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Sample records for combined buccal mucosa

  1. Pigmented Lesion of Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  2. Pigmented lesion of buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  3. Buccal mucosa urethroplasty for adult urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, W. Britt; Santucci, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Urethral strictures are difficult to manage. Some treatment modalities for urethral strictures are fraught with high patient morbidity and stricture recurrence rates; however, an extremely useful tool in the armamentarium of the Reconstructive Urologist is buccal mucosal urethroplasty. We like buccal mucosa grafts because of its excellent short and long-term results, low post-operative complication rate, and relative ease of use. We utilize it for most our bulbar urethral stricture repairs and some pendulous urethral stricture repairs, usually in conjunction with a first-stage Johanson repair. In this report, we discuss multiple surgical techniques for repair of urethral stricture disease. Diagnosis, evaluation of candidacy, surgical techniques, post-operative care, and complications are included. The goal is to raise awareness of buccal mucosa grafting for the management urethral stricture disease. PMID:22022061

  4. Staged buccal mucosa urethroplasty in reoperative hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Nerli, R. B.; Neelagund, S. E.; Guntaka, Ajay; Patil, Shivagouda; Hiremath, Siddayya C.; Jali, Sujata M.; Vernekar, Ritesh; Hiremath, Murigendra B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Repeated attempts at surgical repair of serious complications involving either the partial or complete breakdown of the hypospadias repair are less likely to succeed because the penis is densely scarred, or significantly shortened, and the skin over the penis is immobile and hypovascular. Buccal mucosa (BM) has become the preferred material for reconstruction, whenever a child with skin-deficient hypospadias needs reoperation. We report the results of our surgical experience with staged reoperation using BM, in the repair of hypospadias in children with complications after multiple failed repairs. Materials and Methods: Children needing reoperation for hypospadias underwent a staged repair using buccal mucosa. The complications were noted. Results: Twenty-one children aged 3 – 16 years underwent this staged repair during the period May 2000 – April 2010. Two of these 21 children had a failed first stage. One child developed a urethro-cutaneous fistula following the second stage, which was corrected in an additional stage. Conclusions: The use of the buccal mucosa graft for urethral reconstruction in a child with hypospadias, needing a reoperation, is a successful method, with a low incidence of complications. PMID:21814309

  5. Condyloma acuminatum of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Rashmi; Pandey, Manoj; Shukla, Mridula; Kumar, Mohan

    2014-06-01

    Condyloma acuminatum is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced disease. It is usually transmitted sexually, and it frequently occurs in the anogenital area. A finding of condyloma acuminatum in the oral cavity is rare. Besides HPV, other risk factors for oral condyloma include chewing betel quid and smoking. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a 2 × 2-cm verrucous white patch on his buccal mucosa. He was habituated to both betel quid and cigarette smoking. A biopsy of the lesion identified it as a verrucous hyperplasia of the squamous epithelium with HPV-related koilocytic changes. The lesion was excised, and further histopathology identified it as condyloma acuminatum. The patient was disease-free 9 months postoperatively. The possibility of condyloma acuminatum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an oral white lesion. The most common treatments are surgical excision, cryosurgery, electrocautery, and laser excision. There is no known role for antiviral therapy. PMID:24932820

  6. Buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation: incidence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Piquero, K; Ando, T; Sakurai, K

    1999-05-01

    Buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation have been considered as one of the visible and reliable signs of bruxism. However, there have not been any reports justifying this relationship scientifically. Moreover, there have not been any studies reporting specific procedures to assess them. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine the clinical incidence of buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation and assess the possible relationship between certain factors that can influence their occurrence. A total of 244 (178 males and 66 females) dentulous adults from 20 to 59 years of age, who were employees at the Bank of Yokohama, were randomly selected. At first, the buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation were classified into three groups based in their intensity: none, mild, and severe. The incidence of both conditions in the different age groups, as well as the incidence by gender was evaluated. Furthermore, the possible relationships between buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation and age, gender, clenching awareness, grinding awareness, headache, neck stiffness, vertical dimension, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain to palpation, masticatory muscle tenderness to palpation, and the presence of premature contacts were evaluated using the chi-square test. A positive relationship was found between the occurrence of buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation and gender (p < 0.01); both conditions were observed more frequently in females than in males. A positive relationship was also found to age; the group between 20-29 years old showed the highest incidence. The vertical dimension had a positive relationship with the occurrence of both buccal mucosa ridging and tongue indentation. Other factors evaluated did not show any correlation. PMID:10825817

  7. Distant Skin Metastases from Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Leekha, Nitin; Gupta, Sweety; Mithal, Umang; Arora, Vandana; De, Sudarsan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity makes up approximately 30% of all head and neck region tumors. Skin metastasis is rare with an incidence ranging between 0.7% and 2.4%. Skin metastasis usually occurs in the neck, scalp, and over the skin near the primary site. We report a patient with carcinoma left buccal mucosa who presented with distant skin metastases to the right side chest wall. PMID:27512210

  8. Distant Skin Metastases from Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Leekha, Nitin; Gupta, Sweety; Mithal, Umang; Arora, Vandana; De, Sudarsan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity makes up approximately 30% of all head and neck region tumors. Skin metastasis is rare with an incidence ranging between 0.7% and 2.4%. Skin metastasis usually occurs in the neck, scalp, and over the skin near the primary site. We report a patient with carcinoma left buccal mucosa who presented with distant skin metastases to the right side chest wall. PMID:27512210

  9. Incidence of bone metastasis in carcinoma buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Head and neck cancer is a leading health problem in India due to the habit of chewing tobacco and bad oral and dental hygiene. Carcinoma buccal mucosa is more common and is 2.5% of all malignancies at our center. Most of the patients present in stage III and IV and the survival in these cases is not very good. Bone metastasis in advanced cases of carcinoma buccal mucosa is rarely reported in the world literature. Materials and Methods: We present here cases developing bone metastasis in carcinoma buccal mucosa in last 5 years. These patients were young with loco-regionally advanced disease where bone metastasis developed within 1-year of definitive treatment. Results: The flat bones and vertebrae were mainly involved and the survival was also short after diagnosis of metastasis despite the treatment with local Radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Conclusion: The exact cause of metastasis cannot be proved, but the probability of subclinical seedling of malignant cells before the eradication of the primary tumor should be considered along with advanced local and nodal disease with high grade of tumor. PMID:27168702

