSCs had lower proliferation and mineralization capacities in vitro and altered expression of TNFSF11/RANKL and CXCR4/stromal cell–derived factor 1 receptor. OA MSCs showed up‐regulated transcripts for CXCR1 and CCR6 compared with MSCs derived from healthy or osteoporotic bone. Conclusion This study is the first to show numeric and topographic alterations in native MSCs in the diseased bone of patients with hip OA. Given the associated functional perturbation of MSCs, these data suggest that subchondral bone MSC manipulation may be an OA treatment target. PMID

  19. Activities of wogonin analogs and other flavones against Flavobacterium columnare.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheng-Xia; Schrader, Kevin K; Khan, Ikhlas A; Rimando, Agnes M

    2015-02-01

    In our on-going pursuit to discover natural products and natural product-based compounds to control the bacterial species Flavobacterium columnare, which causes columnaris disease in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), we synthesized flavone and chalcone analogs, and evaluated these compounds, along with flavonoids from natural sources, for their antibacterial activities against two isolates of F. columnare (ALM-00-173 and BioMed) using a rapid bioassay. The flavonoids chrysin (1a), 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (11), isorhamnetin (26), luteolin (27), and biochanin A (29), and chalcone derivative 8b showed strong antibacterial activities against F. columnare ALM-00-173 based on minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) results. Flavonoids 1a, 8, 11, 13 (5,4'-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone), 26, and 29 exhibited strong antibacterial activities against F. columnare BioMed based upon MIC results. The 24-h 50% inhibition concentration (IC50 ) results revealed that 27 and 29 were the most active compounds against F. columnare ALM-00-173 (IC50 of 7.5 and 8.5 mg/l, resp.), while 26 and 29 were the most toxic compound against F. columnare BioMed (IC50 of 9.2 and 3.5 mg/l, resp.). These IC50 results were lower than those obtained for wogonin against F. columnare ALM-00-173 and F. columnare BioMed (28.4 and 5.4 mg/l, resp.). However, based on MIC results, none of the compounds evaluated in this study were as active as wogonin (MIC 0.3 mg/l for each F. columnare isolate). Further modification of the wogonin structure to enhance antibacterial is of interest. PMID:25676507

  20. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare (Bernardet et al. 2002) from four tropical fish species in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pilarski, F; Rossini, A J; Ceccarelli, P S

    2008-05-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease in freshwater fish, implicated in skin and gill disease, often causing high mortality. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare in tropical fish in Brazil. Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus), pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and cascudo (Hypostomus plecostomus) were examined for external lesions showing signs of colunmaris disease such as greyish white spots, especially on the head, dorsal part and caudal fin of the fish. The sampling comprised 50 samples representing four different fish species selected for study. Samples for culture were obtained by skin and kidney scrapes with a sterile cotton swabs of columnaris disease fish and streaked onto Carlson and Pacha (1968) artificial culture medium (broth and solid) which were used for isolation. The strains in the liquid medium were Gram negative, long, filamentous, exhibited flexing movements (gliding motility), contained a large number of long slender bacteria and gathered into columns'. Strains on the agar produced yellow-pale colonies, rather small, flat that had rhizoid edges. A total of four Flavobacterium columnare were isolated: 01 Brycon orbignyanus strain, 01 Piaractus mesopotamicus strain, 01 Colossoma macropomum strain, and 01 Hypostomus plecostomus strain. Biochemical characterization, with its absorption of Congo red dye, production of flexirubin-type pigments, H2S production and reduction of nitrates proved that the isolate could be classified as Flavobacterium columnare. PMID:18660972

  1. Differences between tangential geostrophy and columnar flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amit, Hagay; Pais, Maria Alexandra

    2013-07-01

    Core flows inverted from time-dependent geomagnetic field models image the geodynamo at the top of its generation region, the Earth's outer core. Physical assumptions incorporated in these inversions affect the resulting flows. Based on rapid rotation dominance, two assumptions similar in form yet different in essence have been proposed: tangential geostrophy (TG, LeMouël 1984) and columnar flow (CF, Amit & Olson 2004). We recall that CF is theoretically consistent with the quasi-geostrophy (QG) theory for an incompressible fluid with spherical solid boundaries whereas TG is not. As such, we highlight the importance of applying the CF assumption when inverting geomagnetic data for interior core (columnar) flows that can be used in kinematic dynamo and thermal convection models in the Boussinesq approximation. Next we evaluate the non-uniqueness associated with CF flows. The areas of ambiguous patches at the core surface where invisible TG or CF flows reside are roughly comparable. The spatial distribution of ambiguous patches for both TG and CF is quite asymmetric about the equator, so assuming equatorial symmetry is expected to reduce the non-uniqueness significantly. In fact, for assumed equatorial symmetry, the only possible non-unique flows will be those along hypothetical ζ-contours in the opposite hemispheres that their equatorial plane projections are parallel. TG flows exhibit a strong Atlantic/Pacific hemispheric dichotomy and a well-defined eccentric gyre whereas in CF flows the dichotomy between these two hemispheres is weaker and the gyre is less clear suggesting that the eccentric gyre might not conserve mass. Both TG and CF upwelling/downwelling patterns are strongly localized in the equatorial region. In addition, in both cases upwelling/downwelling is correlated with equatorward/poleward flow respectively, as expected for QG convection. CF upwelling is more intense than TG upwelling but the magnitude ratio is smaller than the factor 2

  2. Donor-variation effect on red blood cell storage lesion: A close relationship emerges.

    PubMed

    Tzounakas, Vassilis L; Kriebardis, Anastasios G; Papassideri, Issidora S; Antonelou, Marianna H

    2016-08-01

    Although the molecular pathways leading to the progressive deterioration of stored red blood cells (RBC storage lesion) and the clinical relevance of storage-induced changes remain uncertain, substantial donor-specific variability in RBC performance during storage, and posttransfusion has been established ("donor-variation effect"). In-bag hemolysis and numerous properties of the RBC units that may affect transfusion efficacy have proved to be strongly donor-specific. Donor-variation effect may lead to the production of highly unequal blood labile products even when similar storage strategy and duration are applied. Genetic, undiagnosed/subclinical medical conditions and lifestyle factors that affect RBC characteristics at baseline, including RBC lifespan, energy metabolism, and sensitivity to oxidative stress, are all likely to influence the storage capacity of individual donors' cells, although not evident by the donor's health or hematological status at blood donation. Consequently, baseline characteristics of the donors, such as membrane peroxiredoxin-2 and serum uric acid concentration, have been proposed as candidate biomarkers of storage quality. This review article focuses on specific factors that might contribute to the donor-variation effect and emphasizes the emerging need for using omics-based technologies in association with in vitro and in vivo transfusion models and clinical trials to discover biomarkers of storage quality and posttransfusion recovery in donor blood. PMID:27095294

  3. Merkel cell polyomavirus and human papilloma virus in proliferative skin lesions arising in patients treated with BRAF inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Falchook, G S; Rady, P; Konopinski, J C; Busaidy, N; Hess, K; Hymes, S; Nguyen, H P; Prieto, V G; Bustinza-Linares, E; Lin, Q; Parkhurst, K L; Hong, D S; Sherman, S; Tyring, S K; Kurzrock, R

    2016-07-01

    The potential role of oncogenic viruses mediating development of proliferative skin lesions in patients treated with RAF inhibitors is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate human papilloma virus (HPV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in skin lesions among patients treated with RAF inhibitors with the help of a case series describing prevalence of HPV, MCPyV, and RAS mutations in skin biopsies obtained from patients receiving RAF inhibitors and developing cutaneous lesions. HPV-DNA was amplified by PCR utilizing multiple nested primer systems designed for detection of a broad range of HPV types. MCPyV copy number determination with real time PCR technology was performed by a "Quantification of MCPyV, small t region" kit. Thirty-six patients were tested (squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) = 14; verruca vulgaris = 15; other = 11). Nine of 12 SCCs (75 %) and eight of 13 verruca vulgaris lesions (62 %) tested positive for MCPyV whereas none of the normal skin biopsies obtained from nine of these patients tested positive for MCPyV (p = 0.0007). HPV incidence in cutaneous SCCs was not different compared to normal skin (50 vs. 56 %, p = 0.86). The association between MCPyV and proliferative skin lesions after RAF inhibitor therapy merits further investigation. PMID:27098388

  4. Increased migration of olfactory ensheathing cells secreting the Nogo receptor ectodomain over inhibitory substrates and lesioned spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Reginensi, Diego; Carulla, Patricia; Nocentini, Sara; Seira, Oscar; Serra-Picamal, Xavier; Torres-Espín, Abel; Matamoros-Angles, Andreu; Gavín, Rosalina; Moreno-Flores, María Teresa; Wandosell, Francisco; Samitier, Josep; Trepat, Xavier; Navarro, Xavier; del Río, José Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation emerged some years ago as a promising therapeutic strategy to repair injured spinal cord. However, inhibitory molecules are present for long periods of time in lesioned spinal cord, inhibiting both OEC migration and axonal regrowth. Two families of these molecules, chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPG) and myelin-derived inhibitors (MAIs), are able to trigger inhibitory responses in lesioned axons. Mounting evidence suggests that OEC migration is inhibited by myelin. Here we demonstrate that OEC migration is largely inhibited by CSPGs and that inhibition can be overcome by the bacterial enzyme Chondroitinase ABC. In parallel, we have generated a stable OEC cell line overexpressing the Nogo receptor (NgR) ectodomain to reduce MAI-associated inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Results indicate that engineered cells migrate longer distances than unmodified OECs over myelin or oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp)-coated substrates. In addition, they also show improved migration in lesioned spinal cord. Our results provide new insights toward the improvement of the mechanisms of action and optimization of OEC-based cell therapy for spinal cord lesion. PMID:25708702

  5. The IL-17A-producing CD8+ T-cell population in psoriatic lesional skin comprises mucosa-associated invariant T cells and conventional T cells.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Marcel B M; Yeremenko, Nataliya G; Baeten, Dominique L P; Chielie, Saskia; Spuls, Phyllis I; de Rie, Menno A; Lantz, Olivier; Res, Pieter C M

    2014-12-01

    IL-17A is pivotal in the etiology of psoriasis, and CD8(+) T cells with the ability to produce this cytokine (Tc17 cells) are over-represented in psoriatic lesions. Here we demonstrate that the frequency of Tc17 cells in peripheral blood of psoriasis patients correlated with the clinical severity of the disease. Analysis of cutaneous-associated lymphocyte antigen expression showed that the blood Tc17 population contains a significantly higher proportion of cells with skin-homing potential compared with the CD8(+) T-cell population lacking IL-17A/IL-22 expression. IL-17A-producing CD8(+) T cells in blood have previously been reported to belong mainly to the mucosa-associated invariant T-cell (MAIT cell) lineage characterized by TCR Vα7.2 chain, CD161, IL-18Rα, and multidrug transporter ABCB1 expression. We demonstrate the presence of CD8(+) MAIT cells in the dermis and epidermis of psoriatic plaques, as well as healthy skin; however, IL-17A-producing CD8(+) MAIT cells were predominantly found in psoriatic skin. Notably, we observed IL-17A production in a large proportion of psoriatic plaque-derived CD8(+) T cells devoid of MAIT cell characteristics, likely representing conventional CD8(+) T cells. In conclusion, we provide supporting evidence that implicates Tc17 cells in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and describe the presence of innate CD8(+) MAIT cells in psoriatic lesions as an alternative source of IL-17A. PMID:24945094

  6. Benchmark experiments and numerical modelling of the columnar-equiaxed dendritic growth in the transparent alloy Neopentylglycol-(d)Camphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturz, L.; Wu, M.; Zimmermann, G.; Ludwig, A.; Ahmadein, M.

    2015-06-01

    Solidification benchmark experiments on columnar and equiaxed dendritic growth, as well as the columnar-equiaxed transition have been carried out under diffusion-dominated conditions for heat and mass transfer in a low-gravity environment. The system under investigation is the transparent organic alloy system Neopentylglycol-37.5wt.-%(d)Camphor, processed aboard a TEXUS sounding rocket flight. Solidifications was observed by standard optical methods in addition to measurements of the thermal fields within the sheet like experimental cells of 1 mm thickness. The dendrite tip kinetic, primary dendrite arm spacing, temporal and spatial temperature evolution, columnar tip velocity and the critical parameters at the CET have been analysed. Here we focus on a detailed comparison of the experiment “TRACE” with a 5-phase volume averaging model to validate the numerical model and to give insight into the corresponding physical mechanisms and parameters leading to CET. The results are discussed in terms of sensitivity versus numerical parameters.

  7. Vaccination of fish against Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two primary Flavobacterium spp. involved in disease of aquaculture raised fish worldwide including, F. columnare, and F. psychrophilum; the etiologic agents of columnaris disease and bacterial coldwater disease (CWD) or rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS), respectively. Traditional vaccines...

  8. Water hardness influences Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to determine aspects of water chemistry responsible for large differences in pathogenesis and mortality rates in challenges of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus with Flavobacterium columnare; challenges were conducted in water supplying the Stuttgart National Aquaculture Res...

  9. Abnormal Cystic Tumor in a Patient with Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer Syndrome: Evidence of a Precursor Lesion?

    PubMed Central

    Ristau, Benjamin T.; Kamat, Sonal N.; Tarin, Tatum V.

    2015-01-01

    The hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) association is a rare syndrome caused by mutation of the Kreb's cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH). It is characterized by unusually aggressive type 2 papillary renal cell histology. FH is responsible for catalyzing the conversion of fumarate to malate. Its absence leads to a state of “pseudohypoxia,” inducing hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and leading to increased growth factor transcription (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF; glucose transporter 1, GLUT1). Ultimately, this results in tumorigenesis. We present a patient who was diagnosed with HLRCC and underwent bilateral nephrectomies. One of the nephrectomy specimens was notable for benign cystic lesions that stained positive immunohistochemically for succinated proteins, a finding only noted in FH-deficient cells. Thus, we posit a potential precursor lesion to type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma in the HLRCC syndrome. PMID:26380143

  10. Abnormal Cystic Tumor in a Patient with Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer Syndrome: Evidence of a Precursor Lesion?

    PubMed

    Ristau, Benjamin T; Kamat, Sonal N; Tarin, Tatum V

    2015-01-01

    The hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) association is a rare syndrome caused by mutation of the Kreb's cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH). It is characterized by unusually aggressive type 2 papillary renal cell histology. FH is responsible for catalyzing the conversion of fumarate to malate. Its absence leads to a state of "pseudohypoxia," inducing hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and leading to increased growth factor transcription (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF; glucose transporter 1, GLUT1). Ultimately, this results in tumorigenesis. We present a patient who was diagnosed with HLRCC and underwent bilateral nephrectomies. One of the nephrectomy specimens was notable for benign cystic lesions that stained positive immunohistochemically for succinated proteins, a finding only noted in FH-deficient cells. Thus, we posit a potential precursor lesion to type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma in the HLRCC syndrome. PMID:26380143

  11. Breast Cancer Cells Induce Osteolytic Bone Lesions In vivo through a Reduction in Osteoblast Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Laura S.; Choi, Wilson; Burke, Leslie; Clements, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    Bone metastases are severely debilitating and have a significant impact on the quality of life of women with metastatic breast cancer. Treatment options are limited and in order to develop more targeted therapies, improved understanding of the complex mechanisms that lead to bone lesion development are warranted. Interestingly, whilst prostate-derived bone metastases are characterised by mixed or osteoblastic lesions, breast-derived bone metastases are characterised by osteolytic lesions, suggesting unique regulatory patterns. This study aimed to measure the changes in bone formation and bone resorption activity at two time-points (18 and 36 days) during development of the bone lesion following intratibial injection of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells into the left tibiae of Severely Combined Immuno-Deficient (SCID) mice. The contralateral tibia was used as a control. Tibiae were extracted and processed for undecalcified histomorphometric analysis. We provide evidence that the early bone loss observed following exposure to MDA-MB-231 cells was due to a significant reduction in mineral apposition rate, rather than increased levels of bone resorption. This suggests that osteoblast activity was impaired in the presence of breast cancer cells, contrary to previous reports of osteoclast-dependent bone loss. Furthermore mRNA expression of Dickkopf Homolog 1 (DKK-1) and Noggin were confirmed in the MDA-MB-231 cell line, both of which antagonise osteoblast regulatory pathways. The observed bone loss following injection of cancer cells was due to an overall thinning of the trabecular bone struts rather than perforation of the bone tissue matrix (as measured by trabecular width and trabecular separation, respectively), suggesting an opportunity to reverse the cancer-induced bone changes. These novel insights into the mechanisms through which osteolytic bone lesions develop may be important in the development of new treatment strategies for metastatic breast cancer

  12. Transplanted microvascular endothelial cells promote oligodendrocyte precursor cell survival in ischemic demyelinating lesions.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Keiya; Kurachi, Masashi; Shibasaki, Koji; Naruse, Masae; Puentes, Sandra; Imai, Hideaki; Yoshimoto, Yuhei; Mikuni, Masahiko; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2015-11-01

    We previously showed that transplantation of brain microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) greatly stimulated remyelination in the white matter infarct of the internal capsule (IC) induced by endothelin-1 injection and improved the behavioral outcome. In the present study, we examined the effect of MVEC transplantation on the infarct volume using intermittent magnetic resonance image and on the behavior of oligodendrocyte lineage cells histochemically. Our results in vivo show that MVEC transplantation reduced the infarct volume in IC and apoptotic death of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). These results indicate that MVECs have a survival effect on OPCs, and this effect might contribute to the recovery of the white matter infarct. The conditioned-medium from cultured MVECs reduced apoptosis of cultured OPCs, while the conditioned medium from cultured fibroblasts did not show such effect. These results suggest a possibility that transplanted MVECs increased the number of OPCs through the release of humoral factors that prevent their apoptotic death. Identification of such humoral factors may lead to the new therapeutic strategy against ischemic demyelinating diseases. PMID:26212499

  13. Radiation-associated atypical vascular lesions: vascular lesions with endothelial cell atypia presenting in the radiation port of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Anzalone, C Lane; Cohen, Philip R; Tschen, Jaime A; MacFarlane, Deborah F

    2014-01-01

    Atypical vascular lesions are an uncommon adverse sequela to the radiotherapy of tumors. Many characteristics are shared between atypical vascular lesions caused by radiation port and well-differentiated radiation-induced angiosarcomas. The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical literature using PubMed, searching the terms acquired, atypical, benign, lymphangioma, lymphangioendothelioma, lymphangiomatous, lesion, papules, progressive, and vascular. Patient reports and previous reviews of the subject were critically assessed and the salient features are presented. Atypical vascular lesions associated with the radiation port present as clinically innocuous flesh-colored to erythematous papules or plaques. The condition presents within the radiation field, approximately 3 years after initial treatment. While the exact me chanism remains to be elucidated, growing evidence supports an association between radiation-associated atypical vascular lesions and radiation-induced angiosarcomas. Atypical vascular lesions within a radiation port are suggested to be in a state of morphologic continuum, which may progress into the more aggressive, malignant angiosarcoma. The authors recommend consideration for biopsy of new skin lesions within or adjacent to radiation. While it is clear that atypical vascular lesions caused by radiation are not equivalent to angiosarcoma, growing evidence supports that radiation-associated atypical vascular lesions may progress to angiosarcoma in some patients; therefore, the authors recommend excision of the lesion with margins depending on clinical judgment and the lesion encountered. PMID:25823080

  14. Oxidative Glial Cell Damage Associated with White Matter Lesions in the Aging Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mashhadi, Sufana; Simpson, Julie E.; Heath, Paul R.; Dickman, Mark; Forster, Gillian; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol; Ince, Paul G.; Wharton, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are common in brain aging and are associated with dementia. We aimed to investigate whether oxidative DNA damage and occur in WML and in apparently normal white matter in cases with lesions. Tissue from WML and control white matter from brains with lesions (controls lesional) and without lesions (controls non-lesional) were obtained, using post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging-guided sampling, from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Oxidative damage was assessed by immunohistochemistry to 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxoguanosine (8-OHdG) and Western blotting for malondialdehyde. DNA response was assessed by phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), p53, senescence markers and by quantitative Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) panel for candidate DNA damage-associated genes. 8-OHdG was expressed in glia and endothelium, with increased expression in both WML and controls lesional compared with controls non-lesional (P < 0.001). γH2Ax showed a similar, although attenuated difference among groups (P = 0.03). Expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase and p16 suggested induction of senescence mechanisms in glia. Oxidative DNA damage and a DNA damage response are features of WML pathogenesis and suggest candidate mechanisms for glial dysfunction. Their expression in apparently normal white matter in cases with WML suggests that white matter dysfunction is not restricted to lesions. The role of this field-effect lesion pathogenesis and cognitive impairment are areas to be defined. PMID:25311358

  15. Aspirin Promotes Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cell Proliferation and Differentiation after White Matter Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Zuo, Shilun; Wang, Jing; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yunxia; Zhao, Jun; Han, Junliang; Xiong, Lize; Shi, Ming; Liu, Zhirong

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral white matter lesion (WML) is one of the main causes for cognitive impairment and is often caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. A line of evidence has shown that aspirin has neuroprotective effects and produces some benefits in long-term outcome and survival for ischemic stroke patients. However, whether aspirin exerts a protective effect against WML is still largely unknown. Here, we showed that aspirin could promote oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) proliferation and differentiation into oligodendrocytes after WML. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, a well-established model for WML. Four weeks later, Morris water maze test showed an impairment of learning and memory ability of rat while aspirin treatment improved behavioral performance. Low dose of aspirin (25 mg/kg) was found to elevate the number of OPCs while relatively high doses (100–200 mg/kg) increased that of oligodendrocytes, and ameliorated WML-induced the thinning of myelin, as revealed by the electron microscope. Similarly, our in vitro study also showed that relatively low and high doses of aspirin enhanced OPC proliferation and differentiation into oligodendrocytes, respectively. Furthermore, we revealed that aspirin enhanced extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) but inhibited RhoA activities. In summary, we provided the first evidence that aspirin can promote oligodendrogenesis and oligodendrocyte myelination after WML, which may involve ERK and RhoA pathways. PMID:24478700

  16. A novel method for monitoring functional lesion-specific recruitment of repair proteins in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Woodrick, Jordan; Gupta, Suhani; Khatkar, Pooja; Dave, Kalpana; Levashova, Darya; Choudhury, Sujata; Elias, Hadi; Saha, Tapas; Mueller, Susette; Roy, Rabindra

    2015-01-01

    DNA-protein relationships have been studied by numerous methods, but a particular gap in methodology lies in the study of DNA adduct-specific interactions with proteins in vivo, which particularly affects the field of DNA repair. Using the repair of a well-characterized and ubiquitous adduct, the abasic (AP) site, as a model, we have developed a comprehensive method of monitoring DNA lesion-specific recruitment of proteins in vivo over time. We utilized a surrogate system in which a Cy3-labeled plasmid containing a single AP-site was transfected into cells, and the interaction of the labeled DNA with BER enzymes, including APE1, Polβ, LIG1, and FEN1, was monitored by immunofluorescent staining of the enzymes by Alexafluor-488-conjugated secondary antibody. The recruitment of enzymes was characterized by quantification of Cy3-Alexafluor-488 co-localization. To validate the microscopy-based method, repair of the transfected AP-site DNA was also quantified at various time points post-transfection using a real time PCR-based method. Notably, the recruitment time kinetics for each enzyme were consistent with AP-site repair time kinetics. This microscopy-based methodology is reliable in detecting the recruitment of proteins to specific DNA substrates and can be extended to study other in vivo DNA-protein relationships in any DNA sequence and in the context of any DNA structure in transfectable proliferating or quiescent cells. The method may be applied to a variety of disciplines of nucleic acid transaction pathways, including repair, replication, transcription, and recombination. PMID:25879709

  17. A novel method for monitoring functional lesion-specific recruitment of repair proteins in live cells.

    PubMed

    Woodrick, Jordan; Gupta, Suhani; Khatkar, Pooja; Dave, Kalpana; Levashova, Darya; Choudhury, Sujata; Elias, Hadi; Saha, Tapas; Mueller, Susette; Roy, Rabindra

    2015-05-01

    DNA-protein relationships have been studied by numerous methods, but a particular gap in methodology lies in the study of DNA adduct-specific interactions with proteins in vivo, which particularly affects the field of DNA repair. Using the repair of a well-characterized and ubiquitous adduct, the abasic (AP) site, as a model, we have developed a comprehensive method of monitoring DNA lesion-specific recruitment of proteins in vivo over time. We utilized a surrogate system in which a Cy3-labeled plasmid containing a single AP-site was transfected into cells, and the interaction of the labeled DNA with BER enzymes, including APE1, Polβ, LIG1, and FEN1, was monitored by immunofluorescent staining of the enzymes by Alexafluor-488-conjugated secondary antibody. The recruitment of enzymes was characterized by quantification of Cy3-Alexafluor-488 co-localization. To validate the microscopy-based method, repair of the transfected AP-site DNA was also quantified at various time points post-transfection using a real time PCR-based method. Notably, the recruitment time kinetics for each enzyme were consistent with AP-site repair time kinetics. This microscopy-based methodology is reliable in detecting the recruitment of proteins to specific DNA substrates and can be extended to study other in vivo DNA-protein relationships in any DNA sequence and in the context of any DNA structure in transfectable proliferating or quiescent cells. The method may be applied to a variety of disciplines of nucleic acid transaction pathways, including repair, replication, transcription, and recombination. PMID:25879709

  18. Hippocampal adult neurogenesis is maintained by Neil3-dependent repair of oxidative DNA lesions in neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Regnell, Christine Elisabeth; Hildrestrand, Gunn Annette; Sejersted, Yngve; Medin, Tirill; Moldestad, Olve; Rolseth, Veslemøy; Krokeide, Silje Zandstra; Suganthan, Rajikala; Luna, Luisa; Bjørås, Magnar; Bergersen, Linda H

    2012-09-27

    Accumulation of oxidative DNA damage has been proposed as a potential cause of age-related cognitive decline. The major pathway for removal of oxidative DNA base lesions is base excision repair, which is initiated by DNA glycosylases. In mice, Neil3 is the main DNA glycosylase for repair of hydantoin lesions in single-stranded DNA of neural stem/progenitor cells, promoting neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis is crucial for maintenance of hippocampus-dependent functions involved in behavior. Herein, behavioral studies reveal learning and memory deficits and reduced anxiety-like behavior in Neil3(-/-) mice. Neural stem/progenitor cells from aged Neil3(-/-) mice show impaired proliferative capacity and reduced DNA repair activity. Furthermore, hippocampal neurons in Neil3(-/-) mice display synaptic irregularities. It appears that Neil3-dependent repair of oxidative DNA damage in neural stem/progenitor cells is required for maintenance of adult neurogenesis to counteract the age-associated deterioration of cognitive performance. PMID:22959434

  19. Cytomorphological Analysis of Keratinocytes in Oral Smears from Tobacco Users and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lesions — A Histochemical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Suneet; Solomon, Monica Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Aim To analyse the cytomorphological features of keratinocytes in smears obtained from the oral mucosa of tobacco users and from oral squamous cell carcinoma lesions. Methodology Oral smears were obtained from clinically, normal appearing mucosa of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients (n=20) and from the mucosa of smokers (n=20), and apparently healthy individuals (n=20) were used as controls. The smears were histochemically stained and cytomorphological assessment of the keratinocytes was carried out. One-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) was used for comparing the parameters among multiple groups and Tukey-HSD test was used to compare the mean values between groups. Results The mean nuclear area of keratinocytes from the mucosa of tobacco users was 46 ± 2.57 and that of the oral squamous cell carcinoma lesion was 81.54 ± 4.31. While there was a significant (P=0.001) reduction in the cellular area of keratinocytes from oral squamous cell carcinoma lesion when compared with those from oral smears of tobacco users. Conclusion Cytomorphometric analysis of keratinocytes can serve as a useful adjunct in the early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:20690418

  20. Differences between tangential geostrophy and columnar flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amit, H.; Pais, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Core flows inverted from time-varying geomagnetic field models image the geodynamo at the top of its generation region, the Earth's outer core. Physical assumptions incorporated in these inversions may affect the resulting flows. Based on rapid rotation dominance, two assumptions similar in form yet different in essence were proposed: Tangential geostrophy (TG; LeMouël, 1984) and columnar flow (CF; Amit and Olson, 2004). We show that CF is theoretically consistent with the quasi-geostrophy theory for an incompressible fluid with spherical solid boundaries, whereas TG is not. The low-latitude ageostrophic belt associated with CF is broader than that associated with TG, but the global non-uniqueness reduction of TG and CF is roughly comparable. The spatial distribution of ambiguous patches for both TG and CF is quite asymmetric about the equator, so assuming equatorial symmetry may reduce the non-uniqueness significantly. TG flows exhibit a strong Atlantic/Pacific hemispheric dichotomy and a well-defined eccentric gyre, whereas in CF flows the dichotomy between these two hemispheres is weaker and the gyre is less clear, suggesting that the eccentric gyre might not conserve mass. Both TG and CF upwelling patterns are strongly localized in the equatorial region. In addition, in both TG and CF upwelling/downwelling is correlated with poleward/equatorward flow respectively. CF upwelling is more intense than TG upwelling, but the magnitude ratio is smaller than the expected value based on purely analytical arguments, perhaps indicating that the poloidal flow is constrained by the geomagnetic secular variation.

  1. Differences between tangential geostrophy and columnar flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amit, Hagay; Pais, M. Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    Core flows inverted from time-dependent geomagnetic field models image the geodynamo at the top of its generation region, the Earth's outer core. Physical assumptions incorporated in these inversions may affect the resulting flows. Based on rapid rotation dominance, two assumptions similar in form yet different in essence were proposed: Tangential geostrophy (TG, LeMouël, 1984) and columnar flow (CF, Amit and Olson, 2004). We show that CF is theoretically consistent with the quasi-geostrophy (QG) theory for an incompressible fluid with spherical solid boundaries, whereas TG is not. The areas of ambiguous patches at the core surface where invisible TG or CF flows reside are roughly comparable. The spatial distribution of ambiguous patches for both TG and CF is quite asymmetric about the equator, so assuming equatorial symmetry may hypothetically reduce the non-uniqueness significantly. TG flows exhibit a strong Atlantic/Pacific hemispheric dichotomy and a well-defined eccentric gyre, whereas in CF flows the dichotomy between these two hemispheres is weaker and the gyre is less clear, suggesting that the eccentric gyre might not conserve mass. Both TG and CF upwelling/downwelling patterns are strongly localized in the equatorial region. In addition, in both cases upwelling/downwelling is correlated with equatorward/poleward flow respectively, as expected for QG convection. CF upwelling is more intense than TG upwelling but the magnitude ratio is smaller than the factor 2 distinguishing the analytical expressions of the two assumptions due to the dominance of magnetic field advection by toroidal core flow in the geomagnetic secular variation.

  2. Monitoring ferumoxide-labelled neural progenitor cells and lesion evolution by magnetic resonance imaging in a model of cell transplantation in cerebral ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC) therapies after cerebral ischaemia could be better evaluated by monitoring in vivo migration and distribution of cells post-engraftment in parallel with analysis of lesion volume and functional recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ideally placed to achieve this, but still poses several challenges. We show that combining the ferumoxide MRI contrast agent Endorem with protamine sulphate (FePro) improves iron oxide uptake in cells compared to Endorem alone and is non-toxic. Hence FePro complex is a better contrast agent than Endorem for monitoring NPCs. FePro complex-labelled NPCs proliferated and differentiated normally in vitro, and upon grafting into the brain 48 hours post-ischaemia they were detected in vivo by MRI. Imaging over four weeks showed the development of a confounding endogenous hypointense contrast evolution at later timepoints within the lesioned tissue. This was at least partly due to accumulation within the lesion of macrophages and endogenous iron. Neither significant NPC migration, assessed by MRI and histologically, nor a reduction in the ischaemic lesion volume was observed in NPC-grafted brains.  Crucially, while MRI provides reliable information on engrafted cell location early after an ischaemic insult, pathophysiological changes to ischaemic lesions can interfere with cellular imaging at later timepoints. PMID:24715962

  3. Expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in oral potentially malignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dalley, Andrew J; Pitty, Luke P; Major, Aidan G; Abdulmajeed, Ahmad A; Farah, Camile S

    2014-04-01

    Early diagnosis is vital for effective treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The optimal time for clinical intervention is prior to malignancy when patients present with oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia or erythroplakia. Transformation rates for oral dysplasia vary greatly and more rigorous methods are needed to predict the malignant potential of oral lesions. We hypothesized that the expression of two putative stem cell markers, ABCG2 and Bmi-1, would correlate with disease severity for non diseased, potentially malignant and OSCC specimens and cell lines derived from an equivalent range of tissues. We compared immunoreactive protein and relative gene expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in eight cell lines derived from source tissues ranging in disease severity from normal (OKF6-TERT2) through mild and moderate/severe dysplasia (DOK, POE-9n) to OSCC (PE/CA-PJ15, SCC04, SCC25, SCC09, SCC15). We also analyzed immunoreactive protein expression of ABCG2 and Bmi-1 in 189 tissue samples with the same range of disease severity. A trend between oral lesion severity to ABCG2 and Bmi-1 immunostain intensity was observed. Flow cytometry of oral cell lines confirmed this trend and gave good correlation with RT-PCR results for ABCG2 (r = 0.919, P = 0.001; Pearson) but not Bmi-1 (r = -0.311). The results provide evidence of increased density of ABCG2 and Bmi-1-positive populations in malignant and oral potentially malignant lesions and derived cell lines, but that intragroup variability within IHC, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR results compromise the diagnostic potential of these techniques for discriminating oral dysplasia from normal tissue or OSCC. PMID:24415717

  4. Evaluation of the red cell storage lesion after irradiation in filtered packed red cell units

    SciTech Connect

    Hillyer, C.D.; Tiegerman, K.O.; Berkman, E.M. )

    1991-07-01

    Packed red cell units (n = 10) were filtered and divided equally. One-half unit from each donor was irradiated (x) (3500 cGy). On Days 0, 14, 28, and 42, ATP, K+, Na+, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), plasma-free hemoglobin (PFH), and pH were determined. The reduction in ATP was greater in the irradiated than the nonirradiated (y) units by Day 42 (mean x-y: -70, p = 0.0005). The increase in K+ was greater in the irradiated than nonirradiated units on Days 14, 28, and 42 (mean x-y: 17-20, p = 0.0001). Decrease in pH and increases in LDH and PFH were significant (p less than 0.05) on Day 42 only. K+ increases added only 1.7 to 2.0 mmol per unit, a difference felt to be clinically insignificant. The changes noted in ATP, pH, LDH, and PFH are significant but minimal on Day 42 and imply that viability changes would also be minimal. These biochemical data support the storage of irradiated units for at least 28 days.

  5. Experimentally induced psoriatic lesion associates with interleukin (IL)-6 in mast cells and appearance of dermal cells expressing IL-33 and IL-6 receptor.

    PubMed

    Suttle, M-M; Nilsson, G; Snellman, E; Harvima, I T

    2012-09-01

    Mast cells are involved in the development of psoriatic lesion, but it is not known how mast cells are activated or whether mast cell cytokines are expressed during the lesion development. In this study, the Köbner reaction was induced in uninvolved psoriatic skin of 18 patients using the tape-stripping technique, and a sequence of biopsies was collected at 0 days, 2 h and 3 days or at 0 days, 1 day and 7 days for histochemical analysis. Eight patients developed the Köbner reaction verified at the follow-up visit 2-2·5 weeks later. No significant differences were observed in total tryptase(+) mast cells, psoriasis area and severity index and age/sex. Instead, the percentage of tryptase(+) mast cells showing interleukin (IL)-6 immunoreactivity was significantly higher in biopsies from Köbner-positive patients than in those from Köbner-negative patients. IL-33 is a known inducer of IL-6 in mast cells, and the number of IL-33(+) cells increased significantly in Köbner-positive dermal skin at days 3-7. The number of dermal cells with IL-6 receptor (IL-6R, CD126) also increased in Köbner-positive skin at days 3-7. Unexpectedly, the number of IL-6R(+) cells was even higher in Köbner-negative skin at days 3-7. In the chronic plaque of 10 other psoriatic patients, the numbers of IL-6(+) mast cells and dermal cells showing IL-6R were higher than those in the non-lesional skin. In conclusion, the positive Köbner reaction is associated with IL-6 in mast cells and appearance of IL-6R(+) and IL-33(+) dermal cells. This suggests that a previously unrecognized vicious circle may develop in the early psoriatic lesion. PMID:22861371

  6. IMMUNIZATION OF EYED CHANNEL CATFISH, ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS, EGGS WITH MONOVALENT FLAVOBACTERIUM COLUMNARE VACCINE AND BIVALENT F. COLUMNARE AND EDWARDSIELLA ICTALURI VACCINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of a modified live monovalent Flavobacterium columnare vaccine and bivalent F. columnare and Edwardsiella ictaluri vaccines were evaluated following immersion vaccination of eyed channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) eggs. The modified live F. columnare vaccine was grown in modified Sh...

  7. Ventromedial hypothalamic lesions change the expression of cell proliferation-related genes and morphology-related genes in rat pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Kiba, Takayoshi; Ishigaki, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    Studies in normal rats and ob/ob mice indicated that islet neogenesis does not occur in the intact rodent pancreas. We previously reported that ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) lesions stimulated cell proliferation of rat pancreatic islet B and acinar cells primarily through a cholinergic receptor mechanism and examined how gene families involved in cell proliferation in total pancreatic tissue are regulated after VMH lesions formation. This study examined how gene families involved in cell proliferation in pancreatic islets alone are regulated after VMH lesions formation. Pancreatic islet RNA was extracted, and differences in gene expression profiles between rats at day 3 after VMH lesioning and sham-VMH-lesioned rats were investigated using DNA microarray and real-time polymerase chain reaction. VMH lesions regulated genes that were involved in functions related to cell cycle and differentiation, growth, binding, apoptosis and morphology in pancreas islets. Real-time polymerase chain reaction also confirmed that gene expression of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) and topoisomerase (DNA) II α 170 kDa (Top2a), and stanniocalcin 1 (Stc1) were upregulated at day 3 after the VMH lesions. Ventromedial hypothalamic lesions may change the expression of cell proliferation-related genes and morphology-related genes in rat pancreatic islets. PMID:25658146

  8. Gastrointestinal tract spindle cell lesions--just like real estate, it's all about location.

    PubMed

    Voltaggio, Lysandra; Montgomery, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of gastrointestinal tract mesenchymal lesions is simplified merely by knowing in which anatomic layer they are usually found. For example, Kaposi sarcoma is detected on mucosal biopsies, whereas inflammatory fibroid polyp is nearly always in the submucosa. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are generally centered in the muscularis propria. Schwannomas are essentially always in the muscularis propria. Mesenteric lesions are usually found in the small bowel mesentery. Knowledge of the favored layer is even most important in interpreting colon biopsies, as many mesenschymal polyps are encountered in the colon. Although GISTs are among the most common mesenchymal lesions, we will concentrate our discussion on other mesenchymal lesions, some of which are in the differential diagnosis of GIST, and point out some diagnostic pitfalls, particularly in immunolabeling. PMID:25560599

  9. Experimental investigation of the scaling of columnar joints.

    PubMed

    Goehring, Lucas; Morris, Stephen W; Lin, Zhenquan

    2006-09-01

    Columnar jointing is a fracture pattern common in igneous rocks in which cracks self-organize into a roughly hexagonal arrangement, leaving behind an ordered colonnade. We report observations of columnar jointing in a laboratory analog system, desiccated corn starch slurries. Using measurements of moisture density, evaporation rates, and fracture advance rates as evidence, we suggest that an advective-diffusive system is responsible for the rough scaling behavior of columnar joints. This theory explains the order of magnitude difference in scales between jointing in lavas and in starches. We investigated the scaling of average columnar cross-sectional areas due to the evaporation rate, the analog of the cooling rate of igneous columnar joints. We measured column areas in experiments where the evaporation rate depended on lamp height and time, in experiments where the evaporation rate was fixed using feedback methods, and in experiments where gelatin was added to vary the rheology of the starch. Our results suggest that the column area at a particular depth is related to both the current conditions, and hysteretically to the geometry of the pattern at previous depths. We argue that there exists a range of stable column scales allowed for any particular evaporation rate. PMID:17025716

  10. Radiating columnar joints in Gyeongju, Korea as a educational site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, H.; Kim, J. H.; Jang, Y. D.

    2015-12-01

    Gyeongju is located in the central eastern part of South Korea. There are various directional columnar joint sets in Tertiary trachytic basalt formation along the shore. In particular, rare radiating columnar joints occur in this area. Columnar joints are parallel, prismatic columns that are formed as a result of contraction during the rapid cooling of lava flow, forming a three dimensional fracture network. In general, the radius and direction of the rock column represent the cooling rate and surface respectively. Radiating direction of columns here indicates that dome- or lobe-shaped lava was cooled from its surface to the core during the viscous lava flow. The fact that the trachytic textures of plagioclase laths are indistinct suggests that the radiating columnar joints are equivalent to the frontal end of the lava lobes. This area is currently has a shore trail course, which is being developed into a picturesque educational park. There are corresponding information boards on the trail near each type of columnar joints to explain not only the forming process and geological mechanisms but the importance of nature conservation to visitors, especially students. A variety of educational materials and educational programs linked to regular school curriculum are also being developed.

  11. Genetic and epigenetic changes in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions: a review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Trietsch, Marjolijn D; Nooij, Linda S; Gaarenstroom, Katja N; van Poelgeest, Mariette I E

    2015-01-01

    Vulvar cancer is a relatively rare gynecologic malignancy with an annual incidence in developed countries of approximately 2 per 100,000 women. Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) has two etiological pathways: a high risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-dependent route, which has usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) as a precursor lesion, and an HPV-independent route, which is associated with differentiated VIN (dVIN), lichen sclerosus, and genetic alterations, such as TP53 mutations. Research on the molecular etiology of vulvar cancer has increased in the past years, not only regarding genetic alterations, but also epigenetic changes. In genetic alterations, a mutation irreversibly changes the nucleotide sequence of the DNA, or the number of copies of chromosomes per cell is altered. In epigenetics, the nucleotide sequence remains the same but genes can be 'switched' on or off by, for example, DNA methylation or histone modification. We searched the current literature on genetic and epigenetic alterations in VSCC and its precursor lesions. Many studies have reported a higher incidence of somatic mutations in HPV-negative tumors compared to HPV-positive tumors, with TP53 mutations being the most frequent. Allelic imbalances or loss of heterozygosity are more frequently found in higher stages of dysplasia and in invasive carcinomas, but it is not exclusive to HPV-negative tumors. A limited number of studies are available on epigenetic changes in vulvar lesions, with hypermethylation of CDKN2A being the most frequently investigated change. For most genes, hypermethylation occurs more frequently in vulvar squamous cell carcinomas than in precursor lesions. As most studies have focused on HPV infection and TP53 mutations, we suggest that more research should be performed using whole genome or next generation sequencing to determine the true landscape of genetic and epigenetic alterations in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25448458

  12. FoxP3+ T regulatory cells in oral lichen planus and its correlation with the distinct clinical appearance of the lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Joabe S; Monteiro, Bárbara V; Nonaka, Cassiano F; Silveira, Éricka J; Miguel, Márcia C

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of FoxP3+ cells in oral lichen planus (OLP) and to correlate the findings with clinical and histopathological features of these lesions. The sample consisted of 32 cases of OLP (17 reticular and 15 erosive cases) and 10 cases of inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia (IFH). Clinical examination, histopathological and histomorphometric analysis, and immunohistochemistry (anti-FoxP3 antibody) were performed. Cells were counted in juxtaepithelial and intraepithelial regions of the lesions, and the results are expressed as the mean and range. Most erosive lesions were keratinized and exhibited epithelial atrophy, whereas most reticular lesions were hyperkeratinized. Mean epithelial thickness and mean density of the inflammatory infiltrate were higher in reticular lesions than in erosive OLP. Juxtaepithelial FoxP3+ cells were slightly more frequent in erosive lesions (mean: 1.7 and range: 0–9.4) than in reticular lesions (mean: 1.5 and range: 0–8.3). There was a significant difference in the frequency of these cells between OLP (mean: 1.6 and range: 0–9.4) and IFH (mean: 0.5 and range: 0–1.4) (P < 0.05). The number of intraepithelial FoxP3+ cells was higher in reticular OLP and IFH when compared with erosive lesions. The larger number of juxtaepithelial FoxP3+ cells in OLP compared to IFH might be related to the distinct etiopathogenesis of these lesions. High disease activity or action of the oral microbiota may explain the slightly higher frequency of FoxP3+ cells in erosive lesions. PMID:22804765

  13. SOS1 and PTPN11 mutations in five cases of Noonan syndrome with multiple giant cell lesions

    PubMed Central

    Beneteau, Claire; Cavé, Hélène; Moncla, Anne; Dorison, Nathalie; Munnich, Arnold; Verloes, Alain; Leheup, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    We report five cases of multiple giant cell lesions in patients with typical Noonan syndrome. Such association has frequently been referred to as Noonan-like/multiple giant cell (NL/MGCL) syndrome before the molecular definition of Noonan syndrome. Two patients show mutations in PTPN11 (p.Tyr62Asp and p.Asn308Asp) and three in SOS1 (p.Arg552Ser and p.Arg552Thr). The latter are the first SOS1 mutations reported outside PTPN11 in NL/MGCL syndrome. MGCL lesions were observed in jaws (‘cherubism') and joints (‘pigmented villonodular synovitis'). We show through those patients that both types of MGCL are not PTPN11-specific, but rather represent a low penetrant (or perhaps overlooked) complication of the dysregulated RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. We recommend discarding NL/MGCL syndrome from the nosology, as this presentation is neither gene-nor allele-specific of Noonan syndrome; these patients should be described as Noonan syndrome with MGCL (of the mandible, the long bone…). The term cherubism should be used only when multiple giant cell lesions occur without any other clinical and molecular evidence of Noonan syndrome, with or without mutations of the SH3BP2 gene. PMID:19352411

  14. Lesion-induced and activity-dependent structural plasticity of Purkinje cell dendritic spines in cerebellar vermis and hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Gelfo, Francesca; Florenzano, Fulvio; Foti, Francesca; Burello, Lorena; Petrosini, Laura; De Bartolo, Paola

    2016-09-01

    Neuroplasticity allows the brain to encode experience and learn behaviors, and also to re-acquire lost functions after damage. The cerebellum is a suitable structure to address this topic because of its strong involvement in learning processes and compensation of lesion-induced deficits. This study was aimed to characterize the effects of a hemicerebellectomy (HCb) combined or not with the exposition to environmental enrichment (EE) on dendritic spine density and size in Purkinje cell proximal and distal compartments of cerebellar vermian and hemispherical regions. Male Wistar rats were housed in enriched or standard environments from the 21st post-natal day (pnd) onwards. At the 75th pnd, rats were submitted to HCb or sham lesion. Neurological symptoms and spatial performance in the Morris water maze were evaluated. At the end of testing, morphological analyses assessed dendritic spine density, area, length, and head diameter on vermian and hemispherical Purkinje cells. All hemicerebellectomized (HCbed) rats showed motor compensation, but standard-reared HCbed animals exhibited cognitive impairment that was almost completely compensated in enriched HCbed rats. The standard-reared HCbed rats showed decreased density with augmented size of Purkinje cell spines in the vermis, and augmented both density and size in the hemisphere. Enriched HCbed rats almost completely maintained the spine density and size induced by EE. Both lesion-induced and activity-dependent cerebellar plastic changes may be interpreted as "beneficial" brain reactions, aimed to support behavioral performance rescuing. PMID:26420278

  15. Columnar versus smectic order in systems of charged colloidal rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wensink, H. H.

    2007-05-01

    We study the stability of inhomogeneous liquid crystalline states in systems of monodisperse, stiff, charged rods. By means of a bifurcation analysis applied to the Onsager free energy for charged rods in strongly nematic states, we investigate nematic-smectic and nematic-columnar instabilities as a function of the Debye screening length κ-1. While the nematic-smectic transition clearly preempts the nematic-columnar one in the regime of strong screening (i.e., small κ-1) a marked stability of hexagonal columnar order is observed at larger screening lengths. The theoretical results are substantiated by Brownian dynamics computer simulation results based on the Yukawa site model. Our connect to experiments on tobacco mosaic virus rods, in particular, but might be relevant for soft rodlike mesogens in strong external directional fields in general.

