Science.gov

Sample records for combat illicit trafficking

  1. Action by the Customs Co-operation Council to combat illicit drug trafficking.

    PubMed

    Gotschlich, G D

    1983-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1953, the Customs Co-operation Council (CCC) has been actively involved in combating illicit drug trafficking. CCC has adopted legal measures designed to meet the requirements of member States in their efforts to promote the prevention, investigation and repression of customs offences, including drug smuggling. CCC studies patterns and trends in drug trafficking and promotes ways and means of detecting drug smuggling and financial transactions related to such smuggling. CCC publishes studies and handbooks that serve as practical guides to national customs administrations of member States. In its work to combat drug trafficking, the CCC co-operates with the United Nations bodies concerned with drug control and the International Criminal Police Organizations (ICPO/Interpol). PMID:6563930

  2. International cooperation in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials by technical means

    SciTech Connect

    Herbillon, J; Koch, L; Mason, G; Niemeyer, S; Nikiforov, N

    1999-04-01

    A consensus has been emerging during the past several years that illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is a problem that needs a more focused international response. One possible component of a program to combat illicit trafficking is nuclear forensics whereby intercepted nuclear materials are analyzed to provide clues for answering attribution questions. In this report we focus on international cooperation that is specifically addressing the development of nuclear forensics. First we will describe the role of the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) in developing nuclear forensics, and then we will present some specific examples of cooperative work by the Institute for Transuranium Elements of the European Commission with various European states. Recognizing the potential importance of a nuclear forensics capability, the P-8 countries in 1995 encouraged technical experts to evaluate the role of nuclear forensics in combating nuclear smuggling and possibly developing mechanisms for international cooperation. As a result, an International Conference on Nuclear Smuggling Forensic Analysis was held in November, 1995, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to investigate technical cooperation on nuclear forensics. The International Conference provided a unique mix of scientists, law enforcement, and intelligence experts from 14 countries and organizations. All participants were invited to make presentations, and the format of the Conference was designed to encourage open discussion and broad participation.

  3. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya I; Severe, William R; Wallace, Richard K

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope smuggling

  4. The Council of Europe Co-operation Group to Combat Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking in Drugs (the Pompidou Group).

    PubMed

    Nagler, N A

    1987-01-01

    The Pompidou Group was set up in 1971 to provide a forum for exchanging views and concerting action in Western Europe in response to the growing drugs problem. Until 1979 it had no formal status, but in 1980 the Group became part of the Council of Europe with member States being free to choose whether to join or not. Its initial membership of six countries has expanded to 16 members. Every two to three years, ministers from member countries meet to review the work of the Group and to set a new programme of activities. Government officials (Permanent Correspondents) then meet to further the programme by arranging meetings, working groups, seminars, symposia and related activities of experts in particular fields. The Group has considered a wide variety of topics of general interest, which included: European cooperation in the control of drug traffic; problems connected with drug addicts in prison; the care of hard-core addicts; problems related to the staffing of treatment and rehabilitation services; the development of administrative monitoring systems for the assessment of public health and social problems related to drug misuse; drug trafficking on the high seas; the role of the criminal justice system in responding to the needs of drug misusers; methods of reaching young people particularly at risk; problems concerning women and drugs; control services at major European airports; cannabis misuse in Europe; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among drug misusers; and consideration of elements for inclusion in a new United Nations convention against illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. PMID:3620762

  5. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  6. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-07

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  7. Technosocial Predictive Analytics for Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Butner, R. Scott; Cowell, Andrew J.; Dalton, Angela C.; Haack, Jereme N.; Kreyling, Sean J.; Riensche, Roderick M.; White, Amanda M.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-03-29

    Illicit nuclear trafficking networks are a national security threat. These networks can directly lead to nuclear proliferation, as state or non-state actors attempt to identify and acquire nuclear weapons-related expertise, technologies, components, and materials. The ability to characterize and anticipate the key nodes, transit routes, and exchange mechanisms associated with these networks is essential to influence, disrupt, interdict or destroy the function of the networks and their processes. The complexities inherent to the characterization and anticipation of illicit nuclear trafficking networks requires that a variety of modeling and knowledge technologies be jointly harnessed to construct an effective analytical and decision making workflow in which specific case studies can be built in reasonable time and with realistic effort. In this paper, we explore a solution to this challenge that integrates evidentiary and dynamic modeling with knowledge management and analytical gaming, and demonstrate its application to a geopolitical region at risk.

  8. International Technical Working Group Cooperation to Counter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2004-09-18

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international body of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking.

  9. Illicit trafficking of radiological & nuclear materials : modeling and analysis of trafficking trends and risks.

    SciTech Connect

    York, David L.; Love, Tracia L.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2005-01-01

    Concerns over the illicit trafficking of radiological and nuclear materials were focused originally on the lack of security and accountability of such material throughout the former Soviet states. This is primarily attributed to the frequency of events that have occurred involving the theft and trafficking of critical material components that could be used to construct a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or even a rudimentary nuclear device. However, with the continued expansion of nuclear technology and the deployment of a global nuclear fuel cycle these materials have become increasingly prevalent, affording a more diverse inventory of dangerous materials and dual-use items. To further complicate the matter, the list of nuclear consumers has grown to include: (1) Nation-states that have gone beyond the IAEA agreed framework and additional protocols concerning multiple nuclear fuel cycles and processes that reuse the fuel through reprocessing to exploit technologies previously confined to the more industrialized world; (2) Terrorist organizations seeking to acquire nuclear and radiological material due to the potential devastation and psychological effect of their use; (3) Organized crime, which has discovered a lucrative market in trafficking of illicit material to international actors and/or countries; and (4) Amateur smugglers trying to feed their families in a post-Soviet era. An initial look at trafficking trends of this type seems scattered and erratic, localized primarily to a select group of countries. This is not necessarily the case. The success with which other contraband has been smuggled throughout the world suggests that nuclear trafficking may be carried out with relative ease along the same routes by the same criminals or criminal organizations. Because of the inordinately high threat posed by terrorist or extremist groups acquiring the ingredients for unconventional weapons, it is necessary that illicit trafficking of these materials be better

  10. Tracking illicit small arms trafficking: implementation of Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) to small arms and light weapons imports and exports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.

    2009-09-01

    to recover that firearm. This paper will explain the key attributes of Intentional Firearm Microstamping technology; including its implementation and application benefits such as developing border security controls and law enforcement capacity world wide to combat illicit trafficking of firearms to terrorists, gangs and/or fueling regional conflicts. The data generated by IFM will be discussed and its application to spatial and temporal mapping of trafficking patterns and other criminal patterns.

  11. Studying illicit drug trafficking on Darknet markets: Structure and organisation from a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Broséus, J; Rhumorbarbe, D; Mireault, C; Ouellette, V; Crispino, F; Décary-Hétu, D

    2016-07-01

    Cryptomarkets are online marketplaces that are part of the Dark Web and mainly devoted to the sale of illicit drugs. They combine tools to ensure anonymity of participants with the delivery of products by mail to enable the development of illicit drug trafficking. Using data collected on eight cryptomarkets, this study provides an overview of the Canadian illicit drug market. It seeks to inform about the most prevalent illicit drugs vendors offer for sale and preferred destination countries. Moreover, the research gives an insight into the structure and organisation of distribution networks existing online. In particular, we provide information about how vendors are diversifying and replicating across marketplaces. We inform on the number of listings each vendor manages, the number of cryptomarkets they are active on and the products they offer. This research demonstrates the importance of online marketplaces in the context of illicit drug trafficking. It shows how the analysis of data available online may elicit knowledge on criminal activities. Such knowledge is mandatory to design efficient policy for monitoring or repressive purposes against anonymous marketplaces. Nevertheless, trafficking on Dark Net markets is difficult to analyse based only on digital data. A more holistic approach for investigating this crime problem should be developed. This should rely on a combined use and interpretation of digital and physical data within a single collaborative intelligence model. PMID:26978791

  12. 3 CFR 13648 - Executive Order 13648 of July 1, 2013. Combating Wildlife Trafficking

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Executive Order 13648 of July 1, 2013. Combating Wildlife Trafficking 13648 Order 13648 Presidential Documents Executive Orders Executive Order 13648 of July 1, 2013 EO 13648 Combating Wildlife Trafficking By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United...

  13. Combating counterfeit medicines and illicit trade in tobacco products: minefields in global health governance.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    This article examines two spheres of global governance in which the World Health Organization (WHO) has sought to exercise international leadership - combating "counterfeit" medicines and illicit trade in tobacco products. Medicines and tobacco products lie at polar opposite ends of the health spectrum, and are regulated for vastly different reasons and through different tools and approaches. Nevertheless, attempts to govern counterfeit trade in each of these products raise a host of somewhat similar challenges, involving normative and operational conflicts that cut across the crowded intersection of health protection and promotion, intellectual property protection, and activity to combat transnational organized crime. As negotiations of an illicit trade protocol to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control enter their final stages, lessons learned from counterfeit medicines governance need to be applied to ensure that the most appropriate governance arrangements are adopted. PMID:22789049

  14. Development of international standards for instrumentation used for detection of illicit trafficking of radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Chiaro Jr, Peter John

    2009-01-01

    Subcommittee 45B Radiation Protection Instrumentation of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is charged with the development of international standards for instrumentation used for monitoring of illicit trafficking of radioactive material through international boarders and territories, as well as inside countries. Currently three IEC standards are published. The international participation and the main characteristics of the following three standards are discussed and presented: IEC 62327 Hand-held Instruments for the Detection and Identification of Radionuclides and Additionally for the Indication of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate from Photon Radiation , IEC 62401 Alarming Personal Radiation Devices for Detection of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material and IEC 62244 Installed Radiation Monitors for the Detection of Radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials at National Borders .

  15. 48 CFR 52.222-50 - Combating Trafficking in Persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Commercial sex act means any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any... trafficking in persons means— (1) Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or (2)...

  16. 48 CFR 52.222-50 - Combating Trafficking in Persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Commercial sex act means any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any... trafficking in persons means— (1) Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or (2)...

  17. 48 CFR 52.222-50 - Combating Trafficking in Persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Commercial sex act means any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any... trafficking in persons means— (1) Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or (2)...

  18. 48 CFR 52.222-50 - Combating Trafficking in Persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Commercial sex act means any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any... an employee of the Contractor directly engaged in the performance of work under the contract who has... trafficking in persons means— (1) Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud,...

  19. 48 CFR 52.222-50 - Combating Trafficking in Persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Commercial sex act means any sex act on account of which anything of value is given to or received by any... an employee of the Contractor directly engaged in the performance of work under the contract who has... trafficking in persons means— (1) Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud,...

  20. The role of the nurse in combating human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Sabella, Donna

    2011-02-01

    Human trafficking, also called modern slavery, happens worldwide--and the United States is no exception. Within our borders, thousands of foreign nationals and U.S. citizens, many of them children, are forced or coerced into sex work or various forms of labor every year. Nurses and other health care providers who encounter victims of trafficking often don't realize it, and opportunities to intervene are lost. Although no one sign can demonstrate with certainty when someone is being trafficked, there are several indicators that clinicians should know. This article provides an overview of human trafficking, describes how to recognize signs that a person is being trafficked and how to safely intervene, and offers an extensive resource list. PMID:21270581

  1. The Importance of International Technical Nuclear Forensics to Deter Illicit Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K

    2007-01-30

    Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is a transboundary problem that requires a cooperative approach involving international nuclear forensics to ensure all states understand the threat posed by nuclear smuggling as well as a means to best deter the movement of nuclear contraband. To achieve the objectives, all cases involving illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials must be vigorously pursued and prosecuted when appropriate. The importance of outreach and formal government-to-government relationships with partner nations affected by nuclear trafficking cannot be under-estimated. States that are situated on smuggling routes may be well motivated to counter nuclear crimes to bolster their own border and transportation security as well as strengthen their economic and political viability. National law enforcement and atomic energy agencies in these states are aggressively pursuing a comprehensive strategy to counter nuclear smuggling through increasing reliance on technical nuclear forensics. As part of these activities, it is essential that these organizations be given adequate orientation to the best practices in this emerging discipline including the categorization of interdicted nuclear material, collection of traditional and nuclear forensic evidence, data analysis using optimized analytical protocols, and how to best fuse forensics information with reliable case input to best develop a law enforcement or national security response. The purpose of formalized USG relationship is to establish an institutional framework for collaboration in international forensics, improve standards of forensics practice, conduct joint exercises, and pursue case-work that benefits international security objectives. Just as outreach and formalized relationships are important to cultivate international nuclear forensics, linking nuclear forensics to ongoing national assistance in border and transpiration security, including port of entry of entry monitoring

  2. RECENT ACTIVITIES OF THE NUCLEAR SMUGGLING INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL WORKING GROUP TO THWART ILLICIT TRAFFICKING

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Biro, T; Chartier, B; Mayer, K; Niemeyer, S; Thompson, P

    2007-10-25

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an informal association of nuclear forensic practitioners working in partnership with law enforcement, first responder, and nuclear regulatory professionals that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to advance the science of nuclear forensics and to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance. the ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time 30 nations and organizations have participated in 12 annual meetings and two analytical round-robin trials involving plutonium and highly enriched uranium. A third analytical round-robin as well as several table-top exercises are planned for later in 2007-2008. International interest in the ITWG has grown in over the past five years measured by the number of participants at its annual meetings. This growth has spawned the ITWG Nuclear Forensics Laboratories as a companion technical affiliate focusing exclusively on the scientific aspects of nuclear forensics and nuclear smuggling incident response.

  3. Combating trafficking in persons: a call to action for global health professionals.

    PubMed

    CdeBaca, Luis; Sigmon, Jane Nady

    2014-08-01

    Health care professionals can help identify victims of human trafficking, who commonly come into contact with providers during captivity. Providers can also help restore the physical and mental health of trafficking survivors. Training should focus on recognizing trafficking signs, interviewing techniques, and recommended responses when a victim is identified. PMID:25276585

  4. PNNL Strategic Goods Testbed: A Data Library for Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Jennifer B.; Erikson, Luke E.; Toomey, Christopher M.; Lewis, Valerie A.

    2014-05-12

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has put significant effort into nonproliferation activities as an institution, both in terms of the classical nuclear material focused approach and in the examination of other strategic goods necessary to implement a nuclear program. To assist in these efforts, several projects in the Analysis in Motion (AIM) and Signature Discovery (SDI) Initiatives at PNNL are developing machine learning methodology for human-computer interaction in real time environments to assist analysts in this domain. All of these technical projects require access to data – whether it is in terms of detector data, shipping records, financial information, company relations, or other communications. The first question that mathematical and computational researchers come up with when asked to build analyst assist or automated tools is “What does the data look like? ” They become frustrated when basic questions like this can not be easily answered and this can have the effect of pushing researchers away from the nuclear trafficking domain, especially in strategic commodity and export control areas where data sets can not easily be generated through standard experimental techniques. For small projects that are building a proof of concept for their methodology, obtaining this data can be arduous and expensive. To relieve the burden of data collection from these projects and grow a lab-wide capability, the Strategic Goods Testbed Team has taken over data collection and placed subscriptions and access to flat data files in a centralized location so that all projects can benefit from these items. We have collected shipping data in the form of PIERS records, judicial information about export control cases, NAC data on the nuclear fuel industry, and financial data from Dun and Bradstreet and our data sets are continuing to expand. With a single access agreement, researchers in data-mining and other fields can utilize all of the records that have been

  5. Technology and Research Requirements for Combating Human Trafficking: Enhancing Communication, Analysis, Reporting, and Information Sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.; Olson, Jarrod

    2011-03-17

    DHS’ Science & Technology Directorate directed PNNL to conduct an exploratory study on the domain of human trafficking in the Pacific Northwest in order to examine and identify technology and research requirements for enhancing communication, analysis, reporting, and information sharing – activities that directly support efforts to track, identify, deter, and prosecute human trafficking – including identification of potential national threats from smuggling and trafficking networks. This effort was conducted under the Knowledge Management Technologies Portfolio as part of the Integrated Federal, State, and Local/Regional Information Sharing (RISC) and Collaboration Program.

  6. Utilizing DNA analysis to combat the world wide plague of present day slavery – trafficking in persons

    PubMed Central

    Palmbach, Timothy; Blom, Jeffrey; Hoynes, Emily; Primorac, Dragan; Gaboury, Mario

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if modern forensic DNA typing methods can be properly employed throughout the world with a final goal of increasing arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of perpetrators of modern day trafficking in persons while concurrently reducing the burden of victim testimony in legal proceedings. Without interruption of investigations, collection of samples containing DNA was conducted in a variety of settings. Evidentiary samples were analyzed on the ANDE Rapid DNA system. Many of the collected swabs yielded informative short tandem repeat profiles with Rapid DNA technology. PMID:24577820

  7. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  8. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  9. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  10. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any illicit activity...

  11. Environment and drug trafficking.

    PubMed

    Bryson, L O

    1992-01-01

    Illicit drug trafficking is a very complex matter, not only because it causes serious and pernicious problems in the socio-economic sphere, but because drug-taking can lead to personal degradation. To this situation, lamentable enough in itself, must be added the immense ecological and environmental damage, which presents grave and serious dangers for the planet. PMID:1302599

  12. Illicit cigarette trade in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pavananunt, Pirudee

    2011-11-01

    The sale and consumption of illicit tobacco increases consumption, impacts public health, reduces tax revenue and provides an argument against tax increases. Thailand has some of the best tobacco control policies in Southeast Asia with one of the highest tobacco tax rates, but illicit trade has the potential to undermine these policies and needs investigating. Two approaches were used to assess illicit trade between 1991 and 2006: method 1, comparison of tobacco used based on tobacco taxes paid and survey data, and method 2, discrepancies between export data from countries exporting tobacco to Thailand and Thai official data regarding imports. A three year average was used to smooth differences due to lags between exports and imports. For 1991-2006, the estimated manufactured cigarette consumption from survey data was considerably lower than sales tax paid, so method 1 did not provide evidence of cigarette tax avoidance. Using method 2 the trade difference between reported imports and exports, indicates 10% of cigarettes consumed in Thailand (242 million packs per year) between 2004 and 2006 were illicit. The loss of revenue amounted to 4,508 million Baht (2002 prices) in the same year, that was 14% of the total cigarette tax revenue. Cigarette excise tax rates had a negative relationship with consumption trends but no relation with the level of illicit trade. There is a need for improved policies against smuggling to combat the rise in illicit tobacco consumption. Regional coordination and implementation of protocols on illicit trade would help reduce incentives for illegal tax avoidance. PMID:22299425

  13. Drug Trafficking and Drug Use among Urban African American Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiaoming; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships between drug trafficking (selling and delivering), cigarette and alcohol use, and illicit drug use among African-American adolescents. Found that drug trafficking is equally likely to occur with or without cigarette and alcohol use or illicit drug involvement, suggesting that intervention should extend to drug trafficking in…

  14. Human Trafficking

    MedlinePlus

    ... TRAFFICKING (English) Listen < Back to Search FACT SHEET: HUMAN TRAFFICKING (English) Published: August 2, 2012 Topics: Public Awareness , ... organizations that protect and serve trafficking victims. National Human Trafficking Resource Center at 1.888.373.7888 Last ...

  15. Law enforcement approaches and measures used in countering illicit drug problems in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Yodmani, C

    1992-01-01

    The Government of Thailand, which has long recognized the serious threat posed by illicit drugs, has implemented stringent law enforcement measures aimed at suppressing illicit drug trafficking by dismantling clandestine laboratories, intercepting essential chemicals, effecting significant seizures and eradicating illicit crops. In addition, the Government has taken steps to initiate the enactment of legislation providing for the confiscation of proceeds derived from illicit drug trafficking activity. Furthermore, it has maintained and strengthened its already close bilateral and multilateral cooperation in the field of drug abuse control. PMID:1477702

  16. Women trafficking: causes, concerns, care!

    PubMed

    Khowaja, Shaneela Sadaruddin; Tharani, Ambreen Jawed; Agha, Ajmal; Karamaliani, Rozina Sherali

    2012-08-01

    Pakistan is both a country of origin and destination as far as women trafficking is concerned. Poverty, gender discrimination, lack of education, and ignorance about legal rights are some of the underlying causes. Available data suggest several areas of concern, like, for instance: direct health effects, maladaptive coping leading to the use of illicit drugs, and inaccessibility to healthcare facilities. Therefore, numerous interventions would be required at three levels: the prevention of trafficking, the protection of victims and the prosecution of the traffickers. PMID:23862261

  17. Illicit traffic and abuse of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Stamler, R T; Fahlman, R C; Keele, S A

    1984-01-01

    There has been an increasing availability and abuse of cocaine in Canada in recent years. Cocaine abuse has spread from the affluent adult sectors of society to middle-income groups and the young, involving large sections of the population. The increase in illicit demand for, and the social acceptability of, cocaine has led to an increase in illicit cocaine supply. The availability of cocaine on the illicit market has been sustained by a vast over-production of the raw materials needed to produce cocaine in coca-growing areas of South America and the activities of sophisticated trafficking organizations with large operations and profits. As a result, cocaine prices at the wholesale level in South America and Canada are declining, and at the retail level in Canada have remained relatively stable or have slightly decreased. It has been estimated that more than one half of the amount of cocaine on the illicit market in Canada was illegally produced in Colombia, but the main quantities of the raw materials used for such production originated in Bolivia and Peru. Cocaine is smuggled into Canada primarily by commercial air transport, arriving at the three principal ports of entry, namely Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver, from whence it is distributed to other parts of the country. As drug law enforcement efforts increase in one area, traffickers shift their illicit operations to other areas in an attempt to escape detection. Current evidence suggests that both the availability and abuse of cocaine in Canada are likely to increase in the coming years. PMID:6569821

  18. Trafficking in persons: a health concern?

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia; Houssain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Human trafficking is a phenomenon that has now been documented in most regions in the world. Although trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation is the most commonly recognised form of trafficking, it is widely acknowledged that human trafficking also involves men, women and children who are trafficked for various forms of labour exploitation and into other abusive circumstances. Despite the violence and harm inherent in most trafficking situations, there remains extremely little evidence on the individual and public health implications of any form of human trafficking. The Brazilian government has recently launched a national plan to combat human trafficking. However, because the health risks associated with human trafficking have not been well-recognised or documented, there is extremely limited reliable data on the health needs of trafficked persons to inform policy and practices.. Brazilian policy-makers and service providers should be encouraged to learn about the likely range of health impacts of trafficking, and incorporate this into anti-trafficking protection and response strategies. As well as prevention activities, the government, international and local organisations should work together with the public health research community to study the health needs of trafficked persons and explore opportunities to provide safe and appropriate services to victims in need of care. PMID:19721944

  19. Stopping Illicit Procurement: Lessons from Global Finance

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, Gretchen; Kurzrok, Andrew J.

    2014-06-19

    Government regulators and the financial sector cooperate to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. This information-sharing relationship is built upon a strong legislative foundation and effective operational procedures. As with money-laundering and terrorist financing, halting the illicit procurement of dual-use commodities requires close coordination between government and industry. However, many of the legal and operational features present in financial threat cooperation do not exist in the export control realm. This article analyzes the applicability of financial industry cooperative measures to nonproliferation.

  20. Combat games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Heymann, M.; Rajan, N.

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical formulation is proposed of a combat game between two opponents with offensive capabilities and offensive objective is proposed. Resolution of the combat involves solving two differential games with state constraints. Depending on the game dynamics and parameters, the combat can terminate in one of four ways: the first player wins; the second player wins; a draw (neither wins); or joint capture. In the first two cases, the optimal strategies of the two players are determined from suitable zero-sum games, whereas in the latter two the relevant games are nonzero-sum. Further, to avoid certain technical difficulties, the concept of a delta-combat game is introduced.

  1. Examining the Risk of Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya; Severe, William R; Schoeneck, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    The need to stop illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials around the world is undeniable and urgent. This issue is particularly evident due to the highly dangerous consequences of the risks involved, the known interest of terrorist groups in acquiring such materials and the vulnerability of theft and diversion of such materials. Yet the phenomenon of nuclear trafficking remains a subject where the unknown dominates what is known on the subject. The trafficking panel at the Institute for Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) Workshop on Reducing the Risk of Radioactive and Nuclear Materials that took place in Albuquerque, New Mexico, March 10-11, 2009, dealt with some of the issues associated with nuclear trafficking. Different points of view on how to better address trafficking and thwart perpetrator efforts were discussed. This paper presents some of these views and addresses practical measures that should be considered to improve the situation.

  2. Rapid determination of the isomeric truxillines in illicit cocaine via capillary gas chromatography/flame ionization detection and their use and implication in the determination of cocaine origin and trafficking routes.

    PubMed

    Mallette, Jennifer R; Casale, John F

    2014-10-17

    The isomeric truxillines are a group of minor alkaloids present in all illicit cocaine samples. The relative amount of truxillines in cocaine is indicative of the variety of coca used for cocaine processing, and thus, is useful in source determination. Previously, the determination of isomeric truxillines in cocaine was performed with a gas chromatography/electron capture detection method. However, due to the tedious sample preparation as well as the expense and maintenance required of electron capture detectors, the protocol was converted to a gas chromatography/flame-ionization detection method. Ten truxilline isomers (alpha-, beta-, delta-, epsilon-, gamma-, omega, zeta-, peri-, neo-, and epi-) were quantified relative to a structurally related internal standard, 4',4″-dimethyl-α-truxillic acid dimethyl ester. The method was shown to have a linear response from 0.001 to 1.00 mg/mL and a lower detection limit of 0.001 mg/mL. In this method, the truxillines are directly reduced with lithium aluminum hydride and then acylated with heptafluorobutyric anhydride prior to analysis. The analysis of more than 100 cocaine hydrochloride samples is presented and compared to data obtained by the previous methodology. Authentic cocaine samples obtained from the source countries of Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru were also analyzed, and comparative data on more than 23,000 samples analyzed over the past 10 years with the previous methodology is presented. PMID:25219521

  3. Combat Human Trafficking Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2014-11-19

    11/19/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6154) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. 78 FR 40619 - Combating Wildlife Trafficking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, July 1, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-16387 Filed 7-3-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295..., rhinos, great apes, tigers, sharks, tuna, and turtles has beneficial economic, social, and...

  5. Human Trafficking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  6. Detecting Illicit Radioactive Sources

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Joseph C.; Coursey, Bert; Carter, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Specialized instruments have been developed to detect the presence of illicit radioactive sources that may be used by terrorists in radiation dispersal devices, so-called ''dirty bombs'' or improvised nuclear devices. This article discusses developments in devices to detect and measure radiation.

  7. Human Trafficking

    MedlinePlus

    ... to debt bondage or peonage in which traffickers demand labor as a means repayment for a real ... human smuggling are two separate crimes under federal law. There are several important differences between them. Human ...

  8. Trafficking in persons and development: towards greater policy coherence.

    PubMed

    Danailova-Trainor, Gergana; Laczko, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is often regarded as the "root cause" of trafficking, but the linkages between poverty, a lack of development and trafficking are complex. For example, there is some evidence to suggest that victims of cross-border trafficking are more likely to originate from middle-income rather than lower-income countries. Trafficking and development have tended to be treated as very separate policy areas and the assessment of the development impact of counter-trafficking programmes is still at an early stage. This paper outlines a possible framework for a more evidence-based approach to understanding the linkages between trafficking, trafficking policy and human development. The paper argues that the human development gains from greater mobility could be significantly enhanced if there was greater coherence between policies to combat trafficking and policies to promote development. PMID:20645470

  9. Geolocation and route attribution in illicit trafficking of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hutcheon, I; Niemeyer, S

    1999-04-01

    We present a matrix of 60 possible forensic tools. If the specifics of the types of materials and analytical techniques are included, the number becomes vastly greater. Accordingly, the prioritization and discretion is addressed that should be utilized to select the most useful tools.

  10. IMPROVED TECHNNOLOGY TO PREVENT ILLICIT TRAFFICKING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J H

    2005-07-20

    The proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons (collectively known as weapons of mass destruction, or WMD) and the potential acquisition and use of WMD against the world by terrorists are extremely serious threats to international security. These threats are complex and interrelated. There are myriad routes to weapons of mass destruction--many different starting materials, material sources, and production processes. There are many possible proliferators--threshold countries, rogue states, state-sponsored or transnational terrorists groups, domestic terrorists, and even international crime organizations. Motives for acquiring and using WMD are similarly wide ranging--from a desire to change the regional power balance, deny access to a strategic area, or alter international policy to extortion, revenge, or hate. Because of the complexity of this threat landscape, no single program, technology, or capability--no silver bullet--can solve the WMD proliferation and terrorism problem. An integrated program is needed that addresses the WMD proliferation and terrorism problem from end to end, from prevention to detection, reversal, and response, while avoiding surprise at all stages, with different activities directed specifically at different types of WMD and proliferators. Radiation detection technologies are an important tool in the prevention of proliferation. A variety of new developments have enabled enhanced performance in terms of energy resolution, spatial resolution, predictive modeling and simulation, active interrogation, and ease of operation and deployment in the field. The radiation properties of nuclear materials, particularly highly enriched uranium (HEU), make the detection of smuggled nuclear materials technically difficult. A number of efforts are under way to devise improved detector materials and instruments and to identify novel signatures that could be detected. Key applications of this work include monitoring for radioactive materials at choke points, searching for nuclear materials, and developing instruments for response personnel.

  11. Ovarian Cystadenoma in a Trafficked Patient.

    PubMed

    Titchen, Kanani E; Katz, Douglas; Martinez, Kidian; White, Krishna

    2016-05-01

    The topic of child sex trafficking is receiving increased attention both in the lay press and in research articles. Recently, a number of physician organizations have issued policy statements calling for the education and involvement of physicians in combating this form of "modern-day slavery." Primary care and emergency medicine physicians have led these efforts, but a number of these victims may present to surgeons. Surgeons are in a unique position to identify trafficked patients; during the process of undraping, intubation, and surgical preparation, signs of trafficking such as tattoos, scars, dental injuries, and bruising may be evident. In addition, these patients may have specific needs in terms of anesthesia and postoperative care due to substance abuse. Here, we report the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of sexual exploitation who presents for cystadenoma excision. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a sex-trafficked pediatric patient presenting for surgery. PMID:27244785

  12. Combating illiteracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A science course for nonscientists at Columbia University's Columbia College that was created in 1981 as an experiment to combat “the national crisis of scientific illiteracy” has received major new foundation support and has achieved a permanent place in the college's curriculum.The course, The Theory and Practice of Science, has received a $240,000 grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, according to Robert E. Pollack, college dean, professor of biological sciences, and originator of the course. The grant will be used for the preparation and publication in 1985 of a textbook, titled The Scientific Experience, which will permit the course to be taught at other schools around the country.

  13. Detection of Illicit Drugs with the EURITRACK System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Franulovic, A.

    2009-03-01

    The EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) inspection system has been developed within the 6th EU Framework Program to complement X-ray scanners in the detection of explosives and other illicit materials hidden in cargo containers. Gamma rays are produced inside the cargo materials by 14 MeV tagged neutron beams, which yields information about the chemical composition of the transported goods. In the beginning of year 2007, the EURITRACK system was implemented in the Seaport of Rijeka, Croatia, primarily to carry out a demonstration using real containers to conduct a series of detection tests. This article reports tests performed with real samples of illicit drugs hidden in a metallic cargo with an average density of 0.2 g/cm3. Heroin and cocaine have been distinguished from benign substances based on their chemical composition. Marijuana, which chemical composition is similar to benign materials, cannot be distinguished from common organic goods. However, the detection of an unexpected organic substance inside the metallic cargo indicates that a suspicious object has been hidden in the container.

  14. A model for assessing the risk of human trafficking on a local level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colegrove, Amanda

    Human trafficking is a human rights violation that is difficult to quantify. Models for estimating the number of victims of trafficking presented by previous researchers depend on inconsistent, poor quality data. As an intermediate step to help current efforts by nonprofits to combat human trafficking, this project presents a model that is not dependent on quantitative data specific to human trafficking, but rather profiles the risk of human trafficking at the local level through causative factors. Businesses, indicated by the literature, were weighted based on the presence of characteristics that increase the likelihood of trafficking in persons. The mean risk was calculated by census tract to reveal the multiplicity of risk levels in both rural and urban settings. Results indicate that labor trafficking may be a more diffuse problem in Missouri than sex trafficking. Additionally, spatial patterns of risk remained largely the same regardless of adjustments made to the model.

  15. Virtual Red Light Districts: Detecting Covert Networks and Sex Trafficking Circuits in the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibanez, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The United States is the second leading destination country for sex trafficking in the world. Increased effort to understand patterns of sex trafficking within the U.S. is imperative to combatting this issue. Covert networks are increasingly using information and communication technologies (ICTs) to extend their operations. Due to the increase in…

  16. 78 FR 76183 - Request for Information for the 2014; Trafficking in Persons Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Trafficking in Persons Report (``TIP Report'') that the Department submits annually to appropriate committees... State, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP), 1800 G Street NW., Suite 2148.... Confidentiality: Please provide the name, phone number, and email address of a single point of contact for...

  17. 77 FR 74045 - Request for Information for the 2013 Trafficking in Persons Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... Trafficking in Persons Report (``TIP Report'') that the Department submits annually to appropriate committees... State, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP), 1800 G Street NW., Suite 2148.... Confidentiality: Please provide the name, phone number, and email address of a single point of contact for...

  18. 76 FR 82028 - Request for Information for the 2012 Trafficking in Persons Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Trafficking in Persons Report (``TIP Report'') that the Department submits annually to appropriate committees... State, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (G/TIP), 1800 G Street NW., Suite 2148.... Confidentiality: Please provide the name, phone number, and email address of a single point of contact for...

  19. Child Trafficking in West Africa: Policy Responses. Innocenti Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, Florence (Italy). Innocenti Research Centre.

    This report examines policy responses and programming trends to combat the growing specter of child trafficking, focusing on the region of west and central Africa where strenuous advocacy efforts by UNICEF and its partners have helped to bring this problem to national and international attention. The report focuses on policy trends on child…

  20. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States. PMID:26020136

  1. When color fails: illicit blue tablets containing anabolic androgen steroids.

    PubMed

    Favretto, Donata; Castagna, Franca; Maietti, Sergio; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2013-09-01

    The necessity of specific, confirmatory tests in the identification of seized illicit products was highlighted by the analysis of eighteen heart shaped, blue tablets confiscated by Police at a street control in the North East of Italy. The tablets responded as amphetamines to a preliminary color test (Marquis); a subsequent, confirmatory assay by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of two anabolic androgen steroids (AAS), methandienone and methyltestosterone, in concentration of 1.7 and 1.5mg respectively per tablet; no trace of amphetamine-like or nitrogen containing compounds was found. The observed orange coloration was due to the reaction of concentrated sulphuric acid, contained in the Marquis reagent, with the Δ(4) C-3 keto group of steroids. The two AAS, banned under the world antidoping code, are not considered as psychoactive drugs of abuse in most countries, although their trafficking may entangle severe public health concerns. PMID:23770638

  2. Sex Trafficking: Policies, Programs, and Services.

    PubMed

    Orme, Julie; Ross-Sheriff, Fariyal

    2015-10-01

    Sex trafficking (ST), a contemporary form of female slavery, is a human rights issue of critical concern to social work. The global response to ST has been substantial, and 166 countries have adopted anti-ST legislation. Despite considerable efforts to combat ST, the magnitude is increasing. To date, the majority of anti-ST efforts have focused on criminalization policies that target traffickers or purchasers of sexual services, who are predominantly male; prevention programming and services for predominantly female victims have received less support. Therapeutic services to assist pornography addicts and purchasers of sexual services are also necessary. In this article, authors examine current anti-ST policies, programs, and services, both domestically and globally, and present an innovative paradigm that addresses social inequities and emphasizes prevention programming. They conclude with a discussion of the paradigm's implications for social work policies, practices, and services. PMID:26489349

  3. Perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among U.S. high school seniors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined associations between perceived neighborhood illicit drug selling, peer illicit drug disapproval and illicit drug use among a large nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Methods Data come from Monitoring the Future (2007–2011), an annual cross-sectional survey of U.S. high school seniors. Students reported neighborhood illicit drug selling, friend drug disapproval towards marijuana and cocaine use, and past 12-month and past 30-day illicit drug use (N = 10,050). Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to explain use of 1) just marijuana, 2) one illicit drug other than marijuana, and 3) more than one illicit drug other than marijuana, compared to “no use”. Results Report of neighborhood illicit drug selling was associated with lower friend disapproval of marijuana and cocaine; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were less likely to report their friends strongly disapproved of marijuana (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.49) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no disapproval. Perception of neighborhood illicit drug selling was also associated with past-year drug use and past-month drug use; e.g., those who reported seeing neighborhood sales “almost every day” were more likely to report 30-day use of more than one illicit drug (AOR = 11.11, 95% CI: 7.47, 16.52) compared to those who reported never seeing neighborhood drug selling and reported no 30-day use of illicit drugs. Conclusions Perceived neighborhood drug selling was associated with lower peer disapproval and more illicit drug use among a population-based nationally representative sample of U.S. high school seniors. Policy interventions to reduce “open” (visible) neighborhood drug selling (e.g., problem-oriented policing and modifications to the physical environment such as installing and monitoring surveillance cameras) may

  4. Policy Statement on Illicit Drugs and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint John's College, Annapolis, MD.

    This is a statement of policy on illicit drugs and alcohol for Saint John's College, Annapolis, Maryland, to be distributed to students and employees. Initially the terms individual, student, employee, and illicit drug are formally defined. The section on alcoholic beverages lists ten policies regarding individual conduct and possession by…

  5. Raman spectroscopy of illicit substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Robert J.; Faulds, Karen; Smith, W. Ewen

    2007-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy provides a very effective method of identifying an illicit substance in situ without separation or contact other than with a laser beam. The equipment required is steadily improving and is now reliable and simple to operate. Costs are also coming down and hand held portable spectrometers are proving very effective. The main limitations on the use of the technique are that it is insensitive in terms of the number of incident photons converted into Raman scattered photons and fluorescence produced in the sample by the incident radiation interferes. Newer methods, still largely in the development phase, will increase the potential for selected applications. The use of picosecond pulsed lasers can discriminate between fluorescence and Raman scattering and this has been used in the laboratory to examine street samples of illicit drugs. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering, in which the analyte requires to be adsorbed onto a roughened metal surface, creates a sensitivity to compete with fluorescence and quenches fluorescence for molecules on a surface. This provides the ability to detect trace amounts of substances in some cases. The improving optics, detection capability and the reliability of the new methods indicate that the potential for the use of Raman spectroscopy for security purposes will increase with time.

  6. Illicit drug use by women with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Ford, J A

    1998-08-01

    As in the general female population, women with disabilities face a number of situations that encourage illicit drug use, such as low self-esteem, peer pressure, and family history of substance abuse. In addition, women with disabilities more frequently encounter problems of personal adjustment, unusual developmental experiences, easy access to prescription drugs, unemployment, and medical or health-related difficulties. Using a random sample of 900 women with disabilities, we conducted a study of the patterns of illicit drug use and risk factors relating to illicit drug use among women with various disabilities. Multiple regression analyses revealed that age, illicit drug use by a best friend, being a victim of substance-abuse-related violence, and attitudes toward substance use by people with disabilities were significantly related to illicit drug use by the study population. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:9741943

  7. Deregulation and Station Trafficking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Benjamin J.

    To test whether the revocation of the Federal Communications Commission's "Anti-Trafficking" rule (requiring television station owners to keep a station for three years before transferring its license to another party) impacted station owner behavior, a study compared the behavior of television station "traffickers" (owners seeking quick turnovers…

  8. Teratogenic risks from exposure to illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Bradley D; Rayburn, William F

    2014-06-01

    Substance use is prevalent in the United States, especially in the reproductive age population. Even though a reduction in substance use may occur during pregnancy, some women may not alter their drug use patterns until at least pregnancy is confirmed. For these reasons, a large number of fetuses are exposed to illicit substances, including during critical stages of organogenesis. Associating illicit drug use with eventual pregnancy outcome is difficult. This article presents issues pertaining to limitations with published investigations about fetal risks and describes the most current information in humans about fetal effects from specific illicit substances. PMID:24845487

  9. Illicit Drug Use and Problem Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Wayne Skinner, W. J.; Matheson, Flora I.

    2013-01-01

    Problem gambling, substance use disorders, and their cooccurrence are serious public health concerns. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature to understand the present state of the evidence on these coaddictions. Our main focus was illicit drug use rather than misuse of legal substances. The review covers issues related to gambling as a hidden problem in the illicit drug use community; prevalence, problem gambling, and substance use disorders as kindred afflictions; problem gambling as an addiction similar to illicit drug use; risk factors and problems associated with comorbidity, and gender issues. We end with some suggestions for future research. PMID:25938114

  10. The hidden crime: human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes

    2013-01-01

    As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices. PMID:24218718

  11. The hidden crime: human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Clause, Kristen J; Lawler, Kate Byrnes

    2013-01-01

    As the primary contact in the health care system, nurses can play a role in combating this crime and assisting the victims. Assessment for abuse, neglect, trauma, recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and fear of a controlling partner is critical. Following up on "red flags" and understanding methods of safe questioning can make the difference between slavery and recovery for victims. Nurses must also know the professional referrals in their areas once a potential victim has been identified. This may be a very dangerous undertaking and must be handled by experienced personnel. Referrals to forensic nurses or physicians, domestic violence professionals or law enforcement may be indicated. Initially, a nurse may want to consult with the agency social worker for guidance. Human trafficking is a human rights crime. Unfortunately, it is more prevalent in all types of communities than most people suspect. Nurses can be heroes to the victims through understanding of this crime and vigilance in the assessment and care of all people they encounter in their practices. To learn more or to help with this cause, visit the Somaly Mam Foundation at www.somaly.org or the U.S. Department of State at www. state.gov. PMID:23977773

  12. 75 FR 67019 - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 210 / Monday, November 1, 2010 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; ] Presidential Determination No. 2011-16 of September 15, 2010 Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug...

  13. A comparative assessment of the price, brands and pack characteristics of illicitly traded cigarettes in five cities and towns in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wherry, Anna E; McCray, Cheyenne A; Adedeji-Fajobi, Temidayo I; Sibiya, Xolani; Ucko, Peter; Lebina, Limakatso; Golub, Jonathan E; Cohen, Joanna E; Martinson, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of illicitly traded cigarettes in South Africa has been reported to be 40–50%. However, these estimates do not account for the more nuanced characteristics of the illicit cigarette trade. With the goal of better understanding contraband cigarettes in South Africa, this study piloted three methods for assessing the price, brands, pack features and smoker's views about illicit cigarettes in five cities/towns. Data were collected in June and July 2012. Setting A convenience sample of three South African cities (Johannesburg, Durban and Nelspruit) and two smaller towns (Musina and Ficksburg) were chosen for this study. Outcome measures Three cross-sectional approaches were used to assess the characteristics of contraband cigarettes: (1) a dummy purchase of cigarettes from informal retailers, (2) the collection of discarded cigarette packs and (3) a survey of tobacco smokers. Participants For the purposes of the survey, 40 self-reported smokers were recruited at taxi ranks in each downtown site. Adults who were over the age of 18 were asked to verbally consent to participate in the study and answer a questionnaire administered by a researcher. Results The leading reason for labelling a pack as illicit in each city/town was the absence of an excise stamp (28.6% overall), and the least common reason was an illegal tar or nicotine level (11.1% overall). The overall proportion of informal vendors who sold illicit cigarettes was 41%. Singles and packs of 20 were consistently cheaper at informal vendors. Survey participants’ responses reflected varied perspectives on illicit cigarettes and purchasing preferences. Conclusions Each approach generated an interesting insight into physical aspects of illicit cigarettes. While this pilot study cannot be used to generate generalisable statistics on illicit cigarettes, more systematic surveys of this nature could inform researchers’ and practitioners’ initiatives to combat illicit and legal cigarette

  14. Air Combat Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    By adapting COSMIC's One-on-One Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML) for two versus one simulation, Link Division was able to reduce software and other design/development costs. Enhancements to the AML program developed by Link for simulation of two-versus one combat, two trainees can simultaneously engage a computer driven target, thereby doubling the training utility of the simulator.

  15. National Human Trafficking Initiatives: Dimensions of Policy Diffusion1

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Eun-hye; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of criminal law involves formal law enforcement, education and public outreach aimed at preventing criminal activity, and providing services for victims. Historically, quantitative research on global trends has tended to focus on a single policy dimension, potentially masking the unique factors that affect the diffusion of each policy dimension independently. Using an ordered-probit model to analyze new human trafficking policy data on national prosecution, prevention, and victim-protection efforts, we find that global ties and domestic interest groups matter more in areas where international law is less defined. While prosecution, officially mandated by the Trafficking Protocol, was relatively impervious to global ties and domestic interest groups, both trafficking prevention and victim protection were associated with these factors. Our findings also suggest that fear of repercussions is not a major driver of state actions to combat trafficking—neither ratification of the Trafficking Protocol nor levels of United States aid were associated with greater implementation of anti-trafficking measures. PMID:26538806

  16. Spatial variations in the consumption of illicit stimulant drugs across Australia: A nationwide application of wastewater-based epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Lai, Foon Yin; O'Brien, Jake; Bruno, Raimondo; Hall, Wayne; Prichard, Jeremy; Kirkbride, Paul; Gartner, Coral; Thai, Phong; Carter, Steve; Lloyd, Belinda; Burns, Lucy; Mueller, Jochen

    2016-10-15

    Obtaining representative information on illicit drug use and patterns across a country remains difficult using surveys because of low response rates and response biases. A range of studies have used wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) as a complementary approach to monitor community-wide illicit drug use. In Australia, no large-scale WBE studies have been conducted to date to reveal illicit drug use profiles in a national context. In this study, we performed the first Australia-wide WBE monitoring to examine spatial patterns in the use of three illicit stimulants (cocaine, as its human metabolite benzoylecgonine; methamphetamine; and 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)). A total of 112 daily composite wastewater samples were collected from 14 wastewater treatment plants across four states and two territories. These covered approximately 40% of the Australian population. We identified and quantified illicit drug residues using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. There were distinctive spatial patterns of illicit stimulant use in Australia. Multivariate analyses showed that consumption of cocaine and MDMA was higher in the large cities than in rural areas. Also, cocaine consumption differed significantly between different jurisdictions. Methamphetamine consumption was more similar between urban and rural locations. Only a few cities had elevated levels of use. Extrapolation of the WBE estimates suggested that the annual consumption was 3tonnes for cocaine and 9tonnes combined for methamphetamine and MDMA, which outweighed the annual seizure amount by 25 times and 45 times, respectively. These ratios imply the difficulty of detecting the trafficking of these stimulants in Australia, possibly more so for methamphetamine than cocaine. The obtained spatial pattern of use was compared with that in the most recent national household survey. Together both WBE and survey methods provide a more comprehensive evaluation of drug use that can assist

  17. First evaluation of illicit and licit drug consumption based on wastewater analysis in Fort de France urban area (Martinique, Caribbean), a transit area for drug smuggling.

    PubMed

    Damien, Devault A; Thomas, Néfau; Hélène, Pascaline; Sara, Karolak; Yves, Levi

    2014-08-15

    Drugs of abuse are increasingly consumed worldwide. Such consumption could be back-calculated based on wastewater content. The West Indies, with its coca production and its thriving illicit drug market, is both a hub of world cocaine trafficking and a place where its consumption is prevalent particularly in the form of crack. The present study will firstly investigate Caribbean consumption by a daily 5 to 7 day sampling campaign of composite wastewater samples from the four wastewater treatment plants of the Martinique capital, including working and non-working periods. The local consumption of cocaine is ten to thirty times higher than OECD standards because of the prevalence of crack. The excretion coefficient for crack consumption and the impact of temperature on drug stability need further investigation. However, the low diversity of illicit drugs consumed and the crack prevalence suggest practices driven by the transiting of drugs for international trafficking. PMID:24914526

  18. Ciliopathies: The Trafficking Connection

    PubMed Central

    Madhivanan, Kayalvizhi; Aguilar, R. Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The primary cilium (PC) is a very dynamic hair-like membrane structure that assembles/disassembles in a cell-cycle dependent manner and is present in almost every cell type. Despite being continuous with the plasma membrane, a diffusion barrier located at the ciliary base confers the PC properties of a separate organelle with very specific characteristics and membrane composition. Therefore, vesicle trafficking is the major process by which components are acquired for cilium formation and maintenance. In fact, a system of specific sorting signals controls the right of cargo admission into the cilia. Disruption to the ciliary structure or its function leads to multi-organ diseases known as ciliopathies. These illnesses arise from a spectrum of mutations in any of the more than 50 loci linked to these conditions. Therefore, it is not surprising that symptom variability (specific manifestations and severity) among and within ciliopathies seems to be an emerging characteristic. Nevertheless, one can speculate that mutations occurring in genes whose products contribute to the overall vesicle trafficking to the PC (i.e., affecting cilia assembly) will lead to more severe symptoms, while those involved in the transport of specific cargoes will result in milder phenotypes. In this review, we summarize the trafficking mechanisms to the cilia and also provide a description of the trafficking defects observed in some ciliopathies which can be correlated to the severity of the pathology. PMID:25040720

  19. Drug production, trafficking and trade in Asia and Pacific Island countries.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gary; Devaney, Madonna L; Baldwin, Simon

    2006-11-01

    We report here on illicit drug production, trafficking and transit routes found in the Asia Pacific region. The report is based on the 'Situational analysis of illicit drug issues and responses in Asia and the Pacific', commissioned by the Australian National Council on Drugs Asia Pacific Drug Issues Committee. The situational analysis was a comprehensive desk based review; data sources included published and unpublished literature and key informant reports. It was found that Myanmar was the main producer of opium, heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) in the Asia-Pacific region. China is now considered a major producer of methamphetamines, but other Asia-Pacific nations are also involved in production. Cannabis production was found throughout most of the Asia-Pacific region, in particular Cambodia and the Philippines. Drug trafficking and transit routes of Asia and the Pacific were proliferating and dynamic. The Pacific is mainly known as a trans-shipment point for drugs entering other countries in the region. Drug cultivation and production in Asia is substantial. The expansion of ATS production in the Asia Pacific region is causing much concern. Most drug traffickers change routes and tactics to exploit available vulnerable points along international borders. Responding effectively to the complexity and scale of drug production and trafficking in the Asia-Pacific region will remain a major challenge. PMID:17132580

  20. Models for computing combat risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Combat always involves uncertainty and uncertainty entails risk. To ensure that a combat task is prosecuted with the desired probability of success, the task commander has to devise an appropriate task force and then adjust it continuously in the course of battle. In order to do so, he has to evaluate how the probability of task success is related to the structure, capabilities and numerical strengths of combatants. For this purpose, predictive models of combat dynamics for combats in which the combatants fire asynchronously at random instants are developed from the first principles. Combats involving forces with both unlimited and limited ammunition supply are studied and modeled by stochastic Markov processes. In addition to the Markov models, another class of models first proposed by Brown was explored. The models compute directly the probability of win, in which we are primarily interested, without integrating the state probability equations. Experiments confirm that they produce exactly the same results at much lower computational cost.