  10. Investigation of phosphatidylcholine enhancing FITC-insulin across buccal mucosa by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Weiqun; Su, Li; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming; Gao, Qiuhua; Xu, Huibi

    2002-04-01

    The aim was to characterize the transport of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran and insulin with different resoluble compounds for peptides and proteins through buccal mucosa. The penetration rate of insulin molecules through porcine buccal mucosa (a nonkeratinized epithelium, comparable to human buccal mucosa) was investigated by measuring transbuccal fluxes and by analyzing the distribution of the fluorescent probe in the rabbit buccal mucosa epithelium, using confocal laser scanning microscopy for visualizing permeation pathways. The confocal images of the distribution pattern of FITC-dextran and FITC-insulin showed that the paracellular route is the major pathway of FITC-dextran through buccal mucosa epithelium, the intra-cellular route is the major pathway of FITC-insulin through buccal mucosa epithelium. The permeation rate can be increased by co-administration of soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC).

  11. Hydatid cyst of the buccal mucosa: An unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Lavanya, R. M.; Kamath, V. V.; Komali, Y.; Krishnamurthy, Shruthi

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is a parasitic cyst caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus that occurs primarily in sheep grazing areas worldwide. It is a chronic disease, and the cysts can be localized in unusual anatomical and geographic locations. It is known to affect the head and neck region. Patients must undergo a thorough systemic investigation as 20–30% show multiorgan involvement. We report a case of hydatid cyst occurring in the buccal mucosa of a 45- year -old male presenting as a small asymptomatic lump and emphasize on its rarity and diagnostic issues. PMID:26392735

  12. Perineal urethrostomy stenosis repair with buccal mucosa: description of technique and report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Nagesh

    2008-11-01

    Perineal urethrostomy stenosis can be a difficult problem to treat, especially in patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans. We have devised a technique of using the buccal mucosa, with the idea of forming a composite stoma comprising skin and buccal mucosa. We describe the technique and short-term results in 4 patients. PMID:18789512

  13. Phase contrast imaging of buccal mucosa tissues-Feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, A.; Tripathi, S.; Shripathi, T.; Kulkarni, V. K.; Banda, N. R.; Agrawal, A. K.; Sarkar, P. S.; Kashyap, Y.; Sinha, A.

    2015-06-01

    Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) technique has been used to interpret physical parameters obtained from the image taken on the normal buccal mucosa tissue extracted from cheek of a patient. The advantages of this method over the conventional imaging techniques are discussed. PCI technique uses the X-ray phase shift at the edges differentiated by very minute density differences and the edge enhanced high contrast images reveal details of soft tissues. The contrast in the images produced is related to changes in the X-ray refractive index of the tissues resulting in higher clarity compared with conventional absorption based X-ray imaging. The results show that this type of imaging has better ability to visualize microstructures of biological soft tissues with good contrast, which can lead to the diagnosis of lesions at an early stage of the diseases.

  14. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  15. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    S, Vidyalakshmi; R, Aravindhan

    2014-01-01

    Minor salivary gland neoplasms of the buccal mucosa are relatively uncommon. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a well-defined entity, occurs most of the times in the parotid, submandibular glands and palate, as far as the intraoral site is concerned. Adenoid cystic carcinoma tends to have an indolent, extended clinical course with wide local infiltration and late distant metastases. We are presenting a case of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the buccal mucosa in a 48-year-old female patient. PMID:24783155

  16. Immunohistochemical studies of neurochemical markers in normal human buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hilliges, M; Hellman, M; Ahlström, U; Johansson, O

    1994-04-01

    The content of various substances, such as regulatory peptides, hormones and structural proteins, was investigated in normal buccal mucosa using indirect immunofluorescence. Thin nerve fibres, which from a morphological point of view were most probably sensory, showed immunoreactivity for substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide K (NPK) and neurokinin A (NKA). Also galanin (GAL), gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone (gamma-MSH) and somatostatin (SOM) stained thin fibres were found in the propria, which were, however, few in number and the gamma-MSH staining was weak. CGRP, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), peptide histidine isoleucine amide (PHI) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactive nerve fibres were observed in close connection to blood vessels. SOM positive cells with processes were found, mostly scattered, in the connective tissue. A population of cells within the epithelium also showed somatostatin immunoreactivity. Protein S-100 (S-100) stained distinct populations of cells at two separate locations. In the propria, cells with one or two slender processes were seen, being mostly single but sometimes forming groups. In the epithelium, dendritic cells with many processes with or without 'spines' were observed, mainly located to the basal layer of the lamina epithelialis. Single nerve fibres and nerve bundles were also stained. Neurofilament (NF) positive fibres, singly and in bundles, as well as endorgan-like structures were seen. Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) both stained the same structures, namely single fibres, nerve bundles, nerves surrounding vessels and innervating muscles and glands (if present in the section), as well as Merkel cells. Also with these two markers endorgan-like structures were seen. No clear innervation of the epithelium could be observed with the markers used. No methionine-enkephalin (ENK) or synaptophysin (SYN) immunoreactive material was found. PMID:7523335

  17. Healing of Donor-site Buccal Mucosa Urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Alwaal, Amjad; Harris, Catherine R.; Enriquez, Anthony; McAninch, Jack W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2016-01-01

    Buccal mucosal graft represents the gold standard graft material for urethroplasty because of its thick epithelium and a thin lamina propria for maximal graft uptake. There is an ongoing debate whether to close the buccal graft donor site. We show a unique look at buccal donor site healing through serial pictures over a 100-day period. In this patient, the anterior half of the buccal donor site was closed at the time of harvest, allowing real-time observation of wound healing from both the closed and open aspects of the wound. PMID:26151892

