Science.gov

Sample records for combat air vehicles

  1. Research of autonomous landing control of unmanned combat air vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shaoyan; Chen, Zongji

    2003-09-01

    This paper is to present a robust controller design method for developing autonomous landing systems of Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV). We first analyze the characteristic of autonomous landing of UCAV, and put forward its landing performance specifications. Structure singular value μ| synthesis is used to develop autonomous landing systems to accurately follow the pre-designed ideal landing track or online generated optimal landing track. The robust performance of system is analyzed. The simulation results demonstrate that the designed autonomous landing system satisfies the performance requirements of autonomous landing of UCAV when there are uncertainties of UCAV aircraft model, measurement noises and exogenous disturbances.

  2. Preliminary performance estimates of an oblique, all-wing, remotely piloted vehicle for air-to-air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P., Jr.; Bailey, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    A computerized aircraft synthesis program has been used to assess the effects of various vehicle and mission parameters on the performance of an oblique, all-wing, remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) for the highly maneuverable, air-to-air combat role. The study mission consists of an outbound cruise, an acceleration phase, a series of subsonic and supersonic turns, and a return cruise. The results are presented in terms of both the required vehicle weight to accomplish this mission and the combat effectiveness as measured by turning and acceleration capability. This report describes the synthesis program, the mission, the vehicle, and results from sensitivity studies. An optimization process has been used to establish the nominal RPV configuration of the oblique, all-wing concept for the specified mission. In comparison to a previously studied conventional wing-body canard design for the same mission, this oblique, all-wing nominal vehicle is lighter in weight and has higher performance.

  3. Combatting urban air pollution through Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) analysis, testing, and demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    Deteriorating urban air quality ranks as a top concern worldwide, since air pollution adversely affects both public health and the environment. The outlook for improving air quality in the world`s megacities need not be bleak, however, The use of natural gas as a transportation fuel can measurably reduce urban pollution levels, mitigating chronic threats to health and the environment. Besides being clean burning, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) are economical to operate and maintain. The current cost of natural gas is lower than that of gasoline. Natural gas also reduces the vehicle`s engine wear and noise level, extends engine life, and decreases engine maintenance. Today, about 700,000 NGVs operate worldwide, the majority of them converted from gasoline or diesel fuel. This article discusses the economic, regulatory and technological issues of concern to the NGV industry.

  4. Air Combat Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    By adapting COSMIC's One-on-One Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) for two versus one simulation, Link Division was able to reduce software and other design/development costs. Enhancements to the AML program developed by Link for simulation of two-versus one combat, two trainees can simultaneously engage a computer driven target, thereby doubling the training utility of the simulator.

  5. Interactive computerized air combat opponent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, W. W., III

    1976-01-01

    A computer program developed to fly interactive one-on-one simulated air combat maneuvers against human pilots is described. The program which is called Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML), is being used in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center's Differential Maneuvering Simulator. The basic control logic evaluates the relative states of the two aircraft and reacts by choosing the best of several elemental maneuvers. Pilot comments and results obtained when the computer was flown against combat-qualified fighter pilots indicate that the program performs realistic maneuvers and offers a very competitive standard pilot.

  6. Display integration for ground combat vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, David J.

    1998-09-01

    The United States Army's requirement to employ high resolution target acquisition sensors and information warfare to increase its dominance over enemy forces has led to the need to integrate advanced display devices into ground combat vehicle crew stations. The Army's force structure require the integration of advanced displays on both existing and emerging ground combat vehicle systems. The fielding of second generation target acquisition sensors, color digital terrain maps and high volume digital command and control information networks on these platforms define display performance requirements. The greatest challenge facing the system integrator is the development and integration of advanced displays that meet operational, vehicle and human computer interface performance requirements for the ground combat vehicle fleet. The subject of this paper is to address those challenges: operational and vehicle performance, non-soldier centric crew station configurations, display performance limitations related to human computer interfaces and vehicle physical environments, display technology limitations and the Department of Defense (DOD) acquisition reform initiatives. How the ground combat vehicle Program Manager and system integrator are addressing these challenges are discussed through the integration of displays on fielded, current and future close combat vehicle applications.

  7. Advanced protection technology for ground combat vehicles.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Timothy G

    2012-01-01

    Just as highway drivers use radar detectors to attempt to stay ahead of police armed with the latest radar technology, the Armed Forces are locked in a spiral to protect combat vehicles and their crews against the latest threats in both the contemporary operating environment and the anticipated operating environment (ie, beyond 2020). In response to bigger, heavier, or better-protected vehicles, adversaries build and deploy larger explosive devices or bombs. However, making improvements to combat vehicles is much more expensive than deploying larger explosives. In addition, demand is increasing for lighter-weight vehicles capable of rapid deployment. Together, these two facts give the threat a clear advantage in the future. To protect vehicles and crews, technologies focusing on detection and hit avoidance, denial of penetration, and crew survivability must be combined synergistically to provide the best chance of survival on the modern battlefield. PMID:22865132

  8. Composite structural armor for combat vehicle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, William E., III; Alesi, A. L.; Parsons, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Several projects that have demonstrated the advantages of using thick composite armor technology for structural applications in armored combat vehicles are discussed. The first involved composite cargo doors for the Marine Corps LVTP-7 amphibious landing vehicle. Another was a demonstration composite turret that offered a weight reduction of 15.5 percent. The advantages of this composite armor compared to metallic armors used for combat vehicle hull and turret applications are reduced weight at equal ballistic protection; reduced back armor spall; excellent corrosion resistance; reduced production costs by parts consolidation; and inherent thermal and acoustic insulative properties. Based on the encouraging results of these past programs, the Demonstration Composite Hull Program was started in September 1986. To demonstrate this composite armor technology, the Army's newest infantry fighting vehicle, the Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV), was selected as a model. A composite infantry fighting vehicle, designated the CIFV for this program, has been designed and fabricated and is currently undergoing a 6000 mile field endurance test. The CIFV demonstration vehicle uses the BFV engine, transmission, suspension, track and other equipment.

  9. Crew station for ground combat vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Daniele

    1996-06-01

    Force XXI is the vision to synthesize the technology, doctrine, and organization of the U.S. Army so that it can fight and win the wars of the 21st Century. Digitization--taking advantage of the microprocessor revolution--is a key enabler of the Force XXI plan. In the Crewman's Associate Advanced Technology Demonstration, crew stations for ground combat vehicles are being developed that allow the soldier to use digitization to maximum weapon system performance.

  10. Flat panels in future ground combat vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurd, Eric D.; Forest, Coryne A.

    1996-05-01

    The efforts of the design team for the Crewman's Associate Advanced Technology Demonstration (CA ATD) and its use of advanced display concepts is discussed. This team has the responsibility of identifying future technologies with the potential for maximizing human- machine interaction for incorporation into future crew station designs for ground combat vehicles. The design process utilizes extensive user involvement in all stages. This is critical to developing systems that have complex functions, yet are simple to maintain and operate. Described are the needs which have driven the U.S. Army towards the use of flat panels. Ultimately, the army is looking at smaller, lighter, more deployable ground combat vehicles. This goal is driving individual components to have characteristics such as low weight, low power usage, and reduced volume while maintaining ruggedness and functionality. The potential applications for flat panels in ground vehicles is also discussed. The army is looking at applications for out-the-window views (virtual periscopes), multi-functional displays, and head mounted displays to accomplish its goals of designing better crew interfaces. The army's requirements in regards to the technologies that must be developed and supported by flat panel displays are also discussed in this section. In conclusion, future projections of the use of flat panels for the Crewman's Associate ATD will be outlined. Projections will be made in terms of physical numbers and promising technologies that fulfill the goals of the CAATD and achieve the approval of the user community.

  11. Combat Air Identification Fusion Algorithm (CAIFA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, C. A.; Baker, Joni E.; Crowe, John A.; Kierstead, David P.; Mauro, Carl A.

    2003-04-01

    The Combat Air Identification Fusion Algorithm (CAIFA), developed by Daniel H. Wagner, Associates, is a prototype, inferential reasoning algorithm for air combat identification. Bayesian reasoning and updating techniques are used in CAIFA to fuse multi-source identification evidence to provide identity estimates-allegiance, nationality, platform type, and intent-of detected airborne objects in the air battle space, enabling positive and rapid Combat Identification (CID) decisions. CAIFA was developed for the Composite Combat Identification (CCID) project under the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Missile Defense (MD) Future Naval Capability (FNC) program. CAIFA processes identification (ID) attribute evidence generated by surveillance sensors and other information sources over time by updating the identity estimate for each target using Bayesian inference. CAIFA exploits the conditional interdependencies of attribute variables by constructing a context-dependent Bayesian Network (BN). This formulation offers a well-established, consistent approach for evidential reasoning, renders manageable the potentially large CID state space, and provides a flexible and extensible representation to accommodate requirements for model reconfiguration/restructuring. CAIFA enables reasoning across and at different levels of the Air Space Taxonomy.

  12. Nuclear air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant is identified. Using mission studies and cost estimates, some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles are described. The technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies are summarized.

  13. Scheduling real-time messages in combat vehicle LANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Paul; Sarkar, Susanta P.

    1999-07-01

    The emergence of LAN architectures in Combat Vehicle computer system is part of an emerging new class of LAN systems. These systems operate in harsh, non-deterministic environments, and are expected to sustain faults and continue operating. The computer system perform dual functions of system control and real-time information exchange. The LANs in these systems have a hybrid message set consisting of vehicle control messages with crisply defined time constraints and real-time information with vaguely defined time constraints. Among platforms of this type, we find combat vehicles of all types, systems involved in the clean up of hazardous materials, space vehicles, and special anti-terrorist vehicles. We present the Adaptive Earliest Deadline First (AEDF) scheduling algorithm and a benefit metric for measuring performance. The AEDF scheduler was developed for the message sets found in combat vehicle LANs. This scheduler guarantees 100 percent of message time constraints under nominal conditions and optimizes scheduling under overload conditions induced by faults. The benefit metric provides an accurate means of evaluating scheduler performance based on message importance, timeliness and state.

  14. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  15. A two-dimensional air-to-air combat game - Toward an air-combat advisory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, Frank

    1987-01-01

    Air-to-air combat is modeled as a discrete differential game, and by constraining the game to searching for the best guidance laws from the sets of those considered for each opponent, feedback and outcome charts are obtained which can be used to turn one of the automatic opponents into an intelligent opponent against a human pilot. A one-on-one two-dimensional fully automatic, or manned versus automatic, air-to-air combat game has been designed which includes both attack and evasion alternatives for both aircraft. Guidance law selection occurs by flooding the initial-condition space with four simulated fights for each initial condition, depicting the various attack/evasion strategies for the two opponents, and recording the outcomes. For each initial condition, the minimax method from differential games is employed to determine the best choice from the available strategies.

  16. Artificial immune system approach for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneshige, John; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2007-04-01

    Since future air combat missions will involve both manned and unmanned aircraft, the primary motivation for this research is to enable unmanned aircraft with intelligent maneuvering capabilities. During air combat maneuvering, pilots use their knowledge and experience of maneuvering strategies and tactics to determine the best course of action. As a result, we try to capture these aspects using an artificial immune system approach. The biological immune system protects the body against intruders by recognizing and destroying harmful cells or molecules. It can be thought of as a robust adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. However, another critical aspect of the immune system is that it can remember how previous encounters were successfully defeated. As a result, it can respond faster to similar encounters in the future. This paper describes how an artificial immune system is used to select and construct air combat maneuvers. These maneuvers are composed of autopilot mode and target commands, which represent the low-level building blocks of the parameterized system. The resulting command sequences are sent to a tactical autopilot system, which has been enhanced with additional modes and an aggressiveness factor for enabling high performance maneuvers. Just as vaccinations train the biological immune system how to combat intruders, training sets are used to teach the maneuvering system how to respond to different enemy aircraft situations. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the potential of using immunized maneuver selection for the purposes of air combat maneuvering.

  17. Sections. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sections. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, Combat Operations Building. By Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 14, approved March, 1962; specifications no. ENG-04-353-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/15, Rev. "A"; file drawer 1290. Last revised 3 October 1966. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 30x36 inches. pencil on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  18. Elevations. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevations. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, Combat Operations Building. By Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 14, approved March, 1962; specifications no. ENG-04-353-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/14, Rev. "B"; file drawer 77-1/102. Last revised 3 October 1966. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 30x36 inches. photocopy on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  19. Predictive nosepointing and flightpath displays for air-to-air combat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viken, Sally A.; Burley, James R., II

    1992-10-01

    As part of the High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program (HATP), two integrated pictorial displays have been developed for piloted simulation evaluations and, ultimately, for flight testing on board the F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The first concept is a nosepointing display which illustrates the range of control the pilot has over the aircraft nose. The second concept is a predictive flightpath display that allows the pilot to see how his current control inputs will affect his aircraft's future position and orientation. The development of both display concepts will be discussed, as well as the results from a piloted simulation experiment in which pilots viewed the flightpath display in a wide-field-of-view Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) while engaged in an air-combat situation.

  20. Air-to-air combat analysis - Review of differential-gaming approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of evaluating the combat performance of fighter/attack aircraft is discussed, and the mathematical nature of the problem is examined. The following approaches to air combat analysis are reviewed: (1) differential-turning differential game and (2) coplanar differential game. Selected numerical examples of these approaches are presented. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each are analyzed, and it is concluded that air combat analysis is an extremely difficult mathematical problem and that no one method of approach is best for all purposes. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the two approaches might be used in a complementary manner.

  1. Air cushion vehicles: A briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1971-01-01

    Experience and characteristics; the powering, uses, and implications of large air cushion vehicles (ACV); and the conceptual design and operation of a nuclear powered ACV freighter and supporting facilities are described.

  2. Real-time simulation of helicopter air-to-air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, Fred; George, Dino; Bivens, Court

    1991-01-01

    The AUTOMAN computer program develops automated maneuvering decisions for helicopters during air-to-air combat over hilly terrain. Recently, the capabilities of this program have been extended and enhanced significantly. The revised program was installed at the NASA Ames manned flight-simulation facility to drive a computer-generated image of an enemy helicopter, thereby providing an adversary for the human pilot. Maneuvers are selected by employing game theory. Enhancements include a guidance law for target acquisition when a firing opportunity arises; fire-control sequence logic; improved low-flying capabilities; line-of-sight computations for the cockpit field-of-view, terrain obstructions, and visual range limits; use of terrain for masking; air-to-air collision-avoidance maneuvers; decision on dispensing flares and chaff; and adjustable levels of pilot experience. The program was found to be extremely useful for both rotorcraft handling-quality evaluations and air-to-air combat training.

  3. A qualitative analysis of future air combat with 'fire and forget' missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinar, J.; Davidovitz, A.

    1987-01-01

    A set of previous examples have demonstrated that the two-target game formulation is adequate for modeling air-to-air combat between two aggressively motivated fighter aircraft. The present paper describes such an engagement between two aircraft of different speed but equipped with the same 'fire and forget' type guided missiles. The results of the analysis suggest a new concept of air combat tactics for future scenarios.

  4. A preference-ordered discrete-gaming approach to air-combat analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, H. J.; Lefton, L.

    1978-01-01

    An approach to one-on-one air-combat analysis is described which employs discrete gaming of a parameterized model featuring choice between several closed-loop control policies. A preference-ordering formulation due to Falco is applied to rational choice between outcomes: win, loss, mutual capture, purposeful disengagement, draw. Approximate optimization is provided by an active-cell scheme similar to Falco's obtained by a 'backing up' process similar to that of Kopp. The approach is designed primarily for short-duration duels between craft with large-envelope weaponry. Some illustrative computations are presented for an example modeled using constant-speed vehicles and very rough estimation of energy shifts.

  5. A simulator investigation of air-to-air combat maneuvering for tilt-rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.; Isleib, Douglas; Johns, John

    1989-01-01

    As part of the Marine Corps's development of employment methods and maneuver techniques for the V-22 Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft, a piloted simulation study of one-on-one air-combat maneuvering (ACM) was conducted at NASA Ames. In addition to V-22 ACM, the simulation provided an opportunity for a preliminary investigation of maneuver requirements for a possible armed-escort tilt-rotor aircraft. Results from the study indicate that the tilt-rotor's low-speed masking and high-speed dash capabilities significantly enhance its survivability against both fixed-wing and helicopter aggressors. Furthermore, the tilt-rotor's conversion capability and, in turn, the variety and extent of its maneuvering characteristics make it an effective air-combat aircraft.

  6. Intelligence Applied to Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Robert; Gross, Anthony R.; Fletcher, L. Skip; Zornetzer, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The exponential growth in information technology has provided the potential for air vehicle capabilities that were previously unavailable to mission and vehicle designers. The increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including new developments such as neural networks, provide a new balance of work between humans and machines. This paper will describe several NASA projects, and review results and conclusions from ground and flight investigations where vehicle intelligence was developed and applied to aeronautical and space systems. In the first example, flight results from a neural network flight control demonstration will be reviewed. Using, a highly-modified F-15 aircraft, a NASA/Dryden experimental flight test program has demonstrated how the neural network software can correctly identify and respond to changes in aircraft stability and control characteristics. Using its on-line learning capability, the neural net software would identify that something in the vehicle has changed, then reconfigure the flight control computer system to adapt to those changes. The results of the Remote Agent software project will be presented. This capability will reduce the cost of future spacecraft operations as computers become "thinking" partners along with humans. In addition, the paper will describe the objectives and plans for the autonomous airplane program and the autonomous rotorcraft project. Technologies will also be developed.

  7. Air lifted and propelled vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.E.; Johnson, R.A.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a vehicle which rides on air cushion and which is propelled by air, comprising: upper deck means, having a bottom edge which defines the periphery of an area; a thin, flexible sheet located below the upper deck means, extending beneath the bottom edge and secured beneath the bottom edge for defining a plenum that is defined by and closed off by the upper deck means and the sheet. The deck means is shaped within the area defined by its bottom edge for causing the plenum to always be an open space and the upper deck means is rigid enough to maintain that open condition of the plenum; the sheet being secured in a manner permitting the sheet to pillow when air is pressurized in the plenum; and the sheet being perforated below the upper deck means for permitting exit of air from the plenum at a controllable rate through the perforations; the sheet having a large plurality of the perforations dispersed over most of its area below the upper deck means; each of the perforations being a hole.

  8. Genetic Fuzzy Trees for Intelligent Control of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, Nicholas D.

    Fuzzy Logic Control is a powerful tool that has found great success in a variety of applications. This technique relies less on complex mathematics and more "expert knowledge" of a system to bring about high-performance, resilient, and efficient control through linguistic classification of inputs and outputs and if-then rules. Genetic Fuzzy Systems (GFSs) remove the need of this expert knowledge and instead rely on a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and have similarly found great success. However, the combination of these methods suffer severely from scalability; the number of rules required to control the system increases exponentially with the number of states the inputs and outputs can take. Therefor GFSs have thus far not been applicable to complex, artificial intelligence type problems. The novel Genetic Fuzzy Tree (GFT) method breaks down complex problems hierarchically, makes sub-decisions when possible, and thus greatly reduces the burden on the GA. This development significantly changes the field of possible applications for GFSs. Within this study, this is demonstrated through applying this technique to a difficult air combat problem. Looking forward to an autonomous Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) in the 2030 time-frame, it becomes apparent that the mission, flight, and ground controls will utilize the emerging paradigm of Intelligent Systems (IS); namely, the ability to learn, adapt, exhibit robustness in uncertain situations, make sense of the data collected in real-time and extrapolate when faced with scenarios significantly different from those used in training. LETHA (Learning Enhanced Tactical Handling Algorithm) was created to develop intelligent controllers for these advanced unmanned craft as the first GFT. A simulation space referred to as HADES (Hoplological Autonomous Defend and Engage Simulation) was created in which LETHA can train the UCAVs. Equipped with advanced sensors, a limited supply of Self-Defense Missiles (SDMs), and a recharging

  9. Computer-automated opponent for manned air-to-air combat simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, W. W., III

    1979-01-01

    Two versions of a real-time digital-computer program that operates a fighter airplane interactively against a human pilot in simulated air combat were evaluated. They function by replacing one of two pilots in the Langley differential maneuvering simulator. Both versions make maneuvering decisions from identical information and logic; they differ essentially in the aerodynamic models that they control. One is very complete, but the other is much simpler, primarily characterizing the airplane's performance (lift, drag, and thrust). Both models competed extremely well against highly trained U.S. fighter pilots.

  10. Collaborative tactical behaviors for autonomous ground and air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albus, James; Barbera, Anthony; Scott, Harry; Balakirsky, Stephen

    2005-05-01

    Tactical behaviors for autonomous ground and air vehicles are an area of high interest to the Army. They are critical for the inclusion of robots in the Future Combat System (FCS). Tactical behaviors can be defined at multiple levels: at the Company, Platoon, Section, and Vehicle echelons. They are currently being defined by the Army for the FCS Unit of Action. At all of these echelons, unmanned ground vehicles, unmanned air vehicles, and unattended ground sensors must collaborate with each other and with manned systems. Research being conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and sponsored by the Army Research Lab is focused on defining the Four Dimensional Real-time Controls System (4D/RCS) reference model architecture for intelligent systems and developing a software engineering methodology for system design, integration, test and evaluation. This methodology generates detailed design requirements for perception, knowledge representation, decision making, and behavior generation processes that enable complex military tactics to be planned and executed by unmanned ground and air vehicles working in collaboration with manned systems.

  11. A simulator investigation of parameters affecting helicopter handling qualities in air combat (HAC II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michael S.; Mansur, M. Hossein; Chen, Robert T. N.

    1987-01-01

    The Helicopter Air Combat system was used to conduct a pilot simulation study investigating the handling qualities and flight characteristics required for helicopter air-to-air combat. Results indicate that a well-damped directional response, low sideforce caused by sideslip, and some effective dihedral are all desirable for weapon system performance, good handling qualities, and low pilot workload. An angular rate command system was favored over the attitude-type pitch and roll response for most applications, and an enhanced maneuver envelope size over that of current generation aircraft was found to be of advantage.

  12. Air Combat Training: Good Stick Index Validation. Final Report for Period 3 April 1978-1 April 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Samuel B.; And Others

    A study was conducted to investigate and statistically validate a performance measuring system (the Good Stick Index) in the Tactical Air Command Combat Engagement Simulator I (TAC ACES I) Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) training program. The study utilized a twelve-week sample of eighty-nine student pilots to statistically validate the Good Stick…

  13. An adaptive maneuvering logic computer program for the simulation of one-on-one air-to-air combat. Volume 1: General description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgin, G. H.; Fogel, L. J.; Phelps, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for computer simulation of air combat is described. Volume 1 decribes the computer program and its development in general terms. Two versions of the program exist. Both incorporate a logic for selecting and executing air combat maneuvers with performance models of specific fighter aircraft. In the batch processing version the flight paths of two aircraft engaged in interactive aerial combat and controlled by the same logic are computed. The realtime version permits human pilots to fly air-to-air combat against the adaptive maneuvering logic (AML) in Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS). Volume 2 consists of a detailed description of the computer programs.

  14. The minimization of pylon-mounted store effects on air combat capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Some effects of pylon-mounted missiles on aft-tail delta wing supersonic fighter concepts have been investigated. Whereas minimum drag penalties do occur with the addition of missiles, the effects at higher lifts, corresponding to maneuvering flight, are less severe and often favorable. Lower speeds and altitudes enhance the maneuvering capability and one-on-one air combat would probably tend to degenerate to subsonic speeds even though the combatants may be flying supersonic fighters. Higher speed (supersonic) flight might best be reserved for interceptors with long-range missiles where the weapon carriage effects at low angles of attack are of prime importance.

  15. Aerodynamics for Revolutionary Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, William L., III; Singer, Bart A.; Leavitt, Laurence D.

    2003-01-01

    Aeronautics research has seriously declined partly because of the perception that it is a mature science and only incremental improvements are possible. Recent aeronautics roadmapping activities at NASA Langley paint a different picture of the future. Breakthroughs are still felt to be possible if we expand the current design space of today's vehicles and optimize the airspace and vehicles as a system. The paper describes some of the challenges that the aircraft and airline industry face. These challenges include political, technical and environmental issues. Examples of the opportunities and technologies that could provide a different vision for the future are discussed.

  16. Power and energy computational models for the design and simulation of hybrid-electric combat vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Wilford; Nunez, Patrick

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the work being performed under the RDECOM Power and Energy (P&E) program (formerly the Combat Hybrid Power System (CHPS) program) developing hybrid power system models and integrating them into larger simulations, such as OneSAF, that can be used to find duty cycles to feed designers of hybrid power systems. This paper also describes efforts underway to link the TARDEC P&E System Integration Lab (SIL) in San Jose CA to the TARDEC Ground Vehicle Simulation Lab (GVSL) in Warren, MI. This linkage is being performed to provide a methodology for generating detailed driver profiles for use in the development of vignettes and mission profiles for system design excursions.

  17. Flexible-Wing-Based Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ifju, Peter G.; Jenkins, David A.; Ettinger, Scott; Lian, Yong-Sheng; Shyy, Wei; Waszak, Martin R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper documents the development and evaluation of an original flexible-wing-based Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) technology that reduces adverse effects of gusty wind conditions and unsteady aerodynamics, exhibits desirable flight stability, and enhances structural durability. The flexible wing concept has been demonstrated on aircraft with wingspans ranging from 18 inches to 5 inches. Salient features of the flexible-wing-based MAV, including the vehicle concept, flexible wing design, novel fabrication methods, aerodynamic assessment, and flight data analysis are presented.

  18. A high-fidelity batch simulation environment for integrated batch and piloted air combat simulation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Mcmanus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics and to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics, and databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. A Tactical Autopilot is implemented in the aircraft simulation model to convert guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft.

  19. An extended two-target differential game model for medium-range air combat game analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinar, J.

    1985-01-01

    The first phase of an investigation of a two-target game, representing an air combat with boresight limited all-aspect guided missiles is summarized. The results, obtained by using a line of sight coordinate system, are compared to a similar recently published work. The comparison indicates that improved insight, gained by using line of sight coordinates, allows to discover important new features of the game solution.

  20. A Monte Carlo simulation of air ambulance requirements during major combat operations.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Larry; McMurry, Pat; Kerr, Bernie

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we evaluate rules of allocation and planning factors that have an effect on requirements for Army air ambulance companies. The Army uses rules of allocation in scenarios drawn from strategic planning documents to determine how many units of each type are required. Army planners use these rules for determining the number of units required to support specific operational and tactical scenarios. Unrealistic rules result in unrealistic unit requirements. We evaluate quantitatively (via Monte Carlo simulation) planning considerations for air ambulance units during major combat operations (MCO) and estimate that 0.4 airframes per admission would be a reasonable planning factor. PMID:19585774

  1. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    PubMed

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel. PMID:27112132

  2. Thermal Gradient Behavior of TBCs Subjected to a Laser Gradient Test Rig: Simulating an Air-to-Air Combat Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Rogerio S.; Marple, Basil R.; Marcoux, P.

    2016-01-01

    A computer-controlled laser test rig (using a CO2 laser) offers an interesting alternative to traditional flame-based thermal gradient rigs in evaluating thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). The temperature gradient between the top and back surfaces of a TBC system can be controlled based on the laser power and a forced air back-face cooling system, enabling the temperature history of complete aircraft missions to be simulated. An air plasma spray-deposited TBC was tested and, based on experimental data available in the literature, the temperature gradients across the TBC system (ZrO2-Y2O3 YSZ top coat/CoNiCrAlY bond coat/Inconel 625 substrate) and their respective frequencies during air-to-air combat missions of fighter jets were replicated. The missions included (i) idle/taxi on the runway, (ii) take-off and climbing, (iii) cruise trajectory to rendezvous zone, (iv) air-to-air combat maneuvering, (v) cruise trajectory back to runway, and (vi) idle/taxi after landing. The results show that the TBC thermal gradient experimental data in turbine engines can be replicated in the laser gradient rig, leading to an important tool to better engineer TBCs.

  3. Covert air vehicle 2003 LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Spletzer, Barry Louis; Callow, Diane Schafer; Salton, Jonathan Robert; Fischer, Gary John

    2003-11-01

    This report describes the technical work carried out under a 2003 Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to develop a covert air vehicle. A mesoscale air vehicle that mimics a bird offers exceptional mobility and the possibility of remaining undetected during flight. Although some such vehicles exist, they are lacking in key areas: unassisted landing and launching, true mimicry of bird flight to remain covert, and a flapping flight time of any real duration. Current mainstream technology does not have the energy or power density necessary to achieve bird like flight for any meaningful length of time; however, Sandia has unique combustion powered linear actuators with the unprecedented high energy and power density needed for bird like flight. The small-scale, high-pressure valves and small-scale ignition to make this work have been developed at Sandia. We will study the feasibility of using this to achieve vehicle takeoff and wing flapping for sustained flight. This type of vehicle has broad applications for reconnaissance and communications networks, and could prove invaluable for military and intelligence operations throughout the world. Initial tests were conducted on scaled versions of the combustion-powered linear actuator. The tests results showed that heat transfer and friction effects dominate the combustion process at 'bird-like' sizes. The problems associated with micro-combustion must be solved before a true bird-like ornithopter can be developed.

  4. Study of a very low cost air combat maneuvering trainer aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. C.; Bowles, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    A very low cost aircraft for performing Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) training was studied using the BD-5J sport plane as a point of departure. The installation of a larger engine and increased fuel capacity were required to meet the performance and mission objectives. Reduced wing area increased the simulation of the ACM engagement, and a comparison with current tactical aircraft is presented. Other factors affecting the training transfer are considered analytically, but a flight evaluation is recommended to determine the concept utility.

  5. Motor Vehicles, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Jason

    2000-04-01

    Despite years of technical progress, motor vehicles continue to be a leading cause of environmental damage in the United States. For example, today's cars and trucks are the largest source of air pollution in many urban areas. US motor vehicles also account for 25 percent of the nation's carbon emissions, more than most countries emit from all sources combined. Fortunately, a host of technical improvements are emerging that could go a long ways towards taking vehicles out of the pollution picture. In the near-term, improving on the century-old internal combustion engine can deliver much-needed incremental gains. But electric drive vehicles--whether powered by batteries, small engines in hybrid configuration, or fuel cells--ultimately offer the greatest promise. Such technologies could dramatically reduce energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and key air pollutants. The bulk of technical attention in recent years has been focused on improving the passenger vehicle, which will be the dominant energy consumer in the transportation sector for years to come. But freight trucks are also of growing concern, both because their contribution to global warming is on the rise and because serious questions are being raised about the public health impact of diesel technology. As a result, heavy trucks are emerging as a priority issue. Capitalizing on the opportunity presented by new technologies will not only require continued technical innovation but also policy action. As research into improved engines, fuels, and drive systems bears fruit over the coming years, aggressive and prudent policies will ensure that these new options make it onto the road and deliver on their environmental promise.

  6. A High-Fidelity Batch Simulation Environment for Integrated Batch and Piloted Air Combat Simulation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics. The environment can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulation. Databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system known as the Tactical Autopilot (TA) is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. This report describes the capabilities and operation of the TMS.

  7. Combat casualty care in an air force theater hospital: perspectives of recently deployed cardiothoracic surgeons.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Jeffrey D; Pratt, Jerry W

    2008-01-01

    Current military operations have generated a large number of casualties and have led to the establishment of the first Air Force Theater Hospital since Vietnam. Located at Balad Airbase, Iraq, this hospital is a busy trauma center. Thoracic injuries are relatively infrequent but highly lethal. The cardiothoracic surgeon is uniquely trained to provide sophisticated surgical management to some of the most severely injured patients. The operative experiences of four recently deployed cardiothoracic surgeons are described. Mortality from combat injury in this conflict is lower than in prior wars. Body armor may prevent some fatal injuries. Several features of military medical care process are helping to improve our outcomes-specifically, the development of a trauma care system modeled on successful civilian centers, the expanded use of damage control concepts, and utilization of early transportation out of the theater of operations using Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATT). PMID:18420132

  8. Air Combat Command deicing/anti-icing operation: Compliance evaluation and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Fronapfel, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    This paper will present information on Air Combat Command`s (ACC) efforts in evaluating its deicing and anti-icing activities at all applicable ACC bases. This effort, led by Ecology and Environment (E and E), of Lancaster NY, will evaluate the operations, infrastructure, and management of deicing and anti-icing programs at ACC bases and will provide recommendations to each base for maintaining compliance with applicable regulations and minimizing the environmental impact of these operations. In addition to evaluating such operations at ACC bases, E and E, along with subcontractor Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., will research activities around the nation and the world to assist in developing the best recommendations for each ACC base. Armstrong Laboratory`s Water Quality Branch of the Bioenvironmental Engineering Division (AL/OEBW) is responsible for technical and contractual oversight of this effort. A summary of information gathered to date will be presented in this paper. Although the disposal of deicing fluids has led a somewhat charmed life until recently, these activities are likely to receive increased regulatory scrutiny in the years to come. Air Combat Command has had more than one instance where NOVs or potential NOVs have arisen due to fish kills associated with deicing/anti-icing chemical laden runoff. In an effort to prevent future compliance problems and to foster proper stewardship of the environment, ACC has taken these proactive measures at its bases. ACC`s efforts will also be used at the Air Staff level to assist in making Air Force wide pollution prevention and best management practice (P2/BMP) recommendations.

  9. Optimal air-breathing launch vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattis, P. D.

    1981-01-01

    A generalized two-point boundary problem methodology, similar to techniques used in deterministic optimal control studies, is applied to the design and flight analysis of a two-stage air-breathing launch vehicle. Simultaneous consideration is given to configuration and trajectory by treating geometry, dynamic discontinuities, and time-dependent flight variables all as controls to be optimized with respect to a single mathematical performance measure. While minimizing fuel consumption, inequality constraints are applied to dynamic pressure and specific force. The optimal system fuel consumption and staging Mach number are found to vary little with changes in the inequality constraints due to substantial geometry and trajectory adjustments. Staging, from an air-breathing first stage to a rocket-powered second stage, consistently occurs near Mach 3.5. The dynamic pressure bound has its most pronounced effects on vehicle geometry, particularly the air-breathing propulsion inlet area, and on the first-stage altitude profile. The specific force has its greatest influence on the second-stage thrust history.

  10. TAC BRAWLER - An application of engagement simulation modeling to simulator visual system display requirements for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerchner, R. M.; Hughes, R. G.; Lee, A.

    1984-01-01

    The TAC BRAWLER air combat simulation models both the acquisition and use of visual information by the pilot. It was used to provide the designers of manned simulators for air-to-air combat with information regarding the training implications of display system resolution, inherent target contrast, field of view, and transport delay. Various display designs were simulated, and the resulting quantitative and qualitative differences in engagements were considered indicators of possible mistraining. Display resolution was found to alter combats primarily through its effect on detection ranges; the 'pixel averaging' contrast management technique was shown to largely compensate for this problem. Transport delay significantly degrades pilot tracking ability, but the training impact of the effect is unclear.

  11. An Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm Based on Balance-Evolution Strategy for Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle Path Planning

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Li-gang; Yang, Wen-lun

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) have been of great interest to military organizations throughout the world due to their outstanding capabilities to operate in dangerous or hazardous environments. UCAV path planning aims to obtain an optimal flight route with the threats and constraints in the combat field well considered. In this work, a novel artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm improved by a balance-evolution strategy (BES) is applied in this optimization scheme. In this new algorithm, convergence information during the iteration is fully utilized to manipulate the exploration/exploitation accuracy and to pursue a balance between local exploitation and global exploration capabilities. Simulation results confirm that BE-ABC algorithm is more competent for the UCAV path planning scheme than the conventional ABC algorithm and two other state-of-the-art modified ABC algorithms. PMID:24790555

  12. An improved artificial bee colony algorithm based on balance-evolution strategy for unmanned combat aerial vehicle path planning.

    PubMed

    Li, Bai; Gong, Li-gang; Yang, Wen-lun

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) have been of great interest to military organizations throughout the world due to their outstanding capabilities to operate in dangerous or hazardous environments. UCAV path planning aims to obtain an optimal flight route with the threats and constraints in the combat field well considered. In this work, a novel artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm improved by a balance-evolution strategy (BES) is applied in this optimization scheme. In this new algorithm, convergence information during the iteration is fully utilized to manipulate the exploration/exploitation accuracy and to pursue a balance between local exploitation and global exploration capabilities. Simulation results confirm that BE-ABC algorithm is more competent for the UCAV path planning scheme than the conventional ABC algorithm and two other state-of-the-art modified ABC algorithms. PMID:24790555

  13. Estimation of weapon-radius versus maneuverability trade-off for air-to-air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, H. J.; Lefton, L.

    1977-01-01

    A chase in a horizontal plane between a pursuer with a large capture radius and a more maneuverable evading vehicle is examined with constant-speed vehicle models. An approximation to the 'sidestepping' maneuver of the Homicidal Chauffeur Game is modified to account for the effect of evader turning rate, and an estimate of capture radius required is so obtained which agrees remarkably well with Cockayne's point-capture result. The maneuver assumes central importance for barrier surfaces appearing in the Game of Two Cars. Results are given for required weapon capture-radius in terms of the maneuverability of the two vehicles. Some calculations of capture radius are presented.

  14. Air cushion vehicles - Any potential for Canada?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laframboise, J. F.

    1987-09-01

    The present evaluation of air cushion vehicle (ACV) operational and commercial suitability in the Canadian context notes that the most successful and durable ACV applications are those in which only ACVs can perform the required mission. An important factor is the reliability of the craft being tested in a given field of operations. Because of their low ground pressure, ACVs can operate over low-cost trails with an efficiency that compares with that of trucks over conventional roads; this renders them especially attractive for transportation networks in the North West Territories.

  15. A piloted simulation investigation of yaw dynamics requirements for turreted gun use in low-level helicopter air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.; Morris, Patrick M.; Williams, Jeffrey N.

    1988-01-01

    A piloted, fixed-base simulation study was conducted to investigate the handling qualities requirements for helicopter air-to-air combat using turreted guns in the near-terrain environment. The study used a version of the helicopter air combat system developed at NASA Ames Research Center for one-on-one air combat. The study focused on the potential trade-off between gun angular movement capability and required yaw axis response. Experimental variables included yaw axis response frequency and damping and the size of the gun-movement envelope. A helmet position and sighting system was used for pilot control of gun aim. Approximately 340 simulated air combat engagements were evaluated by pilots from the Army and industry. Results from the experiment indicate that a highly-damped, high frequency yaw response was desired for Level I handling qualities. Pilot preference for those characteristics became more pronounced as gun turret movement was restricted; however, a stable, slow-reacting platform could be used with a large turret envelope. Most pilots preferred to engage with the opponent near the own-ship centerline. Turret elevation restriction affected the engagement more than azimuth restrictions.

  16. Zinc air battery development for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putt, R. A.; Merry, G. W.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of research conducted during the sixteen month continuation of a program to develop rechargeable zinc-air batteries for electric vehicles. The zinc-air technology under development incorporates a metal foam substrate for the zinc electrode, with flow of electrolyte through the foam during battery operation. In this 'soluble' zinc electrode the zincate discharge product dissolves completely in the electrolyte stream. Cycle testing at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where the electrode was invented, and at MATSI showed that this approach avoids the zinc electrode shape change phenomenon. Further, electrolyte flow has been shown to be necessary to achieve significant cycle life (greater than 25 cycles) in this open system. Without it, water loss through the oxygen electrode results in high resistance failure of the cell. The Phase 1 program, which focused entirely on the zinc electrode, elucidated the conditions necessary to increase electrode capacity from 75 to as much as 300 mAh/sq cm. By the end of the Phase 1 program over 500 cycles had accrued on one of the zinc-zinc half cells undergoing continuous cycle testing. The Phase 2 program continued the half cell cycle testing and separator development, further refined the foam preplate process, and launched into performance and cycle life testing of zinc-air cells.

  17. Zinc air battery development for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Putt, R.A.; Merry, G.W. )

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of research conducted during the sixteen month continuation of a program to develop rechargeable zinc-air batteries for electric vehicles. The zinc-air technology under development incorporates a metal foam substrate for the zinc electrode, with flow of electrolyte through the foam during battery operation. In this soluble'' zinc electrode the zincate discharge product dissolves completely in the electrolyte stream. Cycle testing at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where the electrode was invented, and at MATSI showed that this approach avoids the zinc electrode shape change phenomenon. Further, electrolyte flow has been shown to be necessary to achieve significant cycle life (> 25 cycles) in this open system. Without it, water loss through the oxygen electrode results in high-resistance failure of the cell. The Phase I program, which focused entirely on the zinc electrode, elucidated the conditions necessary to increase electrode capacity from 75 to as much as 300 mAh/cm{sup 2}. By the end of the Phase I program over 500 cycles had accrued on one of the zinc-zinc half cells undergoing continuous cycle testing. The Phase II program continued the half cell cycle testing and separator development, further refined the foam preplate process, and launched into performance and cycle life testing of zinc-air cells.

  18. Air cushion vehicles for arctic operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleser, J.; Lavis, D. R.

    1986-09-01

    Attention is given to the results of the NAVSEA FY85 Surface Ship Concept Formulation Design Study for an initial operational capability year-2000 air cushion vehicle (ACV) suitable for logistics and general search/rescue duties in the Arctic. Two designs were developed during the study; the first utilized an ACV design synthesis math model while the second evolved as a derivative of an existing U.S. production craft. Both are regarded as feasible from an engineering and naval architectural standpoint. Results of performance and cost trade-off studies suggest that, for an Arctic ACV, gas turbines are the preferred power plant choice and an aluminum alloy is the preferred hull structural material choice. The most appropriate skirt height is approximately 12 ft.

  19. Two-target game model of an air combat with fire-and-forget all-aspect missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidovitz, A.; Shinar, J.

    1989-01-01

    An air combat duel between similar aggressive fighter aircraft, both equipped with the same type of guided missiles, is formulated as a two-target differential game using the dynamic model of the game of two identical cars. Each of the identical target sets represents the effective firing envelope of an all-aspect fire-and-forget air-to-air missile. The firing range limits depend on the target aspect angle and are approximated by analytical functions. The maximum range, computed by taking into account the optimal missile avoidance maneuver of the target, determines the no-escape firing envelope. The solution consists of the decomposition of the game space into four regions: the respective winning zones of the two opponents, the draw zone, and the region where the game terminates by a mutual kill. The solution provides a new insight for future air combat analysis.

  20. Piloted simulation of one-on-one helicopter air combat at NOE flight levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. S.; Aiken, E. W.

    1985-01-01

    A piloted simulation designed to examine the effects of terrain proximity and control system design on helicopter performance during one-on-one air combat maneuvering (ACM) is discussed. The NASA Ames vertical motion simulator (VMS) and the computer generated imagery (CGI) systems were modified to allow two aircraft to be independently piloted on a single CGI data base. Engagements were begun with the blue aircraft already in a tail-chase position behind the red, and also with the two aircraft originating from positions unknown to each other. Maneuvering was very aggressive and safety requirements for minimum altitude, separation, and maximum bank angles typical of flight test were not used. Results indicate that the presence of terrain features adds an order of complexiaty to the task performed over clear air ACM and that mix of attitude and rate command-type stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) design may be desirable. The simulation system design, the flight paths flown, and the tactics used were compared favorably by the evaluation pilots to actual flight test experiments.

  1. Achieving Acceptable Air Quality: Some Reflections on Controlling Vehicle Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, J. G.; Heywood, J. B.; Sawyer, R. F.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    1993-07-01

    Motor vehicle emissions have been and are being controlled in an effort to abate urban air pollution. This article addresses the question: Will the vehicle exhaust emission control and fuel requirements in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and the California Air Resources Board regulations on vehicles and fuels have a significant impact? The effective control of in-use vehicle emissions is the key to a solution to the motor vehicle part of the urban air pollution problem for the next decade or so. It is not necessary, except perhaps in Southern California, to implement extremely low new car emission standards before the end of the 20th century. Some of the proposed gasoline volatility and composition changes in reformulated gasoline will produce significant reductions in vehicle emissions (for example, reduced vapor pressure, sulfur, and light olefin and improved high end volatility), whereas others (such as substantial oxygenate addition and aromatics reduction) will not.

  2. Air-Conditioning for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popinski, Z.

    1984-01-01

    Combination of ammonia-absorption refrigerator, roof-mounted solar collectors, and 200 degrees C service electric-vehicle motor provides evaporative space-heating/space cooling system for electric-powered and hybrid fuel/electric vehicles.

  3. A piloted simulation of helicopter air combat to investigate effects of variations in selected performance and control response characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michael S.; Mansur, M. Hossein; Chen, Robert T. N.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study investigating handling qualities and flight characteristics required for helicopter air to air combat is presented. The Helicopter Air Combat system was used to investigate this role for Army rotorcraft. Experimental variables were the maneuver envelope size (load factor and sideslip), directional axis handling qualities, and pitch and roll control-response type. Over 450 simulated, low altitude, one-on-one engagements were conducted. Results from the experiment indicate that a well damped directional response, low sideforce caused by sideslip, and some effective dihedral are all desirable for weapon system performance, good handling qualities, and low pilot workload. An angular rate command system was favored over the attitude type pitch and roll response for most applications, and an enhanced maneuver envelope size over that of current generation aircraft was found to be advantageous. Pilot technique, background, and experience are additional factors which had a significant effect on performance in the air combat tasks investigated. The implication of these results on design requirements for future helicopters is presented.

  4. Zinc air battery development for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Putt, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    This document reports the progress and accomplishments of a 16 month program to develop a rechargeable zinc-air battery for electric vehicle propulsion, from October 1988 through January 1990. The program was the first stage in the transition of alkaline zinc electrode technology, invented at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, to private industry. The LBL invention teaches the use of a copper metal foam substrate for the zinc electrode, in combination with forced convection of electrolyte through the foam during battery operation. Research at LBL showed promise that this approach would avoid shape change (densification and dendrite growth), the primary failure mode of this electrode. The program comprised five tasks; (1) cell design, (2) capacity maximization, (3) cycle testing, (4) materials qualification, and (5) a cost/design study. The cell design contemplates a plate and frame stack, with alternating zinc and oxygen electrode frame assemblies between rigid end plates. A 200 Ah cell, as may be required for the EV application, would comprise a stack of five zinc and six oxygen electrode frame/assemblies. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Hyperhemispheric multifunction sensors for ground combat vehicles: concept evaluation using virtual prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapels, Keith; Preece, Brad; Furxhi, Orges; Driggers, Ronald

    2016-05-01

    As the defense budget reduces and we are asked to do more with less (seems to have been a major theme now for over 10 years), multifunction systems are becoming critical to the future of military EOIR systems. The design of multifunction (MF) sensors is not a well-developed or well-understood discipline. In this paper, we provide an example trade study of a ground combat system hyperhemispheric multifunction system. In addition, we show how concept evaluation can be achieved using a virtual prototyping environment.

  6. Environmental impact on crew of armoured vehicles: Effects of 24 h combat exercise in a hot desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. P.; Majumdar, D.; Bhatia, M. R.; Srivastava, K. K.; Selvamurthy, W.

    1995-06-01

    A field study was undertaken to investigate the effects of combined noise, vibration and heat stress on the physiological functions of the crew of armoured vehicles during prolonged combat exercise in a desert. The sound pressure level of noise was measured with a sound level meter and accelerations by vibration analyser. The thermal load on the crew was evaluated by calculating the wet bulb globe temperature index. The physiological responses of the subjects ( n=9), included significant increases in the heart rate, 24 h water intake and urinary catecholamine concentration. A significant decrease was recorded in body mass, peak expiratory flow rate and 24 h urinary output. The high heat load on the crew resulted in a hypohydration of 3% body mass and appeared to be the dominant factor in producing the physiological strain.

  7. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Station, Northeast of AGE Storage Facility at far northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  8. Interior view Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Satellite Communications Terminal, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  9. Looking north Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking north - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Electric Substation, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  10. Simulation of the effects of different pilot helmets on neck loading during air combat.

    PubMed

    Mathys, R; Ferguson, S J

    2012-09-21

    New generation pilot helmets with mounted devices enhance the capabilities of pilots substantially. However, the additional equipment increases the helmet weight and shifts its center of mass forward. Two helmets with different mass properties were modeled to simulate their effects on the pilot's neck. A musculoskeletal computer model was used, with the methods of inverse dynamics and static optimization, to compute the muscle activations and joint reaction forces for a given range of quasi-static postures at various accelerations experienced during air combat. Head postures which induce much higher loads on the cervical spine than encountered in a neutral position could be identified. The increased weight and the forward shift of the center of mass of a new generation helmet lead to higher muscle activations and higher joint reaction loads over a wide range of head and neck movements. The muscle activations required to balance the head and neck in extreme postures increased the compressive force at the T1-C7 level substantially, while in a neutral posture the muscle activations remained low. The lateral neck muscles can reach activations of 100% and cause compressive joint forces up to 1100N during extensive rotations and extensions at high 'vertical' accelerations (Gz). The calculated values have to be interpreted with care as the model has not been validated. Nevertheless, this systematic analysis could separate the effects of head posture, acceleration and helmet mass on neck loading. More reliable data about mass properties and muscle morphometry with a more detailed motion analysis would help to refine the existing model. PMID:22840756

  11. Robotic air vehicle. Blending artificial intelligence with conventional software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnulty, Christa; Graham, Joyce; Roewer, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The Robotic Air Vehicle (RAV) system is described. The program's objectives were to design, implement, and demonstrate cooperating expert systems for piloting robotic air vehicles. The development of this system merges conventional programming used in passive navigation with Artificial Intelligence techniques such as voice recognition, spatial reasoning, and expert systems. The individual components of the RAV system are discussed as well as their interactions with each other and how they operate as a system.

  12. Gust Mitigation of Micro Air Vehicles Using Passive Articulated Wings

    PubMed Central

    Slegers, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Birds and insects naturally use passive flexing of their wings to augment their stability in uncertain aerodynamic environments. In a similar manner, micro air vehicle designers have been investigating using wing articulation to take advantage of this phenomenon. The result is a class of articulated micro air vehicles where artificial passive joints are designed into the lifting surfaces. In order to analyze how passive articulation affects performance of micro air vehicles in gusty environments, an efficient 8 degree-of-freedom model is developed. Experimental validation of the proposed mathematical model was accomplished using flight test data of an articulated micro air vehicle obtained from a high resolution indoor tracking facility. Analytical investigation of the gust alleviation properties of the articulated micro air vehicle model was carried out using simulations with varying crosswind gust magnitudes. Simulations show that passive articulation in micro air vehicles can increase their robustness to gusts within a range of joint compliance. It is also shown that if articulation joints are made too compliant that gust mitigation performance is degraded when compared to a rigid system. PMID:24516368

  13. Multiple Unmanned Air Vehicles Control Using Neurobiologically Inspired Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Li

    In order to develop and evaluate future Unmanned Air Vehicles for the hazardous environmental monitoring, the comprehensive simulation test and analysis of new advanced concepts is imperative. This paper details an on-going proof of concept focused on development of a neurobiologically-inspired system for the high level control of a Air Vehicle team. This study, entitled Neurobiologically Enabled Autonomous Vehicle Operations, will evaluate initial System-Under-Test concept data by selecting well defined tasks, and evaluating performance based on assignment effectiveness, cooperation, and adaptability of the system. The system will be tested thoroughly in simulation, and if mature, will be implemented in hardware.

  14. Honeywell's organic air vehicle chemical-biological sensing platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Barry E.; Krafthefer, Brian; Knee, Daniel; Fulton, Vaughn M.; Law, Kristen

    2004-12-01

    Unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) today are mostly used for reconnaissance and sometimes weapons delivery. Remote sensing of chemical-biological (CB) agents is another beneficial use of UAVs. While remote sensing of CB agents can be done by LIDAR spectroscopy, this technology is less spatially precise and less sensitive than actual measurements on a collected sample. One family of UAVs of particularly unique benefit for CB sampling and in-flight analysis is the Honeywell family of Organic Air Vehicles (OAVs). This vehicle with its ability to hover and stare has the unique ability among UAVs to collect and analyze chem-bio samples from a specific location over extended periods of time. Such collections are not possible with other micro-air-vehicles (MAVs) that only operate in fly-by mode. This paper describes some of the Honeywell OAV features that are conducive to CB detection.

  15. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AQ86 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle... hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as ``Tier 3''),...

  16. Missions and vehicle concepts for modern, propelled, lighter-than-air vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of studies conducted over the last 15 years to assess missions and vehicle concepts for modern, propelled, lighter-than-air vehicles (airships) were surveyed. Rigid and non-rigid airship concepts are considered. The use of airships for ocean patrol and surveillance is discussed along with vertical heavy lift airships. Military and civilian needs for high altitude platforms are addressed.

  17. Infrared and visible combat identification marking materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Eoin; Shohet, Adam; Swan, Martin

    2007-04-01

    Historically, it is believed that fratricide accounts for up to 15% of friendly casualties during operations and a UK MoD report identifies that almost half of all such casualties occur in situations involving ground units only. Such risks can be mitigated, to an extent, via operational awareness and effective communications. However, recent conflicts have involved a much more dynamic, complex and technically sophisticated battlefield than previously experienced. For example, Operation Telic (Desert Storm) involved almost one million combatants and ten thousand armoured vehicles in the coalition force, advancing across an extensive battlefront at high speed during daylight and at night, making effective use of a range of electro-optic sensors. The accelerated tempo of battle means that front lines can undergo rapid, punctuated advances that can leave individual combat units with a much degraded situational awareness, particularly of where they are in relation to other 'friendly' combatants. Consequently, there is a need for a robust, low cost, low weight, compact, unpowered, interoperable, Combat Identification technique for use with popular electro-optic sensors which can be deployed, and is effective, at the individual combat unit level. In this paper we discuss ground-to-ground combat identification materials that meet these requirements, all of which are based on the air-to-ground Mirage TM vehicle marking material. We show some preliminary ground-to-ground data collected from the new variant Mirage TM material in recent experimental trials conducted during the day, evening and at night.

  18. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Assessment of Controllability of Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, David A.; Ifju, Peter G.; Abdulrahim, Mujahid; Olipra, Scott

    2002-01-01

    In the last several years, we have developed unique types of micro air vehicles that utilize flexible structures and extensible covering materials. These MAVs can be operated with maximum dimensions as small as 6 inches and carry reasonable payloads, such as video cameras and transmitters. We recently demonstrated the potential of these vehicles by winning the Fourth International Micro Air Vehicle Competition, held at Ft. Huachucha, Arizona in May 2000. The pilots report that these vehicles have unusually smooth flying characteristics and are relatively easy to fly, both in the standard RC mode and "through the camera" when at greater distances. In comparison, they find that similar sized vehicles with more conventional rigid construction require much more input from the pilot just to maintain control. To make these subjective observations more quantitative, we have devised a system that can conveniently record a complete history of all the RC transmitter stick movements during a flight. Post-flight processing of the stick movement data allows for direct comparisons between different types of MAVs when flown by the same pilot, and also comparisons between pilots. Eventually, practical micro air vehicles will be autonomously controlled, but we feel that the smoothest flying and easiest to fly embodiments will also be the most successful in the long run. Comparisons between several types of micro air vehicles will be presented, along with interpretations of the data.