  16. COLUMNAR ORGANIZATION OF SPATIAL PHASE IN VISUAL CORTEX

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yushi; Jin, Jianzhong; Kremkow, Jens; Lashgari, Reza; Komban, Stanley J.; Alonso, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    Images are processed in the primary visual cortex by neurons that encode different stimulus orientations and spatial phases. In primates and carnivores, neighboring cortical neurons share similar orientation preferences but spatial phases were thought to be randomly distributed. Here we reveal a columnar organization for spatial phase in cats that shares resemblances with the columnar organization for orientation. For both orientation and phase, the mean difference across vertically aligned neurons was less than 1/4 of a cycle. Cortical neurons showed three times more diversity in phase than orientation preference, however, the average phase of local neuronal populations was similar through the depth of layer 4. We conclude that columnar organization for visual space is not only defined by the spatial location of the stimulus but also by absolute phase. Taken together with previous studies, our results suggest that this phase-visuotopy is responsible for the emergence of orientation maps. PMID:25420070

  17. Allelic deletions of the VHL gene detected in multiple microscopic clear cell renal lesions in von Hippel-Lindau disease patients.

    PubMed Central

    Lubensky, I. A.; Gnarra, J. R.; Bertheau, P.; Walther, M. M.; Linehan, W. M.; Zhuang, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease develop a spectrum of bilateral clear-cell renal lesions including cysts and renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). VHL gene deletions have been previously reported in VHL-associated macroscopic RCC. Although histological analysis suggests that microscopic cystic lesions in the VHL patients may represent precursors of the RCC, there is at present no direct molecular evidence of their relationship. To investigate the relationship between cystic lesions and RCC, 26 microdissected archival renal lesions from two VHL disease patients were studied for loss of heterozygosity at the VHL gene locus using polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. The renal lesions included 2 benign cysts, 5 atypical cysts, 5 microscopic RCCs in situ, 5 cysts lined by a single layer of cells, in which RCCs in situ were developing, and 2 microscopic and 7 macroscopic RCCs. Except for a single benign cyst, 25 of 26 renal lesions showed nonrandom allelic loss of the VHL gene. In either of the 2 patients, the same VHL allele was deleted in all of the lesions tested, indicating loss of the wild-type allele and retention of the inherited, mutated VHL allele. The results suggest that all clear-cell lesions in the VHL kidney represent neoplasms and that the loss of the VHL gene occurs early in their development. Atypical and benign cysts most likely represent the initial phenotype in malignant transformation to the RCC. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8952541

  18. Mycolactone-Dependent Depletion of Endothelial Cell Thrombomodulin Is Strongly Associated with Fibrin Deposition in Buruli Ulcer Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ogbechi, Joy; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Hall, Belinda S.; Bodman-Smith, Katherine; Vogel, Moritz; Wu, Hua-Lin; Stainer, Alexander; Esmon, Charles T.; Ahnström, Josefin; Pluschke, Gerd; Simmonds, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    A well-known histopathological feature of diseased skin in Buruli ulcer (BU) is coagulative necrosis caused by the Mycobacterium ulcerans macrolide exotoxin mycolactone. Since the underlying mechanism is not known, we have investigated the effect of mycolactone on endothelial cells, focussing on the expression of surface anticoagulant molecules involved in the protein C anticoagulant pathway. Congenital deficiencies in this natural anticoagulant pathway are known to induce thrombotic complications such as purpura fulimans and spontaneous necrosis. Mycolactone profoundly decreased thrombomodulin (TM) expression on the surface of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVEC) at doses as low as 2ng/ml and as early as 8hrs after exposure. TM activates protein C by altering thrombin’s substrate specificity, and exposure of HDMVEC to mycolactone for 24 hours resulted in an almost complete loss of the cells’ ability to produce activated protein C. Loss of TM was shown to be due to a previously described mechanism involving mycolactone-dependent blockade of Sec61 translocation that results in proteasome-dependent degradation of newly synthesised ER-transiting proteins. Indeed, depletion from cells determined by live-cell imaging of cells stably expressing a recombinant TM-GFP fusion protein occurred at the known turnover rate. In order to determine the relevance of these findings to BU disease, immunohistochemistry of punch biopsies from 40 BU lesions (31 ulcers, nine plaques) was performed. TM abundance was profoundly reduced in the subcutis of 78% of biopsies. Furthermore, it was confirmed that fibrin deposition is a common feature of BU lesions, particularly in the necrotic areas. These findings indicate that there is decreased ability to control thrombin generation in BU skin. Mycolactone’s effects on normal endothelial cell function, including its ability to activate the protein C anticoagulant pathway are strongly associated with this. Fibrin

  19. Antibodies to Endothelial Cell Growth Factor and Obliterative Microvascular Lesions in Synovia of Patients with Antibiotic-Refractory Lyme Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Londoño, Diana; Cadavid, Diego; Drouin, Elise E.; Strle, Klemen; McHugh, Gail; Aversa, John; Steere, Allen C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Endothelial cell growth factor (ECGF) was recently identified as the first autoantigen known to be a target of T and B cell responses in about 20% of patients with antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis. The goal of the current study was to look for a pathologic correlate between ECGF autoantibody responses and histologic findings in synovial tissue. Methods Synovial tissue was examined from 14 patients with antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis and 6 patients with other forms of chronic inflammatory arthritis, primarily rheumatoid arthritis. The tissue sections were subjected to chemical and immunostaining, and IgG antibody responses to ECGF were determined by ELISA. Each finding was ranked for statistical analysis. Results In each disease, synovial tissue showed synovial hypertrophy, vascular proliferation, immune cell infiltrates, and fibrosis. However, among the 14 patients with antibiotic-refractory arthritis, 8 (57%) had obliterative microvascular lesions in the tissue compared with none of 6 patients with other forms of chronic inflammatory arthritis (P=0.04). Among the patients with Lyme arthritis, 5 (36%) had autoantibody responses to ECGF, and all 5 had obliterative lesions compared with only 3 of 9 patients who lacked ECGF antibody responses (P=0.009). Moreover, the magnitude of ECGF antibody responses correlated directly with the extent of obliterative lesions (P=0.02) and with greater vascularity in the tissue (P=0.05). Conclusions The correlations of ECGF autoantibody reactivity with obliterative microvascular lesions imply that these autoantibodies may be involved in the obliterative process, suggesting that anti-ECGF antibodies have specific pathologic consequences in synovial tissue in patients with antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis. PMID:24623727

  20. DNA-PKcs deficiency leads to persistence of oxidatively-induced clustered DNA lesions in human tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Peddi, Prakash; Loftin, Charles W.; Dickey, Jennifer S.; Hair, Jessica M.; Burns, Kara J.; Aziz, Khaled; Francisco, Dave C.; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.; Sedelnikova, Olga A.; Bonner, William M.; Winters, Thomas A.; Georgakilas, Alexandros G.

    2010-01-01

    DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a key non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) nuclear serine/threonine protein kinase involved in various DNA metabolic and damage signaling pathways contributing to the maintenance of genomic stability and prevention of cancer. In order to examine the role of DNA-PK in processing of non-DSB clustered DNA damage, we have used three different models of DNA-PK deficiency i.e. chemical inactivation of its kinase activity by novel inhibitors IC86621 and NU7026, knock-down and complete absence of the protein in human breast cancer (MCF-7) and glioblastoma cell lines (MO59-J/K). Compromised DNA-PK repair pathway has lead to accumulation of clustered DNA lesions induced by γ-rays. Tumor cells lacking protein expression or with inhibited kinase activity showed a marked decrease in their ability to process oxidatively-induced non-DSB clustered DNA lesions measured using a modified version of pulsed field gel electrophoresis or single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay). In all cases, DNA-PK inactivation lead to a higher level of lesion persistence even after 24–72 hrs of repair. We suggest a model in which DNA-PK deficiency affects the processing of these clusters by first compromising base excision repair and second by the presence of catalytically inactive DNA-PK inhibiting the efficient processing of these lesions due to the failure of DNA-PK to disassociate from the DNA ends. The information rendered will be important not only for understating cancer etiology in the presence of a NHEJ deficiency but also lead to a better understanding of cancer treatments based on the induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of cluster repair. PMID:20193758

  1. Peroxisome-proliferator activator receptor-gamma activation decreases attachment of endometrial cells to peritoneal mesothelial cells in an in vitro model of the early endometriotic lesion.

    PubMed

    Kavoussi, S K; Witz, C A; Binkley, P A; Nair, A S; Lebovic, D I

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma activation has an effect on the attachment of endometrial cells to peritoneal mesothelial cells in a well-established in vitro model of the early endometriotic lesion. The endometrial epithelial cell line EM42 and mesothelial cell line LP9 were used for this study. EM42 cells, LP9 cells or both were treated with the PPAR-gamma agonist ciglitazone (CTZ) at varying concentrations (10, 20 and 40 microM) x 48 h with subsequent co-culture of EM42 and LP9 cells. The rate of EM42 attachment and invasion through LP9 cells was then assessed and compared with control (EM42 and LP9 cells co-cultured without prior treatment with CTZ). Next, attachment of CTZ-treated and untreated EM42 cells to hyaluronic acid (HA), a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) on peritoneal mesothelial cells, were assessed. Although there was no difference in EM42 attachment when LP9 cells alone were treated with CTZ, treatment of EM42 cells with 40 microM CTZ decreased EM42 attachment to LP9 cells by 27% (P < 0.01). Treatment of both EM42 and LP9 cells with 40 microM CTZ decreased EM42 attachment to LP9 by 37% (P < 0.01). Treatment of EM42 cells with 40 microM CTZ decreased attachment to HA by 66% (P = 0.056). CTZ did not decrease invasion of EM42 cells through the LP9 monolayer. CTZ may inhibit EM42 cell proliferation. In conclusion, CTZ significantly decreased EM42 attachment to LP9 cells and HA in an in vitro model of the early endometriotic lesion. PMID:19643817

  2. Columnar jointing pattern: characterization and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetényi, György; Garel, Fanny; Médard, Etienne; Taisne, Benoît.; Mattsson, Hannes B.; Bosshard, Sonja

    2010-05-01

    Columnar Jointing (CJ) is commonly observed in slowly cooling lava bodies. The characteristic diameter of the columns is thought to depend on the cooling rate, faster (respectively slower) cooling resulting in larger (smaller) thermo-elastic strain yielding more slender (stout) columns. One of the goals of our CJ project is to analyse whether the characteristic diameter of the columns is also dependent on other factors, such as the chemical composition of the lava and the setting of the cooling lava body. While the laboratory measurements are finished and the bibliography compiled, we present our field measurements including photos, methods and first results. In order to compare different CJ sites, we develop a procedure to quantitatively characterize the columns. On the field, we collect photos with a well visible scale, either perpendicular or parallel to the columns. Then we use a self-developed, interactive software that processes the photos and performs statistical analyses on the average length of a side (L), on the average cross-sectional area (A), and on the number of sides of columns (N). Using these values, the parabolic relation between A and L2 is determined as a function of N, and compared to ideal polygons. Data from 25 sites across Europe show that the observed areas are smaller than those of the ideal polygons by about 7%. To be able to use photos taken from the side, we calculate the ratios of the distance to the 2nd and 3rd vertices to L, again as a function of N. The averages of these ratios are as those of ideal polygons, but their standard deviations suggest that the geometry of individual column cross-sections is anisotropic in a random direction. This explanation also underlines the previous result of smaller areas compared to ideal, and suggests that for a given area, the total length of joints is not fully minimized. This is in line with earlier and also present observations that the average number of sides at any CJ site is less than 6

  3. Impact of the accuracy of automatic segmentation of cell nuclei clusters on classification of thyroid follicular lesions.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chanho; Kim, Changick

    2014-08-01

    Automatic segmentation of cell nuclei clusters is a key building block in systems for quantitative analysis of microscopy cell images. For that reason, it has received a great attention over the last decade, and diverse automatic approaches to segment clustered nuclei with varying levels of performance under different test conditions have been proposed in literature. To the best of our knowledge, however, so far there is no comparative study on the methods. This study is a first attempt to fill this research gap. More precisely, the purpose of this study is to present an objective performance comparison of existing state-of-the-art segmentation methods. Particularly, the impact of their accuracy on classification of thyroid follicular lesions is also investigated "quantitatively" under the same experimental condition, to evaluate the applicability of the methods. Thirteen different segmentation approaches are compared in terms of not only errors in nuclei segmentation and delineation, but also their impact on the performance of system to classify thyroid follicular lesions using different metrics (e.g., diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, etc.). Extensive experiments have been conducted on a total of 204 digitized thyroid biopsy specimens. Our study demonstrates that significant diagnostic errors can be avoided using more advanced segmentation approaches. We believe that this comprehensive comparative study serves as a reference point and guide for developers and practitioners in choosing an appropriate automatic segmentation technique adopted for building automated systems for specifically classifying follicular thyroid lesions. PMID:24677732

  4. Agonistic Anti-TIGIT Treatment Inhibits T Cell Responses in LDLr Deficient Mice without Affecting Atherosclerotic Lesion Development

    PubMed Central

    Foks, Amanda C.; Ran, Ingrid A.; Frodermann, Vanessa; Bot, Ilze; van Santbrink, Peter J.; Kuiper, Johan; van Puijvelde, Gijs H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules are mainly expressed on T cells and antigen presenting cells and strongly orchestrate adaptive immune responses. Whereas co-stimulatory molecules enhance immune responses, signaling via co-inhibitory molecules dampens the immune system, thereby showing great therapeutic potential to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Signaling via co-inhibitory T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) directly inhibits T cell activation and proliferation, and therefore represents a novel therapeutic candidate to specifically dampen pro-atherogenic T cell reactivity. In the present study, we used an agonistic anti-TIGIT antibody to determine the effect of excessive TIGIT-signaling on atherosclerosis. Methods and Results TIGIT was upregulated on CD4+ T cells isolated from mice fed a Western-type diet in comparison with mice fed a chow diet. Agonistic anti-TIGIT suppressed T cell activation and proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. However, agonistic anti-TIGIT treatment of LDLr−/− mice fed a Western-type diet for 4 or 8 weeks did not affect atherosclerotic lesion development in comparison with PBS and Armenian Hamster IgG treatment. Furthermore, elevated percentages of dendritic cells were observed in the blood and spleen of agonistic anti-TIGIT-treated mice. Additionally, these cells showed an increased activation status but decreased IL-10 production. Conclusions Despite the inhibition of splenic T cell responses, agonistic anti-TIGIT treatment does not affect initial atherosclerosis development, possibly due to increased activity of dendritic cells. PMID:24376654

  5. Quantitative, real-time analysis of base excision repair activity in cell lysates utilizing lesion-specific molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Svilar, David; Vens, Conchita; Sobol, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method for the quantitative, real-time measurement of DNA glycosylase and AP endonuclease activities in cell nuclear lysates using base excision repair (BER) molecular beacons. The substrate (beacon) is comprised of a deoxyoligonucleotide containing a single base lesion with a 6-Carboxyfluorescein (6-FAM) moiety conjugated to the 5'end and a Dabcyl moiety conjugated to the 3' end of the oligonucleotide. The BER molecular beacon is 43 bases in length and the sequence is designed to promote the formation of a stem-loop structure with 13 nucleotides in the loop and 15 base pairs in the stem. When folded in this configuration the 6-FAM moiety is quenched by Dabcyl in a non-fluorescent manner via Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). The lesion is positioned such that following base lesion removal and strand scission the remaining 5 base oligonucleotide containing the 6-FAM moiety is released from the stem. Release and detachment from the quencher (Dabcyl) results in an increase of fluorescence that is proportionate to the level of DNA repair. By collecting multiple reads of the fluorescence values, real-time assessment of BER activity is possible. The use of standard quantitative real-time PCR instruments allows the simultaneous analysis of numerous samples. The design of these BER molecular beacons, with a single base lesion, is amenable to kinetic analyses, BER quantification and inhibitor validation and is adaptable for quantification of DNA Repair activity in tissue and tumor cell lysates or with purified proteins. The analysis of BER activity in tumor lysates or tissue aspirates using these molecular beacons may be applicable to functional biomarker measurements. Further, the analysis of BER activity with purified proteins using this quantitative assay provides a rapid, high-throughput method for the discovery and validation of BER inhibitors. PMID:22895410

  6. On the Formation of Particle Sheaths in Columnar Vortices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, John T.

    1984-08-01

    Geophysical columnar vortices such as tornadoes, waterspouts and dust devils are frequently observed to have one or more cylindrical sheaths of dust concentric with the axis of symmetry. The mechanisms by which such sheaths form have previously been investigated by assuming a balance between inward drag force (due to inward radial motion of the fluid) and outward centrifugal form (due to rotation of the particles around the vortex). However, the strong radial inflow required to establish this balance is confined to the surface inflow layer. In the upper two thirds of the vortex core, where the sheaths are most frequently observed, the radial component of fluid motion is very weak and may be outward. In this study, an alternative approach is presented wherein the drag forces arising from radial motion of the fluid are assumed negligible. The particles are thus continuously centrifuged out of the core. It is shown for four representative profiles of the tangential velocity component of the fluid that a particle sheath will form. The time required for its formation, the location of the sheath, and its evolution in time are in agreement with the available field evidence. Also, a two-celled vortex flow field is shown to produce a two-sheath structure. However, the inner sheath is a transient feature, so it is argued that the observed patterns of multiple concentric sheaths are probably due to the combined effects of the lifting of puffs of particles aloft by the vertical motion field while at the same time the particles are centrifuged out of the core.

  7. Genome Sequence of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare Genomovar II Strain 94-081

    PubMed Central

    Kumru, Salih; Tekedar, Hasan C.; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in fresh and brackish water worldwide. F. columnare strain 94-081 was isolated from a diseased channel catfish in 1994; its genome sequence is the first completed genomovar II sequence. PMID:27231366

  8. Genome Sequence of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare Genomovar II Strain 94-081.

    PubMed

    Kumru, Salih; Tekedar, Hasan C; Waldbieser, Geoffrey C; Karsi, Attila; Lawrence, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in fresh and brackish water worldwide. F. columnare strain 94-081 was isolated from a diseased channel catfish in 1994; its genome sequence is the first completed genomovar II sequence. PMID:27231366

  9. Skin lesions and neutrophilic leukemoid reaction in a patient with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    He, Jianming; Liang, Houjie

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Here, we present a 53-year-old man with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma accompanied by skin lesions (vesicles, papulovesicles, and miliary papules symmetrically distributed on extremities and trunk, with more distal lesions increasing in severity). Routine blood tests showed a white blood cell count of 58.97 × 109/L (Neutrophils% 91.64%). PMID:26185653

  10. Ungeremine and its hemisynthetic analogues as bactericides against Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium columunare is the cause of colmunaris disease in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). In a previous study, the betaine-type alkaloid ungeremine, 1 obtained from Pancratium maritimum L. was found to have strong antibacterial activity against F. columnare. ...

  11. Columnar organization of orientation domains in V1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedtke, Joscha; Wolf, Fred

    In the primary visual cortex (V1) of primates and carnivores, the functional architecture of basic stimulus selectivities appears similar across cortical layers (Hubel & Wiesel, 1962) justifying the use of two-dimensional cortical models and disregarding organization in the third dimension. Here we show theoretically that already small deviations from an exact columnar organization lead to non-trivial three-dimensional functional structures. We extend two-dimensional random field models (Schnabel et al., 2007) to a three-dimensional cortex by keeping a typical scale in each layer and introducing a correlation length in the third, columnar dimension. We examine in detail the three-dimensional functional architecture for different cortical geometries with different columnar correlation lengths. We find that (i) topological defect lines are generally curved and (ii) for large cortical curvatures closed loops and reconnecting topological defect lines appear. This theory extends the class of random field models by introducing a columnar dimension and provides a systematic statistical assessment of the three-dimensional functional architecture of V1 (see also (Tanaka et al., 2011)).

  12. DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION OF PUTATIVE VIRULENCE GENES IN Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A shot-gun genomic library of the Flavobacterium columnare ALG-530 virulent strain has been constructed and more than 3,000 clones have been sequenced to date (800 contigs). Based on sequence identity with putative known virulence genes from related species, seven genes were selected for differentia...

  13. Chemotactic response of Flavobacterium columnare to channel catfish mucus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has demonstrated that genomovar II Flavobacterium columnare isolates are more pathogenic for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and have a higher capacity for adhesion than genomovar I isolates. To begin to define the basis for this, the objectives of the present study were to determine...

  14. Antibacterial activity of acylglucinol derivatives against Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columnaris disease is one of the most common bacterial diseases of pond-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in the southeastern United States of America. The Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium Flavobacterium columnare is the cause of columnaris disease. Direct economic losses to catfish pr...

  15. Activities of wogonin analogs and other flavones against Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our continuing pursuit to discover natural products and natural product-based compounds for the control of the bacterial species Flavobacterium columnare which causes columnaris disease in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), we synthesized eighteen flavone and three chalcone analogues and thes...

  16. Parasitism by Ich enhanced susceptibility of tilapia to Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In aquaculture systems, fish are commonly infected by two or more pathogens. Bacterium Flavobacterium columnare and parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) are two common pathogens of cultured fish and result in heavy economic losses for aquaculture. There is no published information available ...

  17. Research on non-direct reflection columnar microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, B. Q.; Wang, X. Z.; Dong, L. H.

    2015-10-01

    To minimize the risk of laser accidents, especially those involving eye and skin injuries, it is crucial to pay more attention to laser safety. To control the risk of injury, depending on the laser power and wavelength, a number of required safety measures have been put forward, such as specific protection walls, and wearing safety goggles when operating lasers. The direct reflection columnar microstructure can also be used for laser safety. Based on mathematical foundations , a columnar microstructure is designed by the optical design software LightTools. Simulation showed that there is a tilt angle between the emergent and incident light, the incident light being perpendicular to the microstructure, as well as the phenomenon of no direct reflection happened. A novel testing platform was built for the columnar microstructure after it was machined. The applied testing method can measure the angle between the emergent and incident light. The method lays the condition for the further research. It is shown that the columnar microstructure with no direct reflection can be utilized in laser protection systems.

  18. Investigations of electromagnetic scattering by columnar ice crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weil, H.; Senior, T. B. A.

    1976-01-01

    An integral equation approach was developed to determine the scattering and absorption of electromagnetic radiation by thin walled cylinders of arbitrary cross-section and refractive index. Based on this method, extensive numerical data was presented at infrared wavelengths for hollow hexagonal cross section cylinders which simulate columnar sheath ice crystals.

  19. Response Gene to Complement 32 Promotes Vascular Lesion Formation through Stimulation of Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia-Ning; Shi, Ning; Xie, Wei-bing; Guo, Xia; Chen, Shi-You

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study are to determine the role of response gene to complement 32 (RGC-32) in vascular lesion formation after experimental angioplasty and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods and Results Using a rat carotid artery balloon-injury model, we documented for the first time that neointima formation was closely associated with a significantly increased expression of RGC-32 protein. shRNA Knockdown of RGC-32 via adenovirus (Ad)-mediated gene delivery dramatically inhibited the lesion formation by 62% as compared to control groups 14 days after injury. Conversely, RGC-32 overexpression significantly promoted the neointima formation by 33%. Gain and loss of function studies in primary culture of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) indicated that RGC-32 is essential for both the proliferation and migration of RASMCs. RGC-32 induced RASMC proliferation by enhancing p34CDC2 activity. RGC-32 stimulated the migration of RASMC via inducing focal adhesion contact and stress fiber formation. These effects were caused by the enhanced ROKα activity due to RGC-32-induced downregulation of Rad GTPase. Conclusions RGC-32 plays an important role in vascular lesion formation following vascular injury. Increased RGC-32 expression in vascular injury appears to be a novel mechanism underlying the migration and proliferation of vascular SMCs. Therefore, targeting RGC-32 is a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of vascular remodeling in proliferative vascular diseases. PMID:21636805

  20. Observation of flow regimes and transitions during a columnar solidification experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan-Kharicha, M.; Kharicha, A.; Wu, M.; Ludwig, A.

    2014-08-01

    Experimental data for the validation of numerical models coupling solidification and hydrodynamics are very rare. Many experiments made in the field of solidifications are performed with pure metals or alloys (Al-Cu, Pb-Sn, etc) which are opaque and do not allow direct observation of the hydrodynamic. Only the results related to solidification such as grain size and orientation, or macro-segregation are usually used for the validation. The present paper is dedicated to the description of well-controlled experiments where both solidification and fluid dynamic can be simultaneously observed. The important point is the almost purely columnar nature of the solidified mushy region. To our knowledge this is the very first reported macro-scale experiment with almost purely columnar solidification where the flow was measured with a PIV technique. The experiments consist in studying the hydrodynamics during the columnar solidification of a H2O-NH4Cl hypereutectic alloy in a die cast cell. Particle image velocimetry was employed to measure the flow velocity in the liquid bulk. Different flow regimes generated by complex thermo-solutal double diffusive convection were observed. In the beginning of the solidification the solutal buoyancy generates a turbulent flow, which is progressively replaced by the development of stratification from the top of the cell. Later, the stratification leads to the development of a long lasting meandering flow, which filled almost all the liquid region. The kinetic energy of the flow was calculated and it was found out that it decreased with time. The solidification front was smooth and no freckles appeared in the mushy zone. The evolution of the thickness of the mushy zone was measured. As this experiment showed a good reproducibility it represents an excellent benchmark for validation of the numerical models that target the simultaneous prediction of flow dynamics and solidification.

  1. The Stem Cell Marker Bmi-1 Is Sensitive in Identifying Early Lesions of Carcinoma ex Pleomorphic Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Sedassari, Bruno Tavares; Rodrigues, Maria Fernanda Setúbal Destro; Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; Altemani, Albina; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; Sousa, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the present study, we evaluated and described the sensitivity of the stem cell marker B cell-specific moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi-1) in identifying early lesions of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA). While invasive CXPAs are tumors with a prominent and easily recognizable malignant component, the identification of early carcinomatous changes in PA remains a diagnostic challenge due to the lack of objective morphological criteria. The immunohistochemical expression of Bmi-1 was assessed in both adenomatous and carcinomatous components of 9 CXPA cases at an early phase of histological progression (6 intracapsular and 3 minimally invasive) grouped according to the cellular differentiation as luminal (7 cases) or myoepithelial (2 cases). A selective nuclear expression of Bmi-1 was found exclusively in the malignant component of 8 cases (6 luminal type and 2 myoepithelial type), including intraductal carcinoma areas, except for 1 case in which scarce cells of the remnant PA were positive. Thus, Bmi-1 is expressed from the earliest morphologically detectable stages of PA malignant transformation. When faced with atypical features in PA, evaluation of Bmi-1 expression can provide more objective criteria for identification and diagnosis of early lesions of CXPA. This is applied to carcinomas with luminal or myoepithelial differentiation. PMID:26166073

  2. Primary extranodal B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma mimicking an endodontic lesion: report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Wong, Gordon B; Spadafora, Silvana; Barbon, Nick; Caputo, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Intrabony oral non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is rare. We report 2 cases of NHL of the maxilla that initially presented as apical abscesses in endodontically treated teeth. Radiographic findings were nondescript, but tissue biopsy revealed diffuse large B-cell NHL in both instances. No other sites of disease were found. Both patients were treated by chemotherapy and radiation with good results. As primary NHL of the maxilla can mimic a dental inflammatory lesion, tissue biopsy is mandatory in cases where symptoms do not resolve after specific treatment. PMID:24059491

  3. Production of IL-27 in multiple sclerosis lesions by astrocytes and myeloid cells: Modulation of local immune responses.

    PubMed

    Sénécal, Vincent; Deblois, Gabrielle; Beauseigle, Diane; Schneider, Raphael; Brandenburg, Jonas; Newcombe, Jia; Moore, Craig S; Prat, Alexandre; Antel, Jack; Arbour, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms whereby human glial cells modulate local immune responses are not fully understood. Interleukin-27 (IL-27), a pleiotropic cytokine, has been shown to dampen the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, but it is still unresolved whether IL-27 plays a role in the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS). IL-27 contribution to local modulation of immune responses in the brain of MS patients was investigated. The expression of IL-27 subunits (EBI3 and p28) and its cognate receptor IL-27R (the gp130 and TCCR chains) was elevated within post-mortem MS brain lesions compared with normal control brains. Moreover, astrocytes (GFAP(+) cells) as well as microglia and macrophages (Iba1(+) cells) were important sources of IL-27. Brain-infiltrating CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes expressed the IL-27R specific chain (TCCR) implying that these cells could respond to local IL-27 sources. In primary cultures of human astrocytes inflammatory cytokines increased IL-27 production, whereas myeloid cell inflammatory M1 polarization and inflammatory cytokines enhanced IL-27 expression in microglia and macrophages. Astrocytes in postmortem tissues and in vitro expressed IL-27R. Moreover, IL-27 triggered the phosphorylation of the transcription regulator STAT1, but not STAT3 in human astrocytes; indeed IL-27 up-regulated MHC class I expression on astrocytes in a STAT1-dependent manner. These findings demonstrated that IL-27 and its receptor were elevated in MS lesions and that local IL-27 can modulate immune properties of astrocytes and infiltrating immune cells. Thus, therapeutic strategies targeting IL-27 may influence not only peripheral but also local inflammatory responses within the brain of MS patients. PMID:26649511

  4. Noninfectious penile lesions.

    PubMed

    Teichman, Joel M H; Sea, Jason; Thompson, Ian M; Elston, Dirk M

    2010-01-15

    Family physicians commonly diagnose and manage penile cutaneous lesions. Noninfectious lesions may be classified as inflammatory and papulosquamous (e.g., psoriasis, lichen sclerosus, angiokeratomas, lichen nitidus, lichen planus), or as neoplastic (e.g., carcinoma in situ, invasive squamous cell carcinoma). The clinical presentation and appearance of the lesions guide the diagnosis. Psoriasis presents as red or salmon-colored plaques with overlying scales, often with systemic lesions. Lichen sclerosus presents as a phimotic, hypopigmented prepuce or glans penis with a cellophane-like texture. Angiokeratomas are typically asymptomatic, well-circumscribed, red or blue papules, whereas lichen nitidus usually produces asymptomatic pinhead-sized, hypopigmented papules. The lesions of lichen planus are pruritic, violaceous, polygonal papules that are typically systemic. Carcinoma in situ should be suspected if the patient has velvety red or keratotic plaques of the glans penis or prepuce, whereas invasive squamous cell carcinoma presents as a painless lump, ulcer, or fungating irregular mass. Some benign lesions, such as psoriasis and lichen planus, can mimic carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma. Biopsy is indicated if the diagnosis is in doubt or neoplasm cannot be excluded. The management of benign penile lesions usually involves observation or topical corticosteroids; however, neoplastic lesions generally require surgery. PMID:20082512

  5. Efficient and Reliable Production of Vectors for the Study of the Repair, Mutagenesis, and Phenotypic Consequences of Defined DNA Damage Lesions in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Lucy; Gran, Christine; Bjoras, Magnar; Doetsch, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cells are constantly and unavoidably exposed to DNA damage from endogenous and exogenous sources, frequently to the detriment of genomic integrity and biological function. Cells acquire a large number of chemically diverse lesions per day, and each can have a different genetic fate and biological consequences. However, our knowledge of how and when specific lesions are repaired or how they may compromise the fidelity of DNA replication or transcription and lead to deleterious biological endpoints in mammalian cells is limited. Studying individual lesions requires technically challenging approaches for the targeted introduction of defined lesions into relevant DNA sequences of interest. Here, we present a systematic analysis of factors influencing yield and an improved, efficient and reliable protocol for the production of mammalian expression phagemid vectors containing defined DNA base modifications in any sequence position of either complementary DNA strand. We applied our improved protocol to study the transcriptional mutagenesis-mediated phenotypic consequences of the common oxidative lesion 5-hydroxyuracil, placed in the G12 mutational hotspot of the KRAS oncogene. 5-OHU induced sustained oncogenic signaling in Neil1-/-Neil2-/- mouse cells. The resulting advance in technology will have broad applicability for investigation of single lesion DNA repair, mutagenesis, and DNA damage responses in mammalian cells. PMID:27362559

  6. Extragastric Dieulafoy's lesion

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, James; Galea, Samuel; Galea, Joseph; Schembri, Mark

    2014-01-01

    A 74-year-old man on warfarin for aortic valve replacement presented with recurrent episodes of melaena. An initial oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) was normal, as were red cell scanning and colonoscopy. It was a third OGD that revealed the cause of the melaena—a vascular lesion in the duodenum, at the junction between D1 and D2. An extragastric Dieulafoy's lesion was diagnosed, and the lesion was injected with epinephrine and tattooed. Over the following months, episodes of bleeding recurred despite further attempts at injection. Percutaneous radiologically assisted embolisation of the gastroduodenal artery, and eventually duodenotomy and oversuturing of the lesion were performed to no avail. The patient has undergone over 10 endoscopies, and has received over 70 units of packed red cells to date, since his initial presentation 6 years ago. Attempts to stop the bleeding permanently have been difficult, highlighting the complexity of managing such a lesion. PMID:25216921

  7. Vitamin D Repletion Reduces the Progression of Premalignant Squamous Lesions in the NTCU Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Mazzilli, Sarah A; Hershberger, Pamela A; Reid, Mary E; Bogner, Paul N; Atwood, Kristopher; Trump, Donald L; Johnson, Candace S

    2015-10-01

    The chemopreventive actions of vitamin D were examined in the N-nitroso-tris-chloroethylurea (NTCU) mouse model, a progressive model of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SWR/J mice were fed a deficient diet (D) containing no vitamin D3, a sufficient diet (S) containing 2,000 IU/kg vitamin D3, or the same diets in combination with the active metabolite of vitamin D, calcitriol (C; 80 μg/kg, weekly). The percentage (%) of the mucosal surface of large airways occupied by dysplastic lesions was determined in mice after treatment with a total dose of 15 or 25 μmol NTCU (N). After treatment with 15 μmol NTCU, the percentages of the surface of large airways containing high-grade dysplastic (HGD) lesions were vitamin D-deficient + NTCU (DN), 22.7% [P < 0.05 compared with vitamin D-sufficient +NTCU (SN)]; DN + C, 12.3%; SN, 8.7%; and SN + C, 6.6%. The extent of HGD increased with NTCU dose in the DN group. Proliferation, assessed by Ki-67 labeling, increased upon NTCU treatment. The highest Ki-67 labeling index was seen in the DN group. As compared with SN mice, DN mice exhibited a three-fold increase (P < 0.005) in circulating white blood cells (WBC), a 20% (P < 0.05) increase in IL6 levels, and a four-fold (P < 0.005) increase in WBC in bronchial lavages. Thus, vitamin D repletion reduces the progression of premalignant lesions, proliferation, and inflammation, and may thereby suppress development of lung SCC. Further investigations of the chemopreventive effects of vitamin D in lung SCC are warranted. PMID:26276745

  8. Perilipin1 Deficiency in Whole Body or Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Attenuates Lesions in Atherosclerosis-Prone Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaojing; Gao, Mingming; He, Jinhan; Zou, Liangqiang; Lyu, Ying; Zhang, Ling; Geng, Bin; Liu, George; Xu, Guoheng

    2015-01-01

    Aims The objective of this study is to determine the role of perilipin 1 (Plin1) in whole body or bone marrow-derived cells on atherogenesis. Methods and Results Accumulated evidence have indicated the role of Plin1 in atherosclerosis, however, these findings are controversial. In this study, we showed that Plin1 was assembled and colocalized with CD68 in macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques of ApoE-/- mice. We further found 39% reduction of plaque size in the aortic roots of Plin1 and ApoE double knockout (Plin1-/-ApoE-/-) females compared with ApoE-/- female littermates. In order to verify whether this reduction was macrophage-specific, the bone marrow cells from wild-type or Plin1 deficient mice (Plin1-/-) were transplanted into LDL receptor deficient mice (LDLR-/-). Mice receiving Plin1-/- bone marrow cells showed also 49% reduction in aortic atherosclerotic lesions compared with LDLR-/- mice received wild-type bone marrow cells. In vitro experiments showed that Plin1-/- macrophages had decreased protein expression of CD36 translocase and an enhanced cholesterol ester hydrolysis upon aggregated-LDL loading, with unaltered expression of many other regulators of cholesterol metabolism, such as cellular lipases, and Plin2 and 3. Given the fundamental role of Plin1 in protecting LD lipids from lipase hydrolysis, it is reasonably speculated that the assembly of Plin1 in microphages might function to reduce lipolysis and hence increase lipid retention in ApoE-/- plaques, but this pro-atherosclerotic property would be abrogated on inactivation of Plin1. Conclusion Plin1 deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells may be responsible for reduced atherosclerotic lesions in the mice. PMID:25855981

  9. Imaging characteristic analysis of metastatic spine lesions from breast, prostate, lung, and renal cell carcinomas for surgical planning: Osteolytic versus osteoblastic

    PubMed Central

    Reddington, Justin A.; Mendez, Gustavo A.; Ching, Alex; Kubicky, Charlotte Dai; Klimo, Paul; Ragel, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgeons treating metastatic spine disease can use computed tomography (CT) imaging to determine whether lesions are osteolytic, osteoblastic, or mixed. This enables treatment that considers the structural integrity of the vertebral body (VB), which is impaired with lytic lesions but not blastic lesions. The authors analyzed CT imaging characteristics of spine metastasis from breast, lung, prostate, and renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) to determine the metastasis patterns of each of these common tumors. Methods: The authors identified patients with metastatic spine disease treated during a 3-year period. Variables studied included age, sex, and cancer type. Lesions from breast, lung, prostate, and RCC primary lesions were selected for imaging analysis. Results: Sixty-six patients were identified: 17 had breast metastasis, 14 prostate, 18 lung, and 17 RCC. Breast cancer metastasis involved 33% of VBs with 56%, 20%, and 24% osteolytic, osteoblastic, and mixed, respectively. Prostate cancer metastasis involved 35% of VBs with 14%, 62%, and 24% osteolytic, osteoblastic, and mixed, respectively. Lung cancer metastasis involved 13% of VBs with 64%, 33%, and 3% osteolytic, osteoblastic, and mixed, respectively. RCC metastasis involved 11% of VBs with 91%, 7%, and 2% osteolytic, osteoblastic, and mixed lesions, respectively. Conclusions: To improve surgical planning, we advocate the use of CT prior to surgery to evaluate whether spine metastases are osteolytic or osteoblastic. In cases of osteolytic lesions, the concern is of segmental instability requiring reconstruction and the risk for screw pull out should instrumentation be considered. In cases of osteoblastic lesions, surgeons should consider debulking dense bone. PMID:27274410

  10. Asymmetric stem-cell division ensures sustained keratinocyte hyperproliferation in psoriatic skin lesions

    PubMed Central

    JIA, HAI-YAN; SHI, YING; LUO, LONG-FEI; JIANG, GUAN; ZHOU, QIONG; XU, SHI-ZHENG; LEI, TIE-CHI

    2016-01-01

    Excessive expansion of the transit-amplifying (TA) cell compartment is a distinct morphological characteristic of psoriatic epidermal hyperplasia. In order to examine the activation of basal stem cells and how they replenish such an enlarged compartment of TA cells in psoriatic epidermis, we utilized a BrdU labeling method to monitor mitotic stem cells in a mouse model of psoriasiform dermatitis, which was induced by imiquimod. Our results showed that perpendicular and parallel cell division characteristics of dividing stem cells existed in the inflamed epidermis. When we analyzed template-DNA strand segregation in trypsin-dissociated human psoriatic keratinocytes using BrdU pulse-chase labeling, we found that the percentage of asymmetric segregation of BrdU was significantly increased in the cell pairs of psoriatic epidermal cells compared with normal epidermal cells. Furthermore, we also examined the effects of both interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-22 cytokines on the differentiation status of cultured human keratinocytes. The results indicated that both cytokines had synergistic effects on passage-one epidermal cell sheets derived from skin explants and also on cultured keratinocytes, were involved in the maintenance of the undifferentiated stem cell phenotype, and these results suggest an efficient mechanism for preventing the premature loss of basal stem-cell pools in the pro-inflammatory cytokine-enriched milieu of the psoriatic epidermis. Our findings suggest that inhibition of hyperactive stem cells represents a potential therapeutic target to combat recalcitrant epidermal hyperplasia in psoriasis. PMID:26707630

  11. A neomorphic cancer cell-specific role of MAGE-A4 in trans-lesion synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanzhe; Mutter-Rottmayer, Elizabeth; Greenwalt, Alicia M.; Goldfarb, Dennis; Yan, Feng; Yang, Yang; Martinez-Chacin, Raquel C.; Pearce, Kenneth H.; Tateishi, Satoshi; Major, Michael B.; Vaziri, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    Trans-lesion synthesis (TLS) is an important DNA-damage tolerance mechanism that permits ongoing DNA synthesis in cells harbouring damaged genomes. The E3 ubiquitin ligase RAD18 activates TLS by promoting recruitment of Y-family DNA polymerases to sites of DNA-damage-induced replication fork stalling. Here we identify the cancer/testes antigen melanoma antigen-A4 (MAGE-A4) as a tumour cell-specific RAD18-binding partner and an activator of TLS. MAGE-A4 depletion from MAGE-A4-expressing cancer cells destabilizes RAD18. Conversely, ectopic expression of MAGE-A4 (in cell lines lacking endogenous MAGE-A4) promotes RAD18 stability. DNA-damage-induced mono-ubiquitination of the RAD18 substrate PCNA is attenuated by MAGE-A4 silencing. MAGE-A4-depleted cells fail to resume DNA synthesis normally following ultraviolet irradiation and accumulate γH2AX, thereby recapitulating major hallmarks of TLS deficiency. Taken together, these results demonstrate a mechanism by which reprogramming of ubiquitin signalling in cancer cells can influence DNA damage tolerance and probably contribute to an altered genomic landscape. PMID:27377895

  12. A neomorphic cancer cell-specific role of MAGE-A4 in trans-lesion synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanzhe; Mutter-Rottmayer, Elizabeth; Greenwalt, Alicia M; Goldfarb, Dennis; Yan, Feng; Yang, Yang; Martinez-Chacin, Raquel C; Pearce, Kenneth H; Tateishi, Satoshi; Major, Michael B; Vaziri, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    Trans-lesion synthesis (TLS) is an important DNA-damage tolerance mechanism that permits ongoing DNA synthesis in cells harbouring damaged genomes. The E3 ubiquitin ligase RAD18 activates TLS by promoting recruitment of Y-family DNA polymerases to sites of DNA-damage-induced replication fork stalling. Here we identify the cancer/testes antigen melanoma antigen-A4 (MAGE-A4) as a tumour cell-specific RAD18-binding partner and an activator of TLS. MAGE-A4 depletion from MAGE-A4-expressing cancer cells destabilizes RAD18. Conversely, ectopic expression of MAGE-A4 (in cell lines lacking endogenous MAGE-A4) promotes RAD18 stability. DNA-damage-induced mono-ubiquitination of the RAD18 substrate PCNA is attenuated by MAGE-A4 silencing. MAGE-A4-depleted cells fail to resume DNA synthesis normally following ultraviolet irradiation and accumulate γH2AX, thereby recapitulating major hallmarks of TLS deficiency. Taken together, these results demonstrate a mechanism by which reprogramming of ubiquitin signalling in cancer cells can influence DNA damage tolerance and probably contribute to an altered genomic landscape. PMID:27377895

  13. The tumor suppressor PTEN and the PDK1 kinase regulate formation of the columnar neural epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Grego-Bessa, Joaquim; Bloomekatz, Joshua; Castel, Pau; Omelchenko, Tatiana; Baselga, José; Anderson, Kathryn V

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis and stability are essential for normal development and organ homeostasis. The mouse neural plate is a cuboidal epithelium that remodels into a columnar pseudostratified epithelium over the course of 24 hr. Here we show that the transition to a columnar epithelium fails in mutant embryos that lack the tumor suppressor PTEN, although proliferation, patterning and apical-basal polarity markers are normal in the mutants. The Pten phenotype is mimicked by constitutive activation of PI3 kinase and is rescued by the removal of PDK1 (PDPK1), but does not depend on the downstream kinases AKT and mTORC1. High resolution imaging shows that PTEN is required for stabilization of planar cell packing in the neural plate and for the formation of stable apical-basal microtubule arrays. The data suggest that appropriate levels of membrane-associated PDPK1 are required for stabilization of apical junctions, which promotes cell elongation, during epithelial morphogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12034.001 PMID:26809587

  14. A novel stem cell associated marker identified by monoclonal antibody HESC5:3 differentiates between neoplastic lesions in follicular thyroid neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Annukka; Fermér, Christian; Hagström, Jaana; Louhimo, Johanna; Mäenpää, Hanna; Siironen, Päivi; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Nilsson, Olle; Arola, Johanna; Haglund, Caj

    2015-07-01

    Follicular thyroid lesions are the bane of cytopathology. Differentiation between adenoma and carcinoma is impossible, and often these neoplasms are indistinguishable even from uninodular goitre. In other cancers as well, a theory of stem cells as the origin of cancer has been discussed in thyroid carcinogenesis. We aimed to examine a novel stem cell associated marker identified by monoclonal antibody HESC5:3 in follicular lesions in an attempt to find a marker for differential diagnosis in thyroid cytopathology. HESC5:3 was raised against and is specific for undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells. The epitope of this novel antibody is to be defined. Immunohistochemical expression of HESC5:3 was examined in clinical material comprised of follicular neoplasms (83 adenomas, 43 carcinomas) and non-neoplastic lesions (41 goitrous, 22 hyperplastic, 23 normal tissue specimens). Staining differed significantly between neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. Nuclear staining was increased in non-neoplastic cells, whereas in neoplastic cells expression was mainly cytoplasmic. There was no difference between benign and malignant lesions, suggesting a role in early tumourigenesis. In conclusion, the HESC5:3 epitope may be of benefit as a neoplasia marker in distinguishing between uninodular goitre and neoplasia. Characterization of the epitope would increase the interest in this promising new stem cell associated marker. PMID:25960045

  15. DNA methylation in human papillomavirus-infected cervical cells is elevated in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ki-Heon; So, Kyeong A; Hong, Sung Ran; Hwang, Chang-Sun; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Rhee, Jee Eun; Kang, Chun; Hur, Soo Young; Park, Jong Sup

    2016-01-01

    Objective DNA methylation has been shown to be a potential biomarker for early cancer detection. The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA methylation profiles according to liquid-based Pap (LBP) test results and to assess their diagnostic value in a Korean population. Methods A total of 205 patients with various Papanicolaou test results were enrolled to this study (negative, 26; atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 39; low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 44; high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), 48; and cancer, 48). DNA methylation analysis of four genes, ADCYAP1, PAX1, MAL, and CADM1, was performed on residual cervical cells from LBP samples using a quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing method. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the four methylated genes for cancer detection, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn. Sensitivities and specificities were also tested at cutoffs determined from the ROC curves. Results Cervical cancer cells showed dramatically increased methylation levels for the four genes analyzed. ADCYAP1 and PAX1 also trended toward elevated methylation levels in HSIL samples, although the levels were much lower than those in cancer cells. The sensitivities of methylated ADCYAP1, PAX1, MAL, and CADM1 for the detection of cancer were 79.2%, 75.0%, 70.8%, and 52.1%, and the specificities were 92.0%, 94.0%, 94.7%, and 94.0%, respectively. Methylated ADCYAP1 and PAX1 demonstrated relatively better discriminatory ability than did methylated MAL and CADM1 (area under the curves 0.911 and 0.916 vs. 0.854 and 0.756, respectively). Conclusion DNA methylation status, especially in the ADCYAP1 and PAX1 genes, showed relatively good specificity, ranging from 90% to 94%. The possible additive and complementary roles of DNA methylation testing with respect to conventional cervical cancer screening programs will need to be validated in prospective population-based studies. PMID:26768780

  16. Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma: a lesion with activated mTOR pathway and constant expression of glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Caporalini, Chiara; Giordano, Flavio; Mussa, Federico; Scagnet, Mirko; Moscardi, Selene; Baroni, Gianna; Genitori, Lorenzo; Taddei, Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a rare tumor associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). TSC mainly involves the central nervous system (CNS) where SEGA, subependymal nodules, and cortical tubers may be present. First studies suggested the astrocytic nature of SEGA while successive studies demonstrated the mixed glio-neuronal nature. There are similarities between TSC-associated CNS lesions and type IIb focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). In all these pathologies, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway activation has been demonstrated. Recent data evidenced that balloon cells in FCD IIb express glutamine synthetase (GS). GS is involved in the clearance of glutamate. Cells expressing GS might exert an antiepileptic role. We evaluated by immunohistochemistry the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neurofilaments (NF), and GS expression and the mTOR status (mTOR and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6) in 16 SEGAs and 2 cortical tubers. Our purpose was to emphasize the mixed nature of SEGA and to further investigate the similarities between TSC-related CNS lesions (in particular SEGA) and FCD IIb. We confirm the glio-neuronal nature and the common activation of the mTOR pathway in SEGAs. In addition, we report for the first time that these tumors, analogously to FCD IIb, commonly express GS. Notably, the expression of mTOR, phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6, and GS was restricted to gemistocytic-like GFAP-negative cells. GS expression and mTOR pathway activation were also documented in cortical tubers. Further studies are necessary to understand the significance of GS expression in SEGAs as well as in cortical tubers. PMID:27390104

  17. NIAM-Deficient Mice Are Predisposed to the Development of Proliferative Lesions including B-Cell Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Sara M.; Hagen, Jussara; Muniz, Viviane P.; Rosean, Timothy R.; Borcherding, Nick; Sciegienka, Sebastian; Goeken, J. Adam; Naumann, Paul W.; Zhang, Weizhou; Tompkins, Van S.; Janz, Siegfried; Meyerholz, David K.; Quelle, Dawn E.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Interactor of ARF and Mdm2 (NIAM, gene designation Tbrg1) is a largely unstudied inhibitor of cell proliferation that helps maintain chromosomal stability. It is a novel activator of the ARF-Mdm2-Tip60-p53 tumor suppressor pathway as well as other undefined pathways important for genome maintenance. To examine its predicted role as a tumor suppressor, we generated NIAM mutant (NIAMm/m) mice homozygous for a β-galactosidase expressing gene-trap cassette in the endogenous gene. The mutant mice expressed significantly lower levels of NIAM protein in tissues compared to wild-type animals. Fifty percent of aged NIAM deficient mice (14 to 21 months) developed proliferative lesions, including a uterine hemangioma, pulmonary papillary adenoma, and a Harderian gland adenoma. No age-matched wild-type or NIAM+/m heterozygous animals developed lesions. In the spleen, NIAMm/m mice had prominent white pulp expansion which correlated with enhanced increased reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and evidence of systemic inflammation. Notably, 17% of NIAM mutant mice had splenic white pulp features indicating early B-cell lymphoma. This correlated with selective expansion of marginal zone B cells in the spleens of younger, tumor-free NIAM-deficient mice. Unexpectedly, basal p53 expression and activity was largely unaffected by NIAM loss in isolated splenic B cells. In sum, NIAM down-regulation in vivo results in a significant predisposition to developing benign tumors or early stage cancers. These mice represent an outstanding platform for dissecting NIAM's role in tumorigenesis and various anti-cancer pathways, including p53 signaling. PMID:25393878

  18. Insufficiency of Bone Scintigraphy in Vertebral Lesions of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Compared to F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Diagnostic Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Zehra Pınar; Şimşek, Selçuk; Akarsu, Saadet; Balcı, Tansel Ansal; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Kepenek, Ferat

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a benign disorder related to the histiocytes which can infiltrate bone tissue. The most effective method for demonstrating severity of this disease is PET/CT and bone scintigraphy might show bone lesions. We present a seventeen year old male patient with disseminated LCH presented with exophtalmos and having multiple vertebral lesions which were identified by F-18 FDG PET/CT scan and diagnostic CT but not in the bone scintigraphy. PMID:25800594

  19. Columnar grown copper films on polyimides strained beyond 100.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jeong-Yun; Lee, Hae-Ryung; Oh, Kyu Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Many flexible electronic devices contain metal films on polymer substrates to satisfy requirements for both electrical conductivity and mechanical durability. Despite numerous trials to date, the stretchability of metal interconnects remains an issue. In this paper, we have demonstrated a stretchable metal interconnect through control of the texture of a copper film with columnar grown grains on a polyimide (PI) substrate. The columnar grown copper films (CGC films) were deposited by regulating radio frequency (RF) sputtering powers. CGC films were able to sustain their electrical conductivity at strains above 100%. Instead of ultimate electrical discontinuity by channel crack propagation, CGC films maintained their conductivity by forming ligament structures, or a 'conductive net,' through trapped micro-cracks. XRD, AFM and in situ SEM analysis were used to investigate these stretchable conductors. PMID:26337668

  20. Columnar grown copper films on polyimides strained beyond 100%

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jeong-Yun; Lee, Hae-Ryung; Hwan Oh, Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Many flexible electronic devices contain metal films on polymer substrates to satisfy requirements for both electrical conductivity and mechanical durability. Despite numerous trials to date, the stretchability of metal interconnects remains an issue. In this paper, we have demonstrated a stretchable metal interconnect through control of the texture of a copper film with columnar grown grains on a polyimide (PI) substrate. The columnar grown copper films (CGC films) were deposited by regulating radio frequency (RF) sputtering powers. CGC films were able to sustain their electrical conductivity at strains above 100%. Instead of ultimate electrical discontinuity by channel crack propagation, CGC films maintained their conductivity by forming ligament structures, or a ‘conductive net,’ through trapped micro-cracks. XRD, AFM and in situ SEM analysis were used to investigate these stretchable conductors. PMID:26337668

  1. Columnar mesophases of hexabenzocoronene derivatives. II. Charge carrier mobility.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, James; Marcon, Valentina; Kremer, Kurt; Nelson, Jenny; Andrienko, Denis

    2008-09-01

    Combining atomistic molecular dynamic simulations, Marcus-Hush theory description of charge transport rates, and master equation description of charge dynamics, we correlate the temperature-driven change of the mesophase structure with the change of charge carrier mobilities in columnar phases of hexabenzocoronene derivatives. The time dependence of fluctuations in transfer integrals shows that static disorder is predominant in determining charge transport characteristics. Both site energies and transfer integrals are distributed because of disorder in the molecular arrangement. It is shown that the contributions to the site energies from polarization and electrostatic effects are of opposite sign for positive charges. We look at three mesophases of hexabenzocoronene: herringbone, discotic, and columnar disordered. All results are compared to time resolved microwave conductivity data and show excellent agreement with no fitting parameters. PMID:19044876

  2. Columnar grown copper films on polyimides strained beyond 100%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jeong-Yun; Lee, Hae-Ryung; Hwan Oh, Kyu

    2015-09-01

    Many flexible electronic devices contain metal films on polymer substrates to satisfy requirements for both electrical conductivity and mechanical durability. Despite numerous trials to date, the stretchability of metal interconnects remains an issue. In this paper, we have demonstrated a stretchable metal interconnect through control of the texture of a copper film with columnar grown grains on a polyimide (PI) substrate. The columnar grown copper films (CGC films) were deposited by regulating radio frequency (RF) sputtering powers. CGC films were able to sustain their electrical conductivity at strains above 100%. Instead of ultimate electrical discontinuity by channel crack propagation, CGC films maintained their conductivity by forming ligament structures, or a ‘conductive net,’ through trapped micro-cracks. XRD, AFM and in situ SEM analysis were used to investigate these stretchable conductors.