  18. HIV infection induces morphometrical changes on the oral (buccal mucosa and tongue) epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pompermayer, Adriane Bastos; Gil, Francisca Berenice Dias; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Fernandes, Angela; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess morphological and morphometrical alterations of oral squamous epithelial cells in type 1 HIV infected individuals. Oral smears were collected from tongue and buccal mucosa of 30 HIV infected (experimental) and 30 non-infected (control) individuals by liquid-based exfoliative cytology. The cells were morphologically analyzed and the nuclear area (NA), the cytoplasmic area (CA) and the nucleus-to-cytoplasm area ratio (NA/CA) were calculated. No morphological differences were found between the groups. The mean values of CA were decreased in tongue (P=.00006) and buccal mucosa (P=.00242) in HIV infected individual, while mean values of NA were increased (P=.00308 and .00095, respectively) in the same group. NA/CA ratio for experimental group was increased in both collected places, with P=.00001 (tongue) and P=.00000 (buccal mucosa). This study revealed that HIV infection was able to induce morphometrical changes on the oral epithelial cells. PMID:21198427

  19. The buccal mucosa as an alternative route for the systemic delivery of risperidone.

    PubMed

    Heemstra, Lars B; Finnin, Barrie C; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of the buccal mucosa for the systemic delivery of risperidone (RISP), and to determine the impact of Azone® (AZ) on the transport of RISP via this route. The permeability of RISP through porcine buccal mucosa was assessed in modified Ussing chambers at various concentrations to determine the mechanisms involved in transport across the tissue. The effect of AZ was assessed by administering AZ 5% (w/w) to the tissue as a pretreatment or together with RISP in solution or in a mucoadhesive gel formulation. RISP permeated the buccal mucosa via a passive diffusion mechanism and pretreatment or coadministration of AZ 5% did not significantly modify the permeation of RISP. Application of a RISP mucoadhesive gel resulted in a steady state flux of 64.65 ± 8.0 µg/cm(2)/h, which when extrapolated to the in vivo setting, is predicted to result in RISP plasma concentrations of 11.2-56.1 µg/L for mucosal application areas between 2 and 10 cm(2). Given that these predicted concentrations are within the therapeutic range of RISP required in humans, delivery of RISP via the buccal mucosa has the potential to result in therapeutically relevant plasma concentrations for the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:20845457

  20. Leiomyosarcoma of the buccal mucosa: a case report with immunohistochemistry findings.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Renu; Bharathan, Shantha

    2008-06-01

    Leiomyosarcoma is a relatively uncommon malignant lesion that exhibits smooth muscle differentiation. Occurrence of this tumor in the oral cavity is exceedingly rare, reflecting the paucity of smooth muscle in this region. This article presents a rare case of leiomyosarcoma of the buccal mucosa, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. PMID:18587214

  1. Outcome of buccal mucosa and lingual mucosa graft urethroplasty in the management of urethral strictures: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sharad; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the outcome of buccal and lingual mucosa graft (LMG) augmentation urethroplasty along with donor sites morbidities in anterior urethra stricture. Subjects and Methods: From September 2010 to January 2014, 125 patients underwent single stage augmentation urethroplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups to receive either buccal mucosa graft (BMG) or LMG. The patients were prospectively followed for complications and outcome. Results: Baseline characteristics such as mean age, etiology, stricture length, and location were comparable in both groups. Overall success rate for Group 1 and Group 2 were 69.2% and 80%, respectively. Mean follow-up periods were 28.2 and 25 months in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Conclusions: LMG provides the better outcome with fewer immediate and delayed complications as compared to BMG. The length of stricture and width of graft were main factors affecting the outcome. PMID:26834399

  2. An improved cryopreservation method for porcine buccal mucosa in ex vivo drug permeation studies using Franz diffusion cells.

    PubMed

    Amores, Sonia; Domenech, José; Colom, Helena; Calpena, Ana C; Clares, Beatriz; Gimeno, Álvaro; Lauroba, Jacinto

    2014-08-18

    The use of isolated animal models to assess percutaneous absorption of molecules is frequently reported. The porcine buccal mucosa has been proposed as a substitute for the buccal mucosa barrier on ex vivo permeability studies avoiding unnecessary sacrifice of animals. But it is not always easy to obtain fresh buccal mucosa. Consequently, human and porcine buccal mucosa is sometimes frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen, but this procedure is not always feasible. One cheaper and simpler alternative is to freeze the buccal mucosa of freshly slaughtered pigs in a mechanical freezer, using DMSO and albumin as cryoprotective agents. This study compared the ex vivo permeability parameters of propranolol hydrochloride through porcine buccal mucosa using a Franz diffusion cell system and HPLC as detection method. The freezing effects on drug permeability parameters were evaluated. Equally histological studies were performed. Furthermore, the use of the parameter transmucosal water loss (TMWL) as an indicator of the buccal mucosa integrity was evaluated just as transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is utilized for skin integrity. The results showed no difference between fresh and frozen mucosal flux, permeability coefficient or lag time of propranolol. However, statistical significant difference in TMWL between fresh and frozen mucosa was observed. PMID:24813111

  3. Examining smoking-induced differential gene expression changes in buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gene expression changes resulting from conditions such as disease, environmental stimuli, and drug use, can be monitored in the blood. However, a less invasive method of sample collection is of interest because of the discomfort and specialized personnel necessary for blood sampling especially if multiple samples are being collected. Buccal mucosa cells are easily collected and may be an alternative sample material for biomarker testing. A limited number of studies, primarily in the smoker/oral cancer literature, address this tissue's efficacy as an RNA source for expression analysis. The current study was undertaken to determine if total RNA isolated from buccal mucosa could be used as an alternative tissue source to assay relative gene expression. Methods Total RNA was isolated from swabs, reverse transcribed and amplified. The amplified cDNA was used in RT-qPCR and microarray analyses to evaluate gene expression in buccal cells. Initially, RT-qPCR was used to assess relative transcript levels of four genes from whole blood and buccal cells collected from the same seven individuals, concurrently. Second, buccal cell RNA was used for microarray-based differential gene expression studies by comparing gene expression between a group of female smokers and nonsmokers. Results An amplification protocol allowed use of less buccal cell total RNA (50 ng) than had been reported previously with human microarrays. Total RNA isolated from buccal cells was degraded but was of sufficient quality to be used with RT-qPCR to detect expression of specific genes. We report here the finding of a small number of statistically significant differentially expressed genes between smokers and nonsmokers, using buccal cells as starting material. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis confirmed that these genes had a similar expression pattern to results from another study. Conclusions Our results suggest that despite a high degree of degradation, RNA from buccal cells from cheek mucosa