  1. Pharmaceutical digital marketing and governance: illicit actors and challenges to global patient safety and public health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Digital forms of direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical marketing (eDTCA) have globalized in an era of free and open information exchange. Yet, the unregulated expansion of eDTCA has resulted in unaddressed global public health threats. Specifically, illicit online pharmacies are engaged in the sale of purportedly safe, legitimate product that may in fact be counterfeit or substandard. These cybercriminal actors exploit available eDTCA mediums over the Internet to market their suspect products globally. Despite these risks, a detailed assessment of the public health, patient safety, and cybersecurity threats and governance mechanisms to address them has not been conducted. Discussion Illicit online pharmacies represent a significant global public health and patient safety risk. Existing governance mechanisms are insufficient and include lack of adequate adoption in national regulation, ineffective voluntary governance mechanisms, and uneven global law enforcement efforts that have allowed proliferation of these cybercriminals on the web. In order to effectively address this multistakeholder threat, inclusive global governance strategies that engage the information technology, law enforcement and public health sectors should be established. Summary Effective global “eHealth Governance” focused on cybercrime is needed in order to effectively combat illicit online pharmacies. This includes building upon existing Internet governance structures and coordinating partnership between the UN Office of Drugs and Crime that leads the global fight against transnational organized crime and the Internet Governance Forum that is shaping the future of Internet governance. Through a UNODC-IGF governance mechanism, investigation, detection and coordination of activities against illicit online pharmacies and their misuse of eDTCA can commence. PMID:24131576

  2. Risk assessment of technologies for detecting illicit drugs in containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenstein, Albert E.

    1995-03-01

    This paper provides the highlights of the role risk assessment plays in the United States technology program for nonintrusive inspection of cargo containers for illicit drugs. The Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center is coordinating the national effort to develop prototype technologies for an advanced generation, nonintrusive cargo inspection system. In the future, the U.S. Customs Service could configure advanced technologies for finding not only drugs and other contraband hidden in cargo, but for a wide variety of commodities for customs duty verification purposes. The overall nonintrusive inspection system is envisioned to consist primarily of two classes of subsystems: (1) shipment document examination subsystems to prescreen exporter and importer documents; and (2) chemical and physics-based subsystems to detect and characterize illicit substances. The document examination subsystems would use software algorithms, artificial intelligence, and neural net technology to perform an initial prescreening of the information on the shipping manifest for suspicious patterns. This would be accomplished by creating a `profile' from the shipping information and matching it to trends known to be used by traffickers. The chemical and physics-based subsystems would apply nuclear physics, x-ray, gas chromatography and spectrometry technologies to locate and identify contraband in containers and other conveyances without the need for manual searches. The approach taken includes using technology testbeds to assist in evaluating technology prototypes and testing system concepts in a fully instrumented but realistic operational environment. This approach coupled with a substance signature phenomenology program to characterize those detectable elements of benign, as well as target substances lends itself particularly well to the topics of risk assessment and elemental characterization of substances. A technology testbed established in Tacoma, Washington provides a national

  3. Lysosomal Trafficking Regulator (LYST).

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaojie; Chang, Bo; Naggert, Jürgen K; Nishina, Patsy M

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of vesicle trafficking to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles (LROs) as well as regulation of the size of these organelles are critical to maintain their functions. Disruption of the lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) results in Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, prolonged bleeding, severe immunodeficiency, recurrent bacterial infection, neurologic dysfunction and hemophagocytic lympohistiocytosis (HLH). The classic diagnostic feature of the syndrome is enlarged LROs in all cell types, including lysosomes, melanosomes, cytolytic granules and platelet dense bodies. The most striking CHS ocular pathology observed is an enlargement of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which leads to aberrant distribution of eye pigmentation, and results in photophobia and decreased visual acuity. Understanding the molecular function of LYST and identification of its interacting partners may provide therapeutic targets for CHS and other diseases associated with the regulation of LRO size and/or vesicle trafficking, such as asthma, urticaria and Leishmania amazonensis infections. PMID:26427484

  4. A human rights approach to human trafficking for organ removal.

    PubMed

    Budiani-Saberi, Debra; Columb, Seán

    2013-11-01

    Human trafficking for organ removal (HTOR) should not be reduced to a problem of supply and demand of organs for transplantation, a problem of organized crime and criminal justice, or a problem of voiceless, abandoned victims. Rather, HTOR is at once an egregious human rights abuse and a form of human trafficking. As such, it demands a human-rights based approach in analysis and response to this problem, placing the victim at the center of initiatives to combat this phenomenon. Such an approach requires us to consider how various measures impact or disregard victims/potential victims of HTOR and gives us tools to better advocate their interests, rights and freedoms. PMID:23743564

  5. Protection of Human Beings Trafficked for the Purpose of Organ Removal: Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pascalev, Assya; Van Assche, Kristof; Sándor, Judit; Codreanu, Natalia; Naqvi, Anwar; Gunnarson, Martin; Frunza, Mihaela; Yankov, Jordan

    2016-02-01

    This report presents a comprehensive set of recommendations for protection of human beings who are trafficked for the purpose of organ removal or are targeted for such trafficking. Developed by an interdisciplinary group of international experts under the auspices of the project Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal (also known as the HOTT project), these recommendations are grounded in the view that an individual who parts with an organ for money within an illegal scheme is ipso facto a victim and that the crime of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal (THBOR) intersects with the crime of trafficking in organs. Consequently, the protection of victims should be a priority for all actors involved in antitrafficking activities: those combating organ-related crimes, such as health organizations and survivor support services, and those combating trafficking in human beings, such as the criminal justice sectors. Taking into account the special characteristics of THBOR, the authors identify 5 key stakeholders in the protection of human beings trafficked for organ removal or targeted for such trafficking: states, law enforcement agencies and judiciary, nongovernmental organizations working in the areas of human rights and antitrafficking, transplant centers and health professionals involved in transplant medicine, and oversight bodies. For each stakeholder, the authors identify key areas of concern and concrete measures to identify and protect the victims of THBOR. The aim of the recommendations is to contribute to the development of a nonlegislative response to THBOR, to promote the exchange of knowledge and best practices in the area of victim protection, and to facilitate the development of a policy-driven action plan for the protection of THBOR victims in the European Union and worldwide. PMID:27500252

  6. Protection of Human Beings Trafficked for the Purpose of Organ Removal: Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Pascalev, Assya; Van Assche, Kristof; Sándor, Judit; Codreanu, Natalia; Naqvi, Anwar; Gunnarson, Martin; Frunza, Mihaela; Yankov, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This report presents a comprehensive set of recommendations for protection of human beings who are trafficked for the purpose of organ removal or are targeted for such trafficking. Developed by an interdisciplinary group of international experts under the auspices of the project Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal (also known as the HOTT project), these recommendations are grounded in the view that an individual who parts with an organ for money within an illegal scheme is ipso facto a victim and that the crime of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal (THBOR) intersects with the crime of trafficking in organs. Consequently, the protection of victims should be a priority for all actors involved in antitrafficking activities: those combating organ-related crimes, such as health organizations and survivor support services, and those combating trafficking in human beings, such as the criminal justice sectors. Taking into account the special characteristics of THBOR, the authors identify 5 key stakeholders in the protection of human beings trafficked for organ removal or targeted for such trafficking: states, law enforcement agencies and judiciary, nongovernmental organizations working in the areas of human rights and antitrafficking, transplant centers and health professionals involved in transplant medicine, and oversight bodies. For each stakeholder, the authors identify key areas of concern and concrete measures to identify and protect the victims of THBOR. The aim of the recommendations is to contribute to the development of a nonlegislative response to THBOR, to promote the exchange of knowledge and best practices in the area of victim protection, and to facilitate the development of a policy-driven action plan for the protection of THBOR victims in the European Union and worldwide. PMID:27500252

  7. Health implications of human trafficking.

    PubMed

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population. PMID:24750655

  8. Illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid use.

    PubMed

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I; Pope, Harrison G

    2010-06-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both "body image" drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  9. Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use

    PubMed Central

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2009-01-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both “body-image” drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years, but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  10. Documentation of a Model Action Plan to Deter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D; Kristo, M; Niemeyer, S; Dudder, G

    2006-07-28

    Theft, illegal possession, smuggling, or attempted unauthorized sale of nuclear and radiological materials remains a worldwide problem. The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) has adopted a model action plan to guide investigation of these cases through a systematic approach to nuclear forensics. The model action plan was recently documented and provides recommendations concerning incident response, collection of evidence in conformance with required legal standards, laboratory sampling and distribution of samples, radioactive materials analysis, including categorization and characterization of samples, forensics analysis of conventional evidence, and case development including interpretation of forensic signatures.

  11. Documentation of a model action plan to deter illicit nuclear trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. K.; Kristo, M. J.; Niemeyer, S.; Dudder, Gordon B.

    2008-05-04

    Theft, illegal possession, smuggling, or attempted unathorized sale of nuclear and radiological materials remains a worldwide problem. The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) has adopted a model action plan to guide investigation of these cases through a systematic approach to nuclear forensics. The model action plan was recently documented and provides recommendations concerning incident response, collection of evidence in conformance with required legal standards, laboratory sampling and distribution of samples, radioactive materials analysis, including categorization and characterization of samples, forensics analysis of conventional evidence, and case development including interpretation of forensic signatures.

  12. Synopsis of the international workshop on illicit trafficking of nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Niemeyer, S.

    1997-03-01

    In this paper a synopsis is presented of the second ITWG (Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group) meeting that was held in Obninsk, Russia, on December 2-4, 1996, at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering.

  13. Illicit substance use in pregnancy – a review

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Katherine; Lust, Karin

    2010-01-01

    Illicit substance use is not uncommon in women of childbearing age. The direct effects of illicit substance use on the mother, pregnancy and the fetus are not well understood, in contrast to the indirect effects of social disadvantage and intercurrent medical and psychiatric illness, which are well documented. We have undertaken a review of the current literature regarding the effects of illicit substance use in pregnancy and include a suggested approach to identification and management of at-risk women.

  14. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. PMID:24252381

  15. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... producer of opium poppy and a major source of heroin. Primary trafficking routes from Afghanistan, where... precursor chemicals illegally smuggled to Afghanistan, where they are used to process heroin....

  16. Subcultural evolution and illicit drug use*

    PubMed Central

    GOLUB, ANDREW; JOHNSON, BRUCE D.; DUNLAP, ELOISE

    2011-01-01

    This article articulates a subcultural basis to the evolving popularity for different illicit drugs primarily based on empirical research in the United States, especially among inner-city populations. From this perspective, drug use emerges from a dialectic between drug subcultures with individual identity development. The prevailing culture and subcultures affect drugs’ popularity by imparting significance to their use. Innovations, historical events, and individual choices can cause subcultures to emerge and change over time. This subcultural view provides insight into the widespread use of licit drug, the dynamics of drug eras (or epidemics), the formation of drug generations, and the apparent “gateway” phenomenon. PMID:23805068

  17. Integrated nuclear techniques to detect illicit materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper discusses the problem of detecting explosives in the context of an object being transported for illicit purposes. The author emphasizes that technologies developed for this particular application have payoffs in many related problem areas. The author discusses nuclear techniques which can be applied to this detection problem. These include: x-ray imaging; neutronic interrogation; inelastic neutron scattering; fieldable neutron generators. He discusses work which has been done on the applications of these technologies, including results for detection of narcotics. He also discusses efforts to integrate these techniques into complementary systems which offer improved performance.

  18. The illicit consumption of military uniforms in Britain, 1914–1918.

    PubMed

    Ugolini, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on the British home front during the First World War, this article explores civilians’ motives for acquiring and wearing military garments and accoutrements to which they were not entitled. It suggests that uniforms could be donned either to avoid the attentions of recruiting sergeants, or to perpetrate criminal deceptions. That said, individuals did not always wear illicit uniforms in order to ‘disguise’ their civilian identity. Rather, many men claimed a sense of entitlement to such items, either on the basis of previous war service, or, more often, on the basis of their contributions to the war effort on the home front. The acquisition of military items could also reflect men's roles as consumers: for many civilians, acquiring and wearing the newly glamorous uniforms was a consumer choice that could also open the door to further leisure and consumer opportunities. Overall, illicitly wearing military items undermined the uniform's link with service and sacrifice on the battle fronts: it allowed individuals to assume the appearance of combatants or to assert their patriotic identities without actually exposing themselves to military duties or dangers. It also reflected (some) men's continued perception of themselves as consumers, keen, even in wartime, to adopt what they saw as the most desirable sartorial option. PMID:21954489

  19. Resolution No. 43/121. Use of children in the illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and rehabilitation of drug-addicted minors, 8 December 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This document contains the text of a 1988 UN Resolution on the use of children in the illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and rehabilitation of drug-addicted minors. In this Resolution, the General Assembly recalls previous resolutions adopted to fight illicit drugs, expresses alarm at the fact that drug dealers are using children to further their illicit activities and at the increasing number of drug-addicted children, and refers to the Declaration of the Rights of the Child and the upcoming Convention on the Rights of the Child. Based on this, the UN condemns all forms of drug trafficking, especially those which involve children; urges states to establish programs to protect children from drugs; invites member states with the most urgent problems to adopt additional measures; calls for suitably severe punishment of drug-trafficking crimes that involve children; urges all organizations to place high priority on the prevention and treatment of drug addiction in children; asks international agencies and the UN Fund for Drug Abuse Control to give financial support to such programs; and asks the UN Department of Pubic Information of the Secretariat to publish information designed to prevent drug use in children. PMID:12289144

  20. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  1. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  2. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any...

  3. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  4. 31 CFR 536.311 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 536.311 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 536.311 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any activity...

  5. Child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation: a review of promising prevention policies and programs.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Yvonne

    2013-10-01

    Child trafficking, including commercial sexual exploitation (CSE), is one of the fastest growing and most lucrative criminal activities in the world. The global enslavement of children affects countless numbers of victims who are trafficked within their home countries or transported away from their homes and treated as commodities to be bought, sold, and resold for labor or sexual exploitation. All over the world, girls are particularly likely to be trafficked into the sex trade: Girls and women constitute 98% of those who are trafficked for CSE. Health and safety standards in exploitative settings are generally extremely low, and the degree of experienced violence has been linked with adverse physical, psychological, and social-emotional development. The human-rights-based approach to child trafficking provides a comprehensive conceptual framework whereby victim-focused and law enforcement responses can be developed, implemented, and evaluated. This article highlights promising policies and programs designed to prevent child trafficking and CSE by combating demand for sex with children, reducing supply, and strengthening communities. The literature reviewed includes academic publications as well as international and governmental and nongovernmental reports. Implications for social policy and future research are presented. PMID:24164528

  6. Urological complications of illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, Sean C; Goldenberg, S Larry

    2014-03-01

    Illicit drug use is prevalent worldwide; over 24 million people are estimated to have used recreational drugs during the past month in the UK and USA alone. Illicit drug use can result in a wide spectrum of potential medical complications that include many urological manifestations. To ensure optimal care and treatment, urologists need to be cognizant of these complications in their patients, particularly among youths. Ketamine uropathy is thought to affect over one-quarter of ketamine users and can lead to severe lower urinary tract symptoms, as well as upper tract obstruction. Cannabis use has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, prostate cancer and nonseminomatous germ cell tumours in case-control studies. Fournier's gangrene has been reported following injection of heroin and cocaine into the penis. Excessive use of cough medicines can lead to the development of radiolucent stones composed of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine and guaifenesin. As the current evidence is mostly limited to case reports and case series, future epidemiological studies are needed to fully address this issue. PMID:24535583

  7. Tags to Track Illicit Uranium and Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M. Jonathan; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-07-01

    With the expansion of nuclear power, it is essential to avoid nuclear materials from falling into the hands of rogue nations, terrorists, and other opportunists. This paper examines the idea of detection and attribution tags for nuclear materials. For a detection tag, it is proposed to add small amounts [about one part per billion (ppb)] of {sup 232}U to enriched uranium to brighten its radioactive signature. Enriched uranium would then be as detectable as plutonium and thus increase the likelihood of intercepting illicit enriched uranium. The use of rare earth oxide elements is proposed as a new type of 'attribution' tag for uranium and thorium from mills, uranium and plutonium fuels, and other nuclear materials. Rare earth oxides are chosen because they are chemically compatible with the fuel cycle, can survive high-temperature processing operations in fuel fabrication, and can be chosen to have minimal neutronic impact within the nuclear reactor core. The mixture of rare earths and/or rare earth isotopes provides a unique 'bar code' for each tag. If illicit nuclear materials are recovered, the attribution tag can identify the source and lot of nuclear material, and thus help police reduce the possible number of suspects in the diversion of nuclear materials based on who had access. (authors)

  8. Sex trafficking in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Huda, S

    2006-09-01

    Economic and social inequalities and political conflicts have led to the movement of persons within each country and across the borders in South Asia. Globalization has encouraged free mobility of capital, technology, experts and sex tourism. Illiteracy, dependency, violence, social stigma, cultural stereotypes, gender disparity and endemic poverty, among other factors, place women and children in powerless, non-negotiable situations that have contributed to the emergence and breeding of the cavernous problem of sex trafficking in the entire region. This alarming spread of sex trafficking has fuelled the spread of HIV infection in South Asia, posing a unique and serious threat to community health, poverty alleviation and other crucial aspects of human development. Although the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) Convention on Trafficking in Women and Children has been an important breakthrough, most of the countries in the region do not have anti-trafficking legislation or means to protect the victims. Countries of the region should make a concerted effort to treat trafficking victims as "victims" of human rights violations in all anti-trafficking strategies and actions. PMID:16846602

  9. [Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Lamy, Sandrine; Delavene, Héloise; Thibaut, Florence

    2014-03-01

    Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Alcohol and substance (tobacco, cannabis, cocaine...) use prevalence during pregnancy remains under estimated. Some studies have reported the prevalence of alcohol or substance use in different countries worldwide but most of them were based on the mother's interview. Consumption of one or more psychoactive substances during pregnancy may have serious consequences on the pregnancy and on the child development. However, the type of consequences is still a matter of controversies. The reasons are diverse: different rating scales, potential interactions with environmental and genetic factors. Considering the negative consequences of drug use during pregnancy, preventive campaigns against the use of drugs during pregnancy are strongly recommended. PMID:24851359

  10. Predictors of Illicit Drug Use Among Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Rowell-Cunsolo, Tawandra L.; Sampong, Stephen A.; Befus, Montina; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V.; Larson, Elaine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The United States of America currently has the highest incarceration rate in the world, and approximately 80% of incarcerated individuals have a history of illicit drug use. Despite institutional prohibitions, drug use continues in prison, and is associated with a range of negative outcomes. Objectives To assess the relationship between prison drug use, duration of incarceration, and a range of covariates. Results Most participants self-reported a history of illicit drug use (77.5%). Seven percent reportedly used drugs during the previous six months of incarceration (n = 100). Participants who had been incarcerated for more than a year were less likely than those incarcerated for longer than a year to report using drugs (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.98). Participants aged 37–89 were less likely than younger prisoners to use drugs (OR = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.19–0.80). Heroin users were twice as likely as nonheroin users to use drugs (OR = 2.28; 95% CI = 1.04–5.03); crack cocaine users were also twice as likely as participants with no history of crack cocaine usage to report drug use (OR = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.13–5.69). Conclusions Correctional institutions should be used as a resource to offer evidence-based services to curb drug usage. Drug treatment programs for younger prisoners, heroin and crack cocaine users, and at the beginning of a prisoner's sentence should be considered for this population. PMID:26789438

  11. [Use of illicit substances in the workplace].

    PubMed

    Lhermitte, M; Frimat, P; Labat, L; Haguenoer, J-M

    2012-01-01

    The development of addictive behaviors is a source of worry and concern for workplace and occupational physicians. To estimate the prevalence of behaviors, two types of surveys can be carried out: self-assessment surveys and biological testing in the workplace. For the latter, when a settlement is within the company, the prevalence is often lower compared to those enterprises that have not adapted this policy. Very few investigations have been published in France to date. Data published by the United Nations Office against Drugs and Crime (UNODC) shows a stable consumption of illicit substances in recent years. They reported consumption in the world among the general population (all subjects aged 15 to 64). For France, were described a prevalence estimated in 2005 to 8.6%, 0.6% and 0.2% for cannabis, cocaine and amphetamine derivatives, respectively, and in 2007 to 4.6% for opiates. Some prevalence in the workplace have been reported in Europe in chemical, petrochemical, metallurgical, automotive, in the transport sector and in medical and military fields. However, it appears that few surveys in the workplace have been published in France, this lack may be explained by a desire for anonymity on the subject at the level of company management and doctors work that focus on individual support with the problem of addiction. Screening for illicit substances is necessary because these psychotropic substances affect alertness and pose risks in the workplace, especially such that the association cannabis-alcohol further increases the risk. Knowledge of consumption is, moreover, an important factor in job security. It may be acquired if reliable methods, inexpensive to allow routine screening. Publication of results will reveal the extent of the problem and implement more effective campaigns of information and prevention in the workplace. PMID:22341004

  12. Anger in the combat zone.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Valvincent A; Hicklin, Thomas A

    2005-06-01

    A U.S. Army Reserve Combat Stress Control prevention team was dispatched to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom to provide preventative mental health care to a U.S. Army airborne division and Special Operations forces. The team's mission was to ensure mental health readiness of units in the area of operations. In Bagram, Afghanistan, the Combat Stress Control team identified anger as a very prevalent emotion in the combat zone. Anger management interventions with individual and group counseling were implemented to help soldiers cope with anger. Of 7,000 military personnel stationed there during the team's rotation, there was not one completed suicide or homicide. This article describes how the 113th Medical Company identified, treated, and controlled anger at Bagram Airbase, Afghanistan, between June 20, 2002, and December 20, 2002, with anger management interventions. This article does not address the psychophysiological features of anger. PMID:16001596

  13. Interactive computerized air combat opponent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, W. W., III

    1976-01-01

    A computer program developed to fly interactive one-on-one simulated air combat maneuvers against human pilots is described. The program which is called Adaptive Maneuvering Logic (AML), is being used in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center's Differential Maneuvering Simulator. The basic control logic evaluates the relative states of the two aircraft and reacts by choosing the best of several elemental maneuvers. Pilot comments and results obtained when the computer was flown against combat-qualified fighter pilots indicate that the program performs realistic maneuvers and offers a very competitive standard pilot.

  14. Early Detection of Illicit Drug Use in Teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Mouton, Charles P.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Ofoemezie, Ejike Kingsley; Bailey, Rhan K.; Shahid, Madiha; Zeng, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The illicit use of drugs, including alcohol, by teenagers has been extensively studied and documented. It is not uncommon for teenagers to be involved in illicit drug use before exhibiting signs and symptoms of drug use. Unsuspecting parents may be unaware of drug use in their children. The authors’ objective in this article is to review the literature on illicit drug use in teenagers and highlight the risk factors for teen involvement. The authors also review the warning signs that a teen is using illicit drugs. The aim of this article is to assist parents and healthcare workers involved in substance use intervention programs to be more aware of these risk factors and warning signs in order to adopt early screening and intervention measures. PMID:22247815

  15. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States. PMID:19056686

  16. Illicit Drugs and their Impact on Cardiovascular Pathology.

    PubMed

    Bădilă, Elisabeta; Hostiuc, Mihaela; Weiss, Emma; Bartoş, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The use of illicit drugs has dramatically increased during the past years. Consequently, the number of presentations at the emergency departments due to the adverse effects of the illicit drugs has also increased. This review discusses the cardiovascular effects of cocaine, opiates and opioids, cannabinoids, amphetamines, methamphetamines and hallucinogens as we consider that it is essential for a clinician to be aware of them and understand their mechanisms in order to optimize the therapeutic management. PMID:26710497

  17. Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use among women.

    PubMed

    McGann, K P; Spangler, J G

    1997-03-01

    Although the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among women is lower than that among men, women suffer unique adverse health effects from these substances. Furthermore, the use of these substances during pregnancy poses special risks to mother and fetus, including placental accidents, intrauterine growth retardation, congenital anomalies, and premature birth. Primary care clinicians should ask all women about their patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use and should offer targeted interventions to those using these products. PMID:9082466

  18. Evidence of Combat in Triceratops

    PubMed Central

    Farke, Andrew A.; Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Tanke, Darren H.

    2009-01-01

    Background The horns and frill of Triceratops and other ceratopsids (horned dinosaurs) are interpreted variously as display structures or as weapons against conspecifics and predators. Lesions (in the form of periosteal reactive bone, healing fractures, and alleged punctures) on Triceratops skulls have been used as anecdotal support of intraspecific combat similar to that in modern horned and antlered animals. If ceratopsids with different cranial morphologies used their horns in such combat, this should be reflected in the rates of lesion occurrence across the skull. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a G-test of independence to compare incidence rates of lesions in Triceratops (which possesses two large brow horns and a smaller nasal horn) and the related ceratopsid Centrosaurus (with a large nasal horn and small brow horns), for the nasal, jugal, squamosal, and parietal bones of the skull. The two taxa differ significantly in the occurrence of lesions on the squamosal bone of the frill (P = 0.002), but not in other cranial bones (P>0.20). Conclusions/Significance This pattern is consistent with Triceratops using its horns in combat and the frill being adapted as a protective structure for this taxon. Lower pathology rates in Centrosaurus may indicate visual rather than physical use of cranial ornamentation in this genus, or a form of combat focused on the body rather than the head. PMID:19172995

  19. Teaching Combative Sports through Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozub, Francis M.; Kozub, Mary L.

    2004-01-01

    Martial arts have become popular in the United States and have transitioned from being spectator sports to avenues for active participation by people of all ages. The purpose of this article is to highlight tactical similarities in selected combative sport activities and to provide martial arts and wrestling instructors with an alternative…

  20. Combating Stagefright: Selected Vocal Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    Noting that stagefright has been the subject of intensive analysis and subjected to almost every conceivable test or measurement without revealing either its "cause" or its "cure," this paper presents vocal exercises to help combat the performance malady. After listing four principles concerning the nature of stagefright (it is not a pathological…

  1. Combating Training-Stress Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the nature and ramifications of various training stress syndromes (overtraining, under-recovery, distress, staleness, and burnout) that can accompany inappropriate training practices, examining the interventions that players and coaches can use to combat these syndromes (including physical, psychological, and performance interventions),…

  2. Sex trafficking and the exploitation of adolescents.

    PubMed

    McClain, Natalie M; Garrity, Stacy E

    2011-01-01

    Human trafficking affects a surprisingly large number of adolescents around the globe. Women and girls make up the majority of sex trafficking victims. Nurses must be aware of sex trafficking as a form of sexual violence in the adolescent population. Nurses can play a role in identifying, intervening, and advocating for victims of human trafficking as they currently do for patients that are the victims of other types of violent crimes. PMID:21284727

  3. 31 CFR 598.310 - Narcotics trafficking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Narcotics trafficking. 598.310... OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN NARCOTICS KINGPIN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.310 Narcotics trafficking. The term narcotics trafficking means any...

  4. Allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics.

    PubMed

    Swerts, S; Van Gasse, A; Leysen, J; Faber, M; Sabato, V; Bridts, C H; Jorens, P G; De Clerck, L S; Ebo, D G

    2014-03-01

    Despite their frequent use, allergy to illicit drugs and narcotics is rarely reported in literature. We present a review of the different classes of drugs of abuse that might be involved in allergies: central nervous system (CNS) depressants (such as cannabis, opioids and kava), CNS stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, khat and ephedra) and hallucinogens such as ketamine and nutmeg. Diagnosis of drug and narcotic allergy generally relies upon careful history taking, complemented with skin testing eventually along with quantification of sIgE. However, for various reasons, correct diagnosis of most of these drug allergies is not straightforward. For example, the native plant material applied for skin testing and sIgE antibody tests might harbour irrelevant IgE-binding structures that hamper correct diagnosis. Diagnosis might also be hampered due to uncertainties associated with the non-specific histamine releasing characteristics of some compounds and absence of validated sIgE tests. Whether the introduction of standardized allergen components and more functional tests, that is, basophil activation and degranulation assays, might be helpful to an improved diagnosis needs to be established. It is anticipated that due to the rare character of these allergies further validation is although necessary. PMID:24588864

  5. Illicit drugs or medicines taken by parachuting.

    PubMed

    Daveluy, Amélie; Géniaux, Hélène; Eiden, Céline; Boucher, Alexandra; Chenaf, Chouki; Deheul, Sylvie; Spadari, Michel; Gérardin, Marie; Miremont-Salamé, Ghada; Haramburu, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    Parachuting (also called bombing) is a method of drug delivery where illicit drugs or medicines are ingested after wrapping the substance. There are little data describing parachuting in the literature. To provide a description of this practice, all cases of parachuting reported to the national addictovigilance network up to 31 December 2014 were identified from spontaneous reports and specific surveillance programs. Cases were described according to the type of substance used, patient age and gender, type of complications, context of use and year of the event. Forty-five cases of parachute use were identified and most (n = 43) occurred after 2011. Patients were mostly men (60%), and mean age was 28.9 years. The context of use, known in 19 cases, was mostly recreational. Complications were present in 24 cases, of which eight were serious. The substance was supposed to be 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in the majority of cases (64.4%); research chemicals were more involved in the most recent years. The physical form was mainly granular (51.6%). The wrappers were a cigarette paper (nine cases) and in one case plastic package; in the other cases, the term of parachute was used without further details. The reason for use was not explained in the majority of cases; two patients indicated using a parachute for faster effect than with a methadone capsule. Clinicians should be aware of this delivery form as the results suggest that it is common and can involve a great variability of drugs. PMID:26609911

  6. Diacylglycerol kinases in membrane trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shuwei; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) belong to a family of cytosolic kinases that regulate the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol (DAG), converting it into phosphatidic acid (PA). There are 10 known mammalian DGK isoforms, each with a different tissue distribution and substrate specificity. These differences allow regulation of cellular responses by fine-tuning the delicate balance of cellular DAG and PA. DGK isoforms are best characterized as mediators of signal transduction and immune function. However, since recent studies reveal that DAG and PA are also involved in the regulation of endocytic trafficking, it is therefore anticipated that DGKs also plays an important role in membrane trafficking. In this review, we summarize the literature discussing the role of DGK isoforms at different stages of endocytic trafficking, including endocytosis, exocytosis, endocytic recycling, and transport from/to the Golgi apparatus. Overall, these studies contribute to our understanding of the involvement of PA and DAG in endocytic trafficking, an area of research that is drawing increasing attention in recent years. PMID:27057419

  7. Nonnatural deaths among users of illicit drugs: pathological findings and illicit drug abuse stigmata.

    PubMed

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn Møller; Hoff-Olsen, Per; Rogde, Sidsel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to provide information on illicit drug abuse stigmata and general pathological findings among an adult narcotic drug-using population aged 20 to 59 years whose death was nonnatural. A total of 1603 medicolegal autopsy reports from 2000 to 2009 concerning cases positive for morphine, heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), PCP (phencyclidine), and high levels of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyric acid) in addition to methadone and buprenorphine were investigated. Reported findings of hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injection marks, drug user's equipment, and numbers of significant pathological conditions were registered and analyzed according to cases positive for opiates, opioids (OPs), and central nervous system (CNS)-stimulating illicit drugs, respectively. Of the selected cases, 1305 were positive for one or more opiate or OP. Cases positive for OPs had significantly more findings of noninfectious pathological conditions. Hepatitis, portal lymphadenopathy, recent injections marks findings of drug user's equipment were all findings found more frequently among the opiate OP-positive individuals. Portal lymphadenopathy was significantly more often found in cases with hepatitis than in cases with other or no infection. In the population positive for CNS stimulants, hepatitis recent injection marks were more frequent findings than in the CNS stimulant-negative group, irrespective of whether they were opiate OP positive or negative. PMID:25590496

  8. Human trafficking and the healthcare professional.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Jeffrey; Finger, Reginald

    2008-05-01

    Despite the legislation passed in the 19th century outlawing human slavery, it is more widespread today than at the conclusion of the civil war. Modern human slavery, termed human trafficking, comes in several forms. The most common type of human trafficking is sex trafficking, the sale of women and children into prostitution. Labor trafficking is the sale of men, women, and children into hard labor for which they receive little or no compensation. Other forms of trafficking include child soldiering, war brides, and organ removal. Healthcare professionals play a critical role in both finding victims of human trafficking while they are still in captivity, as well as caring for their mental and physical needs upon release. Those working in the healthcare profession need to be educated regarding how a trafficking victim may present, as well as their unique healthcare needs. PMID:18414161

  9. Abductive networks applied to electronic combat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Gerard J.; Hess, Paul; Hwang, Jong S.

    1990-08-01

    A practical approach to dealing with combinatorial decision problems and uncertainties associated with electronic combat through the use of networks of high-level functional elements called abductive networks is presented. It describes the application of the Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIMTM) a supervised inductive learning tool for synthesizing polynomial abductive networks to the electronic combat problem domain. From databases of historical expert-generated or simulated combat engagements AIM can often induce compact and robust network models for making effective real-time electronic combat decisions despite significant uncertainties or a combinatorial explosion of possible situations. The feasibility of applying abductive networks to realize advanced combat decision aiding capabilities was demonstrated by applying AIM to a set of electronic combat simulations. The networks synthesized by AIM generated accurate assessments of the intent lethality and overall risk associated with a variety of simulated threats and produced reasonable estimates of the expected effectiveness of a group of electronic countermeasures for a large number of simulated combat scenarios. This paper presents the application of abductive networks to electronic combat summarizes the results of experiments performed using AIM discusses the benefits and limitations of applying abductive networks to electronic combat and indicates why abductive networks can often result in capabilities not attainable using alternative approaches. 1. ELECTRONIC COMBAT. UNCERTAINTY. AND MACHINE LEARNING Electronic combat has become an essential part of the ability to make war and has become increasingly complex since

  10. The Declaration of Istanbul on Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism.

    PubMed

    2008-09-01

    Organ commercialism, which targets vulnerable populations (such as illiterate and impoverished persons, undocumented immigrants, prisoners, and political or economic refugees) in resource-poor countries, has been condemned by international bodies such as the World Health Organization for decades. Yet in recent years, as a consequence of the increasing ease of Internet communication and the willingness of patients in rich countries to travel and purchase organs, organ trafficking and transplant tourism have grown into global problems. For example, as of 2006, foreigners received two-thirds of the 2000 kidney transplants performed annually in Pakistan. The Istanbul Declaration proclaims that the poor who sell their organs are being exploited, whether by richer people within their own countries or by transplant tourists from abroad. Moreover, transplant tourists risk physical harm by unregulated and illegal transplantation. Participants in the Istanbul Summit concluded that transplant commercialism, which targets the vulnerable, transplant tourism, and organ trafficking should be prohibited. And they also urged their fellow transplant professionals, individually and through their organizations, to put an end to these unethical activities and foster safe, accountable practices that meet the needs of transplant recipients while protecting donors. Countries from which transplant tourists originate, as well as those to which they travel to obtain transplants, are just beginning to address their respective responsibilities to protect their people from exploitation and to develop national self-sufficiency in organ donation. The Declaration should reinforce the resolve of governments and international organizations to develop laws and guidelines to bring an end to wrongful practices. "The legacy of transplantation is threatened by organ trafficking and transplant tourism. The Declaration of Istanbul aims to combat these activities and to preserve the nobility of organ

  11. The Declaration of Istanbul on Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Organ commercialism, which targets vulnerable populations (such as illiterate and impoverished persons, undocumented immigrants, prisoners, and political or economic refugees) in resource-poor countries, has been condemned by international bodies such as the World Health Organization for decades. Yet in recent years, as a consequence of the increasing ease of Internet communication and the willingness of patients in rich countries to travel and purchase organs, organ trafficking and transplant tourism have grown into global problems. For example, as of 2006, foreigners received two-thirds of the 2000 kidney transplants performed annually in Pakistan. The Istanbul Declaration proclaims that the poor who sell their organs are being exploited, whether by richer people within their own countries or by transplant tourists from abroad. Moreover, transplant tourists risk physical harm by unregulated and illegal transplantation. Participants in the Istanbul Summit concluded that transplant commercialism, which targets the vulnerable, transplant tourism, and organ trafficking should be prohibited. And they also urged their fellow transplant professionals, individually and through their organizations, to put an end to these unethical activities and foster safe, accountable practices that meet the needs of transplant recipients while protecting donors. Countries from which transplant tourists originate, as well as those to which they travel to obtain transplants, are just beginning to address their respective responsibilities to protect their people from exploitation and to develop national self-sufficiency in organ donation. The Declaration should reinforce the resolve of governments and international organizations to develop laws and guidelines to bring an end to wrongful practices. “The legacy of transplantation is threatened by organ trafficking and transplant tourism. The Declaration of Istanbul aims to combat these activities and to preserve the nobility of organ

  12. Illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Fadhli; Sahril, Norhafizah; Rasidi, Naim M; Zaki, Nor Azian M; Muhamad, Norazlina; Ahmad, NoorAni

    2014-09-01

    Illicit drug use among adolescents has become a public health issue in Malaysia. This study was from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) and aimed to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. A 2-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used and data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 25 507 students participated in the study. The prevalence of adolescents who ever used illicit drugs was 1.7%. Adolescents who ever used illicit drugs were associated with current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.99; 95% CI = 5.19, 9.40), current alcohol use (aOR = 4.63; 95% CI = 3.43, 6.26), ever having sex (aOR = 4.76; 95% CI = 3.54, 6.41), truancy (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.90), lack of peer support (aOR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.07, 2.03), and lack of parental monitoring (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.39). Public health intervention should be addressed to prevent illicit drug used among adolescents. PMID:25038195

  13. Trafficking of the Follitropin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Dias, James A.; Bousfield, George; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Reiter, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The follitropin or follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) belongs to a highly conserved subfamily of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily and is mainly expressed in specific cells in the gonads. As any other GPCR, the newly synthesized FSHR has to be correctly folded and processed in order to traffic to the cell surface plasma membrane and interact with its cognate ligand. In this chapter, we describe in detail the conditions and procedures used to study outward trafficking of the FSHR from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. We also describe some methods to analyze phosphorylation, β-arrestin recruitment, internalization, and recycling of this particular receptor, which have proved useful in our hands for dissecting its downward trafficking and fate following agonist stimulation. PMID:23351732

  14. Biopolitical management, economic calculation and "trafficked women".

    PubMed

    Berman, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Narratives surrounding human trafficking, especially trafficking in women for sex work, employ gendered and racialized tropes that have among their effects, a shrouding of women's economic decision-making and state collusion in benefiting from their labour. This paper explores the operation of these narratives in order to understand the ways in which they mask the economics of trafficking by sensationalizing the sexual and criminal aspects of it, which in turn allows the state to pursue political projects under the guise of a benevolent concern for trafficked women and/or protection of its own citizens. This paper will explore one national example: Article 18 of Italian Law 40 (1998). I argue that its passage has led to an increase in cooperation with criminal prosecution of traffickers largely because it approaches trafficked women as capable of making decisions about how and what they themselves want to do. This paper will also consider a more global approach to trafficking embedded in the concept of "migration management", an International Organization for Migration (IOM) framework that is now shaping EU, US and other national immigration laws and policies that impact trafficking. It will also examine the inherent limitations of both the national and global approach as an occasion to unpack how Article 18 and Migration Management function as forms of biopolitical management that participate in the production of "trafficking victims" into a massified population to be managed, rather than engender a more engaged discussion of what constitutes trafficking and how to redress it. PMID:20645471

  15. Modeling Illicit Drug Use Dynamics and Its Optimal Control Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of death and disability attributable to illicit drug use, remains a significant threat to public health for both developed and developing nations. This paper presents a new mathematical modeling framework to investigate the effects of illicit drug use in the community. In our model the transmission process is captured as a social “contact” process between the susceptible individuals and illicit drug users. We conduct both epidemic and endemic analysis, with a focus on the threshold dynamics characterized by the basic reproduction number. Using our model, we present illustrative numerical results with a case study in Cape Town, Gauteng, Mpumalanga and Durban communities of South Africa. In addition, the basic model is extended to incorporate time dependent intervention strategies. PMID:26819625

  16. Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Meihong; Shen, Jingling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Cunlin; Liang, Laishun; Xu, Xiaoyu

    2006-11-01

    We demonstrated an advanced terahertz imaging technique for detection and identification of illicit drugs by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. As an explanation, the characteristic fingerprint spectra and refractive index of ketamine were first measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy both in the air and nitrogen. The results obtained in the ambient air indicated that some absorption peaks are not obvious or probably not dependable. It is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection. The spatial distributions of several illicit drugs [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, heroin, acetylcodeine, morphine, and ketamine], widely consumed in the world, were obtained from terahertz images using absorption spectra previously measured in the range from 0.2to2.6THz in the ambient air. The different kinds of pure illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes were inspected and identified. It could be an effective method in the field of safety inspection.

  17. Pedagogical patronizing of the pharmacodynamic promises of illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Belcastro, P A

    1992-01-01

    A review of popular drug education textbooks and curricula indicated most juxtapose the physiologic effects of licitly manufactured drugs under headings representing illicitly prepared drugs. This misrepresentation ignores the literature, which is undivided, in reporting that illicit drugs contain adulterants and substitutes such as: sodium acetate, sodium cyclamate, dolomite, acetaminophen, gypsum, mannitol, inositol, lidocaine, amydricaine, benzocaine, caffeine, ephedrine, intercaine, phenylpropanolamine, piperocaine, procainamide, azopyridine, bromodiphenhydramine, ibuprofen, methaqualone, phenobarital trazodone, acetylcodine, codeine, quinine, quinidine, thallium, arsenic and strychnine. The temptation to extrapolate the results of licitly pure drug lots administered at precisely measured doses to represent the pharmacodynamics of illegally prepared drug lots administered at indiscernible doses must be avoided in drug educational resources. There is a pressing need to correct the factual base, both implied and suggestive, of drug education resources regarding the purity and toxicity of illicitly manufactured and purchased drugs. PMID:1593391

  18. Agonist-trafficking and hallucinogens.

    PubMed

    González-Maeso, Javier; Sealfon, Stuart C

    2009-01-01

    Seven transmembrane domain receptors, also termed G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), represent the most common molecular target for therapeutic drugs. The generally accepted pharmacological model for GPCR activation is the ternary complex model, in which GPCRs exist in a dynamic equilibrium between the active and inactive conformational states. However, the demonstration that different agonists sometimes elicit a different relative activation of two signaling pathways downstream of the same receptor has led to a revision of the ternary complex model. According to this agonist- trafficking model, agonists stabilize distinct activated receptor conformations that preferentially activate specific signaling pathways. Hallucinogenic drugs and non-hallucinogenic drugs represent an attractive experimental system with which to study agonist-trafficking of receptor signaling. Thus many of the behavioral responses induced by hallucinogenic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin or mescaline, depend on activation of serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptors (5-HT2ARs). In contrast, this neuropsychological state in humans is not induced by closely related chemicals, such as lisuride or ergotamine, despite their similar in vitro activity at the 5-HT2AR. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge, as well as unresolved questions, regarding agonist-trafficking and the mechanism of action of hallucinogenic drugs. PMID:19275609

  19. Viral Subversion of Nucleocytoplasmic Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Yarbrough, Melanie L.; Mata, Miguel A.; Sakthivel, Ramanavelan; Fontoura, Beatriz M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Trafficking of proteins and RNA into and out of the nucleus occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Due to its critical function in many cellular processes, the NPC and transport factors are common targets of several viruses that disrupt key constituents of the machinery to facilitate viral replication. Many viruses such as poliovirus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus inhibit protein import into the nucleus, while viruses such as influenza A virus target and disrupt host mRNA nuclear export. Current evidence indicates that these viruses may employ such strategies to avert the host immune response. Conversely, many viruses co-opt nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to facilitate transport of viral RNAs. Since viral proteins interact with key regulators of the host nuclear transport machinery, viruses have served as invaluable tools of discovery that led to the identification of novel constituents of nuclear transport pathways. In addition, this review explores the importance of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to viral pathogenesis as these studies revealed new antiviral therapeutic strategies and exposed previously unknown cellular mechanisms. Further understanding of nuclear transport pathways will determine whether such therapeutics will be useful treatments for important human pathogens. PMID:24289861

  20. Adenosine receptor desensitization and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Mundell, Stuart; Kelly, Eamonn

    2011-05-01

    As with the majority of G-protein-coupled receptors, all four of the adenosine receptor subtypes are known to undergo agonist-induced regulation in the form of desensitization and trafficking. These processes can limit the ability of adenosine receptors to couple to intracellular signalling pathways and thus reduce the ability of adenosine receptor agonists as well as endogenous adenosine to produce cellular responses. In addition, since adenosine receptors couple to multiple signalling pathways, these pathways may desensitize differentially, while the desensitization of one pathway could even trigger signalling via another. Thus, the overall picture of adenosine receptor regulation can be complex. For all adenosine receptor subtypes, there is evidence to implicate arrestins in agonist-induced desensitization and trafficking, but there is also evidence for other possible forms of regulation, including second messenger-dependent kinase regulation, heterologous effects involving G proteins, and the involvement of non-clathrin trafficking pathways such as caveolae. In this review, the evidence implicating these mechanisms is summarized for each adenosine receptor subtype, and we also discuss those issues of adenosine receptor regulation that remain to be resolved as well as likely directions for future research in this field. PMID:20550943

  1. Protein trafficking in kinetoplastid protozoa.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, C; Häusler, T; Blattner, J

    1995-01-01

    The kinetoplastid protozoa infect hosts ranging from invertebrates to plants and mammals, causing diseases of medical and economic importance. They are the earliest-branching organisms in eucaryotic evolution to have either mitochondria or peroxisome-like microbodies. Investigation of their protein trafficking enables us to identify characteristics that have been conserved throughout eucaryotic evolution and also reveals how far variations, or alternative mechanisms, are possible. Protein trafficking in kinetoplastids is in many respects similar to that in higher eucaryotes, including mammals and yeasts. Differences in signal sequence specificities exist, however, for all subcellular locations so far examined in detail--microbodies, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum--with signals being more degenerate, or shorter, than those of their higher eucaryotic counterparts. Some components of the normal array of trafficking mechanisms may be missing in most (if not all) kinetoplastids: examples are clathrin-coated vesicles, recycling receptors, and mannose 6-phosphate-mediated lysosomal targeting. Other aspects and structures are unique to the kinetoplastids or are as yet unexplained. Some of these peculiarities may eventually prove to be weak points that can be used as targets for chemotherapy; others may turn out to be much more widespread than currently suspected. PMID:7565409

  2. Empirical measurement of illicit tobacco trade in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Abola, Victor; Sy, Deborah; Denniston, Ryan; So, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smuggling reduces the price of cigarettes, thwarts youth access restrictions, reduces government revenue, and undercuts the ability of taxes to reduce consumption. The tobacco industry often opposes increases to tobacco taxes on the claim that greater taxes induce more smuggling. To date, little is known about the magnitude of smuggling in the Philippines. his information is necessary to effectively address illicit trade and to measure the impacts of tax changes and the introduction of secure tax markings on illicit trade. This study employs two gap discrepancy methods to estimate the magnitude of illicit trade in cigarettes for the Philippines between 1994 and 2009. First, domestic consumption is compared with tax-paid sales to measure the consumption of illicit cigarettes. Second, imports recorded by the Philippines are compared with exports to the Philippines by trade partners to measure smuggling. Domestic consumption fell short of tax-paid sales for all survey years. The magnitude of these differences and a comparison with a prevalence survey for 2009 suggest a high level of survey under-reporting of smoking. In the late 1990s and the mid 2000s, the Philippines experienced two sharp declines in trade discrepancies, from a high of $750 million in 1995 to a low of $133.7 million in 2008. Discrepancies composed more than one-third of the domestic market in 1995, but only 10 percent in 2009. Hong Kong, Singapore, and China together account for more than 80 percent of the cumulative discrepancies over the period and 74 percent of the discrepancy in 2009. The presence of large discrepancies supports the need to implement an effective tax marking and tobacco track and trace system to reduce illicit trade and support tax collection. The absence of a relation between tax changes and smuggling suggests that potential increases in the excise tax should not be discouraged by illicit trade. Finally, the identification of specific trade partners as primary sources

  3. Carcinogenicity and teratogenicity vs. psychogenicity: psychological characteristics associated with self-reported Agent Orange exposure among Vietnam combat veterans who seek treatment for substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Robinowitz, R; Roberts, W R; Dolan, M P; Patterson, E T; Charles, H L; Atkins, H G; Penk, W E

    1989-09-01

    This study asked, "What are the psychological characteristics of Vietnam combat veterans who claim Agent Orange exposure when compared with combat-experienced cohorts who do not report such contamination?" The question was researched among 153 heroin addicts, polydrug abusers, and chronic alcoholics who were seeking treatment: 58 reported moderate to high defoliant exposure while in combat; 95 reported minimal to no exposure while in Vietnam. The null hypothesis was accepted for measures of childhood and present family social climate, premilitary backgrounds, reasons for seeking treatment, patterns and types of illicit drug and alcohol use, interpersonal problems, intellectual functioning, and short-term memory. The null hypothesis was rejected for personality differences, however, those who self-reported high Agent Orange exposure scored significantly higher on MMPI scales F, Hypochondriasis, Depression, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Mania, and Social interoversion. The results suggest that clinicians carefully assess attributional processing of those who report traumatic experience. PMID:2808727

  4. Carcinogenicity and teratogenicity vs. psychogenicity: Psychological characteristics associated with self-reported Agent Orange exposure among Vietnam combat veterans who seek treatment for substance abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Robinowitz, R.; Roberts, W.R.; Dolan, M.P.; Patterson, E.T.; Charles, H.L.; Atkins, H.G.; Penk, W.E. )

    1989-09-01

    This study asked, What are the psychological characteristics of Vietnam combat veterans who claim Agent Orange exposure when compared with combat-experienced cohorts who do not report such contamination The question was researched among 153 heroin addicts, polydrug abusers, and chronic alcoholics who were seeking treatment: 58 reported moderate to high defoliant exposure while in combat; 95 reported minimal to no exposure while in Vietnam. The null hypothesis was accepted for measures of childhood and present family social climate, premilitary backgrounds, reasons for seeking treatment, patterns and types of illicit drug and alcohol use, interpersonal problems, intellectual functioning, and short-term memory. The null hypothesis was rejected for personality differences, however, those who self-reported high Agent Orange exposure scored significantly higher on MMPI scales F, Hypochondriasis, Depression, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Mania, and Social interoversion. The results suggest that clinicians carefully assess attributional processing of those who report traumatic experience.