  19. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in

  20. Prototype air bag restraint for use in patrol vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Marts, D.J.; Barker, S.G.

    1995-03-01

    An air bag has been designed and laboratory tested for use in existing police vehicles that will restrain a person if he or she becomes violent. The device will prevent self-injury and protect the vehicle and officer. The device does not pose a suffocation hazard and can be quickly and easily inflated or deflated by the officer from the front seat. The device is ready for field testing.

  1. Northwest passage: Trade route for large air cushion vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    A conceptual vehicle and powerplant (10,000-ton) nuclear-powered air-cushion vehicle (ACV) that could open the Northwest Passage and other Arctic passages to commercial traffic is identified. The report contains a description of the conceptual vehicle, including the powerplant and operations, an assessment of technical feasibility, estimates of capital and operating costs, and identification of eligible cargo and markets. A comparison of the nuclear ACV freighter with nuclear container ships shows that for containerized or roll-on/roll-off cargo the ACV would provide greatly reduced transit time between North Atlantic and North Pacific ports at a competitive cost.

  2. The aluminum-air battery for electric vehicles - An update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The development of aluminum-air batteries as mechanically rechargeable power sources to be used in electric vehicles is discussed. The chemistry of the aluminum-air battery, which has a potential for providing the range, acceleration and rapid refueling capability of contemporary automobiles and is based on the reaction of aluminum metal with atmospheric oxygen in the presence of an aqueous sodium hydroxide/sodium aluminate electrolyte, is examined, and it is pointed out that the electric vehicle would be practically emissionless. The battery development program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which includes evaluations of electrochemical and chemical phenomena, studies of the economics and energy balance of a transportation system based on aluminum, and power cell design and performance analysis, is presented. It is concluded that although difficult problems must be overcome before the technical and economic feasibility of aluminum-air batteries for electric vehicles can be established, projections indicate that the aluminum-air vehicle is potentially competitive with internal combustion vehicles powered by synthetic liquid fuels.

  3. Yaw rate control of an air bearing vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walcott, Bruce L.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a 6 week project which focused on the problem of controlling the yaw (rotational) rate the air bearing vehicle used on NASA's flat floor facility are summarized. Contained within is a listing of the equipment available for task completion and an evaluation of the suitability of this equipment. The identification (modeling) process of the air bearing vehicle is detailed as well as the subsequent closed-loop control strategy. The effectiveness of the solution is discussed and further recommendations are included.

  4. Electric Vehicle Preparedness - Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 4

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the NASWI fleet.

  5. Unmanned Air Vehicle -Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Oppel, SNL 06134

    2013-04-17

    This package contains modules that model the mobility of systems such as helicopters and fixed wing flying in the air. This package currently models first order physics - basically a velocity integrator. UAV mobility uses an internal clock to maintain stable, high-fidelity simulations over large time steps This package depends on interface that reside in the Mobility package.

  6. Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle Technology Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J.

    2003-01-01

    Of the technical factors that would contribute to lowering the cost of space access, reusability has high potential. The primary objective of the GTX program is to determine whether or not air-breathing propulsion can enable reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) operations. The approach is based on maturation of a reference vehicle design with focus on the integration and flight-weight construction of its air-breathing rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion system.

  7. Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D. , Inc., Cambridge, MA )

    1991-07-01

    There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an [open quotes]upsized[close quotes] condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

  8. Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D.

    1991-07-01

    There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an {open_quotes}upsized{close_quotes} condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

  9. Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J. F.

    1992-12-01

    Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells, and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration - factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such an electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

  10. Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J.F.

    1992-12-01

    Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration -- factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such a electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described in this report focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

  11. Simulation study of plane motion of air cushion vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shu-Qin; Shi, Xiao-Cheng; Shi, Yi-Long; Bian, Xin-Qian

    2003-12-01

    This research is on horizontal plane motion equations of Air Cushion Vehicle (ACV) and its simulation. To investigate this, a lot of simulation study including ACV’s voyage and turning performance has been done. It was found that the voyage simulation results were accorded with ACV own characteristic and turning simulation results were accorded with USA ACV’s movement characteristic basically.

  12. An Adaptive Path Planning Algorithm for Cooperating Unmanned Air Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, C.T.; Roberts, R.S.

    2000-09-12

    An adaptive path planning algorithm is presented for cooperating Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) that are used to deploy and operate land-based sensor networks. The algorithm employs a global cost function to generate paths for the UAVs, and adapts the paths to exceptions that might occur. Examples are provided of the paths and adaptation.

  13. Adaptive path planning algorithm for cooperating unmanned air vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, C T; Roberts, R S

    2001-02-08

    An adaptive path planning algorithm is presented for cooperating Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) that are used to deploy and operate land-based sensor networks. The algorithm employs a global cost function to generate paths for the UAVs, and adapts the paths to exceptions that might occur. Examples are provided of the paths and adaptation.

  14. Performance and human factors results from thrust vectoring investigations in simulated air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennington, J. E.; Meintel, A. J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In support of research related to advanced fighter technology, the Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS) has been used to investigate the effects of advanced aerodynamic concepts, parametric changes in performance parameters, and advanced flight control systems on the combat capability of fighter airplanes. At least five studies were related to thrust vectoring and/or inflight thrust reversing. The aircraft simulated ranged from F-4 class to F-15 class, and included the AV-8 Harrier. This paper presents an overview of these studies including the assumptions involved, trends of results, and human factors considerations that were found.

  15. A zinc-air battery and flywheel zero emission vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Tokarz, F.; Smith, J.R.; Cooper, J.; Bender, D.; Aceves, S.

    1995-10-03

    In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) developed a compliance plan known as the Low Emission Vehicle Program. An integral part of that program was a sales mandate to the top seven automobile manufacturers requiring the percentage of Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) sold in California to be 2% in 1998, 5% in 2001 and 10% by 2003. Currently available ZEV technology will probably not meet customer demand for range and moderate cost. A potential option to meet the CARB mandate is to use two Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) technologies, namely, zinc-air refuelable batteries (ZARBs) and electromechanical batteries (EMBs, i. e., flywheels) to develop a ZEV with a 384 kilometer (240 mile) urban range. This vehicle uses a 40 kW, 70 kWh ZARB for energy storage combined with a 102 kW, 0.5 kWh EMB for power peaking. These technologies are sufficiently near-term and cost-effective to plausibly be in production by the 1999-2001 time frame for stationary and initial vehicular applications. Unlike many other ZEVs currently being developed by industry, our proposed ZEV has range, acceleration, and size consistent with larger conventional passenger vehicles available today. Our life-cycle cost projections for this technology are lower than for Pb-acid battery ZEVs. We have used our Hybrid Vehicle Evaluation Code (HVEC) to simulate the performance of the vehicle and to size the various components. The use of conservative subsystem performance parameters and the resulting vehicle performance are discussed in detail.

  16. Combination Of Thermography And Pressure Tests To Combat Air Leakage Problems In Building Enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruin, W. G.

    1987-05-01

    Uncontrolled air leakage in a building enclosure is the main component of space heating and cooling costs. In Atlantic Canada, Public Works Canada has combined thermography and pressure testing to identify design and construction problems in new construction and to identify specific areas of air leakage in existing housing stock. A study case shows how thermography and pressure testing has been utilized to locate and compare specific areas of air leakage in a residence before and after air sealing. The study provides both quantitative and qualitative evidence of how air sealing increases the air tightness in building enclosures.

  17. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1832-01 - Optional equipment and air conditioning for test vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1832-01...

  2. Air cushion vehicle conductive/semiconductive flexible skirt, and method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavenagh, Richard A.; Dyke, Raymond W.

    1990-03-01

    Discussed here is a method for dissipating static electrical energy from air cushion vehicles when operating more particularly in cold, low humidity environments, which method involves fabricating the skirt assembly from a flexible sheet material of at least semiconductive character, which will provide a suitable dissipating grounding pathway to discharge potential static electrical energy generated during the aforesaid operation. The method includes using a coated flexible fabric material having at least one of its opposite surfaces coated with an elastomeric abrasion-resistant material, and embedding a plurality of electrically conductive flexible strands at least partially within said flexible fabric material, or alternatively embedding electrically conductive particles or fibers in a generally uniformly manner throughout a forming of its elastomeric composition. The invention also is directed specifically to/on an air cushion vehicle skirt component comprised of electrically conductive composite flexible sheet material having sufficient conductive characteristics to provide a near constant dissipation grounding pathway from said vehicle for any substantial build up of generated static electrical energy, more particularly when the air cushion vehicle is operating in cold, low humidity environments.

  3. Prospects for future hypersonic air-breathing vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, H. L., Jr.; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    1991-01-01

    The age of hypersonics is (almost) here. This is evident from the amount of activity in the United States, Europe, the USSR and Japan; this activity is a reflection of technical progress in key areas which will enable new vehicle systems, as well as renewed interest in the utilization of these systems. The current situation, at least in the United States, is the product of an interesting history which is briefly reviewed here. The context for hypersonic applications is discussed, but the emphasis is on hypersonic technology issues and needs, particularly for propulsion and technology integration. The paper concludes with prospects for accomplishing the objective of air-breathing hypersonic vehicle systems.

  4. Powering future vehicles with the refuelable zinc/air battery

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    A recent road test at LLNL underscored the zinc/air battery`s capacity to give electric vehicles some of the attractive features of gas-driven cars: a 400-km range between refueling, 10-minute refueling, and highway-safe acceleration. Developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the battery weights only one-sixth as much as standard lead/acid batteries and occupies one-third the space, yet costs less per mile to operate. What`s more, because the battery is easily refuelable, it promises trouble-free, nearly 24-hour-a-day operation for numerous kinds of electric vehicles, from forklifts to delivery vans and possibly, one day, personal automobiles. The test of a Santa Barbara Municipal Transit bus with a hybrid of zinc/air and lead/acid batteries capped a short development period for the zinc/air battery. The test run indicated the zinc/air battery`s potential savings in vehicle weight from 5.7 to 4.0 metric tons, in battery weight from 2.0 to 0.3 metric tons, in battery volume from 0.79 to 0.25 m{sup 3}, and in electricity cost from 5.6 cents per mile to 4.7 cents per mile. The power, however, remains the same.

  5. Developments in skirt systems for air cushion vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inch, Peter; Prentice, Mark E.; Lewis, Carol Jean

    The present evaluation of the development status of air-cushion vehicle (ACV) skirts emphasizes the materials employed, with a view to the formulation of materials-performance requirements for next-generation AVCs and, in particular, an 'air-cushion catamaran' surface-effect ship (SES). Attention is given to novel skirt-design features which furnish substantial savings in maintenance costs. The employment of extant test rig data and the use of CAD methods are discussed, and the features of a novel system for the direct fixing of a bow finger onto an SES structure are noted.

  6. Episodic air quality impacts of plug-in electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brown, Tim; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the Spatially and Temporally Resolved Energy and Environment Tool (STREET) is used in conjunction with University of California Irvine - California Institute of Technology (UCI-CIT) atmospheric chemistry and transport model to assess the impact of deploying plug-in electric vehicles and integrating wind energy into the electricity grid on urban air quality. STREET is used to generate emissions profiles associated with transportation and power generation sectors for different future cases. These profiles are then used as inputs to UCI-CIT to assess the impact of each case on urban air quality. The results show an overall improvement in 8-h averaged ozone and 24-h averaged particulate matter concentrations in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) with localized increases in some cases. The most significant reductions occur northeast of the region where baseline concentrations are highest (up to 6 ppb decrease in 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 μg/m3 decrease in 24-h-averaged PM2.5). The results also indicate that, without integration of wind energy into the electricity grid, the temporal vehicle charging profile has very little to no effect on urban air quality. With the addition of wind energy to the grid mix, improvement in air quality is observed while charging at off-peak hours compared to the business as usual scenario.

  7. Air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in reusable launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, W.H.; Yi, A.C.

    1994-07-01

    A concept is shown for a fully reusable, Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle with horizontal takeoff and landing, employing an air-turborocket for low speed and a rocket for high-speed acceleration, both using liquid hydrogen for fuel. The turborocket employs a modified liquid air cycle to supply the oxidizer. The rocket uses 90% pure liquid oxygen as its oxidizer that is collected from the atmosphere, separated, and stored during operation of the turborocket from about Mach 2 to 5 or 6. The takeoff weight and the thrust required at takeoff are markedly reduced by collecting the rocket oxidizer in-flight. This article shows an approach and the corresponding technology needs for using air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. Reducing the trajectory altitude at the end of collection reduces the wing area and increases payload. The use of state-of-the-art materials, such as graphite polyimide, in a direct substitution for aluminum or aluminum-lithium alloy, is critical to meet the structure weight objective for SSTO. Configurations that utilize `waverider` aerodynamics show great promise to reduce the vehicle weight. 5 refs.

  8. In-vehicle particle air pollution and its mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartakovsky, L.; Baibikov, V.; Czerwinski, J.; Gutman, M.; Kasper, M.; Popescu, D.; Veinblat, M.; Zvirin, Y.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents results of particle mass, number and size measurements inside passenger cars (PCs), vans and urban buses. Effects of the in-cabin air purifier on particle concentrations and average size inside a vehicle are studied. Use of the air purifier leads to a dramatic reduction, by 95-99%, in the measured ultrafine particles number concentration inside a vehicle compared with outside readings. Extremely low particle concentrations may be reached without a danger of vehicle occupants' exposure to elevated CO2 levels. The lowest values of particle concentrations inside a PC without air purifier are registered under the recirculation ventilation mode, but the issue of CO2 accumulation limits the use of this mode to very short driving events. Lower PM concentrations are found inside newer cars, if this ventilation mode is used. Great differences by a factor of 2.5-3 in PM10 concentrations are found between the PCs and the buses. Smoking inside a car leads to a dramatic increase, by approximately 90 times, in PM2.5 concentrations.

  9. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 80, 85, 86, 600, 1036, 1037, 1065, and 1066 RIN 2060-A0 Control of Air Pollution From... (``EPA'') is announcing an extension of the public comment period for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule...

  10. Potential impacts of electric vehicles on air quality in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Chen, Jen-Ping; Tsai, I-Chun; He, Qingyang; Chi, Szu-Yu; Lin, Yi-Chiu; Fu, Tzung-May

    2016-10-01

    The prospective impacts of electric vehicle (EV) penetration on the air quality in Taiwan were evaluated using an air quality model with the assumption of an ambitious replacement of current light-duty vehicles under different power generation scenarios. With full EV penetration (i.e., the replacement of all light-duty vehicles), CO, VOCs, NOx and PM2.5 emissions in Taiwan from a fleet of 20.6 million vehicles would be reduced by 1500, 165, 33.9 and 7.2Ggyr(-1), respectively, while electric sector NOx and SO2 emissions would be increased by up to 20.3 and 12.9Ggyr(-1), respectively, if the electricity to power EVs were provided by thermal power plants. The net impacts of these emission changes would be to reduce the annual mean surface concentrations of CO, VOCs, NOx and PM2.5 by about 260, 11.3, 3.3ppb and 2.1μgm(-3), respectively, but to increase SO2 by 0.1ppb. Larger reductions tend to occur at time and place of higher ambient concentrations and during high pollution events. Greater benefits would clearly be attained if clean energy sources were fully encouraged. EV penetration would also reduce the mean peak-time surface O3 concentrations by up to 7ppb across Taiwan with the exception of the center of metropolitan Taipei where the concentration increased by <2ppb. Furthermore, full EV penetration would reduce annual days of O3 pollution episodes by ~40% and PM2.5 pollution episodes by 6-10%. Our findings offer important insights into the air quality impacts of EV and can provide useful information for potential mitigation actions. PMID:27285533

  11. Conceptual design of flapping-wing micro air vehicles.

    PubMed

    Whitney, J P; Wood, R J

    2012-09-01

    Traditional micro air vehicles (MAVs) are miniature versions of full-scale aircraft from which their design principles closely follow. The first step in aircraft design is the development of a conceptual design, where basic specifications and vehicle size are established. Conceptual design methods do not rely on specific knowledge of the propulsion system, vehicle layout and subsystems; these details are addressed later in the design process. Non-traditional MAV designs based on birds or insects are less common and without well-established conceptual design methods. This paper presents a conceptual design process for hovering flapping-wing vehicles. An energy-based accounting of propulsion and aerodynamics is combined with a one degree-of-freedom dynamic flapping model. Important results include simple analytical expressions for flight endurance and range, predictions for maximum feasible wing size and body mass, and critical design space restrictions resulting from finite wing inertia. A new figure-of-merit for wing structural-inertial efficiency is proposed and used to quantify the performance of real and artificial insect wings. The impact of these results on future flapping-wing MAV designs is discussed in detail. PMID:22498507

  12. Projection Moire Interferometry Measurements of Micro Air Vehicle Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Bartram, Scott M.; Waszak, Martin R.; Jenkins, Luther N.

    2001-01-01

    Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) has been used to measure the structural deformation of micro air vehicle (MAV) wings during a series of wind tunnel tests. The MAV wings had a highly flexible wing structure, generically reminiscent of a bat s wing, which resulted in significant changes in wing shape as a function of MAV angle-of-attack and simulated flight speed. This flow-adaptable wing deformation is thought to provide enhanced vehicle stability and wind gust alleviation compared to rigid wing designs. Investigation of the potential aerodynamic benefits of a flexible MAV wing required measurement of the wing shape under aerodynamic loads. PMI was used to quantify the aerodynamically induced changes in wing shape for three MAV wings having different structural designs and stiffness characteristics. This paper describes the PMI technique, its application to MAV testing, and presents a portion of the PMI data acquired for the three different MAV wings tested.

  13. Projection moire interferometry measurements of micro air vehicle wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Bartram, Scott M.; Waszak, Martin R.; Jenkins, Luther N.

    2001-11-01

    Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) has been used to measure the structural deformation of micro air vehicle (MAV) wings during a series of wind tunnel tests. The MAV wings had a highly flexible wing structure, generically reminiscent of a bat's wing, which resulted in significant changes in wing shape as a function of MAV angle-of-attack and simulated flight speed. This flow-adaptable wing deformation is thought to provide enhanced vehicle stability and wind gust alleviation compared to rigid wing designs. Investigation of the potential aerodynamic benefits of a flexible MAV wing required measurement of the wing shape under aerodynamic loads. PMI was used to quantify the aerodynamically induced changes in wing shape for three MAV wings having different structural designs and stiffness characteristics. This paper describes the PMI technique, its application to MAV testing, and presents a portion of the PMI data acquired for the three different MAV wings tested.

  14. EPA evaluation of the 'Pass Master Vehicle Air Conditioner Cut-Off' Device. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Penninga, T.J.

    1980-08-01

    The conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'Pass Master Vehicle Air Conditioner Compressor Cut-Off Device' under the provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act are announced. The Pass Master device disengages the air conditioning compressor during hard vehicle acceleration modes. The reduced engine loading will result in some fuel savings.

  15. Creating new cities through the large air-cushion vehicle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The air-cushion vehicle (ACV) can travel over concrete roads, grass, sand, mud, swamp, snow, ice, and water. This mobility makes possible a totally new geographical freedom in choosing transportation routes, locating ports, and laying out a city. By the 1980s fleets of large ACV freighters could begin carrying ocean-going cargo. The mobility of an ACV fleet would allow placing hoverports away from areas now crowded. New cities could rise along shallow or reef-bound seacoasts and rivers, just as cities once rose around deep-water seaports.

  16. Thirty years of research and development of air cushion vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelsen, William R.

    This paper describes the conception of the air cushion vehicle (ACV) from experiments with the ground effect of a VTOL aircraft model. Then it describes the evolution of the ultimate ACV drive system through building and testing many models and 16 full-scale ACV to arrive at complete controllability. Adequate control of the frictionless craft, which are without inherent yaw stability, requires control force of the order of magnitude of propulsion. The derived gimbal fans provide such control force in the form of direct thrust, which is instantly available in any of 360 degrees, meterable, instantly cancelable, and reversible.

  17. CARS Temperature and Species Measurements For Air Vehicle Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Gord, James R.; Grisch, Frederic; Klimenko, Dmitry; Clauss, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) method has recently been used in the United States and Europe to probe several different types of propulsion systems for air vehicles. At NASA Langley Research Center in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure temperature and the mole fractions of N2, O2 and H2 in a supersonic combustor, representative of a scramjet engine. At Wright- Patterson Air Force Base in the United States, CARS has been used to simultaneously measure temperature and mole fractions of N2, O2 and CO2, in the exhaust stream of a liquid-fueled, gas-turbine combustor. At ONERA in France and the DLR in Germany researchers have used CARS to measure temperature and species concentrations in cryogenic LOX-H2 rocket combustion chambers. The primary aim of these measurements has been to provide detailed flowfield information for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation.

  18. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H; Norman, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Proper maintenance can help vehicles perform as designed, positively affecting fuel economy, emissions, and the overall drivability. This effort investigates the effect of one maintenance factor, intake air filter replacement, with primary focus on vehicle fuel economy, but also examining emissions and performance. Older studies, dealing with carbureted gasoline vehicles, have indicated that replacing a clogged or dirty air filter can improve vehicle fuel economy and conversely that a dirty air filter can be significantly detrimental to fuel economy. The effect of clogged air filters on the fuel economy, acceleration and emissions of five gasoline fueled vehicles is examined. Four of these were modern vehicles, featuring closed-loop control and ranging in model year from 2003 to 2007. Three vehicles were powered by naturally aspirated, port fuel injection (PFI) engines of differing size and cylinder configuration: an inline 4, a V6 and a V8. A turbocharged inline 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine powered vehicle was the fourth modern gasoline vehicle tested. A vintage 1972 vehicle equipped with a carburetor (open-loop control) was also examined. Results reveal insignificant fuel economy and emissions sensitivity of modern vehicles to air filter condition, but measureable effects on the 1972 vehicle. All vehicles experienced a measured acceleration performance penalty with clogged intake air filters.

  19. Combat games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Heymann, M.; Rajan, N.

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical formulation is proposed of a combat game between two opponents with offensive capabilities and offensive objective is proposed. Resolution of the combat involves solving two differential games with state constraints. Depending on the game dynamics and parameters, the combat can terminate in one of four ways: the first player wins; the second player wins; a draw (neither wins); or joint capture. In the first two cases, the optimal strategies of the two players are determined from suitable zero-sum games, whereas in the latter two the relevant games are nonzero-sum. Further, to avoid certain technical difficulties, the concept of a delta-combat game is introduced.

  20. Updraft Model for Development of Autonomous Soaring Uninhabited Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Large birds and glider pilots commonly use updrafts caused by convection in the lower atmosphere to extend flight duration, increase cross-country speed, improve range, or simply to conserve energy. Uninhabited air vehicles may also have the ability to exploit updrafts to improve performance. An updraft model was developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) to investigate the use of convective lift for uninhabited air vehicles in desert regions. Balloon and surface measurements obtained at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Surface Radiation station (Desert Rock, Nevada) enabled the model development. The data were used to create a statistical representation of the convective velocity scale, w*, and the convective mixing-layer thickness, zi. These parameters were then used to determine updraft size, vertical velocity profile, spacing, and maximum height. This paper gives a complete description of the updraft model and its derivation. Computer code for running the model is also given in conjunction with a check case for model verification.

  1. GPS Auto-Navigation Design for Unmanned Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, Caroline C. A.; Heinzen, Stearns N.; Hall, Charles E., Jr.; Chokani, Ndaona

    2003-01-01

    A GPS auto-navigation system is designed for Unmanned Air Vehicles. The objective is to enable the air vehicle to be used as a test-bed for novel flow control concepts. The navigation system uses pre-programmed GPS waypoints. The actual GPS position, heading, and velocity are collected by the flight computer, a PC104 system running in Real-Time Linux, and compared with the desired waypoint. The navigator then determines the necessity of a heading correction and outputs the correction in the form of a commanded bank angle, for a level coordinated turn, to the controller system. This controller system consists of 5 controller! (pitch rate PID, yaw damper, bank angle PID, velocity hold, and altitude hold) designed for a closed loop non-linear aircraft model with linear aerodynamic coefficients. The ability and accuracy of using GPS data, is validated by a GPS flight. The autopilots are also validated in flight. The autopilot unit flight validations show that the designed autopilots function as designed. The aircraft model, generated on Matlab SIMULINK is also enhanced by the flight data to accurately represent the actual aircraft.

  2. Low Earth Orbit Raider (LER) winged air launch vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feaux, Karl; Jordan, William; Killough, Graham; Miller, Robert; Plunk, Vonn

    1989-01-01

    The need to launch small payloads into low earth orbit has increased dramatically during the past several years. The Low Earth orbit Raider (LER) is an answer to this need. The LER is an air-launched, winged vehicle designed to carry a 1500 pound payload into a 250 nautical mile orbit. The LER is launched from the back of a 747-100B at 35,000 feet and a Mach number of 0.8. Three staged solid propellant motors offer safe ground and flight handling, reliable operation, and decreased fabrication cost. The wing provides lift for 747 separation and during the first stage burn. Also, aerodynamic controls are provided to simplify first stage maneuvers. The air-launch concept offers many advantages to the consumer compared to conventional methods. Launching at 35,000 feet lowers atmospheric drag and other loads on the vehicle considerably. Since the 747 is a mobile launch pad, flexibility in orbit selection and launch time is unparalleled. Even polar orbits are accessible with a decreased payload. Most importantly, the LER launch service can come to the customer, satellites and experiments need not be transported to ground based launch facilities. The LER is designed to offer increased consumer freedom at a lower cost over existing launch systems. Simplistic design emphasizing reliability at low cost allows for the light payloads of the LER.

  3. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) for Surveillance and Remote Sensor Delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ifju, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) will be developed for tracking individuals, locating terrorist threats, and delivering remote sensors, for surveillance and chemical/biological agent detection. The tasks are: (1) Develop robust MAV platform capable of carrying sensor payload. (2) Develop fully autonomous capabilities for delivery of sensors to remote and distant locations. The current capabilities and accomplishments are: (1) Operational electric (inaudible) 6-inch MAVs with novel flexible wing, providing superior aerodynamic efficiency and control. (2) Vision-based flight stability and control (from on-board cameras).

  4. Micro-electro-mechanical flapping wing technology for micro air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Asha J.; Riddick, Jaret C.

    2012-04-01

    Army combat operations have placed a high premium on reconnaissance missions for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) (less than 15 cm in dimension and less than 20 g in mass). One approach for accomplishing this mission is to develop a biologically inspired flapping wing insect that can maneuver into confined areas and possess hovering capabilities. Analysis of insect flight indicates that in addition to the bending excitation (flapping), simultaneous excitation of the twisting degree-of-freedom (pitching) is required to manipulate the control surface adequately. Traditionally, bimorph piezoelectric PZT (Pb(Zr0.55Ti0.45)O3) actuators have been used in many applications to excite the bending degree-of-freedom. In laminated or layered structures, bend-twist coupling is governed by the existence of at least one anisotropic layer not aligned with the primary plate axes. By adding a layer of off-axis PZT segments to a PZT bimorph actuator, thereby producing a layered structure to be referred to as a functionally- modified bimorph, bend-twist coupling may be introduced to the flexural response of the layered PZT. Furthermore, by selectively charging off-axis layers in specific combinations with the bimorph, the response of the functionally-modified bimorph may be tailored yielding a biaxial actuator to actively control the flapping wing response. The present study presents an experimental investigation of both traditional bimorph and functionally-modified PZT bimorph designs intended for active bend-twist actuation of cm-scale flapping wing devices.

  5. Vehicle expectations in air transportation for the year 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearth, D. P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide an overview of the air transportation system for the year 2000 in terms of vehicle expectations. Emphasis is placed on civil air transportation with the time period approached from the standpoint of evolutionary changes for the near term and also with the assumption of more revolutionary changes for the far term. The view along the evolutionary path begins with a historical review of airline market growth and the impact that technologies have had on airplane designs. Projections of the life expectancy of existing, derivative, and new airplanes are examined in terms of their productivity and fuel efficiency in view of the present and projected fuel usage and availability. The factors influencing airline growth are outlined and some views on whether another new generation of subsonic airplanes are in the offing are given along with an assessment of the economic viability of an advanced commercial supersonic transport in terms of its higher speed, higher productivity, and higher fuel usage. With regard to revolutionary changes, major technology breakthroughs are assumed to occur at a specified date. As an example, the impact of a dramatic reduction in skin friction drag is examined in terms of its effect on the airplane configuration, its propulsion systems, it projected fuel usage, and the air transportation system in which it must operate.

  6. Zinc air battery development for electric vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Putt, R.A.; Merry, G.W.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of research conducted during the sixteen month continuation of a program to develop rechargeable zinc-air batteries for electric vehicles. The zinc-air technology under development incorporates a metal foam substrate for the zinc electrode, with flow of electrolyte through the foam during battery operation. In this ``soluble`` zinc electrode the zincate discharge product dissolves completely in the electrolyte stream. Cycle testing at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where the electrode was invented, and at MATSI showed that this approach avoids the zinc electrode shape change phenomenon. Further, electrolyte flow has been shown to be necessary to achieve significant cycle life (> 25 cycles) in this open system. Without it, water loss through the oxygen electrode results in high-resistance failure of the cell. The Phase I program, which focused entirely on the zinc electrode, elucidated the conditions necessary to increase electrode capacity from 75 to as much as 300 mAh/cm{sup 2}. By the end of the Phase I program over 500 cycles had accrued on one of the zinc-zinc half cells undergoing continuous cycle testing. The Phase II program continued the half cell cycle testing and separator development, further refined the foam preplate process, and launched into performance and cycle life testing of zinc-air cells.

  7. A novel zinc-air battery for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.N.

    1995-07-01

    A new type of zinc electrode is matched with new bifunctional air electrodes to produce a zinc-air battery of a novel design. The zinc electrode is a flow-thru type made from copper foam-metal. The air electrode uses corrosion resistant carbon black as a high area support for a highly dispersed spinel oxide electrocatalyst. The battery design employs flowing electrolyte, 12 M KOH saturated or supersaturated with zincate. Single cells as large as 200 cm{sup 2} (1/5 EV design scale) having a capacity of 20 AH have been tested with C/4--C/16 constant current cycling. More extensive and realistic life cycle testing was done with 2 Ah cells, including the Simplified Federal Urban Driving Schedule (SFUDS) cycle. This testing has confirmed that these cells can provide the necessary transient power response required for urban EV applications. The cells achieved an average of 72 SFUDS repetitions (7.2 hrs) per discharge cycle, more than twice the number with a sealed lead acid EV battery in similar testing. The full scale (30 kWh) EV battery design based on these single cell tests indicate an energy density of 90--100 Wh/kg, 60--80 W/kg, and a very low materials cost ($50 per kWh). These results indicate this battery would provide at least twice the vehicle range of a lead acid battery of the same volume at a comparable or even lower materials cost.

  8. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Composite Materials for Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ifju, Peter G.; Ettinger, Scott; Jenkins, David; Martinez, Luis

    2002-01-01

    This paper will discuss the development of the University of Florida's Micro Air Vehicle concept. A series of flexible wing based aircraft that possess highly desirable flight characteristics were developed. Since computational methods to accurately model flight at the low Reynolds numbers associated with this scale are still under development, our effort has relied heavily on trial and error. Hence a time efficient method was developed to rapidly produce prototype designs. The airframe and wings are fabricated using a unique process that incorporates carbon fiber composite construction. Prototypes can be fabricated in around five man-hours, allowing many design revisions to be tested in a short period of time. The resulting aircraft are far more durable, yet lighter, than their conventional counterparts. This process allows for thorough testing of each design in order to determine what changes were required on the next prototype. The use of carbon fiber allows for wing flexibility without sacrificing durability. The construction methods developed for this project were the enabling technology that allowed us to implement our designs. The resulting aircraft were the winning entries in the International Micro Air Vehicle Competition for the past two years. Details of the construction method are provided in this paper along with a background on our flexible wing concept.

  9. Computer-aided conceptual design of Air Cushion Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Band, E. G. U.; Lavis, D. R.

    This paper describes the development and use of a computer-aided design tool which has been used to explore preferred options for amphibious Air-Cushion Vehicle (ACV) and Surface-Effect Ship (SES) designs in support of U.S. Navy and U.S. Army programs. The tool, referred to as the ACV Design Synthesis Model (ADSM), is an interactive computer program which provides a description of feasible ACV or SES concepts that could be developed, by a competent design team, to perform the mission described by the input parameters. The paper discusses how the program was used to explore parametrically the design of a range of self-propelled hoverbarges to meet requirements of the U.S. Army Logistics Over the Shore (LOTS) phases of an amphibious landing. Examples of results are presented to illustrate the method used in determining design and performance trade-offs.

  10. Flow Analysis over Batten Reinforced Wings for Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Kurtis; Hicks, Travis; Hubner, James P.

    2008-11-01

    Flexible membrane wings modify the flow separation of low Reynolds number micro air vehicles (MAVs). A specific type of fixed-wing geometry is a batten-reinforced configuration in which the membrane is attached to a rigid frame with chordwise battens, allowing the vibration of the membrane at the trailing-edge. In this study, smoke-wire visualization and hot-wire anemometry, both near the trailing-edge and further downstream in the wake, are used to quantify the frequency and energy of these fluctuations for various cell geometries and flow angles-of-attack. Improvement in the wake momentum deficit will be analyzed to determine preferred membrane cell geometries for MAV flight conditions.

  11. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2013-04-15

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed-volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2-NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration-response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, "U" shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2-NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion must

  12. Integration of an Autopilot for a Micro Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platanitis, George; Shkarayev, Sergey

    2005-01-01

    Two autopilots providing autonomous flight capabilities are presented herein. The first is the Pico-Pilot, demonstrated for the 12-inch size class of micro air vehicles. The second is the MicroPilot MP2028(sup g), where its integration into a 36-inch Zagi airframe (tailless, elevons only configuration) is investigated and is the main focus of the report. Analytical methods, which include the use of the Advanced Aircraft Analysis software from DARCorp, were used to determine the stability and control derivatives, which were then validated through wind tunnel experiments. From the aerodynamic data, the linear, perturbed equations of motion from steady-state flight conditions may be cast in terms of these derivatives. Using these linear equations, transfer functions for the control and navigation systems were developed and feedback control laws based on Proportional, Integral, and Derivative (PID) control design were developed to control the aircraft. The PID gains may then be programmed into the autopilot software and uploaded to the microprocessor of the autopilot. The Pico-Pilot system was flight tested and shown to be successful in navigating a 12-inch MAV through a course defined by a number of waypoints with a high degree of accuracy, and in 20 mph winds. The system, though, showed problems with control authority in the roll and pitch motion of the aircraft: causing oscillations in these directions, but the aircraft maintained its heading while following the prescribed course. Flight tests were performed in remote control mode to evaluate handling, adjust trim, and test data logging for the Zagi with integrated MP2028(sup g). Ground testing was performed to test GPS acquisition, data logging, and control response in autonomous mode. Technical difficulties and integration limitations with the autopilot prevented fully autonomous flight from taking place, but the integration methodologies developed for this autopilot are, in general, applicable for unmanned air

  13. H-CANYON AIR EXHAUST TUNNEL INSPECTION VEHICLE DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Minichan, R.; Fogle, R.; Marzolf, A.

    2011-05-24

    The H-Canyon at Savannah River Site is a large concrete structure designed for chemical separation processes of radioactive material. The facility requires a large ventilation system to maintain negative pressure in process areas for radioactive contamination control and personnel protection. The ventilation exhaust is directed through a concrete tunnel under the facility which is approximately five feet wide and 8 feet tall that leads to a sand filter and stack. Acidic vapors in the exhaust have had a degrading effect on the surface of the concrete tunnels. Some areas have been inspected; however, the condition of other areas is unknown. Experience from historical inspections with remote controlled vehicles will be discussed along with the current challenge of inspecting levels below available access points. The area of interest in the exhaust tunnel must be accessed through a 14 X 14 inch concrete plug in the floor of the hot gang valve corridor. The purpose for the inspection is to determine the condition of the inside of the air tunnel and establish if there are any structural concerns. Various landmarks, pipe hangers and exposed rebar are used as reference points for the structural engineers when evaluating the current integrity of the air tunnel.

  14. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    SciTech Connect

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  15. Air-Sea Interaction Measurements from the Controlled Towed Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelif, D.; Bluth, R. T.; Jonsson, H.; Barge, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Controlled Towed Vehicle (CTV) uses improved towed drone technology to actively maintain via a radar altimeter and controllable wing a user-set height that can be as low as the canonical reference height of 10 m above the sea surface. After take-off, the drone is released from the tow aircraft on a ~700-m stainless steel cable. We have instrumented the 0.23 m diameter and 2.13 m long drone with high fidelity instruments to measure the means and turbulent fluctuations of 3-D wind vector, temperature, humidity, pressure, CO2 and IR sea surface temperature. Data are recorded internally at 40 Hz and simultaneously transmitted to the tow aircraft via dedicated wireless Ethernet link. The CTV accommodates 40 kg of instrument payload and provides it with 250 W of continuous power through a ram air propeller-driven generator. Therefore its endurance is only limited by that of the tow aircraft.We will discuss the CTV development, the engineering challenges and solutions that have been successfully implemented to overcome them. We present results from recent flights as low as 9 m over the coastal ocean and comparisons of profiles and turbulent fluxes from the CTV and the tow aircraft. Manned aircraft operation at low-level boundary-layer flights is very limited. Dropsondes and UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) and UAS are alternates for measurements near the ocean surface. However, dropsondes have limited sensor capability and do not measure fluxes, and most present UAS vehicles do not have the payload and power capacity nor the low-flying ability in high winds over the oceans. The CTV therefore, fills a needed gap between the dropsondes, in situ aircraft, and UAS. The payload, capacity and power of the CTV makes it suitable for a variety of atmospheric research measurements. Other sensors to measure aerosol, chemistry, radiation, etc., could be readily accommodated in the CTV.

  16. Partial camera automation in an unmanned air vehicle.

    PubMed

    Korteling, J E; van der Borg, W

    1997-03-01

    The present study focused on an intelligent, semiautonomous, interface for a camera operator of a simulated unmanned air vehicle (UAV). This interface used system "knowledge" concerning UAV motion in order to assist a camera operator in tracking an object moving through the landscape below. The semiautomated system compensated for the translations of the UAV relative to the earth. This compensation was accompanied by the appropriate joystick movements ensuring tactile (haptic) feedback of these system interventions. The operator had to superimpose self-initiated joystick manipulations over these system-initiated joystick motions in order to track the motion of a target (a driving truck) relative to the terrain. Tracking data showed that subjects performed substantially better with the active system. Apparently, the subjects had no difficulty in maintaining control, i.e., "following" the active stick while superimposing self-initiated control movements over the system-interventions. Furthermore, tracking performance with an active interface was clearly superior relative to the passive system. The magnitude of this effect was equal to the effect of update-frequency (2-5 Hz) of the monitor image. The benefits of update frequency enhancement and semiautomated tracking were the greatest under difficult steering conditions. Mental workload scores indicated that, for the difficult tracking-dynamics condition, both semiautomation and update frequency increase resulted in less experienced mental effort. For the easier dynamics this effect was only seen for update frequency. PMID:11541093

  17. Aerial networking communication solutions using Micro Air Vehicle (MAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Shyam; de Graaf, Maurits; Hoekstra, Gerard; Corporaal, Henk; Wijtvliet, Mark; Cuadros Linde, Javier

    2014-10-01

    The application of a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) for wireless networking is slowly gaining significance in the field of network robotics. Aerial transport of data requires efficient network protocols along with accurate positional adjustment of the MAV to minimize transaction times. In our proof of concept, we develop an Aerial networking protocol for data transfer using the technology of Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTN), a store-and-forward approach for environments that deals with disrupted connectivity. Our results show that close interaction between networking and flight behavior helps in efficient data exchange. Potential applications are in areas where network infrastructure is minimal or unavailable and distances may be large. For example, forwarding video recordings during search and rescue, agriculture, swarm communication, among several others. A practical implementation and validation, as described in this paper, presents the complex dynamics of wireless environments and poses new challenges that are not addressed in earlier work on this topic. Several tests are evaluated in a practical setup to display the networking MAV behavior during such an operation.

  18. Transportation vehicle energy intensities. A joint DOT/NASA reference paper. [energy consumption of air and ground vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascy, A. C.; Paullin, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    A compilation of data on the energy consumption of air and ground vehicles is presented. The ratio BTU/ASM, British Thermal Units/Available Seat Mile, is used to express vehicle energy intensiveness, and related to the energy consumed directly in producing seat-mile or ton-mile productivity. Data is presented on passenger and freight vehicles which are in current use or which are about to enter service, and advanced vehicles which may be operational in the 1980's and beyond. For the advanced vehicles, an estimate is given of the date of initial operational service, and the performance characteristics. Other key considerations in interpreting energy intensiveness for a given mode are discussed, such as: load factors, operations, overhead energy consumption, and energy investments in new structure and equipment.

  19. Development of Micro Air Vehicle Technology With In-Flight Adaptive-Wing Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R. (Technical Monitor); Shkarayev, Sergey; Null, William; Wagner, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    This is a final report on the research studies, "Development of Micro Air Vehicle Technology with In-Flight Adaptrive-Wing Structure". This project involved the development of variable-camber technology to achieve efficient design of micro air vehicles. Specifically, it focused on the following topics: 1) Low Reynolds number wind tunnel testing of cambered-plate wings. 2) Theoretical performance analysis of micro air vehicles. 3) Design of a variable-camber MAV actuated by micro servos. 4) Test flights of a variable-camber MAV.

  20. Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) ultra-persitence research

    SciTech Connect

    Dron, S. B.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Northrop Grumman Corporation Integrated Systems, Unmanned Systems (NGIS UMS) collaborated to further ultra-persistence technologies for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). The greatest shortfalls in UAV capabilities have been repeatedly identified as (1) insufficient flight persistence or 'hang time,' (2) marginal electrical power for running higher power avionics and payload systems, and (3) inadequate communications bandwidth and reach. NGIS UMS requested support from Sandia to develop an ultra-persistent propulsion and power system (UP3S) for potential incorporation into next generation UAV systems. The team members tried to determine which energy storage and power generation concepts could most effectively push UAV propulsion and electrical power capabilities to increase UAV sortie duration from days to months while increasing available electrical power at least two-fold. Primary research and development areas that were pursued included these goals: perform general system engineering and integration analyses; develop initial thermal and electrical power estimates; provide mass, volume, dimensional, and balance estimates; conduct preliminary safety assessments; assess logistics support requirements; perform, preliminary assessments of any security and safeguards; evaluate options for removal, replacement, and disposition of materials; generally advance the potential of the UP3S concept. The effort contrasted and compared eight heat sources technologies, three power conversion, two dual cycle propulsion system configurations, and a single electrical power generation scheme. Overall performance, specific power parameters, technical complexities, security, safety, and other operational features were successfully investigated. Large and medium sized UAV systems were envisioned and operational flight profiles were developed for each concept. Heat source creation and support challenges for domestic and expeditionary operations were

  1. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities Rule: Operational and economic impacts at U.S. Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC) installations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.C.; Durand, G.P.; Senn, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The recently promulgated Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), found in 40 CFR 63 Subpart GG, is expected to significantly impact operations at US Air Force (USAF) bases. At the request of the USAF`s Air Combat Command (ACC), Armstrong Laboratory`s Air Quality Branch performed a compliance assessment for all ACC bases in the summer of 1996 to determine more clearly the rule`s impact on operations at these bases. This assessment included first determining the base`s current major source standing for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), as defined by Title III of the Clean Air Act. In addition, this assessment ascertained the volatile organic compound (VOC) and HAP content levels for both the primers and topcoats currently being used in base aircraft maintenance operations. Finally, the survey determined the type of solvents used in cleaning aerospace parts, as well as the types of control equipment currently in place at each base. The results of the compliance assessment suggest a prohibitive impact on operations at ACC bases, including total potential direct monetary costs of up to $25M. Additional personnel requirements will be incurred as a result of increased monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting. Substitution of low VOC/HAP primers and topcoats and/or redefining maintenance operations to meet touch-up and repair definitions are discussed as possible alternatives, but the results indicate the best solution is to reassess each ACC base`s status as a major source for HAPs, with the intent of having each base defined as a minor source for HAPs. In this manner, the ACC bases can avoid the Aerospace NESHAP compliance requirements altogether, at substantial savings to the US Air Force.

  2. Target location by self-organizing autonomous air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Kim; Bowyer, Richard S.; Koks, Don

    2002-08-01

    Target location is a problem where the application of multiple sensors that are geographically distributed can determine or improve the location estimate of a target. If these sensors are capable of cooperative behaviour then the information from each sensor can be autonomously fused to provide an estimate of the target position. The individual sensors may be quite unsophisticated, yet the observation system that is created through cooperation and adaptive networking of these sensors provides sufficient process gain to achieve target location accuracies similar to those of expensive centralized sensor systems. The accuracy of target location estimates depends heavily on the separation distance between the sensors. Large baseline geometry takes advantage of many seemingly unsophisticated bearing measurements that are organised into a coordinated observation system to locate a target. Team formation is one method to address coordination of distributed sensors, data fusion, sensor resource and energy management, and communication link control based on the concept of cooperating machines1,2,3. We apply an algorithm for agent team formation4 inspired by the self-organising behaviour observed in colonies of ants, to the problem of integrating the sensors of a group of networked mini-Autonomous Air Vehicles (AAVs). The mini-AAVs are tasked to locate targets within a region of interest. The challenge we address is to make the location estimation system adaptive to a dynamic environment and robust to failure. Simulation results are presented which address issues in distributed data fusion, sensor resource and energy management, and communication link control, for a group of mini-AAVs.

  3. Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry PhasedArray Warning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Satellite Communications Terminal, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  4. Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry PhasedArray Warning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Electric Substation, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  5. Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry PhasedArray Warning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Civil Engineering Storage Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  6. Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP) — Air Vehicle Concept and Entry CONOPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, D.; Lee, G.; Polidan, R.; Bolisay, L.; Barnes, N.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses the continued development of the Northrop Grumman/L’GARDE team’s long-lived, maneuverable platform to explore the Venus upper atmosphere. It focuses on the air vehicle design and entry CONOPs and their interdependencies.

  7. Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry PhasedArray Warning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  8. Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry PhasedArray Warning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Microwave Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  9. Analysis of a combat problem - The turret game

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M.; Heymann, M.; Rajan, N.

    1987-01-01

    The turret game is defined and solved to illustrate the nature of games of combat. This game represents a highly simplified version of air combat, yet it is sufficiently complex so as to exhibit a rich variety of combat phenomena. A review of the formulation of delta-combat games is included.

  10. Fugitive particulate air emissions from off-road vehicle maneuvers at military training lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Military training lands used for off-road vehicle maneuvers may be subject to severe soil loss and air quality degradation as a result of severe wind erosion. The objective of this study was to measure suspended particulate matter resulting from various different vehicle training scenarios. Soil s...

  11. Assessing the Link between Environmental Concerns and Consumers' Decisions to Use Clean-Air Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plax, Timothy G.; Kearney, Patricia; Ross, Ted J.; Jolly, J. Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A consulting contract with the California Air Resources Board led to a project examining how California drivers' and fleet managers' perceptions, attitudes, and consumer behavior regarding Clean Vehicle Technologies influenced their own energy choices when it came to purchasing vehicles. The consultants examined archival research, conducted focus…

  12. [Impact of heavy-duty diesel vehicles on air quality and control of their emissions].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Wang, Bo-Guang; Tang, Da-Gang

    2011-08-01

    Through an analysis of the characteristics of diesel vehicle emissions and motor vehicle emissions inventories, this paper examines the impact of heavy-duty diesel vehicles on air quality in China as well as issues related to the control of their emissions. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Nitrogen oxides is one of the important precursors for the formation of secondary particles and ozone in the atmosphere, causing regional haze. Diesel particulate matter is a major toxic air pollutant with adverse effect on human health, and in particular, the ultrafine particles in 30-100 nm size range can pose great health risks because of its extremely small sizes. Motor vehicles have become a major source of air pollution in many metropolitan areas and city cluster in China, and among them the heavy-duty diesel vehicles are a dominant contributor of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions. Hence, controlling heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions should be a key component of an effective air quality management plan, and a number of issues related to heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions need to be addressed. PMID:22619934

  13. The promise of air cargo: System aspects and vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The current operation of the air cargo system is reviewed. An assessment of the future of air cargo is provided by: (1) analyzing statistics and trends, (2) by noting system problems and inefficiencies, (3) by analyzing characteristics of 'air eligible' commodities, and (4) by showing the promise of new technology for future cargo aircraft with significant improvements in costs and efficiency. The following topics are discussed: (1) air cargo demand forecasts; (2) economics of air cargo transport; (3) the integrated air cargo system; (4) evolution of airfreighter design; and (5) the span distributed load concept.

  14. Proposed architecture for the UAV family of air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinelli, Louis; Bazow, Steve

    1993-12-01

    As an integral part of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) interoperability and commonality program, Vitro Corporation and the UAV Systems Engineering Directorate developed a UAV family architecture which lays the foundation for future UAV systems.

  15. Air quality impacts of motor vehicle emissions in the south coast air basin: Current versus more stringent control scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collet, Susan; Kidokoro, Toru; Sonoda, Yukihiro; Lohman, Kristen; Karamchandani, Prakash; Chen, Shu-Yun; Minoura, Hiroaki

    2012-02-01

    States are working to comply with the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Often, regulations restricting vehicle emissions are promulgated in order to attain compliance with the NAAQS. Currently, more stringent vehicle emission regulations are being considered by government agencies. This paper compares emissions from passenger cars and light duty trucks under the current California Low Emission Vehicle (LEV II) standards to a control scenario which was anticipated in 2008 to become LEV III (referred to as "more stringent control" in this paper) and determines if the scenario would result in additional improvements to air quality in California's South Coast Air Basin. The air quality modeling was performed using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) for years 2005, 2014 and 2020. The more stringent control sensitivity study simulated a scenario in which all new passenger cars and light duty trucks in the California South Coast Air Basin in year 2016 achieve Super Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (SULEV) tail pipe emissions, zero evaporative emissions and more stringent aggressive driving requirements. The total on-road vehicles emissions difference when averaged across the South Coast Air Basin showed the more stringent scenario compared to LEV II to have reductions of 1% for oxides of nitrogen (NO x), 1% for as reactive organic gases (ROG) and 5% for carbon monoxide (CO) in 2030. LEV II modeled ozone levels in the western areas of the basin increased in 2014 and 2020 as compared to 2005, because these areas are VOC-sensitive and the reductions in NO x emissions in these regions are larger than the VOC reductions. In other areas of the South Coast Basin, ozone is reduced by 1.5% or less. The more stringent control scenario modeled levels of ozone have a maximum decrease from LEV II levels by 1% or less in 2014 and 1.5% or less in 2020.

  16. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in... constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent the ingress of engine exhaust fumes and gases from...

  17. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in... constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent the ingress of engine exhaust fumes and gases from...

  18. 9 CFR 3.114 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., rail, air and marine). 3.114 Section 3.114 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in... animal cargo space must be constructed and maintained in a manner that will prevent the ingress of...

  19. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in... constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent the ingress of engine exhaust fumes and gases from...

  20. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in... constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent the ingress of engine exhaust fumes and gases from...

  1. Micro air vehicle motion tracking and aerodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlig, Daniel V.

    Aerodynamic performance of small-scale fixed-wing flight is not well understood, and flight data are needed to gain a better understanding of the aerodynamics of micro air vehicles (MAVs) flying at Reynolds numbers between 10,000 and 30,000. Experimental studies have shown the aerodynamic effects of low Reynolds number flow on wings and airfoils, but the amount of work that has been conducted is not extensive and mostly limited to tests in wind and water tunnels. In addition to wind and water tunnel testing, flight characteristics of aircraft can be gathered through flight testing. The small size and low weight of MAVs prevent the use of conventional on-board instrumentation systems, but motion tracking systems that use off-board triangulation can capture flight trajectories (position and attitude) of MAVs with minimal onboard instrumentation. Because captured motion trajectories include minute noise that depends on the aircraft size, the trajectory results were verified in this work using repeatability tests. From the captured glide trajectories, the aerodynamic characteristics of five unpowered aircraft were determined. Test results for the five MAVs showed the forces and moments acting on the aircraft throughout the test flights. In addition, the airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip angle were also determined from the trajectories. Results for low angles of attack (less than approximately 20 deg) showed the lift, drag, and moment coefficients during nominal gliding flight. For the lift curve, the results showed a linear curve until stall that was generally less than finite wing predictions. The drag curve was well described by a polar. The moment coefficients during the gliding flights were used to determine longitudinal and lateral stability derivatives. The neutral point, weather-vane stability and the dihedral effect showed some variation with different trim speeds (different angles of attack). In the gliding flights, the aerodynamic characteristics

  2. Design criteria for light high speed desert air cushion vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abulnaga, B. E.

    An evaluation is made of the applicability and prospective performance of ACVs in trans-Saharan cargo transport, in view of the unique characteristics of the dry sand environment. The lightweight/high-speed ACV concept envisioned is essentially ground effect aircraftlike, with conventional wheels as a low-speed backup suspension system. A propeller is used in ground effect cruise. Attention is given to the effects on vehicle stability and performance of sandy surface irregularities of the desert topography and of cross-winds from various directions relative to vehicle movement.

  3. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Allison; Jaramillo, Paulina; Michalek, Jeremy

    2016-02-01

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs.

  4. Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use

    SciTech Connect

    Rugh, J. P.

    2010-04-01

    The air-conditioning (A/C) compressor load significantly impacts the fuel economy of conventional vehicles and the fuel use/range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). A National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) vehicle performance analysis shows the operation of the air conditioner reduces the charge depletion range of a 40-mile range PHEV from 18% to 30% in a worst case hot environment. Designing for air conditioning electrical loads impacts PHEV and electric vehicle (EV) energy storage system size and cost. While automobile manufacturers have climate control procedures to assess A/C performance, and the U.S. EPA has the SCO3 drive cycle to measure indirect A/C emissions, there is no automotive industry consensus on a vehicle level A/C fuel use test procedure. With increasing attention on A/C fuel use due to increased regulatory activities and the development of PHEVs and EVs, a test procedure is needed to accurately assess the impact of climate control loads. A vehicle thermal soak period is recommended, with solar lamps that meet the SCO3 requirements or an alternative heating method such as portable electric heaters. After soaking, the vehicle is operated over repeated drive cycles or at a constant speed until steady-state cabin air temperature is attained. With this method, the cooldown and steady-state A/C fuel use are measured. This method can be run at either different ambient temperatures to provide data for the GREEN-MAC-LCCP model temperature bins or at a single representative ambient temperature. Vehicles with automatic climate systems are allowed to control as designed, while vehicles with manual climate systems are adjusted to approximate expected climate control settings. An A/C off test is also run for all drive profiles. This procedure measures approximate real-world A/C fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies.