  4. High-energy ball milling of saquinavir increases permeability across the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Rambharose, Sanjeev; Ojewole, Elizabeth; Branham, Michael; Kalhapure, Rahul; Govender, Thirumala

    2014-05-01

    Saquinavir (SQV), a candidate for buccal drug delivery, is limited by poor solubility. This study identified the effects of high-energy ball milling on the buccal permeability of SQV and compared it to the effects of chemical enhancers, i.e. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and beta cyclodextrin (β-cyclodextrin). SQV was ball milled using a high energy planetary mill (1, 3, 15 and 30 h) and permeation studies across porcine buccal mucosa were performed using franz diffusion cells. Drug was quantified by UV spectrophotometry. Both unmilled and milled SQV samples were able to permeate the buccal mucosa. Milled samples of 15 h displayed the greatest flux of 10.40 ± 1.24 µg/cm(2 )h and an enhancement ratio of 2.61. All enhancers were able to increase the buccal permeability of unmilled SQV, with SLS achieving the greatest flux (6.99 ± 0.7 µg/cm(2)) and an enhancement ratio of 1.75. However, all the milled SQV samples displayed greater permeability than SLS, the best chemical enhancer for unmilled SQV. Enhanced permeability by ball milling was attributed to reduction in particle size, formation of solid dispersions and an increase in solubility of milled samples. Microscopical evaluation revealed no significant loss in mucosal cellular integrity treated with either unmilled or milled SQV. Histological studies suggest that SQV uses both the paracellular and transcellular route of transport across the mucosa, with drug treatment having no permanent affects. High-energy ball milling was superior to the chemical enhancers studied for enhancement of SQV buccal permeation. PMID:24499179

  5. Teeth erupted from the buccal mucosa: simple odontogenic choristoma or accessory teeth?

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanbin; Huang, Yi; Yu, Tao; Li, Longjiang

    2013-11-01

    The eruption of developed teeth from the buccal mucosa is a rare phenomenon in the head and neck region. Such phenomena are possibly choristomas, tumorlike masses of histologically normal tissue occurring in an abnormal position. However, the accurate classification of this abnormality remains debatable. This report describes a case of a congenital, maldevelopmental, and noncystic lesion in a 4-year-old girl without other anomalies. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of multiple supernumerary teeth forming in the buccal and zygomatic regions. PMID:23992778

  6. An Innovative Technique for Columellar Reconstruction using ‘Flip-Over’ Buccal Mucosa Flap

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Kapil S.; Pabari, Mansi

    2016-01-01

    Loss of columella is a significant deformity and its reconstruction proves to be quite difficult. An 18-year-old lady had loss of columella due to burn while steam inhalation at a young age and required reconstruction for the same. Labial mucosa has been used as a source of tissue for columellar reconstruction since long. We describe a modification of the buccal mucosal flap to manage a difficult case of columellar deficiency. The buccal mucosa flap was used to cover the columellar defect in the usual manner in the first stage and in second stage, along with division of the base, the residual length of the mucosal flap was used to add to the thickness of columella by doubling it on itself.

  7. Oral Mucocele of Unusual Size on the Buccal Mucosa: Clinical Presentation and Surgical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana dal; Migliari, Dante A

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion. PMID:22550550

  8. Oral mucocele of unusual size on the buccal mucosa: clinical presentation and surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana Dal; Migliari, Dante A

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion. PMID:22550550

  9. Evaluation of intraoral complications of buccal mucosa graft in augmentation urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Akyüz, Mehmet; Güneş, Mustafa; Koca, Orhan; Sertkaya, Zülfü; Kanberoğlu, Hüseyin; Karaman, Muhammet İhsan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate intraoral complications of buccal mucosa grafts harvested from one cheek, and used in augmentation urethroplasty. Material and methods: Twenty-one patients with anterior urethral strictures were included in our study. In twelve patients, dorsal onlay, in five patients ventral onlay and in four patients lateral onlay procedures were applied. Average length of buccal mucosa graft from one cheek was 5.2 cm (3–8 cm). In all graft harvesting patients, bleeding in graft side, swelling, pain intensity of oral or perineal area, analgesic use, transition time to normal diet, slurred speech, loss of sensation, and patients’ opinions about oral mucosa regrafting using this technique were evaluated using nine-item questionnaire forms. Results: Eighteen (85.7%) of our patients had mild pain, 13 (61.9%) had mild intraoral swelling, none of our patients had oral bleeding that needed extra procedure and all of our patients were observed to start off their normal diet in the first 3 days. Twelve (57.1%) of our patients needed analgesic agents after the operation while 14 (66.7%) of them have remarked that perineal incision was more painful. Twenty (95.3%) of our patients stated that they could go under the same procedure again. None of our patients had speech disorders or intraoral numbness. Conclusion: Even though buccal mucosal grafting used in augmentation urethroplasty is not a completely painless procedure, buccal mucosa graft is an ideal source of allograft in terms of safe and easy obtainance and improved patient tolerance. PMID:26328170

  10. Invasive aspergillosis presenting as swelling of the buccal mucosa in an immunocompetent individual.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Praveen; Nagarjuna, Muralidhara; Shetty, Samarth; Kumar, Pradeep; Bhat, Venkatraman; Salins, Paul C

    2015-02-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in nature but have low virulence and cause disease usually when the host defenses are compromised. Fungal infections of the central nervous system are rare and are usually seen in immunocompromised patients. However, in recent years, there has been an increase in the number of central nervous system fungal infections in immunocompetent individuals. Intracranial fungal granulomas are rare space-occupying lesions. Among these, Aspergillus granuloma is the most common. Craniocerebral involvement by aspergillosis usually occurs via the hematogenous route or through contiguous spread from the paranasal sinuses. Predominant symptoms associated with cranial fungal granuloma include headache, vomiting, proptosis, and visual disturbances. Common signs include papilledema, cranial neuropathy, hemiparesis, and meningismus. We present a case of invasive Aspergillus granuloma in an immunocompetent individual, who presented with a palpable mass in the buccal mucosa following removal of an impacted mandibular third molar but with no other characteristic signs and symptoms of invasive fungal granuloma. To our knowledge, there is no documentation of aspergillosis presenting as a swelling in the buccal mucosa. Unexplained swellings in the buccal mucosa should be viewed with a high degree of suspicion and investigated thoroughly at the earliest. PMID:25487984