  5. A formulation and analysis of combat games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, M.; Ardema, M. D.; Rajan, N.

    1985-01-01

    Combat is formulated as a dynamical encounter between two opponents, each of whom has offensive capabilities and objectives. With each opponent is associated a target in the event space in which he endeavors to terminate the combat, thereby winning. If the combat terminates in both target sets simultaneously or in neither, a joint capture or a draw, respectively, is said to occur. Resolution of the encounter is formulated as a combat game; namely, as a pair of competing event-constrained differential games. If exactly one of the players can win, the optimal strategies are determined from a resulting constrained zero-sum differential game. Otherwise the optimal strategies are computed from a resulting non-zero-sum game. Since optimal combat strategies frequencies may not exist, approximate of delta-combat games are also formulated leading to approximate or delta-optimal strategies. To illustrate combat games, an example, called the turret game, is considered. This game may be thought of as a highly simplified model of air combat, yet it is sufficiently complex to exhibit a rich variety of combat behavior, much of which is not found in pursuit-evasion games.

  6. Analysis of GPCR Localization and Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, James N.; von Zastrow, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Localization and trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is increasingly recognized to play a fundamental role in receptor-mediated signaling and its regulation. Individual receptors, including closely homologous subtypes with otherwise similar functional properties, can differ considerably in their membrane trafficking properties. In this chapter, we describe several approaches for experimentally assessing the subcellular localization and trafficking of selected GPCRs. Firstly, we describe a flexible method for receptor localization using fluorescence microscopy. We then describe two complementary approaches, using fluorescence flow cytometry and surface biotinylation, for examining receptor internalization and trafficking in the endocytic pathway. PMID:21607873

  7. Combat Agility Management System (CAMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skow, Andrew; Porada, William

    1994-01-01

    The proper management of energy becomes a complex task in fighter aircraft which have high angle of attack (AOA) capability. Maneuvers at high AOA are accompanied by high bleed rates (velocity decrease), a characteristic that is usually undesirable in a typical combat arena. Eidetics has developed under NASA SBIR Phase 1 and NAVAIR SBIR Phase 2 contracts a system which allows a pilot to more easily and effectively manage the trade-off of energy (airspeed or altitude) for turn rate while not imposing hard limits on the high AOA nose pointing capability that can be so important in certain air combat maneuver situations. This has been accomplished by incorporating a two-stage angle of attack limiter into the flight control laws. The first stage sets a limit on AOA to achieve a limit on the maximum bleed rate (selectable) by limiting AOA to values which are dependent on the aircraft attitude and dynamic pressure (or flight path, velocity, and altitude). The second stage sets an AOA limit near the AOA for C(sub l max). One of the principal benefits of such a system is that it enables a low-experience pilot to become much more proficient at managing his energy. The Phase 2 simulation work is complete, and an exploratory flight test on the F-18 HARV is planned for the Fall of 1994 to demonstrate/validate the concept.

  8. Worldwide actions to combat abuse.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports several developments on the global efforts to combat abuse and violence against women and children. It is noted that in South Africa, Belem, Brazil, and Lesotho, protest actions were conducted against women and child abuse. Although the protests were made separately, the protests generally called for implementation of initiatives from the government to address the issue of child and women abuse. In the context of preventing abusive behaviors, a study by the University of Cape Town in South Africa on the appropriateness and feasibility of short-term community-based group therapy concluded that such an approach might be effective in treating delinquent behavior. In Indonesia, the Rifka Annisa Women's Crisis Centre is working to combat violence against women by providing services to victims; while in Israel, a media campaign is aiming to increase awareness and support for women's help centers. In addition, the government of Bangladesh has established a Cell Against Violence Against Women that provides legal counseling and assistance for civil and criminal cases related to violence against women. Furthermore, the WHO and the International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have collaborated to conduct a joint workshop to explore how violence against women can be eliminated. PMID:12348694

  9. The Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants on College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Flay, Brian R.; Ketcham, Patricia L.; Smit, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The illicit use of prescription stimulants (IUPS) is a substance use behavior that remains prevalent on college campuses. As theory can guide research and practice, we provide a systematic review of the college-based IUPS epidemiological literature guided by one ecological framework, the theory of triadic influence (TTI). We aim to assess…

  10. Drug abuse and illicit drug use in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed Central

    Canino, G; Anthony, J C; Freeman, D H; Shrout, P; Rubio-Stipec, M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Based on an epidemiologic field survey of community households in Puerto Rico, this study estimates the frequency of illicit drug use and clinically defined drug abuse and/or dependence syndromes. Results are compared with those from surveys on the United States mainland. Suspected risk factors are studied as well, with a special focus on childhood misbehavior. METHODS. Trained lay interviewers administered a Spanish Diagnostic Interview Schedule to 912 respondents aged 17 to 68 years who were selected by multistage probability sampling of island households. RESULTS. An estimated 8.2% of the population had a history of illicit drug use and 1.2% qualified for a standardized lifetime diagnosis of drug abuse, dependence, or both. An estimated 18.4% of the male drug users and 7.7% of the female drug users met criteria for drug abuse and/or dependence. A history of drug use was related to the diagnoses of alcohol abuse and/or dependence and antisocial personality, but few persons who had used illicit drugs at least once in their lifetime reported a history of receiving treatment for alcohol, drug, or mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS. The data were consistent with a suspected association between level of childhood misbehavior and occurrence of illicit drug use, even after statistical control for potentially confounding variables. PMID:8427322

  11. Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their…

  12. Attributions for Abstinence from Illicit Drugs by University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal consistency…

  13. Contested Cultural Spaces: Exploring Illicit Drug-Using through "Trainspotting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemingway, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Contending that culture is one of the most potentially divisive signifiers of human activity, this paper probes some of the complexities that attend the (un)popular culture of illicit drug-using with which many young people in contemporary Britain are identified. Irvine Welsh's multi-media drugs narrative "Trainspotting" is drawn on to explore the…

  14. Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Users: Analysis of Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Wills, Judy

    1983-01-01

    Summarized a 16-hour marathon group for illicit drug users (N=12) in residential treatment. Content analysis showed the group spent more time on interpersonal relationships and relatively little time on group process. Drug users were able to successfully participate in therapeutic group discussions involving self-investment. (JAC)

  15. Medical Use, Illicit Use, and Diversion of Abusable Prescription Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the medical use, illicit use, and diversion of 4 distinct classes of abusable prescription medication (sleeping medication, sedative or anxiety medication, stimulant medication, and pain medication) in a random sample of undergraduate students. In spring 2003, 9,161 undergraduate students attending a large, public,…

  16. Optical Control of Peroxisomal Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Spiltoir, Jessica I; Strickland, Devin; Glotzer, Michael; Tucker, Chandra L

    2016-07-15

    The blue-light-responsive LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin1 (AsLOV2) has been used to regulate activity and binding of diverse protein targets with light. Here, we used AsLOV2 to photocage a peroxisomal targeting sequence, allowing light regulation of peroxisomal protein import. We generated a protein tag, LOV-PTS1, that can be appended to proteins of interest to direct their import to the peroxisome with light. This method provides a means to inducibly trigger peroxisomal protein trafficking in specific cells at user-defined times. PMID:26513473

  17. Preliminary Validation of the Sex Trafficking Attitudes Scale.

    PubMed

    Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Todd, Nathan R; Wilson, Midge

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the Sex Trafficking Attitudes Scale (STAS), assessing cognitive, behavioral, and affective attitudes toward the sex trafficking of women and girls. Across two studies, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed and confirmed six subscales: (a) Knowledge About Sex Trafficking, (b) Awareness of Sex Trafficking, (c) Attitudes Toward Ability to Leave Sex Trafficking, (d) Attitudes Toward Helping Survivors, (e) Empathic Reactions Toward Sex Trafficking, and (f) Efficacy to Reduce Sex Trafficking. Results showed support for convergent validity as the subscales were associated with related measures. The STAS holds promise to expand research and inform efforts to support trafficking survivors. PMID:26834147

  18. Alcohol, illicit and non-illicit psychoactive drug use and road traffic injury in Thailand: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Woratanarat, Patarawan; Ingsathit, Atiporn; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Chatchaipun, Porntip; Wattayakorn, Kanokporn; Anukarahanonta, Tongtavuch

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between alcohol use, psychoactive drug use and road traffic injury (RTI). A case-control study was conducted among drivers in Bangkok, Thailand. Two hundred cases and 849 controls were enrolled between February and November 2006. Cases who sustained a RTI were matched with four controls recruited from petrol stations within a 1-km radius of the reported crash site of the case. A positive alcohol breath test (> or =50mg/dl), and positive tests for the presence of illicit (amphetamine, cocaine, marijuana) and non-illicit psychoactive drugs (antihistamine, benzodiazepine, antidepressants), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were documented as primary measures. There were significantly higher odds of an alcohol breath test > or =50mg/dl (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 63.6 (95% CI: 25.5-158.9)), illicit psychoactive drugs (adjusted OR 3.4 (95% CI: 1.7-6.6)) and non-illicit psychoactive drug (adjusted OR 3.1 (95% CI: 1.5-6.3)) among cases than controls. Even though driving under the influence of psychoactive drugs has been significantly linked to RTI, its contribution to road safety is much lower than driving under the influence of alcohol. With limited resources, the priority for RTI prevention should be given to control of driving under the influence of alcohol. PMID:19393818

  19. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-23

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  20. A formulation and analysis of combat games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, M.; Ardema, M. D.; Rajan, N.

    1984-01-01

    Combat which is formulated as a dynamical encounter between two opponents, each of whom has offensive capabilities and objectives is outlined. A target set is associated with each opponent in the event space in which he endeavors to terminate the combat, thereby winning. If the combat terminates in both target sets simultaneously, or in neither, a joint capture or a draw, respectively, occurs. Resolution of the encounter is formulated as a combat game; as a pair of competing event constrained differential games. If exactly one of the players can win, the optimal strategies are determined from a resulting constrained zero sum differential game. Otherwise the optimal strategies are computed from a resulting nonzero sum game. Since optimal combat strategies may frequently not exist, approximate or delta combat games are also formulated leading to approximate or delta optimal strategies. The turret game is used to illustrate combat games. This game is sufficiently complex to exhibit a rich variety of combat behavior, much of which is not found in pursuit evasion games.

  1. Augmented Reality for Close Quarters Combat

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-20

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a state-of-the-art augmented reality training system for close-quarters combat (CQB). This system uses a wearable augmented reality system to place the user in a real environment while engaging enemy combatants in virtual space (Boston Dynamics DI-Guy). Umbra modeling and simulation environment is used to integrate and control the AR system.

  2. Approaches for controlling illicit tobacco trade--nine countries and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana; Husain, Muhammad Jami; Kostova, Deliana; Xu, Xin; Edwards, Sarah M; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2015-05-29

    An estimated 11.6% of the world cigarette market is illicit, representing more than 650 billion cigarettes a year and $40.5 billion in lost revenue. Illicit tobacco trade refers to any practice related to distributing, selling, or buying tobacco products that is prohibited by law, including tax evasion (sale of tobacco products without payment of applicable taxes), counterfeiting, disguising the origin of products, and smuggling. Illicit trade undermines tobacco prevention and control initiatives by increasing the accessibility and affordability of tobacco products, and reduces government tax revenue streams. The World Health Organization (WHO) Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, signed by 54 countries, provides tools for addressing illicit trade through a package of regulatory and governing principles. As of May 2015, only eight countries had ratified or acceded to the illicit trade protocol, with an additional 32 needed for it to become international law (i.e., legally binding). Data from multiple international sources were analyzed to evaluate the 10 most commonly used approaches for addressing illicit trade and to summarize differences in implementation across select countries and the European Union (EU). Although the WHO illicit trade protocol defines shared global standards for addressing illicit trade, countries are guided by their own legal and enforcement frameworks, leading to a diversity of approaches employed across countries. Continued adoption of the methods outlined in the WHO illicit trade protocol might improve the global capacity to reduce illicit trade in tobacco products. PMID:26020137

  3. Traumatic andropause after combat injury.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth Huw; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson; Sharma, Davendra Murray; Bowley, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    In association with lower extremity amputation, complex genitourinary injuries have emerged as a specific challenge in modern military trauma surgery. Testicular injury or loss has profound implications for the recovering serviceman, in terms of hormone production and future fertility. The initial focus of treatment for patients with traumatic testicular loss is haemostasis, resuscitation and management of concurrent life-threatening injuries. Multiple reoperations are commonly required to control infection in combat wounds; in a review of 300 major lower extremity amputations, 53% of limbs required revisional surgery, with infection the commonest indication. Atypical infections, such as invasive fungal organisms, can also complicate military wounding. We report the case of a severely wounded serviceman with complete traumatic andropause, whose symptomatic temperature swings were initially mistaken for signs of occult sepsis. PMID:26318170

  4. Blended Training for Combat Medics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowlkes, Jennifer; Dickinson, Sandra; Lazarus, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Bleeding from extremity wounds is the number one cause of preventable death on the battlefield and current research stresses the importance of training in preparing every Soldier to use tourniquets. HapMed is designed to provide tourniquet application training to combat medics and Soldiers using a blended training solution encompassing information, demonstration, practice, and feedback. The system combines an instrumented manikin arm, PDA, and computer. The manikin arm provides several training options including stand-alone, hands-on skills training in which soldiers can experience the actual torque required to staunch bleeding from an extremity wound and be timed on tourniquet application. This is more realistic than using a block of wood to act as a limb, which is often how training is conducted today. Combining the manikin arm with the PDA allows instructors to provide scenario based training. In a classroom or field setting, an instructor can specify wound variables such as location, casualty size, and whether the wound is a tough bleed. The PDA also allows more detailed feedback to be provided. Finally, combining the manikin arm with game-based technologies, the third component, provides opportunities to build knowledge and to practice battlefield decision making. Not only do soldiers learn how to apply a tourniquet, but when to apply a tourniquet in combat. The purpose of the paper is to describe the learning science underlying the design of HapMed, illustrate the training system and ways it is being expanded to encompass other critical life-saving tasks, and report on feedback received from instructors and trainees at military training and simulation centers.

  5. Occurrence of illicit drugs in surface waters in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaiyang; Du, Peng; Xu, Zeqiong; Gao, Tingting; Li, Xiqing

    2016-06-01

    Illicit drugs have been recognized as a group of emerging contaminants. In this work, occurrence of common illicit drugs and their metabolites in Chinese surface waters was examined by collecting samples from 49 lakes and 4 major rivers across the country. Among the drugs examined, methamphetamine and ketamine were detected with highest frequencies and concentration levels, consistent with the fact that these are primary drugs of abuse in China. Detection frequencies and concentrations of other drugs were much lower than in European lakes and rivers reported in the literature. In most Chinese surface waters methamphetamine and ketamine were detected at concentrations of several ng L(-1) or less, but in some southern lakes and rivers, these two drugs were detected at much higher concentrations (up to several tens ng L(-1)). Greater occurrence of methamphetamine and ketamine in southern surface waters was attributed to greater abuse and more clandestine production of the two drugs in southern China. PMID:26942687

  6. Treating traumatic bleeding in a combat setting.

    PubMed

    Clifford, C Cloonan

    2004-12-01

    Bleeding is clearly a major cause of morbidity and death after trauma. When bleeding is attributable to transection of major vessels, surgical repair is appropriate. Posttraumatic microvascular bleeding attributable to coagulopathy secondary to metabolic derangements, hypothermia, and depletion or dysfunction of cellular and protein components requires a different approach. Although transfusion of blood products may be necessary to replace the blood loss, it does not always correct the problem of microvascular bleeding. The type of injury, mode of care, and treatment objectives differ significantly for combat-wounded soldiers versus civilian trauma patients. Although hemorrhage is responsible for 50% of combat deaths, published information about coagulation monitoring among combat patients is very limited. These articles summarize the appropriate monitoring of hemostasis among combat trauma patients, review the unique nature of combat casualties and the medical system used to treat them, and discuss information available from civilian studies. Because the development of coagulopathy is relatively infrequent in the young, otherwise healthy, military population, the routine screening measures currently used are adequate to guide initial blood product administration. However, as new intravenous hemostatic agents are used for these patients, better laboratory measures will be required. Although hemorrhage is the leading cause of death for combat casualties, catastrophic hemorrhage is rarely a prehospital combat medical management problem because, when it occurs, it tends to cause death before medical care can be provided. In civilian environments, most seriously injured victims can be reached and transported by emergency medical services personnel within minutes; in combat, it often takes hours simply to transport casualties off the battlefield. In combat situations, even if the transport distances are small, the hazardous nature of the forward combat areas frequently

  7. Monitoring of hemostasis in combat trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Carr, Marcus E

    2004-12-01

    Bleeding is clearly a major cause of morbidity and death after trauma. When bleeding is attributable to transection of major vessels, surgical repair is appropriate. Posttraumatic microvascular bleeding attributable to coagulopathy secondary to metabolic derangements, hypothermia, and depletion or dysfunction of cellular and protein components requires a different approach. Although transfusion of blood products may be necessary to replace the blood loss, it does not always correct the problem of microvascular bleeding. The type of injury, mode of care, and treatment objectives differ significantly for combat-wounded soldiers versus civilian trauma patients. Although hemorrhage is responsible for 50% of combat deaths, published information about coagulation monitoring among combat patients is very limited. These articles summarize the appropriate monitoring of hemostasis among combat trauma patients, review the unique nature of combat casualties and the medical system used to treat them, and discuss information available from civilian studies. Because the development of coagulopathy is relatively infrequent in the young, otherwise healthy, military population, the routine screening measures currently used are adequate to guide initial blood product administration. However, as new intravenous hemostatic agents are used for these patients, better laboratory measures will be required. Although hemorrhage is the leading cause of death for combat casualties, catastrophic hemorrhage is rarely a prehospital combat medical management problem because, when it occurs, it tends to cause death before medical care can be provided. In civilian environments, most seriously injured victims can be reached and transported by emergency medical services personnel within minutes; in combat, it often takes hours simply to transport casualties off the battlefield. In combat situations, even if the transport distances are small, the hazardous nature of the forward combat areas frequently

  8. Simulation Of Combat With An Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provenzano, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed expert system predicts outcomes of combat situations. Called "COBRA", combat outcome based on rules for attrition, system selects rules for mathematical modeling of losses and discrete events in combat according to previous experiences. Used with another software module known as the "Game". Game/COBRA software system, consisting of Game and COBRA modules, provides for both quantitative aspects and qualitative aspects in simulations of battles. COBRA intended for simulation of large-scale military exercises, concepts embodied in it have much broader applicability. In industrial research, knowledge-based system enables qualitative as well as quantitative simulations.

  9. SIGNATURES OF ILLICIT NUCLEAR PROCUREMENT NETWORKS: AN OVERVIEW OF PRELIMINARY APPROACHES AND RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Jennifer B.; Erikson, Luke E.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Lewis, Valerie A.; Best, Daniel M.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Chikkagoudar, Satish

    2014-05-12

    The illicit trafficking of strategic nuclear commodities (defined here as the goods needed for a covert nuclear program excluding special nuclear materials) poses a significant challenge to the international nuclear nonproliferation community. Export control regulations, both domestically and internationally, seek to inhibit the spread of strategic nuclear commodities by restricting their sale to parties that may use them for nefarious purposes. However, export controls alone are not sufficient for preventing the illicit transfer of strategic nuclear goods. There are two major pitfalls to relying solely on export control regulations for the deterrence of proliferation of strategic goods. First, export control enforcement today relies heavily on the honesty and willingness of participants to adhere to the legal framework already in place. Secondly, current practices focus on the evaluation of single records which allow for the necessary goods to be purchased separately and hidden within the thousands of legitimate commerce transactions that occur each day, disregarding strategic information regarding several purchases. Our research presents two preliminary data-centric approaches for investigating procurement networks of strategic nuclear commodities. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been putting significant effort into nonproliferation activities as an institution, both in terms of the classical nuclear material focused approach and in the examination of other strategic goods necessary to implement a nuclear program. In particular, the PNNL Signature Discovery Initiative (SDI) has codified several scientific methodologies for the detection, characterization, and prediction of signatures that are indicative of a phenomenon of interest. The methodologies and tools developed under SDI have already been applied successfully to problems in bio-forensics, cyber security and power grid balancing efforts and they have now made the nonproliferation of

  10. Recovery and identification of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kaymann T; Richardson, Michelle M; Kirkbride, K Paul; McNevin, Dennis; Nelson, Michelle; Pianca, Dennis; Roffey, Paul; Gahan, Michelle E

    2014-02-01

    Bacterial infections, including Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), are a common risk associated with illicit drug use, particularly among injecting drug users. There is, therefore, an urgent need to survey illicit drugs used for injection for the presence of bacteria and provide valuable information to health and forensic authorities. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for the extraction of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs and conduct a metagenomic survey of heroin and methamphetamine seized in the Australian Capital Territory during 2002-2011 for the presence of pathogens. Trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug users were also investigated. Methods based on the ChargeSwitch(®)gDNA mini kit (Invitrogen), QIAamp DNA extraction mini kit (QIAGEN) with and without bead-beating, and an organic phenol/chloroform extraction with ethanol precipitation were assessed for the recovery efficiency of both free and cellular bacterial DNA. Bacteria were identified using polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). An isopropanol pre-wash to remove traces of the drug and diluents, followed by a modified ChargeSwitch(®) method, was found to efficiently lyse cells and extract free and cellular DNA from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in heroin and methamphetamine which could then be identified by PCR/ESI-MS. Analysis of 12 heroin samples revealed the presence of DNA from species of Comamonas, Weissella, Bacillus, Streptococcus and Arthrobacter. No organisms were detected in the nine methamphetamine samples analysed. This study develops a method to extract and identify Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria from illicit drugs and demonstrates the presence of a range of bacterial pathogens in seized drug samples. These results will prove valuable for future work investigating trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug

  11. Dr Pugh and the myth of the illicit still.

    PubMed

    Paull, J D

    2014-07-01

    In her valuable history of the arrival of the news of etherisation in Australia and its implementation by many doctors and dentists, titled One Grand Chain, the late Dr Gwen Wilson asserted that the dentist and the doctor who pioneered etherisation in Australia, "Belisario and Pugh, …were charged by the authorities with possession of an illicit still." This paper examines the evidence for the truth or otherwise of this assertion, in relation to Dr Pugh. PMID:25196958

  12. Illicit substance detection using fast-neutron interrogation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yule, T.J.; Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-06-01

    Fast-neutron interrogation techniques are of interest for detecting illicit substances such as explosives and drugs because of their ability to identify light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of these materials. Two particular techniques, Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy and Pulsed Fast-Neutron Analysis, are discussed. Examples of modeling studies are provided which illustrate the applications of these two techniques.

  13. Chemokine receptor internalization and intracellular trafficking.

    PubMed

    Neel, Nicole F; Schutyser, Evemie; Sai, Jiqing; Fan, Guo-Huang; Richmond, Ann

    2005-12-01

    The internalization and intracellular trafficking of chemokine receptors have important implications for the cellular responses elicited by chemokine receptors. The major pathway by which chemokine receptors internalize is the clathrin-mediated pathway, but some receptors may utilize lipid rafts/caveolae-dependent internalization routes. This review discusses the current knowledge and controversies regarding these two different routes of endocytosis. The functional consequences of internalization and the regulation of chemokine receptor recycling will also be addressed. Modifications of chemokine receptors, such as palmitoylation, ubiquitination, glycosylation, and sulfation, may also impact trafficking, chemotaxis and signaling. Finally, this review will cover the internalization and trafficking of viral and decoy chemokine receptors. PMID:15998596

  14. Adulterants causing false negatives in illicit drug testing.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, S L; Ash, K O

    1988-11-01

    Illicit-drug users may attempt to falsify results by in vitro adulteration of specimens. We investigated eight additives (NaCl, Visine, handsoap, Drano, bleach, vinegar, golden-seal tea, and lemon juice) claimed by drug users to invalidate enzyme immunoassay (EIA) drug assays. We also analyzed adulterated urine specimens to determine if they could be identified, adding adulterants at several concentrations to 222 EIA-positive specimens confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to contain illicit drugs. To identify adulterated urines, we monitored pH, relative density, and urine color and turbidity at adulterant concentrations that falsified EIA results. Specimens contaminated with NaCl had relative densities greater than 1.035. Liquid Drano, bleach, and vinegar shifted urine pH outside the physiological range. Golden-seal tea caused a dark appearance, and specimens containing liquid soap were unusually cloudy. Lemon juice had no effect on the assays. Visine was the only adulterant not detected. The adulterants interfered somewhat differently with each of the drug assays. EIA assays for illicit drugs can be invalidated by specimen adulteration producing false-negative results. Therefore, if urine drug testing is to be conducted, pH, relative density, and appearance should be assessed and suspect specimens should be rejected. Not all adulterants can be detected, so observed collection is strongly recommended. PMID:3052928

  15. Understanding combat casualty care statistics.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, John B; Stansbury, Lynn G; Champion, Howard R; Wade, Charles; Bellamy, Ronald F

    2006-02-01

    Maintaining good hospital records during military conflicts can provide medical personnel and researchers with feedback to rapidly adjust treatment strategies and improve outcomes. But to convert the resulting raw data into meaningful conclusions requires clear terminology and well thought out equations, utilizing consistent numerators and denominators. Our objective was to arrive at terminology and equations that would produce the best insight into the effectiveness of care at different stages of treatment, either pre or post medical treatment facility care. We first clarified three essential terms: 1) the case fatality rate (CFR) as percentage of fatalities among all wounded; 2) killed in action (KIA) as percentage of immediate deaths among all seriously injured (not returning to duty); and 3) died of wounds (DOW) as percentage of deaths following admission to a medical treatment facility among all seriously injured (not returning to duty). These equations were then applied consistently across data from the WWII, Vietnam and the current Global War on Terrorism. Using this clear set of definitions we used the equations to ask two basic questions: What is the overall lethality of the battlefield? How effective is combat casualty care? To answer these questions with current data, the three services have collaboratively created a joint theater trauma registry (JTTR), cataloging all the serious injuries, procedures, and outcomes for the current war. These definitions and equations, consistently applied to the JTTR, will allow meaningful comparisons and help direct future research and appropriate application of personnel. PMID:16508502

  16. Exposure to recurrent combat stress: combat stress reactions among Israeli soldiers in the Lebanon War.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Z; Mikulincer, M; Jakob, B R

    1987-05-01

    This study examined the impact of repeated exposure to combat on combat stress reaction (CSR). Soldiers diagnosed with CSR during the Lebanon War (N = 382) were compared with a matched control group of soldiers who fought in the same units but did not manifest symptoms of CSR (N = 334). CSR in the Lebanon War was found to be related to the psychological outcome the soldier experienced in previous wars. The CSR rate in the Lebanon War was higher in soldiers who had experienced an episode of CSR in a previous war than in soldiers with no past combat experience. However, CSR rates were lower among soldiers who had not had an episode of CSR in a previous war than among soldiers with no prior combat experience. High intensity of combat in Lebanon was found to increase both the detrimental and favourable effects of prior combat experience. PMID:3602235

  17. Development of exposure to combat severity scale of the combat experiences questionnaire (CEQ).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Teresa; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Cunha, Marina; da Motta, Carolina

    2014-12-01

    Combat exposure is detrimental to physical and mental health, and is an important risk factor for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The current study aimed to develop the first section of a self-report measure (Combat Experiences Questionnaire - CEQ), and to explore its psychometric properties on Portuguese Overseas War Veterans. The Exposure to Combat Severity Scale (CEQ A), assesses the exposure severity to objective scenarios related to military combat, common to contemporary and older theaters of operations. Studies included structural analysis through Rash Model, internal consistency, convergent validity (n=708), temporal reliability (n=112) and sensibility to differentiate war Veterans with and without war-related PTSD (N=40 and N=47, respectively). The scale's structure presented adequate fit to the data, adequate psychometric properties, and discriminant validity. Thus, the CEQ A is a valid and reliable tool presenting diverse combat scenarios to assess severity of combat exposure in war Veterans. PMID:25445084

  18. Female sex trafficking: conceptual issues, current debates, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Meshkovska, Biljana; Siegel, Melissa; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-01-01

    Female sex trafficking is a pressing concern. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of relevant issues regarding the concept of female sex trafficking and research in the field of human trafficking, drawing on a variety of disciplines, including economics, gender and sexuality studies, psychology, sociology, law, and social work. We discuss the debates surrounding the definition of human trafficking, compare and contrast it with human smuggling, and outline connections between female sex trafficking and the issue of sex work and prostitution. We further discuss the history and current estimations of female sex trafficking. We then outline the main actors in female sex trafficking, including trafficked persons, traffickers, clients, and service providers, and we overview the trafficking process from recruitment to identification, recovery, and (re)integration. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research that tie together the concepts of vulnerability, exploitation, and long-term recovery and (re)integration. PMID:25897567

  19. Traumatic stress: a personal view from combat.

    PubMed

    Jaehne, R L

    2001-01-01

    What follows is my personal account of the effects of traumatic stress disorder as it is caused by the effects of combat. I tell it in the first person because it is the most effective way to emphasize the highly personal, traumatic nature of combat stress and because it is my own story. I have endeavored to explain how combat stress occurs, what happens to the individual as a result and how a person can recover from its effects. I offer my story because I think that there are thousands of men who have been in offensive combat, who may have lived my life, but who have not had the opportunity to tell their story about why they hurt. PMID:11642197

  20. Doctors Issue Call to Combat Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158362.html Doctors Issue Call to Combat Climate Change They say respiratory illnesses, heat stroke and infectious ... 18, 2016 MONDAY, April 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Climate change is already harming people's health by promoting illnesses ...

  1. Doctors Issue Call to Combat Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158362.html Doctors Issue Call to Combat Climate Change They say respiratory illnesses, heat stroke and ... 18, 2016 MONDAY, April 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Climate change is already harming people's health by promoting ...

  2. Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Neha A; Nour, Nawal M

    2013-01-01

    Sex trafficking involves some form of forced or coerced sexual exploitation that is not limited to prostitution, and has become a significant and growing problem in both the United States and the larger global community. The costs to society include the degradation of human and women’s rights, poor public health, disrupted communities, and diminished social development. Victims of sex trafficking acquire adverse physical and psychological health conditions and social disadvantages. Thus, sex trafficking is a critical health issue with broader social implications that requires both medical and legal attention. Healthcare professionals can work to improve the screening, identification, and assistance of victims of sex trafficking in a clinical setting and help these women and girls access legal and social services. PMID:23687554

  3. Committee opinion no. 507: human trafficking.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    Human trafficking is a widespread problem with estimates ranging from 14,000 to 50,000 individuals trafficked into the United States annually. This hidden population involves the commercial sex industry, agriculture, factories, hotel and restaurant businesses, domestic workers, marriage brokers, and some adoption firms. Because 80% of trafficked individuals are women and girls, women’s health care providers may better serve their diverse patient population by increasing their awareness of this problem. The exploitation of people of any race, gender, sexual orientation, or ethnicity is unacceptable at any time, in any place. The members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists should be aware of this problem and strive to recognize and assist their patients who are victims or who have been victims of human trafficking. PMID:21860320

  4. Human trafficking law and social structures.

    PubMed

    Wooditch, Alese

    2012-08-01

    Human trafficking has only recently emerged at the forefront of policy reform, even in developed nations. Yet, heightened awareness of the issue has not translated into effective policy as the majority of nations have ineffective antitrafficking practices; many countries have failed to criminalize human trafficking, whereas others do not actively enforce statutes in place. By applying Black's theory of law, this study offers a preliminary understanding into the variation of global prosecutorial efforts in human trafficking and adequacy of antitrafficking law. To isolate this relationship, the effects of trafficking markets are controlled. As with prior research, the study finds limited support for the theory. The article concludes with a discussion on the implications of the quantity of antitrafficking law and morphology association for policy development. PMID:21948250

  5. Sex trafficking of women and girls.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Neha A; Nour, Nawal M

    2013-01-01

    Sex trafficking involves some form of forced or coerced sexual exploitation that is not limited to prostitution, and has become a significant and growing problem in both the United States and the larger global community. The costs to society include the degradation of human and women's rights, poor public health, disrupted communities, and diminished social development. Victims of sex trafficking acquire adverse physical and psychological health conditions and social disadvantages. Thus, sex trafficking is a critical health issue with broader social implications that requires both medical and legal attention. Healthcare professionals can work to improve the screening, identification, and assistance of victims of sex trafficking in a clinical setting and help these women and girls access legal and social services. PMID:23687554

  6. Analysis of a combat problem - The turret game

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M.; Heymann, M.; Rajan, N.

    1987-01-01

    The turret game is defined and solved to illustrate the nature of games of combat. This game represents a highly simplified version of air combat, yet it is sufficiently complex so as to exhibit a rich variety of combat phenomena. A review of the formulation of delta-combat games is included.

  7. Infrared and visible combat identification marking materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Eoin; Shohet, Adam; Swan, Martin

    2007-04-01

    Historically, it is believed that fratricide accounts for up to 15% of friendly casualties during operations and a UK MoD report identifies that almost half of all such casualties occur in situations involving ground units only. Such risks can be mitigated, to an extent, via operational awareness and effective communications. However, recent conflicts have involved a much more dynamic, complex and technically sophisticated battlefield than previously experienced. For example, Operation Telic (Desert Storm) involved almost one million combatants and ten thousand armoured vehicles in the coalition force, advancing across an extensive battlefront at high speed during daylight and at night, making effective use of a range of electro-optic sensors. The accelerated tempo of battle means that front lines can undergo rapid, punctuated advances that can leave individual combat units with a much degraded situational awareness, particularly of where they are in relation to other 'friendly' combatants. Consequently, there is a need for a robust, low cost, low weight, compact, unpowered, interoperable, Combat Identification technique for use with popular electro-optic sensors which can be deployed, and is effective, at the individual combat unit level. In this paper we discuss ground-to-ground combat identification materials that meet these requirements, all of which are based on the air-to-ground Mirage TM vehicle marking material. We show some preliminary ground-to-ground data collected from the new variant Mirage TM material in recent experimental trials conducted during the day, evening and at night.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of CD8(+) T cell trafficking and localization.

    PubMed

    Nolz, Jeffrey C

    2015-07-01

    Cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells are potent mediators of host protection against disease due to their ability to directly kill cells infected with intracellular pathogens and produce inflammatory cytokines at the site of infection. To fully achieve this objective, naïve CD8(+) T cells must be able to survey the entire body for the presence of foreign or "non-self" antigen that is delivered to draining lymph nodes following infection or tissue injury. Once activated, CD8(+) T cells undergo many rounds of cell division, acquire effector functions, and are no longer restricted to the circulation and lymphoid compartments like their naïve counterparts, but rather are drawn to inflamed tissues to combat infection. As CD8(+) T cells transition from naïve to effector to memory populations, this is accompanied by dynamic changes in the expression of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors that ultimately dictate their localization in vivo. Thus, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating CD8(+) T cell trafficking and localization is critical for vaccine design, control of infectious diseases, treatment of autoimmune disorders, and cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25577280

  9. The Intracellular Trafficking Pathway of Transferrin

    PubMed Central

    Mayle, Kristine M.; Le, Alexander M.; Kamei, Daniel T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Transferrin (Tf) is an iron-binding protein that facilitates iron-uptake in cells. Iron-loaded Tf first binds to the Tf receptor (TfR) and enters the cell through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Inside the cell, Tf is trafficked to early endosomes, delivers iron, and then is subsequently directed to recycling endosomes to be taken back to the cell surface. Scope of Review We aim to review the various methods and techniques that researchers have employed for elucidating the Tf trafficking pathway and the cell-machinery components involved. These experimental methods can be categorized as microscopy, radioactivity, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Major Conclusions Qualitative experiments, such as total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRF), electron, laser-scanning confocal, and spinning-disk confocal microscopy, have been utilized to determine the roles of key components in the Tf trafficking pathway. These techniques allow temporal resolution and are useful for imaging Tf endocytosis and recycling, which occur on the order of seconds to minutes. Additionally, radiolabeling and SPR methods, when combined with mathematical modeling, have enabled researchers to estimate quantitative kinetic parameters and equilibrium constants associated with Tf binding and trafficking. General Significance Both qualitative and quantitative data can be used to analyze the Tf trafficking pathway. The valuable information that is obtained about the Tf trafficking pathway can then be combined with mathematical models to identify design criteria to improve the ability of Tf to deliver anticancer drugs. PMID:21968002

  10. RNA trafficking in parasitic plant systems.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Megan; Kim, Gunjune; Westwood, James H

    2012-01-01

    RNA trafficking in plants contributes to local and long-distance coordination of plant development and response to the environment. However, investigations of mobile RNA identity and function are hindered by the inherent difficulty of tracing a given molecule of RNA from its cell of origin to its destination. Several methods have been used to address this problem, but all are limited to some extent by constraints associated with accurately sampling phloem sap or detecting trafficked RNA. Certain parasitic plant species form symplastic connections to their hosts and thereby provide an additional system for studying RNA trafficking. The haustorial connections of Cuscuta and Phelipanche species are similar to graft junctions in that they are able to transmit mRNAs, viral RNAs, siRNAs, and proteins from the host plants to the parasite. In contrast to other graft systems, these parasites form connections with host species that span a wide phylogenetic range, such that a high degree of nucleotide sequence divergence may exist between host and parasites and allow confident identification of most host RNAs in the parasite system. The ability to identify host RNAs in parasites, and vice versa, will facilitate genomics approaches to understanding RNA trafficking. This review discusses the nature of host-parasite connections and the potential significance of host RNAs for the parasite. Additional research on host-parasite interactions is needed to interpret results of RNA trafficking studies, but parasitic plants may provide a fascinating new perspective on RNA trafficking. PMID:22936942

  11. Wastewater-based assessment of regional and temporal consumption patterns of illicit drugs and therapeutic opioids in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Krizman, Ivona; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan; Terzic, Senka

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study of spatial and temporal consumption patterns of the selected illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, cannabis) and therapeutic opioids (codeine, methadone) has been performed in six Croatian cities by applying wastewater-based epidemiology. The investigated cities (Bjelovar, Vinkovci, Varazdin, Karlovac, Zadar and Zagreb) varied widely in the population size (27,000-688,000 inhabitants) as well as in the number of registered drug consumers included in compulsory and voluntary medical treatment and rehabilitation programs (30-513 persons/100,000 inhabitants of age 15-64). The most consumed illicit drugs were cannabis (10-70doses/day/1000 inhabitants), heroin (<0.2-10doses/day/1000 inhabitants) and cocaine (0.2-8.7doses/day/1000 inhabitants), while the consumption of amphetamine-type drugs was much lower (<0.01-4.4doses/day/1000 inhabitants). Enhanced consumption of illegal drugs was generally associated with larger urban centers (Zagreb and Zadar) however comparatively high consumption rate of cocaine, MDMA and methadone was determined in some smaller cities as well. The overall average dose number of 3 major illegal stimulants (cocaine, MDMA, amphetamine) was rather similar to the number of corresponding heroin doses, which is in disagreement with a comparatively much higher proportion of heroin users in the total number of registered drug users in Croatia. Furthermore, the illicit drug consumption pattern in the large continental city (Zagreb) was characterized by a significant enhancement of the consumption of all stimulants during the weekend, which could not be confirmed neither for the coastal city of Zadar nor for the remaining small continental cities. On the other hand, the city of Zadar exhibited a significant increase of stimulant drug usage during summer vacation period, as a result of pronounced seasonal changes of the population composition and lifestyle in coastal tourist centers. The obtained results

  12. Quantitative analysis of the mixtures of illicit drugs using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dejun; Zhao, Shusen; Shen, Jingling

    2008-03-01

    A method was proposed to quantitatively inspect the mixtures of illicit drugs with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The mass percentages of all components in a mixture can be obtained by linear regression analysis, on the assumption that all components in the mixture and their absorption features be known. For illicit drugs were scarce and expensive, firstly we used common chemicals, Benzophenone, Anthraquinone, Pyridoxine hydrochloride and L-Ascorbic acid in the experiment. Then illicit drugs and a common adulterant, methamphetamine and flour, were selected for our experiment. Experimental results were in significant agreement with actual content, which suggested that it could be an effective method for quantitative identification of illicit drugs.

  13. Sex work and sex trafficking.

    PubMed

    Ditmore, M; Saunders, P

    1998-01-01

    Preventing HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as sexual and physical violence, are major occupational health and safety concerns for prostitutes. Considerable evidence shows that anti-prostitution laws facilitate violence and abuse against prostitutes and may increase their risk of contracting HIV/STDs. For example, police often take advantage of existing laws against prostitution to demand money or sex. In general, the strict enforcement of anti-prostitution laws marginalizes prostitutes from services which could help them avoid abuse and promotes an environment in which prostitutes must take risks to avoid detection and arrest. One strategy to improve prostitutes' lives would therefore be to remove laws which prevent them from working safely and from travelling abroad to work legally. Projects in which prostitutes are actively involved have helped break down stereotypes against prostitutes, while police-sex worker liaison projects in Scotland and Australia have led to higher levels of reporting of crimes against prostitutes. The Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP), an organization which links sex worker health programs around the world, has found that the incidence of HIV/STDs among prostitutes is lowest when they have control over their work conditions; access to condoms, lubricants, and other safe sex materials; and respect of their basic human and legal rights. People need to understand that consensual involvement in sex work is different from forced sex trafficking. PMID:12348692

  14. Illicit psychotropic substance contents in the air of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Budetta, Valentina; Pasini, Antonello

    2010-06-01

    Two in-field campaigns were performed in 2009 to elucidate the contents of illicit psychotropic substances in airborne particulates of Italian cities. Twenty-eight localities of eight Italian regions were investigated in winter, and further eleven sites in June (14 regions in total), thanks to contribution of Regional Environmental Agencies. Cocaine was found almost everywhere, although some sites were rural or suburban. The maximum was recorded in Milan in winter (˜0.39 ng m -3), and "high" values (up to ˜0.16 ng m -3) in other Northern cities and in Rome. Besides cocaine, three cannabinoids will be monitored, namely Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol. The three compounds often affected the air at lower extents than cocaine, and sometimes resulted absent. Cannabinol accounted for up to 90% of the total. The concentrations of illicit compounds were up to six times lower in June than in winter. This decrease was probably induced by the lowering of boundary layer height typical of winter, and by the oxidizing capacity of atmosphere, which is stronger in the warm season. Compared to n-alkanes, polynuclear aromatic compounds, nicotine, caffeine and airborne particulate, cocaine seemed to follow a peculiar behaviour; in fact, meaningful (≥0.80) Pearson (linear) regression coefficients were calculated from the corresponding concentrations only at local scale (e.g. Rome), and within just one season. Improvements of the method are needed to monitor illicit drug metabolites (e.g. benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, 9-carboxy-11-nor-Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol), heroin and semi-volatile amphetamines.

  15. Analysis of volatile organic compounds from illicit cocaine samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robins, W.H.; Wright, B.W.

    1994-07-01

    Detection of illicit cocaine hydrochloride shipments can be improved if there is a greater understanding of the identity and quantity of volatile compounds present. This study provides preliminary data concerning the volatile organic compounds detected in a limited Set of cocaine hydrochloride samples. In all cases, cocaine was one of the major volatile compounds detected. Other tropeines were detected in almost all samples. Low concentrations of compounds that may be residues of processing solvents were observed in some samples. The equilibrium emissivity of. cocaine from cocaine hydrochloride was investigated and a value of 83 parts-per-trillion was determined.

  16. Historical approaches to post-combat disorders.

    PubMed

    Jones, Edgar

    2006-04-29

    Almost every major war in the last century involving western nations has seen combatants diagnosed with a form of post-combat disorder. Some took a psychological form (exhaustion, combat fatigue, combat stress reaction and post-traumatic stress disorder), while others were characterized by medically unexplained symptoms (soldier's heart, effort syndrome, shell shock, non-ulcer dyspepsia, effects of Agent Orange and Gulf War Syndrome). Although many of these disorders have common symptoms, the explanations attached to them showed considerable diversity often reflected in the labels themselves. These causal hypotheses ranged from the effects of climate, compressive forces released by shell explosions, side effects of vaccinations, changes in diet, toxic effects of organophosphates, oil-well fires or depleted-uranium munitions. Military history suggests that these disorders, which coexisted in the civilian population, reflected popular health fears and emerged in the gaps left by the advance of medical science. While the current Iraq conflict has yet to produce a syndrome typified by medically unexplained symptoms, it is unlikely that we have seen the last of post-combat disorders as past experience suggests that they have the capacity to catch both military planners and doctors by surprise. PMID:16687259

  17. Display integration for ground combat vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, David J.

    1998-09-01

    The United States Army's requirement to employ high resolution target acquisition sensors and information warfare to increase its dominance over enemy forces has led to the need to integrate advanced display devices into ground combat vehicle crew stations. The Army's force structure require the integration of advanced displays on both existing and emerging ground combat vehicle systems. The fielding of second generation target acquisition sensors, color digital terrain maps and high volume digital command and control information networks on these platforms define display performance requirements. The greatest challenge facing the system integrator is the development and integration of advanced displays that meet operational, vehicle and human computer interface performance requirements for the ground combat vehicle fleet. The subject of this paper is to address those challenges: operational and vehicle performance, non-soldier centric crew station configurations, display performance limitations related to human computer interfaces and vehicle physical environments, display technology limitations and the Department of Defense (DOD) acquisition reform initiatives. How the ground combat vehicle Program Manager and system integrator are addressing these challenges are discussed through the integration of displays on fielded, current and future close combat vehicle applications.

  18. Historical approaches to post-combat disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Edgar

    2006-01-01

    Almost every major war in the last century involving western nations has seen combatants diagnosed with a form of post-combat disorder. Some took a psychological form (exhaustion, combat fatigue, combat stress reaction and post-traumatic stress disorder), while others were characterized by medically unexplained symptoms (soldier's heart, effort syndrome, shell shock, non-ulcer dyspepsia, effects of Agent Orange and Gulf War Syndrome). Although many of these disorders have common symptoms, the explanations attached to them showed considerable diversity often reflected in the labels themselves. These causal hypotheses ranged from the effects of climate, compressive forces released by shell explosions, side effects of vaccinations, changes in diet, toxic effects of organophosphates, oil-well fires or depleted-uranium munitions. Military history suggests that these disorders, which coexisted in the civilian population, reflected popular health fears and emerged in the gaps left by the advance of medical science. While the current Iraq conflict has yet to produce a syndrome typified by medically unexplained symptoms, it is unlikely that we have seen the last of post-combat disorders as past experience suggests that they have the capacity to catch both military planners and doctors by surprise. PMID:16687259

  19. Illicit and pharmaceutical drug consumption estimated via wastewater analysis. Part A: chemical analysis and drug use estimates.