  5. Prospects for future hypersonic air-breathing vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, H. L., Jr.; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the technical progress achieved in key areas of hypersonic airbreathing vehicle development is presented. The context for hypersonic applications is discussed with emphasis placed on technology issues and requirements, particularly for propulsion and technology integration. Attention is given to CFD technology which allows the consideration of configurations and extrapolations to flight conditions that cannot be simulated on the ground.

  6. Modeling and analysis of an articulated winged micro air vehicle for gust mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oduyela, Adetunji Y.

    Articulated micro air vehicles are a class of micro air vehicles comprised of a main center body attached to outer wings on both sides. As in the case of a single rigid micro air vehicle, the center body and the attached bodies in the articulated case are all responsible for the generation of aerodynamic forces and moments during flight resulting in a multibody system. While many approaches have been taken in the literature to model the system of equations resulting from such a complicated multibody system, this dissertation presents an approach based on a Newton-Euler multibody dynamics formulation where the multiple bodies are attached together with suitable joints. The number and type of joints determines the level of articulation and total degree of freedom for the entire system. Unlike most articulated air vehicle model formulations available in the literature, the final model formulation presented in this work provides joint force and moment data acting on the articulated MAV during flight. This feature allows such information to be available during the vehicle design and development stage where appropriate spring and dampers for the system are selected based on mission requirements. Experimental validation of the proposed mathematical model using experimental flight test data obtained from UAHuntsville's Autonomous Tracking and Optical Measurements laboratory allowed the comparison of the flight test results and model simulations. Analytical investigation of the gust alleviation properties of the articulated 8 degree-of-freedom micro air vehicle model was carried out using simulations with varying crosswind gust magnitudes and shows that the passive articulation in micro air vehicles increases their robustness to gusts when suitable joint parameters are selected.

  7. Affordable Flight Demonstration of the GTX Air-Breathing SSTO Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivanek, Thomas M.; Roche, Joseph M.; Riehl, John P.; Kosareo, Daniel N.

    2003-01-01

    The rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle has the potential to significantly reduce the total cost per pound for orbital payload missions. To validate overall system performance, a flight demonstration must be performed. This paper presents an overview of the first phase of a flight demonstration program for the GTX SSTO vehicle concept. Phase 1 will validate the propulsion performance of the vehicle configuration over the supersonic and hypersonic air- breathing portions of the trajectory. The focus and goal of Phase 1 is to demonstrate the integration and performance of the propulsion system flowpath with the vehicle aerodynamics over the air-breathing trajectory. This demonstrator vehicle will have dual mode ramjetkcramjets, which include the inlet, combustor, and nozzle with geometrically scaled aerodynamic surface outer mold lines (OML) defining the forebody, boundary layer diverter, wings, and tail. The primary objective of this study is to demon- strate propulsion system performance and operability including the ram to scram transition, as well as to validate vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion airframe integration. To minimize overall risk and develop ment cost the effort will incorporate proven materials, use existing turbomachinery in the propellant delivery systems, launch from an existing unmanned remote launch facility, and use basic vehicle recovery techniques to minimize control and landing requirements. A second phase would demonstrate propulsion performance across all critical portions of a space launch trajectory (lift off through transition to all-rocket) integrated with flight-like vehicle systems.

  8. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation for undersea vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelf, Michael A.

    2001-08-01

    Torpedoes and other Unmanned Undersea Vehicles (UUV) are employed by submarines and surface combatants, as well as aircraft, for undersea warfare. These vehicles are autonomous devices whose guidance systems rival the complexity of the most sophisticated air combat missiles. The tactical environment for undersea warfare is a difficult one in terms of target detection,k classification, and pursuit because of the physics of underwater sounds. Both hardware-in-the-loop and all-digital simulations have become vital tools in developing and evaluating undersea weapon and vehicle guidance performance in the undersea environment.

  9. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits.

    PubMed

    Michalek, Jeremy J; Chester, Mikhail; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Lave, Lester B

    2011-10-01

    We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO(2) emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions of battery and electricity production drop dramatically, the damage reduction potential of plug-in vehicles remains small compared to ownership cost. As such, to offer a socially efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles must be competitive with HEVs. Current subsidies intended to encourage sales of plug-in vehicles with large capacity battery packs exceed our externality estimates considerably, and taxes that optimally correct for externality damages would not close the gap in ownership cost. In contrast, HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs reduce externality damages at low (or no) additional cost over their lifetime. Although large battery packs allow vehicles to travel longer distances using electricity instead of gasoline, large packs are more expensive, heavier, and more emissions intensive to produce, with lower utilization factors, greater charging infrastructure requirements, and life-cycle implications that are more sensitive to uncertain, time-sensitive, and location-specific factors. To reduce air emission and oil dependency impacts from passenger vehicles, strategies to promote adoption of HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs offer more social benefits per dollar spent. PMID:21949359

  10. Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits

    PubMed Central

    Michalek, Jeremy J.; Chester, Mikhail; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Lave, Lester B.

    2011-01-01

    We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO2 emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions of battery and electricity production drop dramatically, the damage reduction potential of plug-in vehicles remains small compared to ownership cost. As such, to offer a socially efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles must be competitive with HEVs. Current subsidies intended to encourage sales of plug-in vehicles with large capacity battery packs exceed our externality estimates considerably, and taxes that optimally correct for externality damages would not close the gap in ownership cost. In contrast, HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs reduce externality damages at low (or no) additional cost over their lifetime. Although large battery packs allow vehicles to travel longer distances using electricity instead of gasoline, large packs are more expensive, heavier, and more emissions intensive to produce, with lower utilization factors, greater charging infrastructure requirements, and life-cycle implications that are more sensitive to uncertain, time-sensitive, and location-specific factors. To reduce air emission and oil dependency impacts from passenger vehicles, strategies to promote adoption of HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs offer more social benefits per dollar spent. PMID:21949359

  11. DETAIL OF DOORWAY INTO COMBAT INTELLIGENCE ROOM. view TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF DOORWAY INTO COMBAT INTELLIGENCE ROOM. view TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  12. An Expert Fault Diagnosis System for Vehicle Air Conditioning Product Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Khalil, S. N.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G. W. M.

    2015-09-01

    The paper describes the development of the vehicle air-conditioning fault diagnosis system in automotive industries with expert system shell. The main aim of the research is to diagnose the problem of new vehicle air-conditioning system development process and select the most suitable solution to the problems. In the vehicle air-conditioning manufacturing industry, process can be very costly where an expert and experience personnel needed in certain circumstances. The expert of in the industry will retire or resign from time to time. When the expert is absent, their experience and knowledge is difficult to retrieve or lost forever. Expert system is a convenient method to replace expert. By replacing the expert with expert system, the accuracy of the processes will be increased compared to the conventional way. Therefore, the quality of product services that are produced will be finer and better. The inputs for the fault diagnosis are based on design data and experience of the engineer.

  13. Air-Powered Projectile Launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, T.; Bjorklund, R. A.; Elliott, D. G.; Jones, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    Air-powered launcher fires plastic projectiles without using explosive propellants. Does not generate high temperatures. Launcher developed for combat training for U.S. Army. With reservoir pressurized, air launcher ready to fire. When pilot valve opened, sleeve (main valve) moves to rear. Projectile rapidly propelled through barrel, pushed by air from reservoir. Potential applications in seismic measurements, avalanche control, and testing impact resistance of windshields on vehicles.

  14. Combating illiteracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A science course for nonscientists at Columbia University's Columbia College that was created in 1981 as an experiment to combat “the national crisis of scientific illiteracy” has received major new foundation support and has achieved a permanent place in the college's curriculum.The course, The Theory and Practice of Science, has received a $240,000 grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, according to Robert E. Pollack, college dean, professor of biological sciences, and originator of the course. The grant will be used for the preparation and publication in 1985 of a textbook, titled The Scientific Experience, which will permit the course to be taught at other schools around the country.

  15. Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization of Hypersonic Air-Breathing Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peng; Tang, Zhili; Sheng, Jianda

    2016-06-01

    A 2D hypersonic vehicle shape with an idealized scramjet is designed at a cruise regime: Mach number (Ma) = 8.0, Angle of attack (AOA) = 0 deg and altitude (H) = 30kms. Then a multi-objective design optimization of the 2D vehicle is carried out by using a Pareto Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). In the optimization process, the flow around the air-breathing vehicle is simulated by inviscid Euler equations using FLUENT software and the combustion in the combustor is modeled by a methodology based on the well known combination effects of area-varying pipe flow and heat transfer pipe flow. Optimization results reveal tradeoffs among total pressure recovery coefficient of forebody, lift to drag ratio of vehicle, specific impulse of scramjet engine and the maximum temperature on the surface of vehicle.

  16. Distributed pheromone-based swarming control of unmanned air and ground vehicles for RSTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, John A.; Mathews, Robert S.; Yinger, Andrew; Robinson, Joshua S.; Moody, John; Riddle, Stephanie

    2008-04-01

    The use of unmanned vehicles in Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA) applications has received considerable attention recently. Cooperating land and air vehicles can support multiple sensor modalities providing pervasive and ubiquitous broad area sensor coverage. However coordination of multiple air and land vehicles serving different mission objectives in a dynamic and complex environment is a challenging problem. Swarm intelligence algorithms, inspired by the mechanisms used in natural systems to coordinate the activities of many entities provide a promising alternative to traditional command and control approaches. This paper describes recent advances in a fully distributed digital pheromone algorithm that has demonstrated its effectiveness in managing the complexity of swarming unmanned systems. The results of a recent demonstration at NASA's Wallops Island of multiple Aerosonde Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) and Pioneer Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) cooperating in a coordinated RSTA application are discussed. The vehicles were autonomously controlled by the onboard digital pheromone responding to the needs of the automatic target recognition algorithms. UAVs and UGVs controlled by the same pheromone algorithm self-organized to perform total area surveillance, automatic target detection, sensor cueing, and automatic target recognition with no central processing or control and minimal operator input. Complete autonomy adds several safety and fault tolerance requirements which were integrated into the basic pheromone framework. The adaptive algorithms demonstrated the ability to handle some unplanned hardware failures during the demonstration without any human intervention. The paper describes lessons learned and the next steps for this promising technology.

  17. Comparisons of rocket and air-breathing vehicle concepts for earth-to-orbit transportarion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorrington, G. E.

    1990-07-01

    To illustrate that there is ample room for improvement in earth-to-orbit reliability, transportation cost and environmental cleanliness, some future European launch vehicle concepts are presented. Varying assumptions of technology level and operational strategy offer a wide range of system/subsystem options for consideration. Specific examples cited include: the advanced reusable single-stage VTOL all-rocket vehicles, the all-liquid hydrogen-oxygen variants of Ariane 5, and the advanced one-and-a-half-stage horizontal take-off air-breathing vehicles.

  18. Experimental investigation of a quad-rotor biplane micro air vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanowicz, Christopher Michael

    Micro air vehicles are expected to perform demanding missions requiring efficient operation in both hover and forward flight. This thesis discusses the development of a hybrid air vehicle which seamlessly combines both flight capabilities: hover and high-speed forward flight. It is the quad-rotor biplane, which weighs 240 grams and consists of four propellers with wings arranged in a biplane configuration. The performance of the vehicle system was investigated in conditions representative of flight through a series of wind tunnel experiments. These studies provided an understanding of propeller-wing interaction effects and system trim analysis. This showed that the maximum speed of 11 m/s and a cruise speed of 4 m/s were achievable and that the cruise power is approximately one-third of the hover power. Free flight testing of the vehicle successfully highlighted its ability to achieve equilibrium transition flight. Key design parameters were experimentally investigated to understand their effect on overall performance. It was found that a trade-off between efficiency and compactness affects the final choice of the design. Design improvements have allowed for decreases in vehicle weight and ground footprint, while increasing structural soundness. Numerous vehicle designs, models, and flight tests have proven system scalability as well as versatility, including an upscaled model to be utilized in an extensive commercial package delivery system. Overall, the quad-rotor biplane is proven to be an efficient and effective multi-role vehicle.

  19. Indoor-outdoor air quality relationships in vehicle: effect of driving environment and ventilation modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Andy T.; Chung, Michael W.

    Nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide concentration were measured inside and outside of a light-goods-vehicle at different locations and driving conditions for a 6-month period. To investigate the exposure of the vehicle passenger to the specified outdoor pollutant, the indoor-outdoor air quality (IO) relationships under various driving conditions, namely traffic density, ventilation modes and type of roadway were studied. Four main types of driving environments were selected: highway, countryside, urban street and tunnel. The vehicle was driven under the three main types of ventilation conditions: air-conditioning with air-recirculation, air-conditioning with fresh air intake and natural ventilation. It is found that the IO ratio is not specific only to the mode of ventilation but also depends on the driving environment. The IO value can vary drastically even using the same ventilation mode when the vehicle is travelling in a different environment. It is found that using fresh-air ventilation mode, the IO can change from approximately 0.5-3 as it commutes from a highway to the countryside. The results also indicate that indoor NO level increased as the traffic density increases. The fluctuation of indoor NO level of naturally ventilated vehicle followed the variation of outdoor NO concentration with the IO value varying from 0.5 to 5. The results also show that even in an air-conditioned van, the indoor NO and CO concentration is significantly affected by that outdoor. It suggests the use of different ventilation mode when commuting in different environment.

  20. Configuration Studies of Personal Air Vehicles. Personal Air Vehicle and Flying Jeep Concepts: A Commentary on Promising Approaches or What Goes Around Comes Around (About Every Twenty Years)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David W.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/Langley Personal Air Vehicle (PAV) Exploration (PAVE) and the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) Dual Air/Road Transportation System (DARTS) projects were established to investigate the feasibility of creating vehicles which could replace, or at the very least augment, personal ground and air transportation schemes. This overall goal implies integrating several technology areas with practical everyday transportation requirements to design a class of vehicles which will achieve the following goals: (1) Vertical, Extremely Short, or Short Takeoff and Landing (VTOL, ESTOL, STOL) capability; (2) Operation at block speeds markedly faster than current combinations of land and air transportation, particularly in critical market areas; (3) Unit cost comparable to current luxury cars and small general aviation aircraft; (4) Excellent reliability; (5) Excellent safety; (6) Ability to integrate with existing land and air transportation systems. The conclusions of these configuration studies are summarized as follows: (1) Creation of the five assigned configurations prompted added explorations, some of which were dead-ends; (2) Some components could be common to all configurations such as avionics and dual-mode suspension schemes; (3) Single-Mode PAVs can be created by removing dual-mode-specific items; (4) Aviation history provided some intriguing starting points, as in what goes around comes around; (5) CTOL (Conventional Take-off and Landing) and STOL dual-mode PAVs look feasible with single-mode PAVs being simplifications of the dual-mode approach; (6) VTOL PAVs will require development; (7) More exotic collapsing mechanisms mechanisms need development; (8) As a teaching tool, PAVs are not yet a well-enough bounded design problem.

  1. 32 CFR 813.4 - Combat camera operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combat camera operations. 813.4 Section 813.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.4 Combat camera operations. (a) Air Force COMCAM forces document Air Force and air component activities....

  2. 32 CFR 813.4 - Combat camera operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Combat camera operations. 813.4 Section 813.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.4 Combat camera operations. (a) Air Force COMCAM forces document Air Force and air component activities....

  3. Propulsion integration of hypersonic air-breathing vehicles utilizing a top-down design methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Brad Kenneth

    In recent years, a focus of aerospace engineering design has been the development of advanced design methodologies and frameworks to account for increasingly complex and integrated vehicles. Techniques such as parametric modeling, global vehicle analyses, and interdisciplinary data sharing have been employed in an attempt to improve the design process. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new approach to integrated vehicle design known as the top-down design methodology. In the top-down design methodology, the main idea is to relate design changes on the vehicle system and sub-system level to a set of over-arching performance and customer requirements. Rather than focusing on the performance of an individual system, the system is analyzed in terms of the net effect it has on the overall vehicle and other vehicle systems. This detailed level of analysis can only be accomplished through the use of high fidelity computational tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The utility of the top-down design methodology is investigated through its application to the conceptual and preliminary design of a long-range hypersonic air-breathing vehicle for a hypothetical next generation hypersonic vehicle (NHRV) program. System-level design is demonstrated through the development of the nozzle section of the propulsion system. From this demonstration of the methodology, conclusions are made about the benefits, drawbacks, and cost of using the methodology.

  4. Affordable Flight Demonstration of the GTX Air-Breathing SSTO Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivanek, Thomas M.; Roche, Joseph M.; Riehl, John P.; Kosareo, Daniel N.

    2002-01-01

    The rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) powered single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle has the potential to significantly reduce the total cost per pound for orbital payload missions. To validate overall system performance, a flight demonstration must be performed. This paper presents an overview of the first phase of a flight demonstration program for the GTX SSTO vehicle concept. Phase 1 will validate the propulsion performance of the vehicle configuration over the supersonic and hypersonic airbreathing portions of the trajectory. The focus and goal of Phase 1 is to demonstrate the integration and performance of the propulsion system flowpath with the vehicle aerodynamics over the air-breathing trajectory. This demonstrator vehicle will have dual mode ramjet/scramjets, which include the inlet, combustor, and nozzle with geometrically scaled aerodynamic surface outer mold lines (OML) defining the forebody, boundary layer diverter, wings, and tail. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate propulsion system performance and operability including the ram to scram transition, as well as to validate vehicle aerodynamics and propulsion airframe integration. To minimize overall risk and development cost the effort will incorporate proven materials, use existing turbomachinery in the propellant delivery systems, launch from an existing unmanned remote launch facility, and use basic vehicle recovery techniques to minimize control and landing requirements. A second phase would demonstrate propulsion performance across all critical portions of a space launch trajectory (lift off through transition to all-rocket) integrated with flight-like vehicle systems.

  5. Vehicle height and posture control of the electronic air suspension system using the hybrid system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Yingfeng; Chen, Long; Liu, Yanling; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-03-01

    The electronic air suspension (EAS) system can improve ride comfort, fuel economy and handling safety of vehicles by adjusting vehicle height. This paper describes the development of a novel controller using the hybrid system approach to adjust the vehicle height (height control) and to regulate the roll and pitch angles of the vehicle body during the height adjustment process (posture control). The vehicle height adjustment system of EAS poses challenging hybrid control problems, since it features different discrete modes of operation, where each mode has an associated linear continuous-time dynamic. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to the modelling and controller design problem for the vehicle height adjustment system of EAS. The system model is described firstly in the hybrid system description language (HYSDEL) to obtain a mixed logical dynamical (MLD) hybrid model. For the resulting model, a hybrid model predictive controller is tuned to improve the vehicle height and posture tracking accuracy and to achieve the on-off statuses direct control of solenoid valves. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed approach are demonstrated by simulations and actual vehicle tests.

  6. Improving the aluminum-air battery system for use in electrical vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shaohua

    The objectives of this study include improvement of the efficiency of the aluminum/air battery system and demonstration of its ability for vehicle applications. The aluminum/air battery system can generate enough energy and power for driving ranges and acceleration similar to that of gasoline powered cars. Therefore has the potential to be a power source for electrical vehicles. Aluminum/air battery vehicle life cycle analysis was conducted and compared to that of lead/acid and nickel-metal hydride vehicles. Only the aluminum/air vehicles can be projected to have a travel range comparable to that of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICE). From this analysis, an aluminum/air vehicle is a promising candidate compared to ICE vehicles in terms of travel range, purchase price, fuel cost, and life cycle cost. We have chosen two grades of Al alloys (Al alloy 1350, 99.5% and Al alloy 1199, 99.99%) in our study. Only Al 1199 was studied extensively using Na 2SnO3 as an electrolyte additive. We then varied concentration and temperature, and determined the effects on the parasitic (corrosion) current density and open circuit potential. We also determined cell performance and selectivity curves. To optimize the performance of the cell based on our experiments, the recommended operating conditions are: 3--4 N NaOH, about 55°C, and a current density of 150--300 mA/cm2. We have modeled the cell performance using the equations we developed. The model prediction of cell performance shows good agreement with experimental data. For better cell performance, our model studies suggest use of higher electrolyte flow rate, smaller cell gap, higher conductivity and lower parasitic current density. We have analyzed the secondary current density distributions in a two plane, parallel Al/air cell and a wedge-type Al/air cell. The activity of the cathode has a large effect on the local current density. With increases in the cell gap, the local current density increases, but the increase is

  7. Impact of emerging technologies on future combat aircraft agility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Luat T.; Gilert, William P.

    1990-01-01

    The foreseeable character of future within-visual-range air combat entails a degree of agility which calls for the integration of high-alpha aerodynamics, thrust vectoring, intimate pilot/vehicle interfaces, and advanced weapons/avionics suites, in prospective configurations. The primary technology-development programs currently contributing to these goals are presently discussed; they encompass the F-15 Short Takeoff and Landing/Maneuver Technology Demonstrator Program, the Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Program, the High Angle-of-Attack Technology Program, and the X-29 Technology Demonstrator Program.

  8. Autonomous Soaring for Improved Endurance of a Small Uninhabited Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    A relatively unexplored method to improve the endurance of an autonomous aircraft is to use buoyant plumes of air found in the lower atmosphere called thermals or updrafts. Glider pilots and birds commonly use updrafts to improve range, endurance, or cross-country speed. This report presents a quantitative analysis of a small electric-powered uninhabited air vehicle using updrafts to extend its endurance over a target location. A three-degree-of-freedom simulation of the uninhabited air vehicle was used to determine the yearly effect of updrafts on performance. Surface radiation and rawinsonde balloon measurements taken at Desert Rock, Nevada, were used to determine updraft size, strength, spacing, shape, and maximum height for the simulation. A fixed-width spiral path was used to search for updrafts at the same time as maintaining line-of-sight to the surface target position. Power was used only when the aircraft was flying at the lower-altitude limit in search of updrafts. Results show that an uninhabited air vehicle with a nominal endurance of 2 hours can fly a maximum of 14 hours using updrafts during the summer and a maximum of 8 hours during the winter. The performance benefit and the chance of finding updrafts both depend on what time of day the uninhabited air vehicle is launched. Good endurance and probability of finding updrafts during the year was obtained when the uninhabited air vehicle was launched 30 percent into the daylight hours after sunrise each day. Yearly average endurance was found to be 8.6 hours with these launch times.

  9. Design and analysis of aluminum/air battery system for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shaohua; Knickle, Harold

    Aluminum (Al)/air batteries have the potential to be used to produce power to operate cars and other vehicles. These batteries might be important on a long-term interim basis as the world passes through the transition from gasoline cars to hydrogen fuel cell cars. The Al/air battery system can generate enough energy and power for driving ranges and acceleration similar to gasoline powered cars. From our design analysis, it can be seen that the cost of aluminum as an anode can be as low as US 1.1/kg as long as the reaction product is recycled. The total fuel efficiency during the cycle process in Al/air electric vehicles (EVs) can be 15% (present stage) or 20% (projected) comparable to that of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEs) (13%). The design battery energy density is 1300 Wh/kg (present) or 2000 Wh/kg (projected). The cost of battery system chosen to evaluate is US 30/kW (present) or US$ 29/kW (projected). Al/air EVs life-cycle analysis was conducted and compared to lead/acid and nickel metal hydride (NiMH) EVs. Only the Al/air EVs can be projected to have a travel range comparable to ICEs. From this analysis, Al/air EVs are the most promising candidates compared to ICEs in terms of travel range, purchase price, fuel cost, and life-cycle cost.

  10. Development of Micro Air Reconnaissance Vehicle as a Test Bed for Advanced Sensors and Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Fox, Robert L.; Kuhn, Theodore R.; Ingham, John; Logan, Michael J.; Barnes, Kevin N.; Guenther, Benjamin F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Micro/Mini Air Reconnaissance Vehicle for advanced sensors and electronics at NASA Langley Research Center over the last year. This vehicle is expected to have a total weight of less than four pounds, a design velocity of 40 mph, an endurance of 15-20 minutes, and a maximum range of 5km. The vehicle has wings that are simple to detach yet retain the correct alignment. The upper fuselage surface has a quick release hatch used to access the interior and also to mount the varying propulsion systems. The sensor suite developed for this vehicle consists of a Pitot-static measurement system for determining air speed, an absolute pressure measurement for determining altitude, magnetic direction measurement, and three orthogonal gyros to determine body angular rates. Swarming GPS-guidance and in-flight maneuvering is discussed, as well as design and installation of some other advance sensors like MEMS microphones, infrared cameras, GPS, humidity sensors, and an ultrasonic sonar sensor. Also low cost, small size, high performance control and navigation system for the Micro Air Vehicle is discussed. At the end, laboratory characterization of different sensors, motors, propellers, and batteries will be discussed.

  11. Design of an air sampler for a small unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    Peräjärvi, K; Lehtinen, J; Pöllänen, R; Toivonen, H

    2008-01-01

    In the aftermath of a nuclear accident or malevolent act, it is of paramount importance to have the capability to monitor airborne radioactive substances by collecting air samples. For potentially dangerous missions, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK) has developed an air sampler to be used on a small unmanned aerial vehicle. When a Petrianov or Fluoropore filter is used in the sampler and the air velocity is 71 km h(-1), the air flow rate through the filter is 0.73 m(3) h(-1) or 0.23 m(3) h(-1), respectively. The present article introduces the developed air sampler using fluid dynamic simulations and wind tunnel data. The operation of the system was validated by collecting airborne radioactive aerosols from air. PMID:19091809

  12. CFD based aerodynamic modeling to study flight dynamics of a flapping wing micro air vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rege, Alok Ashok

    The demand for small unmanned air vehicles, commonly termed micro air vehicles or MAV's, is rapidly increasing. Driven by applications ranging from civil search-and-rescue missions to military surveillance missions, there is a rising level of interest and investment in better vehicle designs, and miniaturized components are enabling many rapid advances. The need to better understand fundamental aspects of flight for small vehicles has spawned a surge in high quality research in the area of micro air vehicles. These aircraft have a set of constraints which are, in many ways, considerably different from that of traditional aircraft and are often best addressed by a multidisciplinary approach. Fast-response non-linear controls, nano-structures, integrated propulsion and lift mechanisms, highly flexible structures, and low Reynolds aerodynamics are just a few of the important considerations which may be combined in the execution of MAV research. The main objective of this thesis is to derive a consistent nonlinear dynamic model to study the flight dynamics of micro air vehicles with a reasonably accurate representation of aerodynamic forces and moments. The research is divided into two sections. In the first section, derivation of the nonlinear dynamics of flapping wing micro air vehicles is presented. The flapping wing micro air vehicle (MAV) used in this research is modeled as a system of three rigid bodies: a body and two wings. The design is based on an insect called Drosophila Melanogaster, commonly known as fruit-fly. The mass and inertial effects of the wing on the body are neglected for the present work. The nonlinear dynamics is simulated with the aerodynamic data published in the open literature. The flapping frequency is used as the control input. Simulations are run for different cases of wing positions and the chosen parameters are studied for boundedness. Results show a qualitative inconsistency in boundedness for some cases, and demand a better

  13. An Analysis of Skill Requirements for Operators of Amphibious Air Cushion Vehicles (ACVs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, A. James; And Others

    This report describes the skills required in the operation of an amphibious air cushion vehicle (ACV) in Army tactical and logistic missions. The research involved analyzing ACV characteristics, operating requirements, environmental effects, and results of a simulation experiment. The analysis indicates that ACV operation is complicated by an…

  14. 9 CFR 3.37 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.37 Section 3.37 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  15. 9 CFR 3.62 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.62 Section 3.62 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of...

  16. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation...

  17. CRITERIA AND AIR TOXIC EMISSIONS FROM IN-USE, LOW EMISSION VEHICLES (LEVS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented a program to identify tailpipe emissions of criteria and air toxic contaminants from in-use, light-duty Low Emission Vehicles (LEVs). EPA recruited twenty-five LEVs in 2002, and measured emissions on a chassis dynamometer usin...

  18. Rehabilitation of the Rocket Vehicle Integration Test Stand at Edwards Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Daniel S.; Ray, Ronald J.; Phillips, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Since initial use in 1958 for the X-15 rocket-powered research airplane, the Rocket Engine Test Facility has proven essential for testing and servicing rocket-powered vehicles at Edwards Air Force Base. For almost two decades, several successful flight-test programs utilized the capability of this facility. The Department of Defense has recently demonstrated a renewed interest in propulsion technology development with the establishment of the National Aerospace Initiative. More recently, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is undergoing a transformation to realign the organization, focusing on the Vision for Space Exploration. These initiatives provide a clear indication that a very capable ground-test stand at Edwards Air Force Base will be beneficial to support the testing of future access-to-space vehicles. To meet the demand of full integration testing of rocket-powered vehicles, the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, the Air Force Flight Test Center, and the Air Force Research Laboratory have combined their resources in an effort to restore and upgrade the original X-15 Rocket Engine Test Facility to become the new Rocket Vehicle Integration Test Stand. This report describes the history of the X-15 Rocket Engine Test Facility, discusses the current status of the facility, and summarizes recent efforts to rehabilitate the facility to support potential access-to-space flight-test programs. A summary of the capabilities of the facility is presented and other important issues are discussed.

  19. Challenges for micro-scale flapping-wing micro air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Robert J.; Finio, Benjamin; Karpelson, Michael; Pérez-Arancibia, Nestor O.; Sreetharan, Pratheev; Whitney, John P.

    2012-06-01

    The challenges for successful flight of insect-scale micro air vehicles encompass basic questions of fabrication, design, propulsion, actuation, control, and power - topics that have in general been answered for larger aircraft. When developing a flying robot on the scale of flies and bees, all hardware must be developed from scratch as there are no "off-the-shelf" sensors, actuators, or microcontrollers that can satisfy the extreme mass and power limitations imposed by such vehicles. Similar challenges exist for fabrication and assembly of the structural and aeromechanical components of insect-scale micro air vehicles that neither macro-scale techniques nor MEMS can adequately solve. With these challenges in mind, this paper presents progress in the essential technologies for micro-scale flapping-wing robots.

  20. Feasibility report: Operation of light air cushion vehicle at McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibbern, J. S.

    1987-02-01

    This report explores the viability of the use of an air cushion vehicle (ACV) or hovercraft to perform logistic and scientific support in the area of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. After a review of personnel assets and facilities at McMurdo Station to support the ACV plus a reconnaissance of the five major routes selected, it appears that an air cushion vehicle in the 1 to 1 1/2 ton payload class would be of significant value to support operations. It would reduce transit times for surface vehicle traverses on the routes selected and reduce requirements for expenditure of helicopter flight time in others. Of major significance is the ability to handle passenger/shuttle requirements between the Scott Base transition and Williams Field Skiway. Use of the ACV for high frequency passenger operations would help preserve the snow road for cargo operations during periods of road deterioration.

  1. Ancillary benefits for climate change mitigation and air pollution control in the world's motor vehicle fleets.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael P

    2008-01-01

    The global motor vehicle population has grown very rapidly in the past half century and is expected to continue to grow rapidly for the next several decades, especially in developing countries. As a result, vehicles are a major source of urban air pollution in many cities and are the fastest-growing source of greenhouse emissions. Strategies exist to reduce both problems, but many countries emphasize one over the other rather than pursuing strategies that reduce both concerns. Using diesel as an example, this article illustrates that it is now possible not only to reduce carbon dioxide with the increased use of diesel vehicles but also to improve urban air pollution. Doing so requires both stringent emissions regulations and clean fuels. Several principles contained in the Bellagio Memorandum are highlighted as guides for policy makers. PMID:18173380

  2. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster decelerator subsystem - Air drop test vehicle/B-52 design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runkle, R. E.; Drobnik, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    The air drop development test program for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Recovery System required the design of a large drop test vehicle that would meet all the stringent requirements placed on it by structural loads, safety considerations, flight recovery system interfaces, and sequence. The drop test vehicle had to have the capability to test the drogue and the three main parachutes both separately and in the total flight deployment sequence and still be low-cost to fit in a low-budget development program. The design to test large ribbon parachutes to loads of 300,000 pounds required the detailed investigation and integration of several parameters such as carrier aircraft mechanical interface, drop test vehicle ground transportability, impact point ground penetration, salvageability, drop test vehicle intelligence, flight design hardware interfaces, and packaging fidelity.

  3. Zinc/air fuel cell for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Cherepy, N. J.; Krueger, R.; Cooper, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    We are conducting tests of an advanced zinc/air fuel cell design to determine effectiveness in various commercial applications. Our 322-cm2 cell uses gravity-fed zinc pellets as the anode, 12 M KOH electrolyte, and an air cathode catalyzed by a cobalt-porphyrin complex on carbon black. A single 322 cm2 cell runs at a standard operating power of 38 W (1200 W/m2) at 39 A (1245 A/m2) and 0.96 V with a power density of 2400 W/m2 at 0.67 V. With improved current collection hardware, already demonstrated in the laboratory, power generation increases to -3600 W/m2 at 1V. We conducted a 50-hour test in which a cell generated 587 Ah and 569 Wh. The power that may be generated increases by a factor of 2.5 between T = 28 °C and 52 °C. Electrolyte capacity, without stabilization additives, was measured at 147 Ah/L

  4. Geometry Modeling and Adaptive Control of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vick, Tyler Joseph

    Air-breathing hypersonic vehicles have the potential to provide global reach and affordable access to space. Recent technological advancements have made scramjet-powered flight achievable, as evidenced by the successes of the X-43A and X-51A flight test programs over the last decade. Air-breathing hypersonic vehicles present unique modeling and control challenges in large part due to the fact that scramjet propulsion systems are highly integrated into the airframe, resulting in strongly coupled and often unstable dynamics. Additionally, the extreme flight conditions and inability to test fully integrated vehicle systems larger than X-51 before flight leads to inherent uncertainty in hypersonic flight. This thesis presents a means to design vehicle geometries, simulate vehicle dynamics, and develop and analyze control systems for hypersonic vehicles. First, a software tool for generating three-dimensional watertight vehicle surface meshes from simple design parameters is developed. These surface meshes are compatible with existing vehicle analysis tools, with which databases of aerodynamic and propulsive forces and moments can be constructed. A six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamics simulation model which incorporates this data is presented. Inner-loop longitudinal and lateral control systems are designed and analyzed utilizing the simulation model. The first is an output feedback proportional-integral linear controller designed using linear quadratic regulator techniques. The second is a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) which augments this baseline linear controller with an adaptive element. The performance and robustness of each controller are analyzed through simulated time responses to angle-of-attack and bank angle commands, while various uncertainties are introduced. The MRAC architecture enables the controller to adapt in a nonlinear fashion to deviations from the desired response, allowing for improved tracking performance, stability, and

  5. Drilling and thermal gradient measurements at US Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California. Final report, October 1, 1983-March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, D.T.; Flynn, T.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Seven temperature gradient holes were drilled at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California, as part of a cooperative research and development program, jointly funded by the Navy and Department of Energy. The purpose of this program was to assess geothermal resources at selected Department of Defense installations. Drill site selection was based on geophysical anomalies delineated by combined gravity, ground magnetic and aeromagnetic surveys. Temperature gradients ranged from 1.3/sup 0/C/100 m (1/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in hole No. 1 to 15.3/sup 0/C/100 m (8.3/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in temperature gradient hole No. 6. Large, positive geothermal gradients in temperature gradient holes 5 and 6, combined with respective bottom hole temperatures of 51.6/sup 0/C (125/sup 0/F) and 67/sup 0/C (153/sup 0/F), indicate that an extensive, moderate-temperature geothermal resource is located on the MCAGCC. The geothermal reservoir appears to be situated in old, unconsolidated alluvial material and is structurally bounded on the east by the Mesquite Lake fault and on the west by the Surprise Spring fault. If measured temperature gradients continue to increase at the observed rate, temperatures in excess of 80/sup 0/C (178/sup 0/F) can be expected at a depth of 2000 feet.

  6. Design analysis of an aluminum-air battery for vehicle operations. Transportation systems research

    SciTech Connect

    Behrin, E.; Wood, R.L.; Salisbury, J.D.; Whisler, D.J.; Hudson, C.L.

    1983-03-18

    The objective of the study reported was to perform a detailed configuration analysis of an aluminum-air battery, evaluate various automobile propulsion systems utilizing the Al-air battery, and estimate the performance and cost of vehicles incorporating these propulsion systems. A preliminary engineering design is performed. A physical model and a cell-performance model of a conceptual mass-produced Al-air battery were constructed and work together to characterize the battery system. The physical battery model is based on a specific battery design concept and defines the mass and volume of a complete Al-air battery system. The cell-performance model simulates the electrical and electrochemical characteristics of the battery. The physical model and two versions of the cell-performance model - near-term and optimistic - were used in a vehicle-conversion analysis to evaluate three automotive propulsion systems - Al-air battery only, Al-air battery/secondary battery, and Al-air battery/flywheel. (LEW)

  7. 32 CFR 813.6 - Planning and requesting combat documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Planning and requesting combat documentation... SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.6 Planning and requesting combat documentation. (a) Planned combat documentation. Air components identify documentation needs as early...

  8. 32 CFR 813.6 - Planning and requesting combat documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Planning and requesting combat documentation... SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.6 Planning and requesting combat documentation. (a) Planned combat documentation. Air components identify documentation needs as early...

  9. Concentrations of air toxics in motor vehicle-dominated environments.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Eric M; Campbell, David E; Zielinska, Barbara; Arnott, William P; Chow, Judith C

    2011-02-01

    We at the Desert Research Institute (DRI*) measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including several mobile-source air toxics (MSATs), particulate matter with a mass mean aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 pm (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and carbon monoxide (CO) on highways in Los Angeles County during summer and fall 2004, to characterize the diurnal and seasonal variations in measured concentrations related to volume and mix of traffic. Concentrations of on-road pollutants were then compared to corresponding measurements at fixed monitoring sites. The on-road concentrations of CO and MSATs were higher in the morning under stable atmospheric conditions and during periods of higher traffic volumes. In contrast, BC concentrations, measured as particulate light absorption, were higher on truck routes during the midday sampling periods despite more unstable atmospheric conditions. Compared to the measurements at the three near-road sites, the 1-hour averages of on-road BC concentrations were as much as an order of magnitude higher. The peak 1-minute average concentrations were two orders of magnitude higher for BC and were between two and six times higher for PM2.5 mass. The on-road concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) during the summer were 3.5 +/- 0.7 and 1.2 +/- 0.6 times higher during morning and afternoon commuting periods, respectively, compared to annual average 24-hour concentrations measured at air toxic monitoring network sites. These ratios were higher during the fall, with smaller diurnal differences (4.8 +/- 0.7 and 3.9 +/- 0.6 for morning and afternoon commuting periods, respectively). Ratios similar to those for BTEX were obtained for 1,3-butadiene (BD) and styrene. On-road concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were up to two times higher than at air toxics monitoring sites, with fall ratios slightly higher than summer ratios. Chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor

  10. Effect of vehicle type on the performance of second generation air bags for child occupants.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Durbin, Dennis R; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K

    2003-01-01

    Passenger air bags experienced considerable design modification in the late 1990s, principally to mitigate risks to child passengers. This study utilized Data from the Partners for Child Passenger Safety study, a large-scale child-focused crash surveillance system, to examine the effect of vehicle type on the differential performance of first and second generation air bags on injuries to restrained children in frontal impact crashes. Our results show that the benefit of second-generation air bags was seen in passenger cars - those children exposed to second-generation air bags were half as likely to sustain a serious injury - and minivans. However, in SUVs the data suggest no reduction in injury risk with the new designs. This field data provides crucial real-world experience to the automotive industry as they work towards the next generation of air bag designs. PMID:12941218

  11. Performance Validation Approach for the GTX Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J.; Roche, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of the GTX effort is to determine whether or not air-breathing propulsion can enable a launch vehicle to achieve orbit in a single stage. Structural weight, vehicle aerodynamics, and propulsion performance must be accurately known over the entire flight trajectory in order to make a credible assessment. Structural, aerodynamic, and propulsion parameters are strongly interdependent, which necessitates a system approach to design, evaluation, and optimization of a single-stage-to-orbit concept. The GTX reference vehicle serves this purpose, by allowing design, development, and validation of components and subsystems in a system context. The reference vehicle configuration (including propulsion) was carefully chosen so as to provide high potential for structural and volumetric efficiency, and to allow the high specific impulse of air-breathing propulsion cycles to be exploited. Minor evolution of the configuration has occurred as analytical and experimental results have become available. With this development process comes increasing validation of the weight and performance levels used in system performance determination. This paper presents an overview of the GTX reference vehicle and the approach to its performance validation. Subscale test rigs and numerical studies used to develop and validate component performance levels and unit structural weights are outlined. The sensitivity of the equivalent, effective specific impulse to key propulsion component efficiencies is presented. The role of flight demonstration in development and validation is discussed.

  12. Impact of aeroelasticity on propulsion and longitudinal flight dynamics of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Mcminn, John D.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Wooley, Christine L.

    1993-01-01

    Many air-breathing hypersonic aerospacecraft design concepts incorporate an elongated fuselage forebody acting as the aerodynamic compression surface for a hypersonic combustion module, or scram jet. This highly integrated design approach creates the potential for an unprecedented form of aero-propulsive-elastic interaction in which deflections of the vehicle fuselage give rise to propulsion transients, producing force and moment variations that may adversely impact the rigid body flight dynamics and/or further excite the fuselage bending modes. To investigate the potential for such interactions, a math model was developed which included the longitudinal flight dynamics, propulsion system, and first seven elastic modes of a hypersonic air-breathing vehicle. Perturbation time histories from a simulation incorporating this math model are presented that quantify the propulsive force and moment variations resulting from aeroelastic vehicle deflections. Root locus plots are presented to illustrate the effect of feeding the propulsive perturbations back into the aeroelastic model. A concluding section summarizes the implications of the observed effects for highly integrated hypersonic air-breathing vehicle concepts.

  13. Concentrations of vehicle-related air pollutants in an urban parking garage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung R; Dominici, Francesca; Buckley, Timothy J

    2007-11-01

    There is growing evidence that traffic-related air pollution poses a public health threat, yet the dynamics of human exposure are not well understood. The urban parking garage is a microenvironment that is of concern but has not been characterized. Using time-resolved measurement methods, we evaluated air toxics levels within an urban parking garage and assessed the influence of vehicle activity and type on their levels. Carbon monoxide (CO) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH) were measured with direct-reading instruments. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in 30 min intervals using a sorbent tube loaded sequential sampler. Vehicle volume and type were evaluated by video recording. Sampling was conducted from June 24 to July 17, 2002. We observed garage traffic median volumes of 71 counts/h on weekdays and 6 counts/h on weekends. The 12-fold reduction in traffic volume from weekday to weekend corresponded with a decrease in median air pollution that varied from a minimum 2- (CO) to a maximum 7 (pPAH)-fold. The actual 30-min median weekday and weekend values were: CO--2.6/1.2 ppm; pPAH--19/2.6 ng/m(3); 1,3-butadiene-0.5/0.2 microg/m(3), MTBE-7.4/0.4 microg/m(3); and benzene-2.7/0.3 microg/m(3). The influence of traffic was quantified using longitudinal models. The pollutant coefficients provide an indication of the average air pollution vehicle source contribution and ranged from 0.31 (CO) to 1.08 (pPAH) percent increase/vehicle count. For some pollutants, a slightly higher (0.5-0.6%) coefficient was observed for light-trucks relative to cars. This study has public health relevance in providing a unique assessment of air pollution levels and source contribution for the urban parking garage. PMID:17716646

  14. Determining air quality and greenhouse gas impacts of hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell vehicles.

    PubMed

    Stephens-Romero, Shane; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jacob; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2009-12-01

    Adoption of hydrogen infrastructure and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) to replace gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles has been proposed as a strategy to reduce criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector and transition to fuel independence. However, it is uncertain (1) to what degree the reduction in criteria pollutants will impact urban air quality, and (2) how the reductions in pollutant emissions and concomitant urban air quality impacts compare to ultralow emission gasoline-powered vehicles projected for a future year (e.g., 2060). To address these questions, the present study introduces a "spatially and temporally resolved energy and environment tool" (STREET) to characterize the pollutant and GHG emissions associated with a comprehensive hydrogen supply infrastructure and HFCVs at a high level of geographic and temporal resolution. To demonstrate the utility of STREET, two spatially and temporally resolved scenarios for hydrogen infrastructure are evaluated in a prototypical urban airshed (the South Coast Air Basin of California) using geographic information systems (GIS) data. The well-to-wheels (WTW) GHG emissions are quantified and the air quality is established using a detailed atmospheric chemistry and transport model followed by a comparison to a future gasoline scenario comprised of advanced ICE vehicles. One hydrogen scenario includes more renewable primary energy sources for hydrogen generation and the other includes more fossil fuel sources. The two scenarios encompass a variety of hydrogen generation, distribution, and fueling strategies. GHG emissions reductions range from 61 to 68% for both hydrogen scenarios in parallel with substantial improvements in urban air quality (e.g., reductions of 10 ppb in peak 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 mug/m(3) in 24-h-averaged particulate matter concentrations, particularly in regions of the airshed where concentrations are highest for the gasoline scenario

  15. A formulation and analysis of combat games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, M.; Ardema, M. D.; Rajan, N.

    1985-01-01

    Combat is formulated as a dynamical encounter between two opponents, each of whom has offensive capabilities and objectives. With each opponent is associated a target in the event space in which he endeavors to terminate the combat, thereby winning. If the combat terminates in both target sets simultaneously or in neither, a joint capture or a draw, respectively, is said to occur. Resolution of the encounter is formulated as a combat game; namely, as a pair of competing event-constrained differential games. If exactly one of the players can win, the optimal strategies are determined from a resulting constrained zero-sum differential game. Otherwise the optimal strategies are computed from a resulting non-zero-sum game. Since optimal combat strategies frequencies may not exist, approximate of delta-combat games are also formulated leading to approximate or delta-optimal strategies. To illustrate combat games, an example, called the turret game, is considered. This game may be thought of as a highly simplified model of air combat, yet it is sufficiently complex to exhibit a rich variety of combat behavior, much of which is not found in pursuit-evasion games.

  16. Cleaning the air and improving health with hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, M.Z.; Colella, W.G.; Golden, D.M.

    2005-06-24

    Converting all U.S. onroad vehicles to hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles (HFCVs) may improve air quality, health, and climate significantly, whether the hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of natural gas, wind electrolysis, or coal gasification. Most benefits would result from eliminating current vehicle exhaust. Wind and natural gas HFCVs offer the greatest potential health benefits and could save 3700 to 6400 U.S. lives annually. Wind HFCVs should benefit climate most. An all-HFCV fleet would hardly affect tropospheric water vapor concentrations. Conversion to coal HFCVs may improve health but would damage climate more than fossil/electric hybrids. The real cost of hydrogen from wind electrolysis may be below that of U.S. gasoline.

  17. Cleaning the Air and Improving Health with Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.; Colella, W. G.; Golden, D. M.

    2005-06-01

    Converting all U.S. onroad vehicles to hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles (HFCVs) may improve air quality, health, and climate significantly, whether the hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of natural gas, wind electrolysis, or coal gasification. Most benefits would result from eliminating current vehicle exhaust. Wind and natural gas HFCVs offer the greatest potential health benefits and could save 3700 to 6400 U.S. lives annually. Wind HFCVs should benefit climate most. An all-HFCV fleet would hardly affect tropospheric water vapor concentrations. Conversion to coal HFCVs may improve health but would damage climate more than fossil/electric hybrids. The real cost of hydrogen from wind electrolysis may be below that of U.S. gasoline.

  18. The Digital Twin Paradigm for Future NASA and U.S. Air Force Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Stargel, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    Future generations of NASA and U.S. Air Force vehicles will require lighter mass while being subjected to higher loads and more extreme service conditions over longer time periods than the present generation. Current approaches for certification, fleet management and sustainment are largely based on statistical distributions of material properties, heuristic design philosophies, physical testing and assumed similitude between testing and operational conditions and will likely be unable to address these extreme requirements. To address the shortcomings of conventional approaches, a fundamental paradigm shift is needed. This paradigm shift, the Digital Twin, integrates ultra-high fidelity simulation with the vehicle s on-board integrated vehicle health management system, maintenance history and all available historical and fleet data to mirror the life of its flying twin and enable unprecedented levels of safety and reliability.

  19. Cleaning the air and improving health with hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, M Z; Colella, W G; Golden, D M

    2005-06-24

    Converting all U.S. onroad vehicles to hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles (HFCVs) may improve air quality, health, and climate significantly, whether the hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of natural gas, wind electrolysis, or coal gasification. Most benefits would result from eliminating current vehicle exhaust. Wind and natural gas HFCVs offer the greatest potential health benefits and could save 3700 to 6400 U.S. lives annually. Wind HFCVs should benefit climate most. An all-HFCV fleet would hardly affect tropospheric water vapor concentrations. Conversion to coal HFCVs may improve health but would damage climate more than fossil/electric hybrids. The real cost of hydrogen from wind electrolysis may be below that of U.S. gasoline. PMID:15976300

  20. An Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle Concept for Single-Stage-to-Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J.

    1999-01-01

    The "Trailblazer" is a 300-lb payload, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle concept that uses air-breathing propulsion to reduce the required propellant fraction. The integration of air-breathing propulsion is done considering performance, structural and volumetric efficiency, complexity, and design risk. The resulting configuration is intended to be viable using near-term materials and structures. The aeropropulsion performance goal for the Trailblazer launch vehicle is an equivalent effective specific impulse (I*) of 500 sec. Preliminary analysis shows that this requires flight in the atmosphere to about Mach 10, and that the gross lift-off weight is 130,000 lb. The Trailblazer configuration and proposed propulsion system operating modes are described. Preliminary performance results are presented, and key technical issues are highlighted. An overview of the proposed program plan is given.

  1. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yan, H H; Guo, H; Ou, J M

    2014-08-15

    During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO2-equivelant (CO2-eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10(5)tons CO2-eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong. PMID:24997256

  2. Optimum Aeroelastic Design of Resonance Type Flapping Wing for Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isogai, Koji; Kamisawa, Yuichi; Sato, Hiroyuki

    The optimum aeroelastic design method for a resonance-type flapping wing for a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) is presented. It uses Complex Method and 3D Navier-Stokes code to determine the optimum structural and aerodynamic parameters of a 2 DOF flapping wing system. The method is used to design a dragonfly-type MAV, and numerical simulation shows that the designed flapping wings can generate sufficient lift to sustain the weight and sufficient thrust to overcome the body drag.

  3. The system integration and verification testing of an orbital maneuvering vehicle for an air bearing floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, N. L., Jr.; Martin, M. F.; Paulukaitis, K. R.; Haslam, J. W., Jr.; Henderson, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    The teleoperator and Robotics Evaluation Facility (TOREF) is composed of a 4,000 square foot precision air bearing floor, the Teleoperator Motion Base, the Target Motion and Support Simulator, the mock-ups of the Hubble Space Telescope, Multi-mission Modular Spacecraft, and the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). The TOREF and its general capabilities to support the OMV and other remote system simulations; the facility operating procedures and requirements; and the results of generic OMV investigations are summarized.

  4. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Towards Flight Autonomy: Vision-Based Horizon Detection for Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nechyba, Michael C.; Ettinger, Scott M.; Ifju, Peter G.; Wazak, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Recently substantial progress has been made towards design building and testifying remotely piloted Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs). This progress in overcoming the aerodynamic obstacles to flight at very small scales has, unfortunately, not been matched by similar progress in autonomous MAV flight. Thus, we propose a robust, vision-based horizon detection algorithm as the first step towards autonomous MAVs. In this paper, we first motivate the use of computer vision for the horizon detection task by examining the flight of birds (biological MAVs) and considering other practical factors. We then describe our vision-based horizon detection algorithm, which has been demonstrated at 30 Hz with over 99.9% correct horizon identification, over terrain that includes roads, buildings large and small, meadows, wooded areas, and a lake. We conclude with some sample horizon detection results and preview a companion paper, where the work discussed here forms the core of a complete autonomous flight stability system.

  5. A hybrid approach to modeling and control of vehicle height for electronically controlled air suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Yingfeng; Wang, Shaohua; Liu, Yanling; Chen, Long

    2016-01-01

    The control problems associated with vehicle height adjustment of electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) still pose theoretical challenges for researchers, which manifest themselves in the publications on this subject over the last years. This paper deals with modeling and control of a vehicle height adjustment system for ECAS, which is an example of a hybrid dynamical system due to the coexistence and coupling of continuous variables and discrete events. A mixed logical dynamical (MLD) modeling approach is chosen for capturing enough details of the vehicle height adjustment process. The hybrid dynamic model is constructed on the basis of some assumptions and piecewise linear approximation for components nonlinearities. Then, the on-off statuses of solenoid valves and the piecewise approximation process are described by propositional logic, and the hybrid system is transformed into the set of linear mixed-integer equalities and inequalities, denoted as MLD model, automatically by HYSDEL. Using this model, a hybrid model predictive controller (HMPC) is tuned based on online mixed-integer quadratic optimization (MIQP). Two different scenarios are considered in the simulation, whose results verify the height adjustment effectiveness of the proposed approach. Explicit solutions of the controller are computed to control the vehicle height adjustment system in realtime using an offline multi-parametric programming technology (MPT), thus convert the controller into an equivalent explicit piecewise affine form. Finally, bench experiments for vehicle height lifting, holding and lowering procedures are conducted, which demonstrate that the HMPC can adjust the vehicle height by controlling the on-off statuses of solenoid valves directly. This research proposes a new modeling and control method for vehicle height adjustment of ECAS, which leads to a closed-loop system with favorable dynamical properties.

  6. Plume-based analysis of vehicle fleet air pollutant emissions and the contribution from high emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. M.; Jeong, C.-H.; Zimmerman, N.; Healy, R. M.; Wang, D. K.; Ke, F.; Evans, G. J.

    2015-03-01

    An automated identification and integration method has been developed to investigate in-use vehicle emissions under real-world conditions. This technique was applied to high time resolution air pollutant measurements of in-use vehicle emissions performed under real-world conditions at a near-road monitoring station in Toronto, Canada during four seasons, through month-long campaigns in 2013-2014. Based on carbon dioxide measurements, over 100 000 vehicle-related plumes were automatically identified and fuel-based emission factors for nitrogen oxides; carbon monoxide; particle number, black carbon; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX); and methanol were determined for each plume. Thus the automated identification enabled the measurement of an unprecedented number of plumes and pollutants over an extended duration. Emission factors for volatile organic compounds were also measured roadside for the first time using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer; this instrument provided the time resolution required for the plume capture technique. Mean emission factors were characteristic of the light-duty gasoline dominated vehicle fleet present at the measurement site, with mean black carbon and particle number emission factors of 35 mg kg-1 and 7.7 × 1014 kg-1, respectively. The use of the plume-by-plume analysis enabled isolation of vehicle emissions, and the elucidation of co-emitted pollutants from similar vehicle types, variability of emissions across the fleet, and the relative contribution from heavy emitters. It was found that a small proportion of the fleet (< 25%) contributed significantly to total fleet emissions; 95, 93, 76, and 75% for black carbon, carbon monoxide, BTEX, and particle number, respectively. Emission factors of a single pollutant may help classify a vehicle as a high emitter. However, regulatory strategies to more efficiently target multi-pollutants mixtures may be better developed by considering the co

  7. Plume-based analysis of vehicle fleet air pollutant emissions and the contribution from high emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. M.; Jeong, C.-H.; Zimmerman, N.; Healy, R. M.; Wang, D. K.; Ke, F.; Evans, G. J.