  11. The perinuclear factor, a rheumatoid arthritis-specific autoantigen, is not present in keratohyalin granules of cultured buccal mucosa cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hoet, R M; Voorsmit, R A; Van Venrooij, W J

    1991-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis patients have antibodies in their serum directed against the perinuclear factor, a protein component present in keratohyalin granules in the cytoplasm of human buccal mucosa cells. The anti-perinuclear factor (APF) can only be detected by an indirect immunofluorescence test performed on fresh buccal mucosa cells from 'selected donors'. To obtain a more reliable antigen source and to gain more insight into the origin and nature of the perinuclear factor we attempted to culture perinuclear factor-containing buccal mucosa cells. Here we describe the successful culturing of such cells, which, however, did not contain keratohyalin granules nor the perinuclear factor. By adding the phorbol ester 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) we were able to induce keratohyalin granules in both cultured primary buccal mucosa cells and a squamous carcinoma cell line of the cheek (SqCC/Y1). These induced keratohyalin granules do contain the protein profilaggrin, which in vivo, in fresh buccal mucosa cells, co-localizes with the perinuclear factor. However, we were not able to demonstrate the presence of the perinuclear factor, not even after induction of terminal differentiation of the cultured cells nor after Epstein-Barr virus infection. Our results suggest that the perinuclear factor, in contrast to profilaggrin, is not an integral component of buccal mucosa cells. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1849807

  12. Immunoperoxidase detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in mouth floor and buccal mucosa cells of smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Besaratinia, A; Besarati Nia, A; Van Straaten, H W; Godschalk, R W; Van Zandwijk, N; Balm, A J; Kleinjans, J C; Van Schooten, F J

    2000-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for oral cancer; mouth floor and buccal mucosa are among the most and least cancer-prone subsites, respectively, in the oral cavity. We investigated the applicability of immunohistochemistry of smoking-induced DNA adducts in oral cells for assessing the exposure to carcinogens, and estimating the risk for oral cancer. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts were measured in mouth floor and buccal mucosa cells of smokers (n = 26) and nonsmokers (n = 22) by means of a semiquantitative immunoperoxidase assay. Smokers had elevated levels of PAH-DNA adducts compared to nonsmokers in their mouth floor cells (0.045 +/- 0.022 versus 0.022 +/- 0.016, P = 0.0008 arbitrary units of immunohistochemistry) as well as in their buccal mucosa cells (0.058 +/- 0.028 versus 0.028 +/- 0.012, P = 0.001). Also, there was a correlation between the levels of PAH-DNA adducts in mouth floor cells and those in buccal mucosa cells (r = 0.4, P = 0.01). Furthermore, PAH-DNA adduct levels in both mouth floor and buccal mucosa cells were significantly related to current smoking indices (amount of tar and number of cigarettes consumed per day). Expectedly, the levels of PAH-DNA adducts neither in mouth floor cells nor in buccal mucosa cells, both being short-lived cells, were related to smoking history index (pack years). The levels of PAH-DNA adducts, however, in mouth floor cells as the cancer prone cells were lower than those in buccal mucosa cells (0.037 +/- 0.023 versus 0.044 +/- 0.026, P = 0.04). We conclude that immunohistochemistry of PAH-DNA adducts in oral cells can be used for exposure assessment of tobacco-related carcinogens, however, it cannot be used for oral cancer risk estimation. PMID:11013411

  13. Microsurgical Urethroplasty for Complex Bulbar Urethral Strictures Using the Radial Forearm Free Flap Prelaminated with Buccal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Ajay; Sham, Eric; Chee, Justin

    2016-06-01

    Background Complex bulbar urethral strictures are a heterogeneous group, including those secondary to radiotherapy, failed previous open urethroplasty, and total bulbar necrosis following pelvic trauma. Traditional urethroplasty techniques in this group are unpredictable. We describe a novel technique of a buccal mucosa-prelaminated radial forearm free flap urethroplasty, which seeks to improve the quality of life for this group of patients. Methods Known, reliable techniques from two surgical specialties were combined to create a novel surgical solution, consisting of a radial forearm free flap prelaminated with buccal mucosa. Prospective data were collected on patient and stricture characteristics, complications, and results, including voiding flow rates, urethrography, and cystourethroscopy. Success was defined as the ability to void per urethra. The procedure was performed in four patients, previously considered unreconstructable and who were suprapubic catheter dependent. Results Microsurgical transfer was successful in all four cases. All patients were voiding per urethra and remained catheter free at a minimum of 12-month follow-up. There was no significant donor morbidity and all patients were able to return to their usual occupation. Mean voiding flow rates were 17.3 mL/s. Flexible cystoscopy revealed well-vascularized, patent neomucosa. Conclusions We demonstrate proof of concept for a novel technique of microsurgical urethroplasty. We believe this technique may have widespread application in the treatment of radiation-induced and other complex urethral strictures where traditional urethroplasty has limited success. PMID:26848566

  14. “Osteolipoma of buccal mucosa: Case report and literature review”

    PubMed Central

    Kumar-Bokkasam, Vijay; Suresh, Dirasantchu; Venkata, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Osteolipoma affecting oral cavity is indeed rare. We hereby report a case of osteolipoma affecting buccal mucosa. A review of literature of osteolipoma of oral cavity, particularly on radiographic/imaging findings was done. Only 16 cases of Osteolipoma of oral cavity are reported in the literature. The radiographic findings of our case, i.e. multiple dense homogenous radio-opaque structures was reported earlier only in one case [out of 16] of osteolipoma of oral cavity. Key words:Lipoma, osteolipoma, panoramic radiography, radio-opaque, radiography. PMID:27034764