    PubMed

    Baker, David R; Barron, Leon; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2014-07-15

    This paper presents, for the first time, community-wide estimation of drug and pharmaceuticals consumption in England using wastewater analysis and a large number of compounds. Among groups of compounds studied were: stimulants, hallucinogens and their metabolites, opioids, morphine derivatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants and others. Obtained results showed the usefulness of wastewater analysis in order to provide estimates of local community drug consumption. It is noticeable that where target compounds could be compared to NHS prescription statistics, good comparisons were apparent between the two sets of data. These compounds include oxycodone, dihydrocodeine, methadone, tramadol, temazepam and diazepam. Whereas, discrepancies were observed for propoxyphene, codeine, dosulepin and venlafaxine (over-estimations in each case except codeine). Potential reasons for discrepancies include: sales of drugs sold without prescription and not included within NHS data, abuse of a drug with the compound trafficked through illegal sources, different consumption patterns in different areas, direct disposal leading to over estimations when using parent compound as the drug target residue and excretion factors not being representative of the local community. It is noticeable that using a metabolite (and not a parent drug) as a biomarker leads to higher certainty of obtained estimates. With regard to illicit drugs, consistent and logical results were reported. Monitoring of these compounds over a one week period highlighted the expected recreational use of many of these drugs (e.g. cocaine and MDMA) and the more consistent use of others (e.g. methadone). PMID:24377678

  20. Sterol dynamics during endocytic trafficking in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Stanislas, Thomas; Grebe, Markus; Boutté, Yohann

    2014-01-01

    Sterols are lipids found in membranes of eukaryotic cells. Functions of sterols have been demonstrated for various cellular processes including endocytic trafficking in animal, fungal, and plant cells. The ability to visualize sterols at the subcellular level is crucial to understand sterol distribution and function during endocytic trafficking. In plant cells, the polyene antibiotic filipin is the most extensively used tool for the specific detection of fluorescently labeled 3-β-hydroxysterols in situ. Filipin can to some extent be used to track sterol internalization in live cells, but this application is limited, due to the inhibitory effects filipin exerts on sterol-dependent endocytosis. Nevertheless, filipin-sterol labeling can be performed on aldehyde-fixed cells which allows for sterol detection in endocytic compartments. This approach can combine studies correlating sterol distribution with experimental manipulations of endocytic trafficking pathways. Here, we describe step-by-step protocols and troubleshooting for procedures on live and fixed cells to visualize sterols during endocytic trafficking. We also provide a detailed discussion of advantages and limitations of both methods. Moreover, we illustrate the use of the endocytic recycling inhibitor brefeldin A and a genetically modified version of one of its target molecules for studying endocytic sterol trafficking. PMID:25117272

  1. Does Illicit Drug Use Influence Inpatient Adverse Events, Death, Length of Stay, and Discharge After Orthopaedic Trauma?

    PubMed

    Babatunde, Victor D; Menendez, Mariano E; Ring, David

    2016-01-01

    Illicit drug use among adults is increasing, but its associated risk following orthopaedic trauma remains largely unexplored. This study assessed the relationship of illicit drug use with inpatient adverse events, in-hospital mortality, prolonged length of stay, and nonroutine discharge. With the use of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, 7,118,720 orthopaedic trauma inpatients from 2002 to 2011 were identified and separated into illicit drug users (1.5%) and non-illicit drug users (98.5%). Multivariable regression modeling was used to determine the association between illicit drug use and each outcome variable. Illicit drug use was associated with higher odds of inpatient adverse events, but not greater likelihood of inpatient death. Illicit drug users were also more likely to experience prolonged hospital stay and nonroutine discharge. Prompt recognition and effective treatment interventions for orthopaedic trauma patients with a history of illicit drug use may improve inpatient outcomes. PMID:27082887

  2. Cognitive changes in patients with acute phase psychosis--effects of illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Helle, Siri; Gjestad, Rolf; Johnsen, Erik; Kroken, Rune Andreas; Jørgensen, Hugo A; Løberg, Else-Marie

    2014-12-30

    Illicit drug use may influence cognition in non-affective psychosis. Previous studies have shown better cognition in psychosis with illicit drug use as compared to psychosis only. Possibly, illicit drug using patients have more transient drug-related cognitive deficits. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine cognitive change the first weeks after admission to a psychiatric emergency ward, expecting more cognitive improvement at follow-up in the illicit drug group as compared to psychosis only. Patients with acute non-affective psychosis with (26%) and without illicit drug use were examined at baseline (n=123) and follow-up (n=67), with alternative forms of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Latent Growth Curve models, controlling for cognition at baseline and age differences between the groups, were used to analyze cognitive change. The illicit drug using patients showed the largest improvement in cognition, especially among the youngest patients. Younger patients with non-affective psychosis and illicit drug use showed more cognitive improvement the first weeks after acute psychosis as compared to psychosis only. This suggests that the illicit drug users constitute a sub-group with less stable cognitive deficits and less cognitive vulnerability. PMID:25240944

  3. Illicit Drug Use from Adolescence to Young Adulthood among Child Welfare-Involved Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanueva, Cecilia; Stambaugh, Leyla; Urato, Matthew; Fraser, Jenifer Goldman; Williams, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This study examined illicit substance use among 1,004 adolescents, ages 11-21, involved with the Child Welfare System (CWS) and followed from 1999 to 2007. By the time they reached transition age, more than 60% of the sample had used an illicit substance in their lifetime. Predictors of regular use during adolescence were having a prior CWS…

  4. Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

  5. Relationships between Illicit Drug Use and Body Mass Index among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackstone, Sarah R.; Herrmann, Lynn K.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has established associations between body mass index (BMI) and use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, little research has been done investigating the relationship between other common illicit drugs and BMI trends. The present study investigated whether adolescents who reported using illicit drugs showed differences in BMI…

  6. Contracting for Treatment Termination to Reduce Illicit Drug Use among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Failures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Michael P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of a contingency contracting intervention on reducing illicit drug use by methadone maintenance outpatients. Illicit drug use was significantly reduced during the 30-day intervention and remained below baseline levels during 60-day follow-up. (Author/MCF)

  7. Assessing illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Young, M. Scott; Sellers, Brian G.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate drug use assessment is vital to understanding the prevalence, course, treatment needs, and outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia because they are thought to remain at long-term risk for negative drug use outcomes, even in the absence of drug use disorder. This study evaluated self-report and biological measures for assessing illicit drug use in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study (N=1460). Performance was good across assessment methods, but differed as a function of drug type, measure, and race. With the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R as the criterion, self-report evidenced greater concordance, accuracy and agreement overall, and for marijuana, cocaine, and stimulants specifically, than did urinalysis and hair assays, whereas biological measures outperformed self-report for detection of opiates. Performance of the biological measures was better when self-report was the criterion, but poorer for black compared white participants. Overall, findings suggest that self-report is able to garner accurate information regarding illicit drug use among adults with schizophrenia. Further work is needed to understand the differential performance of assessment approaches by drug type, overall and as a function of race, in this population. PMID:22796100

  8. Illicit Drug Use and Treatment in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D.; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance abuse treatment admissions in south africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic and social structures within south africa both before and after apartheid make the country more vulnerable to drug use. based on national surveys current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%) and hallucinogens (0.1%). The primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (Tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC 2.6%. An increase in substance abuse treatment admissions has occurred. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the USA and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review. PMID:21039113

  9. Illicit Use of Androgens and Other Hormones: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Kanayama, Gen; Pope, Harrison G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize recent advances in studies of illicit use of androgens and other hormones. Recent findings Androgens and other appearance- and performance-enhancing substances are widely abused worldwide. Three notable clusters of findings have emerged in this field in recent years. First, studies almost unanimously find that androgen users engage in polypharmacy, often ingesting other hormones (e.g., human growth hormone, thyroid hormones, and insulin), ergo/thermogenic drugs (e.g., caffeine, ephedrine, clenbuterol), and classical drugs of abuse (e.g., cannabis, opiates, and cocaine). Second, reports of long-term psychiatric and medical adverse effects of androgens continue to accumulate. In cardiovascular research particularly, controlled studies have begun to supersede anecdotal evidence, strengthening the case that androgens (possibly acting synergistically with other abused drugs) may cause significant morbidity and even mortality. Third, it is increasingly recognized that androgen use may lead to a dependence syndrome with both psychological and physiological origins. Androgen dependence likely affects some millions of individuals worldwide, and arguably represents the least studied major class of illicit drug dependence. Summary Given mounting evidence of the adverse effects of androgens and associated polypharmacy, this topic will likely represent an expanding area of research and an issue of growing public-health concern. PMID:22450858

  10. Vesicle trafficking and cell surface membrane patchiness.

    PubMed

    Tang, Q; Edidin, M

    2001-07-01

    Membrane proteins and lipids often appear to be distributed in patches on the cell surface. These patches are often assumed to be membrane domains, arising from specific molecular associations. However, a computer simulation (Gheber and Edidin, 1999) shows that membrane patchiness may result from a combination of vesicle trafficking and dynamic barriers to lateral mobility. The simulation predicts that the steady-state patches of proteins and lipids seen on the cell surface will decay if vesicle trafficking is inhibited. To test this prediction, we compared the apparent sizes and intensities of patches of class I HLA molecules, integral membrane proteins, before and after inhibiting endocytic vesicle traffic from the cell surface, either by incubation in hypertonic medium or by expression of a dominant-negative mutant dynamin. As predicted by the simulation, the apparent sizes of HLA patches increased, whereas their intensities decreased after endocytosis and vesicle trafficking were inhibited. PMID:11423406

  11. Chloride in vesicular trafficking and function.

    PubMed

    Stauber, Tobias; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Luminal acidification is of pivotal importance for the physiology of the secretory and endocytic pathways and its diverse trafficking events. Acidification by the proton-pumping V-ATPase requires charge compensation by counterion currents that are commonly attributed to chloride. The molecular identification of intracellular chloride transporters and the improvement of methodologies for measuring intraorganellar pH and chloride have facilitated the investigation of the physiology of vesicular chloride transport. New data question the requirement of chloride for pH regulation of various organelles and furthermore ascribe functions to chloride that are beyond merely electrically shunting the proton pump. This review surveys the currently established and proposed intracellular chloride transporters and gives an overview of membrane-trafficking steps that are affected by the perturbation of chloride transport. Finally, potential mechanisms of membrane-trafficking modulation by chloride are discussed and put into the context of organellar ion homeostasis in general. PMID:23092411

  12. Endocytosis and Endosomal Trafficking in Plants.

    PubMed

    Paez Valencia, Julio; Goodman, Kaija; Otegui, Marisa S

    2016-04-29

    Endocytosis and endosomal trafficking are essential processes in cells that control the dynamics and turnover of plasma membrane proteins, such as receptors, transporters, and cell wall biosynthetic enzymes. Plasma membrane proteins (cargo) are internalized by endocytosis through clathrin-dependent or clathrin-independent mechanism and delivered to early endosomes. From the endosomes, cargo proteins are recycled back to the plasma membrane via different pathways, which rely on small GTPases and the retromer complex. Proteins that are targeted for degradation through ubiquitination are sorted into endosomal vesicles by the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery for degradation in the vacuole. Endocytic and endosomal trafficking regulates many cellular, developmental, and physiological processes, including cellular polarization, hormone transport, metal ion homeostasis, cytokinesis, pathogen responses, and development. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that mediate the recognition and sorting of endocytic and endosomal cargos, the vesiculation processes that mediate their trafficking, and their connection to cellular and physiological responses in plants. PMID:27128466

  13. Purinergic Signaling During Immune Cell Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Davide; McNamee, Eóin N; Idzko, Marco; Gambari, Roberto; Eltzschig, Holger K

    2016-06-01

    Migration and positioning of immune cells is fundamental for their differentiation and recruitment at sites of infection. Besides the fundamental role played by chemokines and their receptors, recent studies demonstrate that a complex network of purinergic signaling events plays a key role in these trafficking events. This process includes the release of nucleotides (such as ATP and ADP) and subsequent autocrine and paracrine signaling events through nucleotide receptors. At the same time, surface-expressed ectoapyrases and nucleotidases convert extracellular nucleotides to adenosine, and adenosine signaling events play additional functional roles in leucocyte trafficking. In this review we revisit classical paradigms of inflammatory cell trafficking in the context of recent studies implicating purinergic signaling events in this process. PMID:27142306

  14. Regulation of GPCR Trafficking by Ubiquitin

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Justine E.; Marchese, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-promoted signaling mediates cellular responses to a variety of stimuli involved in diverse physiological processes. In addition, GPCRs are also the largest class of target for many drugs used to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the role of GPCR signaling in health and disease, the molecular mechanisms governing GPCR signaling remain poorly understanding. Classically, GPCR signaling is tightly regulated by GPCR kinases and β-arrestins, which act in a concerted fashion to govern GPCR desensitization and also GPCR trafficking. Ubiquitination has now emerged as an important posttranslational modification that has multiple roles, either directly or indirectly, in governing GPCR trafficking. Recent studies have revealed a mechanistic link between GPCR phosphorylation, β-arrestins, and ubiquitination. Here, we review recent developments in our understanding of how ubiquitin regulates GPCR trafficking within the endocytic pathway. PMID:26055053

  15. Organ trading, tourism, and trafficking within Europe.

    PubMed

    Pattinson, Shaun D

    2008-03-01

    This article argues for a regulatory and institutional response towards organ trading, tourism and trafficking that differs from extant approaches. European countries have hitherto adopted blanket prohibitions on organ trading (i.e. the buying or selling of human organs). This article advances the view that policy makers have thereby overreacted to legitimate public health concerns and the evils of organ trafficking (i.e. organ trading and tourism involving coercion or deception). It argues for a trial of a very tightly regulated system of organ trading that could eventually lead to a limited system of organ tourism (i.e. organ trading involving more than one jurisdiction). PMID:18592891

  16. Improving global health governance to combat counterfeit medicines: a proposal for a UNODC-WHO-Interpol trilateral mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Perhaps no greater challenge exists for public health, patient safety, and shared global health security, than fake/falsified/fraudulent, poor quality unregulated drugs, also commonly known as “counterfeit medicines”, now endemic in the global drug supply chain. Counterfeit medicines are prevalent everywhere, from traditional healthcare settings to unregulated sectors, including the Internet. These dangerous medicines are expanding in both therapeutic and geographic scope, threatening patient lives, leading to antimicrobial resistance, and profiting criminal actors. Discussion Despite clear global public health threats, surveillance for counterfeit medicines remains extremely limited, with available data pointing to an increasing global criminal trade that has yet to be addressed appropriately. Efforts by a variety of public and private sector entities, national governments, and international organizations have made inroads in combating this illicit trade, but are stymied by ineffectual governance and divergent interests. Specifically, recent efforts by the World Health Organization, the primary international public health agency, have failed to adequately incorporate the broad array of stakeholders necessary to combat the problem. This has left the task of combating counterfeit medicines to other organizations such as UN Office of Drugs and Crime and Interpol in order to fill this policy gap. Summary To address the current failure of the international community to mobilize against the worldwide counterfeit medicines threat, we recommend the establishment of an enhanced global health governance trilateral mechanism between WHO, UNODC, and Interpol to leverage the respective strengths and resources of these organizations. This would allow these critical organizations, already engaged in the fight against counterfeit medicines, to focus on and coordinate their respective domains of transnational crime prevention, public health, and law enforcement

  17. How does Listeria monocytogenes combat acid conditions?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes, a major foodborne pathogen, possesses a number of mechanisms which enable it to combat the challenges posed by acidic environments such as acidic foods and the acidity in the gastrointestinal tract. These mechanisms include the acid tolerance response, a two-component regula...

  18. When war follows combat veterans home.

    PubMed

    Kane, Shawn F; Saperstein, Adam K; Bunt, Christopher W; Stephens, Mark B

    2013-08-01

    While combat survivability is at an all-time high, vets return home to private struggles with depression, PTSD, traumatic brain injury, and substance abuse. Here's how to spot these patients in civilian medical practices and the steps you can take to help them. PMID:24143332

  19. A Review of Combat Support Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Ernest K.; Showel, Morris

    This report presents a review of current training practices and problems as they relate to the broad spread of individual ability among soldiers, and to the increasing need for functionalization of training. Combat support training was observed at four army training centers, with particular reference to training objectives, methods, and student…

  20. An Educational Program to Combat Venereal Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotterweich, Andrew H., Jr.

    The purpose of this practicum was to develop, implement, and evaluate an educational program to combat venereal disease. The objectives of the program were: (1) to increase public awareness of the problem of venereal disease, (2) to alert parents and students to the dangers of venereal disease, (3) to enable students to make rational judgments…

  1. Pythium aphanidermatum Infection following Combat Trauma▿

    PubMed Central

    Calvano, Tatjana P.; Blatz, Peter J.; Vento, Todd J.; Wickes, Brian L.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; White, Christopher E.; Renz, Evan M.; Hospenthal, Duane R.

    2011-01-01

    Pythium aphanidermatum is a fungus-like plant pathogen which has never been reported as a cause of human infection. We report a case of P. aphanidermatum invasive wound infection in a 21-year-old male injured during combat operations in Afghanistan. PMID:21813724

  2. Pythium aphanidermatum infection following combat trauma.

    PubMed

    Calvano, Tatjana P; Blatz, Peter J; Vento, Todd J; Wickes, Brian L; Sutton, Deanna A; Thompson, Elizabeth H; White, Christopher E; Renz, Evan M; Hospenthal, Duane R

    2011-10-01

    Pythium aphanidermatum is a fungus-like plant pathogen which has never been reported as a cause of human infection. We report a case of P. aphanidermatum invasive wound infection in a 21-year-old male injured during combat operations in Afghanistan. PMID:21813724

  3. Combating Labour Market Exclusion: Does Training Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Pascaline; Tessaring, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews active labour-market policies (ALMP), of which training is prominent. For about 20 years now, they have been one of the most important measures to combat unemployment and exclusion from the labour market. But is training a successful and efficient policy to reduce unemployment, compared to other types of ALMP? We draw some…

  4. Program to Combat Stereotyping in Career Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Laurie R.

    Divided into three sections which deal with sex, race, and handicap stereotyping in career choice, the twenty-eight programs described here attempt to combat stereotypes among students and/or staff (K-12). Most descriptions list the goals of the program, target population, staffing and management, facilities and activities, program effectiveness…

  5. Combat Air Identification Fusion Algorithm (CAIFA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, C. A.; Baker, Joni E.; Crowe, John A.; Kierstead, David P.; Mauro, Carl A.

    2003-04-01

    The Combat Air Identification Fusion Algorithm (CAIFA), developed by Daniel H. Wagner, Associates, is a prototype, inferential reasoning algorithm for air combat identification. Bayesian reasoning and updating techniques are used in CAIFA to fuse multi-source identification evidence to provide identity estimates-allegiance, nationality, platform type, and intent-of detected airborne objects in the air battle space, enabling positive and rapid Combat Identification (CID) decisions. CAIFA was developed for the Composite Combat Identification (CCID) project under the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Missile Defense (MD) Future Naval Capability (FNC) program. CAIFA processes identification (ID) attribute evidence generated by surveillance sensors and other information sources over time by updating the identity estimate for each target using Bayesian inference. CAIFA exploits the conditional interdependencies of attribute variables by constructing a context-dependent Bayesian Network (BN). This formulation offers a well-established, consistent approach for evidential reasoning, renders manageable the potentially large CID state space, and provides a flexible and extensible representation to accommodate requirements for model reconfiguration/restructuring. CAIFA enables reasoning across and at different levels of the Air Space Taxonomy.

  6. Combatives for Alienated Youth: Problems and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellison, Don

    Combative activities (boxing, wrestling, kung fu, etc.) are seen as having a positive influence on alienated inner city youth. Potential contributions of such activities in a school curriculum or recreation program include involvement, security, self-concept, and self-realization. Participants may be able to free themselves from such stereotype…

  7. [The treatment of combat casualties today].

    PubMed

    Maurice, Guillaume de Saint

    2012-12-01

    Most soldiers are wounded by an explosion and haemorrhaging is the main cause of death. From the first aid provided on the field of combat to repatriation to France, every stage in the treatment of injured soldiers is meticulously organised in order to save as many lives as possible. PMID:23316578

  8. DETAIL OF DOORWAY INTO COMBAT INTELLIGENCE ROOM. view TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF DOORWAY INTO COMBAT INTELLIGENCE ROOM. view TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  9. Human Trafficking: A Review for Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakushko, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of current research on human trafficking for mental health practitioners and scholars. In addition to an overview of definitions, causes and processes of trafficking, the article highlights mental health consequences of trafficking along with suggestions for treatment of survivors. Directions for counseling services,…

  10. Trafficking of Children in Albania: Patterns of Recruitment and Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjermeni, Eglantina; Van Hook, Mary P.; Gjipali, Saemira; Xhillari, Lindita; Lungu, Fatjon; Hazizi, Anila

    2008-01-01

    Problem: Many children in Albania and other countries of Eastern Europe are being trafficked as part of the global business of human trafficking. Objectives: The study sought to identify the patterns of child trafficking involving Albanian children, and especially children's views of the role of family issues and the nature of the trafficking…

  11. 78 FR 70571 - Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking; Rescheduled Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking; Rescheduled Meeting AGENCY: Fish... Service (Service), announce a public meeting of the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking (Council... announce that the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking (Council) will hold a meeting to...

  12. 78 FR 59950 - Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... public meeting of the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking (Council). DATES: The meeting will be held... announce that the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking (Council) will hold a meeting to...

  13. Child organ trafficking: global reality and inadequate international response.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    In organ transplantation, the demand for human organs has grown far faster than the supply of organs. This has opened the door for illegal organ trade and trafficking including from children. Organized crime groups and individual organ brokers exploit the situation and, as a result, black markets are becoming more numerous and organized organ trafficking is expanding worldwide. While underprivileged and vulnerable men and women in developing countries are a major source of trafficked organs, and may themselves be trafficked for the purpose of illegal organ removal and trade, children are at especial risk of exploitation. With the confirmed cases of children being trafficked for their organs, child organ trafficking, which once called a "modern urban legend", is a sad reality in today's world. By presenting a global picture of child organ trafficking, this paper emphasizes that child organ trafficking is no longer a myth but a reality which has to be addressed. It argues that the international efforts against organ trafficking and trafficking in human beings for organ removal have failed to address child organ trafficking adequately. This chapter suggests that more orchestrated international collaboration as well as development of preventive measure and legally binding documents are needed to fight child organ trafficking and to support its victims. PMID:26612382

  14. Combat internist: the internal medicine experience in a combat hospital in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rachel U; Parrish, Scott C; Saeed, Omar; Fiedler, Joyce P

    2015-01-01

    Military internists and internal medicine subspecialists are physicians who generally work in traditional internal medicine settings. However, when deployed to combat settings, they must prepare and adapt their skills for a wide spectrum of complex, polytrauma, and multinational patients. There are limitations in personnel, equipment, and technical resources that make the circumstances complex and demanding. This article highlights some of the unique roles, challenges, and experiences of four military internists at the NATO Role 3, a deployed combat hospital in Afghanistan. PMID:25562851

  15. 32 CFR 813.6 - Planning and requesting combat documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Planning and requesting combat documentation... SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.6 Planning and requesting combat documentation. (a) Planned combat documentation. Air components identify documentation needs as early...

  16. 32 CFR 813.6 - Planning and requesting combat documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Planning and requesting combat documentation... SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.6 Planning and requesting combat documentation. (a) Planned combat documentation. Air components identify documentation needs as early...

  17. The Combat-Exclusion Policy for Military Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Dorothy; Schneider, Carl J.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the history and meaning of the combat exclusion policy for United States servicewomen. Noting that combat duty is often essential to career advancement in the military, this article describes several cases of discrimination resulting from the effects of the combat exclusion. (JDH)

  18. Application of genetic algorithms to autopiloting in aerial combat simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dai Hyun; Erwin, Daniel A.; Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Kim, Jeongdal; Savant, Gajendra D.

    1998-10-01

    An autopilot algorithm that controls a fighter aircraft in simulated aerial combat is presented. A fitness function, whose arguments are the control settings of the simulated fighter, is continuously maximized by a fuzzied genetic algorithm. Results are presented for one-to-one combat simulated on a personal computer. Generalization to many-to-many combat is discussed.

  19. Retention of Military Skills Acquired in Basic Combat Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Robert D.

    Performance data were collected in the three general basic combat training (BCT) proficiency areas (rifle marksmanship, physical combat fitness, end of cycle tests) from independent groups of soldiers (60 per group) during BCT, during Advanced Individual Training (AIT), and combat support training (CST), and for permanent party personnel in the…

  20. Early adversity and combat exposure interact to influence anterior cingulate cortex volume in combat veterans☆

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Steven H.; Kuo, Janice R.; Schaer, Marie; Kaloupek, Danny G.; Eliez, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood and combat trauma have been observed to interact to influence amygdala volume in a sample of U.S. military veterans with and without PTSD. This interaction was assessed in a second, functionally-related fear system component, the pregenual and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, using the same sample and modeling approach. Method Anterior cingulate cortical tissues (gray + white matter) were manually-delineated in 1.5 T MR images in 87 U.S. military veterans of the Vietnam and Persian Gulf wars. Hierarchical multiple regression modeling was used to assess associations between anterior cingulate volume and the following predictors, trauma prior to age 13, combat exposure, the interaction of early trauma and combat exposure, and PTSD diagnosis. Results As previously observed in the amygdala, unique variance in anterior cingulate cortical volume was associated with both the diagnosis of PTSD and with the interaction of childhood and combat trauma. The pattern of the latter interaction indicated that veterans with childhood trauma exhibited a significant inverse linear relationship between combat trauma and anterior cingulate volume while those without childhood trauma did not. Such associations were not observed in hippocampal or total cerebral tissue volumes. Conclusions In the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, as in the amygdala, early trauma may confer excess sensitivity to later combat trauma. PMID:24179818

  1. Respiratory Disease following Illicit Injection of Silicone: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Essenmacher, Alex Charles; Astani, Seyed Amin

    2013-01-01

    Unregulated, pseudomedical procedures risk serious sequelae even when otherwise safe compounds are used. Silicone is commonly used legally in cosmetic procedures owing to its durability, resistance to heat and aging, and low immunogenicity. However, inappropriate or illegal silicone injection can pose severe local and systemic complications including serious pulmonary compromise. We describe the case of a 30-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis and progressive shortness of breath following illicit silicone injections to the gluteal fat and was found to have new, diffuse, bilateral, ground-glass opacities on contrast-enhanced pulmonary computed tomography. Transbronchial biopsy elucidated that this was a lipoid pneumonia-type injury secondary to silicone infiltration. PMID:23956752

  2. Respiratory Disease following Illicit Injection of Silicone: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Essenmacher, Alex Charles; Astani, Seyed Amin

    2013-01-01

    Unregulated, pseudomedical procedures risk serious sequelae even when otherwise safe compounds are used. Silicone is commonly used legally in cosmetic procedures owing to its durability, resistance to heat and aging, and low immunogenicity. However, inappropriate or illegal silicone injection can pose severe local and systemic complications including serious pulmonary compromise. We describe the case of a 30-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis and progressive shortness of breath following illicit silicone injections to the gluteal fat and was found to have new, diffuse, bilateral, ground-glass opacities on contrast-enhanced pulmonary computed tomography. Transbronchial biopsy elucidated that this was a lipoid pneumonia-type injury secondary to silicone infiltration. PMID:23956752

  3. Analysis of illicit drugs by direct ablation of solid samples.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Celina; Cabezas, Carlos; Mata, Santiago; Berdakin, Matias; Tejedor, Jesús M; Alonso, José L

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of illicit drugs arises as an important field of work given the high social impacts presented by drugs in the modern society. Direct laser ablation of solid compounds allows their analysis without sampling or preparation procedures. For that purpose, an experimental set-up that combines laser ablation with time-of- flight mass spectrometry has been constructed very recently to perform studies on the mass spectra of such drugs as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine, commonly known as MDMA or ecstasy. Analysis of the observed fragmentation pattern in mass spectra may elucidate the ablation-induced photofragmentation phenomena produced, which differ from those previously observed with conventional ionization methods. PMID:26764307

  4. Research approaches in illicit drug use: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Sadava, S W

    1975-02-01

    Research approached and substantive findings pertaining to determinants of the nonmedical use of illicit psychoactive drugs are reviewed. Discussion focuses upon the dimensions of drug use as a behaviorial phenomenon, the findings and limitations of four basic approaches to research in the ares--sociocultural, psychopathological, functionalist, and social learning-- and upon methodological problems. Drug use must be treated as a multidimensional phenomenon, with analyses extending well beyond simple user vs. nonuser comparisons or arbitrary categories of users. Research must be conducted within a coherent field-theoretical conceptual framework, directed toward the formulation of nomothetic laws concerning patterns of drug use. Inadequacies in sampling and measurement and the absence of longitudinal design have compromised the utility of a vast research literature. PMID:1091527

  5. Interpretational framework for forensic analyses of illicit nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Niemeyer, S.; Kammeraad, J.

    1996-10-01

    jThe interdiction of illicit special nuclear materials (SNM) causes many attribution questions to be asked, e.g. where was this material produced, where was legitimate control lost, how was it transported, etc. We have developed a general framework for evaluating forensic measurements that will be useful in answering attribution questions, and will present an initial prioritization of these measurements. Interpretation of the measurements requires the integration of inputs from a diverse set of experts who have knowledge of environmental signatures, radiochemical signatures, weapons production complex, production pathways for SNM, criminal forensics, law enforcement, and intelligence. Comparison databases and international cooperation are crucial for future application of forensic measurements to the nuclear smuggling problem.

  6. Illicit substance use among adolescents: a matrix of prospective predictors.

    PubMed

    Petraitis, J; Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Torpy, E J; Greiner, B

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews findings from 58 prospective studies of illicit substance use (ISU) among adolescents. It arranges 384 findings according to three types of influence (viz., social, attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and four levels of influence (viz., ultimate, distal, proximal, and immediate). The bulk of evidence reconfirms the importance of several predictors of ISU (e.g., intentions and prior substance-related behavior, friendship patterns and peer behaviors, absence of supportive parents, psychological temperament), reveals that a few variables thought to be well-established predictors may not be (e.g., parental behaviors, parental permissiveness, depression, low self-esteem), and uncovers several variables where findings were either sparse or inconsistent (e.g., the role of public policies concerning ISU, mass media depictions of ISU, certain parenting styles, affective states, perceptions of parental disapproval for ISU, and substance-specific refusal skills). Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:9818990

  7. Postmortem diagnosis and toxicological validation of illicit substance use.

    PubMed

    Lehrmann, Elin; Afanador, Zoan R; Deep-Soboslay, Amy; Gallegos, Gloria; Darwin, William D; Lowe, Ross H; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A; Cadet, Jean L; Herman, Mary M; Hyde, Thomas M; Kleinman, Joel E; Freed, William J

    2008-03-01

    The present study examines the diagnostic challenges of identifying ante-mortem illicit substance use in human postmortem cases. Substance use, assessed by clinical case history reviews, structured next-of-kin interviews, by general toxicology of blood, urine and/or brain, and by scalp hair testing, identified 33 cocaine, 29 cannabis, 10 phencyclidine and nine opioid cases. Case history identified 42% cocaine, 76% cannabis, 10% phencyclidine and 33% opioid cases. Next-of-kin interviews identified almost twice as many cocaine and cannabis cases as Medical Examiner (ME) case histories, and were crucial in establishing a detailed lifetime substance use history. Toxicology identified 91% cocaine, 68% cannabis, 80% phencyclidine and 100% opioid cases, with hair testing increasing detection for all drug classes. A cocaine or cannabis use history was corroborated by general toxicology with 50% and 32% sensitivity, respectively, and with 82% and 64% sensitivity by hair testing. Hair testing corroborated a positive general toxicology for cocaine and cannabis with 91% and 100% sensitivity, respectively. Case history corroborated hair toxicology with 38% sensitivity for cocaine and 79% sensitivity for cannabis, suggesting that both case history and general toxicology underestimated cocaine use. Identifying ante-mortem substance use in human postmortem cases are key considerations in case diagnosis and for characterization of disorder-specific changes in neurobiology. The sensitivity and specificity of substance use assessments increased when ME case history was supplemented with structured next-of-kin interviews to establish a detailed lifetime substance use history, while comprehensive toxicology, and hair testing in particular, increased detection of recent illicit substance use. PMID:18201295

  8. Measuring changes in the illicit cigarette market using government revenue data: the example of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    van Walbeek, Corné

    2014-01-01

    Background The tobacco industry claims that illicit trade in cigarettes has increased sharply since the 1990s and that government has lost substantial tax revenue. Objectives (1) To determine whether cigarette excise tax revenue has been below budget in recent years, compared with previous decades. (2) To determine trends in the size of the illicit market since 1995. Methods For (1), mean percentage errors and root mean square percentage errors were calculated for budget revenue deviation for three products (cigarettes, beer and spirits), for various subperiods. For (2), predicted changes in total consumption, using actual cigarette price and GDP changes and previously published price and income elasticity estimates, were calculated and compared with changes in tax-paid consumption. Results Cigarette excise revenues were 0.7% below budget for 2000–2012 on average, compared with 3.0% below budget for beer and 4.7% below budget for spirits. There is no evidence that illicit trade in cigarettes in South Africa increased between 2002 and 2009. There is a substantial increase in illicit trade in 2010, probably peaking in 2011. In 2012 tax-paid consumption of cigarettes increased 2.6%, implying that the illicit market share decreased an estimated 0.6 percentage points. Conclusions Other than in 2010, there is no evidence that illicit trade is significantly undermining government revenue. Claims that illicit trade has consistently increased over the past 15 years, and has continued its sharp increase since 2010, are not supported. PMID:24431121

  9. Dysregulation of protein trafficking in neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular protein trafficking plays an important role in neuronal function and survival. Protein misfolding is a common theme found in many neurodegenerative diseases, and intracellular trafficking machinery contributes to the pathological accumulation and clearance of misfolded proteins. Although neurodegenerative diseases exhibit distinct pathological features, abnormal endocytic trafficking is apparent in several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Down syndrome (DS) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this review, we will focus on protein sorting defects in three major neurodegenerative diseases, including AD, DS and PD. An important pathological feature of AD is the presence of extracellular senile plaques in the brain. Senile plaques are composed of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide aggregates. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that over-production/aggregation of Aβ in the brain is a primary cause of AD and attenuation of Aβ generation has become a topic of extreme interest in AD research. Aβ is generated from β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) through sequential cleavage by β-secretase and the γ-secretase complex. Alternatively, APP can be cleaved by α-secretase within the Aβ domain to release soluble APPα which precludes Aβ generation. DS patients display a strikingly similar pathology to AD patients, including the generation of neuronal amyloid plaques. Moreover, all DS patients develop an AD-like neuropathology by their 40 s. Therefore, understanding the metabolism/processing of APP and how these underlying mechanisms may be pathologically compromised is crucial for future AD and DS therapeutic strategies. Evidence accumulated thus far reveals that synaptic vesicle regulation, endocytic trafficking, and lysosome-mediated autophagy are involved in increased susceptibility to PD. Here we review current knowledge of endosomal trafficking regulation in AD, DS and PD. PMID:25152012

  10. Domestic minor sex trafficking: what the PNP needs to know.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major global public health problem and represents a substantial human rights violation. Human trafficking has been receiving attention in both the lay media and professional literature. Human trafficking can include commercial sex, forced labor, child soldiers, and stealing of human organs. One form of human trafficking represents a significant American pediatric health problem: domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST). DMST is the commercial sexual abuse of children by selling, buying, or trading their sexual service. This continuing education article will define DMST and discuss it in terms of prevalence, risk factors, and practice implications for the pediatric nurse practitioner. PMID:25497135

  11. An Increasing Trend of Illicit Drug use among Romanian University Students from 1999 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    LOTREAN, Lucia Maria; SANTILLAN, Edna Arillo; THRASHER, James; LAZA, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Aim The present study investigates the evolution of illicit drug use among Romanian university students from 1999 to 2011. Methods The study was performed in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in three phases: in 1999 (T1), in 2003 (T2) and in 2011 (T3). The study was carried out by means of anonymous questionnaires among university students aged 19–24. Results The results show that among girls the lifetime illicit drugs use increased statistically significantly from 2.5% in 1999 to 7.5% in 2003 and to 15% in 2011. Among boys the trend was also increasing, the prevalence of illicit drug use was 14.2% at T1, 18.1% at T2, and it increased dramatically to 30.6% at T3. The percentage of students reporting cannabis use was almost identical with the total prevalence of illicit drug use. Ecstasy was the second most frequent drug used by the students; its consumption had also an increasing trend during the examined periods (from 0 to 5.6% among girls and from 0.8% to 11.2% among boys). The results of the bivariate correlation analyses show that lifetime illicit drug use was associated with having friends who experimented with illicit drugs both among boys and girls. Moreover, girls who declared stress management problems and depressive episodes were more likely to try illicit drugs, while among boys illicit drug use was associated with poorer academic performance. Conclusions The data pointed out by our study call for comprehensive actions regarding the prevention of illicit drug use among Romanian young people.

  12. The Empirical Analysis of Cigarette Tax Avoidance and Illicit Trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D.

    2014-01-01

    Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve

  13. The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve

  14. Establishing a Link Between Prescription Drug Abuse and Illicit Online Pharmacies: Analysis of Twitter Data

    PubMed Central

    Cuomo, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Background Youth and adolescent non-medical use of prescription medications (NUPM) has become a national epidemic. However, little is known about the association between promotion of NUPM behavior and access via the popular social media microblogging site, Twitter, which is currently used by a third of all teens. Objective In order to better assess NUPM behavior online, this study conducts surveillance and analysis of Twitter data to characterize the frequency of NUPM-related tweets and also identifies illegal access to drugs of abuse via online pharmacies. Methods Tweets were collected over a 2-week period from April 1-14, 2015, by applying NUPM keyword filters for both generic/chemical and street names associated with drugs of abuse using the Twitter public streaming application programming interface. Tweets were then analyzed for relevance to NUPM and whether they promoted illegal online access to prescription drugs using a protocol of content coding and supervised machine learning. Results A total of 2,417,662 tweets were collected and analyzed for this study. Tweets filtered for generic drugs names comprised 232,108 tweets, including 22,174 unique associated uniform resource locators (URLs), and 2,185,554 tweets (376,304 unique URLs) filtered for street names. Applying an iterative process of manual content coding and supervised machine learning, 81.72% of the generic and 12.28% of the street NUPM datasets were predicted as having content relevant to NUPM respectively. By examining hyperlinks associated with NUPM relevant content for the generic Twitter dataset, we discovered that 75.72% of the tweets with URLs included a hyperlink to an online marketing affiliate that directly linked to an illicit online pharmacy advertising the sale of Valium without a prescription. Conclusions This study examined the association between Twitter content, NUPM behavior promotion, and online access to drugs using a broad set of prescription drug keywords. Initial results are

  15. Development of data analysis tool for combat system integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seung-Chun; Shin, Jong-Gye; Oh, Dae-Kyun

    2013-03-01

    System integration is an important element for the construction of naval combat ships. In particular, because impeccable combat system integration together with the sensors and weapons can ensure the combat capability and survivability of the ship, the integrated performance of the combat system should be verified and validated whether or not it fulfills the requirements of the end user. In order to conduct systematic verification and validation, a data analysis tool is requisite. This paper suggests the Data Extraction, Recording and Analysis Tool (DERAT) for the data analysis of the integrated performance of the combat system, including the functional definition, architecture and effectiveness of the DERAT by presenting the test results.

  16. Advanced protection technology for ground combat vehicles.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Timothy G

    2012-01-01

    Just as highway drivers use radar detectors to attempt to stay ahead of police armed with the latest radar technology, the Armed Forces are locked in a spiral to protect combat vehicles and their crews against the latest threats in both the contemporary operating environment and the anticipated operating environment (ie, beyond 2020). In response to bigger, heavier, or better-protected vehicles, adversaries build and deploy larger explosive devices or bombs. However, making improvements to combat vehicles is much more expensive than deploying larger explosives. In addition, demand is increasing for lighter-weight vehicles capable of rapid deployment. Together, these two facts give the threat a clear advantage in the future. To protect vehicles and crews, technologies focusing on detection and hit avoidance, denial of penetration, and crew survivability must be combined synergistically to provide the best chance of survival on the modern battlefield. PMID:22865132

  17. Regenerative medicine applications in combat casualty care.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Mark E; Bharmal, Husain; Valerio, Ian

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe regenerative medicine applications in the management of complex injuries sustained by service members injured in support of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Improvements in body armor, resuscitative techniques and faster transport have translated into increased patient survivability and more complex wounds. Combat-related blast injuries have resulted in multiple extremity injuries, significant tissue loss and amputations. Due to the limited availability and morbidity associated with autologous tissue donor sites, the introduction of regenerative medicine has been critical in managing war extremity injuries with composite massive tissue loss. Through case reports and clinical images, this report reviews the application of regenerative medicine modalities employed to manage combat-related injuries. It illustrates that the novel use of hybrid reconstructions combining traditional and regenerative medicine approaches are an effective tool in managing wounds. Lessons learned can be adapted to civilian care. PMID:24750059

  18. Electronic solutions for combating counterfeit drugs

    PubMed Central

    Hemalatha, R.; Rao, A. Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The problem of counterfeiting of drugs is assuming alarming proportions and is getting difficult to combat due to its trans-national character. It is undermining the faith of people on health care system. Therefore, there is a need to adopt zero tolerance approach to combat the problem. The Way Forward: There are many solutions available which are being adopted in piece meal manner by individual manufacturers. However, for wholesalers and resellers it is getting difficult to maintain multiple solutions. Therefore, there is a need to adopt a unified solution preferably with the help of the government. Conclusions: This paper discusses the available solutions, their shortcomings and proposes a comprehensive solution where at each level in the supply chain the authenticity is verified preferable linking it with Unique identification. PMID:26229359

  19. Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in older men.

    PubMed

    Spiro, A; Schnurr, P P; Aldwin, C M

    1994-03-01

    Nearly 25% of U.S. men aged 55 or older served in combat, yet its impact on aging is unknown. The relationship of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms to combat exposure was examined in 1,210 veterans of World War II (WWII) and the Korean War, who were participants in the Normative Aging Study. Over 54% of WWII and 19% of Korean veterans reported combat experience. The relationship between combat exposure and PTSD symptoms was stronger in the WWII cohort. The sample prevalence of PTSD by combat exposure ranged from 0% to 12.4%, differing by the PTSD measure. WWII veterans exposed to moderate or heavy combat had 13.3 times greater risk of PTSD symptoms measured 45 years later, compared with noncombat veterans. It is suggested that military service in general, and combat exposure in particular, is a "hidden variable" in the study of aging men. PMID:8185864

  20. Physical health symptoms reported by trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support in Moldova: prevalence, severity and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many trafficked people suffer high levels of physical, sexual and psychological abuse. Yet, there has been limited research on the physical health problems associated with human trafficking or how the health needs of women in post-trafficking support settings vary according to socio-demographic or trafficking characteristics. Methods We analysed the prevalence and severity of 15 health symptoms reported by 120 trafficked women who had returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 and were registered with the International Organisation for Migration Assistance and Protection Programme. Women had returned to Moldova an average of 5.9 months prior to interview (range 2-12 months). Results Headaches (61.7%), stomach pain (60.9%), memory problems (44.2%), back pain (42.5%), loss of appetite (35%), and tooth pain (35%) were amongst the most commonly reported symptoms amongst both women trafficked for sexual exploitation and women trafficked for labour exploitation. The prevalence of headache and memory problems was strongly associated with duration of exploitation. Conclusions Trafficked women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are likely to have long-term physical and dental health needs and should be provided with access to comprehensive medical services. Health problems among women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are not limited to women trafficked for sexual exploitation but are also experienced by victims of labour exploitation. PMID:22834807

  1. Crew station for ground combat vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Daniele

    1996-06-01

    Force XXI is the vision to synthesize the technology, doctrine, and organization of the U.S. Army so that it can fight and win the wars of the 21st Century. Digitization--taking advantage of the microprocessor revolution--is a key enabler of the Force XXI plan. In the Crewman's Associate Advanced Technology Demonstration, crew stations for ground combat vehicles are being developed that allow the soldier to use digitization to maximum weapon system performance.

  2. Combating an Epidemic of Prescription Opioid Abuse.

    PubMed

    Pon, Doreen; Awuah, Kwaku; Curi, Danielle; Okyere, Ernest; Stern, Craig S

    2015-11-01

    The past decade has witnessed an alarming increase in the number of deaths due to prescription opioids that has paralleled the rise in the number of opioid prescriptions dispensed. Prescription drug monitoring programs, abuse-deterrent formulations and proper disposal of opioids have been promoted to help combat the opioid epidemic. We discuss changes that dentists, the third most frequent prescribers of opioids, can implement to help reduce the risk of prescription opioid abuse in their communities. PMID:26798885

  3. Combating isolation: Building mutual mentoring networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Anne J.

    2015-12-01

    Women physicists can often feel isolated at work. Support from a grant through the ADVANCE program of the National Science Foundation (U.S. government funding) created mutual mentoring networks aimed at combating isolation specifically for women faculty at undergraduate-only institutions. This paper will discuss the organization of one such network, what contributed to its success, some of the outcomes, and how it might be implemented in other contexts.

  4. Combat aircraft noise: The operator's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogg, R.

    1992-04-01

    Combat aircraft are not subject to the same noise reduction regulations as civil aircraft. Additionally, combat aircraft are operated closer to their performance limits and at high power settings for extended periods. There is general pressure to reduce noise of all kinds, but particularly noise from low flying aircraft. Although there is little that can be done to quiet in-service engines, operational palliatives, such as noise abatement procedures and restrictions on low flying, have been introduced. Moreover, there has been a concerted education and public relations campaign, and numerous airspace management changes have been introduced to reduce the impact of low flying on the population. These subjects were considered during a Pilot Study into aircraft noise under the auspices of the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society; the findings of the Study are discussed, giving both the international viewpoint and the UK perspective in particular. Some options for the reduction of low flying are also considered, but so long as military aircraft need to fly low to evade enemy air defences, low flying will remain a principal tactic of NATO air forces, and peacetime training will remain an essential military requirement. Thus, noise from low flying combat aircraft will remain a sensitive issue, and ways of reducing it will continue to be of importance for many years to come.

  5. The neurocircuitry of illicit psychostimulant addiction: acute and chronic effects in humans

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sara B; Lewis, Candace R; Olive, M Foster

    2013-01-01

    Illicit psychostimulant addiction remains a significant problem worldwide, despite decades of research into the neural underpinnings and various treatment approaches. The purpose of this review is to provide a succinct overview of the neurocircuitry involved in drug addiction, as well as the acute and chronic effects of cocaine and amphetamines within this circuitry in humans. Investigational pharmacological treatments for illicit psychostimulant addiction are also reviewed. Our current knowledge base clearly demonstrates that illicit psychostimulants produce lasting adaptive neural and behavioral changes that contribute to the progression and maintenance of addiction. However, attempts at generating pharmacological treatments for psychostimulant addiction have historically focused on intervening at the level of the acute effects of these drugs. The lack of approved pharmacological treatments for psychostimulant addiction highlights the need for new treatment strategies, especially those that prevent or ameliorate the adaptive neural, cognitive, and behavioral changes caused by chronic use of this class of illicit drugs. PMID:24648786

  6. Illicit Drugs: Contaminants in the Environment and Utility in Forensic Epidemiology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The published literature surrounding the origin, occurrence, fate, and effects of illicit drug ingredients (IDIs) in the environment is examined. Similarities exist with medical pharmaceuticals, particularly with regard to the basic processes by which these ingredients enter the ...

  7. Prescribing Some Criminological Theory: An Examination of the Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants Among College Students.