  3. Quantum depinning of flux lines from columnar defects

    SciTech Connect

    Chudnovsky, E.M. ); Ferrera, A.; Vilenkin, A. )

    1995-01-01

    The depinning of a flux line from a columnar defect is studied within the path-integral approach. Instantons of the quantum field theory in 1+1 dimensions are computed for the flux line whose dynamics is dominated by the Magnus force. The universal temperature dependence of the decay rate in the proximity of the critical current is obtained. This problem provides an example of macroscopic quantum tunneling, which is accessible to the direct comparison between theory and experiment.

  4. Form Birefringence in Thin Films with Oblique Columnar Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Guo; Shao, Jian-Da; Wang, Su-Mei; He, Hong-Bo; Fan, Zheng-Xiu

    2005-08-01

    Effective medium theory is useful for designing optical elements with form birefringent subwavelength structures. Thin films fabricated by oblique deposition are similar to the two-dimensional surface relief subwavelength gratings. We use the effective medium theory to calculate the anisotropic optical properties of the thin films with oblique columnar structures. The effective refractive indices and the directions are calculated from effective medium theory. It is shown that optical thin films with predetermined refractive indices and birefringence may be engineered.

  5. Tenosynovial giant cell tumor presenting as a parotid gland mass: Expanding the differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions in salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling; Qasem, Shadi; Bergman, Simon; Salih, Ziyan T

    2014-01-01

    Tenosynovial giant cell tumors (TGCT) are rare benign soft tissue tumors affecting mostly young adults. The most common affected sites include the knee, ankle, elbow, shoulder, and fingers. The temporomandibular joint is occasionally affected. Herein, we report a case of a 31-year-old Caucasian male who presented clinically with a parotid gland mass. The initial clinical and radiological work-up failed to reveal any involvement of the adjacent temporomandibular joint. Fine-needle aspiration revealed a cellular tumor composed of mononuclear and multinucleated giant cells with fibrosis and hemosiderin deposition. This was subsequently found to be a TGCT arising from the temporomandibular joint. Giant cell-rich lesions are uncommon in salivary glands. Herein, we describe the cytomorphology and clinico-radiographic features of this tumor with emphasis on the differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions presenting in salivary glands. Despite its rare occurrence, this entity should be considered when giant cells are prominent in specimens acquired from this location. PMID:25745294

  6. Involved-Lesion Radiation Therapy After Chemotherapy in Limited-Stage Head-and-Neck Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jeong Il; Nam, Heerim; Ahn, Yong Chan; Kim, Won Seog; Park, Keunchil; Kim, Seok Jin

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To report treatment outcomes after combined-modality therapy in patients with Stage I/II head-and-neck (HN) diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBL). Methods and Materials: Eighty-six eligible patients received sequential chemotherapy and involved-lesion radiation therapy from 1995 to 2006. After a median of four cycles of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) or rituximab-plus-CHOP chemotherapy, a median of 41.4 Gy was delivered to the known initial gross lesion with adequate margin (2 to 3 cm). Results: After a median follow-up of 57 months, eight treatment failures were observed: distant metastasis in 8 patients; and locoregional failure in 4 patients. Among the 4 patients with locoregional failure, 3 presented with in-field failures, and 1 both in-field and out-of-field failure (contralateral neck). Rates of overall survival (OS) and freedom from progression (FFP) at 10 years were 74.1% and 88.9%, respectively. There was no severe side effect except 1 patient with Grade 3 mucositis during and after completion of radiation therapy. Multivariate analyses showed that absence of B symptom (p = 0.022) and normal lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.017) were related to favorable OS, age >60 years (p = 0.033) was related to favorable FFP, and international prognostic index of 0 or 1 was related to favorable OS (p = 0.003) and FFP (p = 0.03). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that patients with Stage I/II HN DLBL did not need whole-neck irradiation. Involved-lesion radiation therapy might reduce radiation toxicity with favorable treatment results.

  7. Virulence of Flavobacterium columnare genomovars in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Evenhuis, Jason P; LaFrentz, Benjamin R

    2016-08-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease and is responsible for significant economic losses in aquaculture. F. columnare is a Gram-negative bacterium, and 5 genetic types or genomovars have been described based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S rRNA gene. Previous research has suggested that genomovar II isolates are more virulent than genomovar I isolates to multiple species of fish, including rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In addition, improved genotyping methods have shown that some isolates previously classified as genomovar I, and used in challenge experiments, were in fact genomovar III. Our objective was to confirm previous results with respect to genomovar II virulence, and to determine the susceptibility of rainbow trout to other genomovars. The virulence of 8 genomovar I, 4 genomovar II, 3 genomovar II-B, and 5 genomovar III isolates originating from various sources was determined through 3 independent challenges in rainbow trout using an immersion challenge model. Mean cumulative percent mortality (CPM) of ~49% for genomovar I isolates, ~1% for genomovar II, ~5% for the II-B isolates, and ~7% for the III isolates was observed. The inability of genomovar II isolates to produce mortalities in rainbow trout was unanticipated based on previous studies, but may be due to a number of factors including rainbow trout source and water chemistry. The source of fish and/or the presence of sub-optimal environment may influence the susceptibility of rainbow trout to different F. columnare genomovars. PMID:27503917

  8. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis interacts with dermal dendritic cells and keratinocytes in human skin and oral mucosa lesions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, Wellington Luiz; Pagliari, Carla; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Sotto, Mirian N

    2016-05-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic disease caused by the fungusParacoccidioides brasiliensisandParacoccidioides lutzii In PCM the skin and oral mucosa are often affected. Dendritic cells and keratinocytes of the integument play a role in innate and adaptive immune response against pathogens, due to their function as antigen presenting cells. Aiming to verify the interaction ofP. brasiliensiswith these cell populations, we studied 52 skin and 47 oral mucosa samples taken from patients with proven diagnosis of PCM. The biopsies were subjected to immunohistochemical and/or immunofluorescence staining with anti-factor XIIIa (marker of dermal dendrocytes), anti-CD207 (marker of mature Langerhans cells), anti-pan cytokeratins (AE1-AE3) and anti-P. brasiliensisantibodies. Analyses with confocal laser microscopy were also performed for better visualization of the interaction between keratinocytes and the fungi. In sum, 42% of oral mucosa samples displayed yeast forms in Factor XIIIa dermal dendrocytes cytoplasm. Langerhans cells in skin and oral mucosa samples did not show yeast cells in their cytoplasm. In sum, 54% of skin and 60% of mucosal samples displayed yeast cells in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes. The parasitism of keratinocytes may represent a possible mechanism of evasion of the fungus to local immune mechanisms. Factor XIIIa dendrocytes and keratinocytes may be acting as antigen-presenting cells to fulfill the probably impaired function of Langerhans cells in skin and oral mucosa of human PCM. PMID:26768374

  9. Plasma Membrane Lesions In Anthracycline-Resistant Tumor Cells Probed Using A Fluorescent Dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Thomas G.; Doroshow, James H.

    1989-06-01

    Human cancer cells selected for resistance to several structurally unrelated cytotoxic drugs are known to display plasma membrane alterations such as amplified levels of a variety of glycoproteins, modifications in lipid composition, alterations in membrane fluidity and increased cellular fragility to osmotic shock. We have studied the plasma membrane fluidity of HL60 human leukemia cells and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells that have been selected for acquired resistance against the cytocidal effects of the anthracycline anticancer drug Adriamycin. Fluidity measurements were accomplished by evaluating the fluorescence anisotropy of the plasma membrane specific probe trimethylamino-1,6-dipihenylhexatriene (TMA.DPH) bound to whole, living cells. TMA.DPH anisotropy values for MCF-7 sensitive and 12-fold resistant cells were 0.306 and 0.285, respectively, while anisotropy values for HL-60 sensitive and 80-fold resistant cells lines were 0.310 and 0.295, respectively. In all cases, cell viability exceeded 97% and anisotropy values were subject to a day-to-day uncertainty of +/-2%. Our results demonstrate that increased plasma membrane fluidity apparently accompanies the development of resistance in both cell lines. Because it is known that increased membrane fluidity results in significantly decreased Adriamycin binding in artificial membrane systems, we propose here that decreased drug associations with fluidized, plasma membrane lipid bilayer regions may be a mechanism which contributes, in part, to the reduced rates of drug accumulation observed in HL60 and MCF-7 cells resistant to Adriamycin.

  10. Astilbin inhibits Th17 cell differentiation and ameliorates imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice via Jak3/Stat3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Di, Ting-Ting; Ruan, Zhi-Tong; Zhao, Jing-Xia; Wang, Yan; Liu, Xin; Wang, Ying; Li, Ping

    2016-03-01

    The flavonoid astilbin is the major active component extracted from the rhizome of Smilax glabra, which has been widely used in China to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory disease in which T helper 17 (Th17) cells play an important role, provoking inflammation. We employed an imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mouse model to investigate the effect of astilbin in inflammation. Mice were administered 25 to 50mg/kg astilbin. Inflammation of psoriasis-like lesions was assessed by histology, circulating levels of T cells were assessed by flow cytometry and cytokines by bead-based immunoassay. Jak/Stat3 in isolated T cells was assessed by Western blotting and RORγt expression was assessed by RT-PCR. Administration of astilbin ameliorated IMQ-induced keratinocyte proliferation, infiltration of CD3+ cells to psoriatic lesions and ameliorated elevations in circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and inflammatory cytokines (IL-17A, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-2). In vitro, astilbin inhibited Th17 cell differentiation and IL-17 secretion of isolated T cells, and inhibited Jak/Stat3 signaling in Th17 cells, while up-regulating Stat3 inhibitor SCOSE3 expression in psoriatic lesions. Thus, astilbin likely alleviates psoriasis-like skin lesions by inhibiting Th17 related inflammation. Astilbin represents as an interesting candidate drug for immunoregulation of psoriasis. PMID:26784569

  11. Expression and adhesive ability of gicerin, a cell adhesion molecule, in the pock lesions of chorioallantoic membranes infected with an avian poxvirus.

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Y; Kotani, T; Hiroi, S; Egawa, M; Ogawa, K; Sasaki, F; Taira, E

    2001-01-01

    The expression and adhesive activities of gicerin, a cell adhesion protein, in the pock lesions on chicken chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) infected with an avian poxvirus were studied. In normal CAMs, gicerin was found on the flattened epithelial cells, and neurite outgrowth factor (NOF) was in the basement membrane. However, in the pock lesions on infected CAMs, gicerin was overexpressed on the cell membranes of hyperplastic epithelial cells forming thick epithelial layers. Neurite outgrowth factor was also found mainly in the basement membrane, but occasionally showed aberrant expression among hyperplastic cells. In vitro analyses, using the dissociated cells from pock lesions, demonstrated that an anti-gicerin polyclonal antibody inhibit cell aggregation activity and cell adhesion to NOF. These results suggest that gicerin might promote the cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix protein bindings of the hyperplastic epithelial cells by its homophilic and heterophilic adhesive activities, and contribute to pock formation on the infected CAMs. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 5. PMID:11768132

  12. Proliferation of protease-enriched mast cells in sarcoptic skin lesions of raccoon dogs.

    PubMed

    Noviana, D; W Harjanti, D; Otsuka, Y; Horii, Y

    2004-07-01

    Skin sites, tongue, lung, liver, jejunum and rectum from two raccoon dogs with Sarcoptes scabiei infestation and five normal (control) raccoon dogs were examined in terms of the distribution, proteoglycan properties and protease activity of mast cells. Infestation with S. scabiei caused a significant increase in the number of dermal mast cells. While the number of mast cells (average +/- standard deviation) in specimens of skin from the dorsum, dorsal neck, dorsal hind foot and dorsal fore foot was 40.0 +/- 19.8/mm2 in control animals, it was 236.1 +/- 58.9/mm2 in the skin of mange-infested animals. Histochemical analysis revealed the glycosaminoglycan, heparin, within the mast cells of all organs examined in both control and affected animals. Enzyme-histochemical detection of serine proteases demonstrated an increase in mast-cell-specific protease activity (i.e., chymase and tryptase) in the skin of infested animals. The percentage of mast cells demonstrating chymase activity was 53.0 +/- 27.4% in control animals and 73.8 +/- 19.4% in mite-infested animals. The corresponding results for tryptase activity were 53.5 +/- 25.2% and 89.4 +/- 9.8%. Increases in mast cell chymase or tryptase activity, or both, were also observed within other organs of the infected animals, but the total number of mast cells found at such sites (with the exception of liver and ventrolateral pinna) did not differ from those of control animals. PMID:15144797

  13. Radiologically guided fine needle lung biopsies in the evaluation of focal pulmonary lesions in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, E; Piilonen, A; Volin, L; Ruutu, P; Parkkali, T; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Ruutu, T

    2002-02-01

    Lung problems are common in allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients. To evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic yield of radiologically guided fine needle lung biopsy (FNLB) in allogeneic SCT recipients with focal pulmonary lesions, a retrospective analysis was carried out. Between 1989 and 1998, radiologists performed a total of 30 FNLBs in 21 allogeneic SCT recipients, guided either by ultrasound (n = 17) or computed tomography (n = 13). The median time from SCT to the first FNLB was 131 days (20-343 days). Prophylactic platelet transfusions were given in 19 procedures (66%). The complications of FNLB included clinically insignificant pneumothorax in four procedures (13%) and self-limiting haemoptysis in one case (3%). The first FNLB was suggestive of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in five patients (24%). Additional clinically useful findings of FNLB included Pseudomonas (two patients) and Nocardia (one patient). The final diagnosis of pulmonary lesions was IPA in 14 patients, immunological lung problems in four patients and other in three patients. Radiologically guided FNLB is feasible in allogeneic SCT recipients and has a low complication rate. The diagnostic yield is high especially for IPA. PMID:11896433

  14. Detection of oral squamous-cell cancer and precancerous lesions by fluorescence imaging in a hamster cheek-pouch model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Stephen; Kluftinger, A. M.; Hung, J.; Davis, N. L.; Quenville, N. F.; Palcic, Branko

    1993-03-01

    The role of non-skin phototoxic dose of Photofrin in the detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ was assessed in a small animal model of oral squamous cell cancer (SCC). Nine,10-dimethyl 1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) impregnated cotton sutures, covered with a silicone sheath, were sewn into the hamster cheek pouch to produce dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive cancer. The yield of SCC was 83% by 20 weeks. Fluorescence imaging was performed using a specially designed device that exploits differences of fluorescence properties of normal, precancerous, and cancerous tissues with and without Photofrin. The fluorescence was induced by a helium-cadmium laser (442 nm) and then measured at two different wavelengths by an image intensified camera. Computed images using a mathematical transformation of fluorescence data were then displayed on a video monitor. Areas with dysplasia and both in situ and invasive cancers could be clearly delineated from the adjacent normal tissues. Lesions as small as 2 mm in diameter could be identified. Because of the presence of endogenous porphyrins, the addition of a non-skin phototoxic dose of Photofrin (0.25 mg/kg iv) did not enhance the signal to noise ratio. Our results suggest that fluorescence imaging can accurately detect both precancerous and cancerous lesions in the oral mucosa without exogenous porphyrins. It may have an important role as a non-invasive, clinical diagnostic tool in oropharyngeal cancer.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Evaluation of Multiple Myeloma at 3.0 Tesla: How Do Bone Marrow Plasma Cell Percentage and Selection of Protocols Affect Lesion Conspicuity?

    PubMed Central

    Takasu, Miyuki; Tamura, Takayuki; Kaichi, Yoko; Tanitame, Keizo; Akiyama, Yuji; Date, Shuji; Sakai, Akira; Kuroda, Yoshiaki; Awai, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare various pulse sequences in terms of percent contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for detection of focal multiple myeloma lesions and to assess the dependence of lesion conspicuity on the bone marrow plasma cell percent (BMPC%). Materials and Methods Sagittal T1-weighted FSE, fat-suppressed T2-weighted FSE (FS- T2 FSE), fast STIR and iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) imaging of the lumbar spine were performed (n = 45). Bone marrow (BM)-focal myeloma lesion percent contrast and CNR were calculated. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were obtained between percent contrast, CNR and BMPC%. Percent contrasts and CNRs were compared among the three imaging sequences. Results BM-focal lesion percent contrasts, CNRs and BMPC% showed significant negative correlations in the three fat-suppression techniques. Percent contrast and CNRs were significantly higher for FS- T2 FSE than for STIR (P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively), but no significant differences were found among the three fat-suppression methods in the low tumor load BM group. Conclusion The higher BMPC% was within BM, the less conspicuous the focal lesion was on fat-suppressed MRI. The most effective protocol for detecting focal lesions was FS- T2 FSE. In the high tumor load BM group, no significant differences in lesion conspicuity were identified among the three fat-suppression techniques. PMID:24489680

  16. Columnar Processing in Primate pFC: Evidence for Executive Control Microcircuits

    PubMed Central

    Opris, Ioan; Hampson, Robert E.; Gerhardt, Greg A.; Berger, Theodore W.; Deadwyler, Sam A.

    2013-01-01

    A common denominator for many cognitive disorders of human brain is the disruption of neural activity within pFC, whose structural basis is primarily interlaminar (columnar) microcircuits or “mini-columns.” The importance of this brain region for executive decision-making has been well documented; however, because of technological constraints, the minicolumnar basis is not well understood. Here, via implementation of a unique conformal multielectrode recording array, the role of interlaminar pFC minicolumns in the executive control of task-related target selection is demonstrated in nonhuman primates performing a visuomotor DMS task. The results reveal target-specific, interlaminar correlated firing during the decision phase of the trial between multielectrode recording array-isolated minicolumnar pairs of neurons located in parallel in layers 2/3 and layer 5 of pFC. The functional significance of individual pFC minicolumns (separated by 40 μm) was shown by reduced correlated firing between cell pairs within single minicolumns on error trials with inappropriate target selection. To further demonstrate dependence on performance, a task-disrupting drug (cocaine) was administered in the middle of the session, which also reduced interlaminar firing in minicolumns that fired appropriately in the early (nondrug) portion of the session. The results provide a direct demonstration of task-specific, real-time columnar processing in pFC indicating the role of this type of microcircuit in executive control of decision-making in primate brain. PMID:23016850

  17. Columnar processing in primate pFC: evidence for executive control microcircuits.

    PubMed

    Opris, Ioan; Hampson, Robert E; Gerhardt, Greg A; Berger, Theodore W; Deadwyler, Sam A

    2012-12-01

    A common denominator for many cognitive disorders of human brain is the disruption of neural activity within pFC, whose structural basis is primarily interlaminar (columnar) microcircuits or "minicolumns." The importance of this brain region for executive decision-making has been well documented; however, because of technological constraints, the minicolumnar basis is not well understood. Here, via implementation of a unique conformal multielectrode recording array, the role of interlaminar pFC minicolumns in the executive control of task-related target selection is demonstrated in nonhuman primates performing a visuomotor DMS task. The results reveal target-specific, interlaminar correlated firing during the decision phase of the trial between multielectrode recording array-isolated minicolumnar pairs of neurons located in parallel in layers 2/3 and layer 5 of pFC. The functional significance of individual pFC minicolumns (separated by 40 μm) was shown by reduced correlated firing between cell pairs within single minicolumns on error trials with inappropriate target selection. To further demonstrate dependence on performance, a task-disrupting drug (cocaine) was administered in the middle of the session, which also reduced interlaminar firing in minicolumns that fired appropriately in the early (nondrug) portion of the session. The results provide a direct demonstration of task-specific, real-time columnar processing in pFC indicating the role of this type of microcircuit in executive control of decision-making in primate brain. PMID:23016850

  18. Topology of ON and OFF inputs in visual cortex enables an invariant columnar architecture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Sheng; Huang, Xiaoying; Fitzpatrick, David

    2016-05-01

    Circuits in the visual cortex integrate the information derived from separate ON (light-responsive) and OFF (dark-responsive) pathways to construct orderly columnar representations of stimulus orientation and visual space. How this transformation is achieved to meet the specific topographic constraints of each representation remains unclear. Here we report several novel features of ON-OFF convergence visualized by mapping the receptive fields of layer 2/3 neurons in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) visual cortex using two-photon imaging of GCaMP6 calcium signals. We show that the spatially separate ON and OFF subfields of simple cells in layer 2/3 exhibit topologically distinct relationships with the maps of visual space and orientation preference. The centres of OFF subfields for neurons in a given region of cortex are confined to a compact region of visual space and display a smooth visuotopic progression. By contrast, the centres of the ON subfields are distributed over a wider region of visual space, display substantial visuotopic scatter, and have an orientation-specific displacement consistent with orientation preference map structure. As a result, cortical columns exhibit an invariant aggregate receptive field structure: an OFF-dominated central region flanked by ON-dominated subfields. This distinct arrangement of ON and OFF inputs enables continuity in the mapping of both orientation and visual space and the generation of a columnar map of absolute spatial phase. PMID:27120162

  19. Assessment of regeneration in meniscal lesions by use of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine bone marrow and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Maria L; Pérez-Castrillo, Saúl; Sánchez-Lázaro, Jaime A; Prieto-Fernández, Julio G; López-González, Maria E; Lobato-Pérez, Sandra; Colaço, Bruno J; Olivera, Elías R; Villar-Suárez, Vega

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the ability to regenerate an equine meniscus by use of a collagen repair patch (scaffold) seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (BM) or adipose tissue (AT). SAMPLE 6 female Hispano-Breton horses between 4 and 7 years of age; MSCs from BM and AT were obtained for the in vitro experiment, and the horses were subsequently used for the in vivo experiment. PROCEDURES Similarities and differences between MSCs derived from BM or AT were investigated in vitro by use of cell culture. In vivo assessment involved use of a meniscus defect and implantation on a scaffold. Horses were allocated into 2 groups. In one group, defects in the medial meniscus were treated with MSCs derived from BM, whereas in the other group, defects were treated with MSCs derived from AT. Defects were created in the contralateral stifle joint but were not treated (control samples). RESULTS Both types of MSCs had universal stem cell characteristics. For in vivo testing, at 12 months after treatment, treated defects were regenerated with fibrocartilaginous tissue, whereas untreated defects were partially repaired or not repaired. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that MSCs derived from AT could be a good alternative to MSCs derived from BM for use in regenerative treatments. Results also were promising for a stem cell-based implant for use in regeneration in meniscal lesions. IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE Because of similarities in joint disease between horses and humans, these results could have applications in humans. PMID:27347833

  20. Gonadal mixed germ cell tumor combined with a large hemangiomatous lesion in a patient with Turner's syndrome and 45,X/46,X, +mar karyotype.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y; Sasaki, Y; Tachibana, K; Maesaka, H; Imaizumi, K; Nishihira, H; Nishi, T

    1994-11-01

    In this report, we describe bilateral gonadal tumors with characteristic histopathological findings in a patient with Turner's syndrome who had 45,X/46,X, +mar mosaicism. The left gonad contained a gonadoblastoma and a remnant of streak gonad. The right gonad was entirely replaced by a 15x11x7-cm solid and cystic tumor, which was revealed to be a combination of a mixed germ cell tumor and a cavernous hemangiomatous lesion. The latter occupied approximately half of the entire tumor volume, and there was an incomplete boundary between it and the mixed germ cell tumor lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Turner's syndrome with a combination of a mixed germ cell tumor and a hemangiomatous lesion in the gonad. PMID:7979900

  1. Differences among lesions with exon 19, exon 21 EGFR mutations and wild types in surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ying; Chen, Ming; Yu, Xinmin

    2016-01-01

    The clinical behavior of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) differ between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 deletion (Ex19) and EGFR exon 21 L858R mutation (Ex21). This study aimed to evaluate whether these differences exist in surgically resected NSCLC. A total of 198 patients with surgically resected NSCLC harbouring Ex19 (n = 53), Ex21 (n = 51), and EGFR wild-type (Wt) (n = 94) were analyzed. The clinicopathological features, laboratory parameters, recurrent sites and disease-free survival (DFS) were compared according to mutational EGFR status. Ex21 occurred more frequently in female (p < 0.001), never-smokers (p < 0.001), adenocarcinoma (p < 0.001), low grade (p = 0.013) than Wt lesions. Ex19 occurred more frequently in female (p = 0.016), never-smokers (p = 0.008), adenocarcinoma (p < 0.001), low grade (p = 0.025) than Wt lesions. Ex 21 lesions (p = 0.026) had larger lepidic components than Wt lesions. Wt lesions had larger mucinous variant components than Ex21 lesions (p = 0.045) and Ex19 lesions (p = 0.015). Ex21 lesions were associated with lower pretreatment neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio (NLR) than Wt lesions (p = 0.017). The recurrent sites and DFS were similar among patients with Wt, Ex19 and Ex21. PMID:27527915

  2. Epstein–Barr Virus-Positive T/NK-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorders Manifested as Gastrointestinal Perforations and Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hai-Juan; Li, Ji; Song, Hong-Mei; Li, Zheng-Hong; Dong, Mei; Zhou, Xiao-Ge

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Systemic Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) of childhood is a highly aggressive EBV-positive T/natural killer (NK)-cell LPD, which emerges in the background of chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) or shortly after primary acute EBV infection. The clinical presentations of CAEBV are varied; patients with atypical manifestations are easily misdiagnosed. We described a 14-year-old boy suffering from digestive disorders and intermittent fever for 1 year and 9 months, whose conditions worsened and skin lesions occurred 2 months before hospitalization. He was diagnosed as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and treated accordingly. His other clinical features, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated inflammatory marks, were found in hospitalization. The boy suffered from repeatedly spontaneous intestinal perforations shortly after hospitalization and died of intestinal hemorrhea. The pathological results of intestine and skin both showed EBV-positive T/NK-cell LPD (lymphoma stage). There are rare studies reporting gastrointestinal perforations in EBV-positive T/NK-cell LPD, let alone repeatedly spontaneous perforations. Based on the clinical features and pathological results of this patient, the disease progressed from CAEBV (T-cell type) to systemic EBV-positive T-cell LPD of childhood (lymphoma). Not all the patients with CAEBV could have unusual patterns of anti-EBV antibodies. However, the presence of high EBV loads (EBV-encoded early small ribonucleic acid (RNA) (EBER) in affected tissues and/or EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in peripheral blood) is essential for diagnosing CAEBV. Maybe because of his less common clinical features for CAEBV and negative anti-EBV antibodies, the boy was not diagnosed correctly. We should have emphasized the test for EBER or EBV-DNA. Meanwhile, for the IBD patients whose manifestations were not typical, and whose conditions were not improved by

  3. FoxP3+ regulatory T cells suppress early stages of granuloma formation but have little impact on sarcoidosis lesions.

    PubMed

    Taflin, Cécile; Miyara, Makoto; Nochy, Dominique; Valeyre, Dominique; Naccache, Jean-Marc; Altare, Frédéric; Salek-Peyron, Pascale; Badoual, Cécile; Bruneval, Patrick; Haroche, Julien; Mathian, Alexis; Amoura, Zahir; Hill, Gary; Gorochov, Guy

    2009-02-01

    Sarcoidosis is characterized by a disproportionate Th1 granulomatous immune response in involved organs. It is also associated with both peripheral and intratissular regulatory T cell (Treg) expansion. These cells exhibit powerful antiproliferative activity, yet do not completely inhibit the production of either tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interferon-gamma. The origin of the observed Treg amplification and, more importantly, its impact on the evolution of sarcoidosis remain unresolved issues. Here, we show that CD4(+)CD45RA(-)FoxP3(bright) Tregs proliferate and accumulate within granulomas. However, circulating and tissue Treg numbers are neither correlated with the dissemination of the disease nor correlated locally with the extent of granulomatous inflammation. Rather, we found a positive correlation between the presence of Tregs in renal granulomas and the degree of interstitial fibrosis (r = 0.46, P = 0.03, n = 20). Furthermore, Treg depletion accelerates in vitro granuloma growth in mononuclear cell cultures of healthy controls, but not in those from patients with active sarcoidosis. The results of this study show that although healthy Tregs suppress the initial steps of granuloma formation, they have no positive influence on sarcoidosis lesions. Our findings argue for a more preventive than curative effect of Tregs on inflammatory processes. PMID:19147826

  4. Loss of Reelin protects against atherosclerosis by reducing leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and lesion macrophage accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yinyuan; Huang, Linzhang; Xian, Xunde; Yuhanna, Ivan S; Wasser, Catherine R; Frotscher, Michael; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W; Herz, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The multimodular glycoprotein Reelin controls neuronal migration and synaptic transmission by binding to apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (Apoer2) and very low density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr) on neurons. In the periphery, Reelin is produced by the liver, circulates in blood, and promotes thrombosis and hemostasis. To investigate if Reelin influences atherogenesis, we studied atherosclerosis-prone low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice in which we inducibly deleted Reelin either ubiquitously or only in the liver, thus preventing the production of circulating Reelin. In both types of Reelin-deficient mice, atherosclerosis progression was markedly attenuated, and macrophage content and endothelial cell staining for vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were reduced at the sites of atherosclerotic lesions. Intravital microscopy revealed decreased leukocyte-endothelial adhesion in the Reelin-deficient mice. In cultured human endothelial cells, Reelin enhanced monocyte adhesion and increased ICAM1, VCAM1, and E-selectin expression by suppressing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and increasing nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity in an Apoer2-dependent manner. These findings suggest that circulating Reelin promotes atherosclerosis by increasing vascular inflammation, and that reducing or inhibiting circulating Reelin may present a novel approach for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26980442

  5. Construction of two selectable markers for integrative/conjugative plasmids in Flavobacterium columnare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Zou, Hong; Wang, Liangfa; Huang, Bei; Li, Nan; Wang, Guitang; Nie, Pin

    2012-03-01

    Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agent of columnaris disease, is one of the most important and widespread bacterial pathogens of freshwater fish. In this study, we constructed two artificial selectable markers (chloramphenicol and spectinomycin resistance) for gene transfer in F. columnare. These two new artificial selectable markers, which were created by placing the chloramphenicol or spectinomycin resistance gene under the control of the native acs regulatory region of F. columnare, were functional in both F. columnare and Escherichia coli. The integrative/conjugative plasmids constructed by using these markers were introduced into F. columnare G4 via electroporation or conjugation. The integrated plasmid DNA was confirmed by Southern blotting and PCR analysis. These two markers can be employed in future investigations into gene deletion and the pathogenicity of virulence factors in F. columnare.

  6. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma presenting as periodontal lesion in the mandibular posterior region

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Renu; Debnath, Nitai; Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Gingival squamous cell carcinoma (GSCC) is a relatively rare malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. It represents less than 10% of diagnosed intraoral carcinoma. Because of its close proximity to the teeth and periodontium, the tumour can mimic tooth-related benign inflammatory conditions. This case report describes a patient diagnosed with GSCC presenting as localised periodontitis. PMID:25139914

  7. Unravelling columnar joints temperatures: a thermo-mechanical experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallée, Yan; Lamur, Anthony; Iddon, Fiona E.; Kendrick, Jackie E.; Hornby, Adrian J.; Eggertson, Gudjon H.; Von Aulock, Felix W.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.

    2016-04-01

    Columnar joints are a widespread, spectacular volcanic phenomenon representing a complex cracking pattern induced by contraction of the lava upon cooling. The hexagonal geometry results from the complex interaction between heat dissipation, contraction and tensile fracturing of the material. While the formation mechanism is nowadays fairly well constrained, very little is known on the temperature at which these features form. Here, we present the results of a novel type of thermo-mechanical experiment, in which the ends of 16 mm rods of basalt were locked into position during cooling at different rates. We monitored the stress build-up and temperature within the samples in order to constrain the temperature of columnar jointing. Our experiments were applied to basaltic rocks sampled on a lava flow at the base of Eyjafjallajoküll volcano in Iceland. Results demonstrate that thermal contraction upon cooling triggers microscopic fracturing (at ~820 °C) that quickly evolves into localised macroscopic fracturing at 750-780 °C. Striaes observed along fracture planes can hence be interpreted as the reflection of this two-stage fracture propagation dynamics. We emphasize that columnar jointing occurs well within the solid state of volcanic rocks, not in a molten regime. These results are supported by complementary analysis of the expansion coefficient of these lavas as well as strain-to-failure acquired during Brazilian tensile tests. The nonlinearity of the coefficient of expansion has important implications for the development of a permeable network. At higher temperatures, micro-fracturing is caused by a quasi-linear coefficient of expansion, leading to a small increase in permeability. As cooling occurs, the coefficient of expansion drops increasingly rapidly, leading to an increasingly faster developing permeable network, which is controlled in-part by the scale of the columns that influences crack aperture opening. Our findings hence have implications in volcanic

  8. Waves on a columnar vortex in a strongly stratified fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billant, Paul; Le Dizès, Stéphane

    2009-10-01

    This paper investigates the discrete bounded waves sustained by a vertical columnar Rankine vortex in a strongly stratified fluid. We show that these waves are very different from their well-known counterpart in homogeneous fluid (Kelvin vortex waves); they exist only for nonzero azimuthal wavenumber m, their frequency lies in the interval [0,mΩ] (Ω is the angular velocity in the vortex core) and they are unstable because of an outward radiation from the vortex. The instability mechanism is explained in terms of an over-reflection phenomenon by means of a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin-Jeffreys analysis for large axial wavenumber.

  9. Architecture of Columnar Nacre, and Implications for Its Formation Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzler, Rebecca A.; Abrecht, Mike; Olabisi, Ronke M.; Ariosa, Daniel; Johnson, Christopher J.; Frazer, Bradley H.; Coppersmith, Susan N.; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.

    2007-06-01

    We analyze the structure of Haliotis rufescens nacre, or mother-of-pearl, using synchrotron spectromicroscopy and x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. We observe imaging contrast between adjacent individual nacre tablets, arising because different tablets have different crystal orientations with respect to the radiation’s polarization vector. Comparing previous data and our new data with models for columnar nacre growth, we find the data are most consistent with a model in which nacre tablets are nucleated by randomly distributed sites in the organic matrix layers.

  10. Architecture of columnar nacre, and implications for its formation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Rebecca A; Abrecht, Mike; Olabisi, Ronke M; Ariosa, Daniel; Johnson, Christopher J; Frazer, Bradley H; Coppersmith, Susan N; Gilbert, P U P A

    2007-06-29

    We analyze the structure of Haliotis rufescens nacre, or mother-of-pearl, using synchrotron spectromicroscopy and x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. We observe imaging contrast between adjacent individual nacre tablets, arising because different tablets have different crystal orientations with respect to the radiation's polarization vector. Comparing previous data and our new data with models for columnar nacre growth, we find the data are most consistent with a model in which nacre tablets are nucleated by randomly distributed sites in the organic matrix layers. PMID:17678131

  11. Architecture of Columnar Nacre, and Implications for Its Formation Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Metzler, Rebecca A.; Olabisi, Ronke M.; Coppersmith, Susan N.; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Abrecht, Mike; Frazer, Bradley H.; Ariosa, Daniel; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2007-06-29

    We analyze the structure of Haliotis rufescens nacre, or mother-of-pearl, using synchrotron spectromicroscopy and x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. We observe imaging contrast between adjacent individual nacre tablets, arising because different tablets have different crystal orientations with respect to the radiation's polarization vector. Comparing previous data and our new data with models for columnar nacre growth, we find the data are most consistent with a model in which nacre tablets are nucleated by randomly distributed sites in the organic matrix layers.

  12. Genomic profiling of acquired resistance to apoptosis in cells derived from human atherosclerotic lesions: potential role of STATs, cyclinD1, BAD, and Bcl-XL.

    PubMed

    Gagarin, Dmitry; Yang, Zhaoqing; Butler, Jason; Wimmer, Monika; Du, Baoheng; Cahan, Patrick; McCaffrey, Timothy A

    2005-09-01

    Current theories suggest that atherosclerosis, plaque rupture, stroke, and restenosis after angioplasty may involve defective apoptotic mechanisms in vascular cells. Prior work has demonstrated that cells from human atherosclerotic lesions, and cells from the aorta of aged rats, exhibit functional resistance to apoptosis induced by TGF-beta and glucocorticoids. The present studies demonstrate that human lesion-derived cells (LDC) are also resistant to apoptosis induced by fas ligation compared to cells derived from the adjacent media, and that in vitro expansion of LDC causes acquired resistance to apoptosis. Microarray profiling of fas-resistant versus sensitive cells identified a set of genes including STATs, caspase 1, cyclin D1, Bcl-xL, VDAC2, and BAD. The STAT proteins have been implicated in resistance to apoptosis, potentially via their ability to modulate caspase 1 (ICE), Bcl-xL, and cyclin D1 expression. Western blot analysis of sensitive and resistant LDC clonal lines confirmed increases in cyclin D1, STAT6, Bcl-xL, and BAD, with decreased expression of caspase 1. Thus, transcript profiling has identified a potential pathway of apoptotic regulation in subsets of lesion cells. The resistant phenotype may contribute to plaque stability and excessive vascular repair, while sensitive cells may be involved in plaque rupture and infarction. The data suggests both genetic interventions and novel small-molecule inhibitors that may be effective modulators of apoptosis in atherosclerosis, angina, and in-stent restenosis. PMID:16005468

  13. Expression of gelatinase B and the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer EMMPRIN in benign and malignant pigment cell lesions of the skin.

    PubMed Central

    van den Oord, J. J.; Paemen, L.; Opdenakker, G.; de Wolf-Peeters, C.

    1997-01-01

    By the degradative effect on basement membrane collagen type IV, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or gelatinases are important in the early invasion of malignant tumors. These enzymes may be released by the tumor cells themselves or may be derived from nearby fibroblasts that have been stimulated by the extracellular MMP inducer EMMPRIN. We studied the distribution of 92-kd gelatinase B (MMP-9) and of EMMPRIN in 33 benign and 41 malignant, paraffin-embedded pigment cell lesions using immunohistochemistry and monoclonal antibodies. In benign pigment cell lesions, EMMPRIN but not gelatinase B was expressed in cellular blue nevi whereas all other benign lesions, including common blue nevi, were negative. In malignant melanomas (MMs), both gelatinase B and EMMPRIN were variably expressed in the pure and invasive radial growth phase but not in the vertical growth phase. All lentigo maligna cases and all metastatic lesions were negative. Of MMs with thickness < 1.6 mm, 63% expressed gelatinase B and 70% expressed EMMPRIN, whereas in MMs with > 1.6 mm thickness, only 10% expressed gelatinase B and only 25% expressed EMMPRIN. We conclude that early invasion of MM is associated with de novo expression of gelatinase B and EMMPRIN by neoplastic melanocytes. Expression of EMMPRIN and MMP-9 may be partly responsible for the stromal changes observed in thin MM. Their absence in the vertical growth phase and in metastatic lesions suggests that other factors are involved in tissue degradation during later stages of tumor progression in MM. The lack of both gelatinase B and EMMPRIN in lentigo maligna may contribute to the indolent behavior of this type of pigment cell lesion. Images Figure 1 PMID:9284814

  14. CD19+ B cell subsets in the peripheral blood and skin lesions of psoriasis patients and their correlations with disease severity.

    PubMed

    Lu, J; Ding, Y; Yi, X; Zheng, J

    2016-01-01

    T lymphocytes are important in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, and increasing evidence indicates that B cells also play an important role. The mechanisms of action, however, remain unclear. We evaluated the ratios of CD19+ B cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 157 patients with psoriasis (65 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, 32 patients with erythrodermic psoriasis, 30 patients with arthropathic psoriasis, and 30 patients with pustular psoriasis) and 35 healthy controls (HCs). Ratios of CD19+ B cells in skin lesions were compared with non-lesions in 7 erythrodermic psoriasis patients. The Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) was used to measure disease severity. CD19+ B cell ratios in PBMCs from psoriasis vulgaris (at both the active and stationary stage) and arthropathic psoriasis patients were higher compared with HCs (P<0.01), but ratios were lower in erythrodermic and pustular psoriasis patients (P<0.01). CD19+ B cell ratios in erythrodermic psoriasis skin lesions were higher than in non-lesion areas (P<0.001). Different subsets of CD19+CD40+, CD19+CD44+, CD19+CD80+, CD19+CD86+, CD19+CD11b+, and CD19+HLA-DR+ B cells in PBMCs were observed in different psoriasis clinical subtypes. PASI scores were positively correlated with CD19+ B cell ratios in psoriasis vulgaris and arthropathic psoriasis cases (r=0.871 and r=0.692, respectively, P<0.01), but were negatively correlated in pustular psoriasis (r=-0.569, P<0.01). The results indicated that similar to T cells, B cells activation may also play important roles in different pathological stages of psoriasis. PMID:27532281

  15. CD19+ B cell subsets in the peripheral blood and skin lesions of psoriasis patients and their correlations with disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, J.; Ding, Y.; Yi, X.; Zheng, J.