  15. Ectopic compound odontoma in the buccal mucosa: report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Venigalla, Aparna; Guttikonda, Leela Krishna; Nelakurthi, Hasini; Babburi, Suresh; Pinisetti, Soujanya; Kotti, Ajay Banerji; Kalapala, Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Eruption of tooth into extraosseous locations is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of a six-year-old girl child with tooth-like structure erupting from the right buccal mucosa. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic examination suggested the diagnosis of compound odontoma. Very few cases have been reported so far, where tooth has been located completely in the soft tissue and a variety of names have been used for that condition. A brief review of the literature and the ambiguity in naming the situation is discussed. PMID:25810930

  16. Ectopic Compound Odontoma in the Buccal Mucosa: Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Venigalla, Aparna; Guttikonda, Leela Krishna; Nelakurthi, Hasini; Babburi, Suresh; Pinisetti, Soujanya; Kotti, Ajay Banerji; Kalapala, Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Eruption of tooth into extraosseous locations is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of a six-year-old girl child with tooth-like structure erupting from the right buccal mucosa. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic examination suggested the diagnosis of compound odontoma. Very few cases have been reported so far, where tooth has been located completely in the soft tissue and a variety of names have been used for that condition. A brief review of the literature and the ambiguity in naming the situation is discussed. PMID:25810930

  17. Spindle Cell Lipoma Occurring in the Buccal Mucosa: An Unusual Location of This Benign Lipomatous Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Milhan, Noala Vicensoto Moreira; Cavalcante, Ana Sueli Rodrigues; Marques, Yonara Maria Freire Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell lipoma is a benign lipomatous neoplasm, which rarely occurs in the oral cavity. The aims of this paper are to report a case of spindle cell lipoma located in buccal mucosa and discuss the main clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical findings of this entity. Thus, we report a 4-year history of an asymptomatic smooth surface nodule in an elderly Caucasian man with clinical hypothesis of fibroma. The histopathological examination showed spindle cells, mature adipose tissue, and many mast cells in a stroma of connective tissue presenting ropey collagen fibers bundles. After immunohistochemical analysis, the final diagnosis was spindle cell lipoma. PMID:26491592

  18. Cytogenetic Biomonitoring in Buccal Mucosa Cells from Women Submitted to Chemotherapy After Mastectomy for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Carolina Flygare; DA Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; Seixas, Camila; DE Oliveira Scudeller, Tania Terezinha; DO Amaral, Maria Teresa Pace; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2016-04-01

    In addition to surgery, one of the most widely applied treatments for breast cancer is chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is currently considered efficient in curing this disease; however, the therapy may induce damage to the patient's genetic material. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate putative cytotoxic and mutagenic effects induced by chemotherapy in women diagnosed with breast cancer. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 42 women, aged 18 to 70 years, allocated according to the diagnosis and stage of breast cancer treatment: control group (healthy) (n=15), chemotherapy group (n=11) and post-chemotherapy group (n=16). Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity were analyzed by the micronucleus test in buccal mucosa cells. A higher frequency (p<0.05) of micronucleated cells was detected in the chemotherapy and post-chemotherapy groups when compared to the control. A higher frequency (p<0.05) of karyorrhexis and pyknosis in the chemotherapy group was also noted. Taken together, our results indicate that chemotherapy induces mutagenicity and cytotoxicity in buccal mucosa cells of women diagnosed with breast cancer, being persistent after finishing their treatment. PMID:27069186

  19. Anabolic androgenic steroids induce micronuclei in buccal mucosa cells of bodybuilders

    PubMed Central

    Torres‐Bugarín, O; Covarrubias‐Bugarín, R; Zamora‐Perez, A L; Torres‐Mendoza, B M G; García‐Ulloa, M; Martínez‐Sandoval, F G

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate genotoxicity of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in male bodybuilders by a micronucleus assay in buccal mucosa cells. Methods 11 male bodybuilders volunteered to participate in this study and two groups were formed: group 1 (n = 6), without AAS consumption and group 2 (n = 5), with AAS consumption. A sample of buccal epithelium was taken from each participant once a week for 6 weeks. Samples were fixed, stained and analysed by a light microscope, and 2000 cells were counted from each slide. Results are expressed as micronucleated cells (MNC) per 1000 cells and were analysed by the Mann–Whitney U test and Wilcoxon's test. Results A marked increased in MNC was seen in bodybuilders with AAS consumption compared with those without AAS consumption (mean (SD) 4.1 (2.4) MNC/1000 cells vs 0.4 (0.4) MNC/1000 cells, respectively; p<0.004). Intragroup comparisons showed no differences in the MNC frequencies during the sampling time in group 1, whereas the MNC frequency in group 2 varied significantly, reaching the highest MNC frequencies in the third and fourth week of sampling (5.9 (2.4) MNC/1000 cells; 5.8 (1.8) MNC/1000 cells, respectively); frequency in the first sampled week was 1.1 (0.1) MNC/1000 cells. Significant differences in all sampled weeks were found between the two groups. Conclusion AAS consumption increased the frequency of MNC from buccal mucosa in bodybuilders. PMID:17502334

  20. Micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutiérrez, Angélica Guadalupe; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.2±0.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.4±1.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.1±2.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future. PMID:25232046

  1. Masseter flap for reconstruction of defects after excision of buccal mucosa cancers with intact mandible.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Lerra, Sandeep; Ustad, Farheen; Pai, Prathamesh S; Chaukar, Devendra A; D'Cruz, Anil K

    2015-01-01

    Among the reconstructive options available for buccal mucosa defects with an intact mandible, free flap with microvascular anastomosis is the best option. However, in the developing world, with poor resources, limited infrastructure, and high patient load, this cannot be offered to all patients. We report on the success of the masseter flap for reconstruction of such defects in carefully selected patients. Despite some known limitations, this flap is easy to learn and carries acceptable complications. The results of this flap may not be comparable to those of microvascular reconstructions, but they are better than those from other options such as skin graft, nasolabial flap, submental flap, etc., in terms of surgical time required, no donor site morbidity, and minimal aesthetic deformity. PMID:26535825