    2015-08-01

    An automated identification and integration method has been developed for in-use vehicle emissions under real-world conditions. This technique was applied to high-time-resolution air pollutant measurements of in-use vehicle emissions performed under real-world conditions at a near-road monitoring station in Toronto, Canada, during four seasons, through month-long campaigns in 2013-2014. Based on carbon dioxide measurements, over 100 000 vehicle-related plumes were automatically identified and fuel-based emission factors for nitrogen oxides; carbon monoxide; particle number; black carbon; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX); and methanol were determined for each plume. Thus the automated identification enabled the measurement of an unprecedented number of plumes and pollutants over an extended duration. Emission factors for volatile organic compounds were also measured roadside for the first time using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer; this instrument provided the time resolution required for the plume capture technique. Mean emission factors were characteristic of the light-duty gasoline-dominated vehicle fleet present at the measurement site, with mean black carbon and particle number emission factors of 35 mg kg fuel-1 and 7.5 × 1014 # kg fuel-1, respectively. The use of the plume-by-plume analysis enabled isolation of vehicle emissions, and the elucidation of co-emitted pollutants from similar vehicle types, variability of emissions across the fleet, and the relative contribution from heavy emitters. It was found that a small proportion of the fleet (< 25 %) contributed significantly to total fleet emissions: 100, 100, 81, and 77 % for black carbon, carbon monoxide, BTEX, and particle number, respectively. Emission factors of a single pollutant may help classify a vehicle as a high emitter; however, regulatory strategies to more efficiently target multi-pollutant mixtures may be better developed by considering the co

  8. Air quality and climate impacts due to CNG conversion of motor vehicles in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Wadud, Zia; Khan, Tanzila

    2013-12-17

    Dhaka had recently experienced rapid conversion of its motor vehicle fleet to run on compressed natural gas (CNG). This paper quantifies ex-post the air quality and climate benefits of the CNG conversion policy, including monetary valuations, through an impact pathway approach. Around 2045 (1665) avoided premature deaths in greater Dhaka (City Corporation) can be attributed to air quality improvements from the CNG conversion policy in 2010, resulting in a saving of around USD 400 million. Majority of these health benefits resulted from the conversion of high-emitting diesel vehicles. CNG conversion was clearly detrimental from climate change perspective using the changes in CO2 and CH4 only (CH4 emissions increased); however, after considering other global pollutants (especially black carbon), the climate impact was ambiguous. Uncertainty assessment using input distributions and Monte Carlo simulation along with a sensitivity analysis show that large uncertainties remain for climate impacts. For our most likely estimate, there were some climate costs, valued at USD 17.7 million, which is an order of magnitude smaller than the air quality benefits. This indicates that such policies can and should be undertaken on the grounds of improving local air pollution alone and that precautions should be taken to reduce the potentially unintended increases in GHG emissions or other unintended effects. PMID:24195736

  9. High Altitude Long Endurance Air Vehicle Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a variety of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) conceptual designs for two operationally useful missions (hurricane science and communications relay) and compare their performance and cost characteristics. Sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations were initially developed, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative (SR) propulsion systems. Through an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) down select process, the two leading consumable fuel configurations (one each from the HTA and LTA alternatives) and an HTA SR configuration were selected for further analysis. Cost effectiveness analysis of the consumable fuel configurations revealed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can lead to a sub-optimum system solution. An LTA concept with a hybrid propulsion system (solar arrays and a hydrogen-air proton exchange membrane fuel cell) was found to have the best mission performance; however, an HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred consumable fuel concept because of the large size and technical risk of the LTA concept. The baseline missions could not be performed by even the best HTA SR concept. Mission and SR technology trade studies were conducted to enhance understanding of the potential capabilities of such a vehicle. With near-term technology SR-powered HTA vehicles are limited to operation in favorable solar conditions, such as the long days and short nights of summer at higher latitudes. Energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency were found to be the key technology areas for enhancing HTA SR performance.

  10. An Overview of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Air Quality Measurements: Present Applications and Future Prospectives

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Tommaso Francesco; Gonzalez, Felipe; Miljievic, Branka; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of air quality has been traditionally conducted by ground based monitoring, and more recently by manned aircrafts and satellites. However, performing fast, comprehensive data collection near pollution sources is not always feasible due to the complexity of sites, moving sources or physical barriers. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with different sensors have been introduced for in-situ air quality monitoring, as they can offer new approaches and research opportunities in air pollution and emission monitoring, as well as for studying atmospheric trends, such as climate change, while ensuring urban and industrial air safety. The aims of this review were to: (1) compile information on the use of UAVs for air quality studies; and (2) assess their benefits and range of applications. An extensive literature review was conducted using three bibliographic databases (Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar) and a total of 60 papers was found. This relatively small number of papers implies that the field is still in its early stages of development. We concluded that, while the potential of UAVs for air quality research has been established, several challenges still need to be addressed, including: the flight endurance, payload capacity, sensor dimensions/accuracy, and sensitivity. However, the challenges are not simply technological, in fact, policy and regulations, which differ between countries, represent the greatest challenge to facilitating the wider use of UAVs in atmospheric research. PMID:27420065

  11. Indoor air as a vehicle for human pathogens: Introduction, objectives, and expectation of outcome.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Syed A

    2016-09-01

    Airborne spread of pathogens can be rapid, widespread, and difficult to prevent. In this international workshop, a panel of 6 experts will expound on the following: (1) the potential for indoor air to spread a wide range of human pathogens, plus engineering controls to reduce the risk for exposure to airborne infectious agents; (2) the behavior of aerosolized infectious agents indoors and the use of emerging air decontamination technologies; (3) a survey of quantitative methods to recover infectious agents and their surrogates from indoor air with regard to survival and inactivation of airborne pathogens; (4) mathematical models to predict the movement of pathogens indoors and the use of such information to optimize the benefits of air decontamination technologies; and (5) synergy between different infectious agents, such as legionellae and fungi, in the built environment predisposing to possible transmission-related health impacts of aerosolized biofilm-based opportunistic pathogens. After the presentations, the panel will address a set of preformulated questions on selection criteria for surrogate microbes to study the survival and inactivation of airborne human pathogens, desirable features of technologies for microbial decontamination of indoor air, knowledge gaps, and research needs. It is anticipated that the deliberations of the workshop will provide the attendees with an update on the significance of indoor air as a vehicle for transmitting human pathogens with a brief on what is currently being done to mitigate the risks from airborne infectious agents. PMID:27590701

  12. An Overview of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Air Quality Measurements: Present Applications and Future Prospectives.

    PubMed

    Villa, Tommaso Francesco; Gonzalez, Felipe; Miljievic, Branka; Ristovski, Zoran D; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of air quality has been traditionally conducted by ground based monitoring, and more recently by manned aircrafts and satellites. However, performing fast, comprehensive data collection near pollution sources is not always feasible due to the complexity of sites, moving sources or physical barriers. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with different sensors have been introduced for in-situ air quality monitoring, as they can offer new approaches and research opportunities in air pollution and emission monitoring, as well as for studying atmospheric trends, such as climate change, while ensuring urban and industrial air safety. The aims of this review were to: (1) compile information on the use of UAVs for air quality studies; and (2) assess their benefits and range of applications. An extensive literature review was conducted using three bibliographic databases (Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar) and a total of 60 papers was found. This relatively small number of papers implies that the field is still in its early stages of development. We concluded that, while the potential of UAVs for air quality research has been established, several challenges still need to be addressed, including: the flight endurance, payload capacity, sensor dimensions/accuracy, and sensitivity. However, the challenges are not simply technological, in fact, policy and regulations, which differ between countries, represent the greatest challenge to facilitating the wider use of UAVs in atmospheric research. PMID:27420065

  13. OCTAVE: a bioinspired visuo-motor control system for the guidance of micro-air-vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffier, Franck; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2003-04-01

    We have developed a visually based autopilot for Micro Air Vehicles (MAV), which we have called OCTAVE (Optical altitude Control sysTem for Autonomous VEhicles). First we built a miniature MAV and an indoor test-bed. The mini-helicopter is tethered to a whirling arm and rotates around a central pole equipped with ground-truth positioning sensors for experimental evaluation. The 100-gram rotorcraft lifts itself by means of a single rotor that can also be tilted forward (pitch) to give the craft a horizontal thrust component (propulsive force). The helicopter"s eye is automatically oriented downwards over an environment composed of contrasting features randomly arranged on the floor. Here we show the feasibility of a ground avoiding system based on a low complexity opto-electronic system. The latter relies on an Elementary Motion Detector (EMD) that estimates the optic flow in the downward direction. The EMD functional structure is directly inspired by that of the fly"s EMDs, the functional scheme of which has been elucidated at our Laboratory by performing electrophysiological recordings while applying optical microstimuli to the retina. The OCTAVE autopilot makes the aircraft capable of effective terrain following at various speeds: the MAV performs reproducible manoeuvers such as smooth cruise flight over a planar ground and hill climbing. The overall processing electronics is very light-weight, which makes it highly suitable for mounting on-board micro air vehicles with an avionic payload in the order of only a few grams.

  14. Prospects for utilization of air liquefaction and enrichment system (ALES) propulsion in fully reusable launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, W. H.; Yi, A. C.

    1993-01-01

    A concept is shown for a fully reusable, earth to orbit launch vehicle with horizontal takeoff and landing, employing an air-turborocket for low speed and a rocket for high speed acceleration, both using LH2 fuel. The turborocket employs a modified liquid air cycle to supply the oxidizer. The rocket uses 90 percent pure LOX that is collected from the atmosphere, separated, and stored during operation of the turborocket from about Mach 2 to Mach 5 or 6. The takeoff weight and the thrust required at takeoff are markedly reduced by collecting the rocket oxidizer in-flight. The paper shows an approach and the corresponding technology needs for using ALES propulsion in a SSTO vehicle. Reducing the trajectory altitude at the end of collection reduces the wing area and increases payload. The use of state-of-the-art materials, such as graphite polyimide, is critical to meet the structure weight objective for SSTO. Configurations that utilize 'waverider' aerodynamics show great promise to reduce the vehicle weight.

  15. Interactions between Flight Dynamics and Propulsion Systems of Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalle, Derek J.

    The development and application of a first-principles-derived reduced-order model called MASIV (Michigan/AFRL Scramjet In Vehicle) for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle is discussed. Several significant and previously unreported aspects of hypersonic flight are investigated. A fortunate coupling between increasing Mach number and decreasing angle of attack is shown to extend the range of operating conditions for a class of supersonic inlets. Detailed maps of isolator unstart and ram-to-scram transition are shown on the flight corridor map for the first time. In scram mode the airflow remains supersonic throughout the engine, while in ram mode there is a region of subsonic flow. Accurately predicting the transition between these two modes requires models for complex shock interactions, finite-rate chemistry, fuel-air mixing, pre-combustion shock trains, and thermal choking, which are incorporated into a unified framework here. Isolator unstart occurs when the pre-combustion shock train is longer than the isolator, which blocks airflow from entering the engine. Finally, cooptimization of the vehicle design and trajectory is discussed. An optimal control technique is introduced that greatly reduces the number of computations required to optimize the simulated trajectory.

  16. Design of a Flush Airdata System (FADS) for the Hypersonic Air Launched Option (HALO) Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Moes, Timothy R.; Deets, Dwain A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a design study for a pressure based Flush airdata system (FADS) on the Hypersonic Air Launched Option (HALO) Vehicle. The analysis will demonstrate the feasibility of using a pressure based airdata system for the HALO and provide measurement uncertainty estimates along a candidate trajectory. The HALO is a conceived as a man-rated vehicle to be air launched from an SR-71 platform and is proposed as a testbed for an airbreathing hydrogen scramjet. A feasibility study has been performed and indicates that the proposed trajectory is possible with minimal modifications to the existing SR71 vehicle. The mission consists of launching the HALO off the top of an SR-71 at Mach 3 and 80,000 ft. A rocket motor is then used to accelerate the vehicle to the test condition. After the scramjet test is completed the vehicle will glide to a lakebed runway landing. This option provides reusability of the vehicle and scramjet engine. The HALO design will also allow for various scramjet engine and flowpath designs to be flight tested. For the HALO flights, measurements of freestream airdata are considered to be a mission critical to perform gain scheduling and trajectory optimization. One approach taken to obtaining airdata involves measurement of certain parameters such as external atmospheric winds, temperature, etc to estimate the airdata quantities. This study takes an alternate approach. Here the feasibility of obtaining airdata using a pressure-based flush airdata system (FADS) methods is assessed. The analysis, although it is performed using the HALO configuration and trajectory, is generally applicable to other hypersonic vehicles. The method to be presented offers the distinct advantage of inferring total pressure, Mach number, and flow incidence angles, without stagnating the freestream flow. This approach allows for airdata measurements to be made using blunt surfaces and significantly diminishes the heating load at the sensor. In the FADS concept a

  17. Utilizing adaptive wing technology in the control of a micro air vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Null, William R.; Wagner, Matthew G.; Shkarayev, Sergey V.; Jouse, Wayne C.; Brock, Keith M.

    2002-07-01

    Evolution of the design of micro air vehicles (MAVs) towards miniaturization has been severely constrained by the size and mass of the electronic components needed to control the vehicles. Recent research, experimentation, and development in the area of smart materials have led to the possibility of embedding control actuators, fabricated from smart materials, in the wing of the vehicle, reducing both the size and mass of these components. Further advantages can be realized by developing adaptive wing structures. Small size and mass, and low airspeeds, can lead to considerable buffeting during flight, and may result in a loss of flight control. In order to counter these effects, we are developing a thin, variable-cambered airfoil design with actuators embedded within the wing. In addition to reducing the mass and size of the vehicle or, conversely, increasing its available payload, an important benefit from the adaptive wing concept is the possibility of in-flight modification of the flight envelope. Reduced airspeeds, which are crucial during loiter, can be realized by an in-flight increase in wing camber. Conversely, decreases in camber provide for an airframe best suited for rapid ingress/egress and extension of the mission range.

  18. Comprehensive modeling and control of flexible flapping wing micro air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogar, Stephen Michael

    Flapping wing micro air vehicles hold significant promise due to the potential for improved aerodynamic efficiency, enhanced maneuverability and hover capability compared to fixed and rotary configurations. However, significant technical challenges exist to due the lightweight, highly integrated nature of the vehicle and coupling between the actuators, flexible wings and control system. Experimental and high fidelity analysis has demonstrated that aeroelastic effects can change the effective kinematics of the wing, reducing vehicle stability. However, many control studies for flapping wing vehicles do not consider these effects, and instead validate the control strategy with simple assumptions, including rigid wings, quasi-steady aerodynamics and no consideration of actuator dynamics. A control evaluation model that includes aeroelastic effects and actuator dynamics is developed. The structural model accounts for geometrically nonlinear behavior using an implicit condensation technique and the aerodynamic loads are found using a time accurate approach that includes quasi-steady, rotational, added mass and unsteady effects. Empirically based parameters in the model are fit using data obtained from a higher fidelity solver. The aeroelastic model and its ingredients are compared to experiments and computations using models of higher fidelity, and indicate reasonable agreement. The developed control evaluation model is implemented in a previously published, baseline controller that maintains stability using an asymmetric wingbeat, known as split-cycle, along with changing the flapping frequency and wing bias. The model-based controller determines the control inputs using a cycle-averaged, linear control design model, which assumes a rigid wing and no actuator dynamics. The introduction of unaccounted for dynamics significantly degrades the ability of the controller to track a reference trajectory, and in some cases destabilizes the vehicle. This demonstrates the

  19. Survey of Aerothermodynamics Facilities Useful for the Design of Hypersonic Vehicles Using Air-Breathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; Deiwert, George S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper surveys the use of aerothermodynamic facilities which have been useful in the study of external flows and propulsion aspects of hypersonic, air-breathing vehicles. While the paper is not a survey of all facilities, it covers the utility of shock tunnels and conventional hypersonic blow-down facilities which have been used for hypersonic air-breather studies. The problems confronting researchers in the field of aerothermodynamics are outlined. Results from the T5 GALCIT tunnel for the shock-on lip problem are outlined. Experiments on combustors and short expansion nozzles using the semi-free jet method have been conducted in large shock tunnels. An example which employed the NASA Ames 16-Inch shock tunnel is outlined, and the philosophy of the test technique is described. Conventional blow-down hypersonic wind tunnels are quite useful in hypersonic air-breathing studies. Results from an expansion ramp experiment, simulating the nozzle on a hypersonic air-breather from the NASA Ames 3.5 Foot Hypersonic wind tunnel are summarized. Similar work on expansion nozzles conducted in the NASA Langley hypersonic wind tunnel complex is cited. Free-jet air-frame propulsion integration and configuration stability experiments conducted at Langley in the hypersonic wind tunnel complex on a small generic model are also summarized.

  20. Spatially- and Temporally-Resolved Measurements of Roadway Air Pollution Using a Zero-Emission Electric Vehicle

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicle-related air pollution has an intrinsically dynamic nature. Recent field measurements and modeling work have demonstrated that near-road topography may modify levels of air pollutants reaching populations residing and working in close proximity to roadways. However, the ma...

  1. Structural Sizing of a 25,000-lb Payload, Air-breathing Launch Vehicle for Single-stage-to-orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, Joseph M.; Kosareo, Daniel N.

    2001-01-01

    In support of NASA's Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle (ABLV) study, a 25,000-lb payload version of the GTX (formerly Trailblazer) reference vehicle concept was developed. The GTX is a vertical lift-off, reusable, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle concept that uses hypersonic air-breathing propulsion in a rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion system to reduce the required propellant fraction. To achieve this goal the vehicle and propulsion system must be well integrated both aerodynamically and structurally to reduce weight. This study demonstrates the volumetric and structural efficiency of a vertical takeoff, horizontal landing, hypersonic vehicle with a circular cross section. A departure from the lifting body concepts, this design philosophy is even extended to the engines, which have semicircular nacelles symmetrically mounted on the vehicle. Material candidates with a potential for lightweight and simplicity have been selected from a set of near term technologies (five to ten years). To achieve the mission trajectory, preliminary weight estimates show the vehicle's gross lift-off weight is 1.26 x 10(exp 6) lb. The structural configuration of the GTX vehicle and its propulsion system are described. The vehicle design benefits are presented, and key technical issues are highlighted.

  2. Structural Sizing of a 25,000-lb Payload, Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle For Single-Stage-To-Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, Joseph M.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Palac, Don (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In support of NASA's Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle (ABLV) study, a 25,000-lb payload version of the GTX (formerly Trailblazer) reference vehicle concept was developed. The GTX is a vertical lift-off, reusable, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle concept that uses hypersonic air-breathing propulsion in a rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion system to reduce the required propellant fraction. To achieve this goal the vehicle and propulsion system must be well integrated both aerodynamically and structurally to reduce weight. This study demonstrates the volumetric and structural efficiency of a vertical takeoff, horizontal landing, hypersonic vehicle with a circular cross section. A departure from the lifting body concepts, this design philosophy is even extended to the engines, which have semicircular nacelles symmetrically mounted on the vehicle. Material candidates with a potential for lightweight and simplicity have been selected from a set of near term technologies (5 to 10 years). To achieve the mission trajectory, preliminary weight estimates show the vehicle's gross lift-off weight is 1.26 x 10(exp 6) lb. The structural configuration of the GTX vehicle and its propulsion system are described. The vehicle design benefits are presented, and key technical issues are highlighted.

  3. Design of an airborne launch vehicle for an air launched space booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Chin; Choi, Rich; Cohen, Scott; Dumont, Brian; Gibin, Mauricius; Jorden, Rob; Poth, Stefan

    1993-12-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a carrier vehicle for an air launched space booster. This airplane is capable of carrying a 500,000 pound satellite launch system to an altitude over 40,000 feet for launch. The airplane features a twin fuselage configuration for improved payload and landing gear integration, a high aspect ratio wing for maneuverability at altitude, and is powered by six General Electric GE-90 engines. The analysis methods used and the systems employed in the airplane are discussed. Launch costs are expected to be competitive with existing launch systems.

  4. Model Update of a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) Flexible Wing Frame with Uncertainty Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.; Waszak, Martin R.; Morgan, Benjamin G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure to update parameters in the finite element model of a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) to improve displacement predictions under aerodynamics loads. Because of fabrication, materials, and geometric uncertainties, a statistical approach combined with Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) is used to modify key model parameters. Static test data collected using photogrammetry are used to correlate with model predictions. Results show significant improvements in model predictions after parameters are updated; however, computed probabilities values indicate low confidence in updated values and/or model structure errors. Lessons learned in the areas of wing design, test procedures, modeling approaches with geometric nonlinearities, and uncertainties quantification are all documented.

  5. Design of an airborne launch vehicle for an air launched space booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Chin; Choi, Rich; Cohen, Scott; Dumont, Brian; Gibin, Mauricius; Jorden, Rob; Poth, Stefan

    1993-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a carrier vehicle for an air launched space booster. This airplane is capable of carrying a 500,000 pound satellite launch system to an altitude over 40,000 feet for launch. The airplane features a twin fuselage configuration for improved payload and landing gear integration, a high aspect ratio wing for maneuverability at altitude, and is powered by six General Electric GE-90 engines. The analysis methods used and the systems employed in the airplane are discussed. Launch costs are expected to be competitive with existing launch systems.

  6. Operational benefits from the Terminal Configured Vehicle. [aircraft equipment for air traffic improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeder, J. P.; Schmitz, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) research activity is to provide improvements which lead to increased airport and runway capacity, increasing air traffic controller productivity, energy efficient terminal area operations, reduced weather minima with safety, and reduced community noise by use of appropriate measures. Some early results of this research activity are discussed, and present and future research needs to meet the broad research objectives are defined. Particular consideration is given to the development of the TCV B-737 aircraft, the integration of the TCV with MLS, and avionics configurations, flight profiles, and manually controlled approaches for TCV. Some particular test demonstrations are discussed.

  7. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Vision-Guided Flight Stability and Autonomy for Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ettinger, Scott M.; Nechyba, Michael C.; Ifju, Peter G.; Wazak, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made recently towards design building and test-flying remotely piloted Micro Air Vehicle's (MAVs). We seek to complement this progress in overcoming the aerodynamic obstacles to.flight at very small scales with a vision stability and autonomy system. The developed system based on a robust horizon detection algorithm which we discuss in greater detail in a companion paper. In this paper, we first motivate the use of computer vision for MAV autonomy arguing that given current sensor technology, vision may he the only practical approach to the problem. We then briefly review our statistical vision-based horizon detection algorithm, which has been demonstrated at 30Hz with over 99.9% correct horizon identification. Next we develop robust schemes for the detection of extreme MAV attitudes, where no horizon is visible, and for the detection of horizon estimation errors, due to external factors such as video transmission noise. Finally, we discuss our feed-back controller for self-stabilized flight, and report results on vision autonomous flights of duration exceeding ten minutes.

  8. Multi-Reflex Propulsion Systems for Space and Air Vehicles and Energy Transfer for Long Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, A.

    The purpose of this article is to call attention to the revolutionary idea of light multi-reflection. This idea allows the design of new engines, space and air propulsion systems, storage (of a beam and solar energy), transmitters of energy (to millions of kilometers), creation of new weapons, etc. This method and the main innovations were offered by the author in 1983 in the former USSR. Now the author shows in a series of articles the immense possibilities of this idea in many fields of engineering - astronautics, aviation, energy, optics, direct converter of light (laser beam) energy to mechanical energy (light engine), to name a few. This article considers the multi-reflex propulsion systems for space and air vehicles and energy transmitter for long distances in space.

  9. Progress report on Bertelsen research and development of an air cushion crawler all-terrain vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelsen, W. R.

    1987-06-01

    The ACV is an exceptional amphibian but it is not, nor is any other existing craft, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV). Using the best elements of the ACV in an air-cushion crawler tractor, a true ATV can be attained. A conventional crawler drive train will propel two tracks as pressurized, propulsive pontoons. The key to a successful ATV is in perfecting efficient, durable, sliding seals to allow the belt to move in its orbit around the track unit and maintain its internal pressure. After deriving the adequate seal, a 12 inch wide x 86 inch long endless rubber belt was fitted bilateral seals and slide plates with internal guide wheels fore and aft with a 21 inch wheel base. From this approximately one-quarter scale model, full-scale air track crawlers, true ATVs, of any size and capacity can be produced.

  10. Formation of photochemical air pollution in central California 1. Development of a revised motor vehicle emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, Linsey C.; Black, Douglas R.; Harley, Robert A.

    2002-03-01

    Photochemical air pollution problems have proved difficult to understand and control in central California. A major source of uncertainty is the rate of precursor volatile organic compounds and NOx emissions, especially from motor vehicles. We develop alternative emissions estimates for on-road motor vehicles in 1990, using fuel sales data, emission factors measured in on-road studies, and ambient pollutant ratios, for a region that includes the San Francisco Bay and San Joaquin Valley air basins and Sacramento County. Fuel-based emissions estimates are compared with predictions of California's most recent motor vehicle emission factor model (EMFAC) and with an inventory that has been used in previous regional-scale photochemical modeling studies. The fuel-based inventory contains 10-50% less CO, 40-100% more nonmethane organic compounds, and 10-20% less NOx than estimated both by EMFAC and the photochemical modeling inventory. We also describe new temporal distributions of vehicle emissions by hour and day of week. Diesel trucks, a major source of NOx, have a broad midday peak in emissions on weekdays, in contrast to passenger vehicles, which show morning and afternoon commuter peaks. While passenger vehicle travel is similar on weekdays and weekends, diesel truck activity and emissions decrease by 70-80% on weekends. Vehicle emission rates and their temporal patterns are linked to a regional photochemical air pollution episode that spans a weekend in August 1990.

  11. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, M. N. K.; Zuradzman, M. Razlan; Hazry, D.; Khairunizam, Wan; Shahriman, A. B.; Yaacob, S.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Hussain, Abadalsalam T.

    2014-12-01

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  12. Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, M. N. K. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Zuradzman, M. Razlan E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Hazry, D. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Khairunizam, Wan E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Shahriman, A. B. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Yaacob, S. E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; Ahmed, S. Faiz E-mail: zuradzman@unimap.edu.my E-mail: khairunizam@unimap.edu.my E-mail: s.yaacob@unimap.edu.my E-mail: abadal@unimap.edu.my; and others

    2014-12-04

    This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

  13. Survey of Aerothermodynamics Facilities Useful for the Design of Hypersonic Vehicles Using Air-Breathing Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; Deiwert, G. S.

    1997-01-01

    The dream of producing an air-breathing, hydrogen fueled, hypervelocity aircraft has been before the aerospace community for decades. However, such a craft has not yet been realized, even in an experimental form. Despite the simplicity and beauty of the concept, many formidable problems must be overcome to make this dream a reality. This paper summarizes the aero/aerothermodynamic issues that must be addressed to make the dream a reality and discusses how aerothermodynamics facilities and their modem companion, real-gas computational fluid dynamics (CFD), can help solve the problems blocking the way to realizing the dream. The approach of the paper is first to outline the concept of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle and then discuss the nose-to-tail aerothermodynamics issues and special aerodynamic problems that arise with such a craft. Then the utility of aerothermodynamic facilities and companion CFD analysis is illustrated by reviewing results from recent United States publications wherein these problems have been addressed. Papers selected for the discussion have k e n chosen such that the review will serve to survey important U.S. aero/aerothermodynamic real gas and conventional wind tunnel facilities that are useful in the study of hypersonic, hydrogen propelled hypervelocity vehicles.

  14. Linear Heave Dynamics of an Air-Cushion Vehicle Bag-and-Finger Skirt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Joon; Sullivan, Phillip A.

    Results from a linear analysis of the heave dynamics of an air-cushion vehicle equipped with a bag-and-finger skirt are described. A two-dimensional section of the cushion is subject to pure heave or long-wave surface motion inputs. The skirt mass is lumped in the fingers, with the bag being modelled as a combination of massless inelastic membranes and links. The airflows from bag to cushion and from cushion to atmosphere are assumed quasisteady, and the bag and cushion volumes are modelled as lumped pneumatic capacitances. For a configuration representative of a 37t vehicle, frequency response characteristics show the effect of skirt geometry and mass changes, and cushion capacitance. The results suggest that changes in skirt geometry cannot be used to radically modify an undesirable heave response, but reducing the skirt mass may be effective. The air compressibility also affects heave response at high frequencies, with the effect becoming more prominent at the low cushion-flow rates now used in practice.

  15. Preliminary performance estimates of a highly maneuverable remotely piloted vehicle. [computerized synthesis program to assess effects of vehicle and mission parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P., Jr.; Axelson, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A computerized synthesis program has been used to assess the effects of various vehicle and mission parameters on the performance of a highly maneuverable remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) for the air-to-air combat role. The configuration used in the study is a trapezoidal-wing and body concept, with forward-mounted stabilizing and control surfaces. The study mission consists of an outbound cruise, an acceleration phase, a series of subsonic and supersonic turns, and a return cruise. Performance is evaluated in terms of both the required vehicle weight to accomplish this mission and combat effectiveness as measured by turning and acceleration capability. The report describes the synthesis program, the mission, the vehicle, and the results of sensitivity and trade studies.

  16. Characterization of on-road vehicle emission factors and microenvironmental air quality in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerdahl, Dane; Wang, Xing; Pan, Xiaochuan; Zhang, K. Max

    In this paper, we report the results and analysis of a recent field campaign in August 2007 investigating the impacts of emissions from transportation on air quality and community concentrations in Beijing, China. We conducted measurements in three different environments, on-road, roadside and ambient. The carbon monoxide, black carbon and ultrafine particle number emission factors for on-road light-duty vehicles are derived to be 95 g kg -1-fuel, 0.3 g kg -1-fuel and 1.8 × 10 15 particles kg -1-fuel, respectively. The emission factors for on-road heavy-duty vehicles are 50 g kg -1-fuel, 1.3 g kg -1-fuel and 1.1 × 10 16 particles kg -1-fuel, respectively. The carbon monoxide emission factors from this study agree with those derived from remote sensing and on-board vehicle emission testing systems in China. The on-road black carbon and particle number emission factors for Chinese vehicles are reported for the first time in the literature. Strong traffic impacts can be observed from the concentrations measured in these different environments. Most clear is a reflection of diesel truck traffic activity in black carbon concentrations. The comparison of the particle size distributions measured at the three environments suggests that the traffic is a major source of ultrafine particles. A four-day traffic control experiment conducted by the Beijing Government as a pilot to test the effectiveness of proposed controls was found to be effective in reducing extreme concentrations that occurred at both on-road and ambient environments.

  17. Theoretical investigation of heave dynamics of an air cushion vehicle bag and finger skirt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Joon

    This thesis describes a theoretical investigation of the nonlinear and linear heave dynamics of an air cushion vehicle (ACV) equipped with a bag and finger skirt system with the purpose of understanding the skirt's effect on the vehicle heave dynamics. Throughout the course of this work, the pure heave motion of a two dimensional section of the skirt is investigated using several mathematical models. Both the nonlinear and linearized analyses include a detailed model of the skirt geometry, which is modelled as a combination of inelastic membranes and links. Air flow processes from the bag to the cushion and from the cushion to the atmosphere are assumed to be quasisteady, and the bag and cushion volumes are modelled as lumped pneumatic capacitances. The modulation of the escaping cushion air by skirt-ground contact is also included. The nonlinear simulations reveal that characteristically nonlinear dynamical phenomena such as period doubling and chaos can be expected to occur during the normal operation of ACVs. Furthermore, a configuration representative of a 37 tonne vehicle shows a resonance at frequencies in the range for which humans are most sensitive. Although these results thus show that some aspects of the bag and finger skirt heave dynamics can be highly nonlinear, they indicate that under certain circumstances, standard linear techniques can yield useful insights. Results from the linear analysis suggest that changes in skirt geometry cannot be used to radically modify the undesirable heave response of the bag and finger skirt, but reducing the skirt mass is quite effective. The pneumatic capacitance of the bag and cushion volume proves to be an important factor in the heave response. In particular, it contributes to heave instability. The air compressibility also affects heave response at high frequencies, with the effect becoming more prominent as the flow rate is reduced. The importance of unsteady fan effects on ACV dynamics is investigated by the

  18. Vehicle cabin cooling system for capturing and exhausting heated boundary layer air from inner surfaces of solar heated windows

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, Robert B.; Anderson, Ren

    2001-01-01

    The cabin cooling system includes a cooling duct positioned proximate and above upper edges of one or more windows of a vehicle to exhaust hot air as the air is heated by inner surfaces of the windows and forms thin boundary layers of heated air adjacent the heated windows. The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a flow rate that captures the hot air in the boundary layer without capturing a significant portion of the cooler cabin interior air and to discharge the hot air at a point outside the vehicle cabin, such as the vehicle trunk. In a preferred embodiment, the cooling duct has a cross-sectional area that gradually increases from a distal point to a proximal point to the fan inlet to develop a substantially uniform pressure drop along the length of the cooling duct. Correspondingly, this cross-sectional configuration develops a uniform suction pressure and uniform flow rate at the upper edge of the window to capture the hot air in the boundary layer adjacent each window.

  19. The potential impacts of electric vehicles on air quality in the urban areas of Barcelona and Madrid (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soret, A.; Guevara, M.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    This work analyses the potential air quality improvements resulting from three fleet electrification scenarios (∼13, 26 and 40%) by replacing conventional vehicles with Electric Battery Vehicles (EBVs), Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). This study has been performed for the cities of Barcelona and Madrid (Spain), where road transport is the primary emission source. In these urban areas, several air quality problems are present, mainly related to NO2 and particulate matter. The WRF-ARW/HERMESv2/CMAQ model system has been applied at high spatial (1 × 1 km2) and temporal (1 h) resolution. The results show that fleet electrification offers a potential for emission abatement, especially related to NOx and CO. Regarding the more ambitious scenario (∼40% fleet electrification), reductions of 11% and 17% of the total NOx emissions are observed in Barcelona and Madrid respectively. These emissions reductions involve air quality improvements in NO2 maximum hourly values up to 16%: reductions up to 30 and 35 μg m-3 in Barcelona and Madrid, respectively. Furthermore, an additional scenario has been defined considering electric generation emissions associated with EBVs and PHEVs charging from a combined-cycle power plant. These charging emissions would produce slight NO2 increases in the downwind areas of <3 μg m-3. Thus, fleet electrification would improve urban air quality even when considering emissions associated with charging electric vehicles. However, two further points should be considered. First, fleet electrification cannot be considered a unique solution, and other management strategies may be defined. This is especially important with respect to particulate matter emissions, which are not significantly reduced by fleet electrification (<5%) due to the high weight of non-exhaust emissions. Second, a significant introduction of electric vehicles (26-40%) involving all vehicle categories is required to improve urban

  20. Mach 6.5 air induction system design for the Beta II Two-Stage-to-Orbit booster vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Midea, Anthony C.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary, two-dimensional, mixed compression air induction system is designed for the Beta II Two-Stage-to-Orbit booster vehicle to minimize installation losses and efficiently deliver the required airflow. Design concepts, such as an external isentropic compression ramp and a bypass system, are developed and evaluated for performance benefits. The design is optimized by maximizing installed propulsion/vehicle system performance, and the resulting system design operating characteristics and performance are presented. The air induction system design has significantly lower transonic drag than similar designs, and only requires approximately 1/3 of the bleed extraction. In addition, the design efficiently provides the integrated system required airflow, while maintaining adequate levels of total pressure recovery. The excellent performance of this highly integrated air induction system is essential for the successful completion of the Beta II booster vehicle mission.

  1. Mach 6.5 air induction system design for the Beta 2 two-stage-to-orbit booster vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Midea, Anthony C.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary, two-dimensional, mixed compression air induction system is designed for the Beta II Two Stage to Orbit booster vehicle to minimize installation losses and efficiently deliver the required airflow. Design concepts, such as an external isentropic compression ramp and a bypass system were developed and evaluated for performance benefits. The design was optimized by maximizing installed propulsion/vehicle system performance. The resulting system design operating characteristics and performance are presented. The air induction system design has significantly lower transonic drag than similar designs and only requires about 1/3 of the bleed extraction. In addition, the design efficiently provides the integrated system required airflow, while maintaining adequate levels of total pressure recovery. The excellent performance of this highly integrated air induction system is essential for the successful completion of the Beta II booster vehicle mission.

  2. Experimental Investigation of a Shrouded Rotor Micro Air Vehicle in Hover and in Edgewise Gusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrishikeshavan, Vikram

    Due to the hover capability of rotary wing Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs), it is of interest to improve their aerodynamic performance, and hence hover endurance (or payload capability). In this research, a shrouded rotor configuration is studied and implemented, that has the potential to offer two key operational benefits: enhanced system thrust for a given input power, and improved structural rigidity and crashworthiness of an MAV platform. The main challenges involved in realising such a system for a lightweight craft are: design of a lightweight and stiff shroud, and increased sensitivity to external flow disturbances that can affect flight stability. These key aspects are addressed and studied in order to assess the capability of the shrouded rotor as a platform of choice for MAV applications. A fully functional shrouded rotor vehicle (disk loading 60 N/ m2) was designed and constructed with key shroud design variables derived from previous studies on micro shrouded rotors. The vehicle weighed about 280 g (244 mm rotor diameter). The shrouded rotor had a 30% increase in power loading in hover compared to an unshrouded rotor. Due to the stiff, lightweight shroud construction, a net payload benefit of 20-30 g was achieved. The different components such as the rotor, stabilizer bar, yaw control vanes and the shroud were systematically studied for system efficiency and overall aerodynamic improvements. Analysis of the data showed that the chosen shroud dimensions was close to optimum for a design payload of 250 g. Risk reduction prototypes were built to sequentially arrive at the final configuration. In order to prevent periodic oscillations in ight, a hingeless rotor was incorporated in the shroud. The vehicle was successfully ight tested in hover with a proportional-integralderivative feedback controller. A flybarless rotor was incorporated for efficiency and control moment improvements. Time domain system identification of the attitude dynamics of the flybar and

  3. Q-learning approach to automated unmanned air vehicle (UAV) demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Silvia; Daugherty, Greyson

    2010-04-01

    This paper develops a Q-learning approach to Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) navigation, or path planning, for sensing applications in which an infrared (IR) sensor or camera is installed onboard the UAV for the purpose of detecting and classifying multiple, stationary ground targets. The problem can be considered as a geometric sensor-path planning problem, because the geometry and position of the sensor's field of view (FOV) determines what targets can be detected and classified at any given time. The advantage of this approach over existing path planning techniques is that the optimal guidance policy is learned via the Q-function, without explicit knowledge of the system models and environmental conditions. The approach is demonstrated through a demining application in which a UAV-based IR sensor is capable of determining the optimal altitude for properly detecting and classifying targets buried in a complex region of interest.

  4. Continuous high order sliding mode controller design for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Zong, Qun; Su, Rui; Tian, Bailing

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the problem of tracking control with uncertainties for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV). In order to overcome the analytical intractability of this model, an Input-Output linearization model is constructed for the purpose of feedback control design. Then, the continuous finite time convergence high order sliding mode controller is designed for the Input-Output linearization model without uncertainties. In addition, a nonlinear disturbance observer is applied to estimate the uncertainties in order to compensate the controller and disturbance suppression, where disturbance observer and controller synthesis design is obtained. Finally, the synthesis of controller and disturbance observer is used to achieve the tracking for the velocity and altitude of the FAHV and simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategies. PMID:24534328

  5. Monitoring of atmospheric aerosol emissions using a remotely piloted air vehicle (RPV)-Borne Sensor Suite

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    We have developed a small sensor system, the micro-atmospheric measurement system ({mu}-AMS), to monitor and track aerosol emissions. The system was developed to fly aboard a remotely piloted air vehicle, or other mobile platform, to provide real-time particle measurements in effluent plumes and to collect particles for chemical analysis. The {mu}-AMS instrument measures atmospheric parameters including particle mass concentration and size distribution, temperature, humidity, and airspeed, altitude and position (by GPS receiver) each second. The sensor data are stored onboard and are also down linked to a ground station in real time. The {mu}-AMS is battery powered, small (8 in. dia x 36 in.), and lightweight (15 pounds). Aerosol concentrations and size distributions from above ground explosive tests, airbone urban pollution, and traffic-produced particulates are presented.

  6. Improved Adaptive-Reinforcement Learning Control for morphing unmanned air vehicles.

    PubMed

    Valasek, John; Doebbler, James; Tandale, Monish D; Meade, Andrew J

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents an improved Adaptive-Reinforcement Learning Control methodology for the problem of unmanned air vehicle morphing control. The reinforcement learning morphing control function that learns the optimal shape change policy is integrated with an adaptive dynamic inversion control trajectory tracking function. An episodic unsupervised learning simulation using the Q-learning method is developed to replace an earlier and less accurate Actor-Critic algorithm. Sequential Function Approximation, a Galerkin-based scattered data approximation scheme, replaces a K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) method and is used to generalize the learning from previously experienced quantized states and actions to the continuous state-action space, all of which may not have been experienced before. The improved method showed smaller errors and improved learning of the optimal shape compared to the KNN. PMID:18632393

  7. Robust tracking control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with input constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Gang; Wang, Jinzhi; Wang, Xianghua

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this paper is on the design and simulation of robust tracking control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV), which is affected by high nonlinearity, uncertain parameters and input constraints. The linearisation method is employed for the longitudinal AHV model about a specific trim condition, and then considering the additive uncertainties of three parameters, the linearised model is just in the form of affine parameter dependence. From this point, the linear parameter-varying method is applied to design the desired controller. The poles for the closed-loop system of the linearised model are placed into a desired vertical strip, and the quadratic stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed. Input constraints of the AHV are addressed by additional linear matrix inequalities. Finally, the designed controller is evaluated on the nonlinear AHV model and simulation results demonstrate excellent tracking performance with good robustness.

  8. NASA Innovation Fund 2010 Project Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a study conducted in 2010 under the NASA Innovation Fund Award to develop innovative future air vehicle concepts. Aerodynamic optimization was performed to produce three different aircraft configuration concepts for low drag, namely drooped wing, inflected wing, and squashed fuselage. A novel wing shaping control concept is introduced. This concept describes a new capability of actively controlling wing shape in-flight to minimize drag. In addition, a novel flight control effector concept is developed to enable wing shaping control. This concept is called a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap that can reduce drag by as much as 50% over a conventional flap. In totality, the potential benefits of fuel savings offered by these concepts can be significant.

  9. Linear analysis of the heave dynamics of a bag and finger air cushion vehicle skirt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, T.; Sullivan, P. A.

    1986-09-01

    A linear analysis of the heave dynamics of an air-cushion vehicle bag and finger skirt is presented. A simplified geometry is considered; this is a two-dimensional section of the skirt without interior compartmentation. The bag is modeled as a membrane having distributed mass and viscoelasticity, and the fingers are modeled as rigid bodies having both mass and moment of inertia. A finite-element technique is used to discretize the equations of motion of the bag, but otherwise standard linear analysis techniques are used to obtain predictions of frequency response and stability characteristics. The stability results confirm the experimental observation that the dominant factor controlling the onset of skirt bounce is the bag-to-cushion pressure ratio.

  10. Development of a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing - Part 2: Impact of vehicle emission on urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J. J.; Wu, L.; Mao, H. J.; Liu, H. L.; Jing, B. Y.; Yu, Y.; Ren, P. P.; Feng, C.; Liu, X. H.

    2015-07-01

    In a companion paper (Jing et al., 2015), a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory (HTSVE) for 2013 in Beijing has been established based on near real time (NRT) traffic data and bottom up methodology. In this study, based on the sensitivity analysis method of switching on/off pollutant emissions in the Chinese air quality forecasting model CUACE, a modeling study was carried out to evaluate the contributions of vehicle emission to the air pollution in Beijing main urban areas in the periods of summer (July) and winter (December) 2013. Generally, CUACE model had good performance of pollutants concentration simulation. The model simulation has been improved by using HTSVE. The vehicle emission contribution (VEC) to ambient pollutant concentrations not only changes with seasons but also changes over moment. The mean VEC, affected by regional pollutant transports significantly, is 55.4 and 48.5 % for NO2, while 5.4 and 10.5 % for PM2.5 in July and December 2013, respectively. Regardless of regional transports, relative vehicle emission contribution (RVEC) to NO2 is 59.2 and 57.8 % in July and December 2013, while 8.7 and 13.9 % for PM2.5. The RVEC to PM2.5 is lower than PM2.5 contribution rate for vehicle emission in total emission, which may be caused by easily dry deposition of PM2.5 from vehicle emission in near-surface layer compared to elevated source emission.

  11. A parallel expert system for the control of a robotic air vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakley, Donald; Lamont, Gary B.

    1988-01-01

    Expert systems can be used to govern the intelligent control of vehicles, for example the Robotic Air Vehicle (RAV). Due to the nature of the RAV system the associated expert system needs to perform in a demanding real-time environment. The use of a parallel processing capability to support the associated expert system's computational requirement is critical in this application. Thus, algorithms for parallel real-time expert systems must be designed, analyzed, and synthesized. The design process incorporates a consideration of the rule-set/face-set size along with representation issues. These issues are looked at in reference to information movement and various inference mechanisms. Also examined is the process involved with transporting the RAV expert system functions from the TI Explorer, where they are implemented in the Automated Reasoning Tool (ART), to the iPSC Hypercube, where the system is synthesized using Concurrent Common LISP (CCLISP). The transformation process for the ART to CCLISP conversion is described. The performance characteristics of the parallel implementation of these expert systems on the iPSC Hypercube are compared to the TI Explorer implementation.

  12. The development of an experimental facility and investigation of rapidly maneuvering Micro-Air-Vehicle wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Lee Alexander

    Vertical Takeoff-and-Landing (VTOL) Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) provide a versatile operational platform which combines the capabilities of fixed wing and rotary wing MAVs. In order to improve performance of these vehicles, a better understanding of the rapid transition between horizontal and vertical flight is required. This study examines the flow structures around the Mini-Vertigo VTOL MAV using flow visualization techniques. This will gives an understanding of the flow structures which dominate the flight dynamics of rapid pitching maneuvers. This study consists of three objectives: develop an experimental facility, use flow visualization to investigate the flow around the experimental subject during pitching, and analyze the results. The flow around the Mini-Vertigo VTOL MAV is dominated by the slipstream from its propellers. The slipstream delays LE separation and causes drastic deflection in the flow. While the frequency of the vortices shed from the LE and TE varies with flow speed, the non-dimensional frequency does not. It does, however, vary slightly with the pitching rate. These results are applicable across a wide range of flight conditions. The results correlate to previous research done to examine the aerodynamic forces on the MAV.

  13. Uncertainty analysis and robust trajectory linearization control of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Zhiqiang; Tan, Xiangmin; Fan, Guoliang; Yi, Jianqiang

    2014-08-01

    Flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicles feature significant uncertainties which pose huge challenges to robust controller designs. In this paper, four major categories of uncertainties are analyzed, that is, uncertainties associated with flexible effects, aerodynamic parameter variations, external environmental disturbances, and control-oriented modeling errors. A uniform nonlinear uncertainty model is explored for the first three uncertainties which lumps all uncertainties together and consequently is beneficial for controller synthesis. The fourth uncertainty is additionally considered in stability analysis. Based on these analyses, the starting point of the control design is to decompose the vehicle dynamics into five functional subsystems. Then a robust trajectory linearization control (TLC) scheme consisting of five robust subsystem controllers is proposed. In each subsystem controller, TLC is combined with the extended state observer (ESO) technique for uncertainty compensation. The stability of the overall closed-loop system with the four aforementioned uncertainties and additional singular perturbations is analyzed. Particularly, the stability of nonlinear ESO is also discussed from a Liénard system perspective. At last, simulations demonstrate the great control performance and the uncertainty rejection ability of the robust scheme.

  14. A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Fleming, Dennis; Hargrove, Douglas; Koopman, Ronald; Peterman, Keith

    1995-04-01

    We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet's home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

  15. A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Hargrove, D.; Koopman, R.; Peterman, K.

    1995-04-20

    We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet s home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

  16. Preliminary development of a VTOL unmanned air vehicle for the close-range mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Gregory A.

    1992-09-01

    The preliminary development of a full-scale Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) for the Close-Range mission was completed at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). The vehicle was based on half-scale ducted-fan investigations performed at the UAV Flight Research Lab. The resulting design is a fixed-duct, tail-sitter UAV with a canard-configured horizontal stabilizer. Major airframe components are used from previous UAV's and include the wings from a U.S. Army Aquila and the ducted fan from the U.S. Marine Corps AROD. Accomplishments include: (1) the design and fabrication of a carry-through spar, and (2) the design and construction of an engine test stand. The through spar was designed using finite element analysis and constructed from composite materials. The purpose of the test stand is to measure torque, horsepower, and thrust of an entire ducted fan or an individual engine. Completion of this thesis will pave the way for future NPS research into the growing interest in VTOL UAV technology.

  17. Navier-Stokes predictions of dynamic stability derivatives for air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xu; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic derivatives are important parameters for designing vehicle trajectory and attitude control system that directly decide the divergence behavior of vibration of the aircraft open-loop system under interference. After calibration model validation, the dynamic behavior of air-breathing hypersonic vehicle WR-A is characterized. The unsteady flow field of aircraft forced simple harmonic vibration (SHV) is simulated using N-S equation. The direct damping derivatives, cross derivatives, acceleration derivatives and rotary derivatives of WR-A under different frequencies, amplitudes and positions of centroid are obtained. Research demonstrates that the proportion of acceleration derivatives, which represents the flow time lag effect, in the direct damping derivatives can be as high as 40% but is opposite to the damping derivative value symbols in some cases, contributing to dynamic instability. Numerical simulation on large-amplitude forced vibration of WR-A indicates that the aerodynamic behavior predicted by the dynamic derivative model agrees well with unsteady calculations. The inlet performance parameter derivatives are solved using the Etkin theory. The inlet performance parameters under large-amplitude vibration are successfully predicted using the dynamic derivative model. This offers a guideline for characterizing the dynamic internal flow field and unsteady inlet performance.

  18. The development of aluminum-air batteries for application in electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, E.J. . Research and Development Center); Lott, S. )

    1990-12-01

    The recently concluded program, jointly funded by ELTECH Research Corporation and the Department of Energy, focused upon the development of an aluminum-air battery system for electric vehicle applications. The operation of the aluminum-air battery involves the dissolution of aluminum to produce a current and aluminate. Initially the objectives were to evaluate and optimize the battery design that was developed prior to this program (designated as the B300 cell) and to design and evaluate the components of the auxiliary system. During the program, three additional tasks were undertaken, addressing needs identified by ELTECH and by Sandia National Laboratories. First, the capability to produce aluminum alloys as relatively large ingots (100--150 lbs), with the required electrochemical performance, was considered essential to the development of the battery. The second additional task was the adoption of an advanced cell (designated as the AT400 cell), designed by ELTECH in a different program. Finally, it was recognized that a system model would allow evaluation of the interactions of the several unit operations involved in the battery. Therefore, the development of a mathematical model, based upon material and energy balances for the battery, was undertaken. At a systems level, sufficient information was obtained in the completion of this program to support the design, fabrication and operation of a batch'' or solids-free'' battery system. For the first time, the components of the auxiliary system, i.e., a heat exchanger, carbon dioxide scrubber and hydrogen disposal technology, have been defined for a vehicle battery. Progress on each component or system is summarized in the following sections.

  19. Dust Plume Modeling at Fort Bliss: Move-Out Operations, Combat Training and Wind Erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Elaine G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Seiple, Timothy E.; Newsom, Rob K.; Allwine, K Jerry

    2006-09-29

    The potential for air-quality impacts from heavy mechanized vehicles operating in the training ranges and on the unpaved main supply routes at Fort Bliss was investigated. This report details efforts by the staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Fort Bliss Directorate of Environment in this investigation. Dust emission and dispersion from typical activities, including move outs and combat training, occurring on the installation were simulated using the atmospheric modeling system DUSTRAN. Major assumptions associated with designing specific modeling scenarios are summarized, and results from the simulations are presented.

  20. Estimation of road vehicle exhaust emissions from 1992 to 2010 and comparison with air quality measurements in Genoa, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamboni, Giorgio; Capobianco, Massimo; Daminelli, Enrico

    An investigation into road transport exhaust emissions in the Genoa urban area was performed by comparing the quantities of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and particulate matter (PM) emitted by different vehicle categories with air quality measurements referred to the same pollutants. Exhaust emissions were evaluated by applying the PROGRESS (computer PROGramme for Road vehicle EmiSSions evaluation) code, developed by the Internal Combustion Engines Group of the University of Genoa, to eight different years (from 1992 to 2010), considering spark ignition and Diesel passenger cars and light duty vehicles, heavy duty vehicles and buses, motorcycles and mopeds. Changes in terms of vehicles number, mileage and total emissions are presented together with relative distributions among the various vehicle categories. By comparing 1992 and 2010 data, calculated trends show a 7% increase in the number of vehicles, with total mileage growing at a faster rate (approx. 22%); total emissions decrease considerably, by approximately 50% for NO x and PM, 70% for HC and 80% for CO, due to improvements in engines and fuels forced by the stricter European legislation and the fleet renewal, while primary NO 2 emission will be very close to 1992 level, after a decrease of about 18% in 2000. Air quality was analysed by selecting traffic and background measuring stations from the monitoring network managed by the Environmental Department of the Province of Genoa: average annual concentrations of considered pollutants from 1994 to 2007 were calculated in order to obtain the relative historical trends and compare them with European public health limits and with road vehicle emissions. Though an important reduction in pollutant concentrations has been achieved as a consequence of cleaner vehicles, some difficulties in complying with present and/or future NO 2 and PM 10 limits are also apparent, thus requiring suitable measures to be taken by the local

  1. Development of a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal-spatial resolution based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing - Part 2: Impact of vehicle emission on urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jianjun; Wu, Lin; Mao, Hongjun; Liu, Hongli; Jing, Boyu; Yu, Ye; Ren, Peipei; Feng, Cheng; Liu, Xuehao

    2016-03-01

    A companion paper developed a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal-spatial resolution (HTSVE) with a bottom-up methodology based on local emission factors, complemented with the widely used emission factors of COPERT model and near-real-time (NRT) traffic data on a specific road segment for 2013 in urban Beijing (Jing et al., 2016), which is used to investigate the impact of vehicle pollution on air pollution in this study. Based on the sensitivity analysis method of switching on/off pollutant emissions in the Chinese air quality forecasting model CUACE, a modelling study was carried out to evaluate the contributions of vehicle emission to the air pollution in Beijing's main urban areas in the periods of summer (July) and winter (December) 2013. Generally, the CUACE model had good performance of the concentration simulation of pollutants. The model simulation has been improved by using HTSVE. The vehicle emission contribution (VEC) to ambient pollutant concentrations not only changes with seasons but also changes with time. The mean VEC, affected by regional pollutant transports significantly, is 55.4 and 48.5 % for NO2 and 5.4 and 10.5 % for PM2.5 in July and December 2013 respectively. Regardless of regional transports, relative vehicle emission contribution (RVEC) to NO2 is 59.2 and 57.8 % in July and December 2013, while it is 8.7 and 13.9 % for PM2.5. The RVEC to PM2.5 is lower than the PM2.5 contribution rate for vehicle emission in total emission, which may be due to dry deposition of PM2.5 from vehicle emission in the near-surface layer occuring more easily than from elevated source emission.