    PubMed

    Maahs, Jeffrey R; Weidner, Robert R; Smith, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the illicit use of prescription stimulants such as Adderall and Ritalin is common across college campuses and in professions (e.g., trucking) where staying awake and focused is valued. Existing research has established use patterns and explored respondents' reasons for using these stimulants. Less is known, however, about whether or how well mainstream criminological theory explains this type of illegal activity. This article reports results from a survey (N = 484) of college students from a Midwestern university, examining whether measures of strain, self-control, and social learning predict the illicit use of prescription stimulants. Measures from social learning and social control theories were significant predictors of illicit use of prescription stimulants, whereas the measure of academic strain was not; the strongest predictor of illicit use of prescription stimulants was general deviance. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25156423

  8. Suicide risk among Thai illicit drug users with and without mental/alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Suttajit, Sirijit; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not yet known if the increased risk of suicide in substance abusers is caused by the causal and/or coexisting relationship between substance use and psychiatric disorders. This study was designed to estimate the suicide risk among individuals with illicit drug use alone, illicit drug users with mental disorders, and illicit drug users with alcohol use disorders. Methods Subjects were participants of the 2008 Thai National Mental Health Survey. They were asked for their illicit drug use in the past year. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), current suicidality (1 month prior to assessment), mood episodes, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, and alcohol use disorders were used for assessing mental/alcohol use disorders. A score of 1 or more for the MINI–Suicidality module was defined as the presence of suicide risk. Results Of the total 17,140 respondents, 537 currently used illicit drugs, while 1,194 respondents had a suicide risk. Common illicit drugs were kratom (59%) and (meth)amphetamine (24%). Compared with 16,603 Thais without illicit drug use, the illicit drug users with or without mental/alcohol use disorders (n=537) had an increased risk of suicide (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.09, 1.55–2.81). While those who used illicit drugs alone (no mental/alcohol use disorder) (n=348) had no increased risk of suicide (adjusted OR, 95% CI =1.04, 0.66–1.65), the illicit drug users with mental or alcohol use disorders (n=27 and n=162, respectively) had significantly increased risk of suicide (adjusted ORs, 95% CIs =14.06, 6.50–30.3 and 3.14, 1.98–4.99, respectively). Conclusion A key limitation of this study was the combined suicidal behaviors as a suicidality risk. Mental or alcohol use disorders found in this population actually increased the suicide risk. These findings support the coexisting relationship that mental and alcohol use disorders play a vital role in increasing the suicide

  9. [Prevalence and factors associated with violence suffered by incarcerated women for drug trafficking in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: a cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Valquíria Pereira; da Silva, Maria Arleide; Noronha Neto, Carlos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois; Chaves, Cynthia Vasconcelos; Bello, Rodrigo Pereira

    2014-07-01

    The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with the violence suffered by women accused of drug trafficking in the 24 months prior to incarceration in the Women's Penal Colony in the State of Pernambuco. A cross-sectional study including 290 women aged 18 and above, with up to twelve months imprisonment, was performed for the data collection period. A questionnaire was applied to research the socioeconomic and demographic variables and the characteristics of violence and drug trafficking. All of the participants signed a consent form. The association between variables and intensity of exposure and response were determined by the chi-square test and the values (p < 0.05) were considered statistically significant. The study revealed that 71.4% of women were young; 78.9% non white, 85.8% unmarried with children, 83.3% had low education and 72.6% had income below the minimum wage. Furthermore, 56.9% were users of illicit drugs and 67.5% participated by performing some role in drug trafficking. A high prevalence of some form of violence suffered were observed in the population studied and the partner was the most frequent perpetrator (44.1%), calling for the authorities to pay greater attention in the actions of prevention of such violence. PMID:25014304

  10. Small GTPase regulation of GPCR anterograde trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guansong; Wu, Guangyu

    2011-01-01

    The physiological functions of heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are dictated by their intracellular trafficking and precise targeting to the functional destinations. Over the past decades, most studies on the trafficking of GPCRs have focused on the events involved in endocytosis and recycling. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms underlying anterograde transport of newly synthesized GPCRs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cell surface have just begun to be revealed. In this review, we will discuss current advances in understanding the role of Ras-like GTPases, specifically the Rab and Sar1/ARF subfamilies, in regulating cell-surface transport of GPCRs en route from the ER and the Golgi. PMID:22015208

  11. Endocytic membrane trafficking and neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Schreij, Andrea M A; Fon, Edward A; McPherson, Peter S

    2016-04-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are amongst the most devastating of human disorders. New technologies have led to a rapid increase in the identification of disease-related genes with an enhanced appreciation of the key roles played by genetics in the etiology of these disorders. Importantly, pinpointing the normal function of disease gene proteins leads to new understanding of the cellular machineries and pathways that are altered in the disease process. One such emerging pathway is membrane trafficking in the endosomal system. This key cellular process controls the localization and levels of a myriad of proteins and is thus critical for normal cell function. In this review we will focus on three neurodegenerative diseases; Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and hereditary spastic paraplegias, for which a large number of newly discovered disease genes encode proteins that function in endosomal membrane trafficking. We will describe how alterations in these proteins affect endosomal function and speculate on the contributions of these disruptions to disease pathophysiology. PMID:26721251

  12. Incunabular immunological events in prion trafficking.

    PubMed

    Michel, Brady; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Johnson, Theodore; Ferguson, Adam; Wyckoff, Christy; Pulford, Bruce; Bender, Heather; Avery, Anne; Telling, Glenn; Dow, Steven; Zabel, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    While prions probably interact with the innate immune system immediately following infection, little is known about this initial confrontation. Here we investigated incunabular events in lymphotropic and intranodal prion trafficking by following highly enriched, fluorescent prions from infection sites to draining lymph nodes. We detected biphasic lymphotropic transport of prions from the initial entry site upon peripheral prion inoculation. Prions arrived in draining lymph nodes cell autonomously within two hours of intraperitoneal administration. Monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs) required Complement for optimal prion delivery to lymph nodes hours later in a second wave of prion trafficking. B cells constituted the majority of prion-bearing cells in the mediastinal lymph node by six hours, indicating intranodal prion reception from resident DCs or subcapsulary sinus macrophages or directly from follicular conduits. These data reveal novel, cell autonomous prion lymphotropism, and a prominent role for B cells in intranodal prion movement. PMID:22679554

  13. Impaired intracellular trafficking defines early Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Hunn, Benjamin H.M.; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Bolam, J. Paul; Spillantini, Maria-Grazia; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an insidious and incurable neurodegenerative disease, and represents a significant cost to individuals, carers, and ageing societies. It is defined at post-mortem by the loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra together with the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. We examine here the role of α-synuclein and other cellular transport proteins implicated in PD and how their aberrant activity may be compounded by the unique anatomy of the dopaminergic neuron. This review uses multiple lines of evidence from genetic studies, human tissue, induced pluripotent stem cells, and refined animal models to argue that prodromal PD can be defined as a disease of impaired intracellular trafficking. Dysfunction of the dopaminergic synapse heralds trafficking impairment. PMID:25639775

  14. Clathrin-Independent Trafficking of AMPA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tigaret, Cezar M.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is critical for neuronal function and plasticity. Although rapid forms of AMPAR internalization during long-term depression (LTD) require clathrin and dynamin, the mechanisms governing constitutive AMPAR turnover and internalization of AMPARs during slow homeostatic forms of synaptic plasticity remain unexplored. Here, we show that, in contrast to LTD, constitutive AMPAR internalization and homeostatic AMPAR downscaling in rat neurons do not require dynamin or clathrin function. Instead, constitutive AMPAR trafficking is blocked by a Rac1 inhibitor and is regulated by a dynamic nonstructural pool of F-actin. Our findings reveal a novel role for neuronal clathrin-independent endocytosis controlled by actin dynamics and suggest that the interplay between different modes of receptor endocytosis provides for segregation between distinct modes of neuronal plasticity. PMID:25810514

  15. HIV and Recent Illicit Drug Use Interact to Affect Verbal Memory in Women

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Vanessa J.; Rubin, Leah H.; Martin, Eileen; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Valcour, Victor; Young, Mary A.; Crystal, Howard; Anastos, Kathryn; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Milam, Joel; Maki, Pauline M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective HIV infection and illicit drug use are each associated with diminished cognitive performance. This study examined the separate and interactive effects of HIV and recent illicit drug use on verbal memory, processing speed and executive function in the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Methods Participants included 952 HIV-infected and 443 HIV-uninfected women (mean age=42.8, 64% African-American). Outcome measures included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R) and the Stroop test. Three drug use groups were compared: recent illicit drug users (cocaine or heroin use in past 6 months, n=140), former users (lifetime cocaine or heroin use but not in past 6 months, n=651), and non-users (no lifetime use of cocaine or heroin, n=604). Results The typical pattern of recent drug use was daily or weekly smoking of crack cocaine. HIV infection and recent illicit drug use were each associated with worse verbal learning and memory (p's<.05). Importantly, there was an interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use such that recent illicit drug use (compared to non-use) negatively impacted verbal learning and memory only in HIV-infected women (p's <0.01). There was no interaction between HIV serostatus and illicit drug use on processing speed or executive function on the Stroop test. Conclusion The interaction between HIV serostatus and recent illicit drug use on verbal learning and memory suggests a potential synergistic neurotoxicity that may affect the neural circuitry underlying performance on these tasks. PMID:23392462

  16. Chemical profiling: A tool to decipher the structure and organisation of illicit drug markets: An 8-year study in Western Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Broséus, Julian; Baechler, Simon; Gentile, Natacha; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Illicit drug analyses usually focus on the identification and quantitation of questioned material to support the judicial process. In parallel, more and more laboratories develop physical and chemical profiling methods in a forensic intelligence perspective. The analysis of large databases resulting from this approach enables not only to draw tactical and operational intelligence, but may also contribute to the strategic overview of drugs markets. In Western Switzerland, the chemical analysis of illicit drug seizures is centralised in a laboratory hosted by the University of Lausanne. For over 8 years, this laboratory has analysed 5875 cocaine and 2728 heroin specimens, coming from respectively 1138 and 614 seizures operated by police and border guards or customs. Chemical (major and minor alkaloids, purity, cutting agents, chemical class), physical (packaging and appearance) as well as circumstantial (criminal case number, mass of drug seized, date and place of seizure) information are collated in a dedicated database for each specimen. The study capitalises on this extended database and defines several indicators to characterise the structure of drugs markets, to follow-up on their evolution and to compare cocaine and heroin markets. Relational, spatial, temporal and quantitative analyses of data reveal the emergence and importance of distribution networks. They enable to evaluate the cross-jurisdictional character of drug trafficking and the observation time of drug batches, as well as the quantity of drugs entering the market every year. Results highlight the stable nature of drugs markets over the years despite the very dynamic flows of distribution and consumption. This research work illustrates how the systematic analysis of forensic data may elicit knowledge on criminal activities at a strategic level. In combination with information from other sources, such knowledge can help to devise intelligence-based preventive and repressive measures and to discuss

  17. Trafficking of ThermoTRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ferrandiz-Huertas, Clotilde; Mathivanan, Sakthikumar; Wolf, Christoph Jakob; Devesa, Isabel; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    ThermoTRP channels (thermoTRPs) define a subfamily of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that are activated by changes in the environmental temperature, from noxious cold to injurious heat. Acting as integrators of several stimuli and signalling pathways, dysfunction of these channels contributes to several pathological states. The surface expression of thermoTRPs is controlled by both, the constitutive and regulated vesicular trafficking. Modulation of receptor surface density during pathological processes is nowadays considered as an interesting therapeutic approach for management of diseases, such as chronic pain, in which an increased trafficking is associated with the pathological state. This review will focus on the recent advances trafficking of the thermoTRP channels, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPM3, TRPM8 and TRPA1, into/from the plasma membrane. Particularly, regulated membrane insertion of thermoTRPs channels contributes to a fine tuning of final channel activity, and indeed, it has resulted in the development of novel therapeutic approaches with successful clinical results such as disruption of SNARE-dependent exocytosis by botulinum toxin or botulinomimetic peptides. PMID:25257900

  18. A review of ecological effects and environmental fate of illicit drugs in aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rosi-Marshall, E J; Snow, D; Bartelt-Hunt, S L; Paspalof, A; Tank, J L

    2015-01-23

    Although illicit drugs are detected in surface waters throughout the world, their environmental fate and ecological effects are not well understood. Many illicit drugs and their breakdown products have been detected in surface waters and temporal and spatial variability in use translates into "hot spots and hot moments" of occurrence. Illicit drug occurrence in regions of production and use and areas with insufficient wastewater treatment are not well studied and should be targeted for further study. Evidence suggests that illicit drugs may not be persistent, as their half-lives are relatively short, but may exhibit "pseudo-persistence" wherein continual use results in persistent occurrence. We reviewed the literature on the ecological effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms and although research is limited, a wide array of aquatic organisms, including bacteria, algae, invertebrates, and fishes, have receptors that make them potentially sensitive to these compounds. In summary, illicit drugs occur in surface waters and aquatic organisms may be affected by these compounds; research is needed that focuses on concentrations of illicit drugs in areas of production and high use, environmental fate of these compounds, and effects of these compounds on aquatic ecosystems at the concentrations that typically occur in the environment. PMID:25062553

  19. Correlates of illicit methadone use in New York City: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ompad, Danielle C; Fuller, Crystal M; Chan, Christina A; Frye, Victoria; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite growing concern about illicit methadone use in the US and other countries, there is little data about the prevalence and correlates of methadone use in large urban areas. We assessed the prevalence and examined correlates of lifetime and recent illicit methadone use in New York City (NYC). Methods 1,415 heroin, crack, and cocaine users aged 15–40 years were recruited in NYC between 2000 and 2004 to complete interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results In multivariable logistic regression, non-injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to be heroin dependent, less than daily methamphetamine users and to have a heroin using sex partner in the last two months. Injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to use heroin daily, share injection paraphernalia and less likely to have been in a detoxification program and to have not used marijuana in the last six months. Conclusion The results overall suggest that illicit (or street) methadone use is likely not a primary drug of choice, but is instead more common in concert with other illicit drug use. PMID:18957116

  20. Impurities in Illicit Drug Preparations: Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Verweij, A M

    1989-06-01

    In this review, attention is paid to chromatographic and mass spectral properties of already identified impurities found to be present in frequently abused drug preparations of illegal origin of amphetamine and methamphetamine. The most commonly employed methods of synthesis of drugs of this type are briefly described. Special emphasis is given to the Leuckart route, found to be the preferred method, in the illicit production of amphetamine. Furthermore, some isolation and preconcentration methods for the contaminants are discussed. The importance of identifying impurities present in amphetamine or methamphetamine cannot be overestimated. These impurities originate mostly from the improper purification in the end stage of the different syntheses used in the clandestine manufacture of the substances; it is possible to differentiate between the several kinds of illegal drug preparations, synthesized by various methods, by means of so-called "route specific" impurities. Finally, a survey is given of the impurities already known to be present in amphetamine and methamphetamine, together with their mass spectral and some chromatographic properties. PMID:26266521

  1. Health spending, illicit financial flows and tax incentives in Malawi.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, B; Curtis, M

    2014-12-01

    This analysis examines the gaps in health care financing in Malawi and how foregone taxes could fill these gaps. It begins with an assessment of the disease burden and government health expenditure. Then it analyses the tax revenues foregone by the government of Malawi by two main routes: Illicit financial flows (IFF) from the country, Tax incentives. We find that there are significant financing gaps in the health sector; for example, government expenditure is United States Dollars (USD) 177 million for 2013/2014 while projected donor contribution in 2013/2014 is USD 207 million and the total cost for the minimal health package is USD 535 million. Thus the funding gap between the government budget for health and the required spending to provide the minimal package for 2013/2014 is USD 358 million. On the other hand we estimate that almost USD 400 million is lost through IFF and corporate utilization of tax incentives each year. The revenues foregone plus the current government health spending would be sufficient to cover the minimal public health package for all Malawians and would help tackle Malawi's disease burden. Every effort must be made, including improving transparency and revising laws, to curtail IFF and moderate tax incentives. PMID:26167264

  2. ANN expert system screening for illicit amphetamines using molecular descriptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosav, S.; Praisler, M.; Dorohoi, D. O.

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this study was to develop and an artificial neural network (ANN) based on computed descriptors, which would be able to classify the molecular structures of potential illicit amphetamines and to derive their biological activity according to the similarity of their molecular structure with amphetamines of known toxicity. The system is necessary for testing new molecular structures for epidemiological, clinical, and forensic purposes. It was built using a database formed by 146 compounds representing drugs of abuse (mainly central stimulants, hallucinogens, sympathomimetic amines, narcotics and other potent analgesics), precursors, or derivatized counterparts. Their molecular structures were characterized by computing three types of descriptors: 38 constitutional descriptors (CDs), 69 topological descriptors (TDs) and 160 3D-MoRSE descriptors (3DDs). An ANN system was built for each category of variables. All three networks (CD-NN, TD-NN and 3DD-NN) were trained to distinguish between stimulant amphetamines, hallucinogenic amphetamines, and nonamphetamines. A selection of variables was performed when necessary. The efficiency with which each network identifies the class identity of an unknown sample was evaluated by calculating several figures of merit. The results of the comparative analysis are presented.

  3. Illicit material detector based on gas sensors and neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaldi, Vincent; Politano, Jean-Luc

    1997-02-01

    In accordance with its missions, le Centre de Recherches et d'Etudes de la Logistique de la Police Nationale francaise (CREL) has been conducting research for the past few years targeted at detecting drugs and explosives. We have focused our approach of the underlying physical and chemical detection principles on solid state gas sensors, in the hope of developing a hand-held drugs and explosives detector. The CREL and Laboratory and Scientific Services Directorate are research partners for this project. Using generic hydrocarbon, industrially available, metal oxide sensors as illicit material detectors, requires usage precautions. Indeed, neither the product's concentrations, nor even the products themselves, belong to the intended usage specifications. Therefore, the CREL is currently investigating two major research topics: controlling the sensor's environment: with environmental control we improve the detection of small product concentration; determining detection thresholds: both drugs and explosives disseminate low gas concentration. We are attempting to quantify the minimal concentration which triggers detection. In the long run, we foresee a computer-based tool likely to detect a target gas in a noisy atmosphere. A neural network is the suitable tool for interpreting the response of heterogeneous sensor matrix. This information processing structure, alongside with proper sensor environment control, will lessen the repercussions of common MOS sensor sensitivity characteristic dispersion.

  4. Networked sensors for the combat forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klager, Gene

    2004-11-01

    Real-time and detailed information is critical to the success of ground combat forces. Current manned reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) capabilities are not sufficient to cover battlefield intelligence gaps, provide Beyond-Line-of-Sight (BLOS) targeting, and the ambush avoidance information necessary for combat forces operating in hostile situations, complex terrain, and conducting military operations in urban terrain. This paper describes a current US Army program developing advanced networked unmanned/unattended sensor systems to survey these gaps and provide the Commander with real-time, pertinent information. Networked Sensors for the Combat Forces plans to develop and demonstrate a new generation of low cost distributed unmanned sensor systems organic to the RSTA Element. Networked unmanned sensors will provide remote monitoring of gaps, will increase a unit"s area of coverage, and will provide the commander organic assets to complete his Battlefield Situational Awareness (BSA) picture for direct and indirect fire weapons, early warning, and threat avoidance. Current efforts include developing sensor packages for unmanned ground vehicles, small unmanned aerial vehicles, and unattended ground sensors using advanced sensor technologies. These sensors will be integrated with robust networked communications and Battle Command tools for mission planning, intelligence "reachback", and sensor data management. The network architecture design is based on a model that identifies a three-part modular design: 1) standardized sensor message protocols, 2) Sensor Data Management, and 3) Service Oriented Architecture. This simple model provides maximum flexibility for data exchange, information management and distribution. Products include: Sensor suites optimized for unmanned platforms, stationary and mobile versions of the Sensor Data Management Center, Battle Command planning tools, networked communications, and sensor management software. Details

  5. Influence of maneuverability on helicopter combat effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falco, M.; Smith, R.

    1982-01-01

    A computational procedure employing a stochastic learning method in conjunction with dynamic simulation of helicopter flight and weapon system operation was used to derive helicopter maneuvering strategies. The derived strategies maximize either survival or kill probability and are in the form of a feedback control based upon threat visual or warning system cues. Maneuverability parameters implicit in the strategy development include maximum longitudinal acceleration and deceleration, maximum sustained and transient load factor turn rate at forward speed, and maximum pedal turn rate and lateral acceleration at hover. Results are presented in terms of probability of skill for all combat initial conditions for two threat categories.

  6. [Prospective methods of combat burn injury treatment].

    PubMed

    Ivchenko, E V; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B; Sechin, A A

    2014-11-01

    The current article briefly reviews the projects of development of combat burn injury treatment as they have been presented in the US Armed Forces Institute of Regenerative Medicine 2013 annual report. Eleven projects have been reviewed, in particular: P12 polypeptide for limiting burn injury progression, gamma keratose gelfor enhancement skin cell survival, starch-polyurethane iodophor dressing effective against the most common burn infection, microorganisms, autologous stem and progenitor cells for single cell cytotransplantation by "skin gun" spray device or 3D skin bioprinting, a bioreactor for skin autotransplant expansion. PMID:25816683

  7. ALTERATIONS IN MATERNAL-FETAL CELLULAR TRAFFICKING AFTER FETAL SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Saadai, Payam; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Bautista, Geoanna; Gonzales, Kelly D.; Nijagal, Amar; Busch, Michael P.; Kim, CJ; Romero, Roberto; Lee, Hanmin; Hirose, Shinjiro; Rand, Larry; Miniati, Douglas; Farmer, Diana L.; MacKenzie, Tippi C.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Purpose Bi-directional trafficking of cells between the mother and the fetus is routine in pregnancy and a component of maternal-fetal tolerance. Changes in fetal-to-maternal cellular trafficking have been reported in prenatal complications, but maternal-to-fetal trafficking has never been studied in the context of fetal intervention. We hypothesized that patients undergoing open fetal surgery would have altered maternal-fetal cellular trafficking. Methods Cellular trafficking was analyzed in patients with myelomeningocele (MMC) who underwent open fetal surgical repair (n=5), MMC patients who had routine postnatal repair (n=6), and normal term patients (n=9). As a control for the fetal operation, trafficking was also analyzed in patients who were delivered by an ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure (n=6). Microchimerism in maternal and cord blood was determined using quantitative real-time PCR for non-shared alleles. Results Maternal-to-fetal trafficking was significantly increased in patients who underwent open fetal surgery for MMC compared to normal controls, postnatal MMC repair, and EXIT patients. There were no differences in fetal-to-maternal cell trafficking between groups. Conclusion Patients undergoing open fetal surgery for MMC have elevated levels of maternal microchimerism. These results suggest altered trafficking and/or increased proliferation of maternal cells in fetal blood and may have important implications for preterm labor. PMID:22703775

  8. Casualties of War: Combat Trauma and the Return of the Combat Veteran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiely, Denis O.; Swift, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The experience of the combat soldier and the road back to civilian life are recurrent themes in American literature and cinema. Whether the treatment is tragic (Stephen Crane's "Red Badge of Courage", Tim O'Brien's "The Things They Carried", or Tony Scott's "Blackhawk Down"), satirical (Joseph Heller's "Catch Twenty-Two" and Robert Altman's…

  9. Contemporary group treatment of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, George

    2007-01-01

    The contemporary group treatment of veterans from the Vietnam War to the present who suffer from combat-related PTSD is reviewed in light of the dynamic understanding of combat trauma developed during and since World War II. Both dynamic and cognitive behavioral group therapies are explored. The common features of all group treatments of combat PTSD involve the development of trust and the communalization of trauma within a cohesive group. Further research is needed to increase our understanding of effectiveness, mediating factors, and relationships between childhood experience and combat trauma. PMID:17480188

  10. Medical rescue of naval combat: challenges and future.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hai; Hou, Li-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2015-01-01

    There has been no large-scale naval combat in the last 30 years. With the rapid development of battleships, weapons manufacturing and electronic technology, naval combat will present some new characteristics. Additionally, naval combat is facing unprecedented challenges. In this paper, we discuss the topic of medical rescue at sea: what challenges we face and what we could do. The contents discussed in this paper contain battlefield self-aid buddy care, clinical skills, organized health services, medical training and future medical research programs. We also discuss the characteristics of modern naval combat, medical rescue challenges, medical treatment highlights and future developments of medical rescue at sea. PMID:26309738

  11. War leaves an enduring legacy in combatants' lives.

    PubMed

    Smith, Barbara; Parsons, Matthew; Hand, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The memory of combat experience endures in World War II veterans. As veterans age, traumatic memory that previously may have been suppressed in the busyness of family and everyday life can re-emerge. Combat stress may affect not only the veterans, but also those people closely associated with them. Interviews were conducted with World War II veteran aircrew, wives, children, grandchildren, siblings, and friends to examine the impact of combat experience on the veterans and the family across the life course from the perspectives of the various participants. The combat experience significantly affected the life course of most. PMID:24873865

  12. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President... economy of the United States constituted by the actions of significant narcotics traffickers centered...

  13. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President declared a national emergency with respect to significant narcotics traffickers centered in...

  14. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President... economy of the United States constituted by the actions of significant narcotics traffickers centered...

  15. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President... economy of the United States constituted by the actions of significant narcotics traffickers centered...

  16. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia Presidential Documents Other Presidential... Narcotics Traffickers Centered in Colombia On October 21, 1995, by Executive Order 12978, the President... economy of the United States constituted by the actions of significant narcotics traffickers centered...

  17. Combat-Related Invasive Fungal Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carlos J.

    2014-01-01

    Combat-related invasive fungal (mold) wound infections (IFIs) have emerged as an important and morbid complication following explosive blast injuries among military personnel. Similar to trauma-associated IFI cases among civilian populations, as in agricultural accidents and natural disasters, these infections occur in the setting of penetrating wounds contaminated by environmental debris. Specific risk factors for combat-related IFI include dismounted (patrolling on foot) blast injuries occurring mostly in southern Afghanistan, resulting in above knee amputations requiring resuscitation with large-volume blood transfusions. Diagnosis of IFI is based upon early identification of a recurrently necrotic wound following serial debridement and tissue-based histopathology examination with special stains to detect invasive disease. Fungal culture of affected tissue also provides supportive information. Aggressive surgical debridement of affected tissue is the primary therapy. Empiric antifungal therapy should be considered when there is a strong suspicion for IFI. Both liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole should be considered initially for treatment since many of the cases involve not only Mucorales species but also Aspergillus or Fusarium spp., with narrowing of regimen based upon clinical mycology findings. PMID:25530825

  18. Digital control of highly augmented combat rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Mark B.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed concepts for the next generation of combat helicopters are to be embodied in a complex, highly maneuverable, multiroled vehicle with avionics systems. Single pilot and nap-of-the-Earth operations require handling qualities which minimize the involvement of the pilot in basic stabilization tasks. To meet these requirements will demand a full authority, high-gain, multimode, multiply-redundant, digital flight-control system. The gap between these requirements and current low-authority, low-bandwidth operational rotorcraft flight-control technology is considerable. This research aims at smoothing the transition between current technology and advanced concept requirements. The state of the art of high-bandwidth digital flight-control systems are reviewed; areas of specific concern for flight-control systems of modern combat are exposed; and the important concepts are illustrated in design and analysis of high-gain, digital systems with a detailed case study involving a current rotorcraft system. Approximate and exact methods are explained and illustrated for treating the important concerns which are unique to digital systems.

  19. Cell Therapy Strategies to Combat Immunosenescence

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Elizabeth C; Brown, Bryan N

    2015-01-01

    abstract Declining function of the immune system, termed “immunosenescence,” leads to a higher incidence of infection, cancer, and autoimmune disease related mortalities in the elderly population.1 Increasing interest in the field of immunosenescence is well-timed, as 20% of the United States population is expected to surpass the age of 65 by the year 2030.2 Our current understanding of immunosenescence involves a shift in function of both adaptive and innate immune cells, leading to a reduced capacity to recognize new antigens and widespread chronic inflammation. The present review focuses on changes that occur in haematopoietic stem cells, macrophages, and T-cells using knowledge gained from both rodent and human studies. The review will discuss emerging strategies to combat immunosenescence, focusing on cellular and genetic therapies, including bone marrow transplantation and genetic reprogramming. A better understanding of the mechanisms and implications of immunosenescence will be necessary to combat age-related mortalities in the future. PMID:26588595

  20. Flat panels in future ground combat vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurd, Eric D.; Forest, Coryne A.

    1996-05-01

    The efforts of the design team for the Crewman's Associate Advanced Technology Demonstration (CA ATD) and its use of advanced display concepts is discussed. This team has the responsibility of identifying future technologies with the potential for maximizing human- machine interaction for incorporation into future crew station designs for ground combat vehicles. The design process utilizes extensive user involvement in all stages. This is critical to developing systems that have complex functions, yet are simple to maintain and operate. Described are the needs which have driven the U.S. Army towards the use of flat panels. Ultimately, the army is looking at smaller, lighter, more deployable ground combat vehicles. This goal is driving individual components to have characteristics such as low weight, low power usage, and reduced volume while maintaining ruggedness and functionality. The potential applications for flat panels in ground vehicles is also discussed. The army is looking at applications for out-the-window views (virtual periscopes), multi-functional displays, and head mounted displays to accomplish its goals of designing better crew interfaces. The army's requirements in regards to the technologies that must be developed and supported by flat panel displays are also discussed in this section. In conclusion, future projections of the use of flat panels for the Crewman's Associate ATD will be outlined. Projections will be made in terms of physical numbers and promising technologies that fulfill the goals of the CAATD and achieve the approval of the user community.

  1. Composite structural armor for combat vehicle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, William E., III; Alesi, A. L.; Parsons, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Several projects that have demonstrated the advantages of using thick composite armor technology for structural applications in armored combat vehicles are discussed. The first involved composite cargo doors for the Marine Corps LVTP-7 amphibious landing vehicle. Another was a demonstration composite turret that offered a weight reduction of 15.5 percent. The advantages of this composite armor compared to metallic armors used for combat vehicle hull and turret applications are reduced weight at equal ballistic protection; reduced back armor spall; excellent corrosion resistance; reduced production costs by parts consolidation; and inherent thermal and acoustic insulative properties. Based on the encouraging results of these past programs, the Demonstration Composite Hull Program was started in September 1986. To demonstrate this composite armor technology, the Army's newest infantry fighting vehicle, the Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV), was selected as a model. A composite infantry fighting vehicle, designated the CIFV for this program, has been designed and fabricated and is currently undergoing a 6000 mile field endurance test. The CIFV demonstration vehicle uses the BFV engine, transmission, suspension, track and other equipment.

  2. The Task of Detecting Illicit Nuclear Material: Status and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzes, Richard

    2006-04-01

    In August 1994, police at the Munich airport intercepted a suitcase from Moscow with half a kilogram of nuclear-reactor fuel, of which 363 grams was weapons- grade plutonium. A few months later police seized 2.7 kilograms of highly enriched uranium from a former worker at a Russian nuclear institute and his accomplices in Prague. These are just two of 18 incidents involving the smuggling of weapons grade nuclear materials between 1993 and 2004 reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The consequences of a stolen or improvised nuclear device being exploded in a U.S. city would be world changing. The concern over the possibility of a nuclear weapon, or the material for a weapon or a radiological dispersion device, being smuggled across U.S. borders has led to the deployment of radiation detection equipment at the borders. Related efforts are occurring around the world. Radiation portal monitors are used as the main screening tool, supplemented by handheld detectors, personal radiation detectors, and x-ray imaging systems. Passive detection techniques combined with imaging, and possibly active techniques, are the current available tools for screening cargo for items of concern. There are a number of physics limitations to what is possible with each technology given the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials, commercial sources, and medical radionuclides in the stream of commerce. There have been a number of lessons learned to date from the various efforts in the U.S. and internationally about the capability for interdicting illicit nuclear material.

  3. Chemiluminescence detection of heroin in illicit drug samples.

    PubMed

    Terry, Jessica M; Smith, Zoe M; Learey, Jessica J; Shalliker, R Andrew; Barnett, Neil W; Francis, Paul S

    2013-11-15

    Heroin (3,6-diacetylmorphine) and several important extraction and synthesis impurities (morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine and 6-acetylcodeine) were determined in illicit drug samples, using high performance liquid chromatography with 'parallel segmented flow', which enabled the simultaneous use of three complementary modes of detection (UV-absorbance, tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) chemiluminescence and permanganate chemiluminescence). This rapid and sensitive approach for the analysis of street heroin was used to explore the chemistry of a proposed heroin screening test that is based on the relative response with these two chemiluminescence reagents using flow injection analysis. Although heroin was the major constituent of the six drug samples (between 16% and 67% by mass), the synthetic by-product 6-acetylcodeine (2.5-8.3%) made a greater contribution to the total [Ru(bipy)3](3+) chemiluminescence response of the screening test. The signal with permanganate was primarily due to the presence of 6-monoacetylmorphine (0.9-29%), and was therefore indicative of the degree of sample degradation during clandestine manufacture or poor storage conditions prior to the drug seizure. In the second part of the screening test, the sample is treated with sodium hydroxide, which results in a large increase in the signal with permanganate, due to the rapid hydrolysis of heroin to 6-monoacetylmorphine. As the emission of these two reagents with morphinan-alkaloids and their derivatives largely depends on the substituent at the O(3) position, the slower hydrolysis of 6-monoacetylmorphine to morphine, and 6-acetylcodeine to codeine, did not have a major impact on the characteristic pattern of responses in the screening test. PMID:24148453

  4. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog “alert” is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors. PMID:26083377

  5. Gonadotropins in doping: pharmacological basis and detection of illicit use

    PubMed Central

    Stenman, U-H; Hotakainen, K; Alfthan, H

    2008-01-01

    Parenteral administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the production of testosterone in males and these gonadotropins can therefore be used by athletes to enhance muscle strength. However, they are more expensive and less efficient than testosterone and anabolic steroids. Therefore their main use is probably to stimulate gonadal testosterone production during and after self-administration of testosterone or anabolic steroids. A positive effect of hCG on muscle strength has not been demonstrated in women and elevated concentrations of hCG in females are often caused by pregnancy. The use of gonadotropins is therefore prohibited only in males but not in females. HCG occurs at low but measurable concentrations in plasma and urine of healthy males and can be measured by sensitive methods. However, the characteristics of the method to be used for doping control have not been defined. Virtually all commercially available hCG assays have been designed for determination of hCG in serum rather than urine, which is used for doping control. Methods based on mass spectrometric detection of fragments derived from hCG extracted from urine by immunoadsorption have been developed but their suitability for doping control remains to be determined. The concentrations of LH in serum and urine are variable and more then 10-fold higher than those hCG. It is therefore difficult to detect illicit use of LH. The characteristics and reference values for hCG and LH assays used in doping control and the cutoff values need to be defined. PMID:18414398

  6. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors. PMID:26083377

  7. Ganglioside Regulation of AMPA Receptor Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Jillian; Umanah, George K.E.; Yoo, Seung-Wan; Lagerlöf, Olof; Motari, Mary G.; Cole, Robert N.; Huganir, Richard L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2014-01-01

    Gangliosides are major cell-surface determinants on all vertebrate neurons. Human congenital disorders of ganglioside biosynthesis invariably result in intellectual disability and are often associated with intractable seizures. To probe the mechanisms of ganglioside functions, affinity-captured ganglioside-binding proteins from rat cerebellar granule neurons were identified by quantitative proteomic mass spectrometry. Of the six proteins that bound selectively to the major brain ganglioside GT1b (GT1b:GM1 > 4; p < 10−4), three regulate neurotransmitter receptor trafficking: Thorase (ATPase family AAA domain-containing protein 1), soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (γ-SNAP), and the transmembrane protein Nicalin. Thorase facilitates endocytosis of GluR2 subunit-containing AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) in an ATPase-dependent manner; its deletion in mice results in learning and memory deficits (J. Zhang et al., 2011b). GluR2-containing AMPARs did not bind GT1b, but bound specifically to another ganglioside, GM1. Addition of noncleavable ATP (ATPγS) significantly disrupted ganglioside binding, whereas it enhanced AMPAR association with Thorase, NSF, and Nicalin. Mutant mice lacking GT1b expressed markedly higher brain Thorase, whereas Thorase-null mice expressed higher GT1b. Treatment of cultured hippocampal neurons with sialidase, which cleaves GT1b (and other sialoglycans), resulted in a significant reduction in the size of surface GluR2 puncta. These data support a model in which GM1-bound GluR2-containing AMPARs are functionally segregated from GT1b-bound AMPAR-trafficking complexes. Release of ganglioside binding may enhance GluR2-containing AMPAR association with its trafficking complexes, increasing endocytosis. Disrupting ganglioside biosynthesis may result in reduced synaptic expression of GluR2-contianing AMPARs resulting in intellectual deficits and seizure susceptibility in mice and humans. PMID:25253868

  8. Plant vacuole morphology and vacuolar trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunhua; Hicks, Glenn R.; Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2014-01-01

    Plant vacuoles are essential organelles for plant growth and development, and have multiple functions. Vacuoles are highly dynamic and pleiomorphic, and their size varies depending on the cell type and growth conditions. Vacuoles compartmentalize different cellular components such as proteins, sugars, ions and other secondary metabolites and play critical roles in plants response to different biotic/abiotic signaling pathways. In this review, we will summarize the patterns of changes in vacuole morphology in certain cell types, our understanding of the mechanisms of plant vacuole biogenesis, and the role of SNAREs and Rab GTPases in vacuolar trafficking. PMID:25309565

  9. Ras trafficking, localization and compartmentalized signalling

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Ian A.; Hancock, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Ras proteins are proto-oncogenes that are frequently mutated in human cancers. Three closely related isoforms, HRAS, KRAS and NRAS, are expressed in all cells and have overlapping but distinctive functions. Recent work has revealed how differences between the Ras isoforms in their trafficking, localization and protein-membrane orientation enable signalling specificity to be determined. We review the various strategies used to characterize compartmentalized Ras localization and signalling. Localization is an important contextual modifier of signalling networks and insights from the Ras system are of widespread relevance for researchers interested in signalling initiated from membranes. PMID:21924373

  10. Autophagy and proteins involved in vesicular trafficking.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Celina; Fader, Claudio Marcelo; Colombo, María Isabel

    2015-11-14

    Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that, as a basic mechanism it delivers cytoplasmic components to the lysosomes in order to maintain adequate energy levels and cellular homeostasis. This complex cellular process is activated by low cellular nutrient levels and other stress situations such as low ATP levels, the accumulation of damaged proteins or organelles, or pathogen invasion. Autophagy as a multistep process involves vesicular transport events leading to tethering and fusion of autophagic vesicles with several intracellular compartments. This review summarizes our current understanding of the autophagic pathway with emphasis in the trafficking machinery (i.e. Rabs GTPases and SNAP receptors (SNAREs)) involved in specific steps of the pathway. PMID:26450776

  11. Insulin Granule Biogenesis, Trafficking and Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Hou, June Chunqiu; Min, Le; Pessin, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that beta cell dysfunction resulting in abnormal insulin secretion is the essential element in the progression of patients from a state of impaired glucose tolerance to frank type 2 diabetes (Del Prato, 2003; Del Prato and Tiengo, 2001). Although extensive studies have examined the molecular, cellular and physiologic mechanisms of insulin granule biogenesis, sorting, and exocytosis the precise mechanisms controlling these processes and their dysregulation in the developed of diabetes remains an area of important investigation. We now know that insulin biogenesis initiates with the synthesis of preproinsulin in rough endoplastic reticulum and conversion of preproinsulin to proinsulin. Proinsulin begins to be packaged in the Trans-Golgi Network and is sorting into immature secretory granules. These immature granules become acidic via ATP-dependent proton pump and proinsulin undergoes proteolytic cleavage resulting the formation of insulin and C-peptide. During the granule maturation process, insulin is crystallized with zinc and calcium in the form of dense-core granules and unwanted cargo and membrane proteins undergo selective retrograde trafficking to either the constitutive trafficking pathway for secretion or to degradative pathways. The newly formed mature dense-core insulin granules populate two different intracellular pools, the readily releasable pools (RRP) and the reserved pool. These two distinct populations are thought to be responsible for the biphasic nature of insulin release in which the RRP granules are associated with the plasma membrane and undergo an acute calcium-dependent release accounting for first phase insulin secretion. In contrast, second phase insulin secretion requires the trafficking of the reserved granule pool to the plasma membrane. The initial trigger for insulin granule fusion with the plasma membrane is a rise in intracellular calcium and in the case of glucose stimulation results from

  12. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... illegally shipped chemicals. West Africa Although no West African country is currently listed as a major... drug trafficking in West Africa with direct links to transnational crime organizations based in Latin... estimates that cocaine trafficking in West Africa generates approximately $1.25 billion at wholesale...

  13. Progress in combating cigarette smuggling: controlling the supply chain

    PubMed Central

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    2008-01-01

    Background: The illicit tobacco trade results in huge losses of revenue to governments, estimated at $US40–50 billion in 2006, and in increased consumption and thus health problems because it makes tobacco available more cheaply. On 20 October 2008 the second meeting of the International Negotiating Body (INB2) on the illicit trade protocol of WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) will discuss measures to tackle the illicit trade in tobacco products. Methods: This paper presents the experience over the last decade of three countries, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom, which shows that tobacco smuggling can be successfully tackled. Conclusion: The evidence strongly suggests that the key to controlling smuggling is controlling the supply chain, and that the supply chain is controlled to a great extent by the tobacco industry. PMID:18784154

  14. Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among adolescents and young adults in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine has been described as a growing problem in Sweden in recent years, and has been associated with an increased drug-related mortality. Critics claim that the substances have become popular among adolescents and that they function as a gateway to heroin use. The aim of this study is to investigate, firstly, the extent to which illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine occurs among adolescents and young adults in Sweden, and secondly, at what stage in a user’s drug career these substances tend to appear. Methods The study is based on surveys and structured interviews on drug use among various populations of young people, in addition to qualitative interviews with 86 informants who, in their professional capacity, encounter adolescents or young adults who are using illicit drugs. Results Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is rare among young people in Sweden. According to high school surveys, less than 0.1% have tried these substances. Among young drug users in general, few have tried the substances, and there is nothing to indicate that they act as gateway drugs. Among adolescents and young adults with severe drug problems, however, the illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is more common (54% in a compulsory care sample). These substances normally enter the drug career late, and few use them as their main drug of choice. Other prescription drugs, like benzodiazepines and tramadol, are used by adolescents to a far greater extent. Diversion and illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine is not seen as a serious problem by the professionals interviewed. A general view is that the substances are mainly used by people with a heroin or polydrug addiction, often for “self-medication” purposes. However, several informants express concern that methadone and buprenorphine may cause fatalities among young drug users without an opioid tolerance. Conclusions Illicit use of methadone and buprenorphine among

  15. Illicit peyote use among American Indian adolescents in substance abuse treatment: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Fickenscher, Alexandra; Novins, Douglas K; Manson, Spero M

    2006-01-01

    Few studies to date have addressed illicit (i.e., nonceremonial) peyote use among American Indians (AIs). Participants were 89 AI adolescents admitted to a tribally operated residential substance abuse treatment program (RSATP) between 1998 and 2001. The RSATP is designed to provide specialized treatment of patients with substance use and other comorbid psychiatric disorders and is infused with a culturally sensitive approach to treatment. The participants completed a series of interviews that collected information on psychiatric diagnostic status, history of substance use, and ethnic identity. The majority of participants were male (65%), did not come from a two-parent household (75%), reported a mean use of 5.4 substances, and met full criteria for a median of 2.9 substance use disorders. Of 89 clients, 10 (11.2%) reported illicit use of peyote. The vast majority of these youth (n = 8) reported using peyote only once or twice in their lifetime. Illicit peyote users did not differ from nonusers in terms of age, gender, other substance use, prevalence of either other substance abuse/dependence or other nonsubstance use psychiatric disorders. However, illicit peyote users were more likely to report low levels of social support, low levels of self-esteem, and low identification with AI culture yet comparable involvement in AI traditional practices. The results of this exploratory study suggest that illicit peyote use is uncommon among AI adolescents with serious substance abuse problems. PMID:16798681

  16. A further component analysis for illicit drugs mixtures with THz-TDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wei; Shen, Jingling; He, Ting; Pan, Rui

    2009-07-01

    A new method for quantitative analysis of mixtures of illicit drugs with THz time domain spectroscopy was proposed and verified experimentally. In traditional method we need fingerprints of all the pure chemical components. In practical as only the objective components in a mixture and their absorption features are known, it is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection and identification. Our new method of quantitatively inspect of the mixtures of illicit drugs is developed by using derivative spectrum. In this method, the ratio of objective components in a mixture can be obtained on the assumption that all objective components in the mixture and their absorption features are known but the unknown components are not needed. Then methamphetamine and flour, a illicit drug and a common adulterant, were selected for our experiment. The experimental result verified the effectiveness of the method, which suggested that it could be an effective method for quantitative identification of illicit drugs. This THz spectroscopy technique is great significant in the real-world applications of illicit drugs quantitative analysis. It could be an effective method in the field of security and pharmaceuticals inspection.

  17. Alcohol consumption, illicit substances, and intimate partner violence in a sample of batterers in psychological treatment.

    PubMed

    Redondo Rodríguez, Natalia; Graña Gómez, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the alcohol and illicit substance consumption characteristics in a sample of 572 batterers in treatment by court order. The results indicate that the prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year was 89.3%, whereas within illicit substances, the prevalences were higher for cannabis (27.8%), followed by cocaine 20.3%). In order to analyze the possible effect of consumption on levels of perpetration and victimization of partner-aggression, the sample was divided into 4 groups: nonconsumers (16.3%), alcohol consumers (58.6%), illicit drug consumers (3.5%), and consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs (21.7%), finding that the groups of nonconsumers and alcohol consumers presented the lowest level of perpetration of psychological, physical, and sexual aggression and of victimization of psychological and physical aggression, whereas the group of consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs presented the highest levels. The results reveal the need to assess substance consumption when designing intervention protocols with batterers. PMID:25879475

  18. Is there a gender difference in associates of adolescents’ lifetime illicit drug use in Tehran, Iran?

    PubMed Central

    Ameneh-Forouzan, Setareh-; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Assari, Shervin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Information regarding gender differences in drug use of adolescents is essential for designing gender-specific drug prevention policies. This study was conducted in high school students in Tehran, Iran, in 2007. Here, we report the gender differences in lifetime prevalence as well as psychosocial associates of drug use. Material and methods This was a gender analysis of the data collected in a drug use survey conducted in a random sample of high school adolescents (573 boys and 551 girls) in Tehran, Iran, 2007. Demographic characteristics, parental and peers’ substance use, school performance, religious beliefs, attachment, self-esteem and emotional intelligence (EI) were entered in logistic regression analyses to predict the lifetime illicit drug use in boy and girls, separately. Results Boys were more likely to report lifetime illicit drug use than girls (10.1% vs. 6.4%, p = 0.023). Differences in the risk profile associated with lifetime illicit drug use by gender included history of substance use in the family, higher score of attachment, and having an employed mother as predictors of substance use in boys, but not girls. Conclusions Understanding this gender difference in predictors of lifetime use of illicit drugs in high school adolescents facilitates the design of gender-sensitive drug use preventive programmes. It seems that family variables may have more value in prevention of illicit drug use in male adolescents. PMID:22371778

  19. Wastewater testing compared to random urinalyses for the surveillance of illicit drug use in prisons

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Alex J.; Banta-Green, Caleb J.; Ort, Christoph; Robel, Alix E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Illicit drug use is known to occur among inmate populations of correctional (prison) facilities. Conventional approaches to monitor illicit drug use in prisons include random urinalyses (RUAs). Conventional approaches are expected to be prone to bias because prisoners may be aware of which days of the week RUAs are conducted. Therefore, we wanted to compare wastewater loads for methamphetamine and cocaine during days with RUA testing and without. Design and Methods We collected daily 24-hour composite samples of wastewater by continuous sampling, computed daily loads for one month and compared the frequency of illicit drug detection to the number of positive RUAs. Diurnal data also were collected for three days in order to determine within-day patterns of illicit drugs excretion. Results Methamphetamine was observed in each sample of prison wastewater with no significant difference in daily mass loads between RUA testing and non-testing days. Cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine, were observed only at levels below quantification in prison wastewater. Six RUAs were positive for methamphetamine during the month while none were positive for cocaine out of the 243 RUAs conducted. Discussion and Conclusions Wastewater analyses offer data regarding the frequency of illicit drug excretion inside the prison that RUAs alone could not detect. PMID:25100044

  20. 22 CFR 40.23 - Controlled substance traffickers. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Controlled substance traffickers. 40.23 Section 40.23 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... Certain Crimes § 40.23 Controlled substance traffickers....

  1. 22 CFR 40.23 - Controlled substance traffickers. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled substance traffickers. 40.23 Section 40.23 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... Certain Crimes § 40.23 Controlled substance traffickers....

  2. 22 CFR 40.23 - Controlled substance traffickers. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Controlled substance traffickers. 40.23 Section 40.23 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... Certain Crimes § 40.23 Controlled substance traffickers....

  3. 22 CFR 40.23 - Controlled substance traffickers. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Controlled substance traffickers. 40.23 Section 40.23 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... Certain Crimes § 40.23 Controlled substance traffickers....

  4. Teaching about Trafficking: Opportunities and Challenges for Critical Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragiewicz, Molly

    2008-01-01

    The author came to know about trafficking by accident, when she was hired as a research assistant at The Protection Project (TPP) in 1999. As a feminist teacher, the author was very aware of the divisions among feminists on the subject of trafficking, and was interested in communicating these differences to students who were not well versed in the…

  5. Aggression in Sexually Abused Trafficked Girls and Efficacy of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls…

  6. Protein kinesis: The dynamics of protein trafficking and stability

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference is to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on protein kinesis. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: protein folding and modification in the endoplasmic reticulum; protein trafficking; protein translocation and folding; protein degradation; polarity; nuclear trafficking; membrane dynamics; and protein import into organelles.