    2016-01-01

    T lymphocytes are important in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, and increasing evidence indicates that B cells also play an important role. The mechanisms of action, however, remain unclear. We evaluated the ratios of CD19+ B cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 157 patients with psoriasis (65 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, 32 patients with erythrodermic psoriasis, 30 patients with arthropathic psoriasis, and 30 patients with pustular psoriasis) and 35 healthy controls (HCs). Ratios of CD19+ B cells in skin lesions were compared with non-lesions in 7 erythrodermic psoriasis patients. The Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) was used to measure disease severity. CD19+ B cell ratios in PBMCs from psoriasis vulgaris (at both the active and stationary stage) and arthropathic psoriasis patients were higher compared with HCs (P<0.01), but ratios were lower in erythrodermic and pustular psoriasis patients (P<0.01). CD19+ B cell ratios in erythrodermic psoriasis skin lesions were higher than in non-lesion areas (P<0.001). Different subsets of CD19+CD40+, CD19+CD44+, CD19+CD80+, CD19+CD86+, CD19+CD11b+, and CD19+HLA-DR+ B cells in PBMCs were observed in different psoriasis clinical subtypes. PASI scores were positively correlated with CD19+ B cell ratios in psoriasis vulgaris and arthropathic psoriasis cases (r=0.871 and r=0.692, respectively, P<0.01), but were negatively correlated in pustular psoriasis (r=-0.569, P<0.01). The results indicated that similar to T cells, B cells activation may also play important roles in different pathological stages of psoriasis. PMID:27532281

  16. γδT cells are prevalent in the proximal aorta and drive nascent atherosclerotic lesion progression and neutrophilia in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Vu, Duc M; Tai, Albert; Tatro, Jeffrey B; Karas, Richard H; Huber, Brigitte T; Beasley, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Unique innate immunity-linked γδT cells have been seen in early human artery lesions, but their role in lesion development has received little attention. Here we investigated whether γδT cells modulate atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE KO) mice. We found that γδT cell numbers were markedly increased in the proximal aorta of ApoE-deficient vs. wild-type mice during early atherogenesis, particularly in the aortic root and arch, where they comprised most of the T cells and lesion progression is most rapid. γδT cells infiltrated intimal lesions in ApoE KO mice, but only the adventitia in wild-type mice, and were more prevalent than CD4+ T cells in early nascent lesions, as evaluated by en face confocal microscopy. These aortic γδT cells produced IL-17, but not IFN-γ, analyzed by ex vivo FACS. Furthermore, aortic arch lipid accumulation correlated strongly with abundance of IL-17-expressing splenic γδT cells in individual ApoE KO mice. To investigate the role of these γδT cells in early atherogenesis, we analyzed ApoE/γδT double knockout (DKO) compared to ApoE KO mice. We observed reduced early intimal lipid accumulation at sites of nascent lesion formation, both in chow-fed (by 40%) and Western diet-fed (by 44%) ApoE/γδT DKO mice. In addition, circulating neutrophils were drastically reduced in these DKO mice on Western diet, while expansion of inflammatory monocytes and splenic Th1 or Th17 lymphocytes was not affected. These data reveal, for the first time, a pathogenic role of γδT cells in early atherogenesis in ApoE KO mice, by mechanisms likely to involve their IL-17 production and induction of neutrophilia. Targeting γδT cells thus might offer therapeutic benefit in atherosclerosis or other inflammatory vascular diseases. PMID:25313857

  17. Oral butyrate reduces oxidative stress in atherosclerotic lesion sites by a mechanism involving NADPH oxidase down-regulation in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Edenil C; Santos, Lana Claudinez Dos; Leonel, Alda J; de Oliveira, Jamil Silvano; Santos, Elândia Aparecida; Navia-Pelaez, Juliana M; da Silva, Josiane Fernandes; Mendes, Bárbara Pinheiro; Capettini, Luciano S A; Teixeira, Lilian G; Lemos, Virginia S; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I

    2016-08-01

    Butyrate is a 4-carbon fatty acid that has antiinflammatory and antioxidative properties. It has been demonstrated that butyrate is able to reduce atherosclerotic development in animal models by reducing inflammatory factors. However, the contribution of its antioxidative effects of butyrate on atherogenesis has not yet been studied. We investigated the influence of butyrate on oxidative status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) release and oxidative enzymes (NADPH oxidase and iNOS) in atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE(-/-) mice and in oxLDL-stimulated peritoneal macrophages and endothelial cells (EA.hy926). The lesion area in aorta was reduced while in the aortic valve, although lesion area was unaltered, superoxide production and protein nitrosylation were reduced in butyrate-supplemented mice. Peritoneal macrophages from the butyrate group presented a lower free radical release after zymosan stimulus. When endothelial cells were pretreated with butyrate before oxLDL stimulus, the CCL-2 and superoxide ion productions and NADPH oxidase subunit p22phox were reduced. In macrophage cultures, in addition to a reduction in ROS release, nitric oxide and iNOS expression were down-regulated. The data suggest that one mechanism related to the effect of butyrate on atherosclerotic development is the reduction of oxidative stress in the lesion site. The reduction of oxidative stress related to NADPH oxidase and iNOS expression levels associated to butyrate supplementation attenuates endothelium dysfunction and macrophage migration and activation in the lesion site. PMID:27261536

  18. Low NKp30, NKp46 and NKG2D expression and reduced cytotoxic activity on NK cells in cervical cancer and precursor lesions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Persistent high risk HPV infection can lead to cervical cancer, the second most common malignant tumor in women worldwide. NK cells play a crucial role against tumors and virus-infected cells through a fine balance between activating and inhibitory receptors. Expression of triggering receptors NKp30, NKp44, NKp46 and NKG2D on NK cells correlates with cytolytic activity against tumor cells, but these receptors have not been studied in cervical cancer and precursor lesions. The aim of the present work was to study NKp30, NKp46, NKG2D, NKp80 and 2B4 expression in NK cells from patients with cervical cancer and precursor lesions, in the context of HPV infection. Methods NKp30, NKp46, NKG2D, NKp80 and 2B4 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry on NK cells from 59 patients with cervical cancer and squamous intraepithelial lesions. NK cell cytotoxicity was evaluated in a 4 hour CFSE/7-AAD flow cytometry assay. HPV types were identified by PCR assays. Results We report here for the first time that NK cell-activating receptors NKp30 and NKp46 are significantly down-regulated in cervical cancer and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) patients. NCRs down-regulation correlated with low cytolytic activity, HPV-16 infection and clinical stage. NKG2D was also down-regulated in cervical cancer patients. Conclusion Our results suggest that NKp30, NKp46 and NKG2D down-regulation represent an evasion mechanism associated to low NK cell activity, HPV-16 infection and cervical cancer progression. PMID:19531227

  19. Median raphe cyst of the penis with ciliated cells.

    PubMed

    Romaní, J; Barnadas, M A; Miralles, J; Curell, R; de Moragas, J M

    1995-08-01

    Cystic lesions occurring on the ventral surface of the penis have been classified as median raphe cysts of the penis. They are lined by pseudostratified, columnar or stratified squamous cell epithelium, mimicking the epithelial lining of the male urethra. Ciliated cysts of the human skin are unusual. Cystic lesions containing ciliated cells have been noted to occur in the chest, neck, or head, and bronchogenic origin has been the most accepted explanation for its origin. Other reports show the presence of ciliated cysts on the lower extremities, and the mechanism of formation is still a debated question. A case of median raphe cyst of the penis containing ciliated epithelium is presented. The existing literature about these cutaneous lesions is reviewed, including the possible mechanisms believed to be involved in its origin. PMID:7499581

  20. Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Marla N

    2016-08-01

    Vascular lesions in childhood are comprised of vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Vascular tumors encompass neoplasms of the vascular system, of which infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common. Vascular malformations, on the other hand, consist of lesions due to anomalous development of the vascular system, including the capillary, venous, arterial, and lymphatic systems. Capillary malformations represent the most frequent type of vascular malformation. IHs and vascular malformations tend to follow relatively predictable growth patterns in that IHs grow then involute during early childhood, whereas vascular malformations tend to exhibit little change. Both vascular tumors and vascular malformations can demonstrate a wide range of severity and potential associated complications necessitating specialist intervention when appropriate. Evaluation and treatment of the most common types of vascular lesions are discussed in this article. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e299-e305.]. PMID:27517358

  1. Columnar to equiaxed transition in high Cr white iron castings

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, O.N.

    1996-07-15

    White cast irons are frequently used in applications requiring high wear resistance. High Cr white cast irons have a composite microstructure composed of hard (Fe,Cr){sub 7}C{sub 3} carbides in a steel matrix. In thick section castings, long rod-shaped carbides may grow perpendicular to the mold wall to form the columnar zone of the casting, or their long axes may grow in random directions to form equiaxed grains. Previous research has indicated that the equiaxed region of these high Cr white iron castings is much more wear resistant under high stress abrasive conditions than the columnar region, when the carbides are oriented perpendicular to the wear surface. Therefore, in order to maximize their abrasion resistance, it is essential that wear resistant cast parts with thick sections be produced with completely equiaxed macrostructures to maximize their abrasion resistance. In the present study, the effect of both the chemical composition, particularly carbon content, and the pouring superheat of the melt on the macrostructure of high Cr white iron castings is investigated.

  2. Columnar phases of discotics with orientation-dependent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Haya, Bruno; Cuetos, Alejandro

    2009-08-01

    The liquid crystal phase diagram of fluids of rigid discotics with soft interactions has been investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The particles are modeled by spherocylinders or Gay-Berne ellipsoids with thickness/diameter aspect ratios of L /D=0.2. The study includes a variety of pair interaction potentials, featuring different energetic dependencies on the orientation of the particles. Three distinct types of models are considered: (i) models with a homogeneous interaction around the molecular core, (ii) models favoring stacked pair configurations, and (iii) models favoring edge-to-edge configurations. The stability and internal structure of the isotropic, nematic, and the different hexatic columnar phases exhibited by these fluids are discussed. The results indicate that the spherocylinder and ellipsoidal models differ in fundamental trends of their phase behavior. The spherocylinder fluids display more extended ranges of stability and longer pair correlation lengths in the columnar phases than the ellipsoidal models. As a consequence, as opposed to ellipsoids, the nematic phase for spherocylinders with the title aspect ratio tends to be entropically suppressed, even under favorable energetics.

  3. Columnar phases of discotics with orientation-dependent interactions.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Haya, Bruno; Cuetos, Alejandro

    2009-08-21

    The liquid crystal phase diagram of fluids of rigid discotics with soft interactions has been investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The particles are modeled by spherocylinders or Gay-Berne ellipsoids with thickness/diameter aspect ratios of L/D=0.2. The study includes a variety of pair interaction potentials, featuring different energetic dependencies on the orientation of the particles. Three distinct types of models are considered: (i) models with a homogeneous interaction around the molecular core, (ii) models favoring stacked pair configurations, and (iii) models favoring edge-to-edge configurations. The stability and internal structure of the isotropic, nematic, and the different hexatic columnar phases exhibited by these fluids are discussed. The results indicate that the spherocylinder and ellipsoidal models differ in fundamental trends of their phase behavior. The spherocylinder fluids display more extended ranges of stability and longer pair correlation lengths in the columnar phases than the ellipsoidal models. As a consequence, as opposed to ellipsoids, the nematic phase for spherocylinders with the title aspect ratio tends to be entropically suppressed, even under favorable energetics. PMID:19708757

  4. Spatial relationships among three columnar systems in cat area 17.

    PubMed

    Hübener, M; Shoham, D; Grinvald, A; Bonhoeffer, T

    1997-12-01

    In the primary visual cortex, neurons with similar response properties are arranged in columns. As more and more columnar systems are discovered it becomes increasingly important to establish the rules that govern the geometric relationships between different columns. As a first step to examine this issue we investigated the spatial relationships between the orientation, ocular dominance, and spatial frequency domains in cat area 17. Using optical imaging of intrinsic signals we obtained high resolution maps for each of these stimulus features from the same cortical regions. We found clear relationships between orientation and ocular dominance columns: many iso-orientation lines intersected the borders between ocular dominance borders at right angles, and orientation singularities were concentrated in the center regions of the ocular dominance columns. Similar, albeit weaker geometric relationships were observed between the orientation and spatial frequency domains. The ocular dominance and spatial frequency maps were also found to be spatially related: there was a tendency for the low spatial frequency domains to avoid the border regions of the ocular dominance columns. This specific arrangement of the different columnar systems might ensure that all possible combinations of stimulus features are represented at least once in any given region of the visual cortex, thus avoiding the occurrence of functional blind spots for a particular stimulus attribute in the visual field. PMID:9364073

  5. Columnar molecular aggregation in the aqueous solutions of disodium cromoglycate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agra-Kooijman, Dena M.; Singh, Gautam; Lorenz, Alexander; Collings, Peter J.; Kitzerow, Heinz-S.; Kumar, Satyendra

    2014-06-01

    Stack, chimneylike, and threadlike assemblies have previously been proposed for the structure of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) aggregates in aqueous solutions. The results of the synchrotron x-ray scattering investigations reported here reveal the formation of simple columnar assemblies with π-π stacking at a separation of 3.4 Å between the DSCG molecules. Lateral separation between the assemblies is concentration and temperature dependent, varying from ˜35 to 42 Å in the orientationally ordered nematic (N) phase and from 27 to 32 Å in the columnar or middle (M) phase having long range lateral positional order. The assemblies' length depends on concentration and consists of ˜23 molecules in the N phase, becoming three to ten times larger in the M phase. The scission energy is concentration dependent in the N phase with values ˜7.19 ± 0.14 kBT (15 wt %), 2.73 ± 0.4 kBT (20 wt %), and 3.05 ± 0.2 kBT (25 wt %). Solutions of all concentrations undergo a spinodal decomposition at temperatures above ˜40 °C, resulting in DSCG-rich regions with the M phase and water-rich regions in the N and isotropic phases.

  6. Columnar molecular aggregation in the aqueous solutions of disodium cromoglycate.

    PubMed

    Agra-Kooijman, Dena M; Singh, Gautam; Lorenz, Alexander; Collings, Peter J; Kitzerow, Heinz-S; Kumar, Satyendra

    2014-06-01

    Stack, chimneylike, and threadlike assemblies have previously been proposed for the structure of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) aggregates in aqueous solutions. The results of the synchrotron x-ray scattering investigations reported here reveal the formation of simple columnar assemblies with π-π stacking at a separation of 3.4 Å between the DSCG molecules. Lateral separation between the assemblies is concentration and temperature dependent, varying from ∼35 to 42 Å in the orientationally ordered nematic (N) phase and from 27 to 32 Å in the columnar or middle (M) phase having long range lateral positional order. The assemblies' length depends on concentration and consists of ∼23 molecules in the N phase, becoming three to ten times larger in the M phase. The scission energy is concentration dependent in the N phase with values ∼7.19 ± 0.14 k_{B}T (15 wt %), 2.73 ± 0.4 k_{B}T (20 wt %), and 3.05 ± 0.2 k_{B}T (25 wt %). Solutions of all concentrations undergo a spinodal decomposition at temperatures above ∼40 °C, resulting in DSCG-rich regions with the M phase and water-rich regions in the N and isotropic phases. PMID:25019802

  7. Ultrastructure of lymphocyte-mediated fat-cell lysis in erythema nodosum-like lesions of Behçet's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Honma, T; Bang, D; Saito, T; Nakagawa, S; Ueki, H; Lee, S

    1987-12-01

    In this study, biopsy specimens from 18 patients with Behçet's syndrome were examined by electron microscopy with particular attention to the appearance of the lymphocyte-macrophage infiltrate into the interlobules of subcutaneous fat in erythema nodosum-like lesions. Electron microscopic evaluation revealed vacuolization changes of fat cells with detachment of their cell membrane from the basal lamina that permitted lymphocytes and macrophages to enter into this developed space. We believe that the detachment of fat cells from the basal lamina precedes invasion by lymphocytes which, in turn, attracts macrophages into the space. This eventually leads to fat-cell lysis accompanied by activation of macrophages, which causes further inflammation, completing the picture of panniculitis in the erythema nodosum-like lesions in Behçet's syndrome. PMID:3688905

  8. Factors associated with the presence of multiple Lugol-voiding lesions in patients with esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Katada, C; Muto, M; Tanabe, S; Higuchi, K; Sasaki, T; Azuma, M; Ishido, K; Katada, N; Sakuramoto, S; Yamashita, K; Masaki, T; Nakayama, M; Okamoto, M; Koizumi, W

    2014-07-01

    Multicentric squamous dysplasia of the esophagus is characterized by multiple Lugol-voiding lesions (LVLs) on Lugol chromoendoscopy. Multiple LVLs are associated with a very high risk of multiple cancers arising in the esophagus as well as the head and neck. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of multiple LVLs of the esophageal mucosa, we studied risk factors for the development of such lesions in 76 patients who had a current or previous diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. All patients underwent Lugol chromoendoscopy of the esophageal mucosa. The history of tobacco and alcohol use was documented. Polymorphisms of the aldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (ALDH2) gene were identified by polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific primers. Clinical factors related to multiple LVLs were analyzed. All patients with multiple LVLs were drinkers. On univariate analysis, male sex (odds ratio [OR] 15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.84-122.45: P = 0.011), presence of the ALDH2-2 allele (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.55-13.24: P = 0.006), and smoking index ≥1000 (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.02-6.6: P = 0.045) were associated with multiple LVLs. On multivariate analysis, male sex (OR 10.02, 95% CI 1.13-88.44: P = 0.038) and presence of the ALDH2-2 allele (OR 4.56, 95% CI 1.4-14.82: P = 0.012) were associated with multiple LVLs. Among drinkers, a daily alcohol intake of ≥100 g pure ethanol with the ALDH2-2 allele (OR 17.5, 95% CI 1.97-155.59: P = 0.01) and a daily alcohol intake of <100 g pure ethanol with the ALDH2-2 allele (OR 8.85, 95% CI 1.68-46.69: P = 0.01) more strongly correlated with multiple LVLs than did a daily alcohol intake of <100 g pure ethanol without the ALDH2-2 allele, whereas a daily alcohol intake of ≥100 g pure ethanol without the ALDH2-2 allele (OR 4.0, 95% CI 0.54-29.81: P = 0.18) did not. In conclusion, male sex and the ALDH2-2 allele are associated with an increased risk for multiple LVLs of the esophageal mucosa in patients with esophageal

  9. Frequent alterations of cell cycle regulators in early-stage breast lesions as detected by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, K. L.; Varley, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    Progression through G1 phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle is tightly controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). These proteins form part of a regulatory pathway including the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) p16, D-type cyclins and the product of the retinoblastoma gene pRb. Aberration of any one of these components may lead to uncontrolled proliferation contributing to neoplasia. Three of these proteins, cyclin D1, pRb and p16, were analysed by immunohistochemistry on archival paraffin sections to determine whether expression patterns were different in preinvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast tumours relative to normal. Genetic analysis of the gene encoding cyclin D1 (CCND1) was also carried out, using an intragenic restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) to assess possible allelic imbalance. A majority of the tumours studied (approximately 90%) showed abnormalities in expression of at least one of these proteins. Overexpression of cyclin D1 was found in approximately 49% cases, reduced expression of p16 in approximately 46% and reduced expression of pRb in approximately 37%. Allelic imbalance of cyclin D1 was found in approximately 57% cases. Images Figure 2 PMID:9652762

  10. Analysis of Immune Response Markers in Jorge Lobo's Disease Lesions Suggests the Occurrence of Mixed T Helper Responses with the Dominance of Regulatory T Cell Activity.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Michelle de C S; Rosa, Patricia S; Soares, Cleverson T; Fachin, Luciana R V; Baptista, Ida Maria F D; Woods, William J; Garlet, Gustavo P; Trombone, Ana Paula F; Belone, Andrea de F F

    2015-01-01

    Jorge Lobo's disease (JLD) is a chronic infection that affects the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Its etiologic agent is the fungus Lacazia loboi. Lesions are classified as localized, multifocal, or disseminated, depending on their location. Early diagnosis and the surgical removal of lesions are the best therapeutic options currently available for JLD. The few studies that evaluate the immunological response of JLD patients show a predominance of Th2 response, as well as a high frequency of TGF-β and IL-10 positive cells in the lesions; however, the overall immunological status of the lesions in terms of their T cell phenotype has yet to be determined. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the pattern of Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cell (Treg) markers mRNA in JLD patients by means of real-time PCR. Biopsies of JLD lesions (N = 102) were classified according to their clinical and histopathological features and then analyzed using real-time PCR in order to determine the expression levels of TGF-β1, FoxP3, CTLA4, IKZF2, IL-10, T-bet, IFN-γ, GATA3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-33, RORC, IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 and to compare these levels to those of healthy control skin (N = 12). The results showed an increased expression of FoxP3, CTLA4, TGF-β1, IL-10, T-bet, IL-17F, and IL-17A in lesions, while GATA3 and IL-4 levels were found to be lower in diseased skin than in the control group. When the clinical forms were compared, TGF-β1 was found to be highly expressed in patients with a single localized lesion while IL-5 and IL-17A levels were higher in patients with multiple/disseminated lesions. These results demonstrate the occurrence of mixed T helper responses and suggest the dominance of regulatory T cell activity, which could inhibit Th-dependent protective responses to intracellular fungi such as L. loboi. Therefore, Tregs may play a key role in JLD pathogenesis. PMID:26700881

  11. Analysis of Immune Response Markers in Jorge Lobo's Disease Lesions Suggests the Occurrence of Mixed T Helper Responses with the Dominance of Regulatory T Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Michelle de C. S.; Rosa, Patricia S.; Soares, Cleverson T.; Fachin, Luciana R. V.; Baptista, Ida Maria F. D.; Woods, William J.; Garlet, Gustavo P.

    2015-01-01

    Jorge Lobo’s disease (JLD) is a chronic infection that affects the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Its etiologic agent is the fungus Lacazia loboi. Lesions are classified as localized, multifocal, or disseminated, depending on their location. Early diagnosis and the surgical removal of lesions are the best therapeutic options currently available for JLD. The few studies that evaluate the immunological response of JLD patients show a predominance of Th2 response, as well as a high frequency of TGF-β and IL-10 positive cells in the lesions; however, the overall immunological status of the lesions in terms of their T cell phenotype has yet to be determined. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the pattern of Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cell (Treg) markers mRNA in JLD patients by means of real-time PCR. Biopsies of JLD lesions (N = 102) were classified according to their clinical and histopathological features and then analyzed using real-time PCR in order to determine the expression levels of TGF-β1, FoxP3, CTLA4, IKZF2, IL-10, T-bet, IFN-γ, GATA3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-33, RORC, IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 and to compare these levels to those of healthy control skin (N = 12). The results showed an increased expression of FoxP3, CTLA4, TGF-β1, IL-10, T-bet, IL-17F, and IL-17A in lesions, while GATA3 and IL-4 levels were found to be lower in diseased skin than in the control group. When the clinical forms were compared, TGF-β1 was found to be highly expressed in patients with a single localized lesion while IL-5 and IL-17A levels were higher in patients with multiple/disseminated lesions. These results demonstrate the occurrence of mixed T helper responses and suggest the dominance of regulatory T cell activity, which could inhibit Th-dependent protective responses to intracellular fungi such as L. loboi. Therefore, Tregs may play a key role in JLD pathogenesis. PMID:26700881

  12. Enzyme-labeled Antigen Method: Development and Application of the Novel Approach for Identifying Plasma Cells Locally Producing Disease-specific Antibodies in Inflammatory Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Yasuyoshi; Shiogama, Kazuya; Onouchi, Takanori; Sakurai, Kouhei; Inada, Ken-ichi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    In chronic inflammatory lesions of autoimmune and infectious diseases, plasma cells are frequently observed. Antigens recognized by antibodies produced by the plasma cells mostly remain unclear. A new technique identifying these corresponding antigens may give us a breakthrough for understanding the disease from a pathophysiological viewpoint, simply because the immunocytes are seen within the lesion. We have developed an enzyme-labeled antigen method for microscopic identification of the antigen recognized by specific antibodies locally produced in plasma cells in inflammatory lesions. Firstly, target biotinylated antigens were constructed by the wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system or through chemical biotinylation. Next, proteins reactive to antibodies in tissue extracts were screened and antibody titers were evaluated by the AlphaScreen method. Finally, with the enzyme-labeled antigen method using the biotinylated antigens as probes, plasma cells producing specific antibodies were microscopically localized in fixed frozen sections. Our novel approach visualized tissue plasma cells that produced 1) autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis, 2) antibodies against major antigens of Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontitis or radicular cyst, and 3) antibodies against a carbohydrate antigen, Strep A, of Streptococcus pyogenes in recurrent tonsillitis. Evaluation of local specific antibody responses expectedly contributes to clarifying previously unknown processes in inflammatory disorders. PMID:27006517

  13. Development and use of a modified live Flavobacterium columnare vaccine in fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is an aquatic bacterium that is highly infectious in warm and cold water fish. In the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry it causes columnaris disease and has a negative impact on production (~$30 million/year). We developed a modified F. columnare isolate by pa...

  14. Title of Manuscript: Examining the universal genetic diversity of Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variability among strains of Flavobacterium columnare, isolated in the United States, was characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and phylogenetic analysis based on the sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Twenty-seven isolates of F. columnare were differentiated into thr...

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare Strain C#2

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan J.; Zhu, Yongtao; Li, Nan; LaFrentz, Benjamin R.

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes columnaris disease of freshwater fish. Flavobacterium columnare strain C#2 was isolated from a diseased warm-water fish and is typed as genomovar II. The genome consists of a single 3.33-Mb circular chromosome with 2,689 predicted coding genes. PMID:27340080

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare Strain C#2.

    PubMed

    Bartelme, Ryan P; Newton, Ryan J; Zhu, Yongtao; Li, Nan; LaFrentz, Benjamin R; McBride, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes columnaris disease of freshwater fish. Flavobacterium columnare strain C#2 was isolated from a diseased warm-water fish and is typed as genomovar II. The genome consists of a single 3.33-Mb circular chromosome with 2,689 predicted coding genes. PMID:27340080

  17. Enhanced susceptibility of hybrid tilapia to Flavobacterium columnare after parasitism by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterium Flavobacterium columnare and protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis are two common pathogens of cultured fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) to the bacterium F. columnare, including fish mortality and bacterial loads in ...

  18. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare strains infecting fishes inhabiting the Laurentian Great Lakes basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agent of columnaris disease, causes significant losses in fish worldwide. In this study, F. columnare infection prevalence was assessed in representative Great Lakes fish species. Over 2,000 wild, feral, and hatchery-propagated salmonids, percids, centrarc...

  19. Complete genome sequence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare strain C#2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes columnaris disease of freshwater fish. Flavobacterium columnare strain C#2 was isolated from a diseased warm water fish and is typed as genomovar II. The genome consists of a single 3.33 Mb circular chromosome with 2,689 pred...

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare Pf1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yulei

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the etiologic agent of columnaris disease, a devastating fish disease prevailing in worldwide aquaculture industry. Here, we describe the complete genome of F. columnare strain Pf1, a highly virulent strain isolated from yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) in China. PMID:27587818

  1. Passive immunization of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus with anti-Flavobacterium columnare sera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Passive immunization of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), was conducted to determine if anti-Flavobacterium columnare serum was protective when injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) into channel catfish. The anti-F. columnare serum was produced by actively immunizing (i.p. injection) ch...

  2. Reproducible challenge model to investigate the virulence of Flavobacterium columnare genomovars in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes columnaris disease and has significant economic impacts on aquaculture production worldwide. Molecular analyses have demonstrated that there is genetic diversity among F. columnare isolates. A review of the published literature that u...

  3. Genome sequence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare genomovar II strain 94-081

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish is one of the most important commodities in Mississippi and the largest aquaculture industry in the United States. Columnaris disease, caused by Flavobacterium columnare, affects many commercially important freshwater fish species. F. columnare strain 94-081 was isolated from disease...

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare Pf1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulei; Nie, Pin; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the etiologic agent of columnaris disease, a devastating fish disease prevailing in worldwide aquaculture industry. Here, we describe the complete genome of F. columnare strain Pf1, a highly virulent strain isolated from yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) in China. PMID:27587818

  5. Basal polarization of the mucosal compartment in Flavobacterium columnare susceptible and resistant channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The freshwater bacterial pathogen, Flavobacterium columnare, infects a variety of ornamental and farmed fish species worldwide through mucosal attachment points on the gill and skin. While previous studies have demonstrated a chemotactic response of F. columnare to fish mucus, little is known about ...

  6. Leptin receptor polymorphism Gln223Arg (rs1137101) in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Patrícia Luciana Batista; Farias, Lucyana Conceição; Pereira, Camila Santos; das Graças Pena, Geórgia; Reis, Tatiana Carvalho; Silva, Rosângela Ramos Veloso; Fraga, Carlos Alberto de Carvalho; de Souza, Marcela Gonçalves; Soares, Mariana Batista; Jones, Kimberly Marie; Menezes, Elytania Veiga; Nobre, Sérgio Avelino Mota; Rodrigues Neto, João Felício; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Velásquez-Meléndez, Jorge Gustavo; Sena Guimarães, André Luiz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the LEPR gene Gln223Arg polymorphism (rs1137101) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and in potentially malignant oral lesions (PMOL) in comparison to normal oral mucosa in a Brazilian population. Smokers (n = 89) were selected from a representative sample of 471 individuals from the general population of Montes Claros, Brazil. Participants were age and gender matched to patients with OSCC (n = 25) and oral epithelial dysplasia (n = 25). We investigated the LEPR Gln223Arg polymorphism (A>G; rs1137101) in these groups. Genotype variants were assessed by RFLP-PCR, using MspI (HPAII) restriction endonuclease. The institutional review board of the Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros approved the study (process number 2667/2011). Written informed consent for this study was obtained from all participants. The GG genotype (Arg223Arg) appears to be the more relevant polymorphic variant in OSCC. It occurred, approximately, twice as frequently in OSCC patients than in the general population. In contrast, the A allele in its homozygosis form (Gln223Gln) is significantly associated with the development of PMOL; 80% of the samples from the PMOL group exhibit AA genotype. Our findings suggest new insights regarding LEPR gene variations in the development of OSCC and PMOL. PMID:26034683

  7. Molecular lesions associated with alleles of decapentaplegic identify residues necessary for TGF/{beta}/BMP cell signaling in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, K.; Ray, R.P.; Gelbart, W.M.

    1996-02-01

    We have identified the molecular lesions associated with six point mutations in the Drosophila TGF-{beta} homologue decapentaplegic (dpp). The sites of these mutations define residues within both the pro and ligand regions that are essential for dpp function in vivo. While all of these mutations affect residues that are highly conserved among TGF-{beta} superfamily members, the phenotypic consequences of the different alleles are quite distinct. Through an analysis of these mutant phenotypes, both in cuticle preparations and with molecular probes, we have assessed the functional significance of specific residues that are conserved among the different members of the superfamily. In addition, we have tested for conditional genetic interactions between the different alleles. We show that two of the alleles are temperature sensitive for the embryonic functions of dpp, such that these alleles are not only embryonic viable as homozygotes but also partially complement other dpp hypomorphs at low temperatures. Our results are discussed with regard to in vitro mutagenesis data on other TGF-{beta}-like molecules, as well as with regard to the regulation of dpp cell signaling in Drosophila. 57 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Inactivation of Semicarbazide-Sensitive Amine Oxidase Stabilizes the Established Atherosclerotic Lesions via Inducing the Phenotypic Switch of Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Panpan; Yang, Mengya; Yang, Yilin; Zhao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Given that the elevated serum semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity is associated with the severity of carotid atherosclerosis in clinic, the current study aims to investigate whether SSAO inactivation by semicarbazide is beneficial for established atherosclerotic lesions in LDLr knockout mice on a high-fat/high- cholesterol Western-type diet or after dietary lipid lowering. Despite no impact on plasma total cholesterol levels, the infiltration of circulating monocytes into peripheral tissues, and the size of atherosclerotic lesions, abrogation of SSAO activity resulted in the stabilization of established lesions as evidenced by the increased collagen contents under both conditions. Moreover, SSAO inactivation decreased Ly6Chigh monocytosis and lesion macrophage contents in hypercholesterolemic mice, while no effect was observed in mice after normalization of hypercholesterolemia by dietary lipid lowering. Strikingly, abrogation of SSAO activity significantly increased not only the absolute numbers of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), but also the percent of SMCs with a synthetic phenotype in established lesions of mice regardless of plasma cholesterol levels. Overall, our data indicate that SSAO inactivation in vivo stabilizes the established plaques mainly via inducing the switch of SMCs from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype. Targeting SSAO activity thus may represent a potential treatment for patients with atherosclerosis. PMID:27043821

  9. Inactivation of Semicarbazide-Sensitive Amine Oxidase Stabilizes the Established Atherosclerotic Lesions via Inducing the Phenotypic Switch of Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ya; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Miao; Niu, Panpan; Yang, Mengya; Yang, Yilin; Zhao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Given that the elevated serum semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity is associated with the severity of carotid atherosclerosis in clinic, the current study aims to investigate whether SSAO inactivation by semicarbazide is beneficial for established atherosclerotic lesions in LDLr knockout mice on a high-fat/high- cholesterol Western-type diet or after dietary lipid lowering. Despite no impact on plasma total cholesterol levels, the infiltration of circulating monocytes into peripheral tissues, and the size of atherosclerotic lesions, abrogation of SSAO activity resulted in the stabilization of established lesions as evidenced by the increased collagen contents under both conditions. Moreover, SSAO inactivation decreased Ly6Chigh monocytosis and lesion macrophage contents in hypercholesterolemic mice, while no effect was observed in mice after normalization of hypercholesterolemia by dietary lipid lowering. Strikingly, abrogation of SSAO activity significantly increased not only the absolute numbers of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), but also the percent of SMCs with a synthetic phenotype in established lesions of mice regardless of plasma cholesterol levels. Overall, our data indicate that SSAO inactivation in vivo stabilizes the established plaques mainly via inducing the switch of SMCs from a contractile to a synthetic phenotype. Targeting SSAO activity thus may represent a potential treatment for patients with atherosclerosis. PMID:27043821

  10. Intraventricular administration of endoneuraminidase-N facilitates ectopic migration of subventricular zone-derived neural progenitor cells into 6-OHDA lesioned striatum of mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Zhang, Yong-Xin; Yang, Chun; Hao, Fei; Chen, Sha-Sha; Hao, Qiang; Lu, Tao; Qu, Ting-Yu; Zhao, Li-Ru; Duan, Wei-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Polysialic acid (PSA), a carbohydrate polymer associated with the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), plays an important role in the migration, differentiation and maturation of neuroblasts. Endoneuraminidase-N (Endo-N) can specifically cleave PSA from NCAM. The objective of the present study was to examine: the effect of Endo-N on characteristics of subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in vitro; whether intraventricular administration of Endo-N could increase ectopic migration of SVZ-derived NPCs into 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned striatum, and whether migrated NPCs could differentiate into neuronal and glial cells. In in vitro study, Endo-N was found to inhibit the migration of NPCs, and to enhance the differentiation of NPCs. In in vivo study, mice sequentially received injections of 6-OHDA into the right striatum, Endo-N into the right lateral ventricle, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) intraperitoneally. The data showed that intraventricular injections of Endo-N disorganized the normal structure of the rostral migratory stream (RMS), and drastically increased the number of BrdU-immunoreactive (IR) cells in 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum. In addition, a number of BrdU-IR cells were double labeled for doublecortin (DCX), NeuN or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The results suggest that interruption of neuroblast chain pathway with Endo-N facilitates ectopic migration of SVZ-derived NPCs into the lesioned striatum, and migrated NPCs can differentiate into neurons and astrocytes. PMID:26724216

  11. Human MMH (OGG1) type 1a protein is a major enzyme for repair of 8-hydroxyguanine lesions in human cells.

    PubMed

    Monden, Y; Arai, T; Asano, M; Ohtsuka, E; Aburatani, H; Nishimura, S

    1999-05-19

    8-Hydroxyguanine (8-OH-G) is the site of a frequent mutagenic lesion of DNA, produced by oxidative damage. MutM of E. coli and OGG1 of Saccharomyces cervisiae are known to possess 8-OH-G glycosylase activity and apurinic (AP) site lyase activity to repair 8-OH-G lesions. Recently, cDNA clones of human OGG1 homologues (hMMH) of four isoforms (type 1a, type 1b, type 1c, and type 2) were isolated. However, it is unknown whether expression of endogenous hMMH proteins actually occurs in mammalian cells. Here using hMMH type 1a-specific antibody and cells overexpressing tag-fused hMMH type 1a, we show the expression of hMMH type 1a protein in many types of human cells and show that endogenous hMMH type 1a protein has 8-OH-G glycosylase/AP lyase activity. Furthermore, we show that upon depletion of hMMH type 1a protein in a whole cell extract by its antibody, most of the AP lyase activity is lost, indicating that hMMH type 1a protein is a major enzyme for repair of 8-OH-G lesions in human cells. PMID:10329432

  12. Electric field controlled columnar and planar patterning of cholesteric colloids.

    PubMed

    D'Adamo, G; Marenduzzo, D; Micheletti, C; Orlandini, E

    2015-05-01

    We study how dispersions of colloidal particles in a cholesteric liquid crystal behave under a time-dependent electric field. By controlling the amplitude and shape of the applied field wave, we show that the system can be reproducibly driven out of equilibrium through different kinetic pathways and navigated through a glassylike free energy landscape encompassing many competing metastable equilibria. Such states range from simple Saturn rings to complex structures featuring amorphous defect networks, or stacks of disclination loops. A nonequilibrium electric field can also trigger the alignment of particles into columnar arrays, through defect-mediated force impulses, or their repositioning within a plane. Our results are promising in terms of providing new avenues towards controlled patterning and self-assembly of soft colloid-liquid crystal composite materials. PMID:25978263

  13. Columnar epitaxy of hexagonal and orthorhombic silicides on Si(111)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, R. W.; Nieh, C. W.; Xiao, Q. F.; Hashimoto, Shin

    1990-01-01

    Columnar grains of PtSi and CrSi2 surrounded by high-quality epitaxial silicon are obtained by ultrahigh vacuum codeposition of Si and metal in an approximately 10:1 ratio on Si(111) substrates heated to 610-840 C. This result is similar to that found previously for CoSi2 (a nearly-lattice-matched cubic-fluorite crystal) on Si(111), in spite of the respective orthorhombic and hexagonal structures of PtSi and CrSi2. The PtSi grains are epitaxial and have one of three variants of the relation defined by PtSi(010)/Si(111), with PtSi 001 line/Si 110 line type.

  14. Experimental study of columnar recombination in fission chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filliatre, P.; Lamirand, V.; Geslot, B.; Jammes, C.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present experimental saturation curves of a small gap miniature fission chamber obtained in the MINERVE reactor. The chamber is filled with argon at various pressures, and the fissile material can be coated on the anode, cathode, or both. For analyzing the recombination regime, we consider a model of columnar recombination and discuss its applicability to our chamber. By applying this model to the data, it is possible to estimate the ratio between the recombination coefficient k and an effective column radius b, appearing in the model, to be k / b =(2.5 ± 0.9) ×10-6m2 / s for argon. From these results, a routine measurement of the recombination regime is proposed in order to detect gas leakage. This online diagnosis would be beneficial in terms of lifetime and reliability of the neutron instrumentation of nuclear reactors.

  15. Mechanical Stiffening of Porphyrin Nanorings through Supramolecular Columnar Stacking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Solvent-induced aggregates of nanoring cyclic polymers may be transferred by electrospray deposition to a surface where they adsorb as three-dimensional columnar stacks. The observed stack height varies from single rings to four stacked rings with a layer spacing of 0.32 ± 0.04 nm as measured using scanning tunneling microscopy. The flexibility of the nanorings results in distortions from a circular shape, and we show, through a comparison with Monte Carlo simulations, that the bending stiffness increases linearly with the stack height. Our results show that noncovalent interactions may be used to control the shape and mechanical properties of artificial macromolecular aggregates offering a new route to solvent-induced control of two-dimensional supramolecular organization. PMID:23789845

  16. A novel serrated columnar phased array ultrasonic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Cheng; Sun, Zhenguo; Cai, Dong; Song, Hongwei; Chen, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Traditionally, wedges are required to generate transverse waves in a solid specimen and mechanical rotation device is needed for interrogation of a specimen with a hollow bore, such as high speed railway locomotive axles, turbine rotors, etc. In order to eliminate the mechanical rotation process, a novel array pattern of phased array ultrasonic transducers named as serrated columnar phased array ultrasonic transducer (SCPAUT) is designed. The elementary transducers are planar rectangular, located on the outside surface of a cylinder. This layout is aimed to generate electrically rotating transverse waveforms so as to inspect the longitudinal cracks on the outside surface of a specimen which has a hollow bore at the center, such as the high speed railway locomotive axles. The general geometry of the SCPAUT and the inspection system are illustrated. A FEM model and mockup experiment has been carried out. The experiment results are in good agreement with the FEM simulation results.

  17. Azimuthal Frustration and Bundling in Columnar DNA Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Harreis, H. M.; Likos, C. N.; Löwen, H.

    2003-01-01

    The interaction between two stiff parallel DNA molecules is discussed using linear Debye-Hückel screening theory with and without inclusion of the dielectric discontinuity at the DNA surface, taking into account the helical symmetry of DNA. The pair potential furthermore includes the amount and distribution of counterions adsorbed on the DNA surface. The interaction does not only depend on the interaxial separation of two DNA molecules, but also on their azimuthal orientation. The optimal mutual azimuthal angle is a function of the DNA-DNA interaxial separation, which leads to azimuthal frustrations in an aggregate. On the basis of the pair potential, the positional and orientational order in columnar B-DNA assemblies in solution is investigated. Phase diagrams are calculated using lattice sums supplemented with the entropic contributions of the counterions in solution. A variety of positionally and azimuthally ordered phases and bundling transitions is predicted, which strongly depend on the counterion adsorption patterns. PMID:12770870

  18. [Foot lesions].

    PubMed

    Stelzner, C; Schellong, S; Wollina, U; Machetanz, J; Unger, L

    2013-11-01

    The foot is the target organ of a variety of internal diseases. Of upmost importance is the diabetic foot syndrome (DFS). Its complex pathophysiology is driven by the diabetic neuropathy, a vastly worsening effect is contributed by infection and ischemia. Seemingly localised lesions have the potential for phlegmone and septicaemia if not diagnosed and drained early. The acral lesions of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) have unique features as well. However, their life-threatening potential is lower than that of DFS even if the limb is critical. Notably, isolated foot lesions with a mere venous cause may arise from insufficient perforator veins; the accompanying areas of haemosiderosis will lead the diagnostic path. Cholesterol embolization (blue toe syndrome, trash foot) elicits a unique clinical picture and will become more frequent with increasing numbers of catheter-based procedures. Finally, descriptions are given of podagra and of foot mycosis as disease entities not linked to perfusion. The present review focuses on the depiction of disease and its diagnosis, leaving therapeutic considerations untouched. PMID:24114468

  19. Effect of Low CD4 Cell Count on Cervical Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions among HIV-Positive Women in Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Enebe, Joseph Tochukwu; Nnakenyi, Emeka Francis; Ezegwui, Hyginus Uzochukwu; Ozumba, Benjamin Chukwuma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV-positive women are more likely to develop cervical neoplasm. HIV-positive women with low CD4 T-lymphocyte cell count may be more predisposed to cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs). This study aimed to determine the association between low cellular immunity of HIV positive women, and the prevalence and grade of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions. Materials and Methods Pap smear was carried out on two cohorts of Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy (HAART) experienced HIV-positive women (178 per group) at the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria-Centre for Disease Control Adult Anti-Retroviral clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria from June to November, 2012. The study group had CD4 cell count of < 200 cells/μl while the control group had CD4 cell count of ≥200 cells/μl. Results The mean CD4 cell counts of participants in the study (low CD4) group was 127.9 ± 47.49 cells/ml while that of the control (high CD4) group was 489.2 ± 186.36 cells/ml (p < 0.001). The prevalence of SIL was 10.2% (18/176) for the low CD4 group, and 5.7% (10/176) for the high CD4 group [OR = 1.9 (95% CI: 0.85, 4.22)]. The commonest category of SILs identified was Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL), thus 11 (6.3%) in the study versus 7 (4.0%) in the control group (p = 0.703). Conclusion Prevalence of cervical SILs among HIV positive women on HAART in Enugu, Nigeria is low and has no significant relationship with their CD4 cell count. PMID:26674006

  20. A case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the skull in which preoperative methionine positron emission tomography was useful in comprehending the spreading of the lesion

    PubMed Central

    Yamaki, Tetsu; Kokubo, Yasuaki; Saito, Yuki; Matsuda, Kenichiro; Funiu, Hayato; Sakurada, Kaori; Sato, Shinya; Kayama, Takamasa

    2014-01-01

    Background: The problem with treatments against skull lesions of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is that invasions often reach the bones and dura mater, making it difficult to accurately comprehend the range thereof prior to surgery. We herein report that 11C-methionine positron emission tomography (PET) (Met-PET) carried out prior to surgery was useful in comprehending the spreading of the lesion. Case Description: A 20-year-old female presented with swelling and dull pain on the left side of the head. A slightly heterogeneously reinforced tumor was observed inside the bone defect in the gadolinium-enhanced T1-wighted image upon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the dura mater contacting the tumor was observed with an enhancing effect. Accumulation was poor in the center of the tumor upon Met-PET, and accumulation with a well-defined border was observed in the border thereof as well as the area adjacent to the brain. Surgical resection was performed; the pathological diagnosis was LCH. An invasion of tumor cells was observed in the dura mater with accumulation observed according to Met-PET. Moreover, the accumulation of tumor cells was observed in the area observed with accumulation inside the bone; however, the center part with poor accumulation lacked tumor cells, with fibrous tissue accounting for most parts. Conclusion: Met-PET was believed to be helpful in comprehending the spreading of the tumor in the surroundings of the brain surface for skull lesions. PMID:24778915

  1. Expression of E-, P- and N-Cadherin and Its Clinical Significance in Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Precancerous Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baohua; Shi, Haiyan; Wang, Fenfen; Hong, Die; Lv, Weiguo; Xie, Xing; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of classical cadherins has been observed in tumor invasion and metastasis, but its involvement in cervical carcinogenesis and cancer progression is not clear. We investigated E-, P- and N-cadherin expression and its significance in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). This retrospective study enrolled 508 patients admitted to Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University with cervical lesions between January 2006 and December 2010. Immunochemical staining was performed in 98 samples of normal cervical epithelium (NC), 283 of CIN, and 127 of early-stage SCC. The association of cadherin staining with clinical characteristics and survival of the patients was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. We found gradients of decreasing E-cadherin expression and increasing P-cadherin expression from NC through CIN to SCC. Aberrant E-cadherin and P-cadherin expression were significantly associated with clinical parameters indicating poor prognosis and shorter patient survival. Interestingly, we found very low levels of positive N-cadherin expression in CIN and SCC tissues that were not related to CIN or cancer. Pearson chi-square tests showed that E-cadherin expression in SCC was inversely correlated with P-cadherin expression (E-P switch), and was not correlated with N-cadherin expression. More important, patients with tissues exhibiting an E-P switch in expression had highly aggressive phenotypes and poorer prognosis than those without E-P switch expression. Our findings suggest that E-cadherin and P-cadherin, but not N-cadherin staining, might be useful in diagnosing CIN and for predicting prognosis in patients with early-stage SCC. PMID:27223886

  2. Quantitative investigation of red blood cell three-dimensional geometric and chemical changes in the storage lesion using digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jaferzadeh, Keyvan; Moon, Inkyu

    2015-11-01

    Quantitative phase information obtained by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can provide new insight into the functions and morphology of single red blood cells (RBCs). Since the functionality of a RBC is related to its three-dimensional (3-D) shape, quantitative 3-D geometric changes induced by storage time can help hematologists realize its optimal functionality period. We quantitatively investigate RBC 3-D geometric changes in the storage lesion using DHM. Our experimental results show that the substantial geometric transformation of the biconcave-shaped RBCs to the spherocyte occurs due to RBC storage lesion. This transformation leads to progressive loss of cell surface area, surface-to-volume ratio, and functionality of RBCs. Furthermore, our quantitative analysis shows that there are significant correlations between chemical and morphological properties of RBCs. PMID:26502322

  3. Structure-function relationships in radiation-induced cell and tissue lesions: special references to the contributions of scanning electron microscopy and hematopoietic tissue responses

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, T.M.

    1987-03-01

    Contributions of scanning electron microscopy to the field of radiation biology are briefly reviewed and presented in terms of an overall goal to identify and characterize the structural features of radiation-induced lesions in vital cell and tissue targets. In the context of lesion production, the major radiation-elicited response sequences, the types and nature of measured end points, and governing temporal and radiobiological parameters are discussed and illustrated by using results derived from both in vitro cell systems and in vivo studies that measured tissue responses from various organ systems (respiratory, digestive, circulatory, and central nervous systems). Work in our laboratory on the nature of early and late hematopathologic tissue responses (aplastic anemia and myeloid leukemia) induced by protracted radiation exposure and the bridging effect of repair processes relative to the expression of these pathologies is highlighted.

  4. Characterization of different tissue changes in normal, betel chewers, potentially malignant lesions, conditions and oral squamous cell carcinoma using reflectance confocal microscopy: correlation with routine histopathology.