  2. 32 CFR 813.4 - Combat camera operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.4 Combat camera operations. (a) Air Force COMCAM forces document Air Force and air component activities. (b) The supported unified command or joint task force...

  3. 32 CFR 813.4 - Combat camera operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.4 Combat camera operations. (a) Air Force COMCAM forces document Air Force and air component activities. (b) The supported unified command or joint task force...

  4. 32 CFR 813.4 - Combat camera operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.4 Combat camera operations. (a) Air Force COMCAM forces document Air Force and air component activities. (b) The supported unified command or joint task force...

  5. Life cycle air emissions impacts and ownership costs of light-duty vehicles using natural gas as a primary energy source.

    PubMed

    Luk, Jason M; Saville, Bradley A; MacLean, Heather L

    2015-04-21

    This paper aims to comprehensively distinguish among the merits of different vehicles using a common primary energy source. In this study, we consider compressed natural gas (CNG) use directly in conventional vehicles (CV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and natural gas-derived electricity (NG-e) use in plug-in battery electric vehicles (BEV). This study evaluates the incremental life cycle air emissions (climate change and human health) impacts and life cycle ownership costs of non-plug-in (CV and HEV) and plug-in light-duty vehicles. Replacing a gasoline CV with a CNG CV, or a CNG CV with a CNG HEV, can provide life cycle air emissions impact benefits without increasing ownership costs; however, the NG-e BEV will likely increase costs (90% confidence interval: $1000 to $31 000 incremental cost per vehicle lifetime). Furthermore, eliminating HEV tailpipe emissions via plug-in vehicles has an insignificant incremental benefit, due to high uncertainties, with emissions cost benefits between -$1000 and $2000. Vehicle criteria air contaminants are a relatively minor contributor to life cycle air emissions impacts because of strict vehicle emissions standards. Therefore, policies should focus on adoption of plug-in vehicles in nonattainment regions, because CNG vehicles are likely more cost-effective at providing overall life cycle air emissions impact benefits. PMID:25825338

  6. Networking Multiple Autonomous Air and Ocean Vehicles for Oceanographic Research and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Rajan, K.

    2013-12-01

    Autonomous underwater and surface vessels (AUVs and ASVs) are coming into wider use as components of oceanographic research, including ocean observing systems. Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) are now available at modest cost, allowing multiple UAVs to be deployed with multiple AUVs and ASVs. For optimal use good communication and coordination among vehicles is essential. We report on the use of multiple AUVs networked in communication with multiple UAVs. The UAVs are augmented by inferential reasoning software developed at MBARI that allows UAVs to recognize oceanographic fronts and change their navigation and control. This in turn allows UAVs to automatically to map frontal features, as well as to direct AUVs and ASVs to proceed to such features and conduct sampling via onboard sensors to provide validation for airborne mapping. ASVs can also act as data nodes for communication between UAVs and AUVs, as well as collecting data from onboard sensors, while AUVs can sample the water column vertically. This allows more accurate estimation of phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and can be used in conjunction with UAV sampling to determine air-sea flux of gases (e.g. CO2, CH4, DMS) affecting carbon budgets and atmospheric composition. In particular we describe tests in July 2013 conducted off Sesimbra, Portugal in conjunction with the Portuguese Navy by the University of Porto and MBARI with the goal of tracking large fish in the upper water column with coordinated air/surface/underwater measurements. A thermal gradient was observed in the infrared by a low flying UAV, which was used to dispatch an AUV to obtain ground truth to demonstrate the event-response capabilities using such autonomous platforms. Additional field studies in the future will facilitate integration of multiple unmanned systems into research vessel operations. The strength of hardware and software tools described in this study is to permit fundamental oceanographic measurements of both ocean

  7. Design and fabrication of microflap actuators for steering of micro air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimbru, George C.; Lee, Woo Ho; Popa, Dan O.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents the design, analysis, and fabrication of an array of microflap actuators that can produce a substantial aerodynamic force for course corrections of Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) and low speed projectiles. In the past, several actuation principles, including microjet, magnetic and bubble actuators, and flapping wings have been proposed, and had varying degrees of success. In this paper, we discuss the benefits and drawbacks of past attempts, and the technology that can be used to address the microflap steering problem. We propose a hybrid microflap actuation scheme that combines two types of actuators including: 1) a MEMS fabricated "active" microactuator connected to a microflap, and 2) a "passive" fluidic channel system that harvests the potential energy in the high pressure field on the leading edge of the MAV or high speed projectile to achieve a desired deflection. An array of microflap actuators was prototyped using silicon MEMS fabrication and microassembly. A Silicon On Insulator (SOI) wafer with 100 micron thick device layer was used to as a substrate material to fabricate microflap structures with springs. Front and back side DRIE process was used to etch and release the microstructures including microflaps. Then, the microactuator was assembled on top of the microflap. The static and dynamic behaviors of a microflap were measured using a laser displacement sensor and were compared to the analytic model. In the near future, a prototyped microflap will be tested inside of a wind tunnel to measure the lift and drag at various air speeds.

  8. Methods for measuring performance of vehicle cab air cleaning systems against aerosols and vapours.

    PubMed

    Bémer, D; Subra, I; Régnier, R

    2009-06-01

    Vehicle cabs equipped with an effective air cleaning and pressurization system, fitted to agricultural and off-road machineries, isolate drivers from the polluted environment, in which they are likely to work. These cabs provide protection against particulate and gaseous pollutants generated by these types of work activities. Two laboratory methods have been applied to determining the performance characteristics of two cabs of different design, namely, optical counting-based measurement of a potassium chloride (KCl) aerosol and fluorescein aerosol-based tracing. Results of cab confinement efficiency measurements agreed closely for these two methods implemented in the study. Measurements showed that high confinement efficiencies can be achieved with cabs, which are properly designed in ventilation/cleaning/airtightness terms. We also noted the importance of filter mounting airtightness, in which the smallest defect is reflected by significant degradation in cab performance. Determination of clean airflow rate by monitoring the decrease in test aerosol concentration in the test chamber gave excellent results. This method could represent an attractive alternative to methods involving gas tracing or air velocity measurement at blowing inlets. PMID:19406910

  9. Australian Air Breathing Propulsion Research for Hypersonic, Beamed Energy-Propelled Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, David

    2010-05-01

    A three year laser-propelled vehicle analysis and design investigation has been begun in June, 2009 by Faculty and graduate students at the University of Adelaide under a Grant/Cooperative Agreement Award to the University of Adelaide by the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development (AOARD). The major objectives of thsis investigation are: (a) development of hypersonic, air breathing "lightcraft" with innovative air inlets that enable acceptable airflow capture and combustion, and acceptable cowl-lip heating rates during hot, high-speed, high angle-of-attack hypersonic flight; (b) yest of the most promising lightcraft and inlet design in the high power laser beam that is part of the shock tunnel facility at CTO Instituto in Brazil; and (c) plan a series of laser guided and propelled flights that achieve supersonic or higher speed at the Woomera Test Facility (WTF) in South Australia—using the existing WTF launching and tracking facilities and sponsor-provided laser pointing and tracking and illumination systems.

  10. Control and design of multiple unmanned air vehicles for persistent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, Nikhil

    Control of multiple autonomous aircraft for search and exploration, is a topic of current research interest for applications such as weather monitoring, geographical surveys, search and rescue, tactical reconnaissance, and extra-terrestrial exploration, and the need to distribute sensing is driven by considerations of efficiency, reliability, cost and scalability. Hence, this problem has been extensively studied in the fields of controls and artificial intelligence. The task of persistent surveillance is different from a coverage/exploration problem, in that all areas need to be continuously searched, minimizing the time between visitations to each region in the target space. This distinction does not allow a straightforward application of most exploration techniques to the problem, although ideas from these methods can still be used. The use of aerial vehicles is motivated by their ability to cover larger spaces and their relative insensitivity to terrain. However, the dynamics of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) adds complexity to the control problem. Most of the work in the literature decouples the vehicle dynamics and control policies, but their interaction is particularly interesting for a surveillance mission. Stochastic environments and UAV failures further enrich the problem by requiring the control policies to be robust, and this aspect is particularly important for hardware implementations. For a persistent mission, it becomes imperative to consider the range/endurance constraints of the vehicles. The coupling of the control policy with the endurance constraints of the vehicles is an aspect that has not been sufficiently explored. Design of UAVs for desirable mission performance is also an issue of considerable significance. The use of a single monolithic optimization for such a problem has practical limitations, and decomposition-based design is a potential alternative. In this research high-level control policies are devised, that are scalable, reliable

  11. Integration of Advanced Concepts and Vehicles Into the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Volume 1; Introduction, Key Messages, and Vehicle Attributes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellweger, Andres; Resnick, Herbert; Stevens, Edward; Arkind, Kenneth; Cotton William B.

    2010-01-01

    Raytheon, in partnership with NASA, is leading the way in ensuring that the future air transportation continues to be a key driver of economic growth and stability and that this system provides an environmentally friendly, safe, and effective means of moving people and goods. A Raytheon-led team of industry and academic experts, under NASA contract NNA08BA47C, looked at the potential issues and impact of introducing four new classes of advanced aircraft into the next generation air transportation system -- known as NextGen. The study will help determine where NASA should further invest in research to support the safe introduction of these new air vehicles. Small uncrewed or unmanned aerial systems (SUAS), super heavy transports (SHT) including hybrid wing body versions (HWB), very light jets (VLJ), and supersonic business jets (SSBJ) are the four classes of aircraft that we studied. Understanding each vehicle's business purpose and strategy is critical to assessing the feasibility of new aircraft operations and their impact on NextGen's architecture. The Raytheon team used scenarios created by aviation experts that depict vehicles in year 2025 operations along with scripts or use cases to understand the issues presented by these new types of vehicles. The information was then mapped into the Joint Planning and Development Office's (JPDO s) Enterprise Architecture to show how the vehicles will fit into NextGen's Concept of Operations. The team also identified significant changes to the JPDO's Integrated Work Plan (IWP) to optimize the NextGen vision for these vehicles. Using a proven enterprise architecture approach and the JPDO s Joint Planning Environment (JPE) web site helped make the leap from architecture to planning efficient, manageable and achievable. Very Light Jets flying into busy hub airports -- Supersonic Business Jets needing to climb and descend rapidly to achieve the necessary altitude Super-heavy cargo planes requiring the shortest common flight

  12. Autonomous landing and ingress of micro-air-vehicles in urban environments based on monocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockers, Roland; Bouffard, Patrick; Ma, Jeremy; Matthies, Larry; Tomlin, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Unmanned micro air vehicles (MAVs) will play an important role in future reconnaissance and search and rescue applications. In order to conduct persistent surveillance and to conserve energy, MAVs need the ability to land, and they need the ability to enter (ingress) buildings and other structures to conduct reconnaissance. To be safe and practical under a wide range of environmental conditions, landing and ingress maneuvers must be autonomous, using real-time, onboard sensor feedback. To address these key behaviors, we present a novel method for vision-based autonomous MAV landing and ingress using a single camera for two urban scenarios: landing on an elevated surface, representative of a rooftop, and ingress through a rectangular opening, representative of a door or window. Real-world scenarios will not include special navigation markers, so we rely on tracking arbitrary scene features; however, we do currently exploit planarity of the scene. Our vision system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect navigation targets and to produce approach waypoints as inputs to the vehicle control algorithm. Scene perception, planning, and control run onboard in real-time; at present we obtain aircraft position knowledge from an external motion capture system, but we expect to replace this in the near future with a fully self-contained, onboard, vision-aided state estimation algorithm. We demonstrate autonomous vision-based landing and ingress target detection with two different quadrotor MAV platforms. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of onboard, vision-based autonomous landing and ingress algorithms that do not use special purpose scene markers to identify the destination.

  13. Autonomous Landing and Ingress of Micro-Air-Vehicles in Urban Environments Based on Monocular Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockers, Roland; Bouffard, Patrick; Ma, Jeremy; Matthies, Larry; Tomlin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned micro air vehicles (MAVs) will play an important role in future reconnaissance and search and rescue applications. In order to conduct persistent surveillance and to conserve energy, MAVs need the ability to land, and they need the ability to enter (ingress) buildings and other structures to conduct reconnaissance. To be safe and practical under a wide range of environmental conditions, landing and ingress maneuvers must be autonomous, using real-time, onboard sensor feedback. To address these key behaviors, we present a novel method for vision-based autonomous MAV landing and ingress using a single camera for two urban scenarios: landing on an elevated surface, representative of a rooftop, and ingress through a rectangular opening, representative of a door or window. Real-world scenarios will not include special navigation markers, so we rely on tracking arbitrary scene features; however, we do currently exploit planarity of the scene. Our vision system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect navigation targets and to produce approach waypoints as inputs to the vehicle control algorithm. Scene perception, planning, and control run onboard in real-time; at present we obtain aircraft position knowledge from an external motion capture system, but we expect to replace this in the near future with a fully self-contained, onboard, vision-aided state estimation algorithm. We demonstrate autonomous vision-based landing and ingress target detection with two different quadrotor MAV platforms. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of onboard, vision-based autonomous landing and ingress algorithms that do not use special purpose scene markers to identify the destination.

  14. Roof plan, Combat Operations Center, Building No. 2605. (Also includes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof plan, Combat Operations Center, Building No. 2605. (Also includes a typical roof section, with new fiberglass and urethane insulation layers.) By Federal Builders, 575 Carreon Drive, Colton, California. Sheet 1 of 1, dated 18 May 1992. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 24x36 inches. ink on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  15. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part II. CO, HC and NOx.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Du, Ke

    2016-09-15

    The estimation of emission factors (EFs) is the basis of accurate emission inventory. However, the EFs of air pollutants for motor vehicles vary under different operating conditions, which will cause uncertainty in developing emission inventory. Natural gas (NG), considered as a "cleaner" fuel than gasoline, is increasingly being used to reduce combustion emissions. However, information is scarce about how much emission reduction can be achieved by motor vehicles burning NG (NGVs) under real road driving conditions, which is necessary for evaluating the environmental benefits for NGVs. Here, online, in situ measurements of the emissions from nine bi-fuel vehicles were conducted under different operating conditions on the real road. A comparative study was performed for the EFs of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for each operating condition when the vehicles using gasoline and compressed NG (CNG) as fuel. BC EFs were reported in part I. The part II in this paper series reports the influence of operating conditions and fuel types on the EFs of CO, HC and NOx. Fuel-based EFs of CO showed good correlations with speed when burning CNG and gasoline. The correlation between fuel-based HC EFs and speed was relatively weak whether burning CNG or gasoline. The fuel-based NOx EFs moderately correlated with speed when burning CNG, but weakly correlated with gasoline. As for HC, the mileage-based EFs of gasoline vehicles are 2.39-12.59 times higher than those of CNG vehicles. The mileage-based NOx EFs of CNG vehicles are slightly higher than those of gasoline vehicles. These results would facilitate a detailed analysis of the environmental benefits for replacing gasoline with CNG in light duty vehicles. PMID:27219504

  16. Fully self-contained vision-aided navigation and landing of a micro air vehicle independent from external sensor inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockers, Roland; Susca, Sara; Zhu, David; Matthies, Larry

    2012-06-01

    Direct-lift micro air vehicles have important applications in reconnaissance. In order to conduct persistent surveillance in urban environments, it is essential that these systems can perform autonomous landing maneuvers on elevated surfaces that provide high vantage points without the help of any external sensor and with a fully contained on-board software solution. In this paper, we present a micro air vehicle that uses vision feedback from a single down looking camera to navigate autonomously and detect an elevated landing platform as a surrogate for a roof top. Our method requires no special preparation (labels or markers) of the landing location. Rather, leveraging the planar character of urban structure, the landing platform detection system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect landing targets and produce approach waypoints for autonomous landing. The vehicle control algorithm uses a Kalman filter based approach for pose estimation to fuse visual SLAM (PTAM) position estimates with IMU data to correct for high latency SLAM inputs and to increase the position estimate update rate in order to improve control stability. Scale recovery is achieved using inputs from a sonar altimeter. In experimental runs, we demonstrate a real-time implementation running on-board a micro aerial vehicle that is fully self-contained and independent from any external sensor information. With this method, the vehicle is able to search autonomously for a landing location and perform precision landing maneuvers on the detected targets.

  17. Fully Self-Contained Vision-Aided Navigation and Landing of a Micro Air Vehicle Independent from External Sensor Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockers, Roland; Susca, Sara; Zhu, David; Matthies, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Direct-lift micro air vehicles have important applications in reconnaissance. In order to conduct persistent surveillance in urban environments, it is essential that these systems can perform autonomous landing maneuvers on elevated surfaces that provide high vantage points without the help of any external sensor and with a fully contained on-board software solution. In this paper, we present a micro air vehicle that uses vision feedback from a single down looking camera to navigate autonomously and detect an elevated landing platform as a surrogate for a roof top. Our method requires no special preparation (labels or markers) of the landing location. Rather, leveraging the planar character of urban structure, the landing platform detection system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect landing targets and produce approach waypoints for autonomous landing. The vehicle control algorithm uses a Kalman filter based approach for pose estimation to fuse visual SLAM (PTAM) position estimates with IMU data to correct for high latency SLAM inputs and to increase the position estimate update rate in order to improve control stability. Scale recovery is achieved using inputs from a sonar altimeter. In experimental runs, we demonstrate a real-time implementation running on-board a micro aerial vehicle that is fully self-contained and independent from any external sensor information. With this method, the vehicle is able to search autonomously for a landing location and perform precision landing maneuvers on the detected targets.

  18. Measurement of Fine Particles From Mobile and Stationary Sources, and Reducing the Air Conditioner Power Consumption in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Eli Henry

    We study the PM2.5and ultrafine exhaust emissions from a new natural gas-fired turbine power facility to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine. These tests included PM2.5 and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO 3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. The turbine exhaust had an average particle number concentration that was 2.3x103 times higher than ambient air. The majority of these particles were nanoparticles; at the 100 nm size, stack particle concentrations were about 20 times higher than ambient, and increased to 3.9x104 times higher on average in the 2.5 - 3 nm particle size range. This study also found that ammonia emissions were higher than expected, but in compliance with permit conditions. This was possibly due to an ammonia imbalance entering the catalyst, some flue gas bypassing the catalyst, or not enough catalyst volume. SO3 accounted for an average of 23% of the total sulfur oxides emissions measured. Some of the SO3 is formed in the combustion process, it is likely that the majority formed as the SO2 in the combustion products passed across the oxidizing CO catalyst and SCR catalyst. The 100 MW turbine sampled in this study emitted particle loadings similar to those previously measured from turbines in the SCAQMD area, however, the turbine exhaust contained far more particles than ambient air. The power consumed by an air conditioner accounts for a significant fraction of the total power used by hybrid and electric vehicles especially during summer. This study examined the effect of recirculation of cabin air on power consumption of mobile air conditioners both in-lab and on-road. Real time power consumption and vehicle mileage were recorded by an On Board Diagnostic monitor and carbon balance method. Vehicle mileage improved with increased cabin air recirculation. The

  19. 4D metrology of flapping-wing micro air vehicle based on fringe projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qican; Huang, Lei; Chin, Yao-Wei; Keong, Lau-Gih; Asundi, Anand

    2013-06-01

    Inspired by dominant flight of the natural flyers and driven by civilian and military purposes, micro air vehicle (MAV) has been developed so far by passive wing control but still pales in aerodynamic performance. Better understanding of flapping wing flight mechanism is eager to improve MAV's flight performance. In this paper, a simple and effective 4D metrology technique to measure full-field deformation of flapping membrane wing is presented. Based on fringe projection and 3D Fourier analysis, the fast and complex dynamic deformation, including wing rotation and wing stroke, of a flapping wing during its flight can be accurately reconstructed from the deformed fringe patterns recorded by a highspeed camera. An experiment was carried on a flapping-wing MAV with 5-cm span membrane wing beating at 30 Hz, and the results show that this method is effective and will be useful to the aerodynamicist or micro aircraft designer for visualizing high-speed complex wing deformation and consequently aid the design of flapping wing mechanism to enhanced aerodynamic performance.

  20. Fuel Cell Propulsion Systems for an All-Electric Personal Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for all-electric aircraft propulsion as a means to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. Among the technologies under consideration for these concepts are advanced proton exchange membrane and solid oxide fuel cells, alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. This paper summarizes the results of a first-order feasibility study for an all-electric personal air vehicle utilizing a fuel cell-powered propulsion system. A representative aircraft with an internal combustion engine was chosen as a baseline to provide key parameters to the study, including engine power and subsystem mass, fuel storage volume and mass, and aircraft range. The engine, fuel tank, and associated ancillaries were then replaced with a fuel cell subsystem. Various configurations were considered including: a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell with liquid hydrogen storage; a direct methanol PEM fuel cell; and a direct internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/turbine hybrid system using liquid methane fuel. Each configuration was compared to the baseline case on a mass and range basis.

  1. An experimental study of a bio-inspired corrugated airfoil for micro air vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Jeffery T.; Hu, Hui

    2010-08-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of a bio-inspired corrugated airfoil compared with a smooth-surfaced airfoil and a flat plate at the chord Reynolds number of Re C = 58,000-125,000 to explore the potential applications of such bio-inspired corrugated airfoils for micro air vehicle designs. In addition to measuring the aerodynamic lift and drag forces acting on the tested airfoils, a digital particle image velocimetry system was used to conduct detailed flowfield measurements to quantify the transient behavior of vortex and turbulent flow structures around the airfoils. The measurement result revealed clearly that the corrugated airfoil has better performance over the smooth-surfaced airfoil and the flat plate in providing higher lift and preventing large-scale flow separation and airfoil stall at low Reynolds numbers (Re C < 100,000). While aerodynamic performance of the smooth-surfaced airfoil and the flat plate would vary considerably with the changing of the chord Reynolds numbers, the aerodynamic performance of the corrugated airfoil was found to be almost insensitive to the Reynolds numbers. The detailed flow field measurements were correlated with the aerodynamic force measurement data to elucidate underlying physics to improve our understanding about how and why the corrugation feature found in dragonfly wings holds aerodynamic advantages for low Reynolds number flight applications.

  2. Dynamic stability test results on an 0.024 scale B-1 air vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeman, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    Dynamic longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics of the B-1 air vehicle were investigated in three wind tunnels at the Langley Research Center. The main rotary derivatives were obtained for an angle of attack range of -3 degrees to +16 degrees for a Mach number range of 0.2 to 2.16. Damping in roll data could not be obtained at the supersonic Mach numbers. The Langley 7 x 10 foot high speed tunnel, the 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel, and the 4 foot Unitary Plan wind tunnel were the test sites. An 0.024 scale light-weight model was used on a forced oscillation type balance. Test Reynolds number varied from 474,000/ft to 1,550,000/ft. through the Mach number range tested. The results showed that the dynamic stability characteristics of the model in pitch and roll were generally satisfactory up to an angle attack of about +6 degrees. In the wing sweep range from 15 to 25 degrees the positive damping levels in roll deteriorated rapidly above +2 degrees angle of attack. This reduction in roll damping is believed to be due to the onset of separation over the wing as stall is approached.

  3. Conservation equations and physical models for hypersonic air flows over the aeroassist flight experiment vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    The code development and application program for the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA), with emphasis directed toward support of the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) in the near term and Aeroassisted Space Transfer Vehicle (ASTV) design in the long term is reviewed. LAURA is an upwind-biased, point-implicit relaxation algorithm for obtaining the numerical solution to the governing equations for 3-D, viscous, hypersonic flows in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium. The algorithm is derived using a finite volume formulation in which the inviscid components of flux across cell walls are described with Roe's averaging and Harten's entropy fix with second-order corrections based on Yee's Symmetric Total Variation Diminishing scheme. Because of the point-implicit relaxation strategy, the algorithm remains stable at large Courant numbers without the necessity of solving large, block tri-diagonal systems. A single relaxation step depends only on information from nearest neighbors. Predictions for pressure distributions, surface heating, and aerodynamic coefficients compare well with experimental data for Mach 10 flow over an AFE wind tunnel model. Predictions for the hypersonic flow of air in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium over the full scale AFE configuration obtained on a multi-domain grid are discussed.

  4. Low Dimensional Tools for Flow-Structure Interaction Problems: Application to Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmit, Ryan F.; Glauser, Mark N.; Gorton, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    A low dimensional tool for flow-structure interaction problems based on Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and modified Linear Stochastic Estimation (mLSE) has been proposed and was applied to a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) wing. The method utilizes the dynamic strain measurements from the wing to estimate the POD expansion coefficients from which an estimation of the velocity in the wake can be obtained. For this experiment the MAV wing was set at five different angles of attack, from 0 deg to 20 deg. The tunnel velocities varied from 44 to 58 ft/sec with corresponding Reynolds numbers of 46,000 to 70,000. A stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to measure the wake of the MAV wing simultaneously with the signals from the twelve dynamic strain gauges mounted on the wing. With 20 out of 2400 POD modes, a reasonable estimation of the flow flow was observed. By increasing the number of POD modes, a better estimation of the flow field will occur. Utilizing the simultaneously sampled strain gauges and flow field measurements in conjunction with mLSE, an estimation of the flow field with lower energy modes is reasonable. With these results, the methodology for estimating the wake flow field from just dynamic strain gauges is validated.

  5. Roof Modelling Potential of Unmanned Air Vehicle Point Clouds with Respect to Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakis, Serkan; Gunes Sefercik, Umut; Atalay, Can

    2016-07-01

    In parallel with the improvement of laser scanning technologies, dense point clouds which provide the detailed description of terrain and non-terrain objects became indispensable for remotely-sensed data users. Owing to the large demand, besides laser scanning, point clouds were started to achieve using photogrammetric images. Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) images are one of the most preferred data for creating dense point clouds by the advantage of low cost, rapid and periodically gain. In this study, we tried to assess the roof modelling potential of UAV point clouds by comparing three dimensional (3D) roof models produced from UAV and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point clouds. In the study, very popular low cost action camera SJ4000 and Faro Laser Scanner Focus3D X 330 were used to provide point clouds and the roof of Bulent Ecevit University Civil Aviation Academy building was utilized. For the validation of horizontal and vertical geolocation accuracies, standard deviation was used as the main indicator. The visual results demonstrated that UAV roof model is almost coherent with TLS roof model after the filtering-based refinement on noisy pixels and systematic bias correction. Moreover, the horizontal geolocation accuracy is approx. |5cm| both in X and Y directions and bias corrected vertical geolocation accuracy is approx. 17cm for zero roof slope.

  6. Design and verification of a smart wing for an extreme-agility micro-air-vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Chen, Yong; Martinez, Marcias; Wong, Franklin; Kernaghan, Robert

    2011-12-01

    A special class of fixed-wing micro-air-vehicle (MAV) is currently being designed to fly and hover to provide range superiority as well as being able to hover through a flight maneuver known as prop-hanging to accomplish a variety of surveillance missions. The hover maneuver requires roll control of the wing through differential aileron deflection but a conventional system contributes significantly to the gross weight and complexity of a MAV. Therefore, it is advantageous to use smart structure approaches with active materials to design a lightweight, robust wing for the MAV. The proposed smart wing consists of an active trailing edge flap integrated with bimorph actuators with piezoceramic fibers. Actuation is enhanced by preloading the bimorph actuators with a compressive axial load. The preload is exerted on the actuators through a passive latex or electroactive polymer (EAP) skin that wraps around the airfoil. An EAP skin would further enhance the actuation by providing an electrostatic effect of the dielectric polymer to increase the deflection. Analytical modeling as well as finite element analysis show that the proposed concept could achieve the target bi-directional deflection of 30° in typical flight conditions. Several bimorph actuators were manufactured and an experimental setup was designed to measure the static and dynamic deflections. The experimental results validated the analytical technique and finite element models, which have been further used to predict the performance of the smart wing design for a MAV.

  7. Multi-terminal remote monitoring and warning system using Micro Air Vehicle for dangerous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaoxun; He, Chengcheng; Lai, Chenlong; Liu, Yuanchao

    2015-11-01

    For overcoming the problems such as remote operation and dangerous tasks, multi-terminal remote monitoring and warning system based on STC89C52 Micro Control Unit and wireless communication technique was proposed. The system with MCU as its core adopted multiple sets of sensor device to monitor environment parameters of different locations, such as temperature, humidity, smoke other harmful gas concentration. Data information collected was transmitted remotely by wireless transceiver module, and then multi-channel data parameter was processed and displayed through serial communication protocol between the module and PC. The results of system could be checked in the form of web pages within a local network which plays a wireless monitoring and warning role. In a remote operation, four-rotor micro air vehicle which fixed airborne data acquisition device was utilized as a middleware between collecting terminal and PC to increase monitoring scope. Whole test system has characteristics of simple construction, convenience, real time ability and high reliability, which could meet the requirements of actual use.

  8. Multisensor 3D tracking for counter small unmanned air vehicles (CSUAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, Juan R.; Tarplee, Kyle M.; Case, Ellen E.; Zelnio, Anne M.; Rigling, Brian D.

    2008-04-01

    A variety of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) have been developed for both military and civilian use. The typical large UAV is typically state owned, whereas small UAVs (SUAVs) may be in the form of remote controlled aircraft that are widely available. The potential threat of these SUAVs to both the military and civilian populace has led to research efforts to counter these assets via track, ID, and attack. Difficulties arise from the small size and low radar cross section when attempting to detect and track these targets with a single sensor such as radar or video cameras. In addition, clutter objects make accurate ID difficult without very high resolution data, leading to the use of an acoustic array to support this function. This paper presents a multi-sensor architecture that exploits sensor modes including EO/IR cameras, an acoustic array, and future inclusion of a radar. A sensor resource management concept is presented along with preliminary results from three of the sensors.

  9. Design Evolution and Performance Characterization of the GTX Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBonis, J. R.; Steffen, C. J., Jr.; Rice, T.; Trefny, C. J.

    2002-01-01

    The design and analysis of a second version of the inlet for the GTX rocket-based combine-cycle launch vehicle is discussed. The previous design did not achieve its predicted performance levels due to excessive turning of low-momentum comer flows and local over-contraction due to asymmetric end-walls. This design attempts to remove these problems by reducing the spike half-angle to 10- from 12-degrees and by implementing true plane of symmetry end-walls. Axisymmetric Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations using both perfect gas and real gas, finite rate chemistry, assumptions were performed to aid in the design process and to create a comprehensive database of inlet performance. The inlet design, which operates over the entire air-breathing Mach number range from 0 to 12, and the performance database are presented. The performance database, for use in cycle analysis, includes predictions of mass capture, pressure recovery, throat Mach number, drag force, and heat load, for the entire Mach range. Results of the computations are compared with experimental data to validate the performance database.

  10. Fuel Cell Propulsion Systems for an All-electric Personal Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for all-electric aircraft propulsion as a means to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. Among the technologies under consideration for these concepts are advanced proton exchange membrane and solid oxide fuel cells, alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. This paper summarizes the results of a first-order feasibility study for an all-electric personal air vehicle utilizing a fuel cell-powered propulsion system. A representative aircraft with an internal combustion engine was chosen as a baseline to provide key parameters to the study, including engine power and subsystem mass, fuel storage volume and mass, and aircraft range. The engine, fuel tank, and associated ancillaries were then replaced with a fuel cell subsystem. Various configurations were considered including: a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell with liquid hydrogen storage; a direct methanol PEM fuel cell; and a direct internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)/turbine hybrid system using liquid methane fuel. Each configuration was compared to the baseline case on a mass and range basis.

  11. Utilization Assessment of Target Electrification Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island: Task 3

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Steve

    2015-05-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense based studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 2 involved identifying daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and initiating data logging of vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the data analysis and observations related to replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This fulfills part of the Task 3 requirements. Task 3 also includes an assessment of the charging infrastructure required to support this replacement, which is the subject of a separate report.

  12. Combat Agility Management System (CAMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skow, Andrew; Porada, William

    1994-01-01

    The proper management of energy becomes a complex task in fighter aircraft which have high angle of attack (AOA) capability. Maneuvers at high AOA are accompanied by high bleed rates (velocity decrease), a characteristic that is usually undesirable in a typical combat arena. Eidetics has developed under NASA SBIR Phase 1 and NAVAIR SBIR Phase 2 contracts a system which allows a pilot to more easily and effectively manage the trade-off of energy (airspeed or altitude) for turn rate while not imposing hard limits on the high AOA nose pointing capability that can be so important in certain air combat maneuver situations. This has been accomplished by incorporating a two-stage angle of attack limiter into the flight control laws. The first stage sets a limit on AOA to achieve a limit on the maximum bleed rate (selectable) by limiting AOA to values which are dependent on the aircraft attitude and dynamic pressure (or flight path, velocity, and altitude). The second stage sets an AOA limit near the AOA for C(sub l max). One of the principal benefits of such a system is that it enables a low-experience pilot to become much more proficient at managing his energy. The Phase 2 simulation work is complete, and an exploratory flight test on the F-18 HARV is planned for the Fall of 1994 to demonstrate/validate the concept.

  13. Dual rotor single- stator axial air gap PMSM motor/generator drive for high torque vehicles applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutelea, L. N.; Deaconu, S. I.; Boldea, I.; Popa, G. N.

    2014-03-01

    The actual e - continuously variable transmission (e-CVT) solution for the parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) requires two electric machines, two inverters, and a planetary gear. A distinct electric generator and a propulsion electric motor, both with full power converters, are typical for a series HEV. In an effort to simplify the planetary-geared e-CVT for the parallel HEV or the series HEV we hereby propose to replace the basically two electric machines and their two power converters by a single, axial-air-gap, electric machine central stator, fed from a single PWM converter with dual frequency voltage output and two independent PM rotors, destined for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and military vehicles applications. The proposed topologies and the magneto-motive force analysis are the core of the paper.

  14. Air-breathing hypersonic vehicle guidance and control studies: An integrated trajectory/control analysis methodology, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattis, Philip D.; Malchow, Harvey L.

    1992-01-01

    An integrated trajectory/control analysis algorithm has been used to generate trajectories and desired control strategies for two different hypersonic air-breathing vehicle models and orbit targets. Both models used cubic spline curve fit tabulated winged-cone accelerator vehicle representations. Near-fuel-optimal, horizontal takeoff trajectories, imposing a dynamic pressure limit of 1000 psf, were developed. The first model analysis case involved a polar orbit and included the dynamic effects of using elevons to maintain longitudinal trim. Analysis results indicated problems with the adequacy of the propulsion model and highlighted dynamic pressure/altitude instabilities when using vehicle angle of attack as a control variable. Also, the magnitude of computed elevon deflections to maintain trim suggested a need for alternative pitch moment management strategies. The second analysis case was reformulated to use vehicle pitch attitude relative to the local vertical as the control variable. A new, more realistic, air-breathing propulsion model was incorporated. Pitch trim calculations were dropped and an equatorial orbit was specified. Changes in flight characteristics due to the new propulsion model have been identified. Flight regimes demanding rapid attitude changes have been noted. Also, some issues that would affect design of closed-loop controllers were ascertained.

  15. Air-breathing hypersonic vehicle guidance and control studies; An integrated trajectory/control analysis methodology: Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattis, Philip D.; Malchow, Harvey L.

    1991-01-01

    A tool which generates optimal trajectory/control histories in an integrated manner is generically adapted to the treatment of single-stage-to-orbit air-breathing hypersonic vehicles. The methodology is implemented as a two point boundary value problem solution technique. Its use permits an assessment of an entire near-minimum-fuel trajectory and desired control strategy from takeoff to orbit while satisfying physically derived inequality constraints and while achieving efficient propulsive mode phasing. A simpler analysis strategy that partitions the trajectory into several boundary condition matched segments is also included to construct preliminary trajectory and control history representations with less computational burden than is required for the overall flight profile assessment. A demonstration was accomplished using a tabulated example (winged-cone accelerator) vehicle model that is combined with a newly developed multidimensional cubic spline data smoothing routine. A constrained near-fuel-optimal trajectory, imposing a dynamic pressure limit of 1000 psf, was developed from horizontal takeoff to 20,000 ft/sec relative air speed while aiming for a polar orbit. Previously unspecified propulsive discontinuities were located. Flight regimes demanding rapid attitude changes were identified, dictating control effector and closed-loop controller authority was ascertained after evaluating effector use for vehicle trim. Also, inadequacies in vehicle model representations and specific subsystem models with insufficient fidelity were determined based on unusual control characteristics and/or excessive sensitivity to uncertainty.

  16. 78 FR 29815 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... from inventories developed for the Final Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (76 FR 48208, August 8, 2011... reductions. \\7\\ 65 FR 6698 (February 10, 2000). The proposed Tier 3 standards include new light- and heavy... emissions standards.\\10\\ \\8\\ 77 FR 62623 (October 15, 2012). \\9\\ These states include Connecticut,...

  17. Field test of the Electric Fuel{trademark} zinc-air refuelable battery system for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, J.R.; Koretz, B.; Harats, Y.

    1996-12-31

    The Electric Fuel Limited (EFL) zinc-air refuelable battery system will be tested over the next two years in a number of electric vehicle demonstration projects, the largest of which is an $18-million, 64-vehicle, two-year test sponsored chiefly by Deutsche Post AG (the German Post Corporation). The German field test is the largest-ever EV fleet test of a single advanced-battery technology. It also represents a marked departure from other EV test and demonstration programs, in that it is being sponsored not by government or electric utility interests, but by large fleet operators committed to shifting significant proportions of their vehicles to electric over the next 5--10 years. The Electric Fuel battery has specific energy of 200 Wh/kg, an achievement that allows electric vehicles to go as far on a charge as conventionally fueled vehicles go on a tank of gasoline. Fast, convenient refueling eliminates the need for lengthy electrical recharging, and clean, centralized zinc regeneration plants ensure the most efficient and environment-friendly use of energy resources.

  18. Bio-inspired multi-mode optic flow sensors for micro air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seokjun; Choi, Jaehyuk; Cho, Jihyun; Yoon, Euisik

    2013-06-01

    Monitoring wide-field surrounding information is essential for vision-based autonomous navigation in micro-air-vehicles (MAV). Our image-cube (iCube) module, which consists of multiple sensors that are facing different angles in 3-D space, can be applied to the wide-field of view optic flows estimation (μ-Compound eyes) and to attitude control (μ- Ocelli) in the Micro Autonomous Systems and Technology (MAST) platforms. In this paper, we report an analog/digital (A/D) mixed-mode optic-flow sensor, which generates both optic flows and normal images in different modes for μ- Compound eyes and μ-Ocelli applications. The sensor employs a time-stamp based optic flow algorithm which is modified from the conventional EMD (Elementary Motion Detector) algorithm to give an optimum partitioning of hardware blocks in analog and digital domains as well as adequate allocation of pixel-level, column-parallel, and chip-level signal processing. Temporal filtering, which may require huge hardware resources if implemented in digital domain, is remained in a pixel-level analog processing unit. The rest of the blocks, including feature detection and timestamp latching, are implemented using digital circuits in a column-parallel processing unit. Finally, time-stamp information is decoded into velocity from look-up tables, multiplications, and simple subtraction circuits in a chip-level processing unit, thus significantly reducing core digital processing power consumption. In the normal image mode, the sensor generates 8-b digital images using single slope ADCs in the column unit. In the optic flow mode, the sensor estimates 8-b 1-D optic flows from the integrated mixed-mode algorithm core and 2-D optic flows with an external timestamp processing, respectively.

  19. Electroactive polymers as a novel actuator technology for lighter-than-air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Silvain; Dürager, Christian; Zobel, Martin; Fink, Erich

    2007-04-01

    In this paper the worldwide first EAP actuated blimp will be presented. It consists of a slightly pressurized Helium filled body of a biologically inspired form with Dielectric Elastomer (DE) actuators driving a classical cross tail with two vertical and horizontal rudders for flight control. Two versions of actuators will be discussed: The first version consisted of "spring-roll" type of cylindrical actuators placed together with the electrical supply and control unit in the pay load gondola. The second version consisted of a configuration, where the actuators are placed between the control surfaces and the rudders. This novel type of EAP actuator named "active hinge" was developed and characterized first in the laboratory and afterwards optimized for minimum weight and finally integrated in the blimp structure. In the design phase a numerical simulation tool for the prediction of the DE actuators was developed based on a material model calibrated with the test results from cylindrical actuators. The electrical supply and control system was developed and optimized for minimum of weight. Special attention was paid to the electromagnetic systems compatibility of the high voltage electrical supply system of the DE actuators and the radio flight control system. The design and production of this 3.5 meter long Lighter-than-Air vehicle was collaboration between Empa Duebendorf Switzerland and the Technical University of Berlin. The first version of this EAP blimp first flew at an RC airship regatta hold on 24 th of June 2006 in Dresden Germany, while the second version had his maiden flight on 8 th of January 2007 in Duebendorf Switzerland. In both cases satisfactory flight control performances were demonstrated.

  20. The Role of Design-of-Experiments in Managing Flow in Compact Air Vehicle Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Miller, Daniel N.; Gridley, Marvin C.; Agrell, Johan

    2003-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to demonstrate the viability and economy of Design-of-Experiments methodologies to arrive at microscale secondary flow control array designs that maintain optimal inlet performance over a wide range of the mission variables and to explore how these statistical methods provide a better understanding of the management of flow in compact air vehicle inlets. These statistical design concepts were used to investigate the robustness properties of low unit strength micro-effector arrays. Low unit strength micro-effectors are micro-vanes set at very low angles-of-incidence with very long chord lengths. They were designed to influence the near wall inlet flow over an extended streamwise distance, and their advantage lies in low total pressure loss and high effectiveness in managing engine face distortion. The term robustness is used in this paper in the same sense as it is used in the industrial problem solving community. It refers to minimizing the effects of the hard-to-control factors that influence the development of a product or process. In Robustness Engineering, the effects of the hard-to-control factors are often called noise , and the hard-to-control factors themselves are referred to as the environmental variables or sometimes as the Taguchi noise variables. Hence Robust Optimization refers to minimizing the effects of the environmental or noise variables on the development (design) of a product or process. In the management of flow in compact inlets, the environmental or noise variables can be identified with the mission variables. Therefore this paper formulates a statistical design methodology that minimizes the impact of variations in the mission variables on inlet performance and demonstrates that these statistical design concepts can lead to simpler inlet flow management systems.

  1. Emerging Fuel Cell Technology Being Developed: Offers Many Benefits to Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James F.; Civinskas, Kestutis C.

    2004-01-01

    Fuel cells, which have recently received considerable attention for terrestrial applications ranging from automobiles to stationary power generation, may enable new aerospace missions as well as offer fuel savings, quiet operations, and reduced emissions for current and future aircraft. NASA has extensive experience with fuel cells, having used them on manned space flight systems over four decades. Consequently, the NASA Glenn Research Center has initiated an effort to investigate and develop fuel cell technologies for multiple aerospace applications. Two promising fuel cell types are the proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). PEM technology, first used on the Gemini spacecraft in the sixties, remained unutilized thereafter until the automotive industry recently recognized the potential. PEM fuel cells are low-temperature devices offering quick startup time but requiring relatively pure hydrogen fuel. In contrast, SOFCs operate at high temperatures and tolerate higher levels of impurities. This flexibility allows SOFCs to use hydrocarbon fuels, which is an important factor considering our current liquid petroleum infrastructure. However, depending on the specific application, either PEM or SOFC can be attractive. As only NASA can, the Agency is pursuing fuel cell technology for civil uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) because it offers enhanced scientific capabilities, including enabling highaltitude, long-endurance missions. The NASA Helios aircraft demonstrated altitudes approaching 100,000 ft using solar power in 2001, and future plans include the development of a regenerative PEM fuel cell to provide nighttime power. Unique to NASA's mission, the high-altitude aircraft application requires the PEM fuel cell to operate on pure oxygen, instead of the air typical of terrestrial applications.

  2. Evaluation of some significant issues affecting trajectory and control management for air-breathing hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattis, Philip D.; Malchow, Harvey L.

    1992-01-01

    Horizontal takeoff airbreathing-propulsion launch vehicles require near-optimal guidance and control which takes into account performance sensitivities to atmospheric characteristics while satisfying physically-derived operational constraints. A generic trajectory/control analysis tool that deepens insight into these considerations has been applied to two versions of a winged-cone vehicle model. Information that is critical to the design and trajectory of these vehicles is derived, and several unusual characteristics of the airbreathing propulsion model are shown to have potentially substantial effects on vehicle dynamics.

  3. 78 FR 34911 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Low Emission Vehicle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ...EPA is approving State Implementation Plan (SIP) revisions submitted by the State of Maryland on December 20, 2007, November 12, 2010, and June 22, 2011, as amended March 22, 2013. These SIP revisions pertain to adoption by Maryland of a Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) program, which incorporates by reference California's second generation Low Emission Vehicle (LEVII) program regulations.......

  4. 77 FR 75388 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Motor Vehicle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ...,'' by removing the light duty vehicle emission testing ] limits that went into effect on January 1, 2006... Emissions Inspection Program,'' by removing the light duty vehicle emission testing limits that went into... August 8, 2006, and provided an opportunity for public comment through February 13, 2012 (see 77 FR...

  5. High-resolution simulation of link-level vehicle emissions and concentrations for air pollutants in a traffic-populated eastern Asian city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Huang, Ruikun; Wang, Jiandong; Yan, Han; Zheng, Yali; Hao, Jiming

    2016-08-01

    Vehicle emissions containing air pollutants created substantial environmental impacts on air quality for many traffic-populated cities in eastern Asia. A high-resolution emission inventory is a useful tool compared with traditional tools (e.g. registration data-based approach) to accurately evaluate real-world traffic dynamics and their environmental burden. In this study, Macau, one of the most populated cities in the world, is selected to demonstrate a high-resolution simulation of vehicular emissions and their contribution to air pollutant concentrations by coupling multimodels. First, traffic volumes by vehicle category on 47 typical roads were investigated during weekdays in 2010 and further applied in a networking demand simulation with the TransCAD model to establish hourly profiles of link-level vehicle counts. Local vehicle driving speed and vehicle age distribution data were also collected in Macau. Second, based on a localized vehicle emission model (e.g. the emission factor model for the Beijing vehicle fleet - Macau, EMBEV-Macau), this study established a link-based vehicle emission inventory in Macau with high resolution meshed in a temporal and spatial framework. Furthermore, we employed the AERMOD (AMS/EPA Regulatory Model) model to map concentrations of CO and primary PM2.5 contributed by local vehicle emissions during weekdays in November 2010. This study has discerned the strong impact of traffic flow dynamics on the temporal and spatial patterns of vehicle emissions, such as a geographic discrepancy of spatial allocation up to 26 % between THC and PM2.5 emissions owing to spatially heterogeneous vehicle-use intensity between motorcycles and diesel fleets. We also identified that the estimated CO2 emissions from gasoline vehicles agreed well with the statistical fuel consumption in Macau. Therefore, this paper provides a case study and a solid framework for developing high-resolution environment assessment tools for other vehicle-populated cities

  6. Models for computing combat risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Combat always involves uncertainty and uncertainty entails risk. To ensure that a combat task is prosecuted with the desired probability of success, the task commander has to devise an appropriate task force and then adjust it continuously in the course of battle. In order to do so, he has to evaluate how the probability of task success is related to the structure, capabilities and numerical strengths of combatants. For this purpose, predictive models of combat dynamics for combats in which the combatants fire asynchronously at random instants are developed from the first principles. Combats involving forces with both unlimited and limited ammunition supply are studied and modeled by stochastic Markov processes. In addition to the Markov models, another class of models first proposed by Brown was explored. The models compute directly the probability of win, in which we are primarily interested, without integrating the state probability equations. Experiments confirm that they produce exactly the same results at much lower computational cost.

  7. Structural Sizing of a Horizontal Take-Off Launch Vehicle with an Air Collection and Enrichment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurdy, David R.; Roche, Joseph M.

    2004-01-01

    In support of NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program, the Andrews Gryphon booster was studied. The Andrews Gryphon concept is a horizontal lift-off, two-stage-to-orbit, reusable launch vehicle that uses an air collection and enrichment system (ACES). The purpose of the ACES is to collect atmospheric oxygen during a subsonic flight loiter phase and cool it to cryogenic temperature, ultimately resulting in a reduced initial take-off weight To study the performance and size of an air-collection based booster, an initial airplane like shape was established as a baseline and modeled in a vehicle sizing code. The code, SIZER, contains a general series of volume, surface area, and fuel fraction relationships that tie engine and ACES performance with propellant requirements and volumetric constraints in order to establish vehicle closure for the given mission. A key element of system level weight optimization is the use of the SIZER program that provides rapid convergence and a great deal of flexibility for different tank architectures and material suites in order to study their impact on gross lift-off weight. This paper discusses important elements of the sizing code architecture followed by highlights of the baseline booster study.

  8. Design and development of a biomimetic device for micro air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohorquez, Felipe; Pines, Darryll J.

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a pitching and plunging (flapping) mechanism for small-scale flight. In order to harness the unsteady lift mechanisms, used by most insects, a biologically inspired flapping/pitching device in conjunction with a rotary wing concept was developed and built. This mechanism attempts to replicate some of the aerodynamic phenomena that enhance the performance of small fliers, replacing the periodic translational motion with a unidirectional circular motion while actively flapping and pitching the rotor blades. In order to find the appropriate combination of phase, amplitude, frequency and rotational speed that leads to enhancement in lift, the device requires uncoupled independent pitch and flap actuation systems to permit the complete mapping of the parameter space. In the device under consideration the phase shift between the flapping and the pitching oscillations can be adjusted from 0 to 360 degrees over a wide range of rotational speeds. Maximum flapping and pitching amplitudes of +/- 23 degree(s) and +/- 20 degree(s) respectively can be attained. Linear displacements of two coaxial shafts are translated into the flapping and pitching motion of the rotor blades. The mechanism was designed to minimize the actuation stroke so that smart materials and conventional actuators such as motors and cams could be used. Kinematic analysis as well as experimental tests were performed. Using a customized test stand thrust and torque produced by the rotor were measured at different angles of attack, in steady-state and under periodical pitching actuation. The results showed that hover efficiency was considerably increased for a range of thrust coefficients. The device was developed based on the University of Maryland's rotary wing Micro Air vehicle (MAV) the MICOR (MIcro COaxial Rotorcraft), an electrically driven 100 g coaxial helicopter. It is anticipated that active flapping and/or pitching could be implemented in the

  9. Development of a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing - Part 1: Development and evaluation of vehicle emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, B. Y.; Wu, L.; Mao, H. J.; Gong, S. L.; He, J. J.; Zou, C.; Song, G. H.; Li, X. Y.; Wu, Z.

    2015-10-01

    As the ownership of vehicles and frequency of utilization increase, vehicle emissions have become an important source of air pollution in Chinese cities. An accurate emission inventory for on-road vehicles is necessary for numerical air quality simulation and the assessment of implementation strategies. This paper presents a bottom-up methodology based on the local emission factors, complemented with the widely used emission factors of Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT) model and near real time (NRT) traffic data on road segments to develop a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory (HTSVE) for the urban Beijing area. To simulate real-world vehicle emissions accurately, the road has been divided into segments according to the driving cycle (traffic speed) on this road segment. The results show that the vehicle emissions of NOx, CO, HC and PM were 10.54 × 104, 42.51 × 104 and 2.13 × 104 and 0.41 × 104 Mg, respectively. The vehicle emissions and fuel consumption estimated by the model were compared with the China Vehicle Emission Control Annual Report and fuel sales thereafter. The grid-based emissions were also compared with the vehicular emission inventory developed by the macro-scale approach. This method indicates that the bottom-up approach better estimates the levels and spatial distribution of vehicle emissions than the macro-scale method, which relies on more information. Additionally, the on-road vehicle emission inventory model and control effect assessment system in Beijing, a vehicle emission inventory model, was established based on this study in a companion paper (He et al., 2015).

  10. Combat aircraft noise: The operator's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogg, R.

    1992-04-01

    Combat aircraft are not subject to the same noise reduction regulations as civil aircraft. Additionally, combat aircraft are operated closer to their performance limits and at high power settings for extended periods. There is general pressure to reduce noise of all kinds, but particularly noise from low flying aircraft. Although there is little that can be done to quiet in-service engines, operational palliatives, such as noise abatement procedures and restrictions on low flying, have been introduced. Moreover, there has been a concerted education and public relations campaign, and numerous airspace management changes have been introduced to reduce the impact of low flying on the population. These subjects were considered during a Pilot Study into aircraft noise under the auspices of the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society; the findings of the Study are discussed, giving both the international viewpoint and the UK perspective in particular. Some options for the reduction of low flying are also considered, but so long as military aircraft need to fly low to evade enemy air defences, low flying will remain a principal tactic of NATO air forces, and peacetime training will remain an essential military requirement. Thus, noise from low flying combat aircraft will remain a sensitive issue, and ways of reducing it will continue to be of importance for many years to come.

  11. Ascent performance of an air-breathing horizontal-takeoff launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Richard W.; Shaughnessy, John D.; Cruz, Christopher I.; Naftel, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    Simulations are conducted to investigate a proposed NASA launch vehicle that is fully reusable, takes off horizontally, and uses airbreathing propulsion in a single stage. The propulsion model is based on a cycle analysis method, and the vehicle is assumed to be a rigid structure with distributed fuel, operating under a range of atmospheric conditions. The program to optimize simulated trajectories (POST) is modified to include a predictor-corrector guidance capability and then used to generate the trajectories. Significant errors are encountered during the unpowered coast phase due to uncertainty in the atmospheric density profile. The amount of ascent propellant needed is shown to be directly related to the thrust-vector angle and the location of the center of gravity of the vehicle because of the importance of aim-drag losses to total ideal velocity.

  12. Hover and wind-tunnel testing of shrouded rotors for improved micro air vehicle design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Jason L.