  7. Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotrla, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    By now, most social workers are familiar with the issue of human trafficking. However, many are likely unfamiliar with research indicating that youths constitute the most vulnerable group in the United States for becoming victims of sex trafficking and that most women in prostitution actually entered as minors. Some experts are now referring to…

  8. 78 FR 59317 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Ending Trafficking in Persons

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... (77 FR 60029, October 2, 2012), and Title XVII, entitled ``Ending Trafficking in Government... and maintaining compliance plans. (Notice--MVC-2013-01 was published in the Federal Register at 78 FR... Trafficking in Persons in Federal Contracts'', dated September 25, 2012, (77 FR 60029, October 2, 2012),...

  9. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING...

  10. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING...

  11. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING...

  12. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING...

  13. 31 CFR 536.312 - Specially designated narcotics trafficker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... designated narcotics trafficker means: (a) Persons listed in the annex to Executive Order 12978 (3 CFR, 1995... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specially designated narcotics... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING...

  14. Adolescent Black Males' Drug Trafficking and Addiction: Three Theoretical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sharon E.

    1995-01-01

    Explains the incidence and nature of drug trafficking and chemical dependency among adolescent black males. The paper also discusses the social science theories of Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Molefi Asante to better understand the behaviors, and the consequences of those behaviors, of young black males who participate in drug trafficking. (GR)

  15. Falling through the Gaps: Safeguarding Children Trafficked into the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokhari, Farrah

    2008-01-01

    An overview of child trafficking in the UK explores the nature and methods of this abuse, as well as the treatment and protection afforded to these particularly vulnerable children. It highlights the shortcomings and inconsistent standards of local authorities, the lack of specialist protection and the uncertainty of a trafficked child's…

  16. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Kleizen, B; Braakman, I; de Jonge, H R

    2000-08-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ABC transporter encoded by the cystic fibrosis gene, is localized in the apical membrane of epithelial cells where it functions as a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels and transporters. Whereas a key role of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in CFTR-channel gating has been firmly established, more recent studies have provided clear evidence for the existence of a second level of cAMP regulation, i.e. the exocytotic recruitment of CFFR to the plasma membrane and its endocytotic retrieval. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR Cl- channel has sofar been demonstrated only in a subset of CFTR-expressing cell types. However, with the introduction of more sensitive methods to measure CFTR cycling and submembrane localization, it might turn out to be a more general phenomenon that could contribute importantly to both the regulation of CFTR-mediated chloride transport itself and to the regulation of other transporters and CFTR-modulated cellular functions. This review aims to summarize the present state of knowledge regarding polarized and regulated CFTR trafficking and endosomal recycling in epithelial cells, to discuss present gaps in our understanding of these processes at the cellular and molecular level, and to consider its possible implications for cystic fibrosis. PMID:11001491

  17. Secretory protein trafficking in Giardia intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Hehl, Adrian B; Marti, Matthias

    2004-07-01

    Early diverged extant organisms, which may serve as convenient laboratory models to look for and study evolutionary ancient features of eukaryotic cell biology, are rare. The diplomonad Giardia intestinalis, a protozoan parasite known to cause diarrhoeal disease, has become an increasingly popular object of basic research in cell biology, not least because of a genome sequencing project nearing completion. Commensurate with its phylogenetic status, the Giardia trophozoite has a very basic secretory system and even lacks hallmark structures such as a morphologically identifiable Golgi apparatus. The cell's capacity for protein sorting is nevertheless unimpeded, exemplified by its ability to cope with massive amounts of newly synthesized cyst wall proteins and glycans, which are sorted to dedicated Golgi-like compartments termed encystation-specific vesicles (ESVs) generated from endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived transport intermediates. This soluble bulk cargo is kept strictly separate from constitutively transported variant surface proteins during export, a function that is dependent on the stage-specific recognition of trafficking signals. Encysting Giardia therefore provide a unique system for the study of unconventional, Golgi-independent protein trafficking mechanisms in the broader context of eukaryotic endomembrane organization and evolution. PMID:15225300

  18. Tobacco industry manipulation of data on and press coverage of the illicit tobacco trade in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Rowell, A; Evans-Reeves, K; Gilmore, A B

    2014-01-01

    Background In the UK, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have been arguing that levels of illicit trade are high and increasing and will rise further if standardised packaging is implemented. This paper examines trends in and accuracy of media reporting of, and industry data on, illicit tobacco in the UK. Methods Quantification of the volume, nature and quality of press articles citing industry data on illicit tobacco in UK newspapers from March 2008 to March 2013. Examination of published TTC data on illicit, including a comparison with independent data and of TTC reporting of Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs data on illicit. Results Media stories citing industry data on illicit tobacco began in June 2011, 2 months after the Tobacco Control Plan for England, which heralded standardised packaging, was published. The majority of data cited are based on industry Empty Pack Surveys for which no methodology is available. For almost all parts of the country where repeat data were cited in press stories, they indicated an increase, often substantial, in non-domestic/illicit cigarettes that is not supported by independent data. Similarly, national data from two published industry sources show a sudden large increase in non-domestic product between 2011 and 2012. Yet the methodology of one report changes over this period and the other provides no published methodology. In contrast, independent data show steady declines in non-domestic and illicit cigarette penetration from 2006 to 2012 and either a continued decline or small increase to 2013. Conclusions Industry claims that use of Non-UK Duty Paid/illicit cigarettes in the UK is sharply increasing are inconsistent with historical trends and recent independent data. TTCs are exaggerating the threat of illicit tobacco by commissioning surveys whose methodology and validity remain uncertain, planting misleading stories and misquoting government data. Industry data on levels of illicit should be treated with extreme

  19. 42 CFR 495.368 - Combating fraud and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Combating fraud and abuse. 495.368 Section 495.368... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.368 Combating fraud and abuse. (a) General... accordance with § 455.15 and § 455.21 of this chapter, refer suspected cases of fraud and abuse to...

  20. 42 CFR 495.368 - Combating fraud and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Combating fraud and abuse. 495.368 Section 495.368... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.368 Combating fraud and abuse. (a) General... accordance with § 455.15 and § 455.21 of this chapter, refer suspected cases of fraud and abuse to...

  1. Close the Book on Hate: 101 Ways To Combat Prejudice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes & Noble, Inc., New York, NY.

    This pamphlet, which is part of the Close the Book on Hate Campaign, provides definitions, resources, and suggested readings on combating prejudice. The premise of the campaign is the belief that through reading and discussion, children will be better able to counter prejudice and hate. The pamphlet begins with suggestions for combatting prejudice…

  2. 3 CFR - Combating Noncompliance With Recovery Act Reporting Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combating Noncompliance With Recovery Act Reporting Requirements Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of April 6, 2010 Combating Noncompliance With Recovery Act Reporting Requirements Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies My Administration...

  3. 32 CFR 813.4 - Combat camera operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combat camera operations. 813.4 Section 813.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.4 Combat camera operations. (a) Air Force COMCAM forces document Air Force and air component activities....

  4. 32 CFR 813.4 - Combat camera operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Combat camera operations. 813.4 Section 813.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES VISUAL INFORMATION DOCUMENTATION PROGRAM § 813.4 Combat camera operations. (a) Air Force COMCAM forces document Air Force and air component activities....

  5. 42 CFR 495.368 - Combating fraud and abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combating fraud and abuse. 495.368 Section 495.368... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicaid Program § 495.368 Combating fraud and abuse. (a) General... accordance with § 455.15 and § 455.21 of this chapter, refer suspected cases of fraud and abuse to...

  6. Can We Facilitate Posttraumatic Growth in Combat Veterans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedeschi, Richard G.; McNally, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program, currently under development for the U.S. Army, will include a component designed to increase the possibilities for posttraumatic growth in the aftermath of combat. In this article, we briefly review studies that provide evidence for this phenomenon in combat veterans, and we suggest elements that such a…

  7. Human Trafficking: The Role of the Health Care Provider

    PubMed Central

    Dovydaitis, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major public health problem, both domestically and internationally. Health care providers are often the only professionals to interact with trafficking victims who are still in captivity. The expert assessment and interview skills of providers contribute to their readiness to identify victims of trafficking. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with knowledge on trafficking and give specific tools that they may use to assist victims in the clinical setting. Definitions, statistics, and common health care problems of trafficking victims are reviewed. The role of the health care provider is outlined through a case study and clinical practice tools are provided. Suggestions for future research are also briefly addressed. PMID:20732668

  8. Psychological Coercion in Human Trafficking: An Application of Biderman's Framework.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Susie B; Fehrenbacher, Anne E; Eisenman, David P

    2015-09-01

    This study examined coercive conditions experienced by trafficked persons in the context of Biderman's theory of coercion. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 adult women trafficked into Los Angeles County, from 10 countries, for domestic work and/or sex work. Participants described health problems they experienced in relation to their trafficking experience and their perceptions of conditions that caused health problems. Utilizing a framework analysis approach, we analyzed themes using Biderman's framework. Participants reported experiencing the range of nonphysical coercive tactics outlined by Biderman, including isolation, monopolization of perception, induced debility or exhaustion, threats, occasional indulgences, demonstration of omnipotence, degradation, and enforcement of trivial demands. Our analysis demonstrates how these coercion tactics reinforced the submission of trafficked persons to their traffickers even in the absence of physical force or restraints. Such psychological abuse creates extreme stress that can lead to acute and chronic, physical and mental health problems. PMID:25371382

  9. New Insights into How Trafficking Regulates T Cell Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Jieqiong; Rossy, Jérémie; Deng, Qiji; Pageon, Sophie V.; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that exocytosis plays an important role in regulating T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. The trafficking molecules involved in lytic granule (LG) secretion in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) have been well-studied due to the immune disorder known as familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHLH). However, the knowledge of trafficking machineries regulating the exocytosis of receptors and signaling molecules remains quite limited. In this review, we summarize the reported trafficking molecules involved in the transport of the TCR and downstream signaling molecules to the cell surface. By combining this information with the known knowledge of LG exocytosis and general exocytic trafficking machinery, we attempt to draw a more complete picture of how the TCR signaling network and exocytic trafficking matrix are interconnected to facilitate T cell activation. This also highlights how membrane compartmentalization facilitates the spatiotemporal organization of cellular responses that are essential for immune functions. PMID:27508206

  10. Entrapment and Enmeshment Schemes Used by Sex Traffickers.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A

    2016-09-01

    Emerging research suggests that sex traffickers/pimps control the majority of trafficked girls in the United States. The youthfulness of these victims and their lack of psychosocial maturity severely diminish their ability to detect exploitative motives or withstand manipulation of traffickers. A review of 43 cases of sexually exploited girls involving non-relative traffickers and 10 semi-structured interviews with social service providers revealed numerous scripts and schemes used by sex traffickers to entrap and entangle victims including boyfriend/lover scripts, ruses involving debt bondage, friendship or faux-family scripts, threats of forced abortion or to take away children, and coerced co-offending. These findings inform potential prevention efforts and highlight the need for multi-systemic, victim-centered approaches to intervention. PMID:25079777

  11. Health impacts and research ethics in female trafficking.

    PubMed

    Dhital, S R; Aro, R A; Sapkota, K

    2011-04-01

    Female trafficking is a social and public health problem, associated with physical and sexual abuse, psychological trauma, injuries from violence, sexually transmitted infections, adverse reproductive outcomes and substance misuse. It faces several challenges ranging from the hidden nature of the problem to ethical and human rights issues. The objectives of this paper are to analyze health impact of trafficking; ethical and research issues and anti-trafficking strategies in the Nepalese context. We collected published and unpublished data assessing the public health, ethical burden and research needs from different sources. Trafficked female involved in sex-industry that face grave situation as depicted and it might a reservoir of sexually transmitted diseases. Ethical issues related to survey of assessing the burden are difficult to carry out. The best ways to prevent and control these problems are to enhance anti- trafficking laws and raise awareness, empower and mobilize females and establish organizational capacity. PMID:22929723

  12. Human trafficking: the role of the health care provider.

    PubMed

    Dovydaitis, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major public health problem, both domestically and internationally. Health care providers are often the only professionals to interact with trafficking victims who are still in captivity. The expert assessment and interview skills of providers contribute to their readiness to identify victims of trafficking. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with knowledge on trafficking and give specific tools that they may use to assist victims in the clinical setting. Definitions, statistics, and common health care problems of trafficking victims are reviewed. The role of the health care provider is outlined through a case study and clinical practice tools are provided. Suggestions for future research are also briefly addressed. PMID:20732668

  13. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Weierstall, Roland; Nandi, Corina; Bambonyé, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2016-01-01

    Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female. PMID:26779084

  14. Challenges and considerations for managing suicide risk in combat zones.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Kanzler, Kathryn E; Durham, Tracy L; West, Christopher L; Greene, Elizabeth

    2010-10-01

    As suicide rates in the military rise, increased attention has been placed on the effective management of high-risk service members. Military mental health professionals deployed to combat zones face a number of challenges and barriers for effective risk management that are unique to the deployed setting. To date, there exists no body of literature identifying areas in which suicide risk management differs between garrison and combat settings to guide mental health professionals in improving clinical decision making with respect to managing suicidal service members in combat zones. On the basis of experience gained during deployments to combat zones, the authors outline several key features of the deployed context that can impact suicide risk and its effective management in combat zones and integrate empirical findings relevant to each issue. Considerations for clinical care and risk management are discussed. PMID:20968259

  15. A naturalistic decision making model for simulated human combatants

    SciTech Connect

    HUNTER,KEITH O.; HART,WILLIAM E.; FORSYTHE,JAMES C.

    2000-05-01

    The authors describe a naturalistic behavioral model for the simulation of small unit combat. This model, Klein's recognition-primed decision making (RPD) model, is driven by situational awareness rather than a rational process of selecting from a set of action options. They argue that simulated combatants modeled with RPD will have more flexible and realistic responses to a broad range of small-scale combat scenarios. Furthermore, they note that the predictability of a simulation using an RPD framework can be easily controlled to provide multiple evaluations of a given combat scenario. Finally, they discuss computational issues for building an RPD-based behavior engine for fully automated combatants in small conflict scenarios, which are being investigated within Sandia's Next Generation Site Security project.

  16. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Weierstall, Roland; Nandi, Corina; Bambonyé, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm

    2015-01-01

    Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female. PMID:26779084

  17. Are there atheists in foxholes? Combat intensity and religious behavior.

    PubMed

    Wansink, Brian; Wansink, Craig S

    2013-09-01

    After battle, the moral and mortality stresses influence different soldiers in different ways. Using two large-scale surveys of World War II veterans, this research investigates the impact of combat on religiosity. Study 1 shows that as combat became more frightening, the percentage of soldiers who reported praying rose from 42 to 72%. Study 2 shows that 50 years later, many soldiers still exhibited religious behavior, but it varied by their war experience. Soldiers who faced heavy combat (vs. no combat) attended church 21% more often if they claimed their war experience was negative, but those who claimed their experience was positive attended 26% less often. The more a combat veteran disliked the war, the more religious they were 50 years later. While implications for counselors, clergy, support groups, and health practitioners are outlined, saying there are no atheists in foxholes may be less of an argument against atheism than it is against foxholes. PMID:23760855

  18. Illicit drug use in seven Latin American countries: critical perspectives of families and familiars.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jaqueline da; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Albarracín, Daniel Gonzalo Eslava; Diaz, Jorge; Funes, Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez; Hernández, Mabell Granados; Torres, Ruth Magdalena Gallegos; Rodriguez, Ruth Jakeline Oviedo

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional multi-centre study explored how family members and friends of illicit drug users perceived protective and risk factors, treatment facilities and policies and laws regarding illicit drug use. Family members and friends of illicit drug users were recruited in 10 urban health care outpatient units in 7 Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico) to complete a questionnaire. The majority of the respondents chose psycho-social factors over genetic or biological explanations as causes of drug problems. Respondents felt that families and governments were responsible for preventing drug problems. Church/religious institutions were most often mentioned in the context of accessible treatment. When asked about access to treatment facilities, the majority said that there were not enough. Shame about drug use, cost, and limited treatment options were most often cited as barriers to treatment. PMID:20011899

  19. Non-destructive inspections of illicit drugs in envelope using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Shen, Jingling; Lu, Meihong; Jia, Yan; Sun, Jinhai; Liang, Laishun; Shi, Yanning; Xu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Cunlin

    2006-09-01

    The absorption spectra of two illicit drugs, methylenedioxyamphetarnine (MDA) and methamphetamine (MA), within and without two conventional envelopes are studied using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The characteristic absorption spectra of MDA and MA are obtained in the range of 0.2 THz to 2.5 THz. MDA has an obvious absorption peak at 1.41 THz while MA has obvious absorption peaks at 1.23 THz, 1.67 THz, 1.84 THz and 2.43 THz. We find that the absorption peaks of MDA and MA within the envelopes are almost the same as those without the envelopes respectively although the two envelopes have some different absorption in THz waveband. This result indicates that the type of illicit drugs in envelopes can be determined by identifying their characteristic absorption peaks, and THz time-domain spectroscopy is one of the most powerful candidates for illicit drugs inspection.

  20. Upper extremity arterial combat injury management.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael A; Fox, Charles J; Adams, Eric; Rice, Rob D; Quan, Reagan; Cox, Mitchell W; Gillespie, David L

    2006-06-01

    Traumatic hemorrhage and vascular injury management have been concerns for both civilian and military physicians. During the 20th century, advances in technique allowed surgeons to focus on vascular repair, restoration of perfusion, limb salvage, and life preservation. Military surgeons such as Makins, DeBakey, Hughes, Rich, and others made significant contributions to the field of surgery in general and vascular surgery in particular. Casualties from combat in Afghanistan and Iraq confront physicians and surgeons with devastating injuries. The current generation of providers is challenged with applying contemporary care while expanding upon the lessons taught by our predecessors. The objective of this report is to review the historical experience with managing military upper extremity arterial injuries and compare that experience with current management. PMID:17060232

  1. Combating Memory Corruption Attacks On Scada Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellettini, Carlo; Rrushi, Julian

    Memory corruption attacks on SCADA devices can cause significant disruptions to control systems and the industrial processes they operate. However, despite the presence of numerous memory corruption vulnerabilities, few, if any, techniques have been proposed for addressing the vulnerabilities or for combating memory corruption attacks. This paper describes a technique for defending against memory corruption attacks by enforcing logical boundaries between potentially hostile data and safe data in protected processes. The technique encrypts all input data using random keys; the encrypted data is stored in main memory and is decrypted according to the principle of least privilege just before it is processed by the CPU. The defensive technique affects the precision with which attackers can corrupt control data and pure data, protecting against code injection and arc injection attacks, and alleviating problems posed by the incomparability of mitigation techniques. An experimental evaluation involving the popular Modbus protocol demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of the defensive technique.

  2. Satellite Data Used to Combat Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This visible light/infrared composite image over Montana and Idaho was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Aug. 23, 2000. The image shows the locations of actively burning wildfires (red pixels) and the thick shroud of smoke they produced (grey-blue pixels). There were 57 wildfires burning across both states. A single MODIS image can be up to 2,330 kilometers wide, allowing fire scientists to monitor a much larger area than can be covered on the ground or by aircraft. Also, because MODIS has detectors that are sensitive to thermal infrared wavelengths of 3.70 and 3.90 micrometers, it can detect fires on the surface even through heavy smoke. For more information, see: NASA Satellite Data Used Operationally to Help Combat Fires in the West Image courtesy MODIS Science Team, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon.

  3. Targeting Nrf2 Signaling to Combat Chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    No, Jae Hong; Kim, Yong-Beom; Song, Yong Sang

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that upregulates expression of a battery of genes to combat oxidative and electrophilic stress. Modification of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) by reactive oxygen species stabilizes Nrf2 by escaping from degradation. Nrf2 then binds to antioxidant response elements (AREs) on the promoter region of various genes. Activation of the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway plays critical roles in the chemopreventive effect of various phytochemicals. However, Nrf2 can protect cancer cells from oxidative stress and promote cell proliferation. Moreover, recent studies reveal that activation of the Nrf2 pathway is critical for resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. The aim of this review is to provide a molecular basis for the use of Nrf2 inhibitors in overcoming chemoresistance. PMID:25337579

  4. [Physiological aspects of women in combat].

    PubMed

    Libster, D; Heled, Y; Shapiro, Y; Epstein, Y

    1999-12-01

    Since military service is physically demanding, soldiers must maintain high levels of physical fitness for optimal performance of their duties. Women are at a physiological disadvantage when competing against men: they have a smaller muscle mass, more body fat, lower red blood cell counts, lower hemoglobin levels and smaller cardiac outputs. Women are slower and weaker than men and more prone to exercise-induced skeletal injuries. Fewer women than men meet the standards of physically demanding jobs. Therefore integrating women into physically demanding military-oriented jobs requires redesigning or modifying the tasks (different pace, mechanical aids, teamwork). While physical training can increase the physical capacity of women, training cannot completely eliminate gender differences. Thus the data presented do not imply that women cannot be integrated into combat units, but highlight gender-related differences which might have an effect on the ability of women to compete equally with men at the same task. PMID:10959362

  5. Noise: combating a ubiquitous and hazardous pollutant.

    PubMed

    Bronzaft, Arline L.

    2000-01-01

    With a growing body of data suggesting a link between noise and adverse mental and physical health and with noise pollution becoming even more pervasive, especially from the rapid increase in air travel and highway traffic, individuals worldwide are forging alliances to combat this hazardous pollutant. Especially active are the anti-aircraft noise groups. In the United States, the federal government has limited its responsibilities with respect to noise control after an initial interest in the 1970s when legislation was passed promising to protect the American people against the harmful effects of noise. These past years anti-noise activists in the United States have been working arduously to urge the federal government to once again take an active role in abating and controlling noise. They have also been enlisting more citizens to their cause as they educate them to the hazards of noise. PMID:12689475

  6. Optimal Repellent Usage to Combat Dengue Fever.

    PubMed

    Dorsett, Chasity; Oh, Hyunju; Paulemond, Marie Laura; Rychtář, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Dengue fever is one of the most important vector-borne diseases. It is transmitted by Aedes Stegomyia aegypti, and one of the most effective strategies to combat the disease is the reduction of exposure to bites of these mosquitoes. In this paper, we present a game-theoretical model in which individuals choose their own level of protection against mosquito bites in order to maximize their own benefits, effectively balancing the cost of protection and the risk of contracting the dengue fever. We find that even when the usage of protection is strictly voluntary, as soon as the cost of protection is about 10,000 times less than the cost of contracting dengue fever, the optimal level of protection will be within 5 % of the level needed for herd immunity. PMID:27142427

  7. Physical security equipment for combating terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscano, Michael

    2002-08-01

    The objective of the Department of Defense Physical Security Equipment (DoD PSE) RDT&E program is to provide end users within the four Services with the most efficient and productive physical security (PS) at the most reasonable cost to ensure the effective protection of DoD resources. These resources include personnel, nuclear weapons, classified information, materiel, and readiness assets. As a result of the1996 Khobar Towers terrorist bombing incident, the DoD PSE program began to receive additional funding in 1997 for Force Protection Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (FP COTS) equipment evaluation and testing. The FP COTS testing applies to all available technologies, which are considered effective for DoD use. Successive terrorist incidents occurring since Khobar Towers have resulted in increasing focus on the demonstration and validation of equipment necessary to combat the ubiquitously asymmetric terrorist threat.

  8. Engine selection for transport and combat aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the procedures used to select engines for transport and combat aircraft by illustrating the procedures for a long haul CTOL transport, a short haul VTOL transport, a long range SST, and a fighter aircraft. For the CTOL transport, it is shown that advances in noise technology and advanced turbine cooling technology will greatly reduce the airplane performance penalties associated with achieving low noise goals. A remote lift fan powered by a turbofan air generator is considered for the VTOL aircraft. In this case, the lift fan pressure ratio which maximizes payload also comes closest to meeting the noise goal. High turbine temperature in three different engines is considered for the SST. Without noise constraints it leads to an appreciable drop in DOC, but with noise constraints the reduction in DOC is very modest. For the fighter aircraft it is shown how specific excess power requirements play the same role in engine selection as noise constraints for commercial airplanes.

  9. Engine selection for transport and combat aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The procedures that are used to select engines for transport and combat aircraft are discussed. In general, the problem is to select the engine parameters including engine size in such a way that all constraints are satisfied and airplane performance is maximized. This is done for four different classes of aircraft: (1) a long haul conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) transport, (2) a short haul vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) transport, (3) a long range supersonic transport (SST), and (4) a fighter aircraft. For the commercial airplanes the critical constraints have to do with noise while for the fighter, maneuverability requirements define the engine. Generally, the resultant airplane performance (range or payload) is far less than that achievable without these constraints and would suffer more if nonoptimum engines were selected.

  10. Combat aircraft noise reduction by technical measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, M.; Kennepohl, F.; Heinig, K.

    1992-04-01

    The noise of combat aircraft during low level flight is dominated by the jet. Technical noise reduction measures must therefore reduce the specific thrust of the engine. This can be achieved by altering the engine cycle or by using secondary air to increase the mass flow though the nozzle. In the first part the influence of nozzle area, bypass ratio and variable cycle features on the specific thrust of modern fighter engines is shown. The effects on noise, thrust and fuel consumption are discussed. In the second part ejector-mixer nozzles and the aft-fan are considered. Both reduce the jet velocity by entraining air through secondary inlets and expelling it together with the engine's exhaust flow through a common nozzle.

  11. [Prevention and treatment of hepatitis C in illicit drug users].

    PubMed

    Sakoman, Slavko

    2009-12-01

    Drug use is a complex behavior with multidimensional determinants, including social, psychological, cultural, economic, and biological factors. Blood borne viral infections including hepatitis C virus are transmitted when an uninfected intravenous drug user (IVDU) uses injection equipment, especially syringes, that have previously been used by an infected person. The transmission can also result from sharing other injection equipment such as 'cookers' and 'cottons'. Recent studies have shown that the prevalence and incidence of drug abuse have declined substantially since the introduction of needle exchange. Infection with hepatitis C may spontaneously resolve during the acute stage and never progress to chronic infection, or the infection may become chronic without medical complications, or the infection may become chronic with progressive medical complications. Regular testing for infection is an important strategy for secondary prevention of chronic hepatitis C infection. Care for hepatitis C is a vital component of a comprehensive health program for persons using illicit drugs. Such care includes screening for transmission risk behavior, prevention counseling and education, testing for HCV antibody and RNA. IDUs found to have chronic HCV infection should be assessed for the presence and degree of liver disease and evaluated for treatment for HCV Hepatitis C care also requires providing access to treatment for substance use and abuse. Therapy with opioid agonists, including methadone maintenance treatment, has been shown to diminish and often eliminate opioid use and reduce transmission of infection. Approval of buprenorphine makes office-based pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction possible. When considering treatment for hepatitis C, particular attention must be paid to mental health conditions. As a group, IDUs exhibit higher rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders than the general population. IFN-based regimens for hepatitis C are often complicated by

  12. High resolution combat simulations to support training for close combat light applications

    SciTech Connect

    Toms, R.M.; Dobbs, L.A.; Pimper, J.E.

    1990-06-14

    Superior tactical planning and maneuver synchronization are essential to fight and win on the CCL battlefield. This superiority can be achieved by the use of a combination of field exercises and high-resolution, computerized, combat simulation systems designed to support training. Computerized simulation systems provide a cost effective capability to promote learning through repetition and permit the exploration of scenarios that are impractical or dangerous to apply to live exercises. Man-in-the-loop, real-time, and force-on-force simulation systems with interactive color graphics interfaces are now available to support CCL training. Combat simulations have been developed specifically for this environment within the Conflict Simulation Laboratory (CSL) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Research and development efforts are underway that will greatly improve these capabilities. Applications are envisioned in training support, mission planning, analysis of new tactics and weapons, real-time display, and real-time operational support. 32 refs.

  13. Mitigation Approaches to Combat the Flu Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Raman; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Madaan, Deepali; Dubey, Neha; Arora, Rajesh; Goel, Rajeev; Singh, Shefali; Kaushik, Vinod; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Chabbra, Vivek; Bhardwaj, Janak Raj

    2009-01-01

    Management of flu pandemic is a perpetual challenge for the medical fraternity since time immemorial. Animal to human transmission has been observed thrice in the last century within an average range of 11-39 years of antigenic recycling. The recent outbreak of influenza A (H1N1, also termed as swine flu), first reported in Mexico on April 26, 2009, occurred in the forty first year since last reported flu pandemic (July 1968). Within less than 50 days, it has assumed pandemic proportions (phase VI) affecting over 76 countries with 163 deaths/35,928 cases (as on 15th June 2009). It indicated the re-emergence of genetically reassorted virus having strains endemic to humans, swine and avian (H5N1). The World Health Organisation (WHO) member states have already pulled up their socks and geared up to combat such criticalities. Earlier outbreaks of avian flu (H5N1) in different countries led WHO to develop pandemic preparedness strategies with national/regional plans on pandemic preparedness. Numerous factors related to climatic conditions, socio-economic strata, governance and sharing of information/logistics at all levels have been considered critical indicators in monitoring the dynamics of escalation towards a pandemic situation. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies), nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its

  14. Prevalence of illicit drug use in patients without controlled substance abuse in interventional pain management.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Beyer, Carla D; Barnhill, Renee C

    2003-04-01

    Drug abuse with illicit drugs and licit drugs has been increasing steadily over the past decade. A recent National Household Survey on Drug Abuse found statistically significant increases between 2000 and 2001 in the use of multiple drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, and non-medical use of pain relievers and tranquilizers. Prescription controlled substance abuse is a major issue in chronic pain management. Various means suggested to avoid or monitor abuse in patients in treatment include urine/serum drug screening whenever requested, along with other precautions including one prescribing physician and one designated pharmacy, etc. Based on the present evidence, physicians assume that patients adhering to controlled substance agreements and without obvious dependency behavior do not abuse either illicit or licit drugs. Thus, it is accepted that there is no necessity to perform routine urine/drug testing in this specific group of the patient population. One hundred patients undergoing interventional pain management and receiving controlled substances were randomly selected for evaluation of illicit drug abuse by urine drug testing. They were selected from a total of 250 patients who were identified as non-abusers of prescription drugs. Results showed that illicit drug abuse in patients without history of controlled substance abuse was seen in 16 patients. Thirteen of the 16 patients tested positive for marijuana and 3 patients tested positive for cocaine. Only one patient tested positive for a combined use of both marijuana and cocaine. This study showed that, in an interventional pain management setting, there is significant use of illicit drugs (16%) with 13% use of marijuana and 3% use of cocaine in patients who are considered as non-abusers of prescription controlled substances and those who are adherent to controlled substance agreements. However, if cocaine is considered as a hardcore drug in contrast to marijuana, abuse of hardcore illicit drugs is only 3

  15. Global Reach of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Using Social Media for Illicit Online Drug Sales

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-01

    Background Illicit or rogue Internet pharmacies are a recognized global public health threat that have been identified as utilizing various forms of online marketing and promotion, including social media. Objective To assess the accessibility of creating illicit no prescription direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) online pharmacy social media marketing (eDTCA2.0) and evaluate its potential global reach. Methods We identified the top 4 social media platforms allowing eDTCA2.0. After determining applicable platforms (ie, Facebook, Twitter, Google+, and MySpace), we created a fictitious advertisement advertising no prescription drugs online and posted it to the identified social media platforms. Each advertisement linked to a unique website URL that consisted of a site error page. Employing Web search analytics, we tracked the number of users visiting these sites and their location. We used commercially available Internet tools and services, including website hosting, domain registration, and website analytic services. Results Illicit online pharmacy social media content for Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace remained accessible despite highly questionable and potentially illegal content. Fictitious advertisements promoting illicit sale of drugs generated aggregate unique user traffic of 2795 visits over a 10-month period. Further, traffic to our websites originated from a number of countries, including high-income and middle-income countries, and emerging markets. Conclusions Our results indicate there are few barriers to entry for social media–based illicit online drug marketing. Further, illicit eDTCA2.0 has globalized outside US borders to other countries through unregulated Internet marketing. PMID:23718965

  16. Illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and pharmaceutical sodium oxybate (Xyrem®): differences in characteristics and misuse

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Pardi, Daniel; Gorsline, Jane; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2009-01-01

    There are distinct differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse associated with illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) compared to pharmaceutical sodium oxybate. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate sodium and sodium oxybate are the chemical and drug names, respectively, for the pharmaceutical product Xyrem® (sodium oxybate) oral solution. However, the acronym GHB is also used to refer to illicit formulations that are used for non-medical purposes. This review highlights important differences between illicit GHB and sodium oxybate with regard to their relative abuse liability, which includes the likelihood and consequences of abuse. Data are summarized from the scientific literature; from national surveillance systems in the U.S., Europe, and Australia (for illicit GHB); and from clinical trials and post-marketing surveillance with sodium oxybate (Xyrem). In the U.S., the prevalence of illicit GHB use, abuse, intoxication, and overdose has declined from 2000, the year that GHB was scheduled, to the present and is lower than that of most other licit and illicit drugs. Abuse and misuse of the pharmaceutical product, sodium oxybate, has been rare over the 5 years since its introduction to the market, which is likely due in part to the risk management program associated with this product. Differences in the accessibility, purity, dosing, and misuse of illicit GHB and sodium oxybate suggest that risks associated with illicit GHB are greater than those associated with the pharmaceutical product sodium oxybate. PMID:19493637

  17. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  18. Chinese narcotics trafficking: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kaicheng; Liu, Jianhong; Zhao, Ruohui; Zhao, Guoling; Friday, Paul C

    2012-02-01

    Questions of existence of the "China Route" for drug smuggling and trafficking have been important in the literature. The profile of the offenders, particularly whether they are primarily members of traditional criminal organization, is a hotly debated issue. Much qualitative evidence has been collected and it provides important insights into these questions. However, little quantitative data has ever been collected and analyzed to provide a broader picture of these issues. The present study involves the systematical collection of data from court sentencing files from seven high courts whose jurisdictions cover the China Route. The findings provide valuable information that sheds light on the debated questions. Some evidence consistent with the China Route arguments is found. No evidence supports the idea that traditional organized criminal syndicates are behind most offenses. Logistic regression results reveal interesting associations between offender characteristics and types of offenses. PMID:21127040

  19. [Molecular mechanisms for AMPA receptor trafficking].

    PubMed

    Fukata, Masaki; Fukata, Yuko

    2008-06-01

    Finely tuned synaptic transmission in the brain provides the molecular basis for learning and memory. The misregulation of synaptic transmission is involved in the pathogenesis of various neurological disorders like epilepsy. AMPA-typed glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate the most prominent form of excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. Dynamic regulation of AMPARs is thought to be a primary mechanism for controlling synaptic strength. We have analyzed the molecular mechanism for AMPAR-trafficking and function by focusing on PSD-95, a major postsynaptic scaffolding protein. Here, we review the novel regulatory mechanisms of AMPARs by 1) the PSD-95 palmitoylating enzyme, which determines the position of PSD-95 at postsynapses, and 2) the epilepsy related ligand/receptor, LGI1/ADAM22, identified as the PSD-95-interacting protein. PMID:18646599

  20. Intramembrane proteolysis in regulated protein trafficking.

    PubMed

    Lemberg, Marius K

    2011-09-01

    Regulated intramembrane proteolysis is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which membrane-anchored bioactive molecules are released from cellular membranes. In eukaryotic cells, intramembrane proteases are found in different cellular organelles ranging from the endosomal system to mitochondria and chloroplasts. These proteases function in diverse processes such as transcription control, regulated growth factor secretion and recently even a role in the control of mitophagy has been suggested. Genomic annotation has predicted 13 different intramembrane proteases in humans. Apart from few studied examples, very little is known about their function. This review describes emerging principles of how intramembrane proteases contribute to the regulation of cellular protein trafficking in eukaryotic cells and raises the important question of how their activity is controlled. PMID:21585636

  1. Glycobiology of leukocyte trafficking in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wright, Rachael D; Cooper, Dianne

    2014-12-01

    To fulfill their potential, leukocytes must be able to exit the vasculature and reach the site of inflammation within the tissue. This process of leukocyte extravasation is a tightly regulated sequence of events that is governed by a host of cell adhesion molecules, cytokines, chemokines and lipid mediators. Of major importance to this process and the function of many of the proteins and lipids involved is the posttranslational modification of these moieties by glycosylation. The glycosylation process is coordinated by multiple enzymes that add and remove saccharides to/from glycan structures on proteins and lipids, resulting in a unique molecular signature that affords specificity to the molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment. This review will discuss how glycosylation impacts the function of these key molecules involved in the recruitment of leukocytes during inflammation and the function of specific lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins) that have a role in leukocyte trafficking. PMID:25258391

  2. Dendritic Ion Channel Trafficking and Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mala M.; Hammond, Rebecca S.; Hoffman, Dax

    2010-01-01

    Dendrites, the elaborate processes emerging from neuronal cell bodies, receive most excitatory synaptic inputs. Voltage- and calcium-gated ion channels are abundant in dendrites and modify the shape, propagation and integration of synaptic signals. These ion channels also determine intrinsic dendritic excitability and are therfore important for the induction and manifestation of Hebbian and non-Hebbian plasticity. Revealingly, dendritic channels have distinct expression patterns and biophysical properties from those present in other neuronal compartments. Recent evidence suggests that dendritic ion channels are locally regulated, perhaps contributing to different forms of plasticity. In this review, we will discuss the implications of regulating dendritic ion channel function and trafficking in the context of plasticity and information processing. PMID:20363038

  3. A survey on the measure of combat readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Kwong Fook; Nor, Norazman Mohamad; Soon, Lee Lai

    2014-09-01

    Measuring the combat readiness in military forces involves the measures of tangible and intangible elements of combat power. Though these measures are applicable, the mathematical models and formulae used focus mainly on either the tangible or the intangible elements. In this paper, a review is done to highlight the research gap in the formulation of a mathematical model that incorporates tangible elements with intangible elements to measure the combat readiness of a military force. It highlights the missing link between the tangible and intangible elements of combat power. To bridge the gap and missing link, a mathematical model could be formulated that measures both the tangible and intangible aspects of combat readiness by establishing the relationship between the causal (tangible and intangible) elements and its effects on the measure of combat readiness. The model uses multiple regression analysis as well as mathematical modeling and simulation which digest the capability component reflecting its assets and resources, the morale component reflecting human needs, and the quality of life component reflecting soldiers' state of satisfaction in life. The results of the review provide a mean to bridge the research gap through the formulation of a mathematical model that shows the total measure of a military force's combat readiness. The results also significantly identify parameters for each of the variables and factors in the model.

  4. Ligand-directed trafficking of receptor stimulus.

    PubMed

    Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2014-12-01

    GPCRs are seven transmembrane-spanning receptors that convey specific extracellular stimuli to intracellular signalling. They represent the largest family of cell surface proteins that are therapeutically targeted. According to the traditional two-state model of receptor theory, GPCRs were considered as operating in equilibrium between two functional conformations, an active (R*) and inactive (R) state. Thus, it was assumed that a GPCR can exist either in an "off" or "on" conformation causing either no activation or equal activation of all its signalling pathways. Over the past several years it has become evident that this model is too simple and that GPCR signalling is far more complex. Different studies have presented a multistate model of receptor activation in which ligand-specific receptor conformations are able to differentiate between distinct signalling partners. Recent data show that beside G proteins numerous other proteins, such as β-arrestins and kinases, may interact with GPCRs and activate intracellular signalling pathways. GPCR activation may therefore involve receptor desensitization, coupling to multiple G proteins, Gα or Gβγ signalling, and pathway activation that is independent of G proteins. This latter effect leads to agonist "functional selectivity" (also called ligand-directed receptor trafficking, stimulus trafficking, biased agonism, biased signalling), and agonist intervention with functional selectivity may improve the therapy. Many commercially available drugs with beneficial efficacy also show various undesirable side effects. Further studies of biased signalling might facilitate our understanding of the side effects of current drugs and take us to new avenues to efficiently design pathway-specific medications. PMID:25443729

  5. Superresolution imaging of viral protein trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Salka, Kyle; Bhuvanendran, Shivaprasad; Yang, David

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane is closely apposed to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM), which facilitates communication between these organelles. These contacts, known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), facilitate calcium signaling, lipid transfer, as well as antiviral and stress responses. How cellular proteins traffic to the MAM, are distributed therein, and interact with ER and mitochondrial proteins are subject of great interest. The human cytomegalovirus UL37 exon 1 protein or viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA) is crucial for viral growth. Upon synthesis at the ER, vMIA traffics to the MAM and OMM, where it reprograms the organization and function of these compartments. vMIA significantly changes the abundance of cellular proteins at the MAM and OMM, including proteins that regulate calcium homeostasis and cell death. Through the use of superresolution imaging, we have shown that vMIA is distributed at the OMM in nanometer scale clusters. This is similar to the clusters reported for the mitochondrial calcium channel, VDAC, as well as electron transport chain, translocase of the OMM complex, and mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system components. Thus, aside from addressing how vMIA targets the MAM and regulates survival of infected cells, biochemical studies and superresolution imaging of vMIA offer insights into the formation, organization, and functioning of MAM. Here, we discuss these insights into trafficking, function, and organization of vMIA at the MAM and OMM and discuss how the use of superresolution imaging is contributing to the study of the formation and trafficking of viruses. PMID:25724304

  6. Imaging of Leukocyte Trafficking in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Pietronigro, Enrica; Zenaro, Elena; Constantin, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by a progressive decline of cognitive functions. The neuropathological features of AD include amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles derived from the cytoskeletal hyperphosphorylated tau protein, amyloid angiopathy, the loss of synapses, and neuronal degeneration. In the last decade, inflammation has emerged as a key feature of AD, but most studies have focused on the role of microglia-driven neuroinflammation mechanisms. A dysfunctional blood-brain barrier has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD, and several studies have demonstrated that the vascular deposition of Aβ induces the expression of adhesion molecules and alters the expression of tight junction proteins, potentially facilitating the transmigration of circulating leukocytes. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) has become an indispensable tool to dissect the molecular mechanisms controlling leukocyte trafficking in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent TPLSM studies have shown that vascular deposition of Aβ in the CNS promotes intraluminal neutrophil adhesion and crawling on the brain endothelium and also that neutrophils extravasate in the parenchyma preferentially in areas with Aβ deposits. These studies have also highlighted a role for LFA-1 integrin in neutrophil accumulation in the CNS of AD-like disease models, revealing that LFA-1 inhibition reduces the corresponding cognitive deficit and AD neuropathology. In this article, we consider how current imaging techniques can help to unravel new inflammation mechanisms in the pathogenesis of AD and identify novel therapeutic strategies to treat the disease by interfering with leukocyte trafficking mechanisms. PMID:26913031

  7. Aggression in sexually abused trafficked girls and efficacy of intervention.

    PubMed

    Deb, Sibnath; Mukherjee, Aparna; Mathews, Ben

    2011-03-01

    The broad objective of this study was to understand the incidence and severity of aggression among sexually abused girls who were trafficked and who were then further used for commercial sexual exploitation (referred to subsequently as sexually abused trafficked girls). In addition, the impact of counseling for minimizing aggression in these girls was investigated. A group of 120 sexually abused trafficked Indian girls and a group of 120 nonsexually abused Indian girls, aged 13 to 18, participated in the study. The sexually abused trafficked girls were purposively selected from four shelters located in and around Kolkata, India. The nonsexually abused girls were selected randomly from four schools situated near the shelters, and these girls were matched by age with the sexually abused trafficked girls. Data were collected using a Background Information Schedule and a standardized psychological test, that is, The Aggression Scale. Results revealed that 16.7% of the girls were first sexually abused between 6 and 9 years of age, 37.5% between 10 and 13 years of age, and 45.8% between 14 and 17 years of age. Findings further revealed that 4.2% of the sexually abused trafficked girls demonstrated saturated aggression, and 26.7% were highly aggressive, that is, extremely frustrated and rebellious. Across age groups, the sexually abused trafficked girls suffered from more aggression (p < .05), compared with the nonvictimized girls. Psychological interventions, such as individual and group counseling, were found to have a positive impact on the sexually abused trafficked girls. These findings should motivate counselors to deal with sexually abused children. It is also hoped that authorities in welfare homes will understand the importance of counseling for sexually abused trafficked children, and will appoint more counselors for this purpose. PMID:20587459

  8. Human Trafficking of Children in the United States: A Fact Sheet for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Safe and Healthy Students, US Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Human trafficking is a serious federal crime with penalties of up to imprisonment for life. Federal law defines "severe forms of trafficking in persons." In short, human trafficking is a form of modern slavery. Those who recruit minors into commercial sexual exploitation (or prostitution) violate federal anti-trafficking laws, even if there is no…

  9. Human Trafficking of Children in the United States: A Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet presents questions and answers related to the human trafficking of children in the United States. It describes human trafficking and its extent in the United States, how human traffickers target children for coerced labor and sex exploitation, how to identify victims of human trafficking, how to report a suspected incidence of…

  10. Regulation of AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Anggono, Victor; Huganir, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate the majority of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. Dynamic changes in neuronal synaptic efficacy, termed synaptic plasticity, are thought to underlie information coding and storage in learning and memory. One major mechanism that regulates synaptic strength involves the tightly regulated trafficking of AMPARs into and out of synapses. The life cycle of AMPARs from their biosynthesis, membrane trafficking and synaptic targeting to their degradation are controlled by a series of orchestrated interactions with numerous intracellular regulatory proteins. Here we review recent progress made towards the understanding the regulation of AMPAR trafficking, focusing on the roles of several key intracellular AMPAR interacting proteins. PMID:22217700

  11. Retromer-Mediated Protein Sorting and Vesicular Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Jia

    2016-04-20

    Retromer is an evolutionarily conserved multimeric protein complex that mediates intracellular transport of various vesicular cargoes and functions in a wide variety of cellular processes including polarized trafficking, developmental signaling and lysosome biogenesis. Through its interaction with the Rab GTPases and their effectors, membrane lipids, molecular motors, the endocytic machinery and actin nucleation promoting factors, retromer regulates sorting and trafficking of transmembrane proteins from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane. In this review, I highlight recent progress in the understanding of retromer-mediated protein sorting and vesicle trafficking and discuss how retromer contributes to a diverse set of developmental, physiological and pathological processes. PMID:27157806

  12. Development of a fluorescent sensor for an illicit date rape drug--GBL.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Duanting; Agrawalla, Bikram Keshari; Eng, Pei Sze Fronia; Lee, Sung-Chan; Xu, Wang; Chang, Young-Tae

    2013-07-14

    The first fluorescent sensor for an illicit date rape drug, GBL, was developed and named Green Date. It shows high fluorescence enhancement to GBL and allows its detection in different drinks. The mechanism between GBL and Green Date was explored. This discovery may help to prevent the drug-facilitated sexual assault problems. PMID:23728479

  13. Locating illicit connections in storm water sewers using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing.

    PubMed

    Hoes, O A C; Schilperoort, R P S; Luxemburg, W M J; Clemens, F H L R; van de Giesen, N C

    2009-12-01

    A newly developed technique using distributed temperature sensing (DTS) has been developed to find illicit household sewage connections to storm water systems in the Netherlands. DTS allows for the accurate measurement of temperature along a fiber-optic cable, with high spatial (2m) and temporal (30s) resolution. We inserted a fiber-optic cable of 1300m in two storm water drains. At certain locations, significant temperature differences with an intermittent character were measured, indicating inflow of water that was not storm water. In all cases, we found that foul water from households or companies entered the storm water system through an illicit sewage connection. The method of using temperature differences for illicit connection detection in storm water networks is discussed. The technique of using fiber-optic cables for distributed temperature sensing is explained in detail. The DTS method is a reliable, inexpensive and practically feasible method to detect illicit connections to storm water systems, which does not require access to private property. PMID:19735929

  14. College Students' Use of Compliance-Gaining Strategies to Obtain Prescription Stimulant Medications for Illicit Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Checton, Maria G.; Greene, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine college students' illicit use of prescription stimulant medications and compliance-gaining strategies that they would use to obtain a stimulant medication. Design: A questionnaire-based study. Setting: Seven hundred and twenty undergraduate college students at a large, northeastern university in the United States were…

  15. Patients' Characteristics and Providers' Attitudes: Predictors of Screening Pregnant Women for Illicit Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Leventhal, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to determine how patients' and providers' characteristics affect hospital providers' decisions to screen pregnant and postpartum women for illicit substances. Methods: A retrospective design was used. Participants included all low-income women (N=1,100) who delivered at an urban teaching hospital over a 12-month…

  16. Recognizing illicit drug use by pregnant women: reports from Oregon birth attendants.

    PubMed Central

    Slutsker, L; Smith, R; Higginson, G; Fleming, D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of recognized prenatal illicit substance abuse and the characteristics of women being identified as illicit drug users in a statewide population-based cohort. METHODS. During a 1-month period, birth attendants of all singleton births in Oregon (n = 3200) were surveyed regarding their knowledge of prenatal illicit drug use by women who gave birth. Birth certificates were linked to surveys after removal of personal identifiers. RESULTS. Illicit drug use was recognized in 5.2% of delivering women. Nearly half had used cocaine, methamphetamine, or heroin. Recognized users were significantly more likely than nonusers to be unwed and to have used tobacco or alcohol, have received inadequate prenatal care, and have public assistance as a source of payment. Drug use was recognized twice as frequently by practitioners who routinely questioned their patients about it compared with those who relied on clinical judgment or the occurrence of complications during pregnancy. Birth certificate reporting identified only 41% of recognized users. CONCLUSIONS. Oregon practitioners are identifying seven times as many drug-using women as can be accommodated by available treatment programs for this population. Increased efforts are needed to ensure the adequacy of resources necessary to cope with the problem as already recognized. PMID:8417609

  17. Social and structural factors associated with HIV disease progression among illicit drug users: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Milloy, M-J; Marshall, Brandon; Kerr, Thomas; Buxton, Jane; Rhodes, Tim; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically review factors associated with HIV disease progression among illicit drug users, focusing on exposures exogenous to individuals that likely shape access and adherence to HIV treatment. Design A systematic review of peer-reviewed English-language studies among HIV-seropositive illicit drug users with at least one of these endpoint of interest: a diagnosis of AIDS; death; changes/differences in CD4 cell counts; or changes/differences in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. Methods Articles were included if they reported factors associated with an outcome of interest among a group of illicit drug users. Studies were identified, screened and selected using systematic methods. Results Of 2,668 studies matching the search criteria, 58 (2%) met the inclusion criteria, all but one from North America or Western Europe. Overall, 41 (71%) studies contained significant individual-level clinical characteristics or behaviours (e.g., illicit drug use) associated with disease progression. Fifteen studies (26%) identified significant social, physical, economic or policy-level exposures, including incarceration, housing status or lack of legal income. Conclusion While past studies demonstrate important environmental exposures that appear to shape access to care and subsequent disease progression, the limited literature to examine these factors demonstrates the need for future research to consider risk environment characteristics and the role they may play in shaping health outcomes from HIV infection among drug users through determining access and adherence to evidence-based care. (198 words) PMID:22333747

  18. Is the Physical Availability of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Related to Neighborhood Rates of Child Maltreatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freisthler, Bridget; Needell, Barbara; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the availability of alcohol and illicit drugs (as measured by alcohol outlet density and police incidents of drug sales and possessions) is related to neighborhood rates of child abuse and neglect, controlling for other neighborhood demographic characteristics. Method: Data from substantiated reports of child…

  19. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  20. DETECTION OF ILLICIT DRUGS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER STREAMS USING INTEGRATIVE SAMPLERS AND LC MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A technique has been developed which has the potential to map regions of concern for increased drug usage and/or production by monitoring the input of chemical into the waterways. This approach can provide near "real-time" data on illegal activities. Determination of illicit drug...