  2. Smoking-Associated Site-Specific Differential Methylation in Buccal Mucosa in the COPDGene Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Weiliang; Carey, Vincent J.; Morrow, Jarrett; Bacherman, Helene; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Hokanson, John E.; Bowler, Russell P.; Crapo, James D.; DeMeo, Dawn L.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a complex, tissue-specific phenomenon that can reflect both endogenous factors and exogenous exposures. Buccal brushings represent an easily accessible source of DNA, which may be an appropriate surrogate tissue in the study of environmental exposures and chronic respiratory diseases. Buccal brushings were obtained from a subset of current and former smokers from the COPDGene study. Genome-wide DNA methylation data were obtained in the discovery cohort (n = 82) using the Illumina HumanMethylation450K array. Empirical Bayes methods were used to test for differential methylation by current smoking status at 468,219 autosomal CpG sites using linear models adjusted for age, sex, and race. Pyrosequencing was performed in a nonoverlapping replication cohort (n = 130). Current smokers were significantly younger than former smokers in both the discovery and replication cohorts. Seven CpG sites were associated with current smoking at a false discovery rate less than 0.05 in the discovery cohort. Six of the seven significant sites were pyrosequenced in the replication cohort; five CpG sites, including sites annotated to CYP1B1 and PARVA, were replicated. Correlations between cumulative smoke exposure and time since smoking cessation were observed in a subset of the significantly associated CpG sites. A significant correlation between reduced lung function and increased radiographic emphysema with methylation at cg02162897 (CYP1B1) was observed among female subjects. Site-specific methylation of DNA isolated from buccal mucosa is associated with exposure to cigarette smoke, and may provide insights into the mechanisms underlying differential susceptibility toward the development of smoking-related chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:25517428

  3. Long ureteric stricture replacement by buccal mucosa graft: an Armenian experience case series report

    PubMed Central

    Akopyan, Kristina; Levonyan, Arthur; Tsaturyan, Ashot

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to demonstrate the results of a case series concerning the replacement of long ureteric strictures using buccal mucosa grafts. Material and methods Five patients (3 men, 2 women), with a mean age of 35 years old, underwent reconstructive ureteral surgery using buccal mucosa graft with omental wrapping during the period of 2010–2013. In all cases, the location of strictures was in the proximal ureters with the length of strictures varying from 2.5 to 5.0 cm. Results We did not observe any major complications postoperatively. Two patients complained of constipation, which was resolved on the second day without any special treatment. Only one patient experienced fever (39°C) on the seventh day after the surgery due to inadequate drainage of the nephrostomic tube. Mean follow-up time was 39.6 months (range 26–52 months), mean hospital stay length was 10.6 days. Intravenous and antegrade urography were performed after removing JJ stents. Results were favorable without any signs of stricture. Repetitive ultrasound and radiologic imaging was performed at month 3, 6, 12 in the first year and every half-year thereafter. Intravenous urography showed no signs of strictures. Hydronephrosis was resolved in all patients by the sixth month following the surgery. Conclusions Postoperatively, we observed favorable results in all patients in terms of absence of short term-surgical complications. This technique could be considered for patients with long ureteric strictures in whom ureteral replacement with bowel interposition or kidney auto-transplantation is contraindicated. PMID:27551561

  4. Use of overlapping buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty for complex anterior urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Complex anterior urethral stricture disease typically manifests as a symptomatic, severely narrowed, long stricture (or multiple strictures) in which conventional excision and/or augmentation is not feasible. Overlapping buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty (OBMGU) is an innovative hybrid technique, combining the well-established principles of dorsal and ventral graft augmentation to allow single stage reconstruction of complex anterior urethral strictures. In this review, we discuss the rationale, techniques, and outcomes of OBMGU for complex anterior urethral strictures. PMID:26813234

  5. Effect of surfactants and pH on naltrexone (NTX) permeation across buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Vishwas; Tan, Hock S.; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this pre-formulation study was to systematically investigate the effects of two surfactants (Brij 58® and Tween 80®) and change in solution pH on in vitro permeation of naltrexone HCl (NTX-HCl) across tissue engineered human buccal mucosa. For the study, 10 mg/mL solutions of Tween 80® (0.1 and 1 % w/v) and Brij 58® (1 % w/v) were prepared in standard artificial saliva buffer solution (pH 6.8). For studying pH effects, solution pH was adjusted to either 7.5 or 8.2. As controls, three concentrations of NTX-HCl (2.5, 10 and 25 mg/mL) were prepared. Using NTX standard solution (10mg/ml; pH 6.8), the permeation was observed between in vitro human and ex vivo porcine mucosa. It was observed that Brij 58® increased the permeation rates of NTX significantly. The flux of 10mg/ml solution (pH 6.8) increased from 1.9 ± 0.6 (×102) to 13.9 ± 2.2 (×102) μg/cm2/h (approximately 6 fold) in presence of 1% Brij 58®. Increasing pH of NTX-HCl solution was found to increase the drug flux from 1.9 ± 0.6 (×102) (pH 6.8) to 3.0 ± 0.6 (×102) (pH 7.4) and 8.0 ± 3.5 (×102) (pH 8.2) μg/cm2/h respectively. Histological analyses exhibited no tissue damage due to exposure of buccal tissue to Brij 58®. The mean permeability coefficients (Kp) for 2.5, 10 and 25 mg/mL solutions of NTX-HCl (pH 6.8) were 5.0 (×10−2), 1.8 (×10−2) and 3.2 (×10−2) cm/h respectively, consistent with data from published literature sources. Increase of NTX flux observed with 1% Brij 58® solution may be due to the effects of ATP. Increase in flux and the shortening of lag time observed by increasing in solution pH confirmed earlier finding that distribution coefficient (log D) of NTX is significantly affected by small increments in pH value and therefore plays an important role in NTX permeation by allowing faster diffusion across tissue engineered human buccal membranes. PMID:21443939

  6. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Hilary M. A.; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A.; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  7. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  8. Needle-free buccal anesthesia using iontophoresis and amino amide salts combined in a mucoadhesive formulation.