    PubMed

    Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Sherlin, Herald J; Anuja, N; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Chandrasekar, T

    2010-04-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the features of normal mucosa, mucosa in betel chewers and smokers, potentially malignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma of oral mucosa using reflectance confocal microscopy. Oral cavity biopsies were acquired from 25 patients from College of Dental Surgery, Saveetha University who underwent screening for suspected lesions of Oral precancer and Oral cancer along with normal patients who underwent impaction. Biopsies were acquired from the clinically suspicious area and immediately placed in Dulbecco modified eagles growth medium (DMEM). Reflectance confocal images were obtained at multiple image plane depths from biopsies within 6h of excision. After imaging, biopsies were fixed in 10% formalin and submitted for routine histopathological examination by an experienced oral and maxillofacial pathologist. Reflectance confocal images were compared with histological images from the same sample to determine the tissue features which contribute to early cellular changes, image contrast and early diagnosis. The confocal images were obtained to a depth of up to 150 microns on intact biopsy specimens and subsequent 3-dimensional images, keratin thickness measurements, cell measurements, cell density analysis and graphical representations were performed using Leica image analysis software. In normal mucosa keratin deposition were seen as alternating dark and bright stacks and in different cell layers the nuclei were seen as disks of varying intensities. In pre-cancerous lesions the keratin thickness and cell nuclear density were found to be increased when compared to normal controls. In OSMF cases confocal images of fibrosis show scattering from individual fibres as hyperdense areas. Oral squamous cell carcinoma cases demonstrated extensive variations in cell size, nuclear size and nuclear morphology. At cellular level, dysplastic features like increased nuclear density, increased nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear and cellular

  5. Depressed type 1 cytokine synthesis by superantigen-activated CD4+ T cells of women with human papillomavirus-related high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bang-Ning; Follen, Michele; Shen, De-Yu; Malpica, Anais; Adler-Storthz, Karen; Shearer, William T; Reuben, James M

    2004-03-01

    Carcinoma of the cervix is causally related to infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV), and T cells play a pivotal role in the immune response of the host to rid itself of HPV infection. Therefore, we assessed the T-cell function of women with HPV-related cervical neoplasia against a superantigen, Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB). Each woman provided a cervical brush specimen for HPV DNA testing and Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for the staging of cervical lesions. They also provided a blood specimen for determination of the ability of CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cells to synthesize Th1 (interleukin-2 [IL-2], gamma interferon [IFN-gamma], and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha]) and Th2 (IL-10) cytokines in response to activation with SEB. Compared with control subjects with self-attested negative Pap smears, women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) had significantly lower percentages of activated CD4(+) T cells that produced IL-2 (P = 0.045), IFN-gamma (P = 0.040), and TNF-alpha (P = 0.015) and a significantly lower percentage of activated CD8(+) T cells that produced IL-2 (P < 0.01). These data indicate that women with HPV-related cervical HSIL show a decrease in Th1 cytokine production by activated CD4(+) T cells and suggested that compromised T-helper functions may negatively impact the function of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. PMID:15013969

  6. Macrophage uptake of low-density lipoprotein bound to aggregated C-reactive protein: possible mechanism of foam-cell formation in atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Tao; Borensztajn, Jayme

    2002-01-01

    Foam cells found in atherosclerotic lesions are believed to derive from macrophages that take up aggregated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles bound to the extracellular matrix of arterial walls. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase protein found in atherosclerotic lesions, which when immobilized on a solid phase, can bind and cluster LDL particles in a calcium-dependent manner. In the present study, we examined whether CRP-bound aggregated LDL could be taken up by macrophages in culture. CRP molecules were aggregated in the presence of calcium and immobilized on the surface of polystyrene microtitre wells. Human LDL added to the wells bound to and aggregated on the immobilized CRP, also in a calcium-dependent manner. On incubation with macrophages, the immobilized CRP-bound LDL aggregates were readily taken up by the cells, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy, by the cellular accumulation of cholesterol and by the overexpression of adipophilin. Immunofluorescence microscopy and flow-cytometry analysis established that the uptake of the LDL-CRP complex was not mediated by the CRP receptor CD32. These observations with immobilized CRP and LDL, approximating the conditions that exist in the extracellular matrix of the arterial wall, thus suggest that CRP may contribute to the formation of foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions by causing the aggregation of LDL molecules that are then taken up by macrophages through a CD32-independent pathway. PMID:12033985

  7. Ozone-Induced Cell Death in Tobacco Cultivar Bel W3 Plants. The Role of Programmed Cell Death in Lesion Formation

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualini, Stefania; Piccioni, Claudia; Reale, Lara; Ederli, Luisa; Della Torre, Guido; Ferranti, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    Treatment of the ozone-sensitive tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bel W3) with an ozone pulse (150 nL L–1 for 5 h) induced visible injury, which manifested 48 to 72 h from onset of ozone fumigation. The “classical” ozone symptoms in tobacco cv Bel W3 plants occur as sharply defined, dot-like lesions on the adaxial side of the leaf and result from the death of groups of palisade cells. We investigated whether this reaction had the features of a hypersensitive response like that which results from the incompatible plant-pathogen interaction. We detected an oxidative burst, the result of H2O2 accumulation at 12 h from the starting of fumigation. Ozone treatment induced deposition of autofluorescent compounds and callose 24 h from the start of treatment. Total phenolic content was also strongly stimulated at the 10th and 72nd h from starting fumigation, concomitant with an enhancement in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase a and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase b expression, as evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. There was also a marked, but transient, increase in the mRNA level of pathogenesis-related-1a, a typical hypersensitive response marker. Overall, these results are evidence that ozone triggers a hypersensitive response in tobacco cv Bel W3 plants. We adopted four criteria for detecting programmed cell death in ozonated tobacco cv Bel W3 leaves: (a) early release of cytochrome c from mitochondria; (b) activation of protease; (c) DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling of DNA 3′-OH groups; and (d) ultrastructural changes characteristic of programmed cell death, including chromatin condensation and blebbing of plasma membrane. We, therefore, provide evidence that ozone-induced oxidative stress triggers a cell death program in tobacco cv Bel W3. PMID:14612586

  8. Interleukin-17- and interleukin-22-secreting myelin-specific CD4(+) T cells resistant to corticoids are related with active brain lesions in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Wing, Ana Cristina; Hygino, Joana; Ferreira, Thais B; Kasahara, Taissa M; Barros, Priscila O; Sacramento, Priscila M; Andrade, Regis M; Camargo, Solange; Rueda, Fernanda; Alves-Leon, Soniza V; Vasconcelos, Claudia Cristina; Alvarenga, Regina; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2016-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be an autoimmune disorder. It is believed that immunological events in the early stages have great impact on the disease course. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the cytokine profile of myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific T cells from MS patients in the early phase of the disease and correlate it to clinical parameters, as well as to the effect of in vitro corticoid treatment. Peripheral T cells from MS patients were stimulated with MBP with our without hydrocortisone for 5 days. The cytokines level were determined by ELISA. The number of active brain lesions was determined by MRI scans, and the neurological disabilities were assessed by Expanded Disability Status Scale scores. Our results demonstrated that MS-derived T cells responded to MBP by producing high levels of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 cytokines. Although the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IL-17 and IL-22 was less sensitive to hydrocortisone inhibition, only IL-17 and IL-22 levels correlated with active brain lesions. The ability of hydrocortisone to inhibit IL-17 and IL-22 production by MBP-specific CD4(+) T cells was inversely related to the number of active brain lesions. Finally, the production of both cytokines was significantly higher in cell cultures from Afrodescendant patients and it was less sensitive to hydrocortisone inhibition. In summary, our data suggest that IL-17- and IL-22-secreting CD4(+) T cells resistant to corticoids are associated with radiological activity of the MS in early stages of the disease, mainly among Afrodescendant patients who, normally, have worse prognosis. PMID:26781085

  9. Loss of Aβ-nerve endings associated with the Merkel cell-neurite complex in the lesional oral mucosa epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis

    PubMed Central

    Carrión, Daniela Calderón; Korkmaz, Yüksel; Cho, Britta; Kopp, Marion; Bloch, Wilhelm; Addicks, Klaus; Niedermeier, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The Merkel cell-neurite complex initiates the perception of touch and mediates Aβ slowly adapting type I responses. Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with T-cell-mediated inflammation, whereas hyperkeratosis is characterized with or without epithelial dysplasia in the oral mucosa. To determine the effects of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis on the Merkel cell-neurite complex, healthy oral mucosal epithelium and lesional oral mucosal epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients were stained by immunohistochemistry (the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and double immunofluorescence methods) using pan cytokeratin, cytokeratin 20 (K20, a Merkel cell marker), and neurofilament 200 (NF200, a myelinated Aβ- and Aδ-nerve fibre marker) antibodies. NF200-immunoreactive (ir) nerve fibres in healthy tissues and in the lesional oral mucosa epithelium of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were counted and statistically analysed. In the healthy oral mucosa, K20-positive Merkel cells with and without close association to the intraepithelial NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected. In the lesional oral mucosa of lichen planus and hyperkeratosis patients, extremely rare NF200-ir nerve fibres were detected only in the lamina propria. Compared with healthy tissues, lichen planus and hyperkeratosis tissues had significantly decreased numbers of NF200-ir nerve fibres in the oral mucosal epithelium. Lichen planus and hyperkeratosis were associated with the absence of Aβ-nerve endings in the oral mucosal epithelium. Thus, we conclude that mechanosensation mediated by the Merkel cell-neurite complex in the oral mucosal epithelium is impaired in lichen planus and hyperkeratosis. PMID:27025263

  10. Generation of Biotechnology-Derived Flavobacterium columnare Ghosts by PhiX174 Gene E-Mediated Inactivation and the Potential as Vaccine Candidates against Infection in Grass Carp

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenxing; Yang, Guiwen; Zhang, Yuyu; Yuan, Jinduo; An, Liguo

    2012-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is a bacterial pathogen causing high mortality rates for many freshwater fish species. Fish vaccination with a safe and effective vaccine is a potential approach for prevention and control of fish disease. Here, in order to produce bacterial ghost vaccine, a specific Flavobacterium lysis plasmid pBV-E-cat was constructed by cloning PhiX174 lysis gene E and the cat gene with the promoter of F. columnare into the prokaryotic expression vector pBV220. The plasmid was successfully electroporated into the strain F. columnare G4cpN22 after curing of its endogenous plasmid. F. columnare G4cpN22 ghosts (FCGs) were generated for the first time by gene E-mediated lysis, and the vaccine potential of FCG was investigated in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) by intraperitoneal route. Fish immunized with FCG showed significantly higher serum agglutination titers and bactericidal activity than fish immunized with FKC or PBS. Most importantly, after challenge with the parent strain G4, the relative percent survival (RPS) of fish in FCG group (70.9%) was significantly higher than FKC group (41.9%). These results showed that FCG could confer immune protection against F. columnare infection. As a nonliving whole cell envelope preparation, FCG may provide an ideal alternative to pathogen-based vaccines against columnaris in aquaculture. PMID:22719209

  11. Derivation of Aerosol Columnar Mass from MODIS Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasso, Santiago; Hegg, Dean A.

    2003-01-01

    In order to verify performance, aerosol transport models (ATM) compare aerosol columnar mass (ACM) with those derived from satellite measurements. The comparison is inherently indirect since satellites derive optical depths and they use a proportionality constant to derive the ACM. Analogously, ATMs output a four dimensional ACM distribution and the optical depth is linearly derived. In both cases, the proportionality constant requires a direct intervention of the user by prescribing the aerosol composition and size distribution. This study introduces a method that minimizes the direct user intervention by making use of the new aerosol products of MODIS. A parameterization is introduced for the derivation of columnar aerosol mass (AMC) and CCN concentration (CCNC) and comparisons between sunphotometer, MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) and in-measurements are shown. The method still relies on the scaling between AMC and optical depth but the proportionality constant is dependent on the MODIS derived r$_{eff}$,\\eta (contribution of the accumulation mode radiance to the total radiance), ambient RH and an assumed constant aerosol composition. The CCNC is derived fkom a recent parameterization of CCNC as a function of the retrieved aerosol volume. By comparing with in-situ data (ACE-2 and TARFOX campaigns), it is shown that retrievals in dry ambient conditions (dust) are improved when using a proportionality constant dependent on r$ {eff}$ and \\eta derived in the same pixel. In high humidity environments, the improvement inthe new method is inconclusive because of the difficulty in accounting for the uneven vertical distribution of relative humidity. Additionally, two detailed comparisons of AMC and CCNC retrieved by the MAS algorithm and the new method are shown. The new method and MAS retrievals of AMC are within the same order of magnitude with respect to the in-situ measurements of aerosol mass. However, the proposed method is closer to the in-situ measurements than

  12. The lethal interaction of x ray and penicillin induced lesions following x-irradiation of Escherichia coli B/r in the presence of hypoxic cell sensitizers

    SciTech Connect

    Gillies, N.E.; Obioha, F.I.

    1982-03-01

    When Escherichia coli B/r were x-irradiated under anoxia in the presence of different electron-affinic sensitizers and then incubated in broth containing penicillin (at a concentration that did not kill unirradiated cells) additional killing of the bacteria occurred provided the sensitizers were of relatively high lipophilicity. The overall effect was to increase the efficiency of these sensitizers. It is concluded that sensitizer-dependent latent radiation lesions(s) are produced in membrane components of the cell envelope that interact with damage caused by penicillin in the peptidoglycan layer and this causes the additional lethality.

  13. Cytotoxicity and DNA lesions produced by mitomycin C and porfiromycin in hypoxic and aerobic EMT6 and Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Fracasso, P M; Sartorelli, A C

    1986-08-01

    Solid neoplasms may contain deficient or poorly functional vascular beds, a property that leads to the formation of hypoxic tumor cells, which form a therapeutically resistant cell population within the tumor that is difficult to eradicate by ionizing irradiation and most existing chemotherapeutic agents. As an approach to the therapeutic attack of hypoxic cells, we have measured the cytotoxicity and DNA lesions produced by the bioreductive alkylating agents mitomycin C and porfiromycin, two structurally similar antibiotics, in oxygen-deficient and aerobic cells. Mitomycin C and porfiromycin were preferentially cytotoxic to hypoxic EMT6 cells in culture, with porfiromycin producing a greater differential kill of hypoxic EMT6 cells relative to their oxygenated counterparts than did mitomycin C. Chinese hamster ovary cells were more resistant to these quinone antibiotics; although in this cell line, porfiromycin was significantly more cytotoxic to hypoxic cells than to aerobic cells, and the degree of oxygenation did not affect the toxicity of mitomycin C. Alkaline elution methodology was utilized to study the formation of DNA single-strand breaks and DNA interstrand cross-links produced by mitomycin C and porfiromycin in both EMT6 and Chinese hamster ovary cells. A negligible quantity of DNA single-strand breaks and DNA interstrand cross-links were produced in hypoxic and aerobic Chinese hamster ovary cells by exposure to mitomycin C or porfiromycin, a finding consistent with the considerably lower sensitivity of this cell line to these agents. In EMT6 tumor cells, no single-strand breaks appeared to be produced by these antitumor antibiotics under both hypoxic and aerobic conditions; however, a significant number of DNA interstrand cross-links were formed in this cell line following drug treatment, with substantially more DNA interstrand cross-linking being produced under hypoxic conditions. Mitomycin C and porfiromycin caused the same amount of cross-linking under

  14. The cytoprotective effect of inulin-type hexasaccharide extracted from Morinda officinalis on PC12 cells against the lesion induced by corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Feng; Liu, Yan-Qin; Yang, Ming; Wang, Heng-Lin; Huang, Wen-Chao; Zhao, Yi-Min; Luo, Zhi-Pu

    2004-08-13

    High concentration of corticosterone (Cort) 0.2 mM was incubated with PC12 cells to simulate the lesion state of brain neurons in depressive illness, it was found that the inulin-type oligosaccharides extracted from Morinda officinalis, inulin-type hexasaccharide (IHS) at the doses of 0.625, 1.25 microM or desipramine (DIM) 0.25, 1 microM protected the PC12 cells from the lesion induced by Cort. With Fura-2/AM labeling assay, DIM 0.25, 1 microM or IHS 2.5, 10 microM attenuated the intracellular Ca2+ overloading induced by Cort 0.1 mM for 48 h in PC12 cells. Using RT-PCR, treatment with Cort 0.1 mM for 48 h decreased the nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA level in PC12 cells, IHS 5, 10 microM reversed this change. In summary, IHS attenuate the intracellular Ca2+ overloading and thereby up-regulate the NGF mRNA expression in Cort-treated PC12 cells, which may be consisted at least part of the cytopretective effect of IHS. These results also extend evidence for our hypothesis that neuroprotective action is one of the common mechanisms for antidepressants. PMID:15261759

  15. Formalin treatment of Trichondina sp. reduced Flavobacterium columnare infection in tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterium Flavobacterium columnare and protozoan Trichodina spp. are common pathogens of cultured fish. Recent studies on parasite-bacterium interaction show evidence that concurrent infections increase severity of some infectious diseases, especially bacterial diseases. The effect of parasite treat...

  16. Effect of far-field flow on a columnar crystal in the convective undercooled melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Ming-Wen; Xu, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Zi-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The growth behavior of a columnar crystal in the convective undercooled melt affected by the far-field uniform flow is studied and the asymptotic solution for the interface evolution of the columnar crystal is derived by means of the asymptotic expansion method. The results obtained reveal that the far-field flow induces a significant change of the temperature around the columnar crystal and the convective flow caused by the far-field flow accelerates the growth velocity of the interface of the growing columnar crystal in the upstream direction and inhibits its growth velocity in the downstream direction. Our results are similar to the experimental data and numerical simulations. Project supported by the Overseas Distinguished Scholar Program by the Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. MS2010BJKJ005), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 10972030), and the Science and Technology Support Project of Jiangxi, China (Grant No. 20112BBE50006).

  17. Analysis of the Flavobacterium columnare transcriptome reveals gene expression signatures mediating virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease causes substantial mortality worldwide in numerous freshwater cultured fish species. Despite its importance, a broader understanding of the genes and their protein products that mediate virulence is urgently needed. Therefore, in t...

  18. Room temperature supramolecular columnar liquid crystals formed by hydrogen bonding of isoquinoline derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyup Lee, Jun; Lee, Seung Jun; Jho, Jae Young

    2014-07-01

    We report new self-assembled discotic liquid crystals exhibiting columnar mesophases at room temperature, which are constructed by intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the core of 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene or 1,3,5-cyclohexanetricarboxylic acid and the peripheral molecules of isoquinoline derivatives. The mesomorphic properties of supramolecular liquid crystals were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, polarized optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The self-assembled liquid crystals exhibited rectangular columnar phases (Colro) with an ordered stacking structure of the mesogens in a column at room temperature, regardless of the type of the core molecule, due probably to the close-packed aromatic rings around a core molecule and the angular structure in three arms of the discotic mesogen. These room temperature columnar phases are rare examples for the discotic liquid crystals, and our findings in the present study provide a new way to prepare low melting columnar liquid crystalline materials for molecular electronics.

  19. Scale selection in columnar jointing: Insights from experiments on cooling stearic acid and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Amalie; Raufaste, Christophe; Misztal, Marek; Celestini, Franck; Guidi, Maria; Ellegaard, Clive; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    Many natural fracture systems are characterized by a single length scale, which is the distance between neighboring fractures. Examples are mud cracks and columnar jointing. In columnar jointing the origin of this scale has been a long-standing issue. Here we present a comprehensive study of columnar jointing based on experiments on cooling stearic acids, numerical simulations using both discrete and finite element methods and basic analytical calculations. We show that the diameter of columnar joints is a nontrivial function of the material properties and the cooling conditions of the system. We determine the shape of this function analytically and show that it is in agreement with the experiments and the numerical simulations.

  20. Compounds with Inhibitory Activity Against the Channel Catfish Pathogens Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and columnaris, the most common channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus diseases in the southeastern United States, are caused by the bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare, respectively. Although producers may rely on antibiotics and certain the...

  1. Formation of columnar (In,Ga)As quantum dots on GaAs(100)

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.; Noetzel, R.; Offermans, P.; Koenraad, P.M.; Gong, Q.; Hamhuis, G.J.; Eijkemans, T.J.; Wolter, J.H.

    2004-10-04

    Columnar (In,Ga)As quantum dots (QDs) with homogeneous composition and shape in the growth direction are realized by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs(100) substrates. The columnar (In,Ga)As QDs are formed on InAs seed QDs by alternating deposition of thin GaAs intermediate layers and monolayers of InAs with extended growth interruptions after each layer. The height of the columnar (In,Ga)As QDs is controlled by varying the number of stacked GaAs/InAs layers. The structural and optical properties are studied by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. With increase of the aspect ratio of the columnar QDs, the emission wavelength is redshifted and the linewidth is reduced.

  2. Proliferative lesion of anogenital mammary-like glands in the setting of Cowden syndrome: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hedayat, Amin A; Pettus, Jason R; Marotti, Jonathan D; Tafe, Laura J; Holubar, Stefan D; Lisovsky, Mikhail

    2016-08-01

    Mammary-like glands are normal appendages of anogenital skin and can give rise to epithelial and stromal tumors that closely resemble breast tumors. Cowden syndrome is an autosomal-dominant cancer-predisposition syndrome that is associated with increased risk of various benign and malignant tumors including breast cancers. Here, we report the first case of a proliferative lesion of mammary-like glands in the setting of Cowden syndrome. A 27-year-old female with Cowden syndrome (R130Q-PTEN mutation) presented with a 1-cm tender, polypoid perianal lesion. An excisional biopsy revealed a circumscribed, lobulated lesion with fibromyxoid stroma and epithelial hyperplasia with apocrine and columnar cell changes that was arranged in papillary, micropapillary and focal cribriform architecture. The features strikingly resembled proliferative changes commonly seen in the breast. Interestingly, the patient subsequently developed an atypical complex sclerosing lesion of the breast. Given the increased risk of breast neoplasia in Cowden syndrome, and the morphologic relationship between breast glands and mammary-like glands, this case raises the possibility of an increased risk of neoplasia arising in mammary-like glands in the setting of Cowden syndrome. PMID:27090873

  3. Piecemeal degranulation of mast cells in the inflammatory eyelid lesions of interleukin-4 transgenic mice. Evidence of mast cell histamine release in vivo by diamine oxidase-gold enzyme-affinity ultrastructural cytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, A M; Tepper, R I; Weller, P F; Morgan, E S; Estrella, P; Monahan-Earley, R A; Galli, S J

    1994-06-15

    We used light and electron microscopy to analyze the eyelid inflammation that develops in transgenic mice that overexpress interleukin-4 (IL-4; Tepper et al, Cell 62:457, 1990). Analysis of alkaline Giemsa-stained plastic sections examined by light microscopy (Dvorak et al, J Exp Med 132:558, 1970), as well as by routine transmission electron microscopy, indicated that the mast cells in the inflammatory eyelid lesions were undergoing piecemeal degranulation, a form of secretion in which the cells' cytoplasmic granules exhibit characteristic morphologic changes that are thought to be associated with the prolonged, vesicle-mediated release of the granules' constituents. Moreover, by using a newly reported enzyme affinity-gold method, which stains histamine based on binding to diamine oxidase-gold (Dvorak et al, J Histochem Cytochem 41:787, 1993), we show that these activated mast cells had released much of their histamine content. The eyelid lesions also exhibited increased numbers of mast cells; interstitial fibrosis, particularly around cutaneous nerves and blood vessels; activated fibroblasts; focal axonal damage; venules with endothelial cells containing numerous vesiculo-vacuolar organelles; and infiltrates of neutrophils and eosinophils. Our findings illustrate that overexpression of the IL-4 gene in vivo can result in eyelid lesions associated with piecemeal degranulation of mast cells, as well as tissue fibrosis and a variety of other pathologic changes. These results also represent the first direct morphologic evidence for histamine secretion by mast cells in vivo. PMID:7515717

  4. Anisotropic Bruggeman effective medium approaches for slanted columnar thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Daniel; Schubert, Mathias

    2013-08-01

    Two different formalisms for the homogenization of composite materials containing ellipsoidal inclusions based on Bruggeman's original formula for spherical inclusions can be found in the literature. Both approximations determine the effective macroscopic permittivity of such an idealized composite assuming randomly distributed dielectric particles of equal shape and differ only in the definition of the depolarization factors. The two approaches are applied to analyze ellipsometric Mueller matrix spectra acquired in the visible and near-infrared spectral region from metal and semiconductor slanted columnar thin films. Furthermore, the effective dielectric function tensor generated by the two Bruggeman formalisms is compared to effective major axes dielectric functions individually determined with a homogeneous biaxial layer approach. Best-match model parameters of all three model approaches are discussed and compared to estimates from scanning electron microscope images. The structural parameters obtained from all three optical modeling approaches agree well with the electron microscopy technique. A comparative discussion is given for the validity and applicability of the three model approaches for analysis of future devices structures that may require optical readout using generalized ellipsometry methods.

  5. Columnar-thin-film acquisition of fingermark topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaler, Robert C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Rogers, Jessica W.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.

    2010-08-01

    Fingerprint visualization obtained from physical evidence taken from crime scenes for subsequent comparison typically requires the use of physical and chemical techniques. One physical technique to visualize or develop sebaceous fingerprints on various surfaces employs the deposition of metals such as gold and zinc thereon. We have developed a different vacuum technology: the conformal-evaporated-film-by-rotation technique to deposit dense columnar thin films (CTFs) on latent fingerprints on different types of surfaces. Sample fingerprints, acting as nonplanar substrates, deposited on different surfaces were placed in a vacuum chamber with the fingerprint side facing a boat containing an evaporant material such as chalcogenide glass. Thermal evaporation of the solid material led to the formation of a dense CTF on the fingerprint, thereby capturing the topographical texture with high resolution. Our results show that it is possible to acquire the topology of latent fingerprints on non-porous surfaces. Additionally, deposition of CTFs on overlapping fingerprints suggested ours may be a technique for elucidating the sequence of deposition of the fingerprints at the scene.

  6. Columnar-thin-film acquisition of fingerprint topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaler, Robert C.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Rogers, Jessica W.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.

    2011-01-01

    Fingerprint visualization obtained from physical evidence taken from crime scenes for subsequent comparison typically requires the use of physical and chemical techniques. One physical technique to visualize or develop sebaceous fingerprints on various surfaces employs the deposition of metals such as gold and zinc thereon. We have developed a different vacuum technology: the conformal-evaporated-film-by-rotation technique to deposit dense columnar thin films (CTFs) on latent fingerprints on different types of surfaces. Sample fingerprints, acting as nonplanar substrates, deposited on different surfaces were placed in a vacuum chamber with the fingerprint side facing a boat containing an evaporant material such as chalcogenide glass. Thermal evaporation of the solid material led to the formation of a dense CTF on the fingerprint, thereby capturing the topographical texture with high resolution. Our results show that it is possible to acquire the topology of latent fingerprints on nonporous surfaces. Additionally, deposition of CTFs on overlapping fingerprints suggested ours may be a technique for elucidating the sequence of deposition of the fingerprints at the scene.

  7. Numerical Investigation of Synthetic Buoyancy-Induced Columnar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaya, Nicholas; Stogner, Roy; Moser, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Much of the solar energy incident on the Earth's surface is absorbed into the ground, which in turn heats the air layer above the surface. This buoyant air layer contains considerable gravitational potential energy. The energy can drive the formation of columnar vortices (``Dust-Devils'') which arise naturally in the atmosphere. These ``Dust-Devils'' occur over a wide range of scales in many different locations across the Earth, as well as on Mars. A new energy harvesting approach makes use of this ubiquitous process by creating and anchoring the vortices artificially and extracting energy from them. In this talk we explore the characteristics of these vorticies through numerical simulation. Computational models of the turning vane system used to generate the vortex have been developed. We will discuss the formulation of these models and their validation against available experimental measurements. We will also describe the use of these simulations to optimize the turning vane configuration to maximize the power extraction, as well as serving as a vehicle to probe the dynamics of the underlying physical processes. Finally, this talk will conclude with comparisons between the synthetic vorticies and the naturally occurring phenomena. This work supported by the Department of Energy [ARPA-E] under Award Number [DE-FOA-0000670].

  8. Correlation of E6 and E7 levels in high-risk HPV16 type cervical lesions with CCL20 and Langerhans cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, B; Xue, M

    2015-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV)16 E6 and E7 correlation with chemokine ligand (CCL)20 expression and Langerhans cells (LCs) in cervical lesions was investigated. We enrolled 43 patients with surgically treated cervical lesions from the Department of Gynecology in our hospital, and 20 controls without cervical lesions. Subjects were divided by pathology: HPV16(-) and HPV16(+) normal cervical groups (N = 10 each), and HPV16(+) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), cervical invasive carcinoma (N = 15 each), and in situ carcinoma (N = 13) groups. E6, E7, the LC surface marker CD1a, and CCL20 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. E6 and E7 in HPV16-type lesions were correlated with CCL20 and LCs. The average high power field cell numbers of CD1a+ LCs in the HPV(-) and HPV(+) normal cervix groups, and the CINI-II, CINIII in situ and cervical carcinoma groups were 22.89 ± 4.84, 13.7 ± 2.26, 9.2 ± 1.68, 5.9 ± 1.59, and 5.5 ± 1.58, respectively. Significant between-group differences existed except between cervical carcinoma and CINIII groups (P < 0.05). CCL20+ rates in each group were 70, 60, 60, 15.38, and 13.33%, respectively. E6/E7-positive expression rates in each group were 20/20, 66.7/66.7, 76.9/69.2, and 86.67/73.3%, respectively. CCL20 was positively correlated with CD1a (r = 0.649), and negatively correlated with E7 (r = -0.946) and E6 (r = -0.949). CD1a was negatively correlated with E6 (r = -0.632) and E7 (r = -0.632). Downregulation of CCL20 leading to LC decline is a key factor in cervical lesions. High-risk HPV-type lesions might inhibit the chemokine CCL20 through E6 and E7 to escape the immune response. PMID:26400278

  9. Experimental study on the mechanical properties of simulated columnar jointed rock masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Wei-min; Deng, Rong-gui; Zhong, Zhi-bin; Fu, Xiao-min; Wang, Cong-yan

    2015-02-01

    Columnar jointed rock mass is a kind of structural rock mass commonly encountered in igneous rocks. Due to the effects of columnar joint networks, anisotropy is the typical mechanical property of columnar jointed rock mass, i.e. deformation and strength varying with loading direction. Correct understanding of the mechanical anisotropy of columnar jointed rock mass is a key problem that should be solved for demonstration and design of large scale rock mass projects such as dams and underground cavern excavations constructed in it. Plaster simulated columnar jointed rock mass specimens at dip angles varying from 0° to 90° with respect to the axial stress were tested under uniaxial compression conditions to investigate the mechanical anisotropy and failure modes. Based on analyses of experimental results, it was found that the strength and deformation of columnar jointed rock masses had pronounced ‘U-shaped’ anisotropy. In the anisotropic curves, the maximum and minimum values occurred at β = 90° and β = 45°, respectively. It was also shown that the lateral strain ratio was relatively high, especially when the dip angle was close to (45° - φj/2), where φj was the joint friction angle. An empirical expression was adopted to predict the ‘U-shaped’ anisotropy of deformation and strength and the predicted anisotropic curves agreed reasonably well with experimental data. Furthermore, four types of failure modes were summarized based on experimental results and corresponding mechanisms were also discussed.

  10. An enteric nervous system progenitor cell implant promotes a behavioral and neurochemical improvement in rats with a 6-OHDA-induced lesion.

    PubMed

    Parra-Cid, Carmen; García-López, Julieta; García, Esperanza; Ibarra, Clemente

    2014-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) of mammals is derived from neural crest (NC) cells during embryogenesis and at the beginning of postnatal life. However, neural progenitor cells from the ENS (or ENSPC) are also found in the adult intestine and can be used for neuronal regeneration in diseases that lead to a loss of cell population, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), in which there is a decrease of dopaminergic neurons. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of ENSPC to restore damaged nervous tissue and to show that they are functional for a behavioral and neurochemical recovery. We found that animals with ENSPC implants exhibited a motor recovery of 35% vs. the lesion group. In addition, DA levels were partially restored in 34%, while Homovanillic acid (HVA) levels remained at 21% vs. the group with a 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced lesion, suggesting that ENSPC represent a possible alternative in the study of cell transplants and the preservation of functional dopaminergic neurons in PD. PMID:24686028

  11. Statistic study on developing condition of horizontal columnar joints in Jeongja and Eupchon beach areas, SE Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, K.; Kim, Y.; Geologic Structure; Geohazard Research Group

    2010-12-01

    Unusual patterns of columnar joints are developed in Tertiary volcanic rocks along the Jeongja and Eupchon beach areas, SE Korea. The columnar joints represent various features in shape and orientation, including horizontal and inclined column distribution. The shape and orientation of columnar joints were statistically analyzed to understand the causes of the unusual column patterns. For this purpose, the shape of the column face perpendicular to the column direction and the trend and plunge of the column are analyzed. Most columnar joints in the study areas have five or six column faces, and the column diameter perpendicular to the column direction is in a range of between 30 to 50 cm. Columnar joints generally develop vertically due to cooling from both top and bottom surfaces. However, unusual horizontal and inclined columnar joints are observed in the study areas. Therefore, the horizontal and inclined columnar joints developed in the study areas may suggest abnormal cooling condition. The volcanic rocks in the study areas intruded or extruded in late Miocene (22-16 Ma), which coincides with a period of high sea level in the Miocene. The sea level is almost the same as the present sea level. This may suggest that the unusual columnar joint patterns that have developed in the study areas may have been affected by sea water. Therefore, if the characteristics of these columnar joints are more intensively studied on a morphological, petrological, geochemical, and chronological level, we can better understand the developing mechanism of horizontal columnar joints.

  12. Prefrontal cortical recordings with biomorphic MEAs reveal complex columnar-laminar microcircuits for BCI/BMI implementation

    PubMed Central

    Opris, Ioan; Fuqua, Joshua L; Gerhardt, Greg A.; Hampson, Robert E.; Deadwyler, Sam A.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian prefrontal cortex known as the seat of high brain functions uses a six layer distribution of minicolumnar neurons to coordinate the integration of sensory information and the selection of relevant signals for goal driven behavior. To reveal the complex functionality of these columnar microcircuits we employed simultaneous recordings with several configurations of biomorphic microelectrode arrays (MEAs) within cortical layers in adjacent minicolumns, in four nohuman primates (NHPs) performing a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) visual discrimination task. We examined: 1) the functionality of inter-laminar, and inter-columnar interactions between pairs of cells in the same or different minicolumns by use of normalized cross-correlation histograms (CCH), 2) the modulation of Glutamate concentration in layer 2/3, and 3) the potential interactions within these microcircuits. The results demonstrate that neurons in both infra-granular and supra-granular layers interact through inter-laminar loops, as well as through intra-laminar to produce behavioral response signals. These results provide new insights into the manner in which prefrontal cortical microcircuitry integrates sensory stimuli used to provide behaviorally relevant signals that may be implemented in brain computer/machine interfaces (BCI/BMIs) during performance of the task. PMID:24954713

  13. Multiplex-PCR for simultaneous detection of 3 bacterial fish pathogens, Flavobacterium columnare, Edwardsiella ictaluri, and Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Panangala, Victor S; Shoemaker, Craig A; Van Santen, Vicky L; Dybvig, Kevin; Klesius, Phillip H

    2007-03-13

    A multiplex PCR (m-PCR) method was developed for simultaneous detection of 3 important fish pathogens in warm water aquaculture. The m-PCR to amplify target DNA fragments from Flavobacterium columnare (504 bp), Edwardsiella ictaluri (407 bp) and Aeromonas hydrophila (209 bp) was optimized by adjustment of reaction buffers and a touchdown protocol. The lower detection limit for each of the 3 bacteria was 20 pg of nucleic acid template from each bacteria per m-PCR reaction mixture. The sensitivity threshold for detection of the 3 bacteria in tissues ranged between 3.4 x 10(2) and 2.5 x 10(5) cells g(-1) of tissue (channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the m-PCR was evaluated with 10 representative isolates of each of the 3 bacteria and 11 other Gram-negative and 2 Gram-positive bacteria that are taxonomically related or ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. Except for a single species (A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida), each set of primers specifically amplified the target DNA of the cognate species of bacteria. m-PCR was compared with bacteriological culture for identification of bacteria in experimentally infected fish. The m-PCR appears promising for the rapid, sensitive and simultaneous detection of Flavobacterium columnare, E. ictaluri and A. hydrophila in infected fish compared to the time-consuming traditional bacteriological culture techniques. PMID:17465305

  14. A Large Repetitive RTX-Like Protein Mediates Water-Soaked Lesion Development, Leakage of Plant Cell Content and Host Colonization in the Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii Pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Roper, M Caroline; Burbank, Lindsey P; Williams, Kayla; Viravathana, Polrit; Tien, Hsin-Yu; von Bodman, Susanne

    2015-12-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is the etiological agent of Stewart's wilt and is a serious bacterial pathogen affecting sweet corn. During the leaf blight phase, P. stewartii colonizes the leaf apoplast and causes a characteristic water-soaked lesion. The Hrp type III secretion system has been implicated in the water-soaking phenotype, and the goal of this study was to investigate other potential factors that contribute to the plant cellular disruption associated with these lesions. The P. stewartii genome contains a gene encoding a large repetitive RTX toxin, designated rtx2. RTX toxins comprise a large family of pore-forming proteins, which are widely distributed among gram-negative bacteria. These cytotoxins usually lyse their target host cells and cause significant tissue damage as a consequence. We hypothesized that this RTX-like toxin plays a role in the water-soaking phase of infection due to its predicted cytolytic properties. Based on the data reported here, we conclude that RTX2 contributes significantly to the development of water-soaked lesions and leakage of plant cellular contents and is an important pathogenicity factor for P. stewartii. PMID:26284907

  15. Accuracy of autofluorescence in diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders: a comparative study with aero-digestive lesions

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaobo; Xu, Hao; He, Mingjing; Han, Qi; Wang, Hui; Sun, Chongkui; Li, Jing; Jiang, Lu; Zhou, Yu; Dan, Hongxia; Feng, Xiaodong; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Qianming

    2016-01-01

    Presently, various studies had investigated the accuracy of autofluorescence in diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) with diverse conclusions. This study aimed to assess its accuracy for OSCC and OPMD and to investigate its applicability in general dental practice. After a comprehensive literature search, a meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the pooled diagnostic indexes of autofluorescence for premalignant lesions (PML) and malignant lesions (ML) of the oral cavity, lung, esophagus, stomach and colorectum and to compute indexes regarding the detection of OSCC aided by algorithms. Besides, a u test was performed. Twenty-four studies detecting OSCC and OPMD in 2761 lesions were included. This demonstrated that the overall accuracy of autofluorescence for OSCC and OPMD was superior to PML and ML of the lung, esophagus and stomach, slightly inferior to the colorectum. Additionally, the sensitivity and specificity for OSCC and OPMD were 0.89 and 0.8, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity could be remarkably improved by additional algorithms. With relatively high accuracy, autofluorescence could be potentially applied as an adjunct for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD. Moreover, approaches such as algorithms could enhance its specificity to ensure its efficacy in primary care. PMID:27416981

  16. Accuracy of autofluorescence in diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders: a comparative study with aero-digestive lesions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaobo; Xu, Hao; He, Mingjing; Han, Qi; Wang, Hui; Sun, Chongkui; Li, Jing; Jiang, Lu; Zhou, Yu; Dan, Hongxia; Feng, Xiaodong; Zeng, Xin; Chen, Qianming

    2016-01-01

    Presently, various studies had investigated the accuracy of autofluorescence in diagnosing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) with diverse conclusions. This study aimed to assess its accuracy for OSCC and OPMD and to investigate its applicability in general dental practice. After a comprehensive literature search, a meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the pooled diagnostic indexes of autofluorescence for premalignant lesions (PML) and malignant lesions (ML) of the oral cavity, lung, esophagus, stomach and colorectum and to compute indexes regarding the detection of OSCC aided by algorithms. Besides, a u test was performed. Twenty-four studies detecting OSCC and OPMD in 2761 lesions were included. This demonstrated that the overall accuracy of autofluorescence for OSCC and OPMD was superior to PML and ML of the lung, esophagus and stomach, slightly inferior to the colorectum. Additionally, the sensitivity and specificity for OSCC and OPMD were 0.89 and 0.8, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity could be remarkably improved by additional algorithms. With relatively high accuracy, autofluorescence could be potentially applied as an adjunct for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD. Moreover, approaches such as algorithms could enhance its specificity to ensure its efficacy in primary care. PMID:27416981

  17. Characteristics of Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Patients with Long Survival: Prognostic Significance of Skin Lesions and Possible Beneficial Role of Valproic Acid.

    PubMed

    Yves, Plumelle; Stephane, Michel; Rishika, Banydeen; Christine, Delaunay; Gérard, Panelatti

    2015-01-01

    We describe the clinical and biological features of ten patients with a survival superior to ten years (long survival), out of 175 patients diagnosed with Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL) in Martinique (1983-2013). There were 5 lymphoma and 5 chronic subtypes. Five of them (3 chronic, 2 lymphoma) had been treated with valproic acid (VA) for neurological disorders developed before or after ATL diagnosis, suggesting a beneficial role for VA as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDI) in ATL treatment. Total duration of uninterrupted VA treatment ranged from 8 to 37 years. Overall, the 175 incident ATL cases presented with a median survival of 5.43 months. The five VA-treated (VA(+)) patients presented with longer survival compared to VA treatment-free patients (VA(-)). For chronic subtypes, survival periods were of 213 months for 3 VA(+) patients and of 33 months for 11 VA(-) patients (p = 0.023). For lymphoma subtypes, survival periods were of 144 months for 2 VA(+) patients versus 6 months for 49 VA(-) patients (p = 0.0046). ATL cases with skin lesions, particularly lymphoma subtypes, had a longer survival (13.96 months) compared to those without skin lesions (6.06 months, p = 0.002). Eight out of the 10 patients presenting with long survival had skin lesions. PMID:26199759

  18. Characteristics of Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Patients with Long Survival: Prognostic Significance of Skin Lesions and Possible Beneficial Role of Valproic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Yves, Plumelle; Stephane, Michel; Rishika, Banydeen; Christine, Delaunay; Gérard, Panelatti

    2015-01-01

    We describe the clinical and biological features of ten patients with a survival superior to ten years (long survival), out of 175 patients diagnosed with Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL) in Martinique (1983–2013). There were 5 lymphoma and 5 chronic subtypes. Five of them (3 chronic, 2 lymphoma) had been treated with valproic acid (VA) for neurological disorders developed before or after ATL diagnosis, suggesting a beneficial role for VA as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDI) in ATL treatment. Total duration of uninterrupted VA treatment ranged from 8 to 37 years. Overall, the 175 incident ATL cases presented with a median survival of 5.43 months. The five VA-treated (VA+) patients presented with longer survival compared to VA treatment-free patients (VA−). For chronic subtypes, survival periods were of 213 months for 3 VA+ patients and of 33 months for 11 VA− patients (p = 0.023). For lymphoma subtypes, survival periods were of 144 months for 2 VA+ patients versus 6 months for 49 VA− patients (p = 0.0046). ATL cases with skin lesions, particularly lymphoma subtypes, had a longer survival (13.96 months) compared to those without skin lesions (6.06 months, p = 0.002). Eight out of the 10 patients presenting with long survival had skin lesions. PMID:26199759

  19. Hemoglobin-driven pathophysiology is an in vivo consequence of the red blood cell storage lesion that can be attenuated in guinea pigs by haptoglobin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jin Hyen; D’Agnillo, Felice; Vallelian, Florence; Pereira, Claudia P.; Williams, Matthew C.; Jia, Yiping; Schaer, Dominik J.; Buehler, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Massive transfusion of blood can lead to clinical complications, including multiorgan dysfunction and even death. Such severe clinical outcomes have been associated with longer red blood cell (rbc) storage times. Collectively referred to as the rbc storage lesion, rbc storage results in multiple biochemical changes that impact intracellular processes as well as membrane and cytoskeletal properties, resulting in cellular injury in vitro. However, how the rbc storage lesion triggers pathophysiology in vivo remains poorly defined. In this study, we developed a guinea pig transfusion model with blood stored under standard blood banking conditions for 2 (new), 21 (intermediate), or 28 days (old blood). Transfusion with old but not new blood led to intravascular hemolysis, acute hypertension, vascular injury, and kidney dysfunction associated with pathophysiology driven by hemoglobin (Hb). These adverse effects were dramatically attenuated when the high-affinity Hb scavenger haptoglobin (Hp) was administered at the time of transfusion with old blood. Pathologies observed after transfusion with old blood, together with the favorable response to Hp supplementation, allowed us to define the in vivo consequences of the rbc storage lesion as storage-related posttransfusion hemolysis producing Hb-driven pathophysiology. Hb sequestration by Hp might therefore be a therapeutic modality for enhancing transfusion safety in severely ill or massively transfused patients. PMID:22446185

  20. Growth of modern branched columnar stromatolites in Lake Joyce, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Mackey, T J; Sumner, D Y; Hawes, I; Jungblut, A D; Andersen, D T

    2015-07-01

    Modern decimeter-scale columnar stromatolites from Lake Joyce, Antarctica, show a change in branching pattern during a period of lake level rise. Branching patterns correspond to a change in cyanobacterial community composition as preserved in authigenic calcite crystals. The transition in stromatolite morphology is preserved by mineralized layers that contain microfossils and cylindrical molds of cyanobacterial filaments. The molds are composed of two populations with different diameters. Large diameter molds (>2.8 μm) are abundant in calcite forming the oldest stromatolite layers, but are absent from younger layers. In contrast, <2.3 μm diameter molds are common in all stromatolites layers. Loss of large diameter molds corresponds to the transition from smooth-sided stromatolitic columns to branched and irregular columns. Mold diameters are similar to trichome diameters of the four most abundant living cyanobacteria morphotypes in Lake Joyce: Phormidium autumnale morphotypes have trichome diameters >3.5 μm, whereas Leptolyngbya antarctica, L. fragilis, and Pseudanabaena frigida morphotypes have diameters <2.3 μm. P. autumnale morphotypes were only common in mats at <12 m depth. Mats containing abundant P. autumnale morphotypes were smooth, whereas mats with few P. autumnale morphotypes contained small peaks and protruding bundles of filaments, suggesting that the absence of P. autumnale morphotypes allowed small-scale topography to develop on mats. Comparisons of living filaments and mold diameters suggest that P. autumnale morphotypes were present early in stromatolite growth, but disappeared from the community through time. We hypothesize that the mat-smoothing behavior of P. autumnale morphotypes inhibited nucleation of stromatolite branches. When P. autumnale morphotypes were excluded from the community, potentially reflecting a rise in lake level, short-wavelength roughness provided nuclei for stromatolite branches. This growth history provides a

  1. Feral livestock threatens landscapes dominated by columnar cacti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malo, J. E.; Acebes, P.; Giannoni, S. M.; Traba, J.

    2011-05-01

    The introduction and naturalization of alien species represents a serious threat to many natural protected areas. One such case of worldwide concern is the impact of feral livestock on arid ecosystems. Damage suffered by Echinopsis (= Trichocereus) terscheckii dominating the landscape of rocky slopes was surveyed in seven locations within the Ischigualasto-Talampaya World Heritage Site (Argentina) by measuring the frequency, position on the plant and extent of damage. At the same time we employed transects to estimate the abundance of autochtonous and feral large herbivores ( Lama guanicoe, Bos taurus, Equus asinus) from their dung. Our results show relatively high damage levels (40-77% of individuals damaged, more than 5 dm 3 removed by plant in some sites), particularly within 0.50-1.75 m above the ground, showing herbivores to be the main responsible for them. We also found significant differences between sites in variables measuring damage level and in the intensity of use by the two feral livestock species but not by guanacos. The frequency of damaged cacti below 1.75 m (but not above) was significantly positively correlated among locations with the frequencies of cattle and donkey dung, and the damage suffered by individual cacti was also correlated with donkey and cattle dung in their surroundings after correcting for spatial effects. However, all correlations were non-significant in the case of guanacos. We conclude that the continued presence of feral livestock, particularly donkeys, leads to damages to columnar cacti with potential effects on their populations and the physiognomy of this protected landscape.

  2. Current Concepts of the Pathogenesis and Pathology of Inflammatory Lesions of the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Shnitka, Theodor K.