  1. Perspectives on Health among Adult Users of Illicit Stimulant Drugs in Rural Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegal, Harvey A.; Draus, Paul J.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan

    2006-01-01

    Context: Although the nonmedical use of stimulant drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine is increasingly common in many rural areas of the United States, little is known about the health beliefs of people who use these drugs. Purpose: This research describes illicit stimulant drug users' views on health and health-related concepts that may…

  2. Physical Health, Illicit Drug Use, and Demographic Characteristics in Rural Stimulant Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Thomas F.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: There is growing concern about illicit rural stimulant use, especially regarding methamphetamine use and its health consequences. Purpose: The present study describes associations between aspects of stimulant use and illness experience in rural areas, with additional focus on the role of demographic characteristics in these associations.…

  3. Migration and illicit drug use among two types of male migrants in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wong, Frank Y; He, N; Huang, Z J; Young, D; O'Conor, C; Ding, Y Y; Fu, C; Arayasirikul, S

    2010-03-01

    Large-scale internal migrations within China have led to speculation of increased drug use, but with little empirical evidence. This cross-sectional study examines the association between migration characteristics and illicit drug use in 100 general male migrants and 239 "money boys" (i.e., male migrants engaging in same-sex transactional sex) in Shanghai, China. Only three general male migrants reported any drug use. Among money boys, lifetime illicit drug use was 12%; Ecstasy and methamphetamine appeared to be the most popular drugs. In addition, depression prevalence was very high among both types of male migrants. Depression was associated with lifetime soft- and hard-drug use, while earning a higher income was associated with lifetime soft-drug use. These findings provide the first set of quantitative evidence of illicit drug use among Chinese male migrants. Although illicit drug use among male migrants is low compared to Western countries, its resurgence after 30 years of drug control gives cause for concern. PMID:20464801

  4. Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Abusers: Effects on Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared effects, for illicit drug abusers, of five 16-hour unstructured marathon groups, and five matched, randomly selected control groups. Used semantic differential consisting of the specific adjective pairs and the evaluative scale of the concept My Real Self. Marathon group members rated some adjective pairs differently and rated the…

  5. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  6. Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ort, Christoph; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Berset, Jean-Daniel; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; Covaci, Adrian; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Griffiths, Paul; Hernández, Félix; González-Mariño, Iria; Grabic, Roman; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Mastroianni, Nicola; Meierjohann, Axel; Nefau, Thomas; Östman, Marcus; Pico, Yolanda; Racamonde, Ines; Reid, Malcolm; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Terzic, Senka; Thomaidis, Nikolaos; Thomas, Kevin V

    2014-01-01

    Aims To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Europe, as follows: 2012: 25 WWTPs in 11 countries (23 cities, total population 11.50 million); 2013: 47 WWTPs in 21 countries (42 cities, total population 24.74 million). Measurements Excretion products of five illicit drugs (cocaine, amphetamine, ecstasy, methamphetamine, cannabis) were quantified in wastewater samples using methods based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Findings Spatial differences were assessed and confirmed to vary greatly across European metropolitan areas. In general, results were in agreement with traditional surveillance data, where available. While temporal changes were substantial in individual cities and years (P ranging from insignificant to <10−3), overall means were relatively stable. The overall mean of methamphetamine was an exception (apparent decline in 2012), as it was influenced mainly by four cities. Conclusions Wastewater analysis performed across Europe provides complementary evidence on illicit drug consumption and generally concurs with traditional surveillance data. Wastewater analysis can measure total illicit drug use more quickly and regularly than is the current norm for national surveys, and creates estimates where such data does not exist. PMID:24861844

  7. Self-Efficacy and Illicit Opioid Use in a 180-Day Methadone Detoxification Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Patrick M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied self-efficacy and treatment outcomes in a sample of opioid addicts. Results show self-efficacy influenced subsequent drug use in parallel with previous behavior. Suggests that psychological constructs like self-efficacy may hold promise for understanding and decreasing illicit opioid use during long-term methadone detoxification treatment.…

  8. Marital Homophily on Illicit Drug Use among Young Adults: Assortative Mating or Marital Influence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Kandel, Denise

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of longitudinal and current survey data on 545 married/cohabiting couples found highest marital homophily for ethnicity, fertility expectations, religion, educational attainment, marital satisfaction, and illicit drug use. On drug use, data best supported a model of marital selection and assortative mating but was inconclusive concerning…

  9. [A comparison of self assessment of dental status regarding dental anxiety among combat and non-combat soldiers].

    PubMed

    Levin, A; Zini, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the difference in the level of self dental assessment between different groups of soldiers: 115 combats and 115 non-combats. All the solders in this study where male, Jewish, with a service record of 12-48 months, ages 18-22 and born in Israel. The data was summarized, evaluated and tested by x2 - chi square and logistic regressions analysis. In the following parameters no significant differences were found regarding time past from last visit to the dentist, self assessment of dental condition, self assessment of need of dental treatment and the frequency of tooth brushing and sugar consumption. Significant differences were found in the percentage of smokers (59.1% among non-combat vs. 31.9% among combat), and in the dental anxiety level (55.3% among non-combat vs. 38% among combat). The main difference between these two groups is the nature of the social support and society surrounding them, a society that strengthens them and gives the feeling they can deal with fears and difficulties. An additional study should be done in which the soldiers self assessment should be compared to clinical examination. The importance of this study is that the non-combat group should be defined as a high risk population regarding dental anxiety. PMID:24654500

  10. Measuring a year of child pornography trafficking by U.S. computers on a peer-to-peer network.

    PubMed

    Wolak, Janis; Liberatore, Marc; Levine, Brian Neil

    2014-02-01

    We used data gathered via investigative "RoundUp" software to measure a year of online child pornography (CP) trafficking activity by U.S. computers on the Gnutella peer-to-peer network. The data include millions of observations of Internet Protocol addresses sharing known CP files, identified as such in previous law enforcement investigations. We found that 244,920 U.S. computers shared 120,418 unique known CP files on Gnutella during the study year. More than 80% of these computers shared fewer than 10 such files during the study year or shared files for fewer than 10 days. However, less than 1% of computers (n=915) made high annual contributions to the number of known CP files available on the network (100 or more files). If law enforcement arrested the operators of these high-contribution computers and took their files offline, the number of distinct known CP files available in the P2P network could be reduced by as much as 30%. Our findings indicate widespread low level CP trafficking by U.S. computers in one peer-to-peer network, while a small percentage of computers made high contributions to the problem. However, our measures were not comprehensive and should be considered lower bounds estimates. Nonetheless, our findings show that data can be systematically gathered and analyzed to develop an empirical grasp of the scope and characteristics of CP trafficking on peer-to-peer networks. Such measurements can be used to combat the problem. Further, investigative software tools can be used strategically to help law enforcement prioritize investigations. PMID:24252746

  11. Combating Tuberculosis Infection: A Forbidding Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Tejal; Butani, Shital

    2016-01-01

    After 50 years drought, several drugs are looming from the pipeline to combat tuberculosis. They will serve as a boon to the field that has been burdened with primitive, inadequate treatments and drug-resistant bacterial strains. From the decades, due to lack of interest and resources, the field has suffered a lot. Learning from the flaws, scientists have renovated their approaches to the finding of new antitubercular drugs. The first line drugs take about six months or more for the entire treatment. The second line remedy for resistant-tuberculosis requires daily injections which carry severe side effects. Drug resistance remains a constant menace because patients stop the medication once they start feeling better. So new drugs are required to be explored which are effective against tuberculosis especially drug resistant tuberculosis. These drugs need to work well with other drugs as well as with antivirals used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus. It is also very important to be considered that the treatments need to be cheap, as tuberculosis primarily affects people more in the developing countries. Further, new drugs must cure the disease in short span of time than the current six to nine month regimen. Recently a few new and potent drugs such as bedaquiline, delamanid, teixobactin have been evolved which may serve as a nice step forward, with a better outcome. Teixobactin, a new antibiotic has been found to have promising action against resistant strains, is also under consideration. PMID:27168676

  12. Evolution of Military Combat Eye Protection.

    PubMed

    Auvil, James R

    2016-01-01

    Appreciation for combat eye protection steadily increased following World War II. Products derived from experiences in World War I, World War II, Korea, Vietnam, and the Iran/Iraq war drove technical improvements throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Dismal wear compliance prior to 2004 indicates Soldiers and their leaders did not appreciate these improvements and found little value in the bulky, ugly, and uncomfortable products. In 2003, the 10th Mountain Division requested enhanced eye protection. Program Executive Office Soldier, the optometry consultant to the Army Surgeon General, members of the Tri-Service Vision Conservation and Readiness Program, and other subject matter experts selected and tested commercial off-the-shelf eye protection against military ballistic impact standards. Optical devices that met ballistic standards formed the first Authorized Protective Eyewear List and were fielded beginning in 2004. Wear compliance rose dramatically for the stylish protective eyewear, reaching 85% to 95% and eye injuries decreased across the Department of Defense even as the incidence of attacks in Iraq increased. Researchers continue to evaluate new materials and designs to increase the capabilities, features and level of protection of future ballistic eyewear. PMID:27215881

  13. Combating Tuberculosis Infection: A Forbidding Challenge.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Tejal; Butani, Shital

    2016-01-01

    After 50 years drought, several drugs are looming from the pipeline to combat tuberculosis. They will serve as a boon to the field that has been burdened with primitive, inadequate treatments and drug-resistant bacterial strains. From the decades, due to lack of interest and resources, the field has suffered a lot. Learning from the flaws, scientists have renovated their approaches to the finding of new antitubercular drugs. The first line drugs take about six months or more for the entire treatment. The second line remedy for resistant-tuberculosis requires daily injections which carry severe side effects. Drug resistance remains a constant menace because patients stop the medication once they start feeling better. So new drugs are required to be explored which are effective against tuberculosis especially drug resistant tuberculosis. These drugs need to work well with other drugs as well as with antivirals used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus. It is also very important to be considered that the treatments need to be cheap, as tuberculosis primarily affects people more in the developing countries. Further, new drugs must cure the disease in short span of time than the current six to nine month regimen. Recently a few new and potent drugs such as bedaquiline, delamanid, teixobactin have been evolved which may serve as a nice step forward, with a better outcome. Teixobactin, a new antibiotic has been found to have promising action against resistant strains, is also under consideration. PMID:27168676

  14. Novel Strategies to Combat Bacterial Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, S.V.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Incidences of antimicrobial resistant infections have increased dramatically over the past several decades and are associated with adverse patient outcomes. Alternative approaches to combat infection are critical, and have led to the development of more specific drugs targeted at particular bacterial virulence systems or essential regulatory pathways. The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent developments in anti-bacterial therapy and the novel approaches toward increasing our therapeutic armory against bacterial infection. Recent findings Although classic antibiotic development is not occurring rapidly, alternative therapeutics that target specific bacterial virulence systems are progressing from the discovery stage through the FDA approval process. Here we review novel antibodies that target specific virulence systems as well as a variety of newly discovered small molecules that block bacterial attachment, communication systems (quorum sensing) or important regulatory processes associated with virulence gene expression. Summary The success of novel therapeutics could significantly change clinical practice. Furthermore, the complications of collateral damage due to antibiotic administration e.g. suprainfections or decreased host immunity due to loss of synergistic bacterial communities, may be minimized using therapeutics that specifically target pathogenic behavior. PMID:18787455

  15. Nanomaterials to Combat NO(x) Pollution.

    PubMed

    Balbuena, J; Cruz-Yusta, M; Sánchez, L

    2015-09-01

    The presence of NO9x) gases (NO+NO2) in the atmosphere is a major concern of society because of their associated adverse and harmful effects. In order to remove the NO(x) gases from the air, photocatalysis arises as an innovative and promising technique. Through the use of photochemical oxidation processes the NO and NO2 gases are oxidised to NO3- form and thus removed from the air. In recent years new nanomaterials are being developed by researchers with the aim to enhance their photocatalytic activity to combat the NO(x) pollution. The main focus is devoted to preparing new TiO2 based compounds with the highest specific surface area (SSA), different morphology and chemical modifications. In order to increase the SSA, different substrates were used to disperse the TiO2 nanoparticles: organic and carbon fibres, mesoporous materials, clays composites and nanoporous microparticles. In the other hand, high photocatalytic performances were obtained with nanotubes, self-orderer nano-tubular films and nanoparticles with the lowest size. Conversely, when TiO2 is doped with ions the oxide exhibited a better photocatalytic performance under visible light, which is related to the creation of intermediate energy states between the conduction band and the valence band. Alternatively, visible light photocatalysts different from titanium oxide have been studied, which exhibit a good De-NO(x) efficiency working under λ > 400 nm visible light irradiation. PMID:26716191

  16. Combating the counterfeits with web portal technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, S. L.; Ip, W. H.

    2015-10-01

    Due to the globalisation of counterfeiting activities, the penetration of fake products in open market is growing. So far, the technologies to combat counterfeiting are mostly applied to high-value products (e.g. premium wine and branded handbags); however, in the medium- and low-value products' perspective, there is no secure way for consumers to identify whether the purchased items are genuine or not. To address the counterfeiting problems effectively, a platform for identifying authenticated products and promoting anti-counterfeit activities is very important. The aim of this paper is to design and develop an anti-counterfeit platform which includes two functions: providing customers a secure network to ascertain the genuineness of their purchased product and increasing public awareness of the current counterfeit problems and updated anti-counterfeit solutions. By combining these two functions, it enables public to fight against fake and beware of counterfeit. Results of adopting portal technology in anti-counterfeiting show high accuracy in product checking and improved creditability. This reveals that the applicability and advantage of the proposed methodology are satisfactory.

  17. Predictors of Neurocognitive Syndromes in Combat Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Michael J; Gill, Jessica; Leaman, Suzanne; Law, Wendy; Ndiongue, Rochelle; Taylor, Patricia; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Bieler, Gayle S; Garge, Nikhil; Rapp, Paul E; Keyser, David; Nathan, Dominic; Xydakis, Michael; Pham, Dzung; Wassermann, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are neurocognitive syndromes often associated with impairment of physical and mental health, as well as functional status. These syndromes are also frequent in military service members (SMs) after combat, although their presentation is often delayed until months after their return. The objective of this prospective cohort study was the identification of independent predictors of neurocognitive syndromes upon return from deployment could facilitate early intervention to prevent disability. We completed a comprehensive baseline assessment, followed by serial evaluations at three, six, and 12 months, to assess for new-onset PTSD, depression, or postconcussive syndrome (PCS) in order to identify baseline factors most strongly associated with subsequent neurocognitive syndromes. On serial follow-up, seven participants developed at least one neurocognitive syndrome: five with PTSD, one with depression and PTSD, and one with PCS. On univariate analysis, 60 items were associated with syndrome development at p < 0.15. Decision trees and ensemble tree multivariate models yielded four common independent predictors of PTSD: right superior longitudinal fasciculus tract volume on MRI; resting state connectivity between the right amygdala and left superior temporal gyrus (BA41/42) on functional MRI; and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes coding for myelin basic protein as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Our findings require follow-up studies with greater sample size and suggest that neuroimaging and molecular biomarkers may help distinguish those at high risk for post-deployment neurocognitive syndromes. PMID:26251769

  18. Combating computer crimes: A long term strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kizza, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    Computer crimes are a new kind of crime less than twenty years old, but in these twenty years or so the computer crime rate has risen alarmingly, costing society billions of dollars annually. In software alone this figure is in billions; software piracy in USA resulted in a loss of 2.9 billion dollars in 1989 and 2.4 billion dollars in 1990. The problem is growing rapidly with a steadily increasing use of computers by the public. The number of people using computers in the USA in the last 10 years either at work or at home has jumped from almost zero to about 40 per cent of the population. In the next decade this number may approach 80 percent. With such widespread use of computers at work and home together with the ever increasing number of local, national, and international networks, computer crimes are expected to sky rocket, and if no adequate means are devised to combat these crimes now, the future promises to be no less frightening than the present.

  19. Predictors of Neurocognitive Syndromes in Combat Veterans.

    PubMed

    Roy, Michael J; Costanzo, Michelle; Gill, Jessica; Leaman, Suzanne; Law, Wendy; Ndiongue, Rochelle; Taylor, Patricia; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Bieler, Gayle S; Garge, Nikhil; Rapp, Paul E; Keyser, David; Nathan, Dominic; Xydakis, Michael; Pham, Dzung; Wassermann, Eric

    2015-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are neurocognitive syndromes often associated with impairment of physical and mental health, as well as functional status. These syndromes are also frequent in military service members (SMs) after combat, although their presentation is often delayed until months after their return. The objective of this prospective cohort study was the identification of independent predictors of neurocognitive syndromes upon return from deployment could facilitate early intervention to prevent disability. We completed a comprehensive baseline assessment, followed by serial evaluations at three, six, and 12 months, to assess for new-onset PTSD, depression, or postconcussive syndrome (PCS) in order to identify baseline factors most strongly associated with subsequent neurocognitive syndromes. On serial follow-up, seven participants developed at least one neurocognitive syndrome: five with PTSD, one with depression and PTSD, and one with PCS. On univariate analysis, 60 items were associated with syndrome development at p < 0.15. Decision trees and ensemble tree multivariate models yielded four common independent predictors of PTSD: right superior longitudinal fasciculus tract volume on MRI; resting state connectivity between the right amygdala and left superior temporal gyrus (BA41/42) on functional MRI; and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes coding for myelin basic protein as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Our findings require follow-up studies with greater sample size and suggest that neuroimaging and molecular biomarkers may help distinguish those at high risk for post-deployment neurocognitive syndromes. PMID:26251769

  20. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  1. Human trafficking and health: a cross-sectional survey of NHS professionals’ contact with victims of human trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Claire; Dimitrova, Stoyanka; Howard, Louise M; Dewey, Michael; Zimmerman, Cathy; Oram, Siân

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) To estimate the proportion of National Health Service (NHS) professionals who have come into contact with trafficked people and (2) to measure NHS professionals’ knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Face-to-face mandatory child protection and/or vulnerable adults training sessions at 10 secondary healthcare provider organisations in England, and meetings of the UK College of Emergency Medicine. Participants 782/892 (84.4%) NHS professionals participated, including from emergency medicine, maternity, mental health, paediatrics and other clinical disciplines. Measures Self-completed questionnaire developed by an expert panel. Questionnaire asks about prior training and contact with potential victims of trafficking, perceived and actual human trafficking knowledge, confidence in responding to human trafficking, and interest in future human trafficking training. Results 13% participants reported previous contact with a patient they knew or suspected of having been trafficked; among maternity services professionals this was 20.4%. However, 86.8% (n=679) reported lacking knowledge of what questions to ask to identify potential victims and 78.3% (n=613) reported that they had insufficient training to assist trafficked people. 71% (n=556), 67.5% (n=528) and 53.4% (n=418) lacked confidence in making appropriate referrals for men, women and children, respectively, who had been trafficked. 95.3% (n=746) of respondents were unaware of the scale of human trafficking in the UK, and 76.5% (n=598) were unaware that calling the police could put patients in more danger. Psychometric analysis showed that subscales measuring perceived knowledge, actual knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's αs 0.93, 0.63 and 0.64, respectively) and internal correlations. Conclusions NHS professionals working in secondary care are in contact with potential

  2. What Users Think about the Differences between Caffeine and Illicit/Prescription Stimulants for Cognitive Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Andreas G.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (CE) is a topic of increasing public awareness. In the scientific literature on student use of CE as a study aid for academic performance enhancement, there are high prevalence rates regarding the use of caffeinated substances (coffee, caffeinated drinks, caffeine tablets) but remarkably lower prevalence rates regarding the use of illicit/prescription stimulants such as amphetamines or methylphenidate. While the literature considers the reasons and mechanisms for these different prevalence rates from a theoretical standpoint, it lacks empirical data to account for healthy students who use both, caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants, exclusively for the purpose of CE. Therefore, we extensively interviewed a sample of 18 healthy university students reporting non-medical use of caffeine as well as illicit/prescription stimulants for the purpose of CE in a face-to-face setting about their opinions regarding differences in general and morally-relevant differences between caffeine and stimulant use for CE. 44% of all participants answered that there is a general difference between the use of caffeine and illicit/prescription stimulants for CE, 28% did not differentiate, 28% could not decide. Furthermore, 39% stated that there is a moral difference, 56% answered that there is no moral difference and one participant was not able to comment on moral aspects. Participants came to their judgements by applying three dimensions: medical, ethical and legal. Weighing the medical, ethical and legal aspects corresponded to the students' individual preferences of substances used for CE. However, their views only partly depicted evidence-based medical aspects and the ethical issues involved. This result shows the need for well-directed and differentiated information to prevent the potentially harmful use of illicit or prescription stimulants for CE. PMID:22768218

  3. Illicit drug use and HIV treatment outcomes in a US cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cofrancesco, Joseph; Scherzer, Rebecca; Tien, Phyllis C.; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Southwell, Heather; Sidney, Stephen; Dobs, Adrian; Grunfeld, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of illicit drug use and the impact on HIV treatment. Design Multivariable regression of cross-sectional data from 1163 HIV-infected and 294 controls from the Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM). Methods An analysis of (1) prevalence of specific illicit drug use (ever, current), (2) being on HAART among those with an indication and (3) current HIV RNA and CD4 cell count among HAART users. Results Median age was 42 years, approximately 50% were non-Caucasian and 33% were women. Eighty-six percent of HIV-infected and 67% of controls reported ever using illicit drugs (P <0.0001); 28% of HIV-infected and 16% of controls reported current use (P = 0.0001). In adjusted models, current cocaine use and past heroin use were associated with not currently being on HAART. Among HAART users, those reporting past heroin use were as likely to have an undetectable HIV viral load as those who had never used heroin. Current and past cocaine use and current heroin use was associated with lower odds of undetectable HIV RNA. Past amphetamine use was associated with having an undetectable HIV. Similar results were seen for CD4 lymphocyte counts. Conclusion Illicit drug use in the US is common, although far fewer report current use than past use. Among HIV-infected patients, understanding of the type of illicit drugs used and whether drug use was in the past or ongoing is important, because of their differential effects on HIV treatment outcomes. PMID:18195562

  4. Unhealthy Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use are Associated with Decreased Quality of HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    Korthuis, P. Todd; Fiellin, David A.; McGinnis, Kathleen A.; Skanderson, Melissa; Justice, Amy C.; Gordon, Adam J.; Doebler, Donna Almario; Asch, Steven M.; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Bryant, Kendall; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Crystal, Stephen; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Kraemer, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV-infected patients with substance use experience suboptimal health outcomes, possibly to due to variations in care. Objectives To assess the association between substance use and the quality of HIV care (QOC) received. Research Design Retrospective cohort study. Subjects HIV-infected patients enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Measures We collected self-report substance use data and abstracted 9 HIV quality indicators (QIs) from medical records. Independent variables were unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C score ≥4) and illicit drug use (self-report of stimulants, opioids, or injection drug use in past year). Main outcome was the percentage of QIs received, if eligible. We estimated associations between substance use and QOC using multivariable linear regression. Results The majority of the 3,410 patients were male (97.4%) and Black (67.0%) with a mean age of 49.1 years (SD 8.8). Overall, 25.8% reported unhealthy alcohol use, 22% illicit drug use, and participants received 81.5% (SD=18.9) of QIs. The mean percentage of QIs received was lower for those with unhealthy alcohol use vs. not (59.3% vs. 70.0%, p<.001) and those using illicit drugs vs. not (57.8% vs. 70.7%, p<.001). In multivariable models, unhealthy alcohol use (adjusted β −2.74; 95% CI −4.23, −1.25) and illicit drug use (adjusted β −3.51 95% CI −4.99, −2.02) remained inversely associated with the percentage of QIs received. Conclusions Though the overall QOC for these HIV-infected Veteran patients was high, gaps persist for those with unhealthy alcohol and illicit drug use. Interventions that address substance use in HIV-infected patients may improve the QOC received. PMID:22820808

  5. Hand function is altered in individuals with a history of illicit stimulant use.

    PubMed

    Pearson-Dennett, Verity; Flavel, Stanley C; Wilcox, Robert A; Thewlis, Dominic; Vogel, Adam P; White, Jason M; Todd, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Use of illicit stimulant drugs such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy are a significant worldwide problem. However, little is known about the effect of these drugs on movement. The aim of the current study was to investigate hand function in adults with a history of illicit stimulant use. We hypothesized that prior use of illicit stimulant drugs is associated with abnormal manipulation of objects. The study involved 22 subjects with a history of illicit stimulant use (aged 29±8 yrs; time since last use: 1.8±4.0 yrs) and two control groups comprising 27 non-drug users (aged 25±8 yrs) and 17 cannabis users with no history of stimulant use (aged 22±5 yrs). Each subject completed screening tests (neuropsychological assessment, medical history questionnaire, lifetime drug history questionnaire, and urine drug screen) prior to gripping and lifting a light-weight object with the dominant right hand. Horizontal grip force, vertical lift force, acceleration, and first dorsal interosseus electromyographic (EMG) activity were recorded during three trials. In trial one, peak grip force was significantly greater in the stimulant group (12.8±3.9 N) than in the control groups (non-drug: 10.3±4.6 N; cannabis: 9.4±2.9 N, P<0.022). However, peak grip force did not differ between groups in trials two and three. The results suggest that individuals with a history of stimulant use overestimate the grip force required to manipulate a novel object but, are able to adapt grip force in subsequent lifts. The results suggest that movement dysfunction may be an unrecognized consequence of illicit stimulant use. PMID:25545892

  6. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies.

    PubMed

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-05-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs' interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements. PMID:26022741

  7. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies

    PubMed Central

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-01-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs’ interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements. PMID:26022741

  8. Thought suppression failures in combat PTSD: a cognitive load hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Aikins, Deane E; Johnson, Douglas C; Borelli, Jessica L; Klemanski, David H; Morrissey, Paul M; Benham, Todd L; Southwick, Steven M; Tolin, David F

    2009-09-01

    The present study investigated the relation between thought suppression of emotionally neutral content [i.e., Wegner's (1994) "white bear"], incidental traumatic thought intrusion, and skin conductance responses in combat-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Participants included service members who either: a) had PTSD following an Operation Iraqi Freedom deployment; b) were free of psychiatric diagnosis following deployment (Combat Equivalent), or c) were pre-deployed and without psychiatric diagnosis (Pre-Deployed). PTSD Service Members reported the greatest intrusion of combat thoughts during the suppression task and demonstrated a post-suppression rebound effect with a neutral thought. Non-specific skin conductance responses indicated that the suppression task was related to similar levels of increased sympathetic activity for both the PTSD and Pre-Deployed groups, whereas the Combat Equivalent group showed no increased activation during thought suppression. Intrusive traumatic thoughts combined with failures in neutral thought suppression may be a consequence of increased cognitive load in PTSD. PMID:19586619

  9. 3 Treatments Seem to Help Combat Binge-Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159650.html 3 Treatments Seem to Help Combat Binge-Eating Disorder ... least-known eating disorder -- may have at least three treatment options to help them curtail their eating. ...

  10. New Tests May Help Combat Melanoma, Expert Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_157614.html New Tests May Help Combat Melanoma, Expert Says Doctors now have genetic and molecular ... valuable in helping to diagnose and treat deadly melanoma skin cancer, a dermatologist says. The tests are ...

  11. Endocytosis and Intracellular Trafficking of Human Natural Killer Cell Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Masilamani, Madhan; Peruzzi, Giovanna; Borrego, Francisco; Coligan, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a vital role in the defense against viral infections and tumor development. NK cell function is primarily regulated by the sum of signals from a broad array of activation and inhibitory receptors. Key to generating the input level of either activating or inhibitory signals is the maintenance of receptor expression levels on the cell surface. Although the mechanisms of endocytosis and trafficking for some cell surface receptors, such as transferrin receptor, and certain immune receptors, are very well known, that is not the situation for receptors expressed by NK cells. Recent studies have uncovered that endocytosis and trafficking routes characteristic for specific activation and inhibitory receptors can regulate the functional responses of NK cells. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of receptor endocytosis and trafficking, and integrate this with our current understanding of NK cell receptor trafficking. PMID:19719476

  12. Prosaposin facilitates sortilin-independent lysosomal trafficking of progranulin

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaolai; Sun, Lirong; Bastos de Oliveira, Francisco; Qi, Xiaoyang; Brown, William J.; Smolka, Marcus B.; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the progranulin (PGRN) gene have been linked to two distinct neurodegenerative diseases, frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL). Accumulating evidence suggests a critical role of PGRN in lysosomes. However, how PGRN is trafficked to lysosomes is still not clear. Here we report a novel pathway for lysosomal delivery of PGRN. We found that prosaposin (PSAP) interacts with PGRN and facilitates its lysosomal targeting in both biosynthetic and endocytic pathways via the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor and low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1. PSAP deficiency in mice leads to severe PGRN trafficking defects and a drastic increase in serum PGRN levels. We further showed that this PSAP pathway is independent of, but complementary to, the previously identified PGRN lysosomal trafficking mediated by sortilin. Collectively, our results provide new understanding on PGRN trafficking and shed light on the molecular mechanisms behind FTLD and NCL caused by PGRN mutations. PMID:26370502

  13. Recognizing victims of human trafficking in the pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Becker, Heather J; Bechtel, Kirsten

    2015-02-01

    Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery that is rapidly expanding in the United States and throughout the world. It is a crime under both the United States and international law. The child and adult victims of human trafficking are denied their basic human rights and subjected to unspeakable physical and emotional harm. Traffickers exert complete control over their victims and are proficient at hiding their condition from authorities. Healthcare practitioners may be the only professionals who come into contact with victims if they present for medical care. This article will describe human trafficking and its potential victims, as well as guide medical management and access to services that will ensure their safety and restore their freedom. PMID:25651385

  14. Roof plan, Combat Operations Center, Building No. 2605. (Also includes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof plan, Combat Operations Center, Building No. 2605. (Also includes a typical roof section, with new fiberglass and urethane insulation layers.) By Federal Builders, 575 Carreon Drive, Colton, California. Sheet 1 of 1, dated 18 May 1992. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 24x36 inches. ink on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  15. National Center for Combating Terrorism Strategic Plan, September 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2003-09-01

    National Center for Combating Terrorism Strategic Plan is to document the mission, vision, and goals for success; define the build plan; and describe initiatives that support the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Justice, intelligence community, National Governors Association, and other organizations or departments with combating terrorism training, testing, and technology responsibilities.

  16. Sex trafficking of minors in metropolitan, micropolitan, and rural communities.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jennifer; Sprang, Ginny

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine professionals' awareness, knowledge, and experiences working with youth victims of sex trafficking in metropolitan and non-metropolitan communities. Professionals who worked with at-risk youth and/or crime victims were recruited from all counties in a southern, rural state in the U.S. to complete a telephone survey. Surveys included closed and open-ended questions, which were theme coded. Professionals' (n=289) were classified into one of four categories based on the counties in which they worked: metropolitan, micropolitan, rural, and all three community types. Although there were many similarities found in trafficking situations across the different types of communities, some expected differences were found. First, as expected, more professionals in metropolitan communities perceived CSEC as being a fairly or very serious problem in the state overall. Consistent with other studies, more professionals in metropolitan communities had received training on human trafficking and reported they were familiar with the state and federal laws on human trafficking (Newton et al., 2008). Significantly more professionals in metropolitan (54.7%) communities reported they had worked with a suspected or definite victim of STM compared to professionals in micropolitan communities (29.8%). There were few differences in victim characteristics, vulnerability factors, and trafficking situations (e.g., relationship to trafficker, traffickers' techniques for controlling victims, transportation, and Internet-facilitation of trafficking) across the community types. There is a continued need for awareness building of STM and training, particularly in non-metropolitan communities, as well as adoption of screening tools, integration of trauma-informed care, and identification of best practices. PMID:25151302

  17. Drug Trafficking Organizations and Local Economic Activity in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    González, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between illegal firms and local economic activity. In this paper I study changes in satellite night lights across Mexican municipalities after the arrival of large drug trafficking organizations in the period 2000–2010. After accounting for state trends and differences in political regimes, results indicate no significant change in night lights after the arrival of these illegal firms. Estimated coefficients are precise, robust, and similar across different drug trafficking organizations. PMID:26348041

  18. Drug Trafficking Organizations and Local Economic Activity in Mexico.

    PubMed

    González, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between illegal firms and local economic activity. In this paper I study changes in satellite night lights across Mexican municipalities after the arrival of large drug trafficking organizations in the period 2000-2010. After accounting for state trends and differences in political regimes, results indicate no significant change in night lights after the arrival of these illegal firms. Estimated coefficients are precise, robust, and similar across different drug trafficking organizations. PMID:26348041

  19. Impact of Cumulative Combat Stress on Learning in an Academic Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Kevin Peter; Fishback, Sarah Jane

    2012-01-01

    The stress of multiple combat tours has created a combat-tested but combat-weary Army. While most soldiers have coped successfully with combat stress, many return home with problems that include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, aggressive behavior, insomnia, and reduced memory and concentration skills. Education is…

  20. Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, I-Ju

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation mainly focuses on the investigation of the cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We are interested in the study of endocytosis and exocytosis behaviors of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with desired surface functionality. The relationship between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and membrane trafficking of cells, either cancerous cells or normal cells was examined. Since mesoporous silica nanoparticles were applied in many drug delivery cases, the endocytotic efficiency of mesoporous silica nanoparticles needs to be investigated in more details in order to design the cellular drug delivery system in the controlled way. It is well known that cells can engulf some molecules outside of the cells through a receptor-ligand associated endocytosis. We are interested to determine if those biomolecules binding to cell surface receptors can be utilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to improve the uptake efficiency or govern the mechanism of endocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) is a small peptide recognized by cell integrin receptors and it was reported that avidin internalization was highly promoted by tumor lectin. Both RGD and avidin were linked to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to investigate the effect of receptor-associated biomolecule on cellular endocytosis efficiency. The effect of ligand types, ligand conformation and ligand density were discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. Furthermore, the exocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is very attractive for biological applications. The cellular protein sequestration study of mesoporous silica nanoparticles was examined for further information of the intracellular pathway of endocytosed mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials. The surface functionality of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials demonstrated selectivity among the materials and cancer and normal cell lines. We aimed to determine

  1. Challenges and Needs Faced by Female Combat Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Krajewski-Jaime, Elvia R.; Whitehead, Markus; Kellman-Fritz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings of a study conducted to identify stressors that may contribute to mental health issues of military female veterans. Female members in the U.S. Armed Forces currently occupy more non-traditional roles; therefore deployment to combat zones, commonly reserved for males, is being taken on by females. While at the present time females serving in the military are not allowed to serve in combat occupations, the reality is that many are being placed in combat roles or environments. Consequently, many are now confronted with stressors related to combat and multiple deployments. This study was based on a descriptive, non-probability, snowball design. In cases where participants displayed a reluctance to share some information in front of counterparts who may have been at a higher or lower rank level; subsequent semi-structured, one-to-one interviews were conducted. The latter approach proved more effective in gathering important information, such as issues of military sexual trauma (MST) and issues of intimacy upon re-entering the home environment. This study was conducted before January 2013, when Defense Secretary Leon Panetta announced the lift of the ban on women serving in combat. Therefore, future studies will need to be conducted to discern how these stressors will affect them in their new role as active combatants. PMID:26618055

  2. Infrequent Illicit Methadone Use Among Stimulant-Using Patients in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Programs: A National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Blaine, Jack D.

    2009-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of past-month illicit methadone use and history of regular illicit use among stimulant-using methadone maintenance treatment patients. We obtained self-reported information on illicit methadone use from 383 participants recruited from six community-based methadone maintenance programs. Overall, 1.6% of participants reported illicit use in the past month, and 4.7% reported a history of regular use. Younger age and history of outpatient psychological treatment were associated with increased odds of past-month illicit use. Illicit methadone use among patients in maintenance programs is infrequent; however, a number of factors may increase risk of illicit use. PMID:18612886

  3. Assured communications and combat resiliency: the relationship between effective national communications and combat efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allgood, Glenn O.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Nutaro, James; Saffold, Jay

    2009-05-01

    Combat resiliency is the ability of a commander to prosecute, control, and consolidate his/her's sphere of influence in adverse and changing conditions. To support this, an infrastructure must exist that allows the commander to view the world in varying degrees of granularity with sufficient levels of detail to permit confidence estimates to be levied against decisions and course of actions. An infrastructure such as this will include the ability to effectively communicate context and relevance within and across the battle space. To achieve this will require careful thought, planning, and understanding of a network and its capacity limitations in post-event command and control. Relevance and impact on any existing infrastructure must be fully understood prior to deployment to exploit the system's full capacity and capabilities. In this view, the combat communication network is considered an integral part of or National communication network and infrastructure. This paper will describe an analytical tool set developed at ORNL and RNI incorporating complexity theory, advanced communications modeling, simulation, and visualization technologies that could be used as a pre-planning tool or post event reasoning application to support response and containment.

  4. The food and weight combat. A problematic fight for the elite combat sports athlete.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Stefan; Pipping Ekström, Marianne; Berg, Christina M

    2012-10-01

    Weight reduction in athletes is motivated by optimisation of performance, aesthetic reasons or to achieve a pre-designated weight. Previous research has shown that dietary restraint and short term weight regulation frequently takes place among combat sports athletes such as wrestlers and judokas. The aim of this study was to explore negative experiences related to dietary strategies and weight-making practises used by elite combat sports athletes. Using semi-structured interviews, 14 Swedish national team athletes in wrestling, judo and taekwondo were asked about their dietary intake and their engagement in both long- and short-term weight regulation practises. Content analysis of the transcribed interviews, display a constant struggle regarding nutritional standpoints. Sport demands such as achieving an optimal weight and nutritional intake were considered as central in order for excellent performance. Adhering to these demands was found to be problematic however, primarily because of; (1) negative physiological responses and (2) opposing ideals of a non-sport related nature, such as the importance of the athletes to be healthy and social in their everyday lives. PMID:22609334

  5. Defending legitimate epidemiologic research: combating Lysenko pseudoscience.

    PubMed

    Enstrom, James E

    2007-01-01

    This analysis presents a detailed defense of my epidemiologic research in the May 17, 2003 British Medical Journal that found no significant relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and tobacco-related mortality. In order to defend the honesty and scientific integrity of my research, I have identified and addressed in a detailed manner several unethical and erroneous attacks on this research. Specifically, I have demonstrated that this research is not "fatally flawed," that I have not made "inappropriate use" of the underlying database, and that my findings agree with other United States results on this relationship. My research suggests, contrary to popular claims, that there is not a causal relationship between ETS and mortality in the U.S. responsible for 50,000 excess annual deaths, but rather there is a weak and inconsistent relationship. The popular claims tend to damage the credibility of epidemiology. In addition, I address the omission of my research from the 2006 Surgeon General's Report on Involuntary Smoking and the inclusion of it in a massive U.S. Department of Justice racketeering lawsuit. I refute erroneous statements made by powerful U.S. epidemiologists and activists about me and my research and I defend the funding used to conduct this research. Finally, I compare many aspect of ETS epidemiology in the U.S. with pseudoscience in the Soviet Union during the period of Trofim Denisovich Lysenko. Overall, this paper is intended to defend legitimate research against illegitimate criticism by those who have attempted to suppress and discredit it because it does not support their ideological and political agendas. Hopefully, this defense will help other scientists defend their legitimate research and combat "Lysenko pseudoscience." PMID:17927827

  6. Defending legitimate epidemiologic research: combating Lysenko pseudoscience

    PubMed Central

    Enstrom, James E

    2007-01-01

    This analysis presents a detailed defense of my epidemiologic research in the May 17, 2003 British Medical Journal that found no significant relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and tobacco-related mortality. In order to defend the honesty and scientific integrity of my research, I have identified and addressed in a detailed manner several unethical and erroneous attacks on this research. Specifically, I have demonstrated that this research is not "fatally flawed," that I have not made "inappropriate use" of the underlying database, and that my findings agree with other United States results on this relationship. My research suggests, contrary to popular claims, that there is not a causal relationship between ETS and mortality in the U.S. responsible for 50,000 excess annual deaths, but rather there is a weak and inconsistent relationship. The popular claims tend to damage the credibility of epidemiology. In addition, I address the omission of my research from the 2006 Surgeon General's Report on Involuntary Smoking and the inclusion of it in a massive U.S. Department of Justice racketeering lawsuit. I refute erroneous statements made by powerful U.S. epidemiologists and activists about me and my research and I defend the funding used to conduct this research. Finally, I compare many aspect of ETS epidemiology in the U.S. with pseudoscience in the Soviet Union during the period of Trofim Denisovich Lysenko. Overall, this paper is intended to defend legitimate research against illegitimate criticism by those who have attempted to suppress and discredit it because it does not support their ideological and political agendas. Hopefully, this defense will help other scientists defend their legitimate research and combat "Lysenko pseudoscience." PMID:17927827

  7. Opioid receptor trafficking and interaction in nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X; Bao, L; Li, S

    2015-01-01

    Opiate analgesics such as morphine are often used for pain therapy. However, antinociceptive tolerance and dependence may develop with long-term use of these drugs. It was found that μ-opioid receptors can interact with δ-opioid receptors, and morphine antinociceptive tolerance can be reduced by blocking δ-opioid receptors. Recent studies have shown that μ- and δ-opioid receptors are co-expressed in a considerable number of small neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. The interaction of μ-opioid receptors with δ-opioid receptors in the nociceptive afferents is facilitated by the stimulus-induced cell-surface expression of δ-opioid receptors, and contributes to morphine tolerance. Further analysis of the molecular, cellular and neural circuit mechanisms that regulate the trafficking and interaction of opioid receptors and related signalling molecules in the pain pathway would help to elucidate the mechanism of opiate analgesia and improve pain therapy. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24611685

  8. Intracellular trafficking of heat shock factor 2.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Pascale; Le Dréan, Yves; Le Péron, Christine; Le Jossic-Corcos, Catherine; Ainouche, Abdelkadder; Michel, Denis

    2004-04-01

    HSF2 is an enigmatic member of the heat shock factor family, identified in the homeotherm classes of birds and mammals. We report the characterization of HSF2 from an evolutionary ancient vertebrate, the fish rainbow trout (rtHSF2). rtHSF2 appears closely related to its mammalian counterparts at structural and functional levels. The conservation of the distinctive features of HSF2 from fish to human suggests that it should ensure important biological functions, not redundant with those of HSF1. Proteasome inhibition, reported as a potent stimulator of HSF2, leads to the stabilization and to a striking nuclear trafficking of rtHSF2-GFP fusion protein. Upon treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132, rtHSF2-GFP accumulates into PML nuclear bodies (NBs) independently of its sumoylation and, if expressed at moderate level, moves to nucleoli. The translocation of rtHSF2-GFP from NBs to nucleoli is greatly favored by overexpression of the heat shock protein Hsp70. The mammalian counterpart mouse HSF2 (mHSF2) also exhibited changes in intracellular distribution upon MG132 treatment. mHSF2 partitioned between a juxtanuclear area that we characterized as an aggresome and the nucleoli. These relocalizations are likely to reflect common structural changes of mouse and trout HSF2 upon activation. PMID:15023536

  9. Human trafficking and health: a conceptual model to inform policy, intervention and research.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Hossain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte

    2011-07-01

    Human trafficking is an international crime renowned for extreme forms of violence against women, men and children. Although trafficking-related violence has been well-documented, the health of trafficked persons has been a largely neglected topic. For people who are trafficked, health risks and consequences may begin before they are recruited into the trafficking process, continue throughout the period of exploitation and persist even after individuals are released. Policy-making, service provision and research often focus narrowly on criminal violations that occur during the period of exploitation, regularly overlooking the health implications of trafficking. Similarly, the public health sector has not yet incorporated human trafficking as a health concern. We present a conceptual model that highlights the migratory and exploitative nature of a multi-staged trafficking process, which includes: 'recruitment', travel-transit', 'exploitation' and 'integration' or 'reintegration', and for some trafficked persons, 'detention' and 're-trafficking' stages. Trafficked persons may suffer from physical, sexual and psychological harm, occupational hazards, legal restrictions and difficulties associated with being marginalised or stigmatised. Researchers and decision-makers will benefit from a theoretical approach that conceptualizes trafficking and health as a multi-staged process of cumulative harm. To address a health risk such as trafficking, which spans geographical boundaries and involves multiple sectors, including immigration and law enforcement, labour, social and health services, interventions must be coordinated between nations and across sectors to promote the protection and recovery of people who are trafficked. PMID:21723653

  10. Prevalence Estimates of Combat-Related PTSD: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Lisa K.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Acierno, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Objective To provide a critical review of prevalence estimates of combat-related PTSD among military personnel and veterans, and of the relevant factors that may account for the variability of estimates within and across cohorts, including methodological and conceptual factors accounting for differences in prevalence rates across nations, conflicts/wars, and studies. Method We examined MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases for literature on combat-related PTSD. The following terms were used independently and in combinations in this search: PTSD, combat, veterans, military, epidemiology, prevalence. Results The point prevalence of combat-related PTSD in US military veterans since the Vietnam War ranges from about 2 – 17%. Studies of recent conflicts suggest that combat-related PTSD afflicts between 4 – 17% of US Iraq War veterans, but only 3 – 6% of returning UK Iraq War veterans. Thus, the prevalence range is narrower and tends to have a lower ceiling among combat veterans of non-US Western nations. Variability in prevalence is likely due to differences in sampling strategies; measurement strategies; inclusion and measurement of the DSM-IV clinically significant impairment criterion; timing and latency of assessment and potential for recall bias; and combat experiences. Prevalence rates are also likely affected by issues related to PTSD course, chronicity, and comorbidity; symptom overlap with other psychiatric disorders; and sociopolitical and cultural factors that may vary over time and by nation. Conclusions The disorder represents a significant and costly illness to veterans, their families, and society as a whole. However, further carefully conceptualized research is needed to advance our understanding of disorder prevalence, as well as associated information on course, phenomenology, protective factors, treatment, and economic costs. PMID:20073563

  11. Rab11 Supports Amphetamine-Stimulated Norepinephrine Transporter Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Matthies, Heinrich J.G.; Moore, Jessica L.; Saunders, Christine; Matthies, Dawn Signor; Lapierre, Lynne A.; Goldenring, James R.; Blakely, Randy D.; Galli, Aurelio

    2010-01-01

    The norepinephrine transporter (NET) is a presynaptic plasma membrane protein that mediates reuptake of synaptically released norepinephrine (NE). NET is also a major target for medications used for the treatment of depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy, and obesity. NET is regulated by numerous mechanisms, including catalytic activation and membrane trafficking. Amphetamine (AMPH), a psychostimulant and NET substrate, has also been shown to induce NET trafficking. However, neither the molecular basis nor the nature of the relevant membrane compartments of AMPH-modulated NET trafficking has been defined. Indeed, direct visualization of drug-modulated NET trafficking in neurons has yet to be demonstrated. In this study, we utilized a recently developed NET antibody and the presence of large presynaptic boutons in sympathetic neurons to examine basal and AMPH-modulated NET trafficking. Specifically, we establish a role for Rab11 in AMPH-induced NET trafficking. First, we found that in cortical slices, AMPH induces a reduction in surface NET. Next, we observed AMPH-induced accumulation and colocalization of NET with Rab11a and Rab4 in presynaptic boutons of cultured neurons. Using tagged proteins, we demonstrated that NET and a truncated Rab11 effector (FIP2ΔC2) do not redistribute in synchrony whereas NET and wild type Rab11a do. Analysis of various Rab11a/b mutants further demonstrates that Rab11 regulates NET trafficking. Expression of the truncated Rab11a effector (FIP2ΔC2) attenuates endogenous Rab11 function and prevented AMPH-induced NET internalization as does GDP-locked Rab4 S22N. Our data demonstrate that AMPH leads to an increase of NET in endosomes of single boutons and varicosities in a Rab11-dependent manner. PMID:20534835

  12. Contamination Profiles and Mass Loadings of Macrolide Antibiotics and Illicit Drugs from a Small Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information is limited regarding sources, distribution, environmental behavior, and fate of prescribed and illicit drugs. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be one of the sources of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCP) into streams, rivers and lakes. The ...