    The shrouded-rotor configuration has emerged as the most popular choice for rotary-wing Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs), because of the inherent safety of the design and the potential for significant performance improvements. However, traditional design philosophies based on experience with large-scale ducted propellers may not apply to the low-Reynolds-number (˜20,000) regime in which MAVs operate. An experimental investigation of the effects of varying the shroud profile shape on the performance of MAV-scale shrouded rotors has therefore been conducted. Hover tests were performed on seventeen models with a nominal rotor diameter of 16 cm (6.3 in) and various values of diffuser expansion angle, diffuser length, inlet lip radius and blade tip clearance, at various rotor collective angles. Compared to the baseline open rotor, the shrouded rotors showed increases in thrust by up to 94%, at the same power consumption, or reductions in power by up to 62% at the same thrust. These improvements surpass those predicted by momentum theory, due to the additional effect of the shrouds in reducing the non-ideal power losses of the rotor. Increasing the lip radius and decreasing the blade tip clearance caused performance to improve, while optimal values of diffuser angle and length were found to be 10 and 50% of the shroud throat diameter, respectively. With the exception of the lip radius, the effects of changing any of the shrouded-rotor parameters on performance became more pronounced as the values of the other parameters were changed to degrade performance. Measurements were also made of the wake velocity profiles and the shroud surface pressure distributions. The uniformity of the wake was improved by the presence of the shrouds and by decreasing the blade tip clearance, resulting in lower induced power losses. For high net shroud thrust, a favorable pressure distribution over the inlet was seen to be more important than in the diffuser. Strong suction pressures were observed

  13. Numerical modeling of aerodynamics of airfoils of micro air vehicles in gusty environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalan, Harish

    The superior flight characteristics exhibited by birds and insects can be taken as a prototype of the most perfect form of flying machine ever created. The design of Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) which tries mimic the flight of birds and insects has generated a great deal of interest as the MAVs can be utilized for a number of commercial and military operations which is usually not easily accessible by manned motion. The size and speed of operation of a MAV results in low Reynolds number flight, way below the flying conditions of a conventional aircraft. The insensitivity to wind shear and gust is one of the required factors to be considered in the design of airfoil for MAVs. The stability of flight under wind shear is successfully accomplished in the flight of birds and insects, through the flapping motion of their wings. Numerous studies which attempt to model the flapping motion of the birds and insects have neglected the effect of wind gust on the stability of the motion. Also sudden change in flight conditions makes it important to have the ability to have an instantaneous change of the lift force without disturbing the stability of the MAV. In the current study, two dimensional rigid airfoil, undergoing flapping motion is studied numerically using a compressible Navier-Stokes solver discretized using high-order finite difference schemes. The high-order schemes in space and in time are needed to keep the numerical solution economic in terms of computer resources and to prevent vortices from smearing. The numerical grid required for the computations are generated using an inverse panel method for the streamfunction and potential function. This grid generating algorithm allows the creation of single-block orthogonal H-grids with ease of clustering anywhere in the domain and the easy resolution of boundary layers. The developed numerical algorithm has been validated successfully against benchmark problems in computational aeroacoustics (CAA), and unsteady viscous

  14. Rotor hover performance and system design of an efficient coaxial rotary wing micro air vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohorquez, Felipe

    2007-12-01

    Rotary-wing Micro air vehicles (MAVs) due to their unique hovering and low-speed flight capabilities are specially suited for missions that require operation in constrained spaces. Size restrictions force MAVs to operate in a low Reynolds number aerodynamic regime where viscous effects are dominant. This results in poor aerodynamic performance of conventional airfoils and rotor configurations. This dissertation explores the design issues that affect the hover performance of small-scale rotors and the implementation of a working coaxial MAV prototype. A computerized hover test stand was used for the systematic testing of single and coaxial small-scale rotors. Thin circular arcs were chosen for blade manufacturing because of their good aerodynamic characteristics at low Reynolds numbers, and simplified parameterization. Influence of airfoil geometry on single rotor hover performance was studied on untwisted rectangular blades. Non rectangular blades were used to study coupled airfoil and blade parameters. Tip tapered geometries were manufactured by removing material from baseline rectangular blades producing a coupling between blade planform, twist distribution, and spanwise airfoil shape. Performance gains were obtained by introducing large negative twist angles over short radial distances at the blade tips. A parametric study of the blade geometries resulted in maximum figures of merit of 0.65. Coaxial rotor performance at torque equilibrium was explored for different trims and operating conditions. It was found that the upper rotor was marginally affected by the lower one at spacings larger than 35% of the rotor radius, and that it produced about 60% of the total thrust. Experiments showed that power loading was maximized when higher collectives were used at the lower rotor, resulting in sizable differences in rotational speed between rotors. The CFD solver INS2d was used for a two-dimensional parametric aerodynamic study of circular arc airfoils. Lift, drag, and

  15. On aerodynamic modelling of an insect-like flapping wing in hover for micro air vehicles.

    PubMed

    Zbikowski, Rafał

    2002-02-15

    This theoretical paper discusses recent advances in the fluid dynamics of insect and micro air vehicle (MAV) flight and considers theoretical analyses necessary for their future development. The main purpose is to propose a new conceptual framework and, within this framework, two analytic approaches to aerodynamic modelling of an insect-like flapping wing in hover in the context of MAVs. The motion involved is periodic and is composed of two half-cycles (downstroke and upstroke) which, in hover, are mirror images of each other. The downstroke begins with the wing in the uppermost and rearmost position and then sweeps forward while pitching up and plunging down. At the end of the half-cycle, the wing flips, so that the leading edge points backwards and the wing's lower surface becomes its upper side. The upstroke then follows by mirroring the downstroke kinematics and executing them in the opposite direction. Phenomenologically, the interpretation of the flow dynamics involved, and adopted here, is based on recent experimental evidence obtained by biologists from insect flight and related mechanical models. It is assumed that the flow is incompressible, has low Reynolds number and is laminar, and that two factors dominate: (i) forces generated by the bound leading-edge vortex, which models flow separation; and (ii) forces due to the attached part of the flow generated by the periodic pitching, plunging and sweeping. The first of these resembles the analogous phenomenon observed on sharp-edged delta wings and is treated as such. The second contribution is similar to the unsteady aerodynamics of attached flow on helicopter rotor blades and is interpreted accordingly. Theoretically, the fluid dynamic description is based on: (i) the superposition of the unsteady contributions of wing pitching, plunging and sweeping; and (ii) adding corrections due to the bound leading-edge vortex and wake distortion. Viscosity is accounted for indirectly by imposing the Kutta condition

  16. Special problems and capabilities of high altitude lighter than air vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessel, P. R.; Petrone, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    Powered LTA vehicles have historically been limited to operations at low altitudes. Conditions exist which may enable a remotely piloted unit to be operated at an altitude near 70,000 feet. Such systems will be launched like high altitude balloons, operate like nonrigid airships, and have mission capabilities comparable to a low altitude stationary satellite. The limited lift available and the stratospheric environment impose special requirements on power systems, hull materials and payloads. Potential nonmilitary uses of the vehicle include communications relay, environmental monitoring and ship traffic control.

  17. Variable Speed CMG Control of a Dual-Spin Stabilized Unconventional VTOL Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Kyong B.; Moerder, Daniel D.; Shin, J-Y.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an approach based on using both bias momentum and multiple control moment gyros for controlling the attitude of statically unstable thrust-levitated vehicles in hover or slow translation. The stabilization approach described in this paper uses these internal angular momentum transfer devices for stability, augmented by thrust vectoring for trim and other outer loop control functions, including CMG stabilization/ desaturation under persistent external disturbances. Simulation results show the feasibility of (1) improved vehicle performance beyond bias momentum assisted vector thrusting control, and (2) using control moment gyros to significantly reduce the external torque required from the vector thrusting machinery.

  18. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  19. Cabin air temperature of parked vehicles in summer conditions: life-threatening environment for children and pets calculated by a dynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, Johannes; Schmerold, Ivo; Wimmer, Kurt; Schauberger, Günther

    2016-07-01

    In vehicles that are parked, no ventilation and/or air conditioning takes place. If a vehicle is exposed to direct solar radiation, an immediate temperature rise occurs. The high cabin air temperature can threaten children and animals that are left unattended in vehicles. In the USA, lethal heat strokes cause a mean death rate of 37 children per year. In addition, temperature-sensitive goods (e.g. drugs in ambulances and veterinary vehicles) can be adversely affected by high temperatures. To calculate the rise of the cabin air temperature, a dynamic model was developed that is driven by only three parameters, available at standard meteorological stations: air temperature, global radiation and wind velocity. The transition from the initial temperature to the constant equilibrium temperature depends strongly on the configuration of the vehicle, more specifically on insulation, window area and transmission of the glass, as well as on the meteorological conditions. The comparison of the model with empirical data showed good agreement. The model output can be applied to assess the heat load of children and animals as well as temperature-sensitive goods, which are transported and/or stored in a vehicle.

  20. Maglev vehicles and superconductor technology: Integration of high-speed ground transportation into the air travel system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.; Rote, D.M.; Hull, J.R.; Coffey, H.T.; Daley, J.G.; Giese, R.F.

    1989-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (1) evaluate the potential contribution of high-temperature superconductors (HTSCs) to the technical and economic feasibility of magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles, (2) determine the status of maglev transportation research in the United States and abroad, (3) identify the likelihood of a significant transportation market for high-speed maglev vehicles, and (4) provide a preliminary assessment of the potential energy and economic benefits of maglev systems. HTSCs should be considered as an enhancing, rather than an enabling, development for maglev transportation because they should improve reliability and reduce energy and maintenance costs. Superconducting maglev transportation technologies were developed in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Federal support was withdrawn in 1975, but major maglev transportation programs were continued in Japan and West Germany, where full-scale prototypes now carry passengers at speeds of 250 mi/h in demonstration runs. Maglev systems are generally viewed as very-high-speed train systems, but this study shows that the potential market for maglev technology as a train system, e.g., from one downtown to another, is limited. Rather, aircraft and maglev vehicles should be seen as complementing rather than competing transportation systems. If maglev systems were integrated into major hub airport operations, they could become economical in many relatively high-density US corridors. Air traffic congestion and associated noise and pollutant emissions around airports would also be reduced. 68 refs., 26 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Acute effects of motor vehicle traffic-related air pollution exposures on measures of oxidative stress in human airways

    PubMed Central

    Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked exposure to traffic-related air pollutants to increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Evidence from human, animal, and in vitro studies supports an important role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiological pathways underlying the adverse health effects of air pollutants. In controlled-exposure studies of animals and humans, emissions from diesel engines, a major source of traffic-related air pollutants, cause pulmonary and systemic inflammation that is mediated by redox-sensitive signaling pathways. Assessment of human responses to traffic-related air pollution under realistic conditions is challenging due to the complex, dynamic nature of near-roadway exposure. Noninvasive measurement of biomarkers in breath and breath condensate may be particularly useful for evaluating the role of oxidative stress in acute responses to exposures that occur in vehicles or during near-roadway activities. Promising biomarkers include nitric oxide in exhaled breath, and nitrite/nitrate, malondialdehyde, and F2-isoprostanes in exhaled breath condensate. PMID:20716291

  2. 77 FR 50969 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Low Emission Vehicle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ...-in hybrid electric vehicle conversions; and to adopt the national GHG emissions standards framework... Federal Register (88 FR 25324). This rule affects new passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium duty... Standard Has Been Revoked'' published in the August 3, 2005 Federal Register, 70 FR 4470). At the time...

  3. ANALYSIS OF MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS IN A HOUSTON TUNNEL DURING THE TEXAS AIR QUALITY STUDY 2000

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements from a Houston tunnel were used to develop fuel consumption based emission factors for CO, NOx, and Non-Methane Organic Compound (NMOC) for on-road gasoline vehicles. The Houston NOx emission factor was at the low range of emission factors reported in previous (pr...

  4. Networked sensors for the combat forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klager, Gene

    2004-11-01

    Real-time and detailed information is critical to the success of ground combat forces. Current manned reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) capabilities are not sufficient to cover battlefield intelligence gaps, provide Beyond-Line-of-Sight (BLOS) targeting, and the ambush avoidance information necessary for combat forces operating in hostile situations, complex terrain, and conducting military operations in urban terrain. This paper describes a current US Army program developing advanced networked unmanned/unattended sensor systems to survey these gaps and provide the Commander with real-time, pertinent information. Networked Sensors for the Combat Forces plans to develop and demonstrate a new generation of low cost distributed unmanned sensor systems organic to the RSTA Element. Networked unmanned sensors will provide remote monitoring of gaps, will increase a unit"s area of coverage, and will provide the commander organic assets to complete his Battlefield Situational Awareness (BSA) picture for direct and indirect fire weapons, early warning, and threat avoidance. Current efforts include developing sensor packages for unmanned ground vehicles, small unmanned aerial vehicles, and unattended ground sensors using advanced sensor technologies. These sensors will be integrated with robust networked communications and Battle Command tools for mission planning, intelligence "reachback", and sensor data management. The network architecture design is based on a model that identifies a three-part modular design: 1) standardized sensor message protocols, 2) Sensor Data Management, and 3) Service Oriented Architecture. This simple model provides maximum flexibility for data exchange, information management and distribution. Products include: Sensor suites optimized for unmanned platforms, stationary and mobile versions of the Sensor Data Management Center, Battle Command planning tools, networked communications, and sensor management software. Details

  5. Equivalent Air Spring Suspension Model for Quarter-Passive Model of Passenger Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Haider J.; Chen, Jie; Nassar, Ameen A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the GENSIS air spring suspension system equivalence to a passive suspension system. The SIMULINK simulation together with the OptiY optimization is used to obtain the air spring suspension model equivalent to passive suspension system, where the car body response difference from both systems with the same road profile inputs is used as the objective function for optimization (OptiY program). The parameters of air spring system such as initial pressure, volume of bag, length of surge pipe, diameter of surge pipe, and volume of reservoir are obtained from optimization. The simulation results show that the air spring suspension equivalent system can produce responses very close to the passive suspension system. PMID:27351020

  6. 9 CFR 3.62 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rabbits shall be mechanically sound and provide fresh air by means of windows, doors, vents, or air... temperature in the animal cargo space is 75 °F (23.9 °C) or higher. The ambient temperature within the animal... temperature in the cargo space may be below 45 °F (7.2 °C) if the rabbits are accompanied by a certificate...

  7. A Feasibility Study on the Control of a Generic Air Vehicle Using Control Moment Gyros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Kyong B.; Moerder, Daniel D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines feasibility and performance issues in using Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs) to control the attitude of a fixed-wing aircraft. The paper describes a control system structure that permits allocating control authority and bandwidth between a CMG system and conventional aerodynamic control surfaces to stabilize a vehicle with neutral aerodynamic stability. A simulation study explores the interplay between aerodynamic and CMG effects, and indicates desirable physical characteristics for a CMG system to be used for aircraft attitude control.

  8. Net air emissions from electric vehicles: the effect of carbon price and charging strategies.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Scott B; Whitacre, J F; Apt, Jay

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become part of the transportation fleet on time scales of a decade or two. We calculate the electric grid load increase and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generation mix, the current mix with a $50/tonne CO(2) price, and this case but with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO(2) capture. We also examine all new generation being natural gas or wind+gas. PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50% are examined. Vehicles with small (4 kWh) and large (16 kWh) batteries are modeled with driving patterns from the National Household Transportation Survey. Three charging strategies and three scenarios for future electric generation are considered. When compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO(2) emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows somewhat smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO(2) generation. NO(X) is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO(2) emissions or allowance prices under a cap. PMID:21309508

  9. An air launched, highly responsive military transatmospheric vehicle (TAV), based on existing aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampsten, Kenneth R.

    1996-03-01

    A novel vehicle design is presented that minimizes Research Development Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) cost. The proposed TAV can satisfy a broad range of military mission applications for the 21st century. TAV deployment is provided by a Rockwell B-1B bomber. Pre-launch orientation of the vehicle is centerline, underneath the B-1B forward weapon bays. Launch occurs at 30,000 ft, Mach 0.90, and at a flight path angle of 15-20 degrees. The TAV is a Two-Stage-To-Orbit (TSTO) vehicle utilizing Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and RP-1 (kerosene) propellants. The reusable upper stage, or TAV, incorporates a 130 cubic foot payload bay for mission specific equipment. The booster can either be expended, or potentially recovered for reuse. TAV reentry relies on a biconic aeroshell for the hypersonic flight phase and a parafoil for the subsonic, terminal recovery phase. Nominal mission performance is between 1,150-1,800 lbs of payload into a 100 nmi circular orbit.

  10. Assessment of the capacity of vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust-induced symptoms in human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution especially derived from traffic is associated with increases in cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. In this study, we evaluated the ability of novel vehicle cabin air inlet filters to reduce diesel exhaust (DE)-induced symptoms and markers of inflammation in human subjects. Methods Thirty healthy subjects participated in a randomized double-blind controlled crossover study where they were exposed to filtered air, unfiltered DE and DE filtered through two selected particle filters, one with and one without active charcoal. Exposures lasted for one hour. Symptoms were assessed before and during exposures and lung function was measured before and after each exposure, with inflammation assessed in peripheral blood five hours after exposures. In parallel, PM were collected from unfiltered and filtered DE and assessed for their capacity to drive damaging oxidation reactions in a cell-free model, or promote inflammation in A549 cells. Results The standard particle filter employed in this study reduced PM10 mass concentrations within the exposure chamber by 46%, further reduced to 74% by the inclusion of an active charcoal component. In addition use of the active charcoal filter was associated by a 75% and 50% reduction in NO2 and hydrocarbon concentrations, respectively. As expected, subjects reported more subjective symptoms after exposure to unfiltered DE compared to filtered air, which was significantly reduced by the filter with an active charcoal component. There were no significant changes in lung function after exposures. Similarly diesel exhaust did not elicit significant increases in any of the inflammatory markers examined in the peripheral blood samples 5 hour post-exposure. Whilst the filters reduced chamber particle concentrations, the oxidative activity of the particles themselves, did not change following filtration with either filter. In contrast, diesel exhaust PM passed through the

  11. Some factors affecting the use of lighter than air systems. [economic and performance estimates for dirigibles and semi-buoyant hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havill, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    The uses of lighter-than-air vehicles are examined in the present day transportation environment. Conventional dirigibles were found to indicate an undesirable economic risk due to their low speeds and to uncertainties concerning their operational use. Semi-buoyant hybrid vehicles are suggested as an alternative which does not have many of the inferior characteristics of conventional dirigibles. Economic and performance estimates for hybrid vehicles indicate that they are competitive with other transportation systems in many applications, and unique in their ability to perform some highly desirable emergency missions.

  12. HSI Guidelines Outline for the Air Vehicle Control Station. Version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides guidance to the FAA and manufacturers on how to develop UAS Pilot Vehicle Interfaces to safely and effectively integrate UASs into the NAS. Preliminary guidelines are provided for Aviate, Communicate, Navigate and Avoid Hazard functions. The pilot shall have information and control capability so that pilot-UA interactions are not adverse, unfavorable, nor compromise safety. Unfavorable interactions include anomalous aircraft-pilot coupling (APC) interactions (closed loop), pilot-involved oscillations (categories I, II or III), and non-oscillatory APC events (e.g., divergence). - Human Systems Integration Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Command, Control, and Communications (C3)

  13. Novel prescribed performance neural control of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with unknown initial errors.

    PubMed

    Bu, Xiangwei; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Fujing; Huang, Jiaqi; Ma, Zhen; Zhang, Rui

    2015-11-01

    A novel prescribed performance neural controller with unknown initial errors is addressed for the longitudinal dynamic model of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV) subject to parametric uncertainties. Different from traditional prescribed performance control (PPC) requiring that the initial errors have to be known accurately, this paper investigates the tracking control without accurate initial errors via exploiting a new performance function. A combined neural back-stepping and minimal learning parameter (MLP) technology is employed for exploring a prescribed performance controller that provides robust tracking of velocity and altitude reference trajectories. The highlight is that the transient performance of velocity and altitude tracking errors is satisfactory and the computational load of neural approximation is low. Finally, numerical simulation results from a nonlinear FAHV model demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed strategy. PMID:26456727

  14. On the Application of Rapid Prototyping Technology for the Fabrication of Flapping Wings for Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Kurtis Leigh

    Micro air vehicles (MAV) are a class of small uninhabited aircraft with dimensions less than 15 cm (6 in) and mass less than 500g (1.1 lbs). The aim of this research was to develop a fast, accurate, low-cost, and repeatable fabrication process for flapping MAV wings. Through the use of the RepRap Mendel open-source fused-deposition modeling (FDM) rapid prototyping machine ("3-D printer"), various wing prototypes were designed and fabricated using a bio-inspired approach. Testing of the aerodynamic performance of both real locust wings and the 3-D printed wing prototypes was performed through axial spin testing. Bending stiffness measurements were also performed on the 3-D printed wings. Through the use of open-source rapid prototyping technology, a fast and low-cost fabrication process for flapping MAV wings has been developed, out of which further understanding of flapping wing design and fabrication has been gained.

  15. 9 CFR 3.37 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to transport guinea pigs or hamsters shall be mechanically sound and provide fresh air by means of... containing live guinea pigs or hamsters when the ambient temperature in the animal cargo space is 75 °F (23.9 °C) or higher. The ambient temperature within the animal cargo space shall not exceed 85 °F (29.5...

  16. Development of a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal-spatial resolution based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing - Part 1: Development and evaluation of vehicle emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Boyu; Wu, Lin; Mao, Hongjun; Gong, Sunning; He, Jianjun; Zou, Chao; Song, Guohua; Li, Xiaoyu; Wu, Zhong

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a bottom-up methodology based on the local emission factors, complemented with the widely used emission factors of Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT) model and near-real-time traffic data on road segments to develop a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal-spatial resolution (HTSVE) for the Beijing urban area. To simulate real-world vehicle emissions accurately, the road has been divided into segments according to the driving cycle (traffic speed) on this road segment. The results show that the vehicle emissions of NOx, CO, HC and PM were 10.54 × 104, 42.51 × 104 and 2.13 × 104 and 0.41 × 104 Mg respectively. The vehicle emissions and fuel consumption estimated by the model were compared with the China Vehicle Emission Control Annual Report and fuel sales thereafter. The grid-based emissions were also compared with the vehicular emission inventory developed by the macro-scale approach. This method indicates that the bottom-up approach better estimates the levels and spatial distribution of vehicle emissions than the macro-scale method, which relies on more information. Based on the results of this study, improved air quality simulation and the contribution of vehicle emissions to ambient pollutant concentration in Beijing have been investigated in a companion paper (He et al., 2016).

  17. Experimental Investigation of Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Aeroheating: LaRC 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel Test 6931

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Entry Vehicle has been performed in the Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Data were measured on a approx.3.5% scale model (0.1778-m/7-inch diameter) of the vehicle using coaxial thermocouples at free stream Reynolds numbers of 2.0 10(exp 6)/ft to 7.30 10(exp 6)/ft and computational predictions were generated for all test conditions. The primary goals of this test were to obtain convective heating data for use in assessing the accuracy of the computational technique and to validate test methodology and heating data from a test of the same wind tunnel model in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Tunnel 9. Secondary goals were to determine the extent of transitional/turbulent data which could be produced on a CEV model in this facility, either with or without boundary-layer trips, and to demonstrate continuous pitch-sweep operation in this tunnel for heat transfer testing.

  18. Novel adaptive neural control design for a constrained flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle based on actuator compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Xiangwei; Wu, Xiaoyan; He, Guangjun; Huang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the design of a novel adaptive neural controller for the longitudinal dynamics of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with control input constraints. To reduce the complexity of controller design, the vehicle dynamics is decomposed into the velocity subsystem and the altitude subsystem, respectively. For each subsystem, only one neural network is utilized to approach the lumped unknown function. By employing a minimal-learning parameter method to estimate the norm of ideal weight vectors rather than their elements, there are only two adaptive parameters required for neural approximation. Thus, the computational burden is lower than the ones derived from neural back-stepping schemes. Specially, to deal with the control input constraints, additional systems are exploited to compensate the actuators. Lyapunov synthesis proves that all the closed-loop signals involved are uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, simulation results show that the adopted compensation scheme can tackle actuator constraint effectively and moreover velocity and altitude can stably track their reference trajectories even when the physical limitations on control inputs are in effect.

  19. Prediction of thermal behaviors of an air-cooled lithium-ion battery system for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yong Seok; Kang, Dal Mo

    2014-12-01

    Thermal management has been one of the major issues in developing a lithium-ion (Li-ion) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery system since the Li-ion battery is vulnerable to excessive heat load under abnormal or severe operational conditions. In this work, in order to design a suitable thermal management system, a simple modeling methodology describing thermal behavior of an air-cooled Li-ion battery system was proposed from vehicle components designer's point of view. A proposed mathematical model was constructed based on the battery's electrical and mechanical properties. Also, validation test results for the Li-ion battery system were presented. A pulse current duty and an adjusted US06 current cycle for a two-mode HEV system were used to validate the accuracy of the model prediction. Results showed that the present model can give good estimations for simulating convective heat transfer cooling during battery operation. The developed thermal model is useful in structuring the flow system and determining the appropriate cooling capacity for a specified design prerequisite of the battery system.

  20. Micro air vehicle-motivated computational biomechanics in bio-flights: aerodynamics, flight dynamics and maneuvering stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Gao, Na; Maeda, Masateru; Aono, Hikaru; Shyy, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Aiming at developing an effective tool to unveil key mechanisms in bio-flight as well as to provide guidelines for bio-inspired micro air vehicles (MAVs) design, we propose a comprehensive computational framework, which integrates aerodynamics, flight dynamics, vehicle stability and maneuverability. This framework consists of (1) a Navier-Stokes unsteady aerodynamic model; (2) a linear finite element model for structural dynamics; (3) a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model for coupled flexible wing aerodynamics aeroelasticity; (4) a free-flying rigid body dynamic (RBD) model utilizing the Newtonian-Euler equations of 6DoF motion; and (5) flight simulator accounting for realistic wing-body morphology, flapping-wing and body kinematics, and a coupling model accounting for the nonlinear 6DoF flight dynamics and stability of insect flapping flight. Results are presented based on hovering aerodynamics with rigid and flexible wings of hawkmoth and fruitfly. The present approach can support systematic analyses of bio- and bio-inspired flight.

  1. A Common Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Infrastructure for Accommodating Space Vehicles in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSuetendael, RIchard; Hayes, Alan; Birr, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Suborbital space flight and space tourism are new potential markets that could significantly impact the National Airspace System (NAS). Numerous private companies are developing space flight capabilities to capture a piece of an emerging commercial space transportation market. These entrepreneurs share a common vision that sees commercial space flight as a profitable venture. Additionally, U.S. space exploration policy and national defense will impose significant additional demands on the NAS. Air traffic service providers must allow all users fair access to limited airspace, while ensuring that the highest levels of safety, security, and efficiency are maintained. The FAA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) will need to accommodate spacecraft transitioning to and from space through the NAS. To accomplish this, space and air traffic operations will need to be seamlessly integrated under some common communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure. As part of NextGen, the FAA has been developing the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) which utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS) to track and separate aircraft. Another key component of NextGen, System-Wide Information Management/ Network Enabled Operations (SWIM/NEO), is an open architecture network that will provide NAS data to various customers, system tools and applications. NASA and DoD are currently developing a space-based range (SBR) concept that also utilizes GPS, communications satellites and other CNS assets. The future SBR will have very similar utility for space operations as ADS-B and SWIM has for air traffic. Perhaps the FAA, NASA, and DoD should consider developing a common space-based CNS infrastructure to support both aviation and space transportation operations. This paper suggests specific areas of research for developing a CNS infrastructure that can accommodate spacecraft and other new types of vehicles as an integrated part of NextGen.

  2. Remote Sensing of Arctic Environmental Conditions and Critical Infrastructure using Infra-Red (IR) Cameras and Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, M. C.; Webley, P.; Saiet, E., II

    2014-12-01

    Remote Sensing of Arctic Environmental Conditions and Critical Infrastructure using Infra-Red (IR) Cameras and Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) Numerous scientific and logistical applications exist in Alaska and other arctic regions requiring analysis of expansive, remote areas in the near infrared (NIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) bands. These include characterization of wild land fire plumes and volcanic ejecta, detailed mapping of lava flows, and inspection of lengthy segments of critical infrastructure, such as the Alaska pipeline and railroad system. Obtaining timely, repeatable, calibrated measurements of these extensive features and infrastructure networks requires localized, taskable assets such as UAVs. The Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) provides practical solutions to these problem sets by pairing various IR sensors with a combination of fixed-wing and multi-rotor air vehicles. Fixed-wing assets, such as the Insitu ScanEagle, offer long reach and extended duration capabilities to quickly access remote locations and provide enduring surveillance of the target of interest. Rotary-wing assets, such as the Aeryon Scout or the ACUASI-built Ptarmigan hexcopter, provide a precision capability for detailed horizontal mapping or vertical stratification of atmospheric phenomena. When included with other ground capabilities, we will show how they can assist in decision support and hazard assessment as well as giving those in emergency management a new ability to increase knowledge of the event at hand while reducing the risk to all involved. Here, in this presentation, we illustrate how UAV's can provide the ideal tool to map and analyze the hazardous events and critical infrastructure under extreme environmental conditions.

  3. Support of marines and sailors returning from combat: a comparison of two different mental health models.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Scott L; Dipp, Randolf D

    2009-05-01

    As Navy medicine continues to support the Global War on Terrorism, various approaches are used to attenuate combat stress casualties. This article examines two different mental health models, one employed at sea and one in the combat zone, used for active duty forces immediately after cessation of combat operations. Both models focus on screening, early prevention, and treatment implemented during the transition from the combat theater to garrison. Returning by sea provided the opportunity for greater education and decompression of combat stress as the service members transitioned back to garrison when compared to those who returned by air. It was also found that the Post Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA) did not capture as many individuals with mental health issues leaving combat theater, which identified 6% on both missions, compared to the capture rate with the Post Deployment Psychological Screener (PDPS), which identified 16-20%. Limitations, opportunities, and recommendations for future interventions are discussed. PMID:20731274

  4. Visual Servoing of Quadrotor Micro-Air Vehicle Using Color-Based Tracking Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azrad, Syaril; Kendoul, Farid; Nonami, Kenzo

    This paper describes a vision-based tracking system using an autonomous Quadrotor Unmanned Micro-Aerial Vehicle (MAV). The vision-based control system relies on color target detection and tracking algorithm using integral image, Kalman filters for relative pose estimation, and a nonlinear controller for the MAV stabilization and guidance. The vision algorithm relies on information from a single onboard camera. An arbitrary target can be selected in real-time from the ground control station, thereby outperforming template and learning-based approaches. Experimental results obtained from outdoor flight tests, showed that the vision-control system enabled the MAV to track and hover above the target as long as the battery is available. The target does not need to be pre-learned, or a template for detection. The results from image processing are sent to navigate a non-linear controller designed for the MAV by the researchers in our group.

  5. Design and development of an unconventional VTOL micro air vehicle: The Cyclocopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, Moble; Chopra, Inderjit

    2012-06-01

    This paper discusses the systematic experimental and vehicle design/development studies conducted at the University of Maryland which culminated in the development of the first flying Cyclocopter in the history. Cyclocopter is a novel Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) aircraft, which utilizes cycloidalrotors (cyclorotors), a revolutionary horizontal axis propulsion concept, that has many advantages such as higher aerodynamic efficiency, maneuverability and high-speed forward flight capability when compared to a conventional helicopter rotor. The experimental studies included a detailed parametric study to understand the effect of rotor geometry and blade kinematics on cyclorotor hover performance. Based on the experimental results, higher blade pitch angles were found to improve thrust and increase the power loading (thrust per unit power) of the cyclorotor. Asymmetric pitching with higher pitch angle at the top than at the bottom produced better power loading. The chordwise optimum pitching axis location was observed to be around 25-35% of the blade chord. Because of the flow curvature effects, the cycloidal rotor performance was a strong function of the chord/radius ratio. The optimum chord/radius ratios were extremely high, around 0.5-0.8, depending on the blade pitching amplitude. A flow field investigation was also conducted using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to unravel the physics behind thrust production of a cyclorotor. PIV studies indicated evidence of a stall delay as well as possible increases in lift on the blades from the presence of a leading edge vortex. The goal of all these studies was to understand and optimize the performance of a micro-scale cyclorotor so that it could be used in a flying vehicle. An optimized cyclorotor was used to develop a 200 gram cyclocopter capable of autonomous stable hover using an onboard feedback controller.

  6. Implementation of the Rauch-Tung-Striebel Smoother for Sensor Compatibility Correction of a Fixed-Wing Unmanned Air Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Woei-Leong; Hsiao, Fei-Bin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a complete procedure for sensor compatibility correction of a fixed-wing Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV). The sensors consist of a differential air pressure transducer for airspeed measurement, two airdata vanes installed on an airdata probe for angle of attack (AoA) and angle of sideslip (AoS) measurement, and an Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) that provides attitude angles, angular rates, and acceleration. The procedure is mainly based on a two pass algorithm called the Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS) smoother, which consists of a forward pass Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and a backward recursion smoother. On top of that, this paper proposes the implementation of the Wiener Type Filter prior to the RTS in order to avoid the complicated process noise covariance matrix estimation. Furthermore, an easy to implement airdata measurement noise variance estimation method is introduced. The method estimates the airdata and subsequently the noise variances using the ground speed and ascent rate provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS). It incorporates the idea of data regionality by assuming that some sort of statistical relation exists between nearby data points. Root mean square deviation (RMSD) is being employed to justify the sensor compatibility. The result shows that the presented procedure is easy to implement and it improves the UAV sensor data compatibility significantly. PMID:22163819

  7. Implementation of the Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother for sensor compatibility correction of a fixed-wing unmanned air vehicle.

    PubMed

    Chan, Woei-Leong; Hsiao, Fei-Bin

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a complete procedure for sensor compatibility correction of a fixed-wing Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV). The sensors consist of a differential air pressure transducer for airspeed measurement, two airdata vanes installed on an airdata probe for angle of attack (AoA) and angle of sideslip (AoS) measurement, and an Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS) that provides attitude angles, angular rates, and acceleration. The procedure is mainly based on a two pass algorithm called the Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS) smoother, which consists of a forward pass Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and a backward recursion smoother. On top of that, this paper proposes the implementation of the Wiener Type Filter prior to the RTS in order to avoid the complicated process noise covariance matrix estimation. Furthermore, an easy to implement airdata measurement noise variance estimation method is introduced. The method estimates the airdata and subsequently the noise variances using the ground speed and ascent rate provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS). It incorporates the idea of data regionality by assuming that some sort of statistical relation exists between nearby data points. Root mean square deviation (RMSD) is being employed to justify the sensor compatibility. The result shows that the presented procedure is easy to implement and it improves the UAV sensor data compatibility significantly. PMID:22163819

  8. Installation restoration program: UST removal report. 117th Refueling Wing, Alabama Air National Guard, Birmingham Airport, Birmingham, Alabama and 226th Combat Information Systems Group, Martin Air National Guard Station, Gadsden Airport, Gadsden, Alabama. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Installation Restoration Program was initiated by the Air National Guard (ANG) to evaluate potential contamination to the environment caused by past practices at its installations. During the 1987 Preliminary Assessment (PA), ten abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs) were identified at nine sites. During the 1991 Site Investigation, surveys found four USTs at four sites and none at the other sites. The UST at Gadsden was removed in November 1989. Three USTs were removed at Birmingham in January 1991. Remaining soil was below Alabama Department of Environmental Management`s (ADEM) corrective action limit of 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) for the Gadsden UST and UST 380 at Birmingham. For USTs 120 and 130 at Birmingham, remaining soil was above ADEM`s corrective action limit, but believed to be limited to soils immediately adjacent to the tank pits. The report recommends no further action be taken at any of the UST sites.

  9. Installation restoration program: UST removal report. 117th Refueling Wing, Alabama Air National Guard, Birmingham Airport, Birmingham, Alabama and 226th Combat Information Systems Group, Martin Air National Guard Station, Gadsden Airport, Gadsden, Alabama. Volume II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Installation Restoration Program was initiated by the Air National Guard (ANG) to evaluate potential contamination to the environment caused by past practices at its installations. During the 1987 Preliminary Assessment (PA), ten abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs) were identified at nine sites. During the 1991 Site Investigation, surveys found four USTs at four sites and none at the other sites. The UST at Gadsden was removed in November 1989. Three USTs were removed at Birmingham in January 1991. Remaining soil was below Alabama Department of Environmental Management`s (ADEM) corrective action limit of 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) for the Gadsden UST and UST 380 at Birmingham. For USTs 120 and 130 at Birmingham, remaining soil was above ADEM`s corrective action limit, but believed to be limited to soils immediately adjacent to the tank pits. The report recommends no further action be taken at any of the UST sites.

  10. Trends in on-road vehicle emissions and ambient air quality in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, from the late 1990s through 2009

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; DenBleyker, Allison; Ma, Lan; Lindhjem, Chris; Yarwood, Greg

    2014-01-01

    On-road vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1995–2009 in the Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area were estimated using the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model and data from the National Emissions Inventories and the State of Georgia. Statistically significant downward trends (computed using the nonparametric Theil-Sen method) in annual on-road CO, NOx, and VOC emissions of 6.1%, 3.3%, and 6.0% per year, respectively, are noted during the 1995–2009 period despite an increase in total vehicle distance traveled. The CO and NOx emission trends are correlated with statistically significant downward trends in ambient air concentrations of CO and NOx in Atlanta ranging from 8.0% to 11.8% per year and from 5.8% to 8.7% per year, respectively, during similar time periods. Weather-adjusted summertime ozone concentrations in Atlanta exhibited a statistically significant declining trend of 2.3% per year during 2001– 2009. Although this trend coexists with the declining trends in on-road NOx, VOC, and CO emissions, identifying the cause of the downward trend in ozone is complicated by reductions in multiple precursors from different source sectors. Implications: Large reductions in on-road vehicle emissions of CO and NOx in Atlanta from the late 1990s to 2009, despite an increase in total vehicle distance traveled, contributed to a significant improvement in air quality through decreases in ambient air concentrations of CO and NOx during this time period. Emissions reductions in motor vehicles and other source sectors resulted in these improvements and the observed declining trend in ozone concentrations over the past decade. Although these historical trends cannot be extrapolated to the future because pollutant concentration contributions due to on-road vehicle emissions will likely become an increasingly smaller fraction of the atmospheric total, they provide an indication of the

  11. Digital control of highly augmented combat rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Mark B.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed concepts for the next generation of combat helicopters are to be embodied in a complex, highly maneuverable, multiroled vehicle with avionics systems. Single pilot and nap-of-the-Earth operations require handling qualities which minimize the involvement of the pilot in basic stabilization tasks. To meet these requirements will demand a full authority, high-gain, multimode, multiply-redundant, digital flight-control system. The gap between these requirements and current low-authority, low-bandwidth operational rotorcraft flight-control technology is considerable. This research aims at smoothing the transition between current technology and advanced concept requirements. The state of the art of high-bandwidth digital flight-control systems are reviewed; areas of specific concern for flight-control systems of modern combat are exposed; and the important concepts are illustrated in design and analysis of high-gain, digital systems with a detailed case study involving a current rotorcraft system. Approximate and exact methods are explained and illustrated for treating the important concerns which are unique to digital systems.

  12. Combat aircraft noise reduction by technical measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, M.; Kennepohl, F.; Heinig, K.

    1992-04-01

    The noise of combat aircraft during low level flight is dominated by the jet. Technical noise reduction measures must therefore reduce the specific thrust of the engine. This can be achieved by altering the engine cycle or by using secondary air to increase the mass flow though the nozzle. In the first part the influence of nozzle area, bypass ratio and variable cycle features on the specific thrust of modern fighter engines is shown. The effects on noise, thrust and fuel consumption are discussed. In the second part ejector-mixer nozzles and the aft-fan are considered. Both reduce the jet velocity by entraining air through secondary inlets and expelling it together with the engine's exhaust flow through a common nozzle.

  13. Water cooling system for an air-breathing hypersonic test vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides concepts for hypersonic experimental scramjet test vehicles which have low cost and low risk. Cryogenic hydrogen is used as the fuel and coolant. Secondary water cooling systems were designed. Three concepts are shown: an all hydrogen cooling system, a secondary open loop water cooled system, and a secondary closed loop water cooled system. The open loop concept uses high pressure helium (15,000 psi) to drive water through the cooling system while maintaining the pressure in the water tank. The water flows through the turbine side of the turbopump to pump hydrogen fuel. The water is then allowed to vent. In the closed loop concept high pressure, room temperature, compressed liquid water is circulated. In flight water pressure is limited to 6000 psi by venting some of the water. Water is circulated through cooling channels via an ejector which uses high pressure gas to drive a water jet. The cooling systems are presented along with finite difference steady-state and transient analysis results. The results from this study indicate that water used as a secondary coolant can be designed to increase experimental test time, produce minimum venting of fluid and reduce overall development cost.

  14. Inertial attitude control of a bat-like morphing-wing air vehicle.

    PubMed

    Colorado, J; Barrientos, A; Rossi, C; Parra, C

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a novel bat-like unmanned aerial vehicle inspired by the morphing-wing mechanism of bats. The goal of this paper is twofold. Firstly, a modelling framework is introduced for analysing how the robot should manoeuvre by means of changing wing morphology. This allows the definition of requirements for achieving forward and turning flight according to the kinematics of the wing modulation. Secondly, an attitude controller named backstepping+DAF is proposed. Motivated by biological evidence about the influence of wing inertia on the production of body accelerations, the attitude control law incorporates wing inertia information to produce desired roll (ϕ) and pitch (θ) acceleration commands (desired angular acceleration function (DAF)). This novel control approach is aimed at incrementing net body forces (F(net)) that generate propulsion. Simulations and wind-tunnel experimental results have shown an increase of about 23% in net body force production during the wingbeat cycle when the wings are modulated using the DAF as a part of the backstepping control law. Results also confirm accurate attitude tracking in spite of high external disturbances generated by aerodynamic loads at airspeeds up to 5 ms⁻¹. PMID:23211685

  15. Verification and Tuning of an Adaptive Controller for an Unmanned Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Matsutani, Megumi; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis and tuning of a controller based on the Adaptive Control Technology for Safe Flight (ACTS) architecture. The ACTS architecture consists of a nominal, non-adaptive controller that provides satisfactory performance under nominal flying conditions, and an adaptive controller that provides robustness under off-nominal ones. A framework unifying control verification and gain tuning is used to make the controller s ability to satisfy the closed-loop requirements more robust to uncertainty. In this paper we tune the gains of both controllers using this approach. Some advantages and drawbacks of adaptation are identified by performing a global robustness assessment of both the adaptive controller and its non-adaptive counterpart. The analyses used to determine these characteristics are based on evaluating the degradation in closed-loop performance resulting from uncertainties having increasing levels of severity. The specific adverse conditions considered can be grouped into three categories: aerodynamic uncertainties, structural damage, and actuator failures. These failures include partial and total loss of control effectiveness, locked-in-place control surface deflections, and engine out conditions. The requirements considered are the peak structural loading, the ability of the controller to track pilot commands, the ability of the controller to keep the aircraft s state within the reliable flight envelope, and the handling/riding qualities of the aircraft. The nominal controller resulting from these tuning strategies was successfully validated using the NASA GTM Flight Test Vehicle.

  16. A multimodal micro air vehicle for autonomous flight in near-earth environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, William Edward

    Reconnaissance, surveillance, and search-and-rescue missions in near-Earth environments such as caves, forests, and urban areas pose many new challenges to command and control (C2) teams. Of great significance is how to acquire situational awareness when access to the scene is blocked by enemy fire, rubble, or other occlusions. Small bird-sized aerial robots are expendable and can fly over obstacles and through small openings to assist in the acquisition and distribution of intelligence. However, limited flying space and densely populated obstacle fields requires a vehicle that is capable of hovering, but also maneuverable. A secondary flight mode was incorporated into a fixed-wing aircraft to preserve its maneuverability while adding the capability of hovering. An inertial measurement sensor and onboard flight control system were interfaced and used to transition the hybrid prototype from cruise to hover flight and sustain a hover autonomously. Furthermore, the hovering flight mode can be used to maneuver the aircraft through small openings such as doorways. An ultrasonic and infrared sensor suite was designed to follow exterior building walls until an ingress route was detected. Reactive control was then used to traverse the doorway and gather reconnaissance. Entering a dangerous environment to gather intelligence autonomously will provide an invaluable resource to any C2 team. The holistic approach of platform development, sensor suite design, and control serves as the philosophy of this work.

  17. Application of a high-efficiency cabin air filter for simultaneous mitigation of ultrafine particle and carbon dioxide exposures inside passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2014-02-18

    Modern passenger vehicles are commonly equipped with cabin air filters but their filtration efficiency for ultrafine particle (UFP) is rather low. Although setting the vehicle ventilation system to recirculation (RC) mode can reduce in-cabin UFPs by ∼ 90%, passenger-exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) can quickly accumulate inside the cabin. Using outdoor air (OA) mode instead can provide sufficient air exchange to prevent CO2 buildup, but in-cabin UFP concentrations would increase. To overcome this dilemma, we developed a simultaneous mitigation method for UFP and CO2 using high-efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration in OA mode. Concentrations of UFP and other air pollutants were simultaneously monitored in and out of 12 different vehicles under 3 driving conditions: stationary, on local roadways, and on freeways. Under each experimental condition, data were collected with no filter, in-use original equipment manufacturer (OEM) filter, and two types of HECA filters. The HECA filters offered an average in-cabin UFP reduction of 93%, much higher than the OEM filters (∼ 50% on average). Throughout the measurements, the in-cabin CO2 concentration remained in the range of 620-930 ppm, significantly lower than the typical level of 2500-4000 ppm observed in the RC mode. PMID:24471775

  18. Air toxics exposure from vehicle emissions at a U.S. border crossing: Buffalo Peace Bridge Study.

    PubMed

    Spengler, John; Lwebuga-Mukasa, Jamson; Vallarino, Jose; Melly, Steve; Chillrud, Steve; Baker, Joel; Minegishi, Taeko

    2011-07-01

    is upwind of the plaza with dominant winds, were used to characterize contaminants in regional air masses. On-site meteorologic measurements and hourly truck and car counts were used to assess the role of traffic on UFP counts and pPAH concentrations. The array of parallel and perpendicular residential streets adjacent to the plaza provided a grid on which to plot the spatial patterns of UFP counts and pPAH concentrations to determine the extent to which traffic emissions from the Peace Bridge plaza might extend into the neighboring community. For lake-wind conditions (southwest to northwest) 12-hour integrated daytime samples showed clear evidence that vehicle-related emissions at the Peace Bridge plaza were responsible for elevated downwind concentrations of PM2.5, EC, and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), as well as 1,3-butadiene and styrene. The chlorinated VOCs and aldehydes were not differentially higher at the downwind site. Several metals (aluminum, calcium, iron, copper, and antimony) were two times higher at the site adjacent to the plaza as they were at the upwind GLC site on lake-wind sampling days. Other metals (beryllium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, titanium, manganese, cobalt, strontium, tin, cesium, and lanthanum) showed significant increases downwind as well. Sulfur, arsenic, selenium, and a few other elements appeared to be markers for regional transport as their upwind and downwind concentrations were correlated, with ratios near unity. Using positive matrix factorization (PMF), we identified the sources for PAHs at the three fixed sampling sites as regional, diesel, general vehicle, and asphalt volatilization. Diesel exhaust at the Peace Bridge plaza accounted for approximately 30% of the PAHs. The NPAH sources were identified as nitrate (NO3) radical reactions, diesel, and mixed sources. Diesel exhaust at the Peace Bridge plaza accounted for 18% of the NPAHs. Further evidence for the impact of the Peace Bridge plaza on local

  19. Aerodynamic characteristics of the ventilated design for flapping wing micro air vehicle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G Q; Yu, S C M

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by superior flight performance of natural flight masters like birds and insects and based on the ventilating flaps that can be opened and closed by the changing air pressure around the wing, a new flapping wing type has been proposed. It is known that the net lift force generated by a solid wing in a flapping cycle is nearly zero. However, for the case of the ventilated wing, results for the net lift force are positive which is due to the effect created by the "ventilation" in reducing negative lift force during the upstroke. The presence of moving flaps can serve as the variable in which, through careful control of the areas, a correlation with the decrease in negative lift can be generated. The corresponding aerodynamic characteristics have been investigated numerically by using different flapping frequencies and forward flight speeds. PMID:24683339

  20. Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Ventilated Design for Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, G. Q.; Yu, S. C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by superior flight performance of natural flight masters like birds and insects and based on the ventilating flaps that can be opened and closed by the changing air pressure around the wing, a new flapping wing type has been proposed. It is known that the net lift force generated by a solid wing in a flapping cycle is nearly zero. However, for the case of the ventilated wing, results for the net lift force are positive which is due to the effect created by the “ventilation” in reducing negative lift force during the upstroke. The presence of moving flaps can serve as the variable in which, through careful control of the areas, a correlation with the decrease in negative lift can be generated. The corresponding aerodynamic characteristics have been investigated numerically by using different flapping frequencies and forward flight speeds. PMID:24683339

  1. Assessment of Charging Infrastructure for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island: Task 3

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Steve; Francfort, Jim

    2015-07-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. Task 2 selected vehicles for further monitoring and involved identifying daily operational characteristics of these select vehicles. Data logging of vehicle movements was initiated in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. The Task 3 Vehicle Utilization report provided the results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This report provides an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support the suggested PEV replacements.

  2. Design, fabrication, and characterization of multifunctional wings to harvest solar energy in flapping wing air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Rosado, Ariel; Gehlhar, Rachel D.; Nolen, Savannah; Gupta, Satyandra K.; Bruck, Hugh A.

    2015-06-01

    Currently, flapping wing unmanned aerial vehicles (a.k.a., ornithopters or robotic birds) sustain very short duration flight due to limited on-board energy storage capacity. Therefore, energy harvesting elements, such as flexible solar cells, need to be used as materials in critical components, such as wing structures, to increase operational performance. In this paper, we describe a layered fabrication method that was developed for realizing multifunctional composite wings for a unique robotic bird we developed, known as Robo Raven, by creating compliant wing structure from flexible solar cells. The deformed wing shape and aerodynamic lift/thrust loads were characterized throughout the flapping cycle to understand wing mechanics. A multifunctional performance analysis was developed to understand how integration of solar cells into the wings influences flight performance under two different operating conditions: (1) directly powering wings to increase operation time, and (2) recharging batteries to eliminate need for external charging sources. The experimental data is then used in the analysis to identify a performance index for assessing benefits of multifunctional compliant wing structures. The resulting platform, Robo Raven III, was the first demonstration of a robotic bird that flew using energy harvested from solar cells. We developed three different versions of the wing design to validate the multifunctional performance analysis. It was also determined that residual thrust correlated to shear deformation of the wing induced by torsional twist, while biaxial strain related to change in aerodynamic shape correlated to lift. It was also found that shear deformation of the solar cells induced changes in power output directly correlating to thrust generation associated with torsional deformation. Thus, it was determined that multifunctional solar cell wings may be capable of three functions: (1) lightweight and flexible structure to generate aerodynamic forces, (2

  3. LPV H-infinity Control for the Longitudinal Dynamics of a Flexible Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Hunter Douglas

    This dissertation establishes the method needed to synthesize and simulate an Hinfinity Linear Parameter-Varying (LPV) controller for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle model. A study was conducted to gain the understanding of the elastic effects on the open loop system. It was determined that three modes of vibration would be suitable for the hypersonic vehicle model. It was also discovered from the open loop study that there is strong coupling in the hypersonic vehicle states, especially between the angle of attack, pitch rate, pitch attitude, and the exible modes of the vehicle. This dissertation outlines the procedure for synthesizing a full state feedback Hinfinity LPV controller for the hypersonic vehicle. The full state feedback study looked at both velocity and altitude tracking for the exible vehicle. A parametric study was conducted on each of these controllers to see the effects of changing the number of gridding points in the parameter space and changing the parameter variation rate limits in the system on the robust performance of the controller. As a result of the parametric study, a 7 x 7 grid ranging from Mach 7 to Mach 9 in velocity and from 70,000 feet to 90,000 feet in altitude, and a parameter variation rate limit of [.5 200]T was used for both the velocity tracking and altitude tracking cases. The resulting Hinfinity robust performances were gamma = 2.2224 for the velocity tracking case and = 1:7582 for the altitude tracking case. A linear analysis was then conducted on five different selected trim points from the Hinfinity LPV controller. This was conducted for the velocity tracking and altitude tracking cases. The results of linear analysis show that there is a slight difference in the response of the Hinfinity LPV controller and the fixed point H infinity controller. For the tracking task, the Hinfinity controller responds more quickly, and has a lower Hinfinity performance value. Next, the H infinity LPV controller was simulated

  4. High resolution modeling of the effects of alternative fuels use on urban air quality: introduction of natural gas vehicles in Barcelona and Madrid Greater Areas (Spain).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, María; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Baldasano, José M

    2009-01-01

    The mitigation of the effects of on-road traffic emissions on urban air pollution is currently an environmental challenge. Air quality modeling has become a powerful tool to design environment-related strategies. A wide range of options is being proposed; such as the introduction of natural gas vehicles (NGV), biofuels or hydrogen vehicles. The impacts on air quality of introducing specific NGV fleets in Barcelona and Madrid (Spain) are assessed by means of the WRF-ARW/HERMES/CMAQ modeling system with high spatial-temporal resolution (1 km(2), 1 h). Seven emissions scenarios are defined taking into account the year 2004 vehicle fleet composition of the study areas and groups of vehicles susceptible of change under a realistic perspective. O(3) average concentration rises up to 1.3% in Barcelona and up to 2.5% in Madrid when introducing the emissions scenarios, due to the NO(x) reduction in VOC-controlled areas. Nevertheless, NO(2), PM10 and SO(2) average concentrations decrease, up to 6.1%, 1.5% and 6.6% in Barcelona and up to 20.6%, 8.7% and 14.9% in Madrid, respectively. Concerning SO(2) and PM10 reductions the most effective single scenario is the introduction of 50% of NGV instead of the oldest commercial vehicles; it also reduces NO(2) concentrations in Barcelona, however in Madrid lower levels are attained when substituting 10% of the private cars. This work introduces the WRF-ARW/HERMES/CMAQ modeling system as a useful management tool and proves that the air quality improvement plans must be designed considering the local characteristics. PMID:19022477

  5. Collaboration for Land, Air, Sea, and Space Vehicles: Developing the Common Ground in Vehicle Dynamics, System Identification, Control, and Handling Qualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    This technical report is the culmination of the SCI-053 Task Group - Vehicle Dynamics, System Identification, Control and Handling Qualities. It summarizes the discussions of tank, truck, aircraft, helicopter, ship, submarine and satellite experts held over a three-year period. It addresses the various technical areas identified in the name of the task group, exploring the similarities and differences between the vehicle types and identifying areas where collaboration between experts would be the most valuable. Twenty-three specific technical issues are identified as initial areas with high potential for valuable collaboration. Overall, the report provides the vehicle expert of one environment a sufficient background on the other vehicle environments, so that meaningful discussions towards these technical collaborations can be initiated.