    1964-01-01

    The histopathologic lesions of regional enteritis and ulcerative colitis, particularly in their early stages, are distinct and distinguishable, irrespective of the sites that are involved. Regional enteritis is characterized by lymphangiectasis, lymphedema, lymphoid hyperplasia, and granulomatous inflammation of the submucosal and subserosal layers of intestine, whereas chronic ulcerative colitis is an exudative, ulcerative disorder of the mucosal layer that commences with “crypt abscesses” and only in its later stages progresses to deeper coats of the wall. Electron microscopy of a rectal biopsy from a juvenile patient with chronic ulcerative colitis for five years disclosed a labyrinthine system of clefts and compartments between columnar, mucosal epithelial cells. Regenerated colonic epithelial cells were of primitive, germinal type and featured a “vesicular” rather than a “goblet” pattern of mucus secretion. Clusters of small “clavate fimbriae” projected from the tips of microvilli. Each of these newly recognized substructures measured 30 to 60 mμ. in diameter, and was enclosed by a tri-laminar “unit membrane”, derived from the surface plasma membrane of the cell. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19 PMID:14182565

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor induces post-lesion transcommissural growth of olivary axons that develop normal climbing fibers on mature Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Kirsty J; Sherrard, Rachel M

    2006-11-01

    In the adult mammalian central nervous system, reinnervation and recovery from trauma is limited. During development, however, post-lesion plasticity may generate alternate paths providing models to investigate factors that promote reinnervation to appropriate targets. Following unilateral transection of the neonatal rat olivocerebellar pathway, axons from the remaining inferior olive reinnervate the denervated hemicerebellum and develop climbing fiber arbors on Purkinje cells. However, the capacity to recreate this accurate target reinnervation in a mature system remains unknown. In rats lesioned on day 15 (P15) or 30 and treated with intracerebellar injection of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or vehicle 24 h later, the morphology and organisation of transcommissural olivocerebellar reinnervation was examined using neuronal tracing and immunohistochemistry. In all animals BDNF, but not vehicle, induced transcommissural olivocerebellar axonal growth into the denervated hemicerebellum. The distribution of reinnervating climbing fibers was not confined to the injection sites but extended throughout the denervated hemivermis and, less densely, up to 3.5 mm into the hemisphere. Transcommissural olivocerebellar axons were organised into parasagittal microzones that were almost symmetrical to those in the right hemicerebellum. Reinnervating climbing fiber arbors were predominantly normal, but in the P30-lesioned group 10% were either branched within the molecular layer forming a smaller secondary arbor or were less branched, and in the P15 lesion group the reinnervating arbors extended their terminals almost to the pial surface and were larger than control arbors (P < 0.02). These results show that BDNF can induce transcommissural olivocerebellar reinnervation, which resembles developmental neuroplasticity to promote appropriate target reinnervation in a mature environment. PMID:16790241

  4. Decreased type II/type I TGF-beta receptor ratio in cells derived from human atherosclerotic lesions. Conversion from an antiproliferative to profibrotic response to TGF-beta1.

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, T A; Consigli, S; Du, B; Falcone, D J; Sanborn, T A; Spokojny, A M; Bush, H L

    1995-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and postangioplasty restenosis may result from abnormal wound healing. The present studies report that normal human smooth muscle cells are growth inhibited by TGF-beta1, a potent wound healing agent, and show little induction of collagen synthesis to TGF-beta1, yet cells grown from human vascular lesions are growth stimulated by TGF-beta1 and markedly increase collagen synthesis. Both cell types increase plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 production, switch actin phenotypes in response to TGF-beta1, and produce similar levels of TGF-beta activity. Membrane cross-linking of 125I-TGF-beta1 indicates that normal human smooth muscle cells express type I, II, and III receptors. The type II receptor is strikingly decreased in lesion cells, with little change in the type I or III receptors. RT-PCR confirmed that the type II TGF-beta1 receptor mRNA is reduced in lesion cells. Transfection of the type II receptor into lesion cells restores the growth inhibitory response to TGF-beta1, implying that signaling remains responsive. Because TGF-beta1 is overexpressed in fibroproliferative vascular lesions, receptor-variant cells would be allowed to grow in a slow, but uncontrolled fashion, while overproducing extracellular matrix components. This TGF-beta1 receptor dysfunction may be relevant for atherosclerosis, restenosis and related fibroproliferative diseases. Images PMID:8675633

  5. Unusual lesions of the mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Shamsuddin, Fatima; Khadilkar, Urmila N; Saha, Debarshi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To study unusual lesions in the mediastinum, which do not originate from the thymus, lymph nodes, neural tissues or germ cells, and tissues that normally engender pathologic lesions in the mediastinum. Materials and Methods: Of the 65 cases seen, 12 unusual lesion were encountered in a 5½ year period from 2006 to 2011. Results: Two cases of nodular colloid goiter and one each of the mediastinal cyst, undifferentiated carcinoma, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) affected the anterosuperior mediastinum. In the middle mediastinum, one case each of the mesothelioma, malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), and pleomorphic sarcoma (PS) was seen. One case of meningeal melanocytoma (Mme) and primary pleural liposarcoma (PL) involved the posterior mediastinum. Persistent disease was seen in LCH after 2 years. Of all the cases with malignant lesions, only the patient with SCC was alive after 1 year. Conclusion: The cases of primary and SCC, LCH, melanocytoma, liposarcoma and PS, and GIST are unexpected and very rarely have paradigms in the mediastinum. Radiologic impression and knowledge of the compartment where these lesions arose from hardly assisted in arriving at a definitive opinion as the lesions were not typical of this location. A high index of suspicion and the immunohistochemical profile facilitated the final diagnosis. PMID:26664161

  6. The role of lymphocytes, granulocytes, mast cells and their related cytokines in lesional skin of linear IgA bullous dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Caproni, M; Rolfo, S; Bernacchi, E; Bianchi, B; Brazzini, B; Fabbri, P

    1999-06-01

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LAD) is an acquired, heterogeneous, subepidermal blistering disease characterized by linear IgA deposits at the dermoepidermal basement membrane zone (BMZ), often with circulating IgA antibodies to the BMZ. The pathogenetic mechanism, possibly related to the immunophenotype of infiltrating cells, as well as the potential role of cytokines in determining bullous lesions, have not yet been elucidated. An immunohistochemical study was performed with a large panel of monoclonal antibodies [to CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, CD1a, CD30, CD54, CD50, endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, myeloperoxidase (MPO), eosinophil cationic protein EG1 and EG2, tryptase, HLA-DR, human interleukin (IL)-3, human IL-5, human IL-8, human IL-4, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor] using the alkaline phosphatase-antialkaline phosphatase procedure on lesional and perilesional skin of nine patients (one male, eight female; age range 8 months-80 years) with clinical, histological and immunofluorescent proven LAD. The predominant infiltrating cells, distributed mostly inside and below the bullae, were neutrophils and eosinophils which showed intense activation (MPO +, EG1 +, EG2 +). The lymphocytic infiltrate, consisting principally of CD4 +, HLA-DR + and CD30 + T cells, had a predominantly perivascular distribution. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, showed a moderate focal expression on the dermal perivascular sites; IL-8 was found to have a particularly intense staining on all the epidermal cell layers and at perivascular and vascular sites. Other cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-5, showed a prevalent intracytoplasmic staining on some cells of the dermal infiltrate (probably mastocytes and lymphocytes), and at the dermal-epidermal separation sites there was also an intense scattered distribution of IL-5. The specific tissue lesions

  7. Adenoviral vector encoding soluble Flt-1 engineered human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells effectively regress endometriotic lesions in NOD/SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Koippallil Gopalakrishnan, A R; Pandit, H; Metkari, S M; Warty, N; Madan, T

    2016-07-01

    This study was undertaken to study the efficiency of Adsflt-1 engineered human eutopic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secreting anti-angiogenic sFlt-1 as a targeted cell-based therapy for endometriosis (EM). Eutopic MSCs were transduced with Adsflt-1/AdV0 viral vectors and were evaluated for expression and secretion of sFlt-1. EM was created in NOD/SCID mice using subcutaneous implantation techniques. Four doses of 10(6) MSC-Adsflt-1/MSC-AdV0 were administered to the model and therapeutic anti-angiogenic ability was analyzed by lesion size measurement, microvessel density, immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Approximately 86% of transduced MSCs expressed and secreted sFlt-1. MSC-Adsflt-1-treated animals exhibited significant reduction (52.8±1.8%) in size of endometriotic lesions. We observed a 2.3-fold decrease in the number and a 10-fold decrease in the size of endometrial glands in MSC-Adsflt-1-treated animals. A two-fold decrease in stromal cell densities was also observed in MSC-Adsflt-1-treated animals compared with the MSC-AdV0 group. Specific positive immunostaining for MSC marker, CD146 and sFlt-1 in the lesion sites of the MSC-Adsflt-1 group suggests possible homing of transduced MSCs, their survival and secretion of sFlt-1 at the target sites. A marked reduction in size of microvessels and microvessel density within endometriotic lesions and surrounding host subcutaneous layers was observed in MSC-Adsflt-1 group along with significantly downregulated expression of transcripts for vascular endothelial growth factor, fetal liver kinase 1 and matrix metalloproteinases (2 and 9). Our findings indicate the efficacy of a novel eutopic MSC-Adsflt-1 therapy in EM study models. Evaluating long-term effects of genetically modified MSCs in vivo is essential in translating MSC-Adsflt-1 therapy to the clinics. PMID:26990775

  8. Mechanical behavior and elastic properties of prestrained columnar ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Scott Aaron

    Experiments on columnar-grained ice at --10 °C reveal changes to its mechanical behavior and elastic properties due to compressive prestrain. Laboratory-grown (152-mm cube) specimens of freshwater and saline ice were prestrained under uniaxial across-column compression (to levels from epsilon p = 0.003 to epsilonp = 0.20, at constant strain rates in the ductile regime) and then reloaded, again under uniaxial across-column compression (at rates from 1x10--6 s--1 to 3 x 10--2s--1). Prestrain caused solid-state recrystallization as well as damage in the form of non-propagating microcracks. These microstructural changes were quantified by analysis of thin sections. Elastic properties in across-column directions, both parallel (x1) and perpendicular ( x2) to the initial loading direction, were obtained from P-wave and S-wave ultrasonic velocities. As a result (and depending on the level) of the prestrain imparted in both materials, Young's modulus E was reduced by as much as 30%; the ductile-to-brittle (D--B) transition strain rate epsilon D/B was increased up to a factor of 3 to 10; and the ductile behavior with respect to loading along a direction within the horizontal ( x1-x2) plane of the parent ice sheet changed from isotropic to anisotropic. As the prestrain rate approached the nominal D--B transition rate of initially undamaged material, the magnitudes of prestrain effects on elastic compliance increased. The shift in the D--B transition, on the other hand, was less sensitive to the prestrain rate. The results are interpreted within the framework of a recent model that predicts the transition strain rate based on the micromechanical boundary between creep and fracture processes. Prestrain primarily affected certain parameters in the model, specifically the power-law creep coefficient B (more so than the creep exponent n), Young's modulus E and, by extension, the fracture toughness KIc. The physical implications of these effects are discussed.

  9. Stem biomechanics of three columnar cacti from the Sonoran Desert.

    PubMed

    Molina-Freaner, F; Tinoco-Ojanguren, C; Niklas, K

    1998-08-01

    The allometric relationship of stem length L with respect to mean stem diameter D was determined for 80 shoots of each of three columnar cactus species (Stenocereus thurberi, Lophocereus schottii, and S. gummosus) to determine whether this relationship accords with that predicted by each of three contending models purporting to describe the mechanical architecture of vertical shoots (i.e., geometric, stress, and elastic similitude, which predict L proportional to D(alpha), with alpha = 1/1, 1/2, and 2/3, respectively). In addition, anatomical, physical, and biomechanical stem properties were measured to determine how the stems of these three species maintain their elastic stability as they increase in size. Reduced major axis regression of L with respect to D showed that alpha = 2.82 ± 0.14 for S. thurberi, 2.32 ± 0.19 for L. schottii, and 4.21 ± 0.31 for S. gummosus. Thus, the scaling exponents for the allometry of L differed significantly from that predicted by each of the three biomechanical models. In contrast, these exponents were similar to that for the allometry previously reported for saguaro. Analyses of biomechanical data derived from bending tests performed on 30 stems selected from each of the three species indicated that the bulk stem tissue stiffness was roughly proportional to L2, while stem flexural rigidity (i.e., the ability to resist a bending force) scaled roughly as L3. Stem length was significantly and positively correlated with the volume fraction of wood, while regression analysis of the pooled data from the three species (i.e., 90 stems) indicated that bulk tissue stiffness scaled roughly as the 5/3-power of the volume fraction of wood in stems. These data were interpreted to indicate that wood served as the major stiffening agent in stems and that this tissue accumulates at a sufficient rate to afford unusually high scaling exponents tot stem length with respect to stem diameter (i.e., disproportionately large increments of stem length

  10. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging Reveals Decreased CK5 Levels in Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinomas Compared to the Precursor Lesion Differentiated Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Arentz, Georgia; Winderbaum, Lyron; Lokman, Noor A.; Klingler-Hoffmann, Manuela; Mittal, Parul; Carter, Christopher; Oehler, Martin K.; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Vulvar cancer is the fourth most common gynecological cancer worldwide. However, limited studies have been completed on the molecular characterization of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma resulting in a poor understanding of the disease initiation and progression. Analysis and early detection of the precursor lesion of HPV-independent vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC), differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (dVIN), is of great importance given dVIN lesions have a high level of malignant potential. Here we present an examination of adjacent normal vulvar epithelium, dVIN, and VSCC from six patients by peptide Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI). The results reveal the differential expression of multiple peptides from the protein cytokeratin 5 (CK5) across the three vulvar tissue types. The difference observed in the relative abundance of CK5 by MALDI-MSI between the healthy epithelium, dVIN, and VSCC was further analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissue from eight VSCC patients. A decrease in CK5 immunostaining was observed in the VSCC compared to the healthy epithelium and dVIN. These results provide an insight into the molecular fingerprint of the vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia that appears to be more closely related to the healthy epithelium than the VSCC. PMID:27399691

  11. Optical characterization of lesions and identification of surgical margins in pancreatic metastasis from renal cell carcinoma by using two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Hong, Zhipeng; Chen, Hong; Chen, Youting; Xu, Yahao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Shi, Zheng; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-11-01

    Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy has become a powerful instrument for imaging unstained tissue samples in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine whether TPEF imaging of histological sections without hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) stain can be used to characterize lesions and identify surgical margins in pancreatic metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The specimens of a pancreatic metastasis from RCC, as well as a primary RCC from a patient, were examined by TPEF microscopy and compared with their corresponding H-E stained histopathological results. The results showed that high-resolution TPEF imaging of unstained histological sections of pancreatic metastasis from RCC can reveal that the typical morphology of the tissue and cells in cancer tissues is different from the normal pancreas. It also clearly presented histopathological features of the collagenous capsule, which is an important boundary symbol to identify normal and cancerous tissue and to instruct surgical operation. It indicated the feasibility of using TPEF microscopy to make an optical diagnosis of lesions and identify the surgical margins in pancreatic metastasis from RCC.

  12. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging Reveals Decreased CK5 Levels in Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinomas Compared to the Precursor Lesion Differentiated Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Arentz, Georgia; Winderbaum, Lyron; Lokman, Noor A; Klingler-Hoffmann, Manuela; Mittal, Parul; Carter, Christopher; Oehler, Martin K; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Vulvar cancer is the fourth most common gynecological cancer worldwide. However, limited studies have been completed on the molecular characterization of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma resulting in a poor understanding of the disease initiation and progression. Analysis and early detection of the precursor lesion of HPV-independent vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC), differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (dVIN), is of great importance given dVIN lesions have a high level of malignant potential. Here we present an examination of adjacent normal vulvar epithelium, dVIN, and VSCC from six patients by peptide Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI-MSI). The results reveal the differential expression of multiple peptides from the protein cytokeratin 5 (CK5) across the three vulvar tissue types. The difference observed in the relative abundance of CK5 by MALDI-MSI between the healthy epithelium, dVIN, and VSCC was further analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in tissue from eight VSCC patients. A decrease in CK5 immunostaining was observed in the VSCC compared to the healthy epithelium and dVIN. These results provide an insight into the molecular fingerprint of the vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia that appears to be more closely related to the healthy epithelium than the VSCC. PMID:27399691

  13. Biofilm Formation by the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: Development and Parameters Affecting Surface Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wenlong; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is a bacterial fish pathogen that affects many freshwater species worldwide. The natural reservoir of this pathogen is unknown, but its resilience in closed aquaculture systems posits biofilm as the source of contagion for farmed fish. The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the dynamics of biofilm formation and morphology under static and flow conditions and (ii) to evaluate the effects of temperature, pH, salinity, hardness, and carbohydrates on biofilm formation. Nineteen F. columnare strains, including representatives of all of the defined genetic groups (genomovars), were compared in this study. The structure of biofilm was characterized by light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. F. columnare was able to attach to and colonize inert surfaces by producing biofilm. Surface colonization started within 6 h postinoculation, and microcolonies were observed within 24 h. Extracellular polysaccharide substances and water channels were observed in mature biofilms (24 to 48 h). A similar time course was observed when F. columnare formed biofilm in microfluidic chambers under flow conditions. The virulence potential of biofilm was confirmed by cutaneous inoculation of channel catfish fingerlings with mature biofilm. Several physicochemical parameters modulate attachment to surfaces, with the largest influence being exerted by hardness, salinity, and the presence of mannose. Maintenance of hardness and salinity values within certain ranges could prevent biofilm formation by F. columnare in aquaculture systems. PMID:23851087

  14. Investigation of Functional Activity of Cells in Granulomatous Inflammatory Lesions from Mice with Latent Tuberculous Infection in the New Ex Vivo Model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The new ex vivo model system measuring functional input of individual granuloma cells to formation of granulomatous inflammatory lesions in mice with latent tuberculous infection has been developed and described in the current study. Monolayer cultures of cells that migrated from individual granulomas were established in the proposed culture settings for mouse spleen and lung granulomas induced by in vivo exposure to BCG vaccine. The cellular composition of individual granulomas was analyzed. The expression of the leukocyte surface markers such as phagocytic receptors CD11b, CD11c, CD14, and CD16/CD32 and the expression of the costimulatory molecules CD80, CD83, and CD86 were tested as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines (IFNγ and IL-1α) and growth factors (GM-CSF and FGFb) for cells of individual granulomas. The colocalization of the phagocytic receptors and costimulatory molecules in the surface microdomains of granuloma cells (with and without acid-fast BCG-mycobacteria) has also been detected. It was found that some part of cytokine macrophage producers have carried acid-fast mycobacteria. Detected modulation in dynamics of production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and leukocyte surface markers by granuloma cells has indicated continued processes of activation and deactivation of granuloma inflammation cells during the latent tuberculous infection progress in mice. PMID:24198843

  15. Decreased T-cell proliferative response to common environmental antigens could be an indicator of early human immunodeficiency virus-mediated lymphocyte lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Tassinari, P; Deibis, L; Blanca, I; Bianco, N E; Echeverría de Pérez, G

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate CD4+/CD29+ cells and their responses to different antigens in polar stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we studied 26 HIV-seropositive carriers (SPCs) and 15 patients with AIDS simultaneously with 20 healthy volunteers (HVs) and 10 seronegative homosexual and bisexual men (SNH). CD3, CD4, CD29, and CD45RA phenotypes were analyzed by two-color flow cytometry. Significant depletion of CD4+ T cells and both memory (CD4+/CD29+) and naive (CD4+/CD45RA+) T-cell subsets was found among SPCs and AIDS patients compared with the numbers of such cells in the HV and SNH groups. Responses to optimal doses of Candida albicans, streptokinase, and tetanus toxoid were explored in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD4(+)- and CD4+/CD29(+)-enriched cell populations. In SPCs, the response to C. albicans in peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed a statistically significant diminution compared with the response of HVs (15,308 versus 35,951 cpm). In addition, a significantly reduced response to streptokinase was evident only when cell preparations were CD4+/CD29+ enriched (3,048 versus 10,367 cpm). Furthermore, the SPC group comprised seven responders to at least one antigen and seven nonresponders to any of the selected specific antigens. Absence of a response in these latter patients was independent of the absolute counts of memory and naive T-cell populations. The response to tetanus toxoid, although diminished in SPCs, was not significantly different from that in controls. Our results suggest that defective responses to common environmental antigens, unrelated to the absolute number of CD4+/CD29+ cells, is probably an early indicator of an HIV-induced lymphocyte lesion. PMID:7583914

  16. Overexpression of Mitofusin 2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Yanhong; Chen Kuanghueih; Gao Wei; Li Qian; Chen Li; Wang Guisong Tang Jian

    2007-11-16

    Our previous studies have implies that Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), which was progressively reduced in arteries from ApoE{sup -/-} mice during the development of atherosclerosis, may take part in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we found that overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoprotein or serum induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by down-regulation of Akt and ERK phosphorylation. Then we investigated the in vivo role of Mfn2 on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits using adenovirus expressing Mitofusin 2 gene (AdMfn2). By morphometric analysis we found overexpression of Mfn2 inhibited atherosclerotic lesion formation and intima/media ratio by 66.7% and 74.6%, respectively, compared with control group. These results suggest that local Mfn2 treatment suppresses the development of atherosclerosis in vivo in part by attenuating the smooth muscle cell proliferation induced by lipid deposition and vascular injury.

  17. Columnar transmitter based wireless power delivery system for implantable device in freely moving animals.

    PubMed

    Eom, Kyungsik; Jeong, Joonsoo; Lee, Tae Hyung; Lee, Sung Eun; Jun, Sang Bum; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    A wireless power delivery system is developed to deliver electrical power to the neuroprosthetic devices that are implanted into animals freely moving inside the cage. The wireless powering cage is designed for long-term animal experiments without cumbersome wires for power supply or the replacement of batteries. In the present study, we propose a novel wireless power transmission system using resonator-based inductive links to increase power efficiency and to minimize the efficiency variations. A columnar transmitter coil is proposed to provide lateral uniformity of power efficiency. Using this columnar transmitter coil, only 7.2% efficiency fluctuation occurs from the maximum transmission efficiency of 25.9%. A flexible polymer-based planar type receiver coil is fabricated and assembled with a neural stimulator and an electrode. Using the designed columnar transmitter coil, the implantable device successfully operates while it moves freely inside the cage. PMID:24110073

  18. SAXS reveals the magnetic alignment pathway of the goethite columnar liquid crystal phase.

    PubMed

    Leferink op Reinink, Anke B G M; van den Pol, Esther; Vroege, Gert Jan; Petukhov, Andrei V

    2014-08-15

    The alignment of board-like colloidal goethite particles in the dense rectangular centred columnar liquid crystal phase in an external magnetic field is studied using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Transient SAXS-patterns show broadening of the columnar reflections in specific directions. While the reflections along the field stay at a constant Q-value, the other reflections do not. These results imply a certain pathway of reorientation. It appears that alignment proceeds via collective rotation of domains inducing 'nanoshear' between the layers of particles, which slide over each other. The results support the recently suggested martensitic transition pathway for the simple and centred rectangular columnar phases, which were found to spontaneously transform into each other in another goethite system. The results also provide a fine example of how SAXS can be used to study reorientation behaviour of liquid crystals at the nanoscale. PMID:24910068

  19. Examination of tissue distribution of Helicobacter pylori within columnar-lined esophagus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Demian, S E; Taillon, D; Vasudeva, R; Howden, C W

    1999-06-01

    H. pylori may colonize columnar-lined esophagus, although an etiologic role in esophageal adenocarcinoma is unproven. H. pylori can adhere to intestinal metaplasia in the stomach. This study was designed to examine if H. pylori adheres to specialized intestinal metaplasia in columnar-lined esophagus. Esophageal biopsies from patients with columnar-lined esophagus were reviewed. Patients with only gastric metaplasia were excluded. Sections with specialized intestinal metaplasia in at least one third of at least one gland were recut, stained using the Giemsa stain, and reexamined by two independent pathologists using strict criteria for adherence by H. pylori. The 209 esophageal biopsies with adequate specialized intestinal metaplasia from 58 patients were examined: H. pylori was only seen on gastric metaplasia in three patients-and never on specialized intestinal metaplasia. Within the esophagus, H. pylori adheres only to gastric metaplasia, which is not considered premalignant for esophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:10389690

  20. ISS-Experiments of Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in Solidification Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturz, Laszlo; Zimmermann, Gerhard; Gandin, Charles, Andre; Billia, Bernard; Magelinck, Nathalie; Nguyen-Thi, Henry; Browne, David John; Mirihanage, Wajira U.; Voss, Daniela; Beckermann, Christoph; Karma, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The main topic of the research project CETSOL in the framework of the Microgravity Application Promotion (MAP) programme of the European Space Agency (ESA) is the investigation of the transition from columnar to equiaxed grain growth during solidification. Microgravity environment allows for suppression of buoyancy-driven melt flow and for growth of equiaxed grains free of sedimentation and buoyancy effects. This contribution will present first experimental results obtained in microgravity using hypo-eutectic AlSi alloys in the Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The analysis of the experiments confirms the existence of a columnar to equiaxed transition, especially in the refined alloy. Temperature evolution and grain structure analysis provide critical values for the position, the temperature gradient and the solidification velocity at the columnar to equiaxed transition. These data will be used to improve modeling of solidification microstructures and grain structure on different lengths scales.

  1. Krüppel-Like Factor 13 Deficiency in Uterine Endometrial Cells Contributes to Defective Steroid Hormone Receptor Signaling but Not Lesion Establishment in a Mouse Model of Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Heard, Melissa E; Velarde, Michael C; Giudice, Linda C; Simmen, Frank A; Simmen, Rosalia C M

    2015-06-01

    Krüppel-like Factor (KLF) 13 and the closely related KLF9 are members of the Sp/KLF family of transcription factors that have collectively emerged as essential regulators of tissue development, differentiation, proliferation, and programmed cell death. Steroid hormone-responsive tissues express multiple KLFs that are linked to progesterone receptor (PGR) and estrogen receptor (ESR) actions either as integrators or as coregulators. Endometriosis is a chronic disease characterized by progesterone resistance and dysregulated estradiol signaling; nevertheless, distinct KLF members' contributions to endometriosis remain largely undefined. We previously demonstrated promotion of ectopic lesion establishment by Klf9 null endometrium in a mouse model of endometriosis. Here we evaluated whether KLF13 loss of expression in endometrial cells may equally contribute to lesion formation. KLF13 transcript levels were lower in the eutopic endometria of women with versus women without endometriosis at menstrual midsecretory phase. In wild-type (WT) mouse recipients intraperitoneally administered WT or Klf13 null endometrial fragments, lesion incidence did not differ with donor genotype. No differences were noted for lesion volume, number, proliferation status, and apoptotic index as well. Klf13 null lesions displayed reduced total PGR and ESR1 (RNA and immunoreactive protein) and altered expression of several PGR and ESR1 target genes, relative to WT lesions. Unlike for Klf9 null lesions, changes in transcript levels for PGR-A, ESR1, and Notch/Hedgehog-associated pathway components were not observed for Klf13 null lesions. Results demonstrate lack of a causative relationship between endometrial KLF13 deficiency and lesion establishment in mice, and they support the broader participation of multiple signaling pathways, besides those mediated by steroid receptors, in the pathology of endometriosis. PMID:25904015

  2. Cannabinoids and neuronal damage: differential effects of THC, AEA and 2-AG on activated microglial cells and degenerating neurons in excitotoxically lesioned rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Kreutz, Susanne; Koch, Marco; Ghadban, Chalid; Korf, Horst-Werner; Dehghani, Faramarz

    2007-01-01

    Cannabinoids (CBs) are attributed neuroprotective effects in vivo. Here, we determined the neuroprotective potential of CBs during neuronal damage in excitotoxically lesioned organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs). OHSCs are the best characterized in vitro model to investigate the function of microglial cells in neuronal damage since blood-borne monocytes and T-lymphocytes are absent and microglial cells represent the only immunocompetent cell type. Excitotoxic neuronal damage was induced by NMDA (50 microM) application for 4 h. Neuroprotective properties of 9-carboxy-11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), N-arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) or 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in different concentrations were determined after co-application with NMDA by counting degenerating neurons identified by propidium iodide labeling (PI(+)) and microglial cells labeled by isolectin B(4) (IB(4)(+)). All three CBs used significantly decreased the number of IB(4)(+) microglial cells in the dentate gyrus but the number of PI(+) neurons was reduced only after 2-AG treatment. Application of AM630, antagonizing CB2 receptors highly expressed by activated microglial cells, did not counteract neuroprotective effects of 2-AG, but affected THC-mediated reduction of IB(4)(+) microglial cells. Our results indicate that (1) only 2-AG exerts neuroprotective effects in OHSCs; (2) reduction of IB(4)(+) microglial cells is not a neuroprotective event per se and involves other CB receptors than the CB2 receptor; (3) the discrepancy in the neuroprotective effects of CBs observed in vivo and in our in vitro model system may underline the functional relevance of invading monocytes and T-lymphocytes that are absent in OHSCs. PMID:17010339

  3. Columnar discharge mode between parallel dielectric barrier electrodes in atmospheric pressure helium

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Yanpeng; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yaoge

    2014-01-15

    Using a fast-gated intensified charge-coupled device, end- and side-view photographs were taken of columnar discharge between parallel dielectric barrier electrodes in atmospheric pressure helium. Based on three-dimensional images generated from end-view photographs, the number of discharge columns increased, whereas the diameter of each column decreased as the applied voltage was increased. Side-view photographs indicate that columnar discharges exhibited a mode transition ranging from Townsend to glow discharges generated by the same discharge physics as atmospheric pressure glow discharge.

  4. Morphology and structure properties of columnar CsI films on optical fiber plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Dalin; Gu, Mu; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Shimin; Liu, Bo; Ni, Chen

    2011-02-01

    Among scintillators, columnar CsI screens are used in applications detecting charged particles, UV light or X-ray for high energy physics and medical radiography. CsI scintillator can be grown in special microcolumnar form that preserves spatial resolution in thick coatings. We report on the columnar CsI films fabricated directly on optical-fiber plate by traditional vacuum deposition method. There morphology and structure were examined by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Properties of films depend on deposit condition are discussed.

  5. Morphology and structure properties of columnar CsI films on optical fiber plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Dalin; Gu, Mu; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Shimin; Liu, Bo; Ni, Chen

    2010-10-01

    Among scintillators, columnar CsI screens are used in applications detecting charged particles, UV light or X-ray for high energy physics and medical radiography. CsI scintillator can be grown in special microcolumnar form that preserves spatial resolution in thick coatings. We report on the columnar CsI films fabricated directly on optical-fiber plate by traditional vacuum deposition method. There morphology and structure were examined by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Properties of films depend on deposit condition are discussed.

  6. Th17 and regulatory T cells contribute to the in situ immune response in skin lesions of Jorge Lobo's disease.

    PubMed

    Kanashiro-Galo, Luciane; Pagliari, Carla; Barboza, Tania Cristina; de Brito, Arival Cardoso; Xavier, Marilia Brasil; de Oliveira, Clivia Maria Moraes; Unger, Deborah Aben Athar; Sotto, Mirian Nacagami; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas

    2016-01-01

    Jorge Lobo's disease (JLD) is a chronic granulomatous mycosis described in various Latin American countries. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the possible role of Th17 and Foxp3+ Treg cells in the pathogenesis of Jorge Lobo's disease. Human skin biopsies were submitted to an immunohistochemistry protocol to detect Foxp3, interleukin (IL)-1beta, CD25, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-23. The epidermis presented acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and frequent presence of fungi. The dermis presented inflammatory infiltrate comprising macrophages, lymphocytes, epithelioid and multinucleated cells, and an intense number of fungi. Foxp3+ Treg cells and IL-17+ cells were visualized in lymphocytes in the inflammatory infiltrate. IL-1, IL-2R (CD25), IL-6, and IL-23 were visualized in the dermis, intermingled with fungal cells, permeating or participating of the granuloma. Following IL-17, the most prominent cytokine was IL-6. IL-23 and cells expressing CD25 were present in fewer number. The comparative analysis between IL-17 and Foxp3 demonstrated a statistically significant increased number of IL-17+ cells. Th17 cells play a role in the immune response of JLD. IL-1beta and IL-6 added to the previously described increased number of TGF-beta would stimulate such pattern of response. Th17 cells could be present as an effort to modulate the local immune response; however, high levels of a Th17 profile could overcome the role of Treg cells. The unbalance between Treg/Th17 cells seems to corroborate with the less effective immune response against the fungus. PMID:26333354

  7. Improved Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Procedure for the Analysis of F. columnare Isolates Previously Affected by DNA Degradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is a fresh water bacterium that causes columnaris diseases in over 36 fish species. Intra-species typing of F. columnare can be performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). However, this method is hampered by the degradation of chromosomal DNA in about 10% of strain...

  8. PRODUCTION, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF VIRULENCE OF AN ADHESION DEFECTIVE MUTANT OF FLAVOBACTERIUM COLUMNARE PRODUCED BY B-LACTUM SELECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate mutants of Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease in fish. Serial passage on ampicillin ( -lactam) enriched modified Hsu-Shotts medium resulted in a F. columnare mutant that differed from the parent strain in colony morph...

  9. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare was demonstrated in experimentally infected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare to mimic a subacute infec...

  10. Evaluation of a 4-h static copper sulphate treatment against experimental infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of copper sulfate (CuSO4) against early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was evaluated. Fish were challenged, by waterborne exposure to F. columnare in an ultra-low flow-through water delivery system, and tre...

  11. Expression of NO-synthase in cells of foreign-body and BCG-induced granulomata in mice: influence of L-NAME on the evolution of the lesion.

    PubMed Central

    Kreuger, M R; Tames, D R; Mariano, M

    1998-01-01

    The microbicidal activity of macrophages in an inflammatory milieu has been related to the production of a large number of cytokins and intermediary metabolites of oxygen and nitrogen among them, nitric oxide (NO). Considering that granulomatous inflammation is predominantly composed of macrophages and epithelioid cells, we decided to investigate the participation of NO in this peculiar type of inflammation. Two models were used: glass cover slip implantation into the subcutaneous tissue of mice and, the inoculation of live bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) into the footpad of the animals. Using a histochemical method for the detection of NO synthase and of the concentration of citrulin metabolized by cells obtained from cover slips implanted on different time intervals or BCG-activated peritoneal cells, it was possible to demonstrate that epithelioid cells do not produce NO. Cells from granuloma induced by BCG inoculation express NO synthase, with different degrees of reactivity with a higher intensity in the cytoplasm of cells located in the edge of the lesions. The expression of NO synthase in the cytoplasm of these cells decreases with the age of the lesions. It could also be demonstrated that in mice treated with l-name, an inhibitor of NO metabolism, the lesions induced by BCG lost the granulomatous architecture, were necrotic, and had a significant increase in the bacillary load of the lesion. These data allow us to conclude that NO production by macrophages is a determining factor in the organization of the granulomatous lesion and that it also controls the bacterial load in BCG-induced lesions in mice. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:9824487

  12. The Comparative Protective Effects of Ganoderma Spores Lipid and Fish Oil on N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea-Induced Photoreceptor Cell Lesion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Deng, Xin-Guo; Li, Na; Luo, Guang-Wei; Chung, Peter C. K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To compare Ganoderma spores lipid (GSL) and fish oil (FO) in inhibiting retinal photoreceptor cell lesions induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in rats. Methods. 120 rats were untreated (normal control, NC group) or treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg MNU (MNU group) then treated with GSL (GSL group) or FO (FO group). Eyes were obtained at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days. Results. Light microscopy assay demonstrated that GSL and FO alleviated rat retinal photoreceptor cell damage (GSL and FO versus MNU group P < .001) similarly (GSL versus FO group P = .980). Electron microscopy confirmed that GSL and FO reversed damage to photoreceptor segments and photoreceptor cell nuclei. GSL-treated rats showed significantly elevated a-wave and b-wave amplitudes over MNU group (P < .05) but less than NC group (P < .05) and not significantly different from FO group (P > .05). Conclusion. GSL, like FO, alleviates rat retinal photoreceptor cell damage induced by MNU. PMID:21660315

  13. Manganese-induced oxidative DNA damage in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells: attenuation of thymine base lesions by glutathione and N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Adrienne P; Schneider, Jeffrey A; Nelson, Bryant C; Atha, Donald H; Jain, Ashok; Soliman, Karam F A; Aschner, Michael; Mazzio, Elizabeth; Renee Reams, R

    2013-04-26

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element required for normal function and development. However, exposure to this metal at elevated levels may cause manganism, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with neurological symptoms similar to idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Elevated body burdens of Mn from exposure to parental nutrition, vapors in mines and smelters and welding fumes have been associated with neurological health concerns. The underlying mechanism of Mn neurotoxicity remains unclear. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the toxic effects of Mn(2+) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Mn(2+) caused a concentration dependent decrease in SH-SY5Y cellular viability compared to controls. The LD50 value was 12.98 μM Mn(2+) (p<0.001 for control vs. 24h Mn treatment). Both TUNEL and annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis assays confirmed the induction of apoptosis in the cells following exposure to Mn(2+) (2 μM, 62 μM or 125 μM). In addition, Mn(2+) induced both the formation and accumulation of DNA single strand breaks (via alkaline comet assay analysis) and oxidatively modified thymine bases (via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis). Pre-incubation of the cells with characteristic antioxidants, either 1mM N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or 1mM glutathione (GSH) reduced the level of DNA strand breaks and the formation of thymine base lesions, suggesting protection against oxidative cellular damage. Our findings indicate that (1) exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to Mn promotes both the formation and accumulation of oxidative DNA damage, (2) SH-SY5Y cells with accumulated DNA damage are more likely to die via an apoptotic pathway and (3) the accumulated levels of DNA damage can be abrogated by the addition of exogenous chemical antioxidants. This is the first known report of Mn(2+)-induction and antioxidant protection of thymine lesions in this SH-SY5Y cell line and contributes new information to the potential use of antioxidants

  14. Surgical injury-induced early neocortical microvascular changes and characteristics of the cells populating the peri-lesion zone.

    PubMed

    Sulejczak, Dorota; Chrapusta, Stanisław J; Kozłowski, Wojciech; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Adult mammalian brain contains a number of specialized neurovascular structures termed "niches" that act as sources of neuronal cells throughout the individual's life. Some of the niches generate neurons to satisfy the need for 'replacement' neurons within the same or closely located brain structures, whereas the other can provide such cells for more distant destinations in the brain. A common characteristic of known neurovascular niches is the presence of a complex 3-dimensional network of basal lamina processes, called fractones. It apparently plays a major role in communication between the various niche-populating cell types as well as in niche activity and output. We hypothesized that similar niches may form ad hoc after a mechanical brain trauma, and tested this possibility in a rat model of surgical brain injury. Four days after removing a small fragment of sensorimotor cortex, the peri-wound region showed numerous symptoms of active repair and remodeling of brain parenchyma, including the presence of multiple cell types of immature phenotypes. The latter, as shown by a variety of light and electron microscopy techniques, included endothelial cell precursors as well as nestin-positive immature neural cells of astrocytic or non-glial characteristics. However, there was no evidence of in situ neurogenesis or a considerable migration of cells from SVZ. The centers of the said repair processes were capillary blood vessels connected with basal lamina-formed fractones. These results indicate that surgical brain trauma causes the formation of a vascular niche with no apparent neurogenic potential. PMID:27373950

  15. Salt and stress synergize H. pylori-induced gastric lesions, cell proliferation, and p21 expression in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Dominguez, Armando; Ubbelohde, Tom; Saqui-Salces, Milena; Romano-Mazzoti, Luis; Cervantes, Minerva; Domínguez-Fonseca, Claudia; de la Luz Estreber, Maria; Ruíz-Palacios, Guillermo M

    2007-06-01

    Our aim was to determine if salt and stress enhance Helicobacter pylori (Hp) lesions in Meriones unguiculatus. Two hundred seventy-eight pathogen-free gerbils were allocated to seven groups: Hp-Sydney strain (45), 8% higher-salt diet (38), stress (60% space reduction/water immersion; 36), Hp + salt (33), Hp + stress (34), N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (34), and sham (58). Gerbils were sacrificed at 1 week (67), 12 weeks (73), 52 weeks (65), and 68 weeks (73). Sydney, Padova, and Lauren classifications were blindly used. Proliferation, p53, p21, and apoptosis were assessed. Follicular active gastritis (grade 2/3) was observed in 10% of Hp gerbils, 38% of Hp + salt gerbils, and 29% of Hp + stress gerbils at 52 weeks and 67%, 83%, and 43% at 68 weeks (P < 0.05). Heterotopic proliferative glands were identified in synergy groups from 52 weeks, with increases in their number and size by 68 weeks. Higher proliferative rates were observed in Hp+salt gerbils (P < 0.0001), and p21 overexpression in Hp+salt and Hp+stress gerbils (both P's < 0.0001), by 68 weeks, without p53 increases. We conclude that salt and stress synergize Hp damage and increase pseudo-invasive gland foci. PMID:17404882

  16. Pathogen inactivation of whole blood and red cell components: an overview of concept, design, developments, criteria of acceptability and storage lesion.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, Jerard; Putter, Jeffrey S

    2013-10-01

    Multilayer preventative strategies have been instituted to enhance transfusion safety for patients in need of critical blood components. Presently blood safety is at its highest levels, with the implementation of precautionary/preventative measures against vCJD, bacterial and viral contamination of the blood supply. The implementation of these strategies together with advances in automation and computerization led to significant improvements in standardisation for transfusion practices. These include validation, verification, adherence to GLP and GMP and other regulatory requirements. In most European countries, universal prestorage leukodepletion is routine practice. In France proactive pathogen inactivation treatments [PITs] have been implemented emphasizing patient safety. This at least conceptually reduces the risk of transfusing viable WBCs, emerging bacteria and viruses, all with potential transfusion complications. In the UK, prion removal filters for red cell products are used selectively for special groups of patients. Some research establishments are exploring the potential impact of pathogen inactivation of whole blood or red cell components, using the new generation of S-303 PIT and the prion removal filters in combination. It needs to be determined whether such a combined strategy, applied synergistically, enhances red cell transfusion safety without compromising the overall criteria of acceptability. It is necessary to critically examine the impact of a new generation of PIT technologies, which may exacerbate the red cell storage lesion and cause the development of undesirable antibodies in the recipient. The development of innovative laboratory tools is vital to study impacts of these measures on the quality of stored blood and their clinical outcome. The ultimate aim of red cell transfusion is to provide oxygen enriched red blood cells to the microcirculations and tissues. Definitive studies are needed to establish the potential unforeseen negative

  17. Epstein-Barr Virus-Positive T/NK-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorders Manifested as Gastrointestinal Perforations and Skin Lesions: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hai-Juan; Li, Ji; Song, Hong-Mei; Li, Zheng-Hong; Dong, Mei; Zhou, Xiao-Ge

    2016-02-01

    Systemic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) of childhood is a highly aggressive EBV-positive T/natural killer (NK)-cell LPD, which emerges in the background of chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) or shortly after primary acute EBV infection. The clinical presentations of CAEBV are varied; patients with atypical manifestations are easily misdiagnosed. We described a 14-year-old boy suffering from digestive disorders and intermittent fever for 1 year and 9 months, whose conditions worsened and skin lesions occurred 2 months before hospitalization. He was diagnosed as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and treated accordingly. His other clinical features, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated inflammatory marks, were found in hospitalization. The boy suffered from repeatedly spontaneous intestinal perforations shortly after hospitalization and died of intestinal hemorrhea. The pathological results of intestine and skin both showed EBV-positive T/NK-cell LPD (lymphoma stage).There are rare studies reporting gastrointestinal perforations in EBV-positive T/NK-cell LPD, let alone repeatedly spontaneous perforations. Based on the clinical features and pathological results of this patient, the disease progressed from CAEBV (T-cell type) to systemic EBV-positive T-cell LPD of childhood (lymphoma). Not all the patients with CAEBV could have unusual patterns of anti-EBV antibodies. However, the presence of high EBV loads (EBV-encoded early small ribonucleic acid (RNA) (EBER) in affected tissues and/or EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in peripheral blood) is essential for diagnosing CAEBV. Maybe because of his less common clinical features for CAEBV and negative anti-EBV antibodies, the boy was not diagnosed correctly. We should have emphasized the test for EBER or EBV-DNA. Meanwhile, for the IBD patients whose manifestations were not typical, and whose conditions were not improved by suitable

  18. Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Methyl Eugenol-induced Nonneoplastic and Neoplastic Neuroendocrine Cell Lesions in Glandular Stomach of Rats.

    PubMed

    Janardhan, Kyathanahalli S; Rebolloso, Yvette; Hurlburt, Geoffrey; Olson, David; Lyght, Otis; Clayton, Natasha P; Gruebbel, Margarita; Picut, Catherine; Shackelford, Cynthia; Herbert, Ronald A

    2015-07-01

    Methyl eugenol induces neuroendocrine (NE) cell hyperplasia and tumors in F344/N rat stomach. Detailed histopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) characterization of these tumors has not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to fill that data gap. Archived slides and paraffin blocks were retrieved from the National Toxicology Program Archives. NE hyperplasias and tumors were stained with chromogranin A, synaptophysin, amylase, gastrin, H(+)/K(+) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), pepsinogen, somatostatin, and cytokeratin 18 (CK18) antibodies. Many of the rats had gastric mucosal atrophy, due to loss of chief and parietal cells. The hyperplasias and tumors were confined to fundic stomach, and females were more affected than the males. Hyperplasia of NE cells was not observed in the pyloric region. Approximately one-third of the females with malignant NE tumors had areas of pancreatic acinar differentiation. The rate of metastasis was 21%, with liver being the most common site of metastasis. Immunohistochemically, the hyperplasias and tumors stained consistently with chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Neoplastic cells were also positive for amylase and CK18 and negative for gastrin, somatostatin, H(+)/K(+) ATPase, and pepsinogen. Metastatic neoplasms histologically similar to the primary neoplasm stained positively for chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Based on the histopathological and IHC features, the neoplasms appear to arise from enterochromaffin-like cells. PMID:25452433

  19. There must be something in the water (for F. columnare pathogenesis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Why can we routinely produce columnaris infections in our lab, while the lab on the other side of the ditch can't? Anecdotal reports suggest that tannins may inhibit F. columnare. Do tannins in their water prevent this, or are other water chemistry parameters involved? In the first experiment, tw...

  20. Kaolinitic clay protects against Flavobacterium columnare infection in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare, continues to be a major problem worldwide in aquaculture settings. Despite the far-reaching negative impacts of columnaris disease, safe and efficacious preventatives and curatives for this disease remain limited. In th...

  1. Flavobacterium columnare genomovar type influenced mortality in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity has been documented and confirmed in Flavobacterium columnare, causal agent of columnaris disease. This aquatic bacterium is pathogenic to many species of freshwater fish throughout the world, and the United States channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture industry is seve...

  2. A liquid-crystalline hexagonal columnar phase in highly-dilute suspensions of imogolite nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Paineau, Erwan; Krapf, Marie-Eve M.; Amara, Mohamed-Salah; Matskova, Natalia V.; Dozov, Ivan; Rouzière, Stéphan; Thill, Antoine; Launois, Pascale; Davidson, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Liquid crystals have found wide applications in many fields ranging from detergents to information displays and they are also increasingly being used in the ‘bottom-up' self-assembly approach of material nano-structuration. Moreover, liquid-crystalline organizations are frequently observed by biologists. Here we show that one of the four major lyotropic liquid-crystal phases, the columnar one, is much more stable on dilution than reported so far in literature. Indeed, aqueous suspensions of imogolite nanotubes, at low ionic strength, display the columnar liquid-crystal phase at volume fractions as low as ∼0.2%. Consequently, due to its low visco-elasticity, this columnar phase is easily aligned in an alternating current electric field, in contrast with usual columnar liquid-crystal phases. These findings should have important implications for the statistical physics of the suspensions of charged rods and could also be exploited in materials science to prepare ordered nanocomposites and in biophysics to better understand solutions of rod-like biopolymers. PMID:26728415

  3. A bundled-stack discotic columnar liquid crystalline phase with inter-stack electronic coupling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Bin; Sun, Runkun; Günbaş, Duygu D.; Zhang, Hao; Grozema, Ferdinand C.; Xiao, Kai; Jin, Shi

    2015-06-15

    The first compound proving to be capable of forming a bundled-stack discotic columnar liquid crystalline (BSDCLC) phase was designed and synthesized. Finally, the unique perylene anhydride inter-stack interaction was found to be the key to the formation of the BSDCLC structure and inter-stack electronic coupling (ISEC).

  4. Flavobacterium columnare type IX secretion system mutations result in defects in gliding motility and virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The gliding bacterium Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in wild and aquaculture-reared freshwater fish. The mechanisms responsible for columnaris disease are not known. The related bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae uses a type IX secretion system (T9SS) to secrete enzy...