  13. Educating Health Care Professionals on Human Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Aimee M.; Lippert, Suzanne; Collins, Kristin; Pineda, Noelle; Tolani, Alisha; Walker, Rebecca; Jeong, Monica; Trounce, Milana Boukhman; Graham-Lamberts, Caroline; Bersamin, Melina; Martinez, Det. Jeremy; Dotzler, Det. Jennifer; Vanek, Lt John; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Chamberlain, Lisa J.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The US Department of State estimates that there are between 4 and 27 million individuals worldwide in some form of modern slavery. Recent studies have demonstrated that 28% to 50% of trafficking victims in the United States encountered health care professionals while in captivity, but were not identified and recognized. This study aimed to determine whether an educational presentation increased emergency department (ED) providers' recognition of human trafficking (HT) victims and knowledge of resources to manage cases of HT. Methods The 20 largest San Francisco Bay Area EDs were randomized into intervention (10 EDs) or delayed intervention comparison groups (10 EDs) to receive a standardized educational presentation containing the following: background about HT, relevance of HT to health care, clinical signs in potential victims, and referral options for potential victims. Participants in the delayed intervention group completed a pretest in the period the immediate intervention group received the educational presentation, and all participants were assessed immediately before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention. The intervention effect was tested by comparing the pre–post change in the intervention group to the change in 2 pretests in the delayed intervention group adjusted for the effect of clustering within EDs. The 4 primary outcomes were importance of knowledge of HT to the participant's profession (5-point Likert scale), self-rated knowledge of HT (5-point Likert scale), knowledge of who to call for potential HT victims (yes/no), and suspecting that a patient was a victim of HT (yes/no). Findings There were 258 study participants from 14 EDs; 141 from 8 EDs in the intervention group and 117 from 7 EDs in the delayed intervention comparison group, of which 20 served as the delayed intervention comparison group. Participants in the intervention group reported greater increases in their level of knowledge about HT versus those in the

  14. Use of illicit drugs among high-school students in Jamaica.

    PubMed Central

    Soyibo, K.; Lee, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of a survey to assess the prevalence of illicit drug use among high-school students in Jamaica. A total of 2417 high-school students in 26 schools were covered: 1063 boys and 1354 girls of whom 1317 were grade-10 students (mean age 15.7 years) and 1100 were grade-11 students (mean age 16.8 years). Of the students, 1072 and 1345 were from rural and urban schools, respectively, while 1126 and 1291 were children of parents who were professionals and nonprofessionals, respectively. The following drugs were used by the students: marijuana (10.2%), cocaine (2.2%), heroin (1.5%) and opium (1.2%). Illicit drug use among males, urban students and children of professionals was higher than that among females, rural students and children of nonprofessionals, respectively. PMID:10212517

  15. Illicit Drug Use Among South Korean Offenders: Assessing the Generality of Social Learning Theory.

    PubMed

    Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung

    2015-10-01

    Since the mid-1990s, illicit drug use has become a problem in Korean society. This trend is likely due to the rapid globalization and expansion that occurred with the Internet revolution, which led to greater numbers of people socially learning about drug culture. The current study attempts to uncover criminogenic causality of such social learning about drug use by studying adult felony drug offenders in South Korea. The data used for the study were obtained from self-reported surveys, originally collected by the Korean Institution of Criminology (KIC). The final sample comprised 1,452 felony offenders convicted of illicit drug use, and their responses were analyzed with a set of multiple logistic regression tests. The current study found supportive evidence for the generalizability of social learning theory from the sample of the South Korean adult drug offenders. We argue that the current study provides additional empirical evidence that supports the generalizability of social learning theory. PMID:24752638

  16. Compulsive Buying: Earlier Illicit Drug Use, Impulse Buying, Depression, and Adult ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963

  17. Factors determining yield and quality of illicit indoor cannabis (Cannabis spp.) production.

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Wouter; Van Damme, Patrick; Meert, Natalie

    2011-10-10

    Judiciary currently faces difficulties in adequately estimating the yield of illicit indoor cannabis plantations. The latter data is required in penalization which is based on the profits gained. A full factorial experiment in which two overhead light intensities, two plant densities and four varieties were combined in the indoor cultivation of cannabis (Cannabis spp.) was used to reveal cannabis drug yield and quality under each of the factor combinations. Highest yield was found for the Super Skunk and Big Bud varieties which also exhibited the highest concentrations of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Results show that plant density and light intensity are additive factors whereas the variety factor significantly interacts with both plant density and light intensity factors. Adequate estimations of yield of illicit, indoor cannabis plantations can only be made if upon seizure all factors considered in this study are accounted for. PMID:21737218

  18. Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2015-08-30

    This longitudinal study examined the association between psychosocial antecedents, including illicit drug use, and adult compulsive buying (CB) across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Participants originally came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant's earlier psychosocial antecedents and adult CB in the fifth decade of life. The results of the multivariate linear regression analyses showed that gender (female), earlier adult impulse buying (IB), depressive mood, illicit drug use, and concurrent ADHD symptoms were all significantly associated with adult CB at mean age 43. It is important that clinicians treating CB in adults should consider the role of drug use, symptoms of ADHD, IB, depression, and family factors in CB. PMID:26165963

  19. Cigarette smoking, illicit drug use, and routes of administration among heroin and cocaine users

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, PT; Trenz, RC; Scherer, M; Ropelewski, LR; Latimer, WW

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is ubiquitous among illicit drug users. Some have speculated that this may be partially due to similarities in the route of administration. However, research examining the relationship between cigarette smoking and routes of administration of illicit drugs is limited. To address this gap, we investigated sociodemographic and drug use factors associated with cigarette smoking among cocaine and heroin users in the Baltimore, Maryland community (N=576). Regular and heavy cigarette smokers were more likely to be White, have a history of a prior marriage, and have a lower education level. Regular smoking of marijuana and crack was associated with cigarette smoking, but not heavy cigarette smoking. Injection use was more common among heavy cigarette smokers. In particular, regular cigarette smokers were more likely to have a lifetime history of regularly injecting heroin. Optimal prevention and treatment outcomes can only occur through a comprehensive understanding of the interrelations between different substances of abuse. PMID:22305644

  20. The use of triangle diagram in the detection of explosive and illicit drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudac, Davorin; Baricevic, Martina; Obhodas, Jasmina; Franulovic, Andrej; Valkovic, Vladivoj

    2010-04-01

    A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density. Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.

  1. Detection of illicit drugs in impaired driver saliva by a field-usable SERS analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Chetan; Huang, Hermes; Farquharson, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    One of the greatest dangers of drug use is in combination with driving. According to the most recent National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) studies, more than 11% of drivers tested positive for illicit drugs, while 18% of drivers killed in accidents tested positive for illicit, prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Consequently, there is a need for a rapid, noninvasive, roadside drug testing device, similar to the breathalyzers used by law enforcement officials to estimate blood alcohol levels of impaired drivers. In an effort to satisfy this need we have been developing a sampling kit that allows extraction of drugs from 1 mL of saliva and detection by surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy using a portable Raman analyzer. Here we describe the development of the sampling kit and present measurements of diazepam at sub μg/mL concentrations measured in ~15 minutes.

  2. Antiretroviral therapy adherence: testing a social context model among Black men who use illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J Craig

    2011-01-01

    Individuals living with HIV who receive treatment and optimal care live longer and healthier lives. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to understand the effects of social context factors (individual, interpersonal, and social capital) that influence antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among a sample of HIV-infected Black men who use illicit drugs (N = 160). Ecosocial theory and social epidemiology provided the theoretical framework for this study. Multiple regression techniques and path analysis were used to test the model for these subjects. Homelessness among the subjects significantly affected adherence to ART. Tolerability of ART was observed to have a greater indirect effect on ART adherence than a direct effect. A positive state of mind and current illicit drug use indirectly affected ART adherence; however, significance was not achieved. Implications for the use of this theoretical model to guide research, clinical practice, and policy as part of a human rights approach to HIV disease is articulated. PMID:21123085

  3. Can price get the monkey off our back? A meta-analysis of illicit drug demand.

    PubMed

    Gallet, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    Because of the increased availability of price data over the past 15 years, several studies have estimated the demand for illicit drugs, providing 462 estimates of the price elasticity. Results from estimating several meta-regressions reveal that these price elasticity estimates are influenced by a number of study characteristics. For instance, the price elasticity differs across drugs, with its absolute value being smallest for marijuana, compared with cocaine and heroin. Furthermore, price elasticity estimates are sensitive to whether demand is modeled in the short-run or the long-run, measures of quantity and price, whether or not alcohol and other illicit drugs are included in the specification of demand, and the location of demand. However, a number of other factors, including the functional form of demand, several specification issues, the type of data and method used to estimate demand, and the quality of the publication outlet, have less influence on the price elasticity. PMID:23303721

  4. Eagle II: A prototype for multi-resolution combat modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.R.; Hutchinson, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Eagle 11 is a prototype analytic model derived from the integration of the low resolution Eagle model with the high resolution SIMNET model. This integration promises a new capability to allow for a more effective examination of proposed or existing combat systems that could not be easily evaluated using either Eagle or SIMNET alone. In essence, Eagle II becomes a multi-resolution combat model in which simulated combat units can exhibit both high and low fidelity behavior at different times during model execution. This capability allows a unit to behave in a highly manner only when required, thereby reducing the overall computational and manpower requirements for a given study. In this framework, the SIMNET portion enables a highly credible assessment of the performance of individual combat systems under consideration, encompassing both engineering performance and crew capabilities. However, when the assessment being conducted goes beyond system performance and extends to questions of force structure balance and sustainment, then SISMNET results can be used to calibrate'' the Eagle attrition process appropriate to the study at hand. Advancing technologies, changes in the world-wide threat, requirements for flexible response, declining defense budgets, and down-sizing of military forces motivate the development of manpower-efficient, low-cost, responsive tools for combat development studies. Eagle and SIMNET both serve as credible and useful tools. The integration of these two models promises enhanced capabilities to examine the broader, deeper, more complex battlefield of the future with higher fidelity, greater responsiveness and low overall cost.

  5. Eagle II: A prototype for multi-resolution combat modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.R.; Hutchinson, J.L.

    1993-02-01

    Eagle 11 is a prototype analytic model derived from the integration of the low resolution Eagle model with the high resolution SIMNET model. This integration promises a new capability to allow for a more effective examination of proposed or existing combat systems that could not be easily evaluated using either Eagle or SIMNET alone. In essence, Eagle II becomes a multi-resolution combat model in which simulated combat units can exhibit both high and low fidelity behavior at different times during model execution. This capability allows a unit to behave in a highly manner only when required, thereby reducing the overall computational and manpower requirements for a given study. In this framework, the SIMNET portion enables a highly credible assessment of the performance of individual combat systems under consideration, encompassing both engineering performance and crew capabilities. However, when the assessment being conducted goes beyond system performance and extends to questions of force structure balance and sustainment, then SISMNET results can be used to ``calibrate`` the Eagle attrition process appropriate to the study at hand. Advancing technologies, changes in the world-wide threat, requirements for flexible response, declining defense budgets, and down-sizing of military forces motivate the development of manpower-efficient, low-cost, responsive tools for combat development studies. Eagle and SIMNET both serve as credible and useful tools. The integration of these two models promises enhanced capabilities to examine the broader, deeper, more complex battlefield of the future with higher fidelity, greater responsiveness and low overall cost.

  6. Artificial immune system approach for air combat maneuvering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneshige, John; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2007-04-01

    Since future air combat missions will involve both manned and unmanned aircraft, the primary motivation for this research is to enable unmanned aircraft with intelligent maneuvering capabilities. During air combat maneuvering, pilots use their knowledge and experience of maneuvering strategies and tactics to determine the best course of action. As a result, we try to capture these aspects using an artificial immune system approach. The biological immune system protects the body against intruders by recognizing and destroying harmful cells or molecules. It can be thought of as a robust adaptive system that is capable of dealing with an enormous variety of disturbances and uncertainties. However, another critical aspect of the immune system is that it can remember how previous encounters were successfully defeated. As a result, it can respond faster to similar encounters in the future. This paper describes how an artificial immune system is used to select and construct air combat maneuvers. These maneuvers are composed of autopilot mode and target commands, which represent the low-level building blocks of the parameterized system. The resulting command sequences are sent to a tactical autopilot system, which has been enhanced with additional modes and an aggressiveness factor for enabling high performance maneuvers. Just as vaccinations train the biological immune system how to combat intruders, training sets are used to teach the maneuvering system how to respond to different enemy aircraft situations. Simulation results are presented, which demonstrate the potential of using immunized maneuver selection for the purposes of air combat maneuvering.

  7. Operative treatment of new onset radiculopathy secondary to combat injury.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Scott C; Van Blarcum, Gregory S; Kang, Daniel G; Lehman, Ronald A

    2015-02-01

    We set out to describe combat-related spine trauma over a 10-year period, and thereby determine the frequency of new onset radiculopathy secondary to injuries sustained in support of combat operations. We performed a retrospective analysis of a surgical database at three military institutions. Patients undergoing spine surgery following a combat-related injury in Afghanistan or Iraq between July 2003 and July 2013 were evaluated. We identified 105 patients with combat-related (Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom) spine trauma requiring operative intervention. Of these, 15 (14.3%) patients had radiculopathy as their primary complaint after injury. All patients were diagnosed with herniated nucleus pulposus. The average age was 39 years, with 80% injured in Iraq and 20% in Afghanistan. The most common mechanism of injury was mounted improvised explosive device (33%). The cervical spine was most commonly involved (53%), followed by lumbar spine (40%). Average time from injury to surgery was 23.4 months; 53% of patients had continued symptoms following surgery, and two patients had at least one revision surgery. Two patients were medically retired because of their symptoms. This study is the only of its kind evaluating the operative treatment of traumatic radiculopathy following combat-related trauma. We identified a relatively high rate of radiculopathy in these patients. PMID:25643379

  8. Trauma Informed Guilt Reduction Therapy With Combat Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Sonya B.; Wilkins, Kendall C.; Myers, Ursula S.; Allard, Carolyn B.

    2014-01-01

    Guilt related to combat trauma is highly prevalent among veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Trauma-related guilt has been associated with increased risk for posttraumatic psychopathology and poorer response to treatment. Trauma Informed Guilt Reduction (TrIGR) therapy is a 4-module cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy designed to reduce guilt related to combat trauma. The goals of this study were to describe the key elements of TrIGR and report results of a pilot study with 10 recently deployed combat veterans. Ten combat veterans referred from a VA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) or mental health clinic completed TrIGR over 4 to 7 sessions. Nine veterans completed the posttreatment assessment. This initial pilot suggests that TrIGR may help to reduce trauma-related guilt severity and associated distress. Changes in trauma-related guilt were highly correlated with reductions in PTSD and depression symptoms over the course of treatment, suggesting a possible mechanistic link with severity of posttraumatic psychopathology. TrIGR warrants further evaluation as an intervention for reducing guilt related to traumatic experiences in combat. PMID:25404850

  9. Did the tobacco industry inflate estimates of illicit cigarette consumption in Asia? An empirical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; McGhee, Sarah M; Townsend, Joy; Lam, Tai Hing; Hedley, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Estimates of illicit cigarette consumption are limited and the data obtained from studies funded by the tobacco industry have a tendency to inflate them. This study aimed to validate an industry-funded estimate of 35.9% for Hong Kong using a framework taken from an industry-funded report, but with more transparent data sources. Methods Illicit cigarette consumption was estimated as the difference between total cigarette consumption and the sum of legal domestic sales and legal personal imports (duty-free consumption). Reliable data from government reports and scientifically valid routine sources were used to estimate the total cigarette consumption by Hong Kong smokers and legal domestic sales in Hong Kong. Consumption by visitors and legal duty-free consumption by Hong Kong passengers were estimated under three scenarios for the assumptions to examine the uncertainty around the estimate. A two-way sensitivity analysis was conducted using different levels of possible undeclared smoking and under-reporting of self-reported daily consumption. Results Illicit cigarette consumption was estimated to be about 8.2–15.4% of the total cigarette consumption in Hong Kong in 2012 with a midpoint estimate of 11.9%, as compared with the industry-funded estimate of 35.9% of cigarette consumption. The industry-funded estimate was inflated by 133–337% of the probable true value. Only with significant levels of under-reporting of daily cigarette consumption and undeclared smoking could we approximate the value reported in the industry-funded study. Conclusions The industry-funded estimate inflates the likely levels of illicit cigarette consumption. PMID:25566812

  10. Informal and Illicit Entrepreneurs: Fighting for a Place in the Neoliberal Economic Order

    PubMed Central

    Galemba, Rebecca B.

    2013-01-01

    A panel at the 2007 meetings of the American Anthropological Association examined the working lives of illicit and informal entrepreneurs living in “the gaps” or “shadows” of neoliberal globalization. Panelists challenged dichotomies such as informal/formal and legal/illegal by examining the everyday practices of workers in diverse settings. Emphasis was placed on entrepreneurs’ efforts to legitimate their activities and identities to themselves and others. PMID:24223472

  11. Gender Differences in Emergency Department Visits and Detox Referrals for Illicit and Nonmedical Use of Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Ryoo, Hyeon-Ju; Choo, Esther K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Visits to the emergency department (ED) for use of illicit drugs and opioids have increased in the past decade. In the ED, little is known about how gender may play a role in drug-related visits and referrals to treatment. This study performs gender-based comparison analyses of drug-related ED visits nationwide. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis with data collected from 2004 to 2011 by the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). All data were coded to capture major drug categories and opioids. We used logistic regression models to find associations between gender and odds of referral to treatment programs. A second set of models were controlled for patient “seeking detox,” or patient explicitly requesting for detox referral. Results Of the 27.9 million ED visits related to drug use in the DAWN database, visits by men were 2.69 times more likely to involve illicit drugs than visits by women (95% CI [2.56, 2.80]). Men were more likely than women to be referred to detox programs for any illicit drugs (OR 1.12, 95% CI [1.02–1.22]), for each of the major illicit drugs (e.g., cocaine: OR 1.27, 95% CI [1.15–1.40]), and for prescription opioids (OR 1.30, 95% CI [1.17–1.43]). This significant association prevailed after controlling for “seeking detox.” Conclusion Women are less likely to receive referrals to detox programs than men when presenting to the ED regardless of whether they are “seeking detox.” Future research may help determine the cause for this gender-based difference and its significance for healthcare costs and health outcomes. PMID:27330662

  12. Realistic mixture of illicit drugs impaired the oxidative status of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Parolini, Marco; Magni, Stefano; Castiglioni, Sara; Zuccato, Ettore; Binelli, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Illicit drugs are considered to be emerging aquatic pollutants since they are commonly found in freshwater ecosystems in the high ng L(-1) to low μg L(-1) range concentrations. Although the environmental occurrence of the most common psychoactive compounds is well known, recently some investigations showed their potential toxicity toward non-target aquatic organisms. However, to date, these studies completely neglected that organisms in the real environment are exposed to a complex mixture, which could lead to dissimilar adverse effects. The present study investigated the oxidative alterations of the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha induced by a 14-d exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of the most common illicit drugs found in the aquatic environment, namely cocaine (50 ng L(-1)), benzoylecgonine (300 ng L(-1)), amphetamine (300 ng L(-1)), morphine (100 ng L(-1)) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (50 ng L(-1)). The total oxidant status (TOS) was measured to investigate the increase in the reactive oxygen species' levels, while the activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione S-transferase were measured to note the eventual imbalances between pro-oxidant and antioxidant molecules. In addition, oxidative damage was assessed by measuring the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation. Significant time-dependent increases of all the antioxidant activities were induced by the mixture. Moreover, the illicit drug mixture significantly increased the levels of carbonylated proteins and caused a slight variation in lipid peroxidation. Our results showed that a mixture of illicit drugs at realistic environmental concentrations can impair the oxidative status of the zebra mussel, posing a serious hazard to the health status of this bivalve species. PMID:25676616

  13. Internet use and attitudes towards illicit internet use behavior in a sample of Russian college students.

    PubMed

    Palesh, Oxana; Saltzman, Kasey; Koopman, Cheryl

    2004-10-01

    This study assessed Internet use and attitudes toward illicit use of the Internet in a sample of Russian college students. A sample comprised of 198 students was recruited from a university in Moscow. Each participant completed a survey assessing demographic characteristics, Internet use, and attitudes towards engaging in illicit behaviors over the Internet. About half of the students reported that they used the Internet at least several times a year, with 8% reporting daily use of the Internet. Among Internet users, most reported having Internet access either at home or at a friends' home, and 16 % reported having Internet access from work, school, or a computer center. Among Internet users, the main purpose was for school-related activities (60%), followed by e-mail (55%), entertainment (50%), chatting (24%), and searching for pornography (6%). Although most students thought it was inappropriate to read someone else's e-mail, use someone else's password or credit card information without their permission, or break into someone's computer, many students did endorse those illicit behaviors. Over a fifth of the students reported that they knew hackers. Forty three percent of students agreed that people make too much fuss about watching videos, movies or downloading music on the Internet without paying. Males were more likely than females to report using the Internet for entertainment purposes (p = 0.006) and were more likely to agree that it was okay to break into someone's computer (p = 0.04). The results of this study suggest that these Russian college students predominately use the Internet to help with their schoolwork, to communicate with others, and for entertainment. These results also suggest that interventions may be useful to change attitudes endorsing illicit uses of the Internet. PMID:15667050

  14. Informal and Illicit Entrepreneurs: Fighting for a Place in the Neoliberal Economic Order.

    PubMed

    Galemba, Rebecca B

    2008-01-01

    A panel at the 2007 meetings of the American Anthropological Association examined the working lives of illicit and informal entrepreneurs living in "the gaps" or "shadows" of neoliberal globalization. Panelists challenged dichotomies such as informal/formal and legal/illegal by examining the everyday practices of workers in diverse settings. Emphasis was placed on entrepreneurs' efforts to legitimate their activities and identities to themselves and others. PMID:24223472

  15. Testing wastewater to detect illicit drugs: state of the art, potential and research needs.

    PubMed

    Castiglioni, Sara; Thomas, Kevin V; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Vandam, Liesbeth; Griffiths, Paul

    2014-07-15

    Illicit drug use is a global phenomenon involving millions of individuals, which results in serious health and social costs. The chemical analysis of urban wastewater for the excretion products of illicit drugs is a potent approach for monitoring patterns and trends of illicit drug use in a community. The first international and multidisciplinary conference on this topic was recently organized to present the epidemiological knowledge of patterns in drug use and the information obtained from wastewater analysis. This paper gives an overview of the main issues that emerged during the conference, focusing on the identified research gaps and requirements and on the future challenges and opportunities from bringing together wastewater analysis and drug epidemiology. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) uses an established multi-indicator system to monitor illicit drug use and to identify the emergence of new psychoactive substances. The methodological challenges of monitoring a hidden and stigmatized behavior like drug use include the limitations of self-report data and reporting delays. An increasing evidence base suggests that wastewater analysis can address some of these problems. Specifically this technique can: monitor temporal and spatial trends in drug use at different scales, provide updated estimates of drug use, and identify changing habits and the use of new substances. A best practice protocol developed by a Europe-wide network of experts is available to produce homogeneous and comparable data at different sites. The systematic evaluation of uncertainties related to wastewater analysis has highlighted which areas require careful control and those that need further investigation to generally improve the approach. Wastewater analysis has considerable potential to complement existing approaches for monitoring drug use due to its ability to produce objective, real-time estimates of drug use and to give timely information of any

  16. Non-medical prescription drug and illicit street drug use among young Swiss men and associated mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is increasing among the general population, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Although prescription drugs are considered safer than illicit street drugs, NMUPD can lead to detrimental consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between drug use (NMUPD on the one side, illicit street drugs on the other side) with mental health issues and then compare these associations. A representative sample of 5719 young Swiss men aged around 20 years filled in a questionnaire as part of the ongoing baseline Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). Drug use (16 illicit street drugs and 5 NMUPDs, including sleeping pills, sedatives, pain killers, antidepressants, stimulants) and mental health issues (depression, SF12) were assessed. Simple and multiple linear regressions were employed. In simple regressions, all illicit and prescription drugs were associated with poorer mental health. In multiple regressions, most of the NMUPDs, except for stimulants, were significantly associated with poorer mental health and with depression. On the contrary, the only associations that remained significant between illicit street drugs and mental health involved cannabis. NMUPD is of growing concern not only because of its increasing occurrence, but also because of its association with depression and mental health problems, which is stronger than the association observed between these problems and illicit street drug use, excepted for cannabis. Therefore, NMUPD must be considered in screening for substance use prevention purposes. PMID:24447983

  17. "Not just eliminating the mosquito but draining the swamp": A critical geopolitics of Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction and Turkey's approach to illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Evered, Kyle T; Evered, Emine Ö

    2016-07-01

    In the 1970s, Turkey ceased to be a significant producer state of illicit drugs, but it continued to serve as a key route for the trade of drugs between East and West. Over the past decade, however, authorities identified two concerns beyond its continued transit state status. These reported problems entail both new modes of production and a rising incidence of drug abuse within the nation-state - particularly among its youth. Amid these developments, new law enforcement institutions emerged and acquired European sponsorship, leading to the establishment of TUBİM (the Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction). Coordinating with and reporting to the European Union agency EMCDDA (the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction), TUBİM's primary assigned duties entail the collection and analysis of data on drug abuse, trafficking, and prevention, the geographic identification of sites of concern (e.g. consumption, drug-related crimes, and peoples undergoing treatment), and the production of annual national reports. In this article, we examine the geopolitical origins of TUBİM as Turkey's central apparatus for confronting drug problems and its role as a vehicle for policy development, interpretation, and enforcement. In doing so, we emphasize the political and spatial dimensions inherent to the country's institutional and policy-driven approaches to contend with drug-related problems, and we assess how this line of attack reveals particular ambiguities in mission when evaluated from scales at world regional, national, and local levels. In sum, we assess how Turkey's new institutional and legislative landscapes condition the state's engagements with drug use, matters of user's health, and policy implementation at local scales and amid ongoing political developments. PMID:27267659

  18. Sphingosine kinases and their metabolites modulate endolysosomal trafficking in photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Yonamine, Ikuko; Bamba, Takeshi; Nirala, Niraj K.; Jesmin, Nahid; Kosakowska-Cholody, Teresa; Nagashima, Kunio; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2011-01-01

    Internalized membrane proteins are either transported to late endosomes and lysosomes for degradation or recycled to the plasma membrane. Although proteins involved in trafficking and sorting have been well studied, far less is known about the lipid molecules that regulate the intracellular trafficking of membrane proteins. We studied the function of sphingosine kinases and their metabolites in endosomal trafficking using Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptors as a model system. Gain- and loss-of-function analyses show that sphingosine kinases affect trafficking of the G protein–coupled receptor Rhodopsin and the light-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channel by modulating the levels of dihydrosphingosine 1 phosphate (DHS1P) and sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P). An increase in DHS1P levels relative to S1P leads to the enhanced lysosomal degradation of Rhodopsin and TRP and retinal degeneration in wild-type photoreceptors. Our results suggest that sphingosine kinases and their metabolites modulate photoreceptor homeostasis by influencing endolysosomal trafficking of Rhodopsin and TRP. PMID:21321100

  19. 3 CFR 8471 - Proclamation 8471 of January 4, 2010. National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, 2010 8471 Proclamation 8471 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8471 of January 4, 2010 Proc. 8471 National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention... the United States. During National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, we acknowledge...

  20. Childhood maltreatment and illicit drug use in middle adulthood: the role of neighborhood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Preeti; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2012-08-01

    This paper examined whether childhood maltreatment increases the risk of living in neighborhoods with less desirable characteristics (i.e., more disorder and disadvantage, less social cohesion, social control and advantage, and fewer resources) in middle adulthood and whether these neighborhood characteristics influence subsequent illicit drug use. Using a prospective cohort design study, court documented cases of childhood abuse and neglect and matched controls (n = 833) were first interviewed as young adults (mean age = 29 years) from 1989 to 1995 and again in middle adulthood from 2000 to 2002 (mean age = 40 years) and 2003 to 2005 (mean age = 41 years). In middle adulthood, individuals with histories of childhood abuse and neglect were more likely to live in neighborhoods with more disorder and disadvantage and less social cohesion and advantage compared to controls and to engage in illicit drug use during the past year. Path analyses showed an indirect effect on illicit drug use via neighborhood disorder among maltreated children, even after accounting for drug abuse symptoms in young adulthood, although this was sex specific and race specific, affecting women and Whites. Overall, child abuse and neglect places children on a negative trajectory that dynamically influences negative outcomes at multiple levels into middle adulthood. PMID:22781851

  1. Illicit psychotropic substances in the air: The state-of-art.

    PubMed

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Perilli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of psychotropic substances (PSs) in the air is known since long time. Recently, attention was paid to illicit PS, with most investigations undertaken in Italy and Spain. In general, collection of illicit substances was performed through aspirating airborne particulates onto filters; afterwards, gas chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry were applied for the PS evaluation. Over twenty substances could be characterized simultaneously. Cocaine concentrations up to 17ngm(-3) were observed in Latin America, while this substance was absent (<0.003ngm(-3)) in Algiers (Algeria) and Pančevo (Serbia). Cannabinoids (comprising the psycho-active principle Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) were high in the winter and very low in the summer (up to 6ngm(-3) and <0.1ngm(-3), respectively). Many other substances (e.g., heroin, ephedrine and drug by-products) occurred less frequently and at lesser extents (<20pgm(-3)). In Rome (Italy), investigations were carried out in interiors of dwellings, schools, an office and a coffee bar, all sites resulting affected by drugs. Besides, solid phase microextraction methods were applied to detect ketamine and methamphetamine in interiors. The PS concentrations depended on substance, physical-chemical contour, and internal or external type of locations. Air monitoring allows detecting the drug consumption or preparation, because illicit substances prevail in sites frequented by abusers. PMID:26360454

  2. Stigmatization of Illicit Drug Use among Puerto Rican Health Professionals in Training1

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Negrón, Salvador Santiago; Neilands, Torsten B.; Bou, Francheska Cintrón; Rivera, Souhail Malavé

    2010-01-01

    Social stigma continues to be a barrier for health promotion in our society. One of the most stigmatized health conditions in our time continues to be addiction to illicit drug use. Although it has been widely recognized as a health concern, criminalizing approaches continue to be common in Puerto Rico. Health professionals need to engage in challenging the stigma of illicit drug use in order to foster policies and government efforts with health-oriented approaches. Still, personal stigmatizing attitudes among them continue to be a barrier for the implementation of this agenda. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to document stigma towards illicit drug use among a sample of health professionals in training, and explore differences in such attitudes among participants from different areas of training. In order to achieve this objective we carried out a sequential mixed method approach with a sample of 501 health professionals in training or practice from the disciplines of medicine, nursing, psychology and social work. Results evidence the continued existence of stigmatizing attitudes among this population. We discuss some of the implications for public health and potential strategies for action. PMID:20496525

  3. Effects of Welfare Reform on Illicit Drug Use Of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Das, Dhiman

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting changes in welfare policy across states and over time and comparing relevant population subgroups within an econometric difference-in-differences framework, we estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women's illicit drug use from 1992 to 2002, the period during which welfare reform unfolded in the U.S. The analyses are based on all available and appropriate national datasets, each offering unique strengths and measuring a different drug-related outcome. We investigate self-reported illicit drug use (from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse and National Surveys on Drug Use and Health), drug-related prison admissions (from the National Corrections Reporting Program), drug-related arrests (from Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports), and drug-related emergency department episodes (from the Drug Abuse Warning Network). We find robust evidence that welfare reform led to a 10-21% decline in illicit drug use among women at risk of relying on welfare, as well as associated declines in drug-related arrests (6-7%), drug-related hospital emergency department episodes (7-11%), and possibly drug-related prison admissions (11-19%). The findings indicate that an appropriately designed system with sufficient job opportunities for those are able to work can result in both increases in employment and decreases in drug use. PMID:25067860

  4. [Prevalence of illicit drug use and associated factors during pregnancy in the BRISA cohort].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Priscila Coimbra; Britto e Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de; Chagas, Deysianne Costa das; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Batista, Rosangela Fernandes Lucena; Silva, Raimundo Antonio da

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence of illicit drug use and associated factors during pregnancy. This was a cross-sectional study of participants in the BRISA prenatal care cohort. Frequencies and hierarchical logistic regression were used. Estimated prevalence rates were 1.45% for illicit drug use, 22.32% for alcohol consumption, and 4.22% for smoking. The study population was mostly young (81% in the 20-34-year bracket), with 9 to 11 years of schooling (75.55%), with more than half of the women outside the workforce (52.18%), and in economic class "C" (67.61%). Pregnant women showed a high level of stress (24.46%), moderate to intense anxiety (40.84%), and severe depressive symptoms (28.8%). Approximately half (49.72%) of the pregnant women reported some type of violence, and they had wide networks (72.77%) and low social support (65.21%). Use of legal drugs, high stress levels, and single parenthood were independently associated with illicit drug use in pregnancy. PMID:26886368

  5. Anhydrous ammonia thefts and releases associated with illicit methamphetamine production--16 states, January 2000-June 2004.

    PubMed

    2005-04-15

    Anhydrous ammonia, a colorless gas with a pungent, suffocating fumes, is used primarily as an agricultural fertilizer and industrial refrigerant. Anhydrous ammonia is also a key ingredient for illicit methamphetamine (meth) production in makeshift laboratories. Exposure to anhydrous ammonia can be immediately dangerous to life or health. Anhydrous ammonia generally is not available for sale to the public; states require a license for purchase. Because of this, many illicit meth producers (i.e., "cookers") resort to stealing anhydrous ammonia. If released into the environment, anhydrous ammonia can cause acute injuries to emergency responders, the public, and the cookers themselves. In addition, when handled improperly, anhydrous ammonia can be explosive and deadly. This report describes examples of anhydrous ammonia thefts associated with illicit meth production, summarizes ammonia theft events reported to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and suggests injury prevention recommendations, such as installing valve locks or fencing on unattended tanks and donning appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) when responding to releases. PMID:15829866

  6. Longitudinal Analysis of Changes in Illicit Drug Use and Health Services Utilization

    PubMed Central

    French, Michael T; Fang, Hai; Balsa, Ana I

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationships between illicit drug use and three types of health services utilization: emergency room utilization, hospitalization, and medical attention required due to injury(s). Data Waves 1 and 2 (11,253 males and 13,059 females) from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Study Design We derive benchmark estimates by employing standard cross-sectional data models to pooled waves of NESARC data. To control for potential bias due to time-invariant unobserved individual heterogeneity, we reestimate the relationships with fixed-effects models. Principal Findings The cross-sectional data models suggest that illicit drug use is positively and significantly related to health services utilization in almost all specifications. Conversely, the only significant (p<.05) relationships in the fixed-effects models are the odds of receiving medical attention for an injury and the number of injuries requiring medical attention for men, and the number of times hospitalized for men and women. Conclusions Failing to control for time-invariant individual heterogeneity could lead to biased coefficients when estimating the effects of illicit drug use on health services utilization. Moreover, it is important to distinguish between types of drug user (casual versus heavy) and estimate gender-specific models. PMID:21143479

  7. Breaking the Taboo: Illicit Drug Use among Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hogendorf, Anna M.; Fendler, Wojciech; Sieroslawski, Janusz; Bobeff, Katarzyna; Wegrewicz, Krzysztof; Malewska, Kamila I.; Przudzik, Maciej W.; Szmigiero-Kawko, Malgorzata; Sztangierska, Beata; Mysliwiec, Malgorzata; Szadkowska, Agnieszka; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of illicit drug use in a group of Polish adolescents with type 1 diabetes (DM1) in comparison with a national cohort of their healthy peers. Methods. Two hundred and nine adolescents with DM1, aged 15–18 years, were studied in 2013 with an anonymous questionnaire prepared for the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). The control group was a representative sample of 12114 students at the same age who took part in ESPAD in 2011. Metabolic control was regarded as good if self-reported HbA1c was <8% or poor if HbA1c was ≥8%. Results. Lifetime prevalence of illicit drug use was lower among adolescents with DM1 than in the control group [58 (28%) versus 5524 (46%), p = 10−5]. Cannabis preparations were the most frequently used substances [38 (18.3%) versus 3976 (33.1%), p = 10−5], followed by tranquilizers, sedatives, and amphetamine. Lifetime and last 12-month use of cannabis were associated with poorer glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 8%), p < 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. Conclusions. Adolescents with DM1 report using illicit drugs to a lesser extent than their healthy peers. The use of cannabis is associated with a poorer metabolic control in teens with DM1. PMID:26858959

  8. Is nonmedical prescription opiate use a unique form of illicit drug use?

    PubMed

    Catalano, Richard F; White, Helene R; Fleming, Charles B; Haggerty, Kevin P

    2011-01-01

    Nonmedical prescription opiate (NMPO) use is of great concern because of its high addiction potential, cognitive impairment effects, and other adverse consequences (e.g., hormonal and immune system effects, hyperalgesia and overdose). Due to the combination of drugs used by those who are NMPO users, it is difficult to isolate the negative effects of NMPO use from the effects of other legal and illicit drugs. Based on a stage model of substance use, this study tested whether NMPO use represents a unique form of illicit drug use among emerging adults and whether there are unique consequences of early NMPO use. We used longitudinal data from 912 emerging adults from the Raising Healthy Children study who were interviewed at least annually from the first or second grade through age 21. The findings indicated that almost all NMPO users have also used marijuana and a large majority has also used other drugs, such as cocaine and ecstasy. In addition, more frequent users of NMPOs are also more frequent users of other drugs. Except for violent behavior, NMPO use explained little unique variance in negative outcomes of use (e.g., drug use disorder, mood disorder, nonproductive behavior, poor health, and property crime) beyond that explained by other illicit drug use. Future studies examining the predictors or consequences of NMPO use and nonmedical use of other prescription drugs need to consider use within the context of other drug use. PMID:20864261

  9. Drug use patterns among Thai illicit drug injectors amidst increased police presence

    PubMed Central

    Werb, Dan; Hayashi, Kanna; Fairbairn, Nadia; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Lai, Calvin; Kerr, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Thailand has traditionally pursued an aggressive enforcement-based anti-illicit drug policy in an effort to make the country "drug-free." In light of this ongoing approach, we sought to assess impacts of enforcement on drug use behaviors among a cohort of injection drug users (IDU) in Thailand. We examined drug use patterns among IDU participating in a cross-sectional study conducted in Bangkok (n = 252). Participants were asked to provide data regarding patterns of drug use in the previous six months, including types of drugs consumed, method of consumption, frequency of use, and weekly income spent on drugs. We also conducted bivariate analyses to identify a possible effect of a reported increase in police presence on measures of drug use and related risk behaviors among study participants. One hundred fifty-five (61.5%) individuals reported injection heroin use and 132 (52.4%) individuals reported injection midazolam use at least daily in the past six months. Additionally, 86 (34.1%) individuals reported at least daily injection Yaba and Ice (i.e., methamphetamine) use. Participants in our study reported high levels of illicit drug use, including the injection of both illicit and licit drugs. In bivariate analyses, no association between increased police presence and drug use behaviors was observed. These findings demonstrate high ongoing rates of drug injecting in Thailand despite reports of increased levels of strict enforcement and enforcement-related violence, and raise questions regarding the merits of this approach. PMID:19622171

  10. Weight loss in combat sports: physiological, psychological and performance effects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present article briefly reviews the weight loss processes in combat sports. We aimed to discuss the most relevant aspects of rapid weight loss (RWL) in combat sports. Methods This review was performed in the databases MedLine, Lilacs, PubMed and SciELO, and organized into sub-topics: (1) prevalence, magnitude and procedures, (2) psychological, physiological and performance effects, (3) possible strategies to avoid decreased performance (4) organizational strategies to avoid such practices. Results There was a high prevalence (50%) of RWL, regardless the specific combat discipline. Methods used are harmful to performance and health, such as laxatives, diuretics, use of plastic or rubber suits, and sauna. RWL affects physical and cognitive capacities, and may increase the risk of death. Conclusion Recommendations during different training phases, educational and organizational approaches are presented to deal with or to avoid RWL. PMID:23237303

  11. [Neurophysiologic mechanisms of combat post-extreme state of health].

    PubMed

    Tsygan, V N

    2014-10-01

    The effects of ecological and occupational stress (EOS) on brain neurodynamics of Soviet and Afghanistan servicemen have been studied. The investigations have been made in Afghanistan. Neurophysiological characteristics of traumatic stress and consequences of combat trauma were studied in patients wounded in Afghanistan, in the acute phase as well as since 0.5-3 years after leaving the battlefield. The combined effect of combat situation, hot climate, highlands and desert forms EOS. It does not cause an adaptation process in servicemen. EOS is characterized by changes in bioelectrical indices of brain in interhemispheric relations both as a whole and in isolated rhythm components of EEG, by activating the stress limiting system. It exhibits pathopsychological and autonomic components which remain significant during 3 years after leaving the combat conditions. The formation of a general adaptation syndrome is prevented in explosion trauma under the influence of EOS. PMID:25697028

  12. Combating terrorism - a response in kind. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Lum, T.

    1987-05-13

    Outside of armed conflicts representing nations with forces in uniforms, another kind of war has emerged waged by terrorists. For the past twenty years terrorists have waged war against nations for a variety of reasons. No rules of war govern their conduct nor do they observe any. Methods of combatting terrorism vary from nation to nation. Few nations agree totally on how to combat this form of lawlessness. This essay examines one approach and suggests another. President Reagan's ultimate decision to bomb Libya is examined through a discussion of the events, repercussions of these events, and world opinion of these events that preceded his decision. A harsher, more-controlled and personal approach to combatting terrorism is suggested and discussed.

  13. Sections. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sections. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, Combat Operations Building. By Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 14, approved March, 1962; specifications no. ENG-04-353-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/15, Rev. "A"; file drawer 1290. Last revised 3 October 1966. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 30x36 inches. pencil on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  14. Elevations. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevations. March Air Force Base, Riverside, California, Combat Operations Center, Combat Operations Building. By Moffatt and Nichol, Engineers, 122 West Fifth Street, Long Beach, California; for the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, Office of the District Engineer, Los Angeles, California. Drawing no. AW-60-02-03, sheet no. 14, approved March, 1962; specifications no. ENG-04-353-62-66; D.O. series AW 1596/14, Rev. "B"; file drawer 77-1/102. Last revised 3 October 1966. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 30x36 inches. photocopy on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  15. HIV-1 Nef: Taking Control of Protein Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Estela A; daSilva, Luis L P

    2016-09-01

    The Nef protein of the human immunodeficiency virus is a crucial determinant of viral pathogenesis and disease progression. Nef is abundantly expressed early in infection and is thought to optimize the cellular environment for viral replication. Nef controls expression levels of various cell surface molecules that play important roles in immunity and virus life cycle, by directly interfering with the itinerary of these proteins within the endocytic and late secretory pathways. To exert these functions, Nef physically interacts with host proteins that regulate protein trafficking. In recent years, considerable progress was made in identifying host-cell-interacting partners for Nef, and the molecular machinery used by Nef to interfere with protein trafficking has started to be unraveled. Here, we briefly review the knowledge gained and discuss new findings regarding the mechanisms by which Nef modifies the intracellular trafficking pathways to prevent antigen presentation, facilitate viral particle release and enhance the infectivity of HIV-1 virions. PMID:27161574

  16. Polysialylation controls dendritic cell trafficking by regulating chemokine recognition.

    PubMed

    Kiermaier, Eva; Moussion, Christine; Veldkamp, Christopher T; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; de Vries, Ingrid; Williams, Larry G; Chaffee, Gary R; Phillips, Andrew J; Freiberger, Friedrich; Imre, Richard; Taleski, Deni; Payne, Richard J; Braun, Asolina; Förster, Reinhold; Mechtler, Karl; Mühlenhoff, Martina; Volkman, Brian F; Sixt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The addition of polysialic acid to N- and/or O-linked glycans, referred to as polysialylation, is a rare posttranslational modification that is mainly known to control the developmental plasticity of the nervous system. Here we show that CCR7, the central chemokine receptor controlling immune cell trafficking to secondary lymphatic organs, carries polysialic acid. This modification is essential for the recognition of the CCR7 ligand CCL21. As a consequence, dendritic cell trafficking is abrogated in polysialyltransferase-deficient mice, manifesting as disturbed lymph node homeostasis and unresponsiveness to inflammatory stimuli. Structure-function analysis of chemokine-receptor interactions reveals that CCL21 adopts an autoinhibited conformation, which is released upon interaction with polysialic acid. Thus, we describe a glycosylation-mediated immune cell trafficking disorder and its mechanistic basis. PMID:26657283

  17. Roles of membrane trafficking in plant cell wall dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ebine, Kazuo; Ueda, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The cell wall is one of the characteristic components of plant cells. The cell wall composition differs among cell types and is modified in response to various environmental conditions. To properly generate and modify the cell wall, many proteins are transported to the plasma membrane or extracellular space through membrane trafficking, which is one of the key protein transport mechanisms in eukaryotic cells. Given the diverse composition and functions of the cell wall in plants, the transport of the cell wall components and proteins that are involved in cell wall-related events could be specialized for each cell type, i.e., the machinery for cell wall biogenesis, modification, and maintenance could be transported via different trafficking pathways. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the current understanding of the roles and mechanisms of membrane trafficking in plant cells and focus on the biogenesis and regulation of the cell wall. PMID:26539200

  18. Subversion of Retrograde Trafficking by Translocated Pathogen Effectors.

    PubMed

    Personnic, Nicolas; Bärlocher, Kevin; Finsel, Ivo; Hilbi, Hubert

    2016-06-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens subvert the endocytic bactericidal pathway to form specific replication-permissive compartments termed pathogen vacuoles or inclusions. To this end, the pathogens employ type III or type IV secretion systems, which translocate dozens, if not hundreds, of different effector proteins into their host cells, where they manipulate vesicle trafficking and signaling pathways in favor of the intruders. While the distinct cocktail of effectors defines the specific processes by which a pathogen vacuole is formed, the different pathogens commonly target certain vesicle trafficking routes, including the endocytic or secretory pathway. Recently, the retrograde transport pathway from endosomal compartments to the trans-Golgi network emerged as an important route affecting pathogen vacuole formation. Here, we review current insight into the host cell's retrograde trafficking pathway and how vacuolar pathogens of the genera Legionella, Coxiella, Salmonella, Chlamydia, and Simkania employ mechanistically distinct strategies to subvert this pathway, thus promoting intracellular survival and replication. PMID:26924068

  19. Interfering with interferon receptor sorting and trafficking: impact on signaling.

    PubMed

    Claudinon, Julie; Monier, Marie-Noëlle; Lamaze, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) and their receptors (IFN-Rs) play fundamental roles in a multitude of biological functions. Many articles and reviews emphasize that the JAK/STAT machinery is obligatory for relay of the information transmitted by IFNs after binding to their cognate receptors at the plasma membrane. In contrast, very few studies have addressed the endocytosis and the intracellular trafficking of IFN-Rs, the immediate step following IFN binding. However, recent findings have shed light on the importance of IFN-R sorting and trafficking in the control of IFN signaling. Thus, IFN-Rs can be included in the growing family of signaling receptors for which regulation of biological activity critically involves endocytosis and trafficking. PMID:17493737

  20. Social world of organ transplantation, trafficking, and policies.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Farhan Navid; Purkayastha, Bandana

    2016-05-01

    Although success of organ transplants reflects advances in medical procedures, the success has generated debates about the ethical standards and policies that govern transplants, especially the acquisition of organs for transplants. We focus on laws, policies, and organ trafficking to highlight the interdisciplinary perspectives that can shape our understanding of transplantation as a social phenomenon. We discuss international policies and country-specific legislation from Pakistan to point to gaps and their implications for protecting vulnerable people who are exploited for organ removal. International collaboration and the legal framework need to be strengthened to fight the menace globally and to deal with the cases of organ trafficking within the legal ambit of human trafficking so that the rights of victims are upheld by states, justice systems, and ultimately medical establishments and practitioners. PMID:26841906