  6. Anger in the combat zone.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Valvincent A; Hicklin, Thomas A

    2005-06-01

    A U.S. Army Reserve Combat Stress Control prevention team was dispatched to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom to provide preventative mental health care to a U.S. Army airborne division and Special Operations forces. The team's mission was to ensure mental health readiness of units in the area of operations. In Bagram, Afghanistan, the Combat Stress Control team identified anger as a very prevalent emotion in the combat zone. Anger management interventions with individual and group counseling were implemented to help soldiers cope with anger. Of 7,000 military personnel stationed there during the team's rotation, there was not one completed suicide or homicide. This article describes how the 113th Medical Company identified, treated, and controlled anger at Bagram Airbase, Afghanistan, between June 20, 2002, and December 20, 2002, with anger management interventions. This article does not address the psychophysiological features of anger. PMID:16001596

  7. Wind tunnel experiments on flow separation control of an Unmanned Air Vehicle by nanosecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Chen; Hua, Liang

    2016-02-01

    Plasma flow control (PFC) is a new kind of active flow control technology, which can improve the aerodynamic performances of aircrafts remarkably. The flow separation control of an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) by nanosecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation (NDPAA) is investigated experimentally in this paper. Experimental results show that the applied voltages for both the nanosecond discharge and the millisecond discharge are nearly the same, but the current for nanosecond discharge (30 A) is much bigger than that for millisecond discharge (0.1 A). The flow field induced by the NDPAA is similar to a shock wave upward, and has a maximal velocity of less than 0.5 m/s. Fast heating effect for nanosecond discharge induces shock waves in the quiescent air. The lasting time of the shock waves is about 80 μs and its spread velocity is nearly 380 m/s. By using the NDPAA, the flow separation on the suction side of the UAV can be totally suppressed and the critical stall angle of attack increases from 20° to 27° with a maximal lift coefficient increment of 11.24%. The flow separation can be suppressed when the discharge voltage is larger than the threshold value, and the optimum operation frequency for the NDPAA is the one which makes the Strouhal number equal one. The NDPAA is more effective than the millisecond discharge plasma aerodynamic actuation (MDPAA) in boundary layer flow control. The main mechanism for nanosecond discharge is shock effect. Shock effect is more effective in flow control than momentum effect in high speed flow control. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61503302, 51207169, and 51276197), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M562446), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2015JM1001).

  8. F-16 pilot experience with combat ejections during the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Williams, C S

    1993-09-01

    Most experience with ejections from modern fighter aircraft has occurred outside of true combat operations. During Operation Desert Storm, the 401st Fighter Wing, Torrejon Air Base, Spain, lost four F-16C aircraft while on combat missions, with all four pilots ejecting safely. Since the circumstances of a combat vs. peacetime ejection are likely different and many combat mishaps and ejections cannot be extensively investigated (three out of these four), a questionnaire was developed to recall and review pilot ejection experiences. Questions ranged from recalling the parameters of egress to conscious recollections of the event and assessment of how well the system worked. Each of the four ejections occurred under different parameters, and no one suffered significant injury. Two of the ejections occurred at high altitude, previously rare in the F-16. This was one of the first times that experience was obtained with the F-16's ACES-II egress system under combat operations and, in the experience of these four pilots, the system was life-saving in combat. Finally, the overall ejection survival rate for U.S. Air Force fighter/attack combat ejections during Operation Desert Storm was similar to the peacetime rate. It is the author's hypothesis that the reason for this may correlate with a quicker, more predetermined decision to eject from an aircraft disabled by combat fire. PMID:8216147

  9. SIG: Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; Palanque, Philippe; Martinie, Célia; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects/systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  10. Ethanol and air quality: influence of fuel ethanol content on emissions and fuel economy of flexible fuel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Carolyn P; Anderson, James E; Wallington, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Engine-out and tailpipe emissions of NOx, CO, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), nonmethane organic gases (NMOG), total hydrocarbons (THC), methane, ethene, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, ethanol, N2O, and NH3 from a 2006 model year Mercury Grand Marquis flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) operating on E0, E10, E20, E30, E40, E55, and E80 on a chassis dynamometer are reported. With increasing ethanol content in the fuel, the tailpipe emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, methane, and ammonia increased; NOx and NMHC decreased; while CO, ethene, and N2O emissions were not discernibly affected. NMOG and THC emissions displayed a pronounced minimum with midlevel (E20-E40) ethanol blends; 25-35% lower than for E0 or E80. Emissions of NOx decreased by approximately 50% as the ethanol content increased from E0 to E30-E40, with no further decrease seen with E55 or E80. We demonstrate that emission trends from FFVs are explained by fuel chemistry and engine calibration effects. Fuel chemistry effects are fundamental in nature; the same trend of increased ethanol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, and CH4 emissions and decreased NMHC and benzene emissions are expected for all FFVs. Engine calibration effects are manufacturer and model specific; emission trends for NOx, THC, and NMOG will not be the same for all FFVs. Implications for air quality are discussed. PMID:24328061

  11. Dynamic output feedback control of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle via T-S fuzzy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaoxiang; Wu, Ligang; Hu, Changhua; Wang, Zhaoqiang; Gao, Huijun

    2014-08-01

    By utilising Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy set approach, this paper addresses the robust H∞ dynamic output feedback control for the non-linear longitudinal model of flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicles (FAHVs). The flight control of FAHVs is highly challenging due to the unique dynamic characteristics, and the intricate couplings between the engine and fight dynamics and external disturbance. Because of the dynamics' enormous complexity, currently, only the longitudinal dynamics models of FAHVs have been used for controller design. In this work, T-S fuzzy modelling technique is utilised to approach the non-linear dynamics of FAHVs, then a fuzzy model is developed for the output tracking problem of FAHVs. The fuzzy model contains parameter uncertainties and disturbance, which can approach the non-linear dynamics of FAHVs more exactly. The flexible models of FAHVs are difficult to measure because of the complex dynamics and the strong couplings, thus a full-order dynamic output feedback controller is designed for the fuzzy model. A robust H∞ controller is designed for the obtained closed-loop system. By utilising the Lyapunov functional approach, sufficient solvability conditions for such controllers are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed T-S fuzzy dynamic output feedback control method is demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  12. Effects on Air Pollution and Regional Climate of Producing and Using Hydrogen in Fuel Cells in all U.S. OnroadVehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.; Colella, W. G.; Golden, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential effects on U.S. air pollution and regional climate of switching the current U.S. fleet of onroad motor vehicles to hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles, where hydrogen was produced by (1) steam-reforming of methane, (2) wind energy, or (3) coal gasification. An additional scenario in which the U.S. fleet was switched to gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles was also examined. The model used was GATOR-GCMOM, a global-through-urban-scale nested and parallelized gas, aerosol, transport, radiation, general-circulation, mesoscale, and ocean model. U.S. emission data for the baseline case were obtained from the U.S. National Emission Inventory, which considers 370,000 stack and fugitive sources, 250,000 area sources, and 1700 categories of onroad and nonroad vehicular sources (including motorcycles, passenger vehicles, trucks, recreational vehicles, construction vehicles, farm vehicles, industrial vehicles, etc.). Emission inventories for each of the three hydrogen scenarios were prepared following a process chain analysis that accounted for energy inputs and pollution outputs during all stages of hydrogen and fossil-fuel production, distribution, storage, and end-use. Emitted pollutants accounted for included CO, CO2, H2, H2O, CH4, speciated ROGs, NOx, NH3, SOx, and speciated particulate matter. Results from the first scenario suggest that switching vehicles in the U.S. to hydrogen produced by steam-reforming of methane may reduce emission of NOx, reactive hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, BC, NO3-, and NH4+, but increase CH4, H2, and SO2 (slightly).The switch may also decrease O3 over most of the U.S. but short-term near-surfaces increases may occur over low-vegetated cities (e.g., in Los Angeles and along the Boston-Washington corridor) due to loss of NOx that otherwise titrates O3. The switch is also estimated to decrease PAN, HCHO, and several other pollutants formed in the atmosphere. Isoprene may increase since fewer oxidants (OH, O3

  13. Evidence of Combat in Triceratops

    PubMed Central

    Farke, Andrew A.; Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Tanke, Darren H.

    2009-01-01

    Background The horns and frill of Triceratops and other ceratopsids (horned dinosaurs) are interpreted variously as display structures or as weapons against conspecifics and predators. Lesions (in the form of periosteal reactive bone, healing fractures, and alleged punctures) on Triceratops skulls have been used as anecdotal support of intraspecific combat similar to that in modern horned and antlered animals. If ceratopsids with different cranial morphologies used their horns in such combat, this should be reflected in the rates of lesion occurrence across the skull. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a G-test of independence to compare incidence rates of lesions in Triceratops (which possesses two large brow horns and a smaller nasal horn) and the related ceratopsid Centrosaurus (with a large nasal horn and small brow horns), for the nasal, jugal, squamosal, and parietal bones of the skull. The two taxa differ significantly in the occurrence of lesions on the squamosal bone of the frill (P = 0.002), but not in other cranial bones (P>0.20). Conclusions/Significance This pattern is consistent with Triceratops using its horns in combat and the frill being adapted as a protective structure for this taxon. Lower pathology rates in Centrosaurus may indicate visual rather than physical use of cranial ornamentation in this genus, or a form of combat focused on the body rather than the head. PMID:19172995

  14. Teaching Combative Sports through Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozub, Francis M.; Kozub, Mary L.

    2004-01-01

    Martial arts have become popular in the United States and have transitioned from being spectator sports to avenues for active participation by people of all ages. The purpose of this article is to highlight tactical similarities in selected combative sport activities and to provide martial arts and wrestling instructors with an alternative…

  15. Combating Stagefright: Selected Vocal Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    Noting that stagefright has been the subject of intensive analysis and subjected to almost every conceivable test or measurement without revealing either its "cause" or its "cure," this paper presents vocal exercises to help combat the performance malady. After listing four principles concerning the nature of stagefright (it is not a pathological…

  16. Combating Training-Stress Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the nature and ramifications of various training stress syndromes (overtraining, under-recovery, distress, staleness, and burnout) that can accompany inappropriate training practices, examining the interventions that players and coaches can use to combat these syndromes (including physical, psychological, and performance interventions),…

  17. Heuristic approach to the development of ratings and tactics applicable to the one-on-one aerial combat (dogfight) encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    Computer simulations of the one-on-one aerial combat encounter are generated under the control of specified guidance laws. Given an initial state, the vehicle and atmospheric characteristics, and the guidance laws, the aerial combat encounter is simulated by forward integration of the two vehicles' motions. The development of a combat guidance law which converts positional advantage into an improved firing opportunity is reported. A combination of lag, line of sight, and lead pursuit steering paths are followed in the guidance law. The law is based on steering error, target angle-off and the relative velocities. It readily is automated either as an onboard aid to manned aircraft pilots or as a combat guidance law for unmanned vehicles.

  18. Federal certification test results for 1992 model year. Control of air pollution from new motor vehicles and new motor vehicle engines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Each manufacturer of a passenger car, (light-duty-vehicle), light-duty truck, motorcycle, heavy-duty gasoline engine, and heavy-duty diesel engine is required to demonstrate compliance with the applicable exhaust emission standard. This report contains all of the individual tests that were required by the certification-procedures found in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations in Part 86. These data were submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency's Certification Division at the National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory.

  19. Life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gas and air emissions of electric vehicles: A comparison between China and the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Hong; Cai, Hao; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Fei; He, Kebin

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants (NOx, SO2, PM10, and PM2.5) of electric vehicles (EVs) in China and the United States (U.S.), two of the largest potential markets for EVs in the world. Six of the most economically developed and populated regions in China and the U.S. were selected. The results showed that EV fuel-cycle emissions depend substantially on the carbon intensity and cleanness of the electricity mix, and vary significantly across the regions studied. In those regions with a low share of coal-based electricity (e.g., California), EVs can reduce GHG and air pollutant emissions (except for PM) significantly compared with conventional vehicles. However, in the Chinese regions and selected U.S. Midwestern states where coal dominates in the generation mix, EVs can reduce GHG emissions but increase the total and urban emissions of air pollutants. In 2025, EVs will offer greater reductions in GHG and air pollutant emissions because emissions from power plants will be better controlled; EVs in the Chinese regions examined, however, may still increase SO2 and PM emissions. Reductions of 60-85% in GHGs and air pollutants could be achieved were EVs charged with 80% renewable electricity or the electricity generated from the best available technologies of coal-fired power plants, which are futuristic power generation scenarios.

  20. Noise: combating a ubiquitous and hazardous pollutant.

    PubMed

    Bronzaft, Arline L.

    2000-01-01

    With a growing body of data suggesting a link between noise and adverse mental and physical health and with noise pollution becoming even more pervasive, especially from the rapid increase in air travel and highway traffic, individuals worldwide are forging alliances to combat this hazardous pollutant. Especially active are the anti-aircraft noise groups. In the United States, the federal government has limited its responsibilities with respect to noise control after an initial interest in the 1970s when legislation was passed promising to protect the American people against the harmful effects of noise. These past years anti-noise activists in the United States have been working arduously to urge the federal government to once again take an active role in abating and controlling noise. They have also been enlisting more citizens to their cause as they educate them to the hazards of noise. PMID:12689475

  1. Engine selection for transport and combat aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the procedures used to select engines for transport and combat aircraft by illustrating the procedures for a long haul CTOL transport, a short haul VTOL transport, a long range SST, and a fighter aircraft. For the CTOL transport, it is shown that advances in noise technology and advanced turbine cooling technology will greatly reduce the airplane performance penalties associated with achieving low noise goals. A remote lift fan powered by a turbofan air generator is considered for the VTOL aircraft. In this case, the lift fan pressure ratio which maximizes payload also comes closest to meeting the noise goal. High turbine temperature in three different engines is considered for the SST. Without noise constraints it leads to an appreciable drop in DOC, but with noise constraints the reduction in DOC is very modest. For the fighter aircraft it is shown how specific excess power requirements play the same role in engine selection as noise constraints for commercial airplanes.

  2. Evaluation of on-road vehicle CO and NOx National Emission Inventories using an urban-scale source-oriented air quality model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kota, Sri Harsha; Zhang, Hongliang; Chen, Gang; Schade, Gunnar W.; Ying, Qi

    2014-03-01

    The MOBILE6.2 model was replaced by the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) in 2012 as an official tool recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) to predict vehicular pollutant emission factors. In this study, on-road vehicle emission inventories of CO and NOx for Southeast Texas generated by MOVES and MOBILE6.2 in two versions of the 2005 National Emission Inventory (NEI) were studied by comparing predicted CO and NOx using the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model incorporated with a source-oriented gas phase chemical mechanism with measurements made at six urban and industrial sites in Southeast Texas. The source tracing technique allows direct determination of contributions of on-road vehicles to overall CO and NOx concentrations and identification of ambient concentration measurements which are mostly impacted by vehicle emissions. By grouping the fractional bias (FB) values of the hourly predictions based on vehicle contributions to total CO or NOx concentrations, clear trends in the FB were observed, indicating systematic biases in the emission inventory for these species. Data points dominated by vehicle emissions suggest that surface CO concentrations due to vehicle exhaust are significantly over-estimated by a factor of 2 using either MOVES or MOBILE6.2. NOx concentrations are overestimated by approximately 20-35% and 70% by using the MOBILE6.2 and MOVES emissions, respectively. Emission scaling runs show that a domain-wide reduction of MOBILE6.2 CO emissions by 60% and NOx emissions by 15-25% leads to better model performance of exhaust CO and NOx concentrations in the current study.

  3. Numerical analyses of passive and active flow control over a micro air vehicle with an optimized airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gada, Komal Kantilal

    Numerical investigations of an optimized thin airfoil with a passive and an active flow control device (riblets and rotary cylinder) have been performed. The objectives of the thesis were to investigate the tip vortices reduction using riblets and decrease in flow separation, using a rotary cylinder for improved lift-to-drag ratio. The investigations has application potentials in improving performances of Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs). The airfoil has a chord length of 19.66 cm and a span of 25 cm. with the free stream mean velocity was set at 20 m/s. The Reynolds number was calculated as 3 x 10 4. Investigations with base model of the airfoil have shown flow separation at approximately 85% chord length at an angle of attack of 17 degrees. For investigation using passive flow control device, i.e. riblets, investigations were performed for different radial sizes but at a fixed location. It was found that with 1 mm radial size riblet, the tip vortices were reduced by approximately 95%, as compared to the baseline model. Although negligible lift-to-drag improvement was seen, a faster dissipation rate in turbulent kinetic energy was observed. Furthermore, investigations were carried out using the active flow control device. The rotary cylinder with a 0.51 cm in diameter was placed slightly downstream of the location of flow separation, i.e. at x/c = 0.848. Investigations were performed at different cylinder's rotations, corresponding to different tangential velocities of being higher than, equal to and less than the free stream mean velocity. Results have shown approximately 10% improvement in lift to drag ratio when the tangential velocity is near the free stream mean velocity. Further investigation may include usage of the riblets and the rotary cylinder combined, to increase the stability as well as the lift-to-drag ratio of the MAVs.

  4. Trends in on-road vehicle emissions and ambient air quality in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, from the late 1990s through 2009.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; DenBleyker, Allison; Ma, Lan; Lindhjem, Chris; Yarwood, Greg

    2014-07-01

    On-road vehicle emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1995-2009 in the Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area were estimated using the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model and data from the National Emissions Inventories and the State of Georgia. Statistically significant downward trends (computed using the nonparametric Theil-Sen method) in annual on-road CO, NO(x), and VOC emissions of 6.1%, 3.3%, and 6.0% per year, respectively, are noted during the 1995-2009 period despite an increase in total vehicle distance traveled. The CO and NO(x) emission trends are correlated with statistically significant downward trends in ambient air concentrations of CO and NO(x) in Atlanta ranging from 8.0% to 11.8% per year and from 5.8% to 8.7% per year, respectively, during similar time periods. Weather-adjusted summertime ozone concentrations in Atlanta exhibited a statistically significant declining trend of 2.3% per year during 2001-2009. Although this trend coexists with the declining trends in on-road NO(x), VOC, and CO emissions, identifying the cause of the downward trend in ozone is complicated by reductions in multiple precursors from different source sectors. Implications: Large reductions in on-road vehicle emissions of CO and NO(x) in Atlanta from the late 1990s to 2009, despite an increase in total vehicle distance traveled, contributed to a significant improvement in air quality through decreases in ambient air concentrations of CO and NO(x) during this time period. Emissions reductions in motor vehicles and other source sectors resulted in these improvements and the observed declining trend in ozone concentrations over the past decade. Although these historical trends cannot be extrapolated to the future because pollutant concentration contributions due to on-road vehicle emissions will likely become an increasingly smaller fraction of the atmospheric total, they provide an indication of

  5. Abductive networks applied to electronic combat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Gerard J.; Hess, Paul; Hwang, Jong S.

    1990-08-01

    A practical approach to dealing with combinatorial decision problems and uncertainties associated with electronic combat through the use of networks of high-level functional elements called abductive networks is presented. It describes the application of the Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIMTM) a supervised inductive learning tool for synthesizing polynomial abductive networks to the electronic combat problem domain. From databases of historical expert-generated or simulated combat engagements AIM can often induce compact and robust network models for making effective real-time electronic combat decisions despite significant uncertainties or a combinatorial explosion of possible situations. The feasibility of applying abductive networks to realize advanced combat decision aiding capabilities was demonstrated by applying AIM to a set of electronic combat simulations. The networks synthesized by AIM generated accurate assessments of the intent lethality and overall risk associated with a variety of simulated threats and produced reasonable estimates of the expected effectiveness of a group of electronic countermeasures for a large number of simulated combat scenarios. This paper presents the application of abductive networks to electronic combat summarizes the results of experiments performed using AIM discusses the benefits and limitations of applying abductive networks to electronic combat and indicates why abductive networks can often result in capabilities not attainable using alternative approaches. 1. ELECTRONIC COMBAT. UNCERTAINTY. AND MACHINE LEARNING Electronic combat has become an essential part of the ability to make war and has become increasingly complex since

  6. Emergent interfacility evacuation of critical care patients in combat.

    PubMed

    Franco, Yvonne E; De Lorenzo, Robert A; Salyer, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    During the Second Iraq War (Operation Iraqi Freedom), high-intensity, low-utilization medical and surgical services, such as neurosurgical care, were consolidated into a centralized location within the combat zone. This arrangement necessitated intra-theater air medical evacuation of critically ill or injured patients from outlying combat support hospitals (CSH) to another combat zone facility having the needed services. A case series is presented of intratheater transfer of neurosurgical patients in Iraq during 2005-06. Ninety-eight patients are included in the series, with typical transfer distances of 40 miles (approximately 20-25 minutes of flight time). All patients were transported with a CSH nurse in addition to the standard Army EMT-B flight medic. Seventy-six percent of cases were battle injury, 17% were non-battle injuries, and the balance were classified as non-injury mechanisms. Seventy-six percent of cases were head injuries, with the balance involving burns, stroke, and other injuries. At 30 days, 12% of the patients had died, and 9% remained hospitalized in a critical care setting. None of the patients died during evacuation. Intratheater and interfacility transfer of critical care patients in the combat theater often involves severely head-injured and other neurosurgical cases. Current Army staffing for helicopter transport in these case requires a nurse or other advanced personnel to supplement the standard EMT-B flight medic. PMID:22748416

  7. Pilot/Vehicle display development from simulation to flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dare, Alan R.; Burley, James R., II

    1992-01-01

    The Pilot Vehicle Interface Group, Cockpit Technology Branch, Flight Management Division, at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing display concepts for air combat in the next generation of highly maneuverable aircraft. The High-Alpha Technology Program, under which the research is being done, is involved in flight tests of many new control and display concepts on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle, a highly modified F-18 aircraft. In order to support display concept development through flight testing, a software/hardware system is being developed which will support each phase of the project with little or no software modifications, thus saving thousands of manhours in software development time. Simulation experiments are in progress now and flight tests are slated to begin in FY1994.

  8. Some thoughts concerning large load-carrying vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Some implications relative to combat operations and force sustainability into the twenty-first century are discussed. The basic conjecture is that, sometime in the future, secure overseas basing may be denied to the United States by the Soviet Union or by unfriendly, unstable governments. In that event, the support of future battle itself, may be conducted from the continental U.S. and would introduce requirements for large, long-range, efficient, and sometimes, fast air vehicles. Some unusual design concepts and the technology requirements for such vehicles are suggested. It is concluded that, while much of the required technology is already being pursued, further advanced should be expected and sought in improved aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and avionics with a view toward increased efficiency, utility, and affordability.

  9. Remote Operated Vehicle geophysical surveys on land (underground), air and submarine archaeology: General peculiarities of processing and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2016-04-01

    The last Remote Operation Vehicles (ROV) generation - small and maneuvering vehicles with different geophysical sensors - can fly at levels of a few meters (and even tens of centimeters) over the earth's surface, to move on the earth's surface and in the inaccessible underground areas and to explore in underwater investigations (e.g., Mindel and Bingham, 2001; Rowlands and Sarris, 2006; Wilson et al., 2006; Rigaud, 2007; Eppelbaum, 2008; Patterson and Brescia, 2008; Sarris, 2008; Wang et al., 2009; Wu and Tian, 2010; Stall, 2011; Tezkan et al., 2011; Winn et al., 2012; El-Nahhas, 2013; Hadjimitsis et al., 2013; Hajiyev and Vural, 2013; Hugenholtz et al., 2013; Petzke et al., 2013; Pourier et al., 2013; Casana et al., 2014; Silverberg and Bieber, 2014). Such geophysical investigations should have an extremely low exploitation cost and can observe surface practically inaccessible archaeological sites (swampy areas, dense vegetation, rugged relief, over the areas of world recognized religious and cultural artifacts (Eppelbaum, 2010), etc.). Finally, measurements of geophysical fields at different observation levels could provide a new unique geological-geophysical information (Eppelbaum and Mishne, 2011). Let's consider ROV airborne magnetic measurements as example. The modern magnetometric equipment enables to carry out magnetic measurements with a frequency of 50 times per second (and more) that taking into account the low ROV flight speed provides a necessary density of observations. For instance, frequency of observation of 50 times per second by ROV velocity of 40 km/hour gives density of observation about 0.2 m. It is obvious that the calculated step between observation points is more than sufficient one. Such observations will allow not only reduce the influence of some small artificial sources of noise, but also to obtain some additional data necessary for quantitative analysis (some interpretation methodologies need to have observations at two levels; upward

  10. Clean Cities ozone air quality attainment and maintenance strategies that employ alternative fuel vehicles, with special emphasis on natural gas and propane

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, D.J.; Saricks, C.L.

    1998-08-04

    Air quality administrators across the nation are coming under greater pressure to find new strategies for further reducing automotive generated non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established stringent emission reduction requirements for ozone non-attainment areas that have driven the vehicle industry to engineer vehicles meeting dramatically tightened standards. This paper describes an interim method for including alternative-fueled vehicles (AFVs) in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality. This method could be used until EPA can develop the Mobile series of emissions estimation models to include AFVs and until such time that detailed work on AFV emissions totals by air quality planners and emissions inventory builders is warranted. The paper first describes the challenges confronting almost every effort to include AFVs in targeted emissions reduction programs, but points out that within these challenges resides an opportunity. Next, it discusses some basic relationships in the formation of ambient ozone from precursor emissions. It then describes several of the salient provisions of EPA`s new voluntary emissions initiative, which is called the Voluntary Mobile Source Emissions Reduction Program (VMEP). Recent emissions test data comparing gaseous-fuel light-duty AFVs with their gasoline-fueled counterparts is examined to estimate percent emissions reductions achievable with CNG and LPG vehicles. Examples of calculated MOBILE5b emission rates that would be used for summer ozone season planning purposes by an individual Air Quality Control Region (AQCR) are provided. A method is suggested for employing these data to compute appropriate voluntary emission reduction credits where such (lighter) AFVs would be acquired. It also points out, but does not quantify, the substantial reduction credits potentially achievable by substituting gaseous

  11. Ethical and economic issues in the use of zero-emission vehicles as a component of an air-pollution mitigation strategy.

    PubMed

    Duvall, Tim; Englander, Fred; Englander, Valerie; Hodson, Thomas J; Marpet, Mark

    2002-10-01

    The air pollution generated by motor vehicles and by static sources is, in certain geographic areas, a very serious problem, a problem that exists because of a failure of the marketplace. To address this marketplace failure, the State of California has mandated that by 2003, 10% of the Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet (LDV) be composed of Zero-Emission Vehicles (ZEVs). However, the policy-making process that was utilized to generate the ZEV mandate was problematic and the resulting ZEV mandate is economically unsound. Moreover, an ethical analysis, based primarily upon the work of John Rawls, suggests that implementation of the California ZEV mandate is--in spite of the wide latitude that ought to be given to policy decision makers--unethical. A more ethical and economically efficient approach to the pollution caused by marketplace failure is one that relies on market incentives and thereby achieves the desired improvement in air quality by appealing both to the self-interest of motorists and to those businesses that are directly or indirectly involved with the automobile industry. Such an approach would take better advantage of the creative forces of the market and improvements in technology over time and avoid the infringements on individual liberty and fairness embodied in the ZEV mandate. PMID:12501725

  12. Nanomaterials to Combat NO(x) Pollution.

    PubMed

    Balbuena, J; Cruz-Yusta, M; Sánchez, L

    2015-09-01

    The presence of NO9x) gases (NO+NO2) in the atmosphere is a major concern of society because of their associated adverse and harmful effects. In order to remove the NO(x) gases from the air, photocatalysis arises as an innovative and promising technique. Through the use of photochemical oxidation processes the NO and NO2 gases are oxidised to NO3- form and thus removed from the air. In recent years new nanomaterials are being developed by researchers with the aim to enhance their photocatalytic activity to combat the NO(x) pollution. The main focus is devoted to preparing new TiO2 based compounds with the highest specific surface area (SSA), different morphology and chemical modifications. In order to increase the SSA, different substrates were used to disperse the TiO2 nanoparticles: organic and carbon fibres, mesoporous materials, clays composites and nanoporous microparticles. In the other hand, high photocatalytic performances were obtained with nanotubes, self-orderer nano-tubular films and nanoparticles with the lowest size. Conversely, when TiO2 is doped with ions the oxide exhibited a better photocatalytic performance under visible light, which is related to the creation of intermediate energy states between the conduction band and the valence band. Alternatively, visible light photocatalysts different from titanium oxide have been studied, which exhibit a good De-NO(x) efficiency working under λ > 400 nm visible light irradiation. PMID:26716191

  13. Basement utility room (room 24; air handling room), near the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement utility room (room 24; air handling room), near the west end of the combat operations center, looking southwest towards fan system one, air ducts, and walk-in filter rooms. The exterior equipment well is visible at the left - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  14. Measurement of emissions from air pollution sources. 5. C1-C32 organic compounds from gasoline-powered motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Schauer, James J; Kleeman, Michael J; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-03-15

    Gas- and particle-phase organic compounds present in the tailpipe emissions from an in-use fleet of gasoline-powered automobiles and light-duty trucks were quantified using a two-stage dilution source sampling system. The vehicles were driven through the cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP) urban driving cycle on a transient dynamometer. Emission rates of 66 volatile hydrocarbons, 96 semi-volatile and particle-phase organic compounds, 27 carbonyls, and fine particle mass and chemical composition were quantified. Six isoprenoids and two tricyclic terpanes, which are quantified using new source sampling techniques for semi-volatile organic compounds, have been identified as potential tracers for gasoline-powered motor vehicle emissions. A composite of the commercially distributed California Phase II Reformulated Gasoline used in these tests was analyzed by several analytical methods to quantify the gasoline composition, including some organic compounds that are found in the atmosphere as semi-volatile and particle-phase organic compounds. These results allow a direct comparison of the semi-volatile and particle-phase organic compound emissions from gasoline-powered motor vehicles to the gasoline burned by these vehicles. The distribution of n-alkanes and isoprenoids emitted from the catalyst-equipped gasoline-powered vehicles is the same as the distribution of these compounds found in the gasoline used, whereas the distribution of these compounds in the emissions from the noncatalyst vehicles is very different from the distribution in the fuel. In contrast, the distribution of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their methylated homologues in the gasoline is significantly different from the distribution of the PAH in the tailpipe emissions from both types of vehicles. PMID:11944666

  15. Demonstration of zinc/air fuel battery to enhance the range and mission of fleet electric vehicles: Preliminary results in the refueling of a multicell module

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Keene, L.; Maimoni, A.; Peterman, K.; Koopman, R.

    1994-08-08

    We report progress in an effort to develop and demonstrate a refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle applications. A refuelable module consisting of twelve bipolar cells with internal flow system has been refueled at rates of nearly 4 cells per minute refueling time of 10 minutes for a 15 kW, 55 kWh battery. The module is refueled by entrainment of 0.5-mm particles in rapidly flowing electrolyte, which delivers the particles into hoppers above each cell in a parallel-flow hydraulic circuit. The concept of user-recovery is presented as an alternative to centralized service infrastructure during market entry.

  16. Demonstration of zinc/air fuel battery to enhance the range and mission of fleet electric vehicles: Preliminary results in the refueling of a multicell module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Fleming, D.; Keene, L.; Maimoni, A.; Peterman, K.; Koopman, R.

    1994-08-01

    We report progress in an effort to develop and demonstrate a refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle applications. A refuelable module consisting of twelve bipolar cells with internal flow system has been refueled at rates of nearly 4 cells per minute, indicating a refueling time of 10 minutes for a 15 kW, 55 kWh battery. The module is refueled by entrainment of 0.5-mm particles in rapidly flowing electrolyte, which delivers the particles into hoppers above each cell in a parallel-flow hydraulic circuit. The concept of user-recovery is presented as an alternative to centralized service infrastructure during market entry.

  17. Membrane-Based Air Composition Control for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles: A Benefit and Cost Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    K. Stork; R. Poola

    1998-10-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to assess the benefits and costs of several membrane-based technologies. The technologies evaluated will be used in automotive emissions-control and performance-enhancement systems incorporated into light-duty diesel vehicle engines. Such engines are among the technologies that are being considered to power vehicles developed under the government-industry Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from diesel engines have long been considered a barrier to use of diesels in urban areas. Recently, particulate matter (PM) emissions have also become an area of increased concern because of new regulations regarding emissions of particulate matter measuring 2.5 micrometers or less (PM{sub 2.5}). Particulates are of special concern for diesel engines in the PNGV program; the program has a research goal of 0.01 gram per mile (g/mi) of particulate matter emissions under the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle. This extremely low level (one-fourth the level of the Tier II standard) could threaten the viability of using diesel engines as stand-alone powerplants or in hybrid-electric vehicles. The techniques analyzed in this study can reduce NO{sub x} and particulate emissions and even increase the power density of the diesel engines used in light-duty diesel vehicles.

  18. Worldwide actions to combat abuse.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports several developments on the global efforts to combat abuse and violence against women and children. It is noted that in South Africa, Belem, Brazil, and Lesotho, protest actions were conducted against women and child abuse. Although the protests were made separately, the protests generally called for implementation of initiatives from the government to address the issue of child and women abuse. In the context of preventing abusive behaviors, a study by the University of Cape Town in South Africa on the appropriateness and feasibility of short-term community-based group therapy concluded that such an approach might be effective in treating delinquent behavior. In Indonesia, the Rifka Annisa Women's Crisis Centre is working to combat violence against women by providing services to victims; while in Israel, a media campaign is aiming to increase awareness and support for women's help centers. In addition, the government of Bangladesh has established a Cell Against Violence Against Women that provides legal counseling and assistance for civil and criminal cases related to violence against women. Furthermore, the WHO and the International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have collaborated to conduct a joint workshop to explore how violence against women can be eliminated. PMID:12348694

  19. Low-cost multi-vehicle air temperature measurements for heat load assessment in local-scale climate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuvela-Aloise, Maja; Weyss, Gernot; Aloise, Giulliano; Mifka, Boris; Löffelmann, Philemon; Hollosi, Brigitta; Nemec, Johana; Vucetic, Visnja

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years there has been a strong interest in exploring the potential of low-cost measurement devices as alternative source of meteorological monitoring data, especially in the urban areas where high-density observations become crucial for appropriate heat load assessment. One of the simple, but efficient approaches for gathering large amount of spatial data is through mobile measurement campaigns in which the sensors are attached to driving vehicles. However, non-standardized data collecting procedure, instrument quality, their response-time and design, variable device ventilation and radiation protection influence the reliability of the gathered data. We investigate what accuracy can be expected from the data collected through low-cost mobile measurements and whether the achieved quality of the data is sufficient for validation of the state-of-the-art local-scale climate models. We tested 5 types of temperature sensors and data loggers: Maxim iButton, Lascar EL-USB-2-LCD+ and Onset HOBO UX100-003 as market available devices and self-designed solar powered Arduino-based data loggers combined with the AOSONG AM2315 and Sensirion SHT21 temperature and humidity sensors. The devices were calibrated and tested in stationary mode at the Austrian Weather Service showing accuracy between 0.1°C and 0.8°C, which was mostly within the device specification range. In mobile mode, the best response-time was found for self-designed device with Arduino-based data logger and Sensirion SHT21 sensor. However, the device lacks the mechanical robustness and should be further improved for broad-range applications. We organized 4 measurement tours: two taking place in urban environment (Vienna, Austria in July 2011 and July 2013) and two in countryside with complex terrain of Mid-Adriatic islands (Hvar and Korcula, Croatia in August 2013). Measurements were taken on clear-sky, dry and hot days. We combined multiple devices attached to bicycle and cars with different

  20. Metal-Air Electric Vehicle Battery: Sustainable, High-Energy Density, Low-Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage – Metal-Air Ionic Liquid (MAIL) Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-21

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ASU is developing a new class of metal-air batteries. Metal-air batteries are promising for future generations of EVs because they use oxygen from the air as one of the battery’s main reactants, reducing the weight of the battery and freeing up more space to devote to energy storage than Li-Ion batteries. ASU technology uses Zinc as the active metal in the battery because it is more abundant and affordable than imported lithium. Metal-air batteries have long been considered impractical for EV applications because the water-based electrolytes inside would decompose the battery interior after just a few uses. Overcoming this traditional limitation, ASU’s new battery system could be both cheaper and safer than today’s Li-Ion batteries, store from 4-5 times more energy, and be recharged over 2,500 times.

  1. UPDATED PHOTOCHEMICAL MODELING FOR CALIFORNIA'S SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN: COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL MECHANISMS AND MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSION INVENTORIES. (R824792)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large uncertainties remain in photochemical models used
    to relate emissions of VOC and NOx to ambient
    O3
    concentrations. Bias in motor vehicle emission
    estimates
    for VOC has been a long-standing concern. An improved
    Eul...

  2. 77 FR 73459 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...\\ See, e.g., 71 FR 44027 at 44028 (August 3, 2006)(``EPA believed it possible that CARB's amendments do... Resources Board (CARB) its request to confirm that its amendments to California's heavy-duty vehicle and... upon in making this decision, including those submitted to ] EPA by CARB, are contained in the...

  3. Variations in speciated emissions from spark-ignition and compression-ignition motor vehicles in California's south coast air basin.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Eric M; Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, David E; Arnott, W Patrick; Sagebiel, John C; Mazzoleni, Lynn; Chow, Judith C; Gabele, Peter A; Crews, William; Snow, Richard; Clark, Nigel N; Wayne, W Scott; Lawson, Douglas R

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study examined the sources of uncertainties in using an organic compound-based chemical mass balance receptor model to quantify the contributions of spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engine exhaust to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5). This paper presents the chemical composition profiles of SI and CI engine exhaust from the vehicle-testing portion of the study. Chemical analysis of source samples consisted of gravimetric mass, elements, ions, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) by the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Speciation Trends Network (STN) thermal/optical methods, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, steranes, alkanes, and polar organic compounds. More than half of the mass of carbonaceous particles emitted by heavy-duty diesel trucks was EC (IMPROVE) and emissions from SI vehicles contained predominantly OC. Although total carbon (TC) by the IMPROVE and STN protocols agreed well for all of the samples, the STN/IMPROVE ratios for EC from SI exhaust decreased with decreasing sample loading. SI vehicles, whether low or high emitters, emitted greater amounts of high-molecular-weight particulate PAHs (benzo[ghi]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and coronene) than did CI vehicles. Diesel emissions contained higher abundances of two- to four-ring semivolatile PAHs. Diacids were emitted by CI vehicles but are also prevalent in secondary organic aerosols, so they cannot be considered unique tracers. Hopanes and steranes were present in lubricating oil with similar composition for both gasoline and diesel vehicles and were negligible in gasoline or diesel fuels. CI vehicles emitted greater total amounts of hopanes and steranes on a mass per mile basis, but abundances were comparable to SI exhaust normalized to TC emissions within measurement uncertainty. The combustion-produced high-molecular-weight PAHs were found in used

  4. Estimation of exhaust and non-exhaust gaseous, particulate matter and air toxics emissions from on-road vehicles in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagpure, Ajay Singh; Gurjar, B. R.; Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of emissions from on-road vehicles in an Indian megacity, Delhi, have been performed by comparing exhaust emissions of gaseous, particulate matter and mobile source air toxics (MSATs), together with volatile organic compound (VOCs) and PM10 (particulate matter ≤10 μm) from non-exhaust vehicular sources, during the past (1991-2011) and future (2011-2020) scenarios. Results indicate that emissions of most of the pollutants from private vehicles (two wheelers and cars) have increased by 2- to 18-times in 2020 over the 1991 levels. Two wheelers found to be dominating the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO, 29-51%), hydrocarbons (HC, 45-73%), acetaldehyde (46-51%) and total poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 37-42%). Conversely, private cars were found to be responsible for the majority of the carbon dioxide (CO2, 24-42%), 1,3-butadiene (72-89%), benzene (60-82%), formaldehyde (23-44%) and total aldehyde (27-52%) between 1991 and 2011. The heavy-duty commercial vehicles (HCVs) shows their accountability for most of the nitrogen oxide (NOx, 18-41%) and PM10 (33-43%) emissions during the years 1991-2011. In terms of PM10 emissions, vehicular exhaust contributed by 21-55%, followed by road dust (42-73%) and brake wear (3-5%) between 1991 and 2011. After 2002, non-exhaust emissions (e.g. road dust, brake wear and tyre wear) together indicate higher accountability (66-86%) for PM10 emission than the exhaust emissions (14-34%). The temporal trend of emissions of NOx and CO show reasonable agreement with available ambient air concentrations that were monitored at locations, significantly influenced by vehicular activity. Encouraging results were emerged, showing a good correlation coefficient for CO (0.94) and NOx (0.68).

  5. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-23

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  6. A formulation and analysis of combat games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, M.; Ardema, M. D.; Rajan, N.

    1984-01-01

    Combat which is formulated as a dynamical encounter between two opponents, each of whom has offensive capabilities and objectives is outlined. A target set is associated with each opponent in the event space in which he endeavors to terminate the combat, thereby winning. If the combat terminates in both target sets simultaneously, or in neither, a joint capture or a draw, respectively, occurs. Resolution of the encounter is formulated as a combat game; as a pair of competing event constrained differential games. If exactly one of the players can win, the optimal strategies are determined from a resulting constrained zero sum differential game. Otherwise the optimal strategies are computed from a resulting nonzero sum game. Since optimal combat strategies may frequently not exist, approximate or delta combat games are also formulated leading to approximate or delta optimal strategies. The turret game is used to illustrate combat games. This game is sufficiently complex to exhibit a rich variety of combat behavior, much of which is not found in pursuit evasion games.

  7. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-20

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  8. Mobile air quality studies (MAQS) in inner cities: particulate matter PM10 levels related to different vehicle driving modes and integration of data into a geographical information program

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Particulate matter (PM) is assumed to exert a major burden on public health. Most studies that address levels of PM use stationary measure systems. By contrast, only few studies measure PM concentrations under mobile conditions to analyze individual exposure situations. Methods By combining spatial-temporal analysis with a novel vehicle-mounted sensor system, the present Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS) aimed to analyse effects of different driving conditions in a convertible vehicle. PM10 was continuously monitored in a convertible car, driven with roof open, roof closed, but windows open, or windows closed. Results PM10 values inside the car were nearly always higher with open roof than with roof and windows closed, whereas no difference was seen with open or closed windows. During the day PM10 values varied with high values before noon, and occasional high median values or standard deviation values due to individual factors. Vehicle speed in itself did not influence the mean value of PM10; however, at traffic speed (10 – 50 km/h) the standard deviation was large. No systematic difference was seen between PM10 values in stationary and mobile cars, nor was any PM10 difference observed between driving within or outside an environmental (low emission) zone. Conclusions The present study has shown the feasibility of mobile PM analysis in vehicles. Individual exposure of the occupants varies depending on factors like time of day as well as ventilation of the car; other specific factors are clearly identifiably and may relate to specific PM10 sources. This system may be used to monitor individual exposure ranges and provide recommendations for preventive measurements. Although differences in PM10 levels were found under certain ventilation conditions, these differences are likely not of concern for the safety and health of passengers. PMID:23031208

  9. Traumatic andropause after combat injury.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth Huw; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson; Sharma, Davendra Murray; Bowley, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    In association with lower extremity amputation, complex genitourinary injuries have emerged as a specific challenge in modern military trauma surgery. Testicular injury or loss has profound implications for the recovering serviceman, in terms of hormone production and future fertility. The initial focus of treatment for patients with traumatic testicular loss is haemostasis, resuscitation and management of concurrent life-threatening injuries. Multiple reoperations are commonly required to control infection in combat wounds; in a review of 300 major lower extremity amputations, 53% of limbs required revisional surgery, with infection the commonest indication. Atypical infections, such as invasive fungal organisms, can also complicate military wounding. We report the case of a severely wounded serviceman with complete traumatic andropause, whose symptomatic temperature swings were initially mistaken for signs of occult sepsis. PMID:26318170

  10. Blended Training for Combat Medics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowlkes, Jennifer; Dickinson, Sandra; Lazarus, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Bleeding from extremity wounds is the number one cause of preventable death on the battlefield and current research stresses the importance of training in preparing every Soldier to use tourniquets. HapMed is designed to provide tourniquet application training to combat medics and Soldiers using a blended training solution encompassing information, demonstration, practice, and feedback. The system combines an instrumented manikin arm, PDA, and computer. The manikin arm provides several training options including stand-alone, hands-on skills training in which soldiers can experience the actual torque required to staunch bleeding from an extremity wound and be timed on tourniquet application. This is more realistic than using a block of wood to act as a limb, which is often how training is conducted today. Combining the manikin arm with the PDA allows instructors to provide scenario based training. In a classroom or field setting, an instructor can specify wound variables such as location, casualty size, and whether the wound is a tough bleed. The PDA also allows more detailed feedback to be provided. Finally, combining the manikin arm with game-based technologies, the third component, provides opportunities to build knowledge and to practice battlefield decision making. Not only do soldiers learn how to apply a tourniquet, but when to apply a tourniquet in combat. The purpose of the paper is to describe the learning science underlying the design of HapMed, illustrate the training system and ways it is being expanded to encompass other critical life-saving tasks, and report on feedback received from instructors and trainees at military training and simulation centers.

  11. Autonomous vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrowitz, A.L.; Blidberg, D.R.; Michelson, R.C. |

    1996-08-01

    There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV`s) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground, and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further, this paper deals with AV`s as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. The authors provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV`s, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV`s depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater, on the ground, or in the air. The authors have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories.

  12. Remote Operated Vehicle geophysical surveys on land (underground), air and submarine archaeology: General peculiarities of processing and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2016-04-01

    The last Remote Operation Vehicles (ROV) generation - small and maneuvering vehicles with different geophysical sensors - can fly at levels of a few meters (and even tens of centimeters) over the earth's surface, to move on the earth's surface and in the inaccessible underground areas and to explore in underwater investigations (e.g., Mindel and Bingham, 2001; Rowlands and Sarris, 2006; Wilson et al., 2006; Rigaud, 2007; Eppelbaum, 2008; Patterson and Brescia, 2008; Sarris, 2008; Wang et al., 2009; Wu and Tian, 2010; Stall, 2011; Tezkan et al., 2011; Winn et al., 2012; El-Nahhas, 2013; Hadjimitsis et al., 2013; Hajiyev and Vural, 2013; Hugenholtz et al., 2013; Petzke et al., 2013; Pourier et al., 2013; Casana et al., 2014; Silverberg and Bieber, 2014). Such geophysical investigations should have an extremely low exploitation cost and can observe surface practically inaccessible archaeological sites (swampy areas, dense vegetation, rugged relief, over the areas of world recognized religious and cultural artifacts (Eppelbaum, 2010), etc.). Finally, measurements of geophysical fields at different observation levels could provide a new unique geological-geophysical information (Eppelbaum and Mishne, 2011). Let's consider ROV airborne magnetic measurements as example. The modern magnetometric equipment enables to carry out magnetic measurements with a frequency of 50 times per second (and more) that taking into account the low ROV flight speed provides a necessary density of observations. For instance, frequency of observation of 50 times per second by ROV velocity of 40 km/hour gives density of observation about 0.2 m. It is obvious that the calculated step between observation points is more than sufficient one. Such observations will allow not only reduce the influence of some small artificial sources of noise, but also to obtain some additional data necessary for quantitative analysis (some interpretation methodologies need to have observations at two levels; upward

  13. Treating traumatic bleeding in a combat setting.

    PubMed

    Clifford, C Cloonan

    2004-12-01

    Bleeding is clearly a major cause of morbidity and death after trauma. When bleeding is attributable to transection of major vessels, surgical repair is appropriate. Posttraumatic microvascular bleeding attributable to coagulopathy secondary to metabolic derangements, hypothermia, and depletion or dysfunction of cellular and protein components requires a different approach. Although transfusion of blood products may be necessary to replace the blood loss, it does not always correct the problem of microvascular bleeding. The type of injury, mode of care, and treatment objectives differ significantly for combat-wounded soldiers versus civilian trauma patients. Although hemorrhage is responsible for 50% of combat deaths, published information about coagulation monitoring among combat patients is very limited. These articles summarize the appropriate monitoring of hemostasis among combat trauma patients, review the unique nature of combat casualties and the medical system used to treat them, and discuss information available from civilian studies. Because the development of coagulopathy is relatively infrequent in the young, otherwise healthy, military population, the routine screening measures currently used are adequate to guide initial blood product administration. However, as new intravenous hemostatic agents are used for these patients, better laboratory measures will be required. Although hemorrhage is the leading cause of death for combat casualties, catastrophic hemorrhage is rarely a prehospital combat medical management problem because, when it occurs, it tends to cause death before medical care can be provided. In civilian environments, most seriously injured victims can be reached and transported by emergency medical services personnel within minutes; in combat, it often takes hours simply to transport casualties off the battlefield. In combat situations, even if the transport distances are small, the hazardous nature of the forward combat areas frequently

  14. Monitoring of hemostasis in combat trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Carr, Marcus E

    2004-12-01

    Bleeding is clearly a major cause of morbidity and death after trauma. When bleeding is attributable to transection of major vessels, surgical repair is appropriate. Posttraumatic microvascular bleeding attributable to coagulopathy secondary to metabolic derangements, hypothermia, and depletion or dysfunction of cellular and protein components requires a different approach. Although transfusion of blood products may be necessary to replace the blood loss, it does not always correct the problem of microvascular bleeding. The type of injury, mode of care, and treatment objectives differ significantly for combat-wounded soldiers versus civilian trauma patients. Although hemorrhage is responsible for 50% of combat deaths, published information about coagulation monitoring among combat patients is very limited. These articles summarize the appropriate monitoring of hemostasis among combat trauma patients, review the unique nature of combat casualties and the medical system used to treat them, and discuss information available from civilian studies. Because the development of coagulopathy is relatively infrequent in the young, otherwise healthy, military population, the routine screening measures currently used are adequate to guide initial blood product administration. However, as new intravenous hemostatic agents are used for these patients, better laboratory measures will be required. Although hemorrhage is the leading cause of death for combat casualties, catastrophic hemorrhage is rarely a prehospital combat medical management problem because, when it occurs, it tends to cause death before medical care can be provided. In civilian environments, most seriously injured victims can be reached and transported by emergency medical services personnel within minutes; in combat, it often takes hours simply to transport casualties off the battlefield. In combat situations, even if the transport distances are small, the hazardous nature of the forward combat areas frequently

  15. Simulation Of Combat With An Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provenzano, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed expert system predicts outcomes of combat situations. Called "COBRA", combat outcome based on rules for attrition, system selects rules for mathematical modeling of losses and discrete events in combat according to previous experiences. Used with another software module known as the "Game". Game/COBRA software system, consisting of Game and COBRA modules, provides for both quantitative aspects and qualitative aspects in simulations of battles. COBRA intended for simulation of large-scale military exercises, concepts embodied in it have much broader applicability. In industrial research, knowledge-based system enables qualitative as well as quantitative simulations.

  16. Advanced computer technology - An aspect of the Terminal Configured Vehicle program. [air transportation capacity, productivity, all-weather reliability and noise reduction improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    NASA is conducting a Terminal Configured Vehicle program to provide improvements in the air transportation system such as increased system capacity and productivity, increased all-weather reliability, and reduced noise. A typical jet transport has been equipped with highly flexible digital display and automatic control equipment to study operational techniques for conventional takeoff and landing aircraft. The present airborne computer capability of this aircraft employs a multiple computer simple redundancy concept. The next step is to proceed from this concept to a reconfigurable computer system which can degrade gracefully in the event of a failure, adjust critical computations to remaining capacity, and reorder itself, in the case of transients, to the highest order of redundancy and reliability.

  17. A synergistic glance at the prospects of distributed propulsion technology and the electric aircraft concept for future unmanned air vehicles and commercial/military aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohardani, Amir S.

    2013-02-01

    Distributed propulsion is one of the revolutionary candidates for future aircraft propulsion. In this journal article, the potential role of distributed propulsion technology in future aviation is investigated. Following a historical journey that revisits distributed propulsion technology in unmanned air vehicles and military aircraft, features of this specific technology are highlighted in synergy with an electric aircraft concept and a first-of-a-kind comparison to commercial aircraft employing distributed propulsion arrangements. In light of propulsion-airframe integration and complementary technologies such as boundary layer ingestion, thrust vectoring and circulation control, transpired opportunities and challenges are addressed in addition to a number of identified research directions proposed for future aircraft. The motivation behind enhanced means of communication between engineers, researchers and scientists has stimulated a novel proposed definition for the distributed propulsion technology in aviation and is presented herein.

  18. An investigation of drag reduction for tractor trailer vehicles with air deflector and boattail. [wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muirhead, V. U.

    1981-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the influence of several physical variables on the aerodynamic drag of a trailer model. The physical variables included: a cab mounted wind deflector, boattail on trailer, flow vanes on trailer front, forced transition on trailer, and decreased gap between tractor and trailer. Tests were conducted at yaw angles (relative wind angles) of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 degrees and Reynolds numbers of 3.58 x 10 to the 5th power 6.12 x 10 to the 5th power based upon the equivalent diameter of the vehicles. The wind deflector on top of the cab produced a calculated reduction in fuel consumption of about 5 percent of the aerodynamic portion of the fuel budget for a wind speed of 15.3 km/hr (9.5 mph) over a wind angle range of 0 deg to 180 deg and for a vehicle speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). The boattail produced a calculated 7 percent to 8 percent reduction in fuel consumption under the same conditions. The decrease in gap reduced the calculated fuel consumption by about 5 percent of the aerodynamic portion of the fuel budget.

  19. Understanding combat casualty care statistics.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, John B; Stansbury, Lynn G; Champion, Howard R; Wade, Charles; Bellamy, Ronald F

    2006-02-01

    Maintaining good hospital records during military conflicts can provide medical personnel and researchers with feedback to rapidly adjust treatment strategies and improve outcomes. But to convert the resulting raw data into meaningful conclusions requires clear terminology and well thought out equations, utilizing consistent numerators and denominators. Our objective was to arrive at terminology and equations that would produce the best insight into the effectiveness of care at different stages of treatment, either pre or post medical treatment facility care. We first clarified three essential terms: 1) the case fatality rate (CFR) as percentage of fatalities among all wounded; 2) killed in action (KIA) as percentage of immediate deaths among all seriously injured (not returning to duty); and 3) died of wounds (DOW) as percentage of deaths following admission to a medical treatment facility among all seriously injured (not returning to duty). These equations were then applied consistently across data from the WWII, Vietnam and the current Global War on Terrorism. Using this clear set of definitions we used the equations to ask two basic questions: What is the overall lethality of the battlefield? How effective is combat casualty care? To answer these questions with current data, the three services have collaboratively created a joint theater trauma registry (JTTR), cataloging all the serious injuries, procedures, and outcomes for the current war. These definitions and equations, consistently applied to the JTTR, will allow meaningful comparisons and help direct future research and appropriate application of personnel. PMID:16508502

  20. Aerothermodynamic Testing of Protuberances and Penetrations on the NASA Crew Exploration Vehicle Heat Shield in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel program is being conducted in support of an Agency wide effort to develop a replacement for the Space Shuttle and to support the NASA s long-term objective of returning to the moon and then on to Mars. This paper documents experimental measurements made on several scaled ceramic heat transfer models of the proposed Crew Exploration Vehicle. Global heat transfer images and heat transfer distributions obtained using phosphor thermography were used to infer interference heating on the Crew Exploration Vehicle Cycle 1 heat shield from local protuberances and penetrations for both laminar and turbulent heating conditions. Test parametrics included free stream Reynolds numbers of 1.0x10(exp 6)/ft to 7.25x10(exp 6)/ft in Mach 6 air at a fixed angle-of-attack. Single arrays of discrete boundary layer trips were used to trip the boundary layer approaching the protuberances/penetrations to a turbulent state. Also, the effects of three compression pad diameters, two radial locations of compression pad/tension tie location, compression pad geometry, and rotational position of compression pad/tension tie were examined. The experimental data highlighted in this paper are to be used to validate CFD tools that will be used to generate the flight aerothermodynamic database. Heat transfer measurements will also assist in the determination of the most appropriate engineering methods that will be used to assess local flight environments associated with protuberances/penetrations of the CEV thermal protection system.