  5. A liquid-crystalline hexagonal columnar phase in highly-dilute suspensions of imogolite nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paineau, Erwan; Krapf, Marie-Eve M.; Amara, Mohamed-Salah; Matskova, Natalia V.; Dozov, Ivan; Rouzière, Stéphan; Thill, Antoine; Launois, Pascale; Davidson, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Liquid crystals have found wide applications in many fields ranging from detergents to information displays and they are also increasingly being used in the `bottom-up' self-assembly approach of material nano-structuration. Moreover, liquid-crystalline organizations are frequently observed by biologists. Here we show that one of the four major lyotropic liquid-crystal phases, the columnar one, is much more stable on dilution than reported so far in literature. Indeed, aqueous suspensions of imogolite nanotubes, at low ionic strength, display the columnar liquid-crystal phase at volume fractions as low as ~0.2%. Consequently, due to its low visco-elasticity, this columnar phase is easily aligned in an alternating current electric field, in contrast with usual columnar liquid-crystal phases. These findings should have important implications for the statistical physics of the suspensions of charged rods and could also be exploited in materials science to prepare ordered nanocomposites and in biophysics to better understand solutions of rod-like biopolymers.

  6. Growth and survival of Flavobacterium columnare in fish mucus and porcine gastric mucin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare, an economically important gram negative bacterium of freshwater farmed fish, colonizes the skin and gills in the initial steps of pathogenesis. The surface of fish is coated with mucus made up of high molecular weight glycoproteins. Limited studies have described the abili...

  7. Evaluation of the antibody response to the LV-359-01 strain of flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease produces substantial mortality worldwide among numerous freshwater farmed finfish species. As aquaculture production continues to increase the frequency of columnaris disease will only continue to rise. Add to this an increase in re...

  8. Early life stage rainbow trout (Oncohynchus mykiss) mortalities due to Flavobacterium columnare in Idaho, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is the etiologic agent of columnaris disease, a pervasive disease of fresh water finfish. During the past 4 years, losses that ranged from 5-50% in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry, as small as 0.2 g, have been occurring in an early life stage production facility in t...

  9. Anisotropic light absorption, refractive indices, and orientational order parameter of unidirectionally aligned columnar liquid crystal films.

    PubMed

    Charlet, Emilie; Grelet, Eric

    2008-10-01

    The anisotropic optical properties of thermotropic columnar liquid crystals absorbing in the visible range are investigated for different discotic compounds unidirectionally oriented in open supported thin films. Two methods to monitor the alignment of columnar mesophases in thin films are reported, making possible to achieve either homeotropic anchoring (columns normal to the substrate) by a specific thermal annealing, or unidirectional planar orientation (columns parallel to the substrate) by using a rubbed Teflon coating. The columnar liquid crystal anchoring is found to depend on the nature of the compound, either parallel or perpendicular to the Teflon orientation. Based on this control of the mesophase alignment, the dichroic ratio and the orientational order parameter of oriented samples are measured, and a high order parameter of 0.9 is found in the case of parallel alignment. From the polarized absorption data of the columnar liquid crystal films, the light wavelength dependence of the birefringence and of the real and imaginary parts (refractive index and extinction coefficient, respectively) of the anisotropic optical indices are determined over the whole visible range. PMID:18999445

  10. Two-dimensional simulation of spatiotemporal generation of dielectric barrier columnar discharges in atmospheric helium

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhiming; Hao, Yanpeng; Yang, Lin; Han, Yongxia; Li, Licheng

    2015-12-15

    A two-dimensional (2D) fluid model is presented to investigate the spatiotemporal generation and dynamic mechanics of dielectric barrier columnar discharges in atmospheric helium. The model was examined with discharge currents measured in experiments and images taken by an intensified charge couple device camera. Based on the model, a columnar discharge was simulated for several cycles after being ignited. The discharge could be regarded as an initial unstable stage for the first three and a half cycles, then a steady state for the following cycles. In the initial stage, the discharge evolves from a uniform pattern into a columnar one. The calculated equipotential lines, 2D radial electric field, and electron density distributions at the edge of uniform discharges show the radial electric field accounts for the shrinking discharge area and the formation of discharge columns in the end. The columnar glow discharges and the Townsend discharges beyond the columns could coexist in the initial stage, and a Townsend discharge might develop into a new glow column in the next half-cycle. The radial electric field surrounding a glow discharge column has an inhibiting effect on the ionization in the peripheral area.

  11. Evaluating innate resistance to Flavobacterium Columnare in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare (Fc) is the causative agent for columnaris disease and a problem for several fish species. Recently, columnaris has been recognized as an emerging problem in farmed trout cultured within the Hagerman valley of Idaho. A long term breeding program at the NCCCWA has produced ...

  12. Induced stabilization of columnar phases in binary mixtures of discotic liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Cienega-Cacerez, Octavio; García-Alcántara, Consuelo; Moreno-Razo, José Antonio; Díaz-Herrera, Enrique; Sambriski, Edward John

    2016-01-28

    Three discotic liquid-crystalline binary mixtures, characterized by their extent of bidispersity in molecular thickness, were investigated with molecular dynamics simulations. Each equimolar mixture contained A-type (thin) and B-type (thick) discogens. The temperature-dependence of the orientational order parameter reveals that A-type liquid samples produce ordered phases more readily, with the (hexagonal) columnar phase being the most structured variant. Moderately and strongly bidisperse mixtures produce globally-segregated samples for temperatures corresponding to ordered phases; the weakly bidisperse mixture displays microheterogeneities. Ordered phases in the B-type liquid are induced partially by the presence of the A-type fluid. In the moderately bidisperse mixture, order is induced through orientational frustration: a mixed prenematic-like phase precedes global segregation to yield nematic and columnar mesophases upon further cooling. In the strongly bidisperse mixture, order is induced less efficiently through a paranematic-like mechanism: a highly-ordered A-type fluid imparts order to B-type discogens found at the interface of a fully-segregated sample. This ordering effect permeates into the disordered B-type domain until nematic and columnar phases emerge upon further cooling. At sufficiently low temperatures, all samples investigated exhibit the (hexagonal) columnar mesophase. PMID:26576703

  13. Rapid detection of Flavobacterium columnare, the bacterium causing Columnaris Disease in fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavobacterium columnare is a ubiquitous bacterium that causes columnaris disease in a wide variety of fish resulting in devastating losses particularly in the commercial aquaculture industry worldwide. Timely diagnosis of disease is imperative for prevention of spread and to reduce the economic los...

  14. Compounds from Terminalli brownii extracts with toxicity against the fish pathogenic bacterium Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pond-raised channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) industry in the United States of America can incur losses of over a $100 million annually due to bacterial diseases including columnaris disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare. One management approach available to catfish producers is the use...

  15. Two-dimensional simulation of spatiotemporal generation of dielectric barrier columnar discharges in atmospheric helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiming; Hao, Yanpeng; Yang, Lin; Han, Yongxia; Li, Licheng

    2015-12-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) fluid model is presented to investigate the spatiotemporal generation and dynamic mechanics of dielectric barrier columnar discharges in atmospheric helium. The model was examined with discharge currents measured in experiments and images taken by an intensified charge couple device camera. Based on the model, a columnar discharge was simulated for several cycles after being ignited. The discharge could be regarded as an initial unstable stage for the first three and a half cycles, then a steady state for the following cycles. In the initial stage, the discharge evolves from a uniform pattern into a columnar one. The calculated equipotential lines, 2D radial electric field, and electron density distributions at the edge of uniform discharges show the radial electric field accounts for the shrinking discharge area and the formation of discharge columns in the end. The columnar glow discharges and the Townsend discharges beyond the columns could coexist in the initial stage, and a Townsend discharge might develop into a new glow column in the next half-cycle. The radial electric field surrounding a glow discharge column has an inhibiting effect on the ionization in the peripheral area.

  16. Rhamnose binding lectins influence Flavobacterium columnare pathogenesis in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columnaris disease, caused by the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare, continues to be a major problem worldwide and commonly leads to tremendous losses of both wild and cultured freshwater fish, particularly in intensively farmed aquaculture species such as channel catfish. Despite its ecol...

  17. More than just antibodies: protective mechanisms of a mucosal vaccine against fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently developed attenuated vaccine (17-23) for Flavobacterium columnare has been demonstrated to provide superior protection for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, against genetically diverse columnaris isolates. First, we were interested in elucidating the host responses generated by a viru...

  18. Bundled Stack Discotic Columnar Liquid Crystalline Phase with Inter Stack Electronic Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bin; Sun, Runkun; Gunbas, Duygu; Zhang, Hao; Grozema, Ferdinand; Xiao, Kai; Jin, Shi

    2015-01-01

    The first compound capable of forming a bundled stack discotic columnar liquid crystalline (BSDCLC) phase was designed and synthesized. The unique perylene anhydride inter stack interaction was found to be the key to the formation of the BSDCLC structure and inter stack electronic coupling (ISEC).

  19. Effectiveness of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate on channel catfish infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were evaluated for their effectiveness to curtail mortality and decrease bacterial load in fish tissues and water in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus naturally infected with Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris. Fis...

  20. α-Spectrin and integrins act together to regulate actomyosin and columnarization, and to maintain a monolayered follicular epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Bing Fu; Selvaraj, Gokul Kannan; Santa-Cruz Mateos, Carmen; Grosheva, Inna; Alvarez-Garcia, Ines; Martín-Bermudo, María Dolores; Palacios, Isabel M.

    2016-01-01

    The spectrin cytoskeleton crosslinks actin to the membrane, and although it has been greatly studied in erythrocytes, much is unknown about its function in epithelia. We have studied the role of spectrins during epithelia morphogenesis using the Drosophila follicular epithelium (FE). As previously described, we show that α-Spectrin and β-Spectrin are essential to maintain a monolayered FE, but, contrary to previous work, spectrins are not required to control proliferation. Furthermore, spectrin mutant cells show differentiation and polarity defects only in the ectopic layers of stratified epithelia, similar to integrin mutants. Our results identify α-Spectrin and integrins as novel regulators of apical constriction-independent cell elongation, as α-Spectrin and integrin mutant cells fail to columnarize. Finally, we show that increasing and reducing the activity of the Rho1-Myosin II pathway enhances and decreases multilayering of α-Spectrin cells, respectively. Similarly, higher Myosin II activity enhances the integrin multilayering phenotype. This work identifies a primary role for α-Spectrin in controlling cell shape, perhaps by modulating actomyosin. In summary, we suggest that a functional spectrin-integrin complex is essential to balance adequate forces, in order to maintain a monolayered epithelium. PMID:26952981

  1. Lesion simulating disease 1 and enhanced disease susceptibility 1 differentially regulate UV-C-induced photooxidative stress signalling and programmed cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wituszyńska, Weronika; Szechyńska-Hebda, Magdalena; Sobczak, Mirosław; Rusaczonek, Anna; Kozłowska-Makulska, Anna; Witoń, Damian; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2015-02-01

    As obligate photoautotrophs, plants are inevitably exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Because of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV has become more and more dangerous to the biosphere. Therefore, it is important to understand UV perception and signal transduction in plants. In the present study, we show that lesion simulating disease 1 (LSD1) and enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) are antagonistic regulators of UV-C-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in Arabidopsis thaliana. This regulatory dependence is manifested by a complex deregulation of photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species homeostasis, antioxidative enzyme activity and UV-responsive genes expression. We also prove that a UV-C radiation episode triggers apoptotic-like morphological changes within the mesophyll cells. Interestingly, chloroplasts are the first organelles that show features of UV-C-induced damage, which may indicate their primary role in PCD development. Moreover, we show that Arabidopsis Bax inhibitor 1 (AtBI1), which has been described as a negative regulator of plant PCD, is involved in LSD1-dependent cell death in response to UV-C. Our results imply that LSD1 and EDS1 regulate processes extinguishing excessive energy, reactive oxygen species formation and subsequent PCD in response to different stresses related to impaired electron transport. PMID:24471507

  2. Expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 in human atheroma and regulation in lesion-associated cells: a potential protective mechanism in plaque stability.

    PubMed

    Fabunmi, R P; Sukhova, G K; Sugiyama, S; Libby, P

    1998-08-10

    Atherosclerotic plaque stability depends on the structural integrity of its extracellular matrix skeleton. The balance between degradation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) may regulate plaque stability. Although MMP expression in atheroma is well documented, localization and control of expression of TIMPs in these lesions is incomplete. Extracts of atheroma (n= 14) had 5-fold higher levels of TIMP-3 than nonatherosclerotic tissue (n= 10). Plaques (n=24) contained abundant TIMP-1, -2, and -3 in macrophages in plaque shoulders, intimal-medial borders, and areas overlying the lipid core, as well as in medial smooth muscle cells, albeit in lesser amounts. These observations suggested that macrophages, a cell type not heretofore known to express TIMP-3, did so in atheroma in vivo. Further studies in vitro established the human macrophage as a novel source of TIMP-3 mRNA and protein. Human smooth muscle cells constitutively expressed TIMP-1, -2 and -3 proteins; platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta augmented levels of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 but not TIMP-2. These findings suggest that regulated expression of TIMP-3, in addition to the presence of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, counteracts MMP activity in atheroma and hence influences plaque stability. PMID:9710119

  3. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ju-Hye; Yoo, Jae-Myung; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Sanguisorbae Radix (SR) is well known as herbal medicine named “Zi-Yu” in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease). We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD) of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR) using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker). ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms. PMID:27065570

  4. Fractalkine Signaling Regulates Macrophage Recruitment into the Cochlea and Promotes the Survival of Spiral Ganglion Neurons after Selective Hair Cell Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Tejbeer; Zamani, Darius; Tong, Ling; Rubel, Edwin W.; Ohlemiller, Kevin K.; Hirose, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    cochlear afferents after selective hair cell lesion. Because these afferent neurons carry sound information from the cochlea to the auditory brainstem, their survival is a key determinant of the success of cochlear prosthetics. Our data suggest that fractalkine signaling in the cochlea is neuroprotective, and reveal a previously uncharacterized interaction between cells of the cochlea and the innate immune system. PMID:26558776

  5. Intracellular accumulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins and nucleolin re-localization are associated with pre-lethal ultrastructural lesions in circulating T lymphocytes: the HIV-induced cell cycle dysregulation revisited.

    PubMed

    Visalli, Giuseppa; Paiardini, Mirko; Chirico, Cristina; Cervasi, Barbara; Currò, Monica; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Bertuccio, Maria Paola; Favaloro, Angelo; Pellicanò, Giovanni; Sturniolo, Giuseppe; Spataro, Pasquale; Ientile, Riccardo; Picerno, Isa; Piedimonte, Giuseppe

    2010-06-01

    The HIV-induced demise of CD4-T cells is thought to be a result of the execution of genetically programmed cell death that occurs in lymphoid tissue, where many resident T cells are chronically hyperactivated. Since HIV-induced alterations of cell cycle control has been often indicated as prominent mechanism of immune hyper activation and cause of apoptotic death, the signal pathway involved in cell cycle dysregulation of T lymphocytes from HIV infected patients was extensively studied. Here, we also demonstrate that circulating T lymphocytes leave lymphoid tissues with diffused regressive lesions (vacuolization, blebbing, nuclear evanescence and organelle swelling). Equally diffused are biochemical anomalies that accompany the overall disarrangement of cell structure, particularly the fragmentation and diffusion into the cytoplasm of C23/nucleolin, the intracellular accumulation of short lived regulatory proteins and the decrease in expression of membrane proteins. All this is something more than a cell cycle-related remodelling of cell morphology and biochemical mechanisms, and rather recalls a necrotic/oncotic cell damage. Since these changes are associated with adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia, we give evidence for alteration of cell cycle control developing in conditions of scarce energy supply. PMID:20505329

  6. Analysis of EDZ Development of Columnar Jointed Rock Mass in the Baihetan Diversion Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xian-Jie; Feng, Xia-Ting; Yang, Cheng-Xiang; Jiang, Quan; Li, Shao-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Due to the time dependency of the crack propagation, columnar jointed rock masses exhibit marked time-dependent behaviour. In this study, in situ measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), back-analysis method and numerical simulations are presented to study the time-dependent development of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) around underground diversion tunnels in a columnar jointed rock mass. Through in situ measurements of crack propagation and EDZ development, their extent is seen to have increased over time, despite the fact that the advancing face has passed. Similar to creep behaviour, the time-dependent EDZ development curve also consists of three stages: a deceleration stage, a stabilization stage, and an acceleration stage. A corresponding constitutive model of columnar jointed rock mass considering time-dependent behaviour is proposed. The time-dependent degradation coefficient of the roughness coefficient and residual friction angle in the Barton-Bandis strength criterion are taken into account. An intelligent back-analysis method is adopted to obtain the unknown time-dependent degradation coefficients for the proposed constitutive model. The numerical modelling results are in good agreement with the measured EDZ. Not only that, the failure pattern simulated by this time-dependent constitutive model is consistent with that observed in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in situ observation, indicating that this model could accurately simulate the failure pattern and time-dependent EDZ development of columnar joints. Moreover, the effects of the support system provided and the in situ stress on the time-dependent coefficients are studied. Finally, the long-term stability analysis of diversion tunnels excavated in columnar jointed rock masses is performed.

  7. Core charge distribution and self assembly of columnar phases: the case of triphenylenes and azatriphenylenes

    PubMed Central

    Orlandi, Silvia; Muccioli, Luca; Ricci, Matteo; Berardi, Roberto; Zannoni, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Background The relation betweeen the structure of discotic molecules and columnar properties, a crucial point for the realization of new advanced materials, is still largely unknown. A paradigmatic case is that hexa-alkyl-thio substituted triphenylenes present mesogenic behavior while the corresponding azatriphenylenes, similar in shape and chemical structure, but with a different core charge distribution, do not form any liquid crystalline mesophase. This study is aimed at investigating, with the help of computer simulations techniques, the effects on phase behaviour of changes of the charge distribution in the discotic core. Results We described the shape and the pair, dispersive and electrostatic, interactions of hexa alkyl triphenylenes by uniaxial Gay-Berne discs with embedded point charges. Gay-Berne parameters were deduced by fitting the dispersive energies obtained from an atomistic molecular dynamics simulation of a small sample of hexa-octyl-thio triphenylene molecules in columnar phase, while a genetic algorithm was used to get a minimal set of point charges that properly reproduces the ab anitio electrostatic potential. We performed Monte Carlo simulations of three molecular models: the pure Gay-Berne disc, used as a reference, the Gay-Berne disc with hexa-thio triphenylene point charges, the Gay-Berne disc with hexa-thio azatriphenylene point charges. The phase diagram of the pure model evidences a rich polymorphism, with isotropic, columnar and crystalline phases at low pressure, and the appearance of nematic phase at higher pressure. Conclusion We found that the intermolecular electrostatic potential among the cores is fundamental in sta-bilizing/destabilizing columnar phases; in particular the triphenylene charge distribution stabilizes the columnar structure, while the azatriphenylene distribution suppresses its formation in favor of the nematic phase. We believe the present model could be successfully employed as the basis for coarse-grained level

  8. Differential columnar processing in local circuits of barrel and insular cortices.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hajime; Shimanuki, Yasushi; Saito, Mitsuru; Toyoda, Hiroki; Nokubi, Takashi; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kang, Youngnam

    2008-03-19

    The columnar organization is most apparent in the whisker barrel cortex but seems less apparent in the gustatory insular cortex. We addressed here whether there are any differences between the two cortices in columnar information processing by comparing the spatiotemporal patterns of excitation spread in the two cortices using voltage-sensitive dye imaging. In contrast to the well known excitation spread in the horizontal direction in layer II/III induced in the barrel cortex by layer IV stimulation, the excitation caused in the insular cortex by stimulation of layer IV spread bidirectionally in the vertical direction into layers II/III and V/VI, displaying a columnar image pattern. Bicuculline or picrotoxin markedly extended the horizontal excitation spread in layer II/III in the barrel cortex, leading to a generation of excitation in the underlying layer V/VI, whereas those markedly increased the amplitude of optical responses throughout the whole column in the insular cortex, subsequently widening the columnar image pattern. Such synchronous activities as revealed by the horizontal and vertical excitation spreads were consistently induced in the barrel and insular cortices, respectively, even by stimulation of different layers with varying intensities. Thus, a unique functional column existed in the insular cortex, in which intracolumnar communication between the superficial and deep layers was prominent, and GABA(A) action is involved in the inhibition of the intracolumnar communication in contrast to its involvement in intercolumnar lateral inhibition in the barrel cortex. These results suggest that the columnar information processing may not be universal across the different cortical areas. PMID:18354011

  9. Imaging of Retrosternal Space Lesions - A Pictorial Review.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekhara, S H; Rahul, Kumar; Handa, Nayha; Panda, Ananya

    2016-01-01

    The retrosternal region (RSS) can be involved by diverse lesions. The RSS is the region behind the sternum and anterior to the ascending aorta. It normally is less than 3 cm deep. Chest X-ray is usually the first imaging modality to raise a suspicion of RSS pathology; however computed tomography is the mainstay to delineate and characterize lesions in this location. Lesions in this location include thyroid, thymic and lymph node lesions; germ cell tumors and vascular lesions. Lesions arising from the sternum, lungs as well as the pleura can also involve this space. The pictorial review depicts the diverse spectrum of lesions in this location. PMID:27504144

  10. Imaging of Retrosternal Space Lesions – A Pictorial Review

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekhara, S.H.; Rahul, Kumar; Handa, Nayha; Panda, Ananya

    2016-01-01

    Summary The retrosternal region (RSS) can be involved by diverse lesions. The RSS is the region behind the sternum and anterior to the ascending aorta. It normally is less than 3 cm deep. Chest X-ray is usually the first imaging modality to raise a suspicion of RSS pathology; however computed tomography is the mainstay to delineate and characterize lesions in this location. Lesions in this location include thyroid, thymic and lymph node lesions; germ cell tumors and vascular lesions. Lesions arising from the sternum, lungs as well as the pleura can also involve this space. The pictorial review depicts the diverse spectrum of lesions in this location. PMID:27504144

  11. Cell-block procedure in endoscopic ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration of gastrointestinal solid neoplastic lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ieni, Antonio; Barresi, Valeria; Todaro, Paolo; Caruso, Rosario Alberto; Tuccari, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we have analyzed the clinical applications of endoscopic ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration (EUS-FNA) and the methodological aspects obtained by cell-block procedure (CBP) in the diagnostic approach to the gastrointestinal neoplastic pathology. CBP showed numerous advantages in comparison to the cytologic routine smears; in particular, better preservation of cell architecture, achievement of routine haematoxylin-eosin staining equivalent to histological slides and possibility to perform immunohistochemistry or molecular analyses represented the most evident reasons to choose this method. Moreover, by this approach, the differential diagnosis of solid gastrointestinal neoplasias may be more easily achieved and the background of contaminant non-neoplastic gastrointestinal avoided. Finally, biological samples collected by EUS-FNA CBP-assisted should be investigated in order to identify and quantify further potential molecular markers. PMID:26322154

  12. α-Spectrin and integrins act together to regulate actomyosin and columnarization, and to maintain a monolayered follicular epithelium.

    PubMed

    Ng, Bing Fu; Selvaraj, Gokul Kannan; Santa-Cruz Mateos, Carmen; Grosheva, Inna; Alvarez-Garcia, Ines; Martín-Bermudo, María Dolores; Palacios, Isabel M

    2016-04-15

    The spectrin cytoskeleton crosslinks actin to the membrane, and although it has been greatly studied in erythrocytes, much is unknown about its function in epithelia. We have studied the role of spectrins during epithelia morphogenesis using theDrosophilafollicular epithelium (FE). As previously described, we show that α-Spectrin and β-Spectrin are essential to maintain a monolayered FE, but, contrary to previous work, spectrins are not required to control proliferation. Furthermore, spectrin mutant cells show differentiation and polarity defects only in the ectopic layers of stratified epithelia, similar to integrin mutants. Our results identify α-Spectrin and integrins as novel regulators of apical constriction-independent cell elongation, asα-Spectrinand integrin mutant cells fail to columnarize. Finally, we show that increasing and reducing the activity of the Rho1-Myosin II pathway enhances and decreases multilayering ofα-Spectrincells, respectively. Similarly, higher Myosin II activity enhances the integrin multilayering phenotype. This work identifies a primary role for α-Spectrin in controlling cell shape, perhaps by modulating actomyosin. In summary, we suggest that a functional spectrin-integrin complex is essential to balance adequate forces, in order to maintain a monolayered epithelium. PMID:26952981

  13. Epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection: multinucleated epithelial giant cells in the epidermis of lesional skin biopsies from patients with acantholytic dermatoses can histologically mimic a herpes virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R.; Paravar, Taraneh; Lee, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can either be epithelial or histiocytic. Epithelial multinucleated giant cells are most often associated with herpes virus infections. Purpose: To review the histologic differential diagnosis of conditions with epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cells—since multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis are not always pathognomonic of a cutaneous herpes virus infection—and to summarize dermatoses in which herpes virus infection has been observed to coexist. Methods: Two individuals with acantholytic dermatoses whose initial lesional skin biopsies showed multinucleated epithelial giant cells suggestive of a herpes virus infection are reported. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on multinucleated giant cell (and epidermis, epithelial, and histiocytic) and herpes virus infection. Relevant papers were reviewed to discover the skin conditions with either multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis or coincident cutaneous herpes virus infection. Results: Initial skin biopsies from patients with either pemphigus vulgaris or transient acantholytic dermatosis mimicked herpes virus infection; however, laboratory studies and repeat biopsies established the correct diagnosis of their acantholytic dermatosis. Hence, epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection. Indeed, epithelial multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed not only in the presence of infection (herpes virus), but also acantholytic dermatoses and tumors (trichoepithelioma and pleomorphic basal cell carcinoma). Histiocytic multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed in patients with either giant cell lichenoid dermatitis or lichen nitidus of the palms. Conclusions: Epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cell can occur in the epidermis. Keratinocyte-derived multinucleated giant cells are most commonly associated

  14. Association between serum tumor markers and metabolic tumor volume or total lesion glycolysis in patients with recurrent small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    SHI, PENGYUE; MENG, XUE; NI, MENGMENG; SUN, XINDONG; XING, LIGANG; YU, JINMING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between serum tumor markers and the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) or total lesion glycolysis (TLG), as determined by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with recurrent small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Data from 21 patients with recurrent SCLC were collected. The levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin 19 fragment 21-1 were measured at the time of the 18F-FDG PET/CT examination. The MTV and TLG of all lesions were calculated. Pearson correlation analyses were used to estimate the correlations between NSE level and PET findings. Pearson correlation analyses showed that NSE was the only tumor marker to have a strong correlation with MTV or TLG (r=0.787, P<0.001; r=0.866, P<0.001, respectively). In patients with a normal NSE level, no correlation was found between NSE and MTV or TLG (r=0.018, P=0.958; r=-0.003, P=0.92, respectively), but a significant correlation was found in patients with an abnormal NSE level (r=0.789, P<0.01; r=0.872, P=0.01, respectively). Therefore, TLG and MTV may serve as sensitive markers of tumor burden in patients with recurrent SCLC, with TLG showing greater sensitivity. In patients with an abnormal NSE level, a higher NSE level indicates greater MTV and TLG. PMID:26722299

  15. Nuclear shape descriptors by automated morphometry may distinguish aggressive variants of squamous cell carcinoma from relatively benign skin proliferative lesions: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weixi; Tian, Rong; Xue, Tongqing

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated whether degrees of dysplasia may be consistently accessed in an automatic fashion, using different kinds of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) as a validatory model. Namely, we compared Bowen disease, actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma, low-grade squamous cell carcinoma, and invasive squamous cell carcinoma. We hypothesized that characterizing the shape of nuclei may be important to consistently diagnose the aggressiveness of a skin tumor. While basal cell carcinoma is comparatively relatively benign, management of squamous cell carcinoma is controversial because of its potential to recur and intraoperative dilemma regarding choice of the margin or the depth for the excision. We provide evidence here that progressive nuclear dysplasia may be automatically estimated through the thresholded images of skin cancer and quantitative parameters estimated to provide a quasi-quantitative data, which can thenceforth guide the management of the particular cancer. For circularity, averaging more than 2500 nuclei in each group estimated the means ± SD as 0.8 ± 0.007 vs. 0.78 ± 0.0063 vs. 0.42 ± 0.014 vs. 0.63 ± 0.02 vs. 0.51 ± 0.02 (F = 318063.56, p < 0.0001, one-way analyses of variance). The mean aspect ratios were (means ± SD) 0.97 ± 0.0014 vs. 0.95 ± 0.002 vs. 0.38 ± 0.018 vs. 0.84 ± 0.0035 vs. 0.74 ± 0.019 (F = 1022631.931, p < 0.0001, one-way analyses of variance). The Feret diameters averaged over 2500 nuclei in each group were the following: 1 ± 0.0001 vs. 0.9 ± 0.002 vs. 5 ± 0.031 vs. 1.5 ± 0.01 vs. 1.9 ± 0.004 (F = 33105614.194, p < 0.0001, one-way analyses of variance). Multivariate analyses of composite parameters potentially detect aggressive variants of squamous cell carcinoma as the most dysplastic form, in comparison to locally occurring squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, or benign skin lesions. PMID:25753477

  16. Recurrence of squamous cell lung carcinoma is associated with the co-presence of reactive lesions in tumor-adjacent bronchial epithelium.

    PubMed

    Pankova, Olga V; Denisov, Evgeny V; Ponomaryova, Anastasia A; Gerashchenko, Tatiana S; Tuzikov, Sergey A; Perelmuter, Vladimir M

    2016-03-01

    Recurrences occur in 30 % of lung cancer patients after radical therapy; however, known prognostic factors are not always effective. In this study, we investigated whether the frequency of squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) recurrence depends on the presence of reactive lesions in tumor-adjacent bronchial epithelium. Specimens of adjacent lung tissue from 104 patients with squamous NSCLC were used for the determination of basal cell hyperplasia (BCH) and squamous metaplasia (SM) and for the analysis of the expression of Ki-67, p53, Bcl-2, and CD138. We found that recurrence was observed in 36.7 % of patients with BCH combined with SM (BCH + SM+) in the same bronchus, compared with 1.8 % in patients with isolated BCH (BCH + SM-; odds ratio (OR) 31.26, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 3.77-258.60; p = 0.00002). The percentage of Ki-67-positive cells was significantly higher in BCH + SM+ than in BCH + SM- (34.9 vs. 18.3 %; effect size 2.86, 95 % CI 2.23-3.47; p = 0.003). P53 expression was also more significant in BCH + SM+ than in BCH + SM- (14.4 vs. 9.6 %; effect size 1.22, 95 % CI 0.69-1.76; p = 0.0008). In contrast, CD138 expression was lower in BCH + SM+ than in BCH + SM- (21.8 vs. 38.5 %; effect size -6.26, 95 % CI -7.31 to -5.22; p = 0.003). Based on our results, we concluded that the co-presence of reactive bronchial lesions is associated with the development of recurrent squamous NSCLC and may be a negative prognostic indicator. In addition, significant differences in Ki-67, p53, and CD138 expression exist between isolated BCH and BCH combined with SM that probably reflect part of biological differences, which could relate to the mechanism of lung cancer recurrence. PMID:26456960

  17. Example based lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry; Pham, Dzung

    2014-03-01

    Automatic and accurate detection of white matter lesions is a significant step toward understanding the progression of many diseases, like Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. Multi-modal MR images are often used to segment T2 white matter lesions that can represent regions of demyelination or ischemia. Some automated lesion segmentation methods describe the lesion intensities using generative models, and then classify the lesions with some combination of heuristics and cost minimization. In contrast, we propose a patch-based method, in which lesions are found using examples from an atlas containing multi-modal MR images and corresponding manual delineations of lesions. Patches from subject MR images are matched to patches from the atlas and lesion memberships are found based on patch similarity weights. We experiment on 43 subjects with MS, whose scans show various levels of lesion-load. We demonstrate significant improvement in Dice coefficient and total lesion volume compared to a state of the art model-based lesion segmentation method, indicating more accurate delineation of lesions.

  18. [Direct assay of radiation-induced DNA base lesions to mammalian cells]. Final progress report, September 1, 1991--November 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    We have successfully developed the GC/MS technique so that an assessment of base damage in mammalian cells can be accomplished. The technique now has a sensitivity that will allow one to perform research in the low dose region suitable for hazards evaluation. The research on the hydrated DNA molecule has been seminal in generating a better understanding of the mechanisms by which low LET radiation induces DNA damage in mammalian cells. Also reported here are (1) the methodology for hydrating and irradiating DNA has been developed, (2) the procedures for identifying and quantitating radiation-induced DNA damage by HPLC and GC/MS have been mastered, (3) an hypotheses that radiation-induced damage in closely associated water molecules can result in DNA damage which is indistinguishable from that caused by direct ionization of the DNA has been generated and supported by experimental data, and (4) mathematical expressions that relate DNA lesion formation to the important parameters in the above hypotheses have been constructed so that the predictions of the hypotheses can now be tested.

  19. Retinal Ganglion Cell Atrophy in Homonymous Hemianopia due to Acquired Occipital Lesions Observed Using Cirrus High-Definition-OCT

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Tsutomu; Miki, Atsushi; Goto, Katsutoshi; Araki, Syunsuke; Takizawa, Go; Ieki, Yoshiaki; Kiryu, Junichi; Tabuchi, Akio; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Kazumi; Yagita, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a reduction in macular ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer (GCL+IPL) thickness and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in patients with homonymous hemianopia due to posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke. Methods. Seven patients with PCA stroke were examined using Cirrus high-definition-OCT. The GCL+IPL thicknesses were divided into the hemianopic and unaffected sides. The relationship between the time after stroke and the GCL+IPL thicknesses in the hemianopic side was evaluated. Results. The average thicknesses of the GCL+IPL were 64.6 and 82.0 μm on the hemianopic and unaffected sides, respectively, and the measurement was significantly thinner on the former side (p = 0.018). A regression analysis revealed a negative linear relationship (R2 = 0.574, p = 0.049) between the time after stoke and the GCL+IPL thicknesses on the hemianopic side. The supratemporal and inferotemporal cpRNFL thicknesses in the eyes ipsilateral to the stroke showed a significant reduction. Conclusion. Our findings confirmed our previous observations that the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells can occur after PCA stroke. GCL+IPL thinning was demonstrated in the hemiretinae corresponding to the affected hemifields. Also, it is suggested that the retinal changes observed are progressive. PMID:27274865

  20. Genesis of the columnar joints from welded tuff in Mount Mudeung National Geopark, Republic of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Chungwan; Huh, Min; Yi, Keewook; Lee, Changyeol

    2015-09-01

    Mount Mudeung National Geopark (MMNG), Gwangju, Republic of Korea (1187 masl), is known for its huge, broad occurrences of columnar jointed colonnades in the Cretaceous Mudeungsan Tuff. To understand the genesis of columnar joints infilling a volcanic vent, integrated geochemical and geophysical studies were conducted. Most colonnades in the Geopark are located in regions higher than 700 masl and show elevation-dependent variations in the mean face width of the columns. These mean widths are approximately 1.7, 1.3, 2.9, and 1.2 m for the summit (>1100 masl), upper (950-1100 masl), lower (850-950 masl), and lowest (700-850 masl) colonnades, respectively. This variation implies that columnar jointing resulted from discontinuous tuff depositions on relatively planar ground, which is associated with caldera structures and landslides from the emptied caldera rim. Geochemical analyses of major, minor, and trace elements show that the andesitic-dacitic Mudeungsan Tuff resulted from the arc magmatism associated with subduction of the Izanagi Plate and involved crustal components. Few geochemical variations of the Mudeungsan Tuff indicate that tuff originated from a single magma chamber. U-Pb age dating indicates that the Mudeungsan Tuff was deposited at ~85 Ma except for the Chotdae-bong colonnades, which were dated to ~87 Ma. However, a scaling analysis of the elevation-dependent variations of face widths and simplified numerical model calculations indicate that the variation in face widths with elevation indicates the sequential emplacement, cooling, and compaction of separate welded tuffs. Thus, the welded tuffs of MMNG can be thought to be formed by three discontinuous large explosive eruptions with periods of repose after each eruption. These tuffs include 1) the highest-elevation columnar joints of colonnades in the summit area (>1100 m), corresponding to the lower colonnades of the third tuff; 2) the intermediate-elevation columnar joints of colonnades

  1. Sentinel lesions of primary CNS lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Alderson, L; Fetell, M R; Sisti, M; Hochberg, F; Cohen, M; Louis, D N

    1996-01-01

    Some patients ultimately diagnosed with primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) have transient symptomatic contrast enhancing lesions. These "sentinel lesions" of PCNSL recede spontaneously or with corticosteroid treatment and present an important diagnostic dilemma because they show variable, but non-diagnostic histopathological features. Four previously healthy, immunocompetent patients aged 49 to 58 years had contrast enhancing intraparenchymal brain lesions. Before biopsy, three of the four were treated with corticosteroids. Initial biopsies showed demyelination with axonal sparing in two, non-specific inflammation in one, and normal brain in one. Infiltrating lymphocytes predominantly expressed T cell markers with rare B cells. All four patients recovered within two to four weeks after the initial biopsy and imaging studies showed resolution of the lesions. The CSF was normal in three of the four patients tested; oligoclonal bands were absent in both of the two tested. After seven to 11 months, each patient developed new symptomatic lesions in a different region of the brain, biopsy of which showed a B cell PCNSL. The mechanism of spontaneous involution of sentinel lesions is not understood, but may represent host immunity against the tumour. Sentinel lesions of PCNSL should be considered in patients with contrast enhancing focal parenchymal lesions that show non-specific or demyelinative histopathological changes. Close clinical and radiographic follow up is essential if PCNSL is to be diagnosed early in such patients. Images PMID:8558135

  2. A new platelet storage lesion index based on paired samples, without and with EDTA and cell counting: comparison of three types of leukoreduced preparations.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, Jerard

    2006-12-01

    Platelets derived from whole blood and diverse apheresis procedures come in contact with various artificial surfaces and undergo contact activation, sheer stress-induced shape changes, aggregation and microvesiculation during collection, processing and storage. These dynamic changes are qualitatively reflected in the log-normal platelet size distribution patterns seen, when using modern automated cell counters and can be measured quantitatively by counting the paired samples, without and with added EDTA, and calculating the differences (d) in platelet cellular indices (dPLT/dMPV/dPDW). Reporting the differences instead of the absolute values of cellular indices makes the measurements independent of basic principles used for cell counting (i.e. aperture-impedance or flow-optic). The measurements can be performed either in blood centres, hospital blood banks or nearby patient clinics equipped with a validated cell counter. At least three useful quality indices could be derived simultaneously from this procedure (accurate estimation of platelet yields using the value of the EDTA-containing sample); quantitative assessment of the % of reversible platelet aggregates, an age/pH/temperature-dependent degree of microvesiculation/apoptosis/PS exposure, based on the response to EDTA. This new set of indices correlate significantly with other conventional tests for platelet quality; hence, provide additional supportive evidence for confirming the low pH values and the subjective poor swirling data occasionally seen with stored PC. In the following study, the Sysmex SE 9000 was successfully employed for estimation of platelet cellular indices comparing the platelet storage lesion index of three types of leukoreduced platelet concentrates in current practice. The relationship between this in vitro response to clinical outcome remains to be established. PMID:17113347

  3. Brainstem tegmental lesions in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: Magnetic resonance diagnosis and clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Fariello, Giuseppe; Longo, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Lesions of the brainstem have been reported in the clinical scenarios of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), although the prevalence of these lesions is probably underestimated. Neuropathologic studies have demonstrated brainstem involvement in severely asphyxiated infants as an indicator of poor outcome. Among survivors to HIE, the most frequent clinical complaints that may be predicted by brainstem lesions include feeding problems, speech, language and communication problems and visual impairments. Clinical series, including vascular and metabolic etiologies, have found selective involvement of the brainstem with the demonstration of symmetric bilateral columnar lesions of the tegmentum. The role of brainstem lesions in HIE is currently a matter of debate, especially when tegmental lesions are present in the absence of supra-tentorial lesions. Differential diagnosis of tegmental lesions in neonates and infants include congenital metabolic syndromes and drug-related processes. Brainstem injury with the presence of supratentorial lesions is a predictor of poor outcome and high rates of mortality and morbidity. Further investigation will be conducted to identify specific sites of the brainstem that are vulnerable to hypoxic-ischemic and toxic-metabolic insults. PMID:26981220

  4. Storing red blood cells with vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine prevents oxidative stress-related lesions: a metabolomics overview

    PubMed Central

    Pallotta, Valeria; Gevi, Federica; D’Alessandro, Angelo; Zolla, Lello

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent advances in red blood cell metabolomics have paved the way for further improvements of storage solutions. Materials and methods In the present study, we exploited a validated high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical workflow to determine the effects of vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine supplementation (anti-oxidants) on the metabolome of erythrocytes stored in citrate-phosphate-dextrose saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol medium under blood bank conditions. Results We observed decreased energy metabolism fluxes (glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway). A tentative explanation of this phenomenon could be related to the observed depression of the uptake of glucose, since glucose and ascorbate are known to compete for the same transporter. Anti-oxidant supplementation was effective in modulating the redox poise, through the promotion of glutathione homeostasis, which resulted in decreased haemolysis and less accumulation of malondialdehyde and oxidation by-products (including oxidized glutathione and prostaglandins). Discussion Anti-oxidants improved storage quality by coping with oxidative stress at the expense of glycolytic metabolism, although reservoirs of high energy phosphate compounds were preserved by reduced cyclic AMP-mediated release of ATP. PMID:25074788

  5. Periplogenin induces necroptotic cell death through oxidative stress in HaCaT cells and ameliorates skin lesions in the TPA- and IMQ-induced psoriasis-like mouse models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Jing; Song, Zhen-Bo; Bao, Yong-Li; Li, Wen-Liang; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Qi; Yu, Chun-Lei; Sun, Lu-Guo; Huang, Yan-Xin; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial skin disease that inconveniences many patients. Considering the side effects and drug resistance of the current therapy, it is urgent to discover more effective and safer anti-psoriatic drugs. In the present study, we screened over 250 traditional Chinese medicine compounds for their ability to inhibit the cell viability of cultured human HaCaT keratinocytes, a psoriasis-relevant in vitro model, and found that periplogenin was highly effective. Mechanistic studies revealed that apoptosis and autophagy were not induced by periplogenin in HaCaT cells. However, periplogenin caused PI to permeate into cells, increased lactate LDH release and rapidly increased the number of necrotic cells. Additionally, the typical characteristics of necrosis were observed in the periplogenin-treated HaCaT cells. Notably, the necroptosis inhibitor Nec-1 and NSA were able to rescue the cells from necrotic cell death, supporting that necroptosis was involved in periplogenin-induced cell death. Furthermore, the ROS levels were elevated in the periplogenin-treated cells, NAC (an antioxidant) and Nec-1 could inhibit the ROS levels, and NAC could attenuate necroptotic cell death, indicating that the periplogenin-induced necroptotic cell death was mediated by oxidative stress. More importantly, in the murine models of TPA-induced epidermal hyperplasia and IMQ-induced skin inflammation, topical administration of periplogenin ameliorated skin lesions and inflammation. In sum, our results indicate, for the first time, that periplogenin is a naturally occurring compound with potent anti-psoriatic effects in vitro and in vivo, making it a promising candidate for future drug research. PMID:26850986

  6. Percutaneous cryoablation of metastatic lesions from non-small cell lung carcinoma: Initial survival, local control, and cost observations

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyun J.; Littrup, Peter J.; Currier, Brandt P.; Goodrich, Dylan J.; Aoun, Hussein D.; Klein, Lydia C.; Kuo, Jarret C.; Heilbrun, Lance K.; Gadgeel, Shirish; Goodman, Allen C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess feasibility, complications, local tumor recurrences, overall survival (OS) and estimates of cost-effectiveness for multi-site cryoablation (MCA) of oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC). Materials and Methods 49 CT and/or US-guided percutaneous MCA procedures were performed on 60 tumors in 31 oligo-mNSCLC patients. Average patient age was 65 years, including 19 females and 12 males. Tumor location was grouped according to common metastatic sites. Median OS was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and defined life years gained (LYG). Estimates of MCA costs per LYG were compared with established values for systemic therapies. Results Total number of tumors and cryoablation procedures for each anatomical site are as follows: 20, 18 – lung; 9, 7 – liver; 12, 11 - superficial; 7, 7 – adrenal; 2, 2 – para-aortic/isolated; and 10, 7 – bone. A mean 1.6 procedures per patient were performed with a median clinical follow-up of 11 months. Major complication and local recurrence rates were 8% (4/49) and 8% (5/60), respectively. Median OS for MCA was 1.33 years with an estimated 1-year survival of ~53%. MCA appeared cost-effective even when added to the cost of BSC or systemic regimens, with an adjunctive cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER) of $49,008 – $87,074. Conclusions Multi-site cryoablation had very low morbidity and local tumor recurrence rates for all anatomic sites, and possibly increased OS. Even as an adjunct to systemic therapies, MCA appeared cost-effective for palliation of oligo-mNSCLC. PMID:22626267

  7. Algorithm for the retrieval of columnar water vapor from hyperspectral remotely sensed data.

    PubMed

    Barducci, Alessandro; Guzzi, Donatella; Marcoionni, Paolo; Pippi, Ivan

    2004-10-10

    A new algorithm for the retrieval of columnar water vapor content is presented. The proposed procedure computes the area of the H2O absorption centered about 940 nm to allow its integrated columnar abundance as well as its density at ground level to be assessed. The procedure utilizes the HITRAN 2000 database as the source of H2O cross-section spectra. Experimental results were derived from radiometrically calibrated hyperspectral images collected by the Airborne Visible-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor over the Cuprite mining district in Nevada. Numerical simulations based on the MODTRAN 4 radiative transfer code were also employed for investigating the algorithm's performance. An additional empirical H2O retrieval procedure was tested by use of data gathered by the VIRS-200 imaging spectrometer. PMID:15508614

  8. Topological Control of Columnar Stacking Made of Liquid‐Crystalline Thiophene‐Fused Metallonaphthalocyanines

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kawano, Koki; Ohta, Kazuchika; Shimizu, Yo; Kobayashi, Nagao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The spontaneous organization of two‐dimensional polyaromatic molecules into well‐defined nanostructures through noncovalent interactions is important in the development of organic‐based electronic and optoelectronic devices. Two regioisomers of thiophene‐fused zinc naphthalocyanines ZnTNcendo and ZnTNcexo have been designed and synthesized to obtain photo‐ and electroactive liquid crystalline materials. Both compounds exhibited liquid crystalline behavior over a wide temperature range through intermolecular π–π interactions and local phase segregation between the aromatic cores and peripheral side chains. The structural differences between ZnTNcendo and ZnTNcexo affected the stacking mode in self‐assembled columns, as well as symmetry of the two‐dimensional rectangular columnar lattice. The columnar structure in liquid crystalline phase exhibited an ambipolar charge‐transport behavior. PMID:27308226

  9. Modelling the viscoplastic behavior and the heterogeneous intracrystalline deformation of columnar ice polycrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A; Montagnat, Maurine; Mansuy, Philippe; Duval, Paul; Philip, A

    2008-01-01

    A full-field formulation based on Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) has been adapted and used to predict the micromechanical fields that develop in columnar Ih ice polycrystals deforming in compression by dislocation creep. The predicted intragranular mechanical fields are in qualitative good agreement with experimental observations, in particular those involving the formation of shear and kink bands. These localization bands are associated with the large internal stresses that develop during creep in such anisotropic material, and their location, intensity, morphology and extension are found to depend strongly on the crystallographic orientation of the grains and on their interaction with neighbor crystals. The predictions of the model are also discussed in relation with the deformation of columnar sea and lake ice, and with the mechanical behavior of granular ice of glaciers and polar ice sheets, as well.

  10. Discotic columnar liquid crystal studied in the bulk and nanoconfined states by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busselez, Rémi; Cerclier, Carole V.; Ndao, Makha; Ghoufi, Aziz; Lefort, Ronan; Morineau, Denis

    2014-10-01

    A prototypical Gay Berne discotic liquid crystal was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations both in the bulk state and under confinement in a nanoporous channel. The phase behavior of the confined system strongly differs from its bulk counterpart: the bulk isotropic-to-columnar transition is replaced by a continuous ordering from a paranematic to a columnar phase. Moreover, a new transition is observed at a lower temperature in the confined state, which corresponds to a reorganization of the intercolumnar order. It reflects the competing effects of pore surface interaction and genuine hexagonal packing of the columns. The translational molecular dynamics in the different phases has been thoroughly studied and discussed in terms of collective relaxation modes, non-Gaussian behavior, and hopping processes.

  11. Columnar order and Ashkin-Teller criticality in mixtures of hard squares and dimers.

    PubMed

    Ramola, Kabir; Damle, Kedar; Dhar, Deepak

    2015-05-15

    We show that critical exponents of the transition to columnar order in a mixture of 2×1 dimers and 2×2 hard squares on the square lattice depends on the composition of the mixture in exactly the manner predicted by the theory of Ashkin-Teller criticality, including in the hard-square limit. This result settles the question regarding the nature of the transition in the hard-square lattice gas. It also provides the first example of a polydisperse system whose critical properties depend on composition. Our ideas also lead to some interesting predictions for a class of frustrated quantum magnets that exhibit columnar ordering of the bond energies at low temperature. PMID:26024157

  12. Self-assembly of luminescent N-annulated perylene tetraesters into fluid columnar phases.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Pathak, Suraj Kumar; Pradhan, Balaram; Shankar Rao, D S; Krishna Prasad, S; Achalkumar, Ammathnadu S

    2015-05-14

    A new class of N-annulated perylene tetraesters and their N-alkylated derivatives has been synthesized. N-Annulated perylene tetraesters stabilize a hexagonal columnar phase over a broad temperature range. The hexagonal columnar phase exhibited by these compounds shows good homeotropic alignment with few defects. Annulation in the bay region of the perylene tetraesters enhanced the width of the mesophase compared with the parent tetraesters. N-Alkylation of these compounds perturbed the self-assembly behaviour and the resulting compounds were non-mesomorphic. A bright green luminescence was visible under long wavelength UV light. These properties suggest that these materials may have promising applications in organic electronics. PMID:25812168

  13. Discotic columnar liquid crystal studied in the bulk and nanoconfined states by molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Busselez, Rémi; Cerclier, Carole V; Ndao, Makha; Ghoufi, Aziz; Lefort, Ronan; Morineau, Denis

    2014-10-01

    A prototypical Gay Berne discotic liquid crystal was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations both in the bulk state and under confinement in a nanoporous channel. The phase behavior of the confined system strongly differs from its bulk counterpart: the bulk isotropic-to-columnar transition is replaced by a continuous ordering from a paranematic to a columnar phase. Moreover, a new transition is observed at a lower temperature in the confined state, which corresponds to a reorganization of the intercolumnar order. It reflects the competing effects of pore surface interaction and genuine hexagonal packing of the columns. The translational molecular dynamics in the different phases has been thoroughly studied and discussed in terms of collective relaxation modes, non-Gaussian behavior, and hopping processes. PMID:25296832

  14. Preparation of non-oriented silicon steel with high magnetic induction using columnar grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ling; Yang, Ping; Fang, Yupei; Mao, Weimin

    2012-11-01

    Columnar grains can lead to detrimental surface ridging and an inhomogeneous microstructure, although their {1 0 0}<0 v w> texture is considered desirable due to their good magnetic properties in non-oriented silicon steel. Based on the hereditary tendency of {1 0 0}<0 v w> texture, the effects of lubrication and heating rate on texture and on final magnetic properties were investigated using a cast slab containing 100% columnar grains. Hot rolling with lubrication, normalization at low heating rate, two-stage cold rolling, and final annealing at 1000 °C helped achieve high performance. As a result, a new non-oriented silicon steel with high magnetic induction (B50=1.82 T) and low core loss (P1.5=2.35 W/kg) was prepared. The possibility of further performance optimization was also discussed.

  15. Topological Control of Columnar Stacking Made of Liquid-Crystalline Thiophene-Fused Metallonaphthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kawano, Koki; Ohta, Kazuchika; Shimizu, Yo; Kobayashi, Nagao; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2016-04-01

    The spontaneous organization of two-dimensional polyaromatic molecules into well-defined nanostructures through noncovalent interactions is important in the development of organic-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. Two regioisomers of thiophene-fused zinc naphthalocyanines ZnTNcendo and ZnTNcexo have been designed and synthesized to obtain photo- and electroactive liquid crystalline materials. Both compounds exhibited liquid crystalline behavior over a wide temperature range through intermolecular π-π interactions and local phase segregation between the aromatic cores and peripheral side chains. The structural differences between ZnTNcendo and ZnTNcexo affected the stacking mode in self-assembled columns, as well as symmetry of the two-dimensional rectangular columnar lattice. The columnar structure in liquid crystalline phase exhibited an ambipolar charge-transport behavior. PMID:27308226

  16. The effect of vapor incidence angle upon thin film columnar growth

    SciTech Connect

    Mazor, A.; Bukiet, B.G.; Srolovitz, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    We present a generalized theory for the growth of columnar microstructure in vapor deposited thin films under the joint influence of a constant uniform deposition flux coming down with arbitrarily chosen incidence angle, and surface diffusion. The dependences of the Zone I to Zone II transition temperature, and the characteristic length scales associated with the unstable modes on the deposition angle are predicted. The surface morphology is obtained as a function of vapor incidence angle. For a specific deposition angle, there is a one-parameter family of steady-state surface profiles which corresponds to a range of possible columnar orientation angles, among which only one angle is associated with the tangent rule. These results agree with experimental observations. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Fracture in columnar phases as a test for the presence of quasi long-range order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébert, Matthieu; Caillé, Alain

    1997-03-01

    A mechanism has been proposed for the effective free sliding of columns in an ordered columnar liquid crystal composed of disk-like molecules(A. Caillé and M. Hébert, to appear in Phys. Rev. E - Rapid Comm. (1996)). The hexa(hexylthio)triphenylene (HHTT) compound in the ordered helical H phase is the prototype for such a behavior. This mechanism is a result of a coupling between positional and orientational degrees of freedom in the free energy and gives rise to positional quasi long-range order inside the columns. We discuss the Griffith problem for this system where a thin cavity perpendicular to the columnar axis is extended by a tensile stress σ_zz. The shape of the cavity is characteristic of the type of order present inside the columns. This fracture mode should be observable in polymerized samples.

  18. Survival of vaccinated, feed-trained largemouth bass fry (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) during natural exposure to Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccinated, feed-trained largemouth bass fry (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) were cohabited with sham-vaccinated fish. Fish were exposed, under natural conditions, to Flavobacterium columnare, a ubiquitous bacterium associated with columnaris disease. During every time interval, the probability...

  19. Isolation and identification of flavobacterium columnare and Steptococcus iniae antibacterial compounds from the terrestrial plant Atraphaxis laetevirens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columnaris disease, enteric septicemia of catfish, and streptococcosis are common bacterial diseases of certain freshwater fish and are caused by Flavobacterium columnare, Edwardsiella ictaluri, and Streptococcus iniae, respectively. Various plants were selected to evaluate, isolate, and identify co...

  20. In vitro comparisons of the inhibitory activity of florfenicol copper sulfate and potassium permanganate towards Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agents of motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) and columnaris disease, respectively, have been recently causing crippling moralities to the sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female X Morone saxatilis male (Percichthyidae), industry in the ...

  1. Quality control ranges for testing broth microdilution susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilium to nine antimicrobials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-laboratory broth microdilution method trial was performed to standardize the specialized test conditions required for fish pathogens Flavobacterium columnare and F. pyschrophilum. Nine laboratories tested the quality control (QC) strains Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicid...

  2. Basal polarization of the mucosal compartment in Flavobacterium columnare susceptible and resistant channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    PubMed

    Peatman, Eric; Li, Chao; Peterson, Brian C; Straus, David L; Farmer, Bradley D; Beck, Benjamin H

    2013-12-01

    The freshwater bacterial pathogen, Flavobacterium columnare, infects a variety of ornamental and farmed fish species worldwide through mucosal attachment points on the gill and skin. While previous studies have demonstrated a chemotactic response of F. columnare to fish mucus, little is known about how host gill mucosal molecular and cellular constituents may impact rates of adhesion, tissue invasion, and ultimately, mortality. Here, we describe the use of RNA-seq to profile gill expression differences between channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) differing in their susceptibility to F. columnare both basally (before infection) and at three early timepoints post-infection (1 h, 2 h, and 8 h). After sequencing and de novo assembly of over 350 million 100 base-pair transcript reads, between group comparisons revealed 1714 unique genes differentially expressed greater than 1.5-fold at one or more timepoints. In the large dataset, we focused our analysis on basal differential expression between resistant and susceptible catfish as these genes could potentially reveal genetic and/or environmental factors linked with differential rates of infection. A number of critical innate immune components including iNOS2b, lysozyme C, IL-8, and TNF-alpha were constitutively higher in resistant catfish gill, while susceptible fish showed high expression levels of secreted mucin forms, a rhamnose-binding lectin previously linked to susceptibility, and mucosal immune factors such as CD103 and IL-17. Taken together, the immune and mucin profiles obtained by RNA-seq suggest a basal polarization in the gill mucosa, with susceptible fish possessing a putative mucosecretory, toleragenic phenotype which may predispose them to F. columnare infection. PMID:23895942

  3. Seasonal variation and difference of aerosol optical properties in columnar and surface atmospheres over Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tiantao; Xu, Chen; Duan, Junyan; Wang, Yifan; Leng, Chunpeng; Tao, Jun; Che, Huizheng; He, Qianshan; Wu, Yunfei; Zhang, Renjian; Li, Xiang; Chen, Jianmin; Kong, Lingdong; Yu, Xingna

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol optical properties in columnar and surface atmospheres were measured at an urban station of Shanghai from December 2010 to October 2012, and their seasonal variations and differences were examined. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 500 nm is on average about 0.72 over the entire campaign, relatively higher in spring and summer and lower in autumn and winter. Ångström wavelength exponent (Alfa) mainly distributes in 1.1-1.6 (72%) with an obvious uni-peak pattern, implying that fine particles are primary in the aerosol group. Aerosol single scattering albedo of columnar atmosphere (SSA) at 440 nm experiences a weak seasonal variation with an average of 0.91, indicating that aerosols are mainly composed of particles with relatively higher scattering efficiency. The aerosol volume size distribution shows one fine mode and another coarse mode, with peak radii of 0.15 μm and 3.0 μm, respectively. The volume of fine mode particles is minimum in spring and maximum in summer, while the volume of coarse mode particles is minimum in autumn and maximum in winter. The scattering coefficient (Sc) of aerosols in surface atmosphere is relatively higher in winter and spring, the absorptive coefficient (Ab) is higher in autumn and summer. The SSA of surface atmosphere (SSA-surf) at 532 nm varies weakly over time with a lower deviation, mostly scattering in the range of 0.8-0.95 (82%). Although the disconnection of aerosol properties between columnar and surface atmospheres exists, AOT and Alfa are correlated to some extent with PM2.5 and visibility. However, the difference of SSA and SSA-surf is remarkable about 0.1. Overall, fine particles are dominant in aerosols and contribute to AOT significantly in this city, and their difference between surface and columnar atmospheres is unignored.

  4. Polar Switching in a Lyotropic Columnar Nematic Liquid Crystal Made of Bowl-Shaped Molecules.

    PubMed

    Guilleme, Julia; Cavero, Emma; Sierra, Teresa; Ortega, Josu; Folcia, César L; Etxebarria, Jesus; Torres, Tomás; González-Rodríguez, David

    2015-08-01

    A polar response in a lyotropic columnar nematic material is reported. The material accommodates bowl-shaped molecules with strong axial dipole moments in column segments without head-to-tail invariance. Optical second-harmonic-generation methods confirm that the nematic columns align unidirectionally under an applied electric field and the material develops remnant macroscopic polarization observable for hours. The switching takes place by a flip of the columns. PMID:26078047

  5. Organization of columnar inputs in the third optic ganglion of a highly visual crab.

    PubMed

    Bengochea, Mercedes; Berón de Astrada, Martín

    2014-01-01

    Motion information provides essential cues for a wide variety of animal behaviors such as mate, prey, or predator detection. In decapod crustaceans and pterygote insects, visual codification of object motion is associated with visual processing in the third optic neuropile, the lobula. In this neuropile, tangential neurons collect motion information from small field columnar neurons and relay it to the midbrain where behavioral responses would be finally shaped. In highly ordered structures, detailed knowledge of the neuroanatomy can give insight into their function. In spite of the relevance of the lobula in processing motion information, studies on the neuroarchitecture of this neuropile are scant. Here, by applying dextran-conjugated dyes in the second optic neuropile (the medulla) of the crab Neohelice, we mass stained the columnar neurons that convey visual information into the lobula. We found that the arborizations of these afferent columnar neurons lie at four main lobula depths. A detailed examination of serial optical sections of the lobula revealed that these input strata are composed of different number of substrata and that the strata are thicker in the centre of the neuropile. Finally, by staining the different lobula layers composed of tangential processes we combined the present characterization of lobula input strata with the previous characterization of the neuroarchitecture of the crab's lobula based on reduced-silver preparations. We found that the third lobula input stratum overlaps with the dendrites of lobula giant tangential neurons. This suggests that columnar neurons projecting from the medulla can directly provide visual input to the crab's lobula giant neurons. PMID:24929118

  6. Stabilization of the Columnar Mesophase of Perylenediimide by Racemic Triple Tails.

    PubMed

    Pereira de Oliveira Santos, Deise M; Belarmino Cabral, Marilia G; Bentaleb, Ahmed; Cristiano, Rodrigo; Gallardo, Hugo; Durola, Fabien; Bock, Harald

    2016-05-23

    Whereas perylene tetracarboxdiimides derived from amino-n-alkanes if at all only show monotropic (thermodynamically unstable) mesogenic self-assembly, the hexagonal columnar liquid crystalline state can be stabilized over a broad temperature range with doubly branched, doubly racemic alkyl residues. An improved tendency to homeotropic surface orientation is observed, and the orientation of the liquid crystalline domains is maintained upon cycling through the crystalline state at room temperature. PMID:27145525

  7. Immunofluorescent test for simultaneous detection of Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare.

    PubMed

    Panangalal, Victor S; Shelby, Richard A; Shoemaker, Craig A; Klesius, Phillip H; Mitra, Amitava; Morrison, Edward E

    2006-03-01

    Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and columnaris disease are 2 bacterial diseases significantly affecting the aquaculture industry, and thus rapid diagnosis of disease is imperative for making judicious management decisions. A rapid indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test with antibody conjugated fluorochromes having 2 different spectral properties (Alexa Fluor 488-emitting green fluorescence, and Alexa Fluor 594-emitting red fluorescence) was compared with bacteriological culture (accepted standard) for simultaneous detection of Edwardsiella ictaluri (EI) and Flavobacterium columnare (FC) in 3 groups of experimentally infected channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque), and a fourth group that acquired an aquarium-infection with F. columnare. A total of 303 samples (derived from kidney, brain and nares) from 101 fish were concurrently examined by both tests. Fish in the 3 experimentally infected groups (I to III) were culture positive for the bacteria with which they were infected, and fish in Group IV, (the spontaneously infected fish) revealed F. columnare only. The IFA test compared favorably in sensitivity (EI= 80.7 %; FC = 87.2%) and specificity (EI = 83.9%; FC = 88.9%) with the standard bacteriological culture. The positive predictive value (EI = 96.2% Group I, 90.8% Group II, 93.7% Groups I and II combined; FC = 95.2% Group II, 95.3% Groups II, III and IV combined) was high, while the negative predictive value (EI = 66.7% Group I, 31.3% Group II, 59.5% Groups I and II combined; FC = 73.7% Group II, 72.7% Groups II, III and IV combined) was relatively low. The IFA test will serve as an efficient tool for rapid simultaneous detection of E. ictaluri and F. columnare in outbreaks of disease. PMID:16610585

  8. Use of nanoporous columnar thin film in the wafer-level packaging of MEMS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung-Kee; Choi, Dong-Hoon; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a new packaging technology that uses a nanoporous columnar thin film to seal microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices at the wafer level. In the proposed packaging process, the processing temperature is 350 °C. The process is relatively inexpensive compared to wafer level packaging processes, because the wafer-bonding step is eliminated and the die size is shrunk. In the suggested approach, a sputtered columnar thin film at room temperature forms vertical nanopores as etch holes, and an air cavity is formed by the removal of a sacrificial layer through the nanopores in the columnar membrane. Subsequent hermetic vacuum packaging of the cavity is achieved by depositing thin films over the membrane under low pressure. The hermeticity of the packaging was verified by using an optical surface morphology microscope to measure the deflection change of the sealing membrane before and after breaking of the vacuum through an interconnected membrane. The long-term hermeticity was monitored by measuring the maximum central deflection of the PECVD sealing layer over a period of 170 days. The precise pressure (0.7 Torr) and short-term (30 days) pressure change inside the cavity were measured by encapsulated Ni Pirani gauges, representing packaged freestanding MEMS devices.

  9. Rock Cracking Indices for Improved Tunnel Support Design: A Case Study for Columnar Jointed Rock Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xia-Ting; Hao, Xian-Jie; Jiang, Quan; Li, Shao-jun; Hudson, John A.

    2016-06-01

    Measurements indicate that the development of cracking is a key feature relating to the strength and collapse of a columnar jointed rock mass. In this context, a new support design method utilising rock cracking indices for columnar jointed rock mass under high stress is proposed to restrain the development of cracking in the surrounding rock mass. The method involves limiting the cracking evolution of the surrounding rock mass by designing the appropriate parameters and time of installation of the support system. Two indices are suggested: the allowable depth of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ); and the allowable damage extent of the rock mass in the EDZ. The method involves limiting the evolution of cracking in the surrounding rock mass by designing the parameters and time of installation of the support system. The support system should have a suitable stiffness and installation time so as to restrain the evolution of the depth and damage extent of the EDZ within the surrounding rock. Therefore, the depth and damage extent of the EDZ, as well as the axial stress in the anchor bolts, are calculated at different distances between the support location and the tunnel working face to find the appropriate stiffness and installation time of the support system. The method has been successfully adopted to determine the thickness of shotcrete, the arrangement and installation time of rockbolts, and other parameters, for five large diversion tunnels at the Baihetan hydropower station, China, which were excavated in columnar jointed rock masses.

  10. Alignment of palladium complexes into columnar liquid crystals driven by peripheral triphenylene substituents.

    PubMed

    Tritto, Emiliano; Chico, Rubén; Sanz-Enguita, Gerardo; Folcia, César L; Ortega, Josu; Coco, Silverio; Espinet, Pablo

    2014-04-01

    A new triphenylene-imine (ImH) and its ortho-palladated complexes (μ-X)2[Pd2Im2] (X = CH3COO(-), Cl(-), Br(-)), (μ-Cl)(μ-SCnH2n+1)[Pd2Im2] (n = 6, 12), [PdIm(acac)] [PdIm Cl(CNC6H4OC12H25)], [PdImCl(CNC6H3(OC12H25)2)], and [PdImCl(CNC6H2(OC12H25)3)] have been prepared. The free imine ligand is not a liquid crystal, but most ortho-metalated dinuclear palladium complexes and the mononuclear trialkoxyphenyl isocyanide derivative display columnar mesophases at temperatures close to ambient. For the dimeric complexes the mesophase obtained is always columnar rectangular (Colr), with an uncommon structure: the dimeric triphenylene-Pd complex-triphenylene molecules give rise to a triple-column stacking consisting of two columns of stacked triphenylene groups connected to a central column formed by stacking of two ortho-palladated dimeric moieties. For the trialkoxyphenyl isocyanide derivative a related polymer-like arrangement of columns alternating stacking of triphenylenes with stacking of two ortho-palladated dimeric moieties is found. The mesophase structure is columnar oblique (Colob). The free imine and all palladium complexes exhibit fluorescence at room temperature in dichloromethane solution, associated with the triphenylene core. PMID:24635036

  11. Slow Phase Separation in Mixed Columnar Phases of NanoDNA and Chromonic Dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Gregory; Yi, Youngwoo; Walba, David; Clark, Noel

    2014-03-01

    The architecture of a DNA duplex with its externally exposed charged phosphate backbone and internally hidden aromatic bases, hydrophobically stacked at a spacing of 3.4 Å, is strikingly similar to aggregates of Liquid Crystal (LC) forming chromonic dyes such as Sunset Yellow (SSY). One might naturally question whether a DNA-like molecular column can be assembled from a subunit resembling a chromonic dye. Because little is known about direct mixtures of chromonics with DNA and how such a mixture might form mixed LC phases, we mixed blunt-end 12mer NanoDNA (GCGCTTAAGCGC) with SSY, both of these molecular species independently having well-described LC behavior. Observed mixtures are remarkably miscible, exhibiting a mixed chiral nematic phase with Grandjean texture that is distinct from SSY and DNA nematic forms. On transition to the columnar phase when the molecular species fractions are very close in proportion (about 1:1.3 DNA:SSY by weight) the columnar phase exhibits a slow but thermally reversible demixing to produce a striated texture whose assembly is guided by the columnar director structure. Grant support: NSF DRM 1207606 and NSF MRSEC DRM 0820579.

  12. Columnar-lined esophagus: time to drop the eponym of "Barrett": Historical review.

    PubMed

    Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Bani-Hani, Bayan K

    2008-05-01

    There can be few medical conditions that have been surrounded by as much confusion about their definition or terminology as columnar-lined esophagus (CLE); approximately 30 different terms and eponyms have been used to describe this condition. The history of this condition can be divided into five stages: (i) descriptive stage, 1906-1950; (ii) "argument" stage, 1950-1963; (iii) "significant" stage, 1963-1973; (iv) surveillance stage, 1973-1990; and (v) refined research stage, 1990-present. The use of the eponym "Barrett's" to describe CLE is not justified from a historical point of view. Lining of the lower esophagus by columnar epithelium was termed "Barrett's esophagus" after the presentation by Barrett in 1957. Although this finding has been attributed to Barrett, the work of others, including Tileston, Lortat-Jacob, and Allison and Johnstone, preceded Barrett's description. The historical aspects of CLE were reviewed to show how little Norman Barrett had contributed to the core concept of this condition in comparison to the contributions of other investigators, particularly the contribution of Philip Allison. Based on many discussed historical facts, we are not in favor of retaining the term "Barrett's esophagus" and we propose that CLE be henceforth referred to as "columnar-lined esophagus". PMID:18410605

  13. Methylation of DAPK and THBS1 genes in esophageal gastric-type columnar metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis F; Mosqueda-Vargas, José Luis; Herrera, Luis A; Castro, Clementina; Mendoza, Julia; González-Barrios, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore methylation of DAPK, THBS1, CDH-1, and p14 genes, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status in individuals harboring esophageal columnar metaplasia. METHODS: Distal esophageal mucosal samples obtained by endoscopy and histologically diagnosed as gastric-type (non-specialized) columnar metaplasia, were studied thoroughly. DNA was extracted from paraffin blocks, and methylation status of death-associated protein kinase (DAPK), thrombospondin-1 (THBS1), cadherin-1 (CDH1), and p14 genes, was examined using a methyl-sensitive polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) and sodium bisulfite modification protocol. H. pylori cagA status was determined by PCR. RESULTS: In total, 68 subjects (33 females and 35 males), with a mean age of 52 years, were included. H. pylori cagA positive was present in the esophageal gastric-type metaplastic mucosa of 18 individuals. DAPK, THSB1, CDH1, and p14 gene promoters were methylated by MS-PCR in 40 (58.8%), 33 (48.5%), 46 (67.6%), and 23 (33.8%) cases of the 68 esophageal samples. H. pylori status was associated with methylation of DAPK (P = 0.003) and THBS1 (P = 0.019). CONCLUSION: DNA methylation occurs in cases of gastric-type (non-specialized) columnar metaplasia of the esophagus, and this modification is associated with H. pylori cagA positive infection. PMID:27182166

  14. A limited autoimmunity to p185neu elicited by DNA and allogeneic cell vaccine hampers the progression of preneoplastic lesions in HER-2/NEU transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lo Iacono, M; Cavallo, F; Quaglino, E; Rolla, S; Iezzi, M; Pupa, S M; De Giovanni, C; Lollini, P-L; Musiani, P; Forni, G; Calogero, R A

    2005-01-01

    Prevention of the progression of precancerous lesions by vaccines is virtually uncharted territory. Their potential, however, is being assessed in transgenic mice which develop autochthonous tumors with defined stages of progression. In this paper we show that the DNA micro-array technology significantly helps assessment of the preventive efficacy of a combined DNA and cell vaccine. All female rat Her-2/neu transgenic BALB/c (BALB-neuT) mice develop an invasive carcinoma in each of their mammary glands within 25 weeks of age. This is elicited by the activated transforming rat Her-2/neu oncogene embedded in their genome. We have previously shown that vaccination of mice bearing multiple in situ carcinomas with DNA plasmids which code for the extracellular and transmembrane domain of rat p185neu, the product of the rat Her-2/neu oncogene, followed by a boost with rat p185neu+ allogeneic cells engineered to secrete interferon-gamma, keeps 48% of mice tumor free until week 32. We have now extended our follow-up until mice reach one year of age and show that protection vanishes as time progresses. This observation suggests that the accuracy of the results studying immunotherapy against life-threatening tumors is a function of the length of the follow-up. The application of microarrays, and the concordance of morphologic and gene expression data led us to identify antibody as the main mechanism induced by vaccination. Protection is associated with a break of tolerance and a limited autoimmunity against the endogenous mouse p185neu. PMID:15888257

  15. Inversion of the haze aerosol sky columnar AVSD in central China by combining multiple ground observation equipment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingying; Gong, Wei; Wang, Lunche; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Zhongyong; Li, Jun; Yang, Jian

    2016-04-18

    Wuhan is the biggest city in China that has been facing an increasingly serious problem of air pollution in the recent years. In order to understand the mechanism of haze formation and diffusion, it is very important to obtain multiple atmospheric parameters. Columnar aerosol volume size distribution (AVSD) is an important atmospheric parameter in this regard, and utilizing CIMEL sun-photometer data to obtain this parameter has become the most popular method. However, currently, the widely used retrieval algorithms cannot be accessed using an open source code, and thus the retrieval of columnar AVSD is still a challenging task.. In this article, we introduce a new method that combines partial least squares (PLS) and genetic algorithm (GA) for the retrieval of columnar AVSD. By using this new method, we could obtain credible results even during hazy periods, despite the fact that our sun-photometer did not participate in the AERONET program and we did not use an official data processing method. First, it was assumed that columnar AVSD obeys the double logarithmic normal distribution function. Second, the relationship between the columnar AVSD and the AVSD on earth's surface was established using the partial least squares (PLS) method. Finally, the initial distribution parameters were adjusted through GA to obtain an optimal solution. This new method can improve the accuracy and reduce the computational difficulties faced in the retrieval of columnar AVSD in the absence of AREONET-based algorithm. PMID:27137256

  16. [Surprising white lesions].

    PubMed

    Nolte, J W; van der Waal, I

    2011-09-01

    A 46-year-old man appeared with white lesions of the oral cavity. A previously taken biopsy revealed no classifying diagnosis and treatment with mouth rinse produced no improvement. A new biopsy was taken, on which the pathologist performed additional tests. This resulted in the diagnosis 'syphilis'. The patient was treated with benzylpenicillin and the oral white lesions disappeared. Although nowadays syphilis is rare, special attention is required when noticing these kinds of lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:21957637

  17. Proliferation and Glia-Directed Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells in the Subventricular Zone of the Lateral Ventricle and the Migratory Pathway to the Lesions after Cortical Devascularization of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Feng; Bai, Hua-Jing; Liu, Jun-Qi; Tian, Mo; Wang, Yong-Xue; Niu, Xin; Si, Yin-Chu

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of cortical devascularization on the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle of adult rats. 60 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group and devascularized group. At 15 and 30 days after cerebral cortices were devascularized, rats were euthanized and immunohistochemical analysis was performed. The number of PCNA-, Vimentin-, and GFAP-positive cells in the bilateral SVZ of the lateral wall and the superior wall of the lateral ventricles of 15- and 30-day devascularized groups increased significantly compared with the control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). The area density of PCNA-, Vimentin-, and GFAP-positive cells in cortical lesions of 15- and 30-day devascularized groups increased significantly compared with the control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). PCNA-, GFAP-, and Vimentin-positive cells in the SVZ migrated through the rostral migratory stream (RMS), and PCNA-, GFAP-, and Vimentin-positive cells from both the ipsilateral and contralateral dorsolateral SVZ (dl-SVZ) migrated into the corpus callosum (CC) and accumulated, forming a migratory pathway within the CC to the lesioned site. Our study suggested that cortical devascularization induced proliferation, glia-directed differentiation, and migration of NSCs from the SVZ through the RMS or directly to the corpus callosum and finally migrating radially to cortical lesions. This may play a significant role in neural repair. PMID:27294116

  18. Granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions.

    PubMed

    Rossiello, Luigi; Palla, Marco; Aiello, Francesco Saviero; Baroni, Adone; Satriano, Rocco Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with a 7-year history of gradually enlarging plaques on his face and trunk. The first lesions had developed on both sides of the forehead and the left cheekbone (Figure 1). Four years later similar lesions appeared on his neck and back. He presented a histologic report of a biopsy specimen from a facial plaque performed 5 years earlier that was diagnostic for granuloma faciale. He had different treatments such as topical steroids and cryotherapy without improvement. The appearance of new lesions on his trunk and the gradual enlarging of the old lesions convinced the patient to seek further treatment. Physical examination revealed dusky, violaceous plaques and papules, 0.5 to 2 cm, well-circumscribed, slightly elevated, and located on the face and trunk, with mild pruritus (Figure 1 and Figure 2). Laboratory investigations, including complete blood cell count, VDRL test, antinuclear antibody test, biochemical parameters, and chest x-ray, did not reveal any abnormalities. A skin biopsy taken from the upper part of the back showed similar features to the facial lesion, detected 5 years before, revealing a dense, polymorphous infiltrate involving mid and deep dermis and displaying a diffuse and perivascular pattern (Figure 3A). A narrow grenz zone of normal collagen was consistently observed between dermal infiltrate and epidermis as well as around the pilosebaceous follicles (Figure 3A). The infiltrate mainly consisted of eosinophils and lymphocytes, but neutrophils (often displaying leukocytoclasis), macrophages, and plasma cells were also present (Figures 3B, 3C). Some mast cells were also identified by staining with toluidine blue (Figure 3D). Perivascular infiltrates were often seen, sometimes penetrating vessel walls and in association with leukocytoclasis. Hyalinization of vessel walls, extravasation of red blood cells around capillaries, and nuclear dust were also noted. The epidermis did not show any remarkable change except for

  19. Fast magnetic response in gigahertz-band for columnar-structured Fe nanoparticle assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, T.; Kura, H.; Tate, R.; Oikawa, T.; Hata, K.

    2014-05-01

    High density Fe-based ferromagnetic nanoparticle (NP) assembly is expected to have unique magnetic properties, such as superferromagnetism and super-spin-glass, different from magnetically isolated NP systems due to strong dipole interactions among the NPs. A high dipole interaction field, Hdip, of ˜3.5 kOe can result in a high effective internal field to the magnetic moment of the NP, expecting for ultra-fast magnetic response, that is, a high magnetic resonance frequency, fr, of ˜10 GHz. However, for a simply molded Fe NP assembly, a low fr was observed due to inhomogeneous distribution of the internal field, implying the necessity of a unidirectional state of Hdip for higher fr. In this study, we fabricated a columnar Fe NP assembly for realizing the unidirectional state of Hdip by applying our uniquely developed external field-induced agglomeration method for monodispersed Fe NPs (13 nm in average size) as a function of the field (0-30 kOe) and volume fraction of the Fe NPs (0.5%-51%) in a polymer matrix with dimensions of 4 mm × 4 mm × 0.7 mmt. A columnar-structured Fe NP assembly was successfully achieved along an in-plane direction (defined as the x-axis) under optimized conditions. From static magnetization curves, induced uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was observed according to the shape of the columnar structure of the Fe NP assembly, where easy and hard axes of magnetization were realized along the parallel (x-axis) and normal directions (in-plane y-axis and z-axis in the thickness direction) to the external field during the process, respectively. Interestingly, this fabricated columnar-structured Fe NP assembly exhibited very high fr in the range from 3 to 11 GHz judging from the complex susceptibility spectra obtained. The fr values were well-scaled by a modified Snoek's-limit-law using demagnetization factors quantitatively estimated from the static magnetization curves. Thus, shape-induced anisotropy originating from the unidirectional state of

  20. Fast magnetic response in gigahertz-band for columnar-structured Fe nanoparticle assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, T. Tate, R.; Kura, H.; Oikawa, T.; Hata, K.

    2014-05-07

    High density Fe-based ferromagnetic nanoparticle (NP) assembly is expected to have unique magnetic properties, such as superferromagnetism and super-spin-glass, different from magnetically isolated NP systems due to strong dipole interactions among the NPs. A high dipole interaction field, H{sub dip}, of ∼3.5 kOe can result in a high effective internal field to the magnetic moment of the NP, expecting for ultra-fast magnetic response, that is, a high magnetic resonance frequency, f{sub r}, of ∼10 GHz. However, for a simply molded Fe NP assembly, a low f{sub r} was observed due to inhomogeneous distribution of the internal field, implying the necessity of a unidirectional state of H{sub dip} for higher f{sub r}. In this study, we fabricated a columnar Fe NP assembly for realizing the unidirectional state of H{sub dip} by applying our uniquely developed external field-induced agglomeration method for monodispersed Fe NPs (13 nm in average size) as a function of the field (0–30 kOe) and volume fraction of the Fe NPs (0.5%–51%) in a polymer matrix with dimensions of 4 mm × 4 mm × 0.7 mm{sup t}. A columnar-structured Fe NP assembly was successfully achieved along an in-plane direction (defined as the x-axis) under optimized conditions. From static magnetization curves, induced uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was observed according to the shape of the columnar structure of the Fe NP assembly, where easy and hard axes of magnetization were realized along the parallel (x-axis) and normal directions (in-plane y-axis and z-axis in the thickness direction) to the external field during the process, respectively. Interestingly, this fabricated columnar-structured Fe NP assembly exhibited very high f{sub r} in the range from 3 to 11 GHz judging from the complex susceptibility spectra obtained. The f{sub r} values were well-scaled by a modified Snoek's-limit-law using demagnetization factors quantitatively estimated from the static magnetization curves. Thus, shape

  1. Intra-arterial Onyx Embolization of Vertebral Body Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sedora-Roman, Neda I.; Reddy, Arra Suresh; Ogilvy, Christopher S.; Thomas, Ajith J.

    2013-01-01

    While Onyx embolization of cerebrospinal arteriovenous shunts is well-established, clinical researchers continue to broaden applications to other vascular lesions of the neuraxis. This report illustrates the application of Onyx (eV3, Plymouth, MN) embolization to vertebral body lesions, specifically, a vertebral hemangioma and renal cell carcinoma vertebral body metastatic lesion. PMID:24729960

  2. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gompertz, Macarena; Morales, Claudia; Aldana, Hernán; Castillo, Jaime; Berger, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered after corticosteroid therapy. One year later, he presented with a recurrent episode of AIP with elevated IgG4 levels, accompanied by the appearance of multiple intrapancreatic cystic lesions. All but 1 of these cysts disappeared after steroid treatment, but the remaining cyst in the pancreatic head was even somewhat larger 1 year later. Pancreatoduodenectomy was finally performed. Histology showed the wall of the cystic lesion to be fibrotic; the surrounding pancreatic tissue presented fibrosis, atrophy and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration by IgG4-positive cells, without malignant elements. Our case illustrates the rare possibility that cystic lesions can be part of AIP. These pseudocysts appear in the pancreatic segments involved in the autoimmune disease and can be a consequence of the local inflammation or related to ductal strictures. Steroid treatment should be initiated, after which these cysts can completely disappear with recovery from AIP. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some exceptional cases. PMID:26675058

  3. Cystic lesions of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Karoumpalis, Ioannis; Christodoulou, Dimitrios K.

    2016-01-01

    Different types of benign or malignant cystic lesions can be observed in the pancreas. Pancreatic cystic lesions are classified under pathology terms into simple retention cysts, pseudocysts and cystic neoplasms. Mucinous cystic neoplasm is a frequent type of cystic neoplasm and has a malignant potential. Serous cystadenoma follows in frequency and is usually benign. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are the most commonly resected cystic pancreatic neoplasms characterized by dilated segments of the main pancreatic duct and/or side branches, the wall of which is covered by mucus secreting cells. These neoplasms can occupy the pancreatic head or any part of the organ. Solid pseudopapillary tumor is rare, has a low tendency for malignancy, and is usually located in the pancreatic body or tail. Endoscopic ultrasound with the use of fine-needle aspiration and cytology permits discrimination of those lesions. In this review, the main characteristics of those lesions are presented, as well as recommendations regarding their follow up and management according to recent guidelines. PMID:27065727

  4. Cystic lesions of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Karoumpalis, Ioannis; Christodoulou, Dimitrios K

    2016-01-01

    Different types of benign or malignant cystic lesions can be observed in the pancreas. Pancreatic cystic lesions are classified under pathology terms into simple retention cysts, pseudocysts and cystic neoplasms. Mucinous cystic neoplasm is a frequent type of cystic neoplasm and has a malignant potential. Serous cystadenoma follows in frequency and is usually benign. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are the most commonly resected cystic pancreatic neoplasms characterized by dilated segments of the main pancreatic duct and/or side branches, the wall of which is covered by mucus secreting cells. These neoplasms can occupy the pancreatic head or any part of the organ. Solid pseudopapillary tumor is rare, has a low tendency for malignancy, and is usually located in the pancreatic body or tail. Endoscopic ultrasound with the use of fine-needle aspiration and cytology permits discrimination of those lesions. In this review, the main characteristics of those lesions are presented, as well as recommendations regarding their follow up and management according to recent guidelines. PMID:27065727

  5. The Immune Landscapes of Polypoid and Nonpolypoid Precancerous Colorectal Lesions.

    PubMed

    Maglietta, Antonella; Maglietta, Rosalia; Staiano, Teresa; Bertoni, Ramona; Ancona, Nicola; Marra, Giancarlo; Resta, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the immunoediting process in precancerous lesions. We explored this aspect of benign colorectal adenomas with a descriptive analysis of the immune pathways and immune cells whose regulation is linked to the morphology and size of these lesions. Two series of polypoid and nonpolypoid colorectal adenomas were used in this study: 1) 84 samples (42 lesions, each with matched samples of normal mucosa) whose gene expression data were used to quantify the tumor morphology- and size-related dysregulation of immune pathways collected in the Molecular Signature Database, using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis; 2) 40 other lesions examined with immunohistochemistry to quantify the presence of immune cells in the stromal compartment. In the analysis of transcriptomic data, 429 immune pathways displayed significant differential regulation in neoplasms of different morphology and size. Most pathways were significantly upregulated or downregulated in polypoid lesions versus nonpolypoid lesions (regardless of size). Differential pathway regulation associated with lesion size was observed only in polypoid neoplasms. These findings were mirrored by tissue immunostaining with CD4, CD8, FOXP3, MHC-I, CD68, and CD163 antibodies: stromal immune cell counts (mainly T lymphocytes and macrophages) were significantly higher in polypoid lesions. Certain markers displayed significant size-related differences regardless of lesion morphology. Multivariate analysis of variance showed that the marker panel clearly discriminated between precancerous lesions of different morphologies and sizes. Statistical analysis of immunostained cell counts fully support the results of the transcriptomic data analysis: the density of infiltration of most immune cells in the stroma of polypoid precancerous lesions was significantly higher than that observed in nonpolypoid lesions. Large neoplasms also have more immune cells in their stroma than small lesions. Immunoediting in precancerous

  6. A role for neuropilins in the interaction between Schwann cells and meningeal cells.

    PubMed

    Roet, Kasper C D; Wirz, Kerstin T S; Franssen, Elske H P; Verhaagen, Joost

    2014-01-01

    In their natural habitat, the peripheral nerve, Schwann cells (SCs) form nicely aligned pathways (also known as the bands of Büngner) that guide regenerating axons to their targets. Schwann cells that are implanted in the lesioned spinal cord fail to align in pathways that could support axon growth but form cellular clusters that exhibit only limited intermingling with the astrocytes and meningeal cells (MCs) that are present in the neural scar. The formation of cell clusters can be studied in co-cultures of SCs and MCs. In these co-cultures SCs form cluster-like non-overlapping cell aggregates with well-defined boundaries. There are several indications that neuropilins (NRPs) play an important role in MC-induced SC aggregation. Both SCs and MCs express NRP1 and NRP2 and SCs express the NRP ligands Sema3B, C and E while MCs express Sema3A, C, E and F. We now demonstrate that in SC-MC co-cultures, siRNA mediated knockdown of NRP2 in SCs decreased the formation of SC clusters while these SCs maintained their capacity to align in bands of Büngner-like columnar arrays. Unexpectedly, knockdown of NRP1 expression resulted in a significant increase in SC aggregation. These results suggest that a reduction in NRP2 expression may enhance the capacity of implanted SCs to interact with MCs that invade a neural scar formed after a lesion of the spinal cord. PMID:25314276

  7. Kinetics and regulation of human keratinocyte stem cell growth in short-term primary ex vivo culture. Cooperative growth factors from psoriatic lesional T lymphocytes stimulate proliferation among psoriatic uninvolved, but not normal, stem keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bata-Csorgo, Z; Hammerberg, C; Voorhees, J J; Cooper, K D

    1995-01-01

    Flow cytometric analysis of primary ex vivo keratinocyte cultures demonstrated that stem cells, (beta 1 integrin+, keratin 1/keratin 10 [K1/K10-], proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA-] [Bata-Csorgo, Zs., C. Hammerberg, J. J. Voorhees, and K. D. Cooper. 1993. J. Exp. Med. 178:1271-1281]) establish such cultures. This methodology also enabled the quantitation of synchronized recruitment of these cells from G0 into G1 of the cell cycle (PCNA expression), which preceded bright beta 1 integrin expression. (beta 1 integrinbright expression has been shown to be a characteristic feature of keratinocyte stem cells in culture (Jones, P. H., and F. M. Watt. 1993. Cell. 73:713-724). Using the above assay, we determined whether lesional T lymphocytes in psoriasis could be directly responsible for the induction of the stem cell hyperproliferation that is characteristic of this disease. Indeed, CD4+ T lymphocytes, cloned from lesional psoriatic skin and stimulated by immobilized anti-CD3 plus fibronectin, promoted psoriatic uninvolved keratinocyte stem cell proliferation via soluble factors. This induction appeared to be through accelerated recruitment of stem cells from their quiescent state (G0) into cell cycle. By contrast, normal keratinocyte stem cells exhibited no such growth stimulation. Supernatants exhibiting growth induction all contained high levels of GM-CSF and gamma-IFN, low IL-3 and TNF-alpha, and variable IL-4. Only anti-gamma-IFN antibody was able to neutralize growth stimulatory activity of the supernatants on psoriatic uninvolved keratinocyte stem cells. However, because recombinant gamma-IFN alone inhibited growth in this assay, these data suggest that, in psoriasis, gamma-IFN acts cooperatively with other growth factors in the immune induction of cell cycle progression by the normally quiescent stem cell keratinocytes. Images PMID:7529261

  8. Preinvasive lesions

    Cancer.gov

    This definition is for allocation of lesions with preinvasive/borderline properties. It is currently aimed at newly identified neoplasms, which may be similar to those described in humans. In mouse pathology, many adenomas may be preinvasive/borderline lesions. However, their inclusion in the preinvasive category can be justified only upon development of better diagnostic criteria.

  9. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuyet A; Krakowski, Andrew C; Naheedy, John H; Kruk, Peter G; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2015-12-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  10. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  11. Multiple lesion track structure model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1992-01-01

    A multilesion cell kinetic model is derived, and radiation kinetic coefficients are related to the Katz track structure model. The repair-related coefficients are determined from the delayed plating experiments of Yang et al. for the C3H10T1/2 cell system. The model agrees well with the x ray and heavy ion experiments of Yang et al. for the immediate plating, delaying plating, and fractionated exposure protocols employed by Yang. A study is made of the effects of target fragments in energetic proton exposures and of the repair-deficient target-fragment-induced lesions.

  12. Additional Survival Benefit of Involved-Lesion Radiation Therapy After R-CHOP Chemotherapy in Limited Stage Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Jeanny; Kim, Il Han; Kim, Byoung Hyuck; Kim, Tae Min; Heo, Dae Seog

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of involved-lesion radiation therapy (ILRT) after rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy in limited stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by comparing outcomes of R-CHOP therapy alone with R-CHOP followed by ILRT. Methods and Materials: We identified 198 patients treated with R-CHOP (median, 6 cycles) for pathologically confirmed DLBCL of limited stage from July 2004 to December 2012. Clinical characteristics of these patients were 33% with stage I and 66.7% with stage II; 79.8% were in the low or low-intermediate risk group; 13.6% had B symptoms; 29.8% had bulky tumors (≥7 cm); and 75.3% underwent ≥6 cycles of R-CHOP therapy. RT was given to 43 patients (21.7%) using ILRT technique, which included the prechemotherapy tumor volume with a median margin of 2 cm (median RT dose: 36 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 40 months, 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 85.8% and 88.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed ≥6 cycles of R-CHOP (PFS, P=.004; OS, P=.004) and ILRT (PFS, P=.021; OS, P=.014) were favorable prognosticators of PFS and OS. A bulky tumor (P=.027) and response to R-CHOP (P=.012) were also found to be independent factors of OS. In subgroup analysis, the effect of ILRT was prominent in patients with a bulky tumor (PFS, P=.014; OS, P=.030) or an elevated level of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; PFS, P=.004; OS, P=.012). Conclusions: Our results suggest that ILRT after R-CHOP therapy improves PFS and OS in patients with limited stage DLBCL, especially in those with bulky disease or an elevated serum LDH level.

  13. Esophagitis may not be a Major Precursor Lesion for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a High Incidence Area in North-Eastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Abedi-Ardekani, B; Sotoudeh, M; Aghcheli, K; Semnani, S; Shakeri, R; Taghavi, N; Nasrollahzadeh, D; Fahimi, S; Islami, F; Marjani, H; Malekzadeh, R

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is usually detected in advanced stages resulting in a very poor prognosis. Early diagnosis needs identification of clinically relevant precancerous lesions which could become the target of screening and early treatment. Our aim was to check whether esophagitis could serve as a relevant histological precursor of ESCC in Northern Iran. METHODS During 2001-2005, all adult patients who were referred to Atrak clinic for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy were enrolled. Atrak clinic is a major center for upper gastrointestinal cancer research in eastern Golestan. All subjects had been complaining of upper GI symptoms and were under further investigation to rule out cancer. Biopsies from the endoscopically normal mid-esophagus and also just above the esophago-gastric junction were obtained in all subjects whose esophagus appeared normal during endoscopy and from endoscopically normal appearing mucosa at the proximal vicinity of any detected mass. Microscopic examinations for the verification of the presence or absence of esophagitis was performed by independant histological examination of the samples by two pathologists. All the discrepant diagnoses were resolved in joint diagnostic sessions. RESULTS During the study period 836 patients were enrolled including 419 non cancer patients (endoscopy clinic controls), 387 cancer patients, and 30 subjects with clinical diagnosis of malignancy referred for histological reconfirmation of diagnosis by repeated biopsy. Mild or marked mid-esophagitis was diagnosed in 39 (9.3%), 47 (12.5%) and 12 (40%) of endoscopy clinic controls, cancer patients and those who were suspicious for upper gastrointestinal malignancies. CONCLUSION Our observation does not show evidence for esophagitis to be a predisposing factor for ESCC in Gonbad region In North Eastern Iran. PMID:25197529

  14. Esophagitis may not be a Major Precursor Lesion for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a High Incidence Area in North-Eastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abedi-Ardekani, B; Sotoudeh, M; Aghcheli, K; Semnani, S; Shakeri, R; Taghavi, N; Nasrollahzadeh, D; Fahimi, S; Islami, F; Marjani, H; Malekzadeh, R

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is usually detected in advanced stages resulting in a very poor prognosis. Early diagnosis needs identification of clinically relevant precancerous lesions which could become the target of screening and early treatment. Our aim was to check whether esophagitis could serve as a relevant histological precursor of ESCC in Northern Iran. METHODS During 2001–2005, all adult patients who were referred to Atrak clinic for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy were enrolled. Atrak clinic is a major center for upper gastrointestinal cancer research in eastern Golestan. All subjects had been complaining of upper GI symptoms and were under furth