  1. Exposure to recurrent combat stress: combat stress reactions among Israeli soldiers in the Lebanon War.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Z; Mikulincer, M; Jakob, B R

    1987-05-01

    This study examined the impact of repeated exposure to combat on combat stress reaction (CSR). Soldiers diagnosed with CSR during the Lebanon War (N = 382) were compared with a matched control group of soldiers who fought in the same units but did not manifest symptoms of CSR (N = 334). CSR in the Lebanon War was found to be related to the psychological outcome the soldier experienced in previous wars. The CSR rate in the Lebanon War was higher in soldiers who had experienced an episode of CSR in a previous war than in soldiers with no past combat experience. However, CSR rates were lower among soldiers who had not had an episode of CSR in a previous war than among soldiers with no prior combat experience. High intensity of combat in Lebanon was found to increase both the detrimental and favourable effects of prior combat experience. PMID:3602235

  2. Development of exposure to combat severity scale of the combat experiences questionnaire (CEQ).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Teresa; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Cunha, Marina; da Motta, Carolina

    2014-12-01

    Combat exposure is detrimental to physical and mental health, and is an important risk factor for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The current study aimed to develop the first section of a self-report measure (Combat Experiences Questionnaire - CEQ), and to explore its psychometric properties on Portuguese Overseas War Veterans. The Exposure to Combat Severity Scale (CEQ A), assesses the exposure severity to objective scenarios related to military combat, common to contemporary and older theaters of operations. Studies included structural analysis through Rash Model, internal consistency, convergent validity (n=708), temporal reliability (n=112) and sensibility to differentiate war Veterans with and without war-related PTSD (N=40 and N=47, respectively). The scale's structure presented adequate fit to the data, adequate psychometric properties, and discriminant validity. Thus, the CEQ A is a valid and reliable tool presenting diverse combat scenarios to assess severity of combat exposure in war Veterans. PMID:25445084

  3. Traumatic stress: a personal view from combat.

    PubMed

    Jaehne, R L

    2001-01-01

    What follows is my personal account of the effects of traumatic stress disorder as it is caused by the effects of combat. I tell it in the first person because it is the most effective way to emphasize the highly personal, traumatic nature of combat stress and because it is my own story. I have endeavored to explain how combat stress occurs, what happens to the individual as a result and how a person can recover from its effects. I offer my story because I think that there are thousands of men who have been in offensive combat, who may have lived my life, but who have not had the opportunity to tell their story about why they hurt. PMID:11642197

  4. Doctors Issue Call to Combat Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158362.html Doctors Issue Call to Combat Climate Change They say respiratory illnesses, heat stroke and infectious ... 18, 2016 MONDAY, April 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Climate change is already harming people's health by promoting illnesses ...

  5. Doctors Issue Call to Combat Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158362.html Doctors Issue Call to Combat Climate Change They say respiratory illnesses, heat stroke and ... 18, 2016 MONDAY, April 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Climate change is already harming people's health by promoting ...

  6. A ballistic investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a blunt vehicle at hypersonic speeds in carbon dioxide and air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, James D.; Griffith, Wayland C.; Yates, Leslie A.; Strawa, Anthony W.

    1992-01-01

    Missions to Mars require the successful development of aerobraking technology, and therefore a blunt cone representative of aerobrake shapes is investigated. Ballistic tests of the Pioneer Venus configuration are conducted in carbon dioxide and air at Mach numbers from 7 to 20 and Reynolds numbers from 0.1 x 10 exp 5 to 4 x 10 exp 6. Experimental results show that for defined conditions aerodynamic research can be conducted in air rather than carbon dioxide, providing savings in time and money. In addition, the results offer a prediction of flight aerodynamics during entry into the Martian atmosphere. Also discussed is a comparison of results from two data-reduction techniques showing that a five-degree-of-freedom routine employing weighted least-squares with differential corrections analyzes ballistic data more accurately.

  7. Computer graphic of Lockheed Martin X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) mounted on NASA 747 ferry air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is an artist's conception of the NASA/Lockheed Martin X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator being carried on the back of the 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. This was a concept for moving the X-33 from its landing site back to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The X-33 was a technology demonstrator vehicle for the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). The RLV technology program was a cooperative agreement between NASA and industry. The goal of the RLV technology program was to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space, and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that will improve U.S. economic competitiveness. NASA Headquarter's Office of Space Access and Technology oversaw the RLV program, which was being managed by the RLV Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, located in Huntsville, Alabama. Responsibilities of other NASA Centers included: Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, guidance navigation and control technology, manned space systems, and health technology; Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA., thermal protection system testing; Langley Research Center, Langley, Virginia, wind tunnel testing and aerodynamic analysis; and Kennedy Space Center, Florida, RLV operations and health management. Lockheed Martin's industry partners in the X-33 program are: Astronautics, Inc., Denver, Colorado, and Huntsville, Alabama; Engineering & Science Services, Houston, Texas; Manned Space Systems, New Orleans, LA; Sanders, Nashua, NH; and Space Operations, Titusville, Florida. Other industry partners are: Rocketdyne, Canoga Park, California; Allied Signal Aerospace, Teterboro, NJ; Rohr, Inc., Chula Vista, California; and Sverdrup Inc., St. Louis, Missouri.

  8. 40 CFR 86.1724-01 - Emission data vehicle selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles certified to the SFTP exhaust emission standards, if air conditioning is projected to be available... which have air conditioning available and would require that any vehicle selected under this section has air conditioning installed and operational....

  9. Electric vehicle technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains proceedings on electric vehicle technology. Topics covered include: flow-by lead-acid---improving the performance standard for EV battery systems; Townobile purpose-built electric commuter cars, vans and mini-buses; An electric van with extended range; and The future of electric vehicles in meeting the air quality challenges in Southern California.

  10. Launch vehicle effluent measurements during the May 12, 1977, Titan 3 launch at Air Force Eastern Test Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Bendura, R. J.; Woods, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne effluent measurements and cloud physical behavior for the May 21, 1977, Titan 3 launch from the Air Force Eastern Test Range, Fla. are presented. The monitoring program included airborne effluent measurements in situ in the launch cloud, visible and infrared photography of cloud growth and physical behavior, and limited surface collection of rain samples. Airborne effluent measurements included concentrations of HCl, NO, NOx, and aerosols as a function of time in the exhaust cloud. For the first time in situ particulate mass concentration and aerosol number density were measured as a function of time and size in the size range of 0.05 to 25 micro meters diameter. Measurement results were similar to those of earlier launch monitorings. Maximum HCl and NOx concentrations ranged from 10 ppm and 500 ppb, respectively, several minutes after launch to about 1 ppm and 100 ppb at 45 minutes after launch.

  11. Intake fractions of primary conserved air pollutants emitted from on-road vehicles in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Nazaroff, William W.; Spears, Michael; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E.

    2012-12-01

    Vehicular air pollutant emissions are characterized by a high degree of spatial variability that is correlated with the distribution of people. The consequences of the spatial association between emissions and exposed populations have not been fully captured in lifecycle and other impact assessments. The intake fraction (iF) quantifies aggregate air-pollutant exposures attributable to sources. Utilizing source-receptor (S-R) relationships derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency's AERMOD steady-state plume model, we quantify the intake fraction of conserved pollutants emitted from on-road mobile sources and report here the first characterization across approximately 65,000 census tracts of the conterminous United States. Considering exposures out to 50 km from the source, the population-weighted mean iF is 8.6 parts per million (ppm). The population-weighted median generally increases with geographic scale, from 3.6 ppm for census tracts to 4.2 ppm for counties, and 5.1 ppm for states, while the population-weighted interquartile range (IQR) progressively narrows as geographic scale increases: 0.85-8.8 ppm for census tracts, 1.5-8.5 ppm for counties, and 3.2-7.5 ppm for states. Across the four US Census regions, the population weighted median iF varies from 2.2 ppm (South) to 7.5 ppm (West), and the census-tract IQR spans an order of magnitude in each region (2.1-17 ppm in the West; 0.55-6.9 ppm in the Midwest; 0.45-5.5 ppm in the South; and 1.8-18 ppm in the Northeast). The population-weighted mean intake fraction for populous urban counties is about two orders of magnitude greater than for sparsely populated rural counties. On a population-weighted average basis and considering the 50 km analysis range, 75% of the intake occurs in the same county as emissions.

  12. A probabilistic and multi-objective conceptual design methodology for the evaluation of thermal management systems on air-breathing hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordaz, Irian

    This thesis addresses the challenges associated with thermal management systems (TMS) evaluation and selection in the conceptual design of hypersonic, air-breathing vehicles with sustained cruise. The proposed methodology identifies analysis tools and techniques which allow the proper investigation of the design space for various thermal management technologies. The design space exploration environment and alternative multi-objective decision making technique defined as Pareto-based Joint Probability Decision Making (PJPDM) is based on the approximation of 3-D Pareto frontiers and probabilistic technology effectiveness maps. These are generated through the evaluation of a Pareto Fitness function and Monte Carlo analysis. In contrast to Joint Probability Decision Making (JPDM), the proposed PJPDM technique does not require preemptive knowledge of weighting factors for competing objectives or goal constraints which can introduce bias into the final solution. Preemptive bias in a complex problem can degrade the overall capabilities of the final design. The implementation of PJPDM in this thesis eliminates the need for the numerical optimizer which is required with JPDM in order to improve upon a solution. In addition, a physics-based formulation is presented for the quantification of TMS safety effectiveness corresponding to debris impact/damage and how it can be applied towards risk mitigation. Lastly, a formulation loosely based on non-preemptive Goal Programming with equal weighted deviations is provided for the resolution of the inverse design space. This key step helps link vehicle capabilities to TMS technology subsystems in a top-down design approach. The methodology provides the designer more knowledge up front to help make proper engineering decisions and assumptions in the conceptual design phase regarding which technologies show greatest promise, and how to guide future technology research.

  13. Modal analysis of an artificial wing mimicking an Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing for flapping-wing micro air vehicles by noncontact measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Ngoc San; Jin, Tailie; Goo, Nam Seo

    2013-05-01

    Recently, the development of flapping-wing micro air vehicles (FW-MAV) for operation in extreme environmental conditions has demanded properly designed, biologically inspired wings that can produce enough lift force to keep the vehicles aloft. The structural analysis of an artificial wing is carried out in the design of an FW-MAV. In this study, the dynamic characteristics of an artificial wing mimicking an Allomyrina dichotoma beetle's hind wing were investigated by a non-contact measurement method. The natural frequencies, mode shapes, and damping ratios of the first three basic vibration modes in the operating frequency range were determined using a Bruel & Kjaer (B&K) fast Fourier transform analyzer, along with a laser sensor. The laser sensor was used to obtain the displacement history of the marked points on the wing to calculate the frequency response function. To confirm the results, a three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) method, as well as high speed digital cameras, were employed to construct the mode shapes of the wing when it was vibrated at a pre-determined natural frequency. The mode shapes by the DIC method showed good agreement with those by the laser displacement sensor. These results provide a method for the modal analysis of a light weight structure like an insect wing as well as for the construction of the mode shapes using DIC. The high speed 3D-DIC method, used successfully in mode shape measurements, can also be used to study the wing deformation of an insect during flight, which is challenging in an insect study.

  14. Historical approaches to post-combat disorders.

    PubMed

    Jones, Edgar

    2006-04-29

    Almost every major war in the last century involving western nations has seen combatants diagnosed with a form of post-combat disorder. Some took a psychological form (exhaustion, combat fatigue, combat stress reaction and post-traumatic stress disorder), while others were characterized by medically unexplained symptoms (soldier's heart, effort syndrome, shell shock, non-ulcer dyspepsia, effects of Agent Orange and Gulf War Syndrome). Although many of these disorders have common symptoms, the explanations attached to them showed considerable diversity often reflected in the labels themselves. These causal hypotheses ranged from the effects of climate, compressive forces released by shell explosions, side effects of vaccinations, changes in diet, toxic effects of organophosphates, oil-well fires or depleted-uranium munitions. Military history suggests that these disorders, which coexisted in the civilian population, reflected popular health fears and emerged in the gaps left by the advance of medical science. While the current Iraq conflict has yet to produce a syndrome typified by medically unexplained symptoms, it is unlikely that we have seen the last of post-combat disorders as past experience suggests that they have the capacity to catch both military planners and doctors by surprise. PMID:16687259

  15. Historical approaches to post-combat disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Edgar

    2006-01-01

    Almost every major war in the last century involving western nations has seen combatants diagnosed with a form of post-combat disorder. Some took a psychological form (exhaustion, combat fatigue, combat stress reaction and post-traumatic stress disorder), while others were characterized by medically unexplained symptoms (soldier's heart, effort syndrome, shell shock, non-ulcer dyspepsia, effects of Agent Orange and Gulf War Syndrome). Although many of these disorders have common symptoms, the explanations attached to them showed considerable diversity often reflected in the labels themselves. These causal hypotheses ranged from the effects of climate, compressive forces released by shell explosions, side effects of vaccinations, changes in diet, toxic effects of organophosphates, oil-well fires or depleted-uranium munitions. Military history suggests that these disorders, which coexisted in the civilian population, reflected popular health fears and emerged in the gaps left by the advance of medical science. While the current Iraq conflict has yet to produce a syndrome typified by medically unexplained symptoms, it is unlikely that we have seen the last of post-combat disorders as past experience suggests that they have the capacity to catch both military planners and doctors by surprise. PMID:16687259

  16. Magnitude and value of electric vehicle emissions reductions for six driving cycles in four US cities with varying air quality problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Santini, D.L.

    1992-12-31

    The emissions of logically competing mid-1990 gasoline vehicles (GVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are estimated as if the vehicles were driven in the same pattern of driving. Six different driving cycles are evaluated, ranging in speed from 7 to 49 miles per hour (mph). These steps are repeated using specifics of fuel composition, electric power mix, and environmental conditions applicable to Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, and New York in the month of July. The year 2000 emissions differences for each of four regulated pollutants - HC, CO, NO{sub x,} SO{sub x} - are estimated. CO{sub 2} emissions are also estimated. With use of EVs, HC and CO emissions are consistently lowered by 98% or more. CO{sub 2} emissions reductions are uniformly large at low speed, but variable at high speed. It is found that initially introduced EVs could achieve 100% emission reductions in Chicago by using off-peak power from nuclear power plants for EV electricity generation. Emissions reductions occur for all combinations in Los Angeles, and for most combinations in New York, excepting SO{sub x}. NO{sub x} emissions are reduced in all four cities. An ``avoided cost`` value for each regulated pollutant is estimated for each of the cities. The values for each city depend on severity of air quality violations. It is estimated that the emissions reduction value of EVs driven an average of one and one half hours per day in Los Angeles ranges from $1050 to $3,900; $590 to $2100 in New York; $270 to $1200 in Chicago, and $330 to $1250 in Denver (1989$). Assuming a range of about 100 miles in congested conditions with speeds of 10 mph or less, the estimates range from $3600 to $13300 for Los Angeles; $2004 to $7200 for New York; $930 to $2930 for Chicago; and $1120 to $4290 for Denver. Low estimates are obtained using EPA`s draft Mobile5 model for GV emissions, high values by using California`s EMFAC7EP-SCF1 model. The dollar value benefit estimates include no economic value.

  17. Magnitude and value of electric vehicle emissions reductions for six driving cycles in four US cities with varying air quality problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q. ); Santini, D.L. )

    1992-01-01

    The emissions of logically competing mid-1990 gasoline vehicles (GVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are estimated as if the vehicles were driven in the same pattern of driving. Six different driving cycles are evaluated, ranging in speed from 7 to 49 miles per hour (mph). These steps are repeated using specifics of fuel composition, electric power mix, and environmental conditions applicable to Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, and New York in the month of July. The year 2000 emissions differences for each of four regulated pollutants - HC, CO, NO[sub x,] SO[sub x] - are estimated. CO[sub 2] emissions are also estimated. With use of EVs, HC and CO emissions are consistently lowered by 98% or more. CO[sub 2] emissions reductions are uniformly large at low speed, but variable at high speed. It is found that initially introduced EVs could achieve 100% emission reductions in Chicago by using off-peak power from nuclear power plants for EV electricity generation. Emissions reductions occur for all combinations in Los Angeles, and for most combinations in New York, excepting SO[sub x]. NO[sub x] emissions are reduced in all four cities. An avoided cost'' value for each regulated pollutant is estimated for each of the cities. The values for each city depend on severity of air quality violations. It is estimated that the emissions reduction value of EVs driven an average of one and one half hours per day in Los Angeles ranges from $1050 to $3,900; $590 to $2100 in New York; $270 to $1200 in Chicago, and $330 to $1250 in Denver (1989$). Assuming a range of about 100 miles in congested conditions with speeds of 10 mph or less, the estimates range from $3600 to $13300 for Los Angeles; $2004 to $7200 for New York; $930 to $2930 for Chicago; and $1120 to $4290 for Denver. Low estimates are obtained using EPA's draft Mobile5 model for GV emissions, high values by using California's EMFAC7EP-SCF1 model. The dollar value benefit estimates include no economic value.

  18. Impact of increased vehicle emissions on the ozone concentrations around beach areas in summer using air quality modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.; Kim, Y.; Shon, Z.; Kang, Y.; Jeong, J.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of pollutant emissions by the huge amount of road traffic around beaches on the ozone (O3) concentrations in the surrounding regions were evaluated using a numerical modeling approach during the beach opening period (BOP) (July to August). This analysis was performed based on two simulation conditions: 1) with mobile emissions during the BOP (i.e. BOP case); and 2) during the normal period (i.e. NOR case). On-road mobile emissions were estimated from the emission factors, vehicle kilometers traveled, and deterioration factors at several roads close to beaches in Busan, Korea during a 4-day observation period (29 and 31 July and 1 and 3 August) of the BOP in 2010. The emission data was then applied to the 3-D chemical transport model (i.e. the WRF-CMAQ modeling system). A process analysis (PA) was also used to assess the contributions of the individual physical and chemical processes to the production or loss of O3 in the study area. The model study suggested the possibility that road traffic emissions near the beach area can have a direct impact on the O3 concentrations in the source regions as well as their surrounding/downwind regions. The maximum negative impact of mobile emissions on the O3 concentrations between the BOP and NOR cases was predicted near the beach areas: by -4 ppb during the day due to the high NOx emissions with the high NOx/VOC ratio and -8 ppb during the late evening due to the fast titration of O3 by NO. The PA showed that the rate of O3 destruction due to the road traffic emissions around the beach areas decreased by -2.3 (weekend, 31 July) and -5.5 ppb h-1 (weekday, 3 August) during the day. Acknowledgments: This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant CATER_2012-6140. This work was also funded by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0021141).

  19. Advancing critical care: joint combat casualty research team and joint theater trauma system.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Elizabeth; Biever, Kimberlie

    2010-01-01

    Despite the severity and complexity of injuries, survival rates among combat casualties are equal to or better than those from civilian trauma. This article summarizes the evidence regarding innovations from the battlefield that contribute to these extraordinary survival rates, including preventing hemorrhage with the use of tourniquets and hemostatic dressings, damage control resuscitation, and the rapid evacuation of casualties via MEDEVAC and the US Air Force Critical Care Air Transport Teams. Care in the air for critically injured casualties with pulmonary injuries and traumatic brain injury is discussed to demonstrate the unique considerations required to ensure safe en route care. Innovations being studied to decrease sequelae associated with complex orthopedic and extremity trauma are also presented. The role and contributions of the Joint Combat Casualty Research Team and the Joint Theater Trauma System are also discussed. PMID:20683227

  20. Force generation and wing deformation characteristics of a flapping-wing micro air vehicle 'DelFly II' in hovering flight.

    PubMed

    Percin, M; van Oudheusden, B W; de Croon, G C H E; Remes, B

    2016-06-01

    The study investigates the aerodynamic performance and the relation between wing deformation and unsteady force generation of a flapping-wing micro air vehicle in hovering flight configuration. Different experiments were performed where fluid forces were acquired with a force sensor, while the three-dimensional wing deformation was measured with a stereo-vision system. In these measurements, time-resolved power consumption and flapping-wing kinematics were also obtained under both in-air and in-vacuum conditions. Comparison of the results for different flapping frequencies reveals different wing kinematics and deformation characteristics. The high flapping frequency case produces higher forces throughout the complete flapping cycle. Moreover, a phase difference occurs in the variation of the forces, such that the low flapping frequency case precedes the high frequency case. A similar phase lag is observed in the temporal evolution of the wing deformation characteristics, suggesting that there is a direct link between the two phenomena. A considerable camber formation occurs during stroke reversals, which is mainly determined by the stiffener orientation. The wing with the thinner surface membrane displays very similar characteristics to the baseline wing, which implies the dominance of the stiffeners in terms of providing rigidity to the wing. Wing span has a significant effect on the aerodynamic efficiency such that increasing the span length by 4 cm results in a 6% enhancement in the cycle-averaged X-force to power consumption ratio compared to the standard DelFly II wings with a span length of 28 cm. PMID:27194392

  1. An insect-inspired flapping wing micro air vehicle with double wing clap-fling effects and capability of sustained hovering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quoc-Viet; Chan, Woei Leong; Debiasi, Marco

    2015-03-01

    We present our recent flying insect-inspired Flapping-Wing Micro Air Vehicle (FW-MAV) capable of hovering flight which we have recently achieved. The FW-MAV has wing span of 22 cm (wing tip-to-wing tip), weighs about 16.6 grams with onboard integration of radio control system including a radio receiver, an electronic speed control (ESC) for brushless motor, three servos for attitude flight controls of roll, pitch, and yaw, and a single cell lithium-polymer (LiPo) battery (3.7 V). The proposed gear box enables the FW-MAV to use one DC brushless motor to synchronously drive four wings and take advantage of the double clap-and-fling effects during one flapping cycle. Moreover, passive wing rotation is utilized to simplify the design, in addition to passive stabilizing surfaces for flight stability. Powered by a single cell LiPo battery (3.7 V), the FW-MAV flaps at 13.7 Hz and produces an average vertical force or thrust of about 28 grams, which is sufficient for take-off and hovering flight. Finally, free flight tests in terms of vertical take-off, hovering, and manual attitude control flight have been conducted to verify the performance of the FW-MAV.

  2. Studies on potential emission of hazardous gases due to uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres and their possible impacts on the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, Pawan R.; Shrestha, Pratima; Tamrakar, Chirika S.; Bhattarai, Pradeep K.

    Uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres causing environmental pollution has become a popular practice in Nepal despite official ban considering the environment and public health hazards. In this study, an experimental model was set up in a laboratory scale in an attempt to understand the potential emission of hazardous gases such as CO, SO 2 and NO 2 due to such activities in Kathmandu Valley and their possible impacts on the environment. For this purpose, four types of tyre were collected representing two from passenger car and two from motorbike category. The emission level of CO in the tyre smoke was measured with a CO gas detector tube while SO 2 and NO 2 were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Among the three types of the gases analyzed, SO 2 was emitted in significantly high levels by all the representative tyre samples. The emission levels of CO, SO 2 and NO 2 ranged from 21to 49, 102to 820 and 3to 9 μg g -1, respectively. Results revealed that the emission levels also varied with the tyre types and qualities. The potential emission of the hazardous gases per representative scrap tyre mass was also estimated. Results indicate that the gaseous pollutants due to the tyre fires could make a significant contribution for deterioration of the environmental condition of the Valley or elsewhere.

  3. High-order tracking differentiator based adaptive neural control of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle subject to actuators constraints.

    PubMed

    Bu, Xiangwei; Wu, Xiaoyan; Tian, Mingyan; Huang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Rui; Ma, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, an adaptive neural controller is exploited for a constrained flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV) based on high-order tracking differentiator (HTD). By utilizing functional decomposition methodology, the dynamic model is reasonably decomposed into the respective velocity subsystem and altitude subsystem. For the velocity subsystem, a dynamic inversion based neural controller is constructed. By introducing the HTD to adaptively estimate the newly defined states generated in the process of model transformation, a novel neural based altitude controller that is quite simpler than the ones derived from back-stepping is addressed based on the normal output-feedback form instead of the strict-feedback formulation. Based on minimal-learning parameter scheme, only two neural networks with two adaptive parameters are needed for neural approximation. Especially, a novel auxiliary system is explored to deal with the problem of control inputs constraints. Finally, simulation results are presented to test the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy in the presence of system uncertainties and actuators constraints. PMID:26142218

  4. How does Listeria monocytogenes combat acid conditions?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes, a major foodborne pathogen, possesses a number of mechanisms which enable it to combat the challenges posed by acidic environments such as acidic foods and the acidity in the gastrointestinal tract. These mechanisms include the acid tolerance response, a two-component regula...

  5. When war follows combat veterans home.

    PubMed

    Kane, Shawn F; Saperstein, Adam K; Bunt, Christopher W; Stephens, Mark B

    2013-08-01

    While combat survivability is at an all-time high, vets return home to private struggles with depression, PTSD, traumatic brain injury, and substance abuse. Here's how to spot these patients in civilian medical practices and the steps you can take to help them. PMID:24143332

  6. A Review of Combat Support Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Ernest K.; Showel, Morris

    This report presents a review of current training practices and problems as they relate to the broad spread of individual ability among soldiers, and to the increasing need for functionalization of training. Combat support training was observed at four army training centers, with particular reference to training objectives, methods, and student…

  7. An Educational Program to Combat Venereal Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotterweich, Andrew H., Jr.

    The purpose of this practicum was to develop, implement, and evaluate an educational program to combat venereal disease. The objectives of the program were: (1) to increase public awareness of the problem of venereal disease, (2) to alert parents and students to the dangers of venereal disease, (3) to enable students to make rational judgments…

  8. Pythium aphanidermatum Infection following Combat Trauma▿

    PubMed Central

    Calvano, Tatjana P.; Blatz, Peter J.; Vento, Todd J.; Wickes, Brian L.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; White, Christopher E.; Renz, Evan M.; Hospenthal, Duane R.

    2011-01-01

    Pythium aphanidermatum is a fungus-like plant pathogen which has never been reported as a cause of human infection. We report a case of P. aphanidermatum invasive wound infection in a 21-year-old male injured during combat operations in Afghanistan. PMID:21813724

  9. Pythium aphanidermatum infection following combat trauma.

    PubMed

    Calvano, Tatjana P; Blatz, Peter J; Vento, Todd J; Wickes, Brian L; Sutton, Deanna A; Thompson, Elizabeth H; White, Christopher E; Renz, Evan M; Hospenthal, Duane R

    2011-10-01

    Pythium aphanidermatum is a fungus-like plant pathogen which has never been reported as a cause of human infection. We report a case of P. aphanidermatum invasive wound infection in a 21-year-old male injured during combat operations in Afghanistan. PMID:21813724

  10. Combating Labour Market Exclusion: Does Training Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Pascaline; Tessaring, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews active labour-market policies (ALMP), of which training is prominent. For about 20 years now, they have been one of the most important measures to combat unemployment and exclusion from the labour market. But is training a successful and efficient policy to reduce unemployment, compared to other types of ALMP? We draw some…

  11. Program to Combat Stereotyping in Career Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Laurie R.

    Divided into three sections which deal with sex, race, and handicap stereotyping in career choice, the twenty-eight programs described here attempt to combat stereotypes among students and/or staff (K-12). Most descriptions list the goals of the program, target population, staffing and management, facilities and activities, program effectiveness…

  12. Combatives for Alienated Youth: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellison, Don

    Combative activities (boxing, wrestling, kung fu, etc.) are seen as having a positive influence on alienated inner city youth. Potential contributions of such activities in a school curriculum or recreation program include involvement, security, self-concept, and self-realization. Participants may be able to free themselves from such stereotype…

  13. [The treatment of combat casualties today].

    PubMed

    Maurice, Guillaume de Saint

    2012-12-01

    Most soldiers are wounded by an explosion and haemorrhaging is the main cause of death. From the first aid provided on the field of combat to repatriation to France, every stage in the treatment of injured soldiers is meticulously organised in order to save as many lives as possible. PMID:23316578

  14. Integrated helmet mounted display concepts for air combat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Joseph W.

    1995-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted in a dome simulator to evaluate several Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) formats developed as part of the NASA High Alpha Technology Program (HATP). The display formats conveyed energy management, spatial orientation, and weapons management information. The HMD format was compared to a generic Heads Up Display (HUD) typical of current operational fighter aircraft. Pilots were tasked to spend as much time in a weapon solution as possible, to have the correct weapon selected for the envelope they were in, and to avoid the adversary's weapon envelope as much as possible. Several different displays were tested individually and simultaneously to see how separate display concepts coexisted. Objective results showed that the ability for the pilot to select the correct weapon for the envelope he was in increased by 50% in a moderate workload condition and 90% in a high workload condition with the HMD format. In the post-test comments pilots generally favored the helmet display formats over the HUD formats with a few instances where pilots preferred a simple numeric readout of the parameter. Short term exposure effects of the HMD on visual acuity were also measured and showed no advers results.

  15. Is there central fatigue during simulated air combat maneuvering?

    PubMed

    Bain, B; Jacobs, I; Buick, F

    1995-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that repeated exposure to high levels of +Gz acceleration, in conjunction with repeated execution of an Anti-G Straining Maneuver (AGSM), causes central fatigue, presumably by impairing central nervous system (CNS) function. We speculated that central fatigue would impair the ability to recruit sufficient musculature at the intensity required to perform an adequate anti-G straining maneuver. Central fatigue was evaluated by measuring maximal force generation and surface electromyographic activity of leg extensor muscles before, during, and immediately upon termination of an SACM, and comparing these values to those obtained when the muscles were electrically stimulated during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). We assumed that any observed increase in force generation during the MVCs, caused by the stimulation, would indicate central fatigue. G-tolerance time was 230 +/- 172 s. Hypoxia was induced by the SACM as the arterial oxygen saturation decreased significantly from 97% to 90%. In spite of this hypoxia, there was no significant change in MVC force when the pre- and post-SACM values were compared. Electrical stimulation during the MVC's did not cause an increase in force generation. The average forces generated during the +7 Gz phase of the SACM were only about 35% of MVC force. This force value did not change significantly during the SACM. The results indicate that the inability to continue to perform the AGSM during an SACM is not likely due to central fatigue or to fatigue of the large skeletal muscle groups we have examined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7695543

  16. The Vehicle Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuschel, Jonas

    Ubiquitous computing in the vehicle industry has primarily focused on sensor data serving different ubiquitous on-board services (e.g., crash detection, antilock brake systems, or air conditioning). These services mainly address vehicle drivers while driving. However, in view of the role of vehicles in today's society, it goes without saying that vehicles relate to more than just the driver or occupants; they are part of a larger ecosystem, including traffic participants, authorities, customers and the like. To serve the ecosystem with ubiquitous services based on vehicle sensor data, there is a need for an open information infrastructure that enables service development close to the customer. This paper presents results from a research project on designing such an infrastructure at a major European vehicle manufacturer. Our empirical data shows how the vehicle manufacturer's conceptualization of services disagrees with the needs of vehicle stakeholders in a more comprehensive vehicle ecosystem. In light of this, we discuss the effect on information infrastructure design and introduce the distinction between information infrastructure as product feature and service facilitator. In a more general way, we highlight the importance of information infrastructure to contextualize the vehicle as part of a larger ecosystem and thus support open innovation.

  17. Combat internist: the internal medicine experience in a combat hospital in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rachel U; Parrish, Scott C; Saeed, Omar; Fiedler, Joyce P

    2015-01-01

    Military internists and internal medicine subspecialists are physicians who generally work in traditional internal medicine settings. However, when deployed to combat settings, they must prepare and adapt their skills for a wide spectrum of complex, polytrauma, and multinational patients. There are limitations in personnel, equipment, and technical resources that make the circumstances complex and demanding. This article highlights some of the unique roles, challenges, and experiences of four military internists at the NATO Role 3, a deployed combat hospital in Afghanistan. PMID:25562851

  18. The Combat-Exclusion Policy for Military Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Dorothy; Schneider, Carl J.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the history and meaning of the combat exclusion policy for United States servicewomen. Noting that combat duty is often essential to career advancement in the military, this article describes several cases of discrimination resulting from the effects of the combat exclusion. (JDH)

  19. Application of genetic algorithms to autopiloting in aerial combat simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dai Hyun; Erwin, Daniel A.; Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Kim, Jeongdal; Savant, Gajendra D.

    1998-10-01

    An autopilot algorithm that controls a fighter aircraft in simulated aerial combat is presented. A fitness function, whose arguments are the control settings of the simulated fighter, is continuously maximized by a fuzzied genetic algorithm. Results are presented for one-to-one combat simulated on a personal computer. Generalization to many-to-many combat is discussed.

  20. Retention of Military Skills Acquired in Basic Combat Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Robert D.

    Performance data were collected in the three general basic combat training (BCT) proficiency areas (rifle marksmanship, physical combat fitness, end of cycle tests) from independent groups of soldiers (60 per group) during BCT, during Advanced Individual Training (AIT), and combat support training (CST), and for permanent party personnel in the…

  1. Early adversity and combat exposure interact to influence anterior cingulate cortex volume in combat veterans☆

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Steven H.; Kuo, Janice R.; Schaer, Marie; Kaloupek, Danny G.; Eliez, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood and combat trauma have been observed to interact to influence amygdala volume in a sample of U.S. military veterans with and without PTSD. This interaction was assessed in a second, functionally-related fear system component, the pregenual and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, using the same sample and modeling approach. Method Anterior cingulate cortical tissues (gray + white matter) were manually-delineated in 1.5 T MR images in 87 U.S. military veterans of the Vietnam and Persian Gulf wars. Hierarchical multiple regression modeling was used to assess associations between anterior cingulate volume and the following predictors, trauma prior to age 13, combat exposure, the interaction of early trauma and combat exposure, and PTSD diagnosis. Results As previously observed in the amygdala, unique variance in anterior cingulate cortical volume was associated with both the diagnosis of PTSD and with the interaction of childhood and combat trauma. The pattern of the latter interaction indicated that veterans with childhood trauma exhibited a significant inverse linear relationship between combat trauma and anterior cingulate volume while those without childhood trauma did not. Such associations were not observed in hippocampal or total cerebral tissue volumes. Conclusions In the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, as in the amygdala, early trauma may confer excess sensitivity to later combat trauma. PMID:24179818

  2. Lifting Body Flight Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1998-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to build the X-33 test vehicle and then the full sized Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. VentureStar is a Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle which will carry our future payloads into orbit, and will do so at a much reduced cost. There were three design contenders for the new Reusable Launch Vehicle: a Winged Vehicle, a Vertical Lander, and the Lifting Body(LB). The LB design won the competition. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the new Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. Eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975 in the initial LB Program. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technology: the M2-F; HL-1O; and X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today.

  3. Form finding and analysis of extensible membranes attached to 2-D and 3-D frames intended for micro air vehicles via experimentally validated finite element methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abudaram, Yaakov Jack

    This work is concerned with a new method to apply consistent and known pretension to silicone rubber membranes intended for micro air vehicles as well as an understanding in the science of developed pre-tension in membranes constrained by 2- D and 3-D frames and structures. Pre-tension has a marked effect on the static and dynamic response of membrane wings and controls the overall deflections, as such control and measurement of the membrane pre-tension is important. Two different 2-D frame geometries were fabricated to evaluate the technique. For open-cell frames, the pretension was not uniform, whereas it was for closed-cell frames. Results show developed full-field stress and strain fields as a function of membrane attachment temperature and frame geometry along with experimental iterations to prove repeatability. The membranes can be stretched to a specific pretension according to the temperature at which it adheres to frames. Strain fields in membranes attached to 3-D frames at various temperatures are modeled through FEA utilizing Abaqus to be able to predict the developed membrane deformations, stresses, and strains. Rigid frames with various curvatures are built via appropriate molds and then adhered to silicone rubber membranes and elevated to various temperatures to achieve different pre-strains for experimental validation. Additional experiments are conducted for more complex frame geometries involving both convex and concave topologies embedded within frames. Results are then compared with the Abaqus outputs to validate the accuracy of the FEA model. Highly compliant wings have been used for MAV platforms, where the wing structure is determined by some combination of carbon fiber composites and a membrane skin, adhered in between the layers of composite material. Another new technique of attaching membranes firmly on wing structures is introduced, which involves the application of a technology known as corona treatment coupled with another method of

  4. A mixed simulation and hardware-in-the-loop display and controller for autonomous sensing and navigation by unmanned air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Gaemus E.; Vegdahl, Philip S.; Riehl, James R.

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes our recent work combining a high-fidelity battlefield software simulaton, a suite of autonomous sensor and navigation control algorithms for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs), and a hardware-in-the-loop control interface. The complete system supports multiple real and simulated UAVs that search for and track multiple real and simulated targets. Targets communicate their real-time locations to the simulator through a wireless GPS link. Data from real target(s) is used to create target(s) in the simulation testbed that may exist alongside additional simulated targets. The navigation and video sensors onboard the UAVs are tasked (via another wireless link) by our control algorithm suite to search for and track targets that exist in the simulation. Video data is streamed to an image plane video tracker (IPVT), which produces detections that can be fed to a global tracker within the control suite. Routing and gimbal control algorithms use information from the global tracker to task the UAVs, thus completing an information feedback control loop. Additional sensors (such as the ground moving target indicator (GMTI) radar) can exist within the simulation and generate simulated detections to augment the tracking information obtained from the IPVT. Our simulator is part of Toyon's Simulation of the Locations and Attack of Mobile Enemy Missiles (SLAMEM (R)) tool. SLAMEM contains detailed models for ground targets, surveillance platforms, sensors, attack aircraft, UAVs, data exploitation, multi-source fusion, sensor retasking, and attack nomination. SLAMEM models road networks, foliage cover, populated regions, and terrain, using the terrain elevation data (DTED).

  5. Error analysis and assessment of unsteady forces acting on a flapping wing micro air vehicle: free flight versus wind-tunnel experimental methods.

    PubMed

    Caetano, J V; Percin, M; van Oudheusden, B W; Remes, B; de Wagter, C; de Croon, G C H E; de Visser, C C

    2015-10-01

    An accurate knowledge of the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on a bio-inspired, flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) is crucial in the design development and optimization cycle. Two different types of experimental approaches are often used: determination of forces from position data obtained from external optical tracking during free flight, or direct measurements of forces by attaching the FWMAV to a force transducer in a wind-tunnel. This study compares the quality of the forces obtained from both methods as applied to a 17.4 gram FWMAV capable of controlled flight. A comprehensive analysis of various error sources is performed. The effects of different factors, e.g., measurement errors, error propagation, numerical differentiation, filtering frequency selection, and structural eigenmode interference, are assessed. For the forces obtained from free flight experiments it is shown that a data acquisition frequency below 200 Hz and an accuracy in the position measurements lower than ± 0.2 mm may considerably hinder determination of the unsteady forces. In general, the force component parallel to the fuselage determined by the two methods compares well for identical flight conditions; however, a significant difference was observed for the forces along the stroke plane of the wings. This was found to originate from the restrictions applied by the clamp to the dynamic oscillations observed in free flight and from the structural resonance of the clamped FWMAV structure, which generates loads that cannot be distinguished from the external forces. Furthermore, the clamping position was found to have a pronounced influence on the eigenmodes of the structure, and this effect should be taken into account for accurate force measurements. PMID:26292289

  6. Traffic-related air pollution in the community of San Ysidro, CA, in relation to northbound vehicle wait times at the US-Mexico border Port of Entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, Penelope J. E.; Dumbauld, Jill J.; Garnica, Lynelle; Chowdhury, M. Zohir; Velascosoltero, José; Mota-Raigoza, Arturo; Flores, David; Rodríguez, Edgar; Panagon, Nicolas; Gamble, Jamison; Irby, Travis; Tran, Cuong; Elder, John; Galaviz, Vanessa E.; Hoffman, Lisa; Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.

    2014-05-01

    The San Diego/Tijuana US-Mexico border crossing at the San Ysidro Port of Entry (POE) is the world's busiest international land border crossing (GSA, 2013). San Ysidro, California, is the US community immediately adjacent to the border crossing. More than 90% of San Ysidro residents are Hispanic, and the average household income is less than 60% of the San Diego regional average. This study investigated the San Ysidro POE as a source of traffic-related air pollutants in San Ysidro, especially in relation to wind direction and northbound vehicle wait times. The pollutants ultrafine particulate matter (UFP), black carbon (BC), and particulate matter <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were periodically sampled through the course of 2010 at four rooftop locations: one commercial establishment near the POE, two elementary schools in San Ysidro, and a coastal estuary reference site. Weather data from two nearby sites and northbound border wait times were also collected. Results indicate consistently higher daytime BC and UFP concentrations at the measurement sites near the POE. Pollution concentrations were higher during low wind speeds or when wind was blowing from the POE towards San Ysidro. In February, March and November measurements, black carbon pollution appeared to be significantly positively associated with the POE northbound wait times when the wind direction was blowing from the POE towards San Ysidro or during low wind speeds, but not when the wind direction was from the west/northwest towards the POE. This pilot study is the first to investigate the potential effect of the POE, especially the long northbound traffic delays, on the nearby community of San Ysidro. Disparities in traffic exposures are an environmental justice issue and this should be taken into account during planning and operation of POEs.

  7. [Combatting fever, phlegm and cough].

    PubMed

    Solar Silva, M A

    1991-03-01

    Respiratory viruses and their complications are the most common diseases after dental caries, and the most important single cause of medical consultations. They are the 2nd leading cause of hospitalization and mortality in infants. The challenge in respiratory infections is to prevent complications. Since most respiratory infections are treated in the home, preventive interventions should begin there. Respiratory infections do not depend greatly on environmental conditions, they are not preventable by vaccination, and their course in the great majority of cases is self-limiting and benign. Respiratory viruses are characterized by a symptom complex which represents the reaction of the organism to the viral infection. Although the symptoms may be annoying, they play an important role in preventing bacterial complications. Nasal secretions contain substances that limit the virus and impede secondary bacterial infection. Nasal congestion should be treated only by aiding the evacuation of secretions. Nasal obstruction and resulting respiration through the mouth allow unfiltered air to reach the bronchial passages, causing irritation or contamination. Use of local or systemic decongestants or antihistamines may contribute to complications by decreasing defenses. Treatment of inflamed pharynx or tonsils with antiinflammatories is counterproductive because it too interferes with the body's defenses against viral invasion. Viral laryngitis should be treated only with steam vapor and never with steroids, which diminish the body's antiviral defenses and can produce serious side effects. Coughs are the body's means of evacuating viral secretions and should be aided only by ensuring adequate hydration to maintain the fluidity of the secretions. Expectorants should be used only in cases of chronic bronchitis. Coughs resulting from bronchial obstruction, cases in which bronchial dynamics are hyperactive, and dry and unproductive coughs resulting from pharyngeal irritation are the

  8. Life after Future Combat System: a family of ground robotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knichel, David G.

    2010-04-01

    Until recently, the Army Future Combat System (FCS) was the future of Army ground robotics hallmarked by system of systems interoperability for manned and unmanned platforms. New missions, threats, and realities have caused the Army to restructure the Army Future Combat System, but still require unmanned systems interoperability without the FCS system of system interoperability architecture. The result is the Army material developer has no overarching unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) interoperability standards in place equal to the Army unmanned aircraft system (UAS) community. This paper will offer a Life After the FCS vision for an Army family of common ground robotics and payload standards with proposed IEEE, STANAG, SAE, and other standards to potentially achieve common ground robotics interoperability to support the Army and Army Maneuver Support Center of Excellence (MSCoE) Chemical, Engineer, and Military Police mission needs.

  9. Light armored vehicle reconnaissance and surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbeau, Nicolas R.

    1994-10-01

    The Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) has established a requirement for a fleet of reconnaissance vehicles equipped with a modern surveillance system to be used in a wide variety of scenarios. This includes conventional operations within NATO, contingency operations in troubled areas as well as UN peacekeeping missions. As such, the Light Armored Vehicles Reconnaissance and Surveillance System will be the first 24 hour all- weather reconnaissance system integrated into a combat vehicle. This paper intends to describe how the operational requirements defined by DND were translated into sensor and system requirements. After a summary of the current configuration, it focuses on product pre-planned improvements and future needs.

  10. Development of data analysis tool for combat system integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seung-Chun; Shin, Jong-Gye; Oh, Dae-Kyun

    2013-03-01

    System integration is an important element for the construction of naval combat ships. In particular, because impeccable combat system integration together with the sensors and weapons can ensure the combat capability and survivability of the ship, the integrated performance of the combat system should be verified and validated whether or not it fulfills the requirements of the end user. In order to conduct systematic verification and validation, a data analysis tool is requisite. This paper suggests the Data Extraction, Recording and Analysis Tool (DERAT) for the data analysis of the integrated performance of the combat system, including the functional definition, architecture and effectiveness of the DERAT by presenting the test results.

  11. Close range ISR (PRISTA) and close quarters combat (CQC) with unmanned aerial systems (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynell, Jon

    2010-04-01

    Ironically, the final frontiers for the UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) are the closest spaces at hand. There is an urgent operational capability gap in the area of proximate reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (PRISTA) as well as close quarters combats (CQC). Needs for extremely close range functionality in land, sea and urban theaters remain unfilled, largely due to the challenges presented by the maneuverability and silent operating floor required to address these missions. The evolution of small, nimble and inexpensive VTOL UAV assets holds much promise in terms of filling this gap. Just as UAVs have evolved from large manned aircraft, so have MAVs (Micro Aerial Vehicles) evolved from UAVs. As unmanned aviation evolves into aerial robotics, NAV (Nano Aerial Vehicle) research will become the next hotbed of unmanned aerial systems development as these systems continue to mature in response to the need to find robotic replacements for humans in PRISTA, CQC, and many other hazardous duties.

  12. Fire hazard considerations for composites in vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Rex B.

    1994-01-01

    Military ground vehicles fires are a significant cause of system loss, equipment damage, and crew injury in both combat and non-combat situations. During combat, the ability to successfully fight an internal fire, without losing fighting and mobility capabilities, is often the key to crew survival and mission success. In addition to enemy hits in combat, vehicle fires are initiated by electrical system failures, fuel line leaks, munitions mishaps and improper personnel actions. If not controlled, such fires can spread to other areas of the vehicle, causing extensive damage and the potential for personnel injury and death. The inherent fire safety characteristics (i.e. ignitability, compartments of these vehicles play a major roll in determining rather a newly started fire becomes a fizzle or a catastrophe. This paper addresses a systems approach to assuring optimum vehicle fire safety during the design phase of complex vehicle systems utilizing extensive uses of composites, plastic and related materials. It provides practical means for defining the potential fire hazard risks during a conceptual design phase, and criteria for the selection of composite materials based on its fire safety characteristics.

  13. Regenerative medicine applications in combat casualty care.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Mark E; Bharmal, Husain; Valerio, Ian

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe regenerative medicine applications in the management of complex injuries sustained by service members injured in support of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Improvements in body armor, resuscitative techniques and faster transport have translated into increased patient survivability and more complex wounds. Combat-related blast injuries have resulted in multiple extremity injuries, significant tissue loss and amputations. Due to the limited availability and morbidity associated with autologous tissue donor sites, the introduction of regenerative medicine has been critical in managing war extremity injuries with composite massive tissue loss. Through case reports and clinical images, this report reviews the application of regenerative medicine modalities employed to manage combat-related injuries. It illustrates that the novel use of hybrid reconstructions combining traditional and regenerative medicine approaches are an effective tool in managing wounds. Lessons learned can be adapted to civilian care. PMID:24750059

  14. Electronic solutions for combating counterfeit drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hemalatha, R.; Rao, A. Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The problem of counterfeiting of drugs is assuming alarming proportions and is getting difficult to combat due to its trans-national character. It is undermining the faith of people on health care system. Therefore, there is a need to adopt zero tolerance approach to combat the problem. The Way Forward: There are many solutions available which are being adopted in piece meal manner by individual manufacturers. However, for wholesalers and resellers it is getting difficult to maintain multiple solutions. Therefore, there is a need to adopt a unified solution preferably with the help of the government. Conclusions: This paper discusses the available solutions, their shortcomings and proposes a comprehensive solution where at each level in the supply chain the authenticity is verified preferable linking it with Unique identification. PMID:26229359

  15. Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in older men.

    PubMed

    Spiro, A; Schnurr, P P; Aldwin, C M

    1994-03-01

    Nearly 25% of U.S. men aged 55 or older served in combat, yet its impact on aging is unknown. The relationship of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms to combat exposure was examined in 1,210 veterans of World War II (WWII) and the Korean War, who were participants in the Normative Aging Study. Over 54% of WWII and 19% of Korean veterans reported combat experience. The relationship between combat exposure and PTSD symptoms was stronger in the WWII cohort. The sample prevalence of PTSD by combat exposure ranged from 0% to 12.4%, differing by the PTSD measure. WWII veterans exposed to moderate or heavy combat had 13.3 times greater risk of PTSD symptoms measured 45 years later, compared with noncombat veterans. It is suggested that military service in general, and combat exposure in particular, is a "hidden variable" in the study of aging men. PMID:8185864

  16. Combating an Epidemic of Prescription Opioid Abuse.

    PubMed

    Pon, Doreen; Awuah, Kwaku; Curi, Danielle; Okyere, Ernest; Stern, Craig S

    2015-11-01

    The past decade has witnessed an alarming increase in the number of deaths due to prescription opioids that has paralleled the rise in the number of opioid prescriptions dispensed. Prescription drug monitoring programs, abuse-deterrent formulations and proper disposal of opioids have been promoted to help combat the opioid epidemic. We discuss changes that dentists, the third most frequent prescribers of opioids, can implement to help reduce the risk of prescription opioid abuse in their communities. PMID:26798885

  17. Combating isolation: Building mutual mentoring networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Anne J.

    2015-12-01

    Women physicists can often feel isolated at work. Support from a grant through the ADVANCE program of the National Science Foundation (U.S. government funding) created mutual mentoring networks aimed at combating isolation specifically for women faculty at undergraduate-only institutions. This paper will discuss the organization of one such network, what contributed to its success, some of the outcomes, and how it might be implemented in other contexts.

  18. S. 2720: A bill requiring the use by the Federal Government of certain vehicles capable of operating on alcohol or natural gas fuels or on electricity in areas not in compliance with the Clean Air Act, and for other purposes. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, August 10, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    S.2720 regulates any fleet of automobiles or light-duty trucks owned or leased by the US for operation in any area designated under the Clean Air Act as an area of serious or severe health endangerment for ozone or carbon monoxide. As of September 30, 1993, 10% of such vehicles are required to be alternative fuel vehicles. The percentage increases 10% each year until September 30, 2001, at which time 100% of such vehicles should be alternative fuel vehicles. The bill provides extra funding for the purchase of alternative fuel vehicles as needed, but will pay only the portion of the cost which exceeds the cost of comparable conventionally fueled vehicles. The bill also requires gasoline-powered vehicles in the designated areas to be supplied with fuel which blends oxygenates with the gasoline at its primary fueling facility, as of March 31, 1989.

  19. DBD Plasma Actuators for Flow Control in Air Vehicles and Jet Engines - Simulation of Flight Conditions in Test Chambers by Density Matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Thurman, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma actuators for active flow control in aircraft and jet engines need to be tested in the laboratory to characterize their performance at flight operating conditions. DBD plasma actuators generate a wall-jet electronically by creating weakly ionized plasma, therefore their performance is affected by gas discharge properties, which, in turn, depend on the pressure and temperature at the actuator placement location. Characterization of actuators is initially performed in a laboratory chamber without external flow. The pressure and temperature at the actuator flight operation conditions need to be simultaneously set in the chamber. A simplified approach is desired. It is assumed that the plasma discharge depends only on the gas density, while other temperature effects are assumed to be negligible. Therefore, tests can be performed at room temperature with chamber pressure set to yield the same density as in operating flight conditions. The needed chamber pressures are shown for altitude flight of an air vehicle and for jet engines at sea-level takeoff and altitude cruise conditions. Atmospheric flight conditions are calculated from standard atmosphere with and without shock waves. The engine data was obtained from four generic engine models; 300-, 150-, and 50-passenger (PAX) aircraft engines, and a military jet-fighter engine. The static and total pressure, temperature, and density distributions along the engine were calculated for sea-level takeoff and for altitude cruise conditions. The corresponding chamber pressures needed to test the actuators were calculated. The results show that, to simulate engine component flows at in-flight conditions, plasma actuator should be tested over a wide range of pressures. For the four model engines the range is from 12.4 to 0.03 atm, depending on the placement of the actuator in the engine. For example, if a DBD plasma actuator is to be placed at the compressor exit of a 300 PAX engine, it

  20. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Ryan; Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Space Shuttle utilizes atmospheric thermodynamic properties to evaluate structural dynamics and vehicle flight performance impacts by the atmosphere during ascent. Statistical characteristics of atmospheric thermodynamic properties at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) used in Space. Shuttle Vehicle assessments are contained in the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) Database. Database contains tabulations for monthly and annual means (mu), standard deviations (sigma) and skewness of wind and thermodynamic variables. Wind, Thermodynamic, Humidity and Hydrostatic parameters 1 km resolution interval from 0-30 km 2 km resolution interval 30-70 km Multiple revisions of the CCAFS RRA database have been developed since initial RRA published in 1963. 1971, 1983, 2006 Space Shuttle program utilized 1983 version for use in deriving "hot" and "cold" atmospheres, atmospheric density dispersions for use in vehicle certification analyses and selection of atmospheric thermodynamic profiles for use in vehicle ascent design and certification analyses. During STS-114 launch preparations in July 2005 atmospheric density observations between 50-80 kft exceeded density limits used for aerodynamic ascent heating constraints in vehicle certification analyses. Mission specific analyses were conducted and concluded that the density bias resulted in small changes to heating rates and integrated heat loading on the vehicle. In 2001, the Air Force Combat Climatology Center began developing an updated RRA for CCAFS.