    PubMed

    Cubayachi, Camila; Couto, Renê Oliveira do; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Freitas, Osvaldo de; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna

    2015-12-01

    Iontophoresis is a strategy to increase the penetration of drugs through biological membranes; however, its use has been underexplored in mucosa. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of iontophoresis in the mucosal penetration of prilocaine hydrochloride (PCL) and lidocaine hydrochloride (LCL), which are largely used in dentistry as local anesthetics, when combined in the same formulation. Semisolid hydrogels containing these drugs either alone or in combination were developed at two different pHs (7.0 and 5.8) and presented adequate mechanical and mucoadhesive properties for buccal administration. The distribution coefficients between the mucosa and the formulations (Dm/f) and the in vitro mucosa permeation and retention rates were evaluated for both PCL and LCL. At pH 7.0, the combination of the drugs decreased the Dm/f of PCL by approximately 3-fold but did not change the Dm/f of LCL; iontophoresis increased the permeation rate of PCL by 12-fold and did not significantly change LCL flux compared with the passive permeation rate of the combined drugs. Combining the drugs also resulted in an increase in both PCL (86-fold) and LCL (12-fold) accumulation in the mucosa after iontophoresis at pH 7.0 compared with iontophoresis of the isolated drugs. Therefore, applying iontophoresis to a semisolid formulation of this drug combination at pH 7.0 can serve as a needle-free strategy to speed the onset and prolong the duration of buccal anesthesia. PMID:26590633

  9. Factors related to the formation of buccal mucosa ridging in university students

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Shinsuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Azuma, Tetsuji; Irie, Koichiro; Machida, Tatsuya; Yoneda, Toshiki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    Objective Buccal mucosa ridging (BMR) is known as a clinical sign of clenching, which is one of the major manifestations of bruxism. However, there are few reports about the formation of BMR and no data regarding the association between BMR and factors such as malocclusion. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between BMR and factors such as the number of teeth present, gender, body mass index (BMI), occlusion and clenching habit in university students. Materials and methods A total of 2101 students (1164 males, 937 females), aged 18–29 years old, were included in the study. BMR and the number of teeth present were recorded and malocclusion was defined using a modified version of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Additional information regarding gender, clenching habit and BMI was collected via a questionnaire. Results Forty-six per cent of the subjects had BMR and the prevalence of BMR in females was significantly higher than that of males (chi square test, p < 0.001). According to logistic regression analysis, the probability of BMR was significantly associated with female gender (OR = 1.501, 95% CI = 1.259–1.790, p < 0.001), crowding (OR = 2.102, 95% CI = 1.706–2.590, p < 0.001) and overjet (OR = 0.585, 95% CI = 0.418–0.818, p = 0.002). On the other hand, BMR was not associated with awareness of clenching habit and BMI. Conclusions Gender, crowding and overjet were related to the formation of BMR in university students. When evaluating BMR as a clinical sign of clenching, one might have to take factors such as gender and crowding into consideration. PMID:23692316

  10. Tissue engineered pre-vascularized buccal mucosa equivalents utilizing a primary triculture of epithelial cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Heller, M; Frerick-Ochs, E V; Bauer, H-K; Schiegnitz, E; Flesch, D; Brieger, J; Stein, R; Al-Nawas, B; Brochhausen, C; Thüroff, J W; Unger, R E; Brenner, W

    2016-01-01

    Artificial generated buccal mucosa equivalents are a promising approach for the reconstruction of urethral defects. Limiting in this approach is a poor blood vessel supply after transplantation, resulting in increased morbidity and necrosis. We generated a pre-vascularized buccal mucosa equivalent in a tri-culture of primary buccal epithelial cells, fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells, using a native collagen membrane as a scaffold. A successful pre-vascularization and dense formation of capillary-like structures at superficial areas was demonstrated. The lumen size of pre-formed blood vessels corresponded to the capillary size in vivo (10-30 μm). Comparing native with a highly cross-linked collagen membrane we found a distinct higher formation of capillary-like structures on the native membrane, apparently caused by higher secretion of angiogenic factors such as PDGF, IL-8 and angiopoietin by the cells. These capillary-like structures became functional blood vessels through anastomosis with the host vasculature after implantation in nude mice. This in vitro method should result in an accelerated blood supply to the biomaterial with cells after transplantation and increase the succes rates of the implant material. PMID:26606446

  11. Raman spectroscopy of oral buccal mucosa: a study on age-related physiological changes and tobacco-related pathological changes.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Aditi; Deshmukh, Atul; Ghanate, A D; Singh, S P; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C Murali

    2012-12-01

    Biophysical techniques play an important role in detecting physiological alterations during pathogenesis. Raman spectroscopy has shown immense potential in identifying several diseased conditions, including oral cancers. Classification of normal, inflammatory, premalignant and malignant conditions has been demonstrated using ex vivo Raman spectroscopy. Feasibility of recording in vivo spectra in clinically implementable time has also been shown. Translation of this technology to clinics requires extensive validation of methodologies, building of robust models and testing the same under stringent conditions as well as on diverse populations. In this context, the ability of Raman spectroscopy in identifying subtle changes in oral mucosa with increasing age, and the influence of these aging related changes on classification with tobacco-related pathological changes was evaluated. A total of 451 spectra from 62 subjects were recorded from buccal mucosa of healthy subjects of 4 different age groups (aged 20-60 years). Also, 478 spectra from 85 subjects belonging to 4 different categories, tobacco exposed mucosa, contralateral normal (opposite side of tumor), premalignant patches and tumors on buccal mucosa were recorded using fiber optic probe-coupled commercial Raman spectrometer. Differences in spectra were explored by unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and supervised Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), followed by Leave one out cross validation. Results indicate feasibility of classifying early and late age groups. Also, clear classification is observed between healthy and pathological groups, thus inherent heterogeneity in healthy groups seems to have no bearing on classification of normal with abnormal conditions. Findings of the study indicate high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy in detecting subtle mucosal changes, further supporting efficacy of Raman spectroscopic approaches in oral cancer applications. Prospectively, more vigorous validation

  12. In vivo Raman spectroscopy of oral buccal mucosa: a study on malignancy associated changes (MAC)/cancer field effects (CFE).

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Sahu, Aditi; Deshmukh, Atul; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C Murali

    2013-07-21

    Occurrence of metachronous and synchronous secondary tumors in oral cavities has been associated with poor prognosis and decreased 5-year disease-free survival rates. The origin of secondary tumors in the oral cavity has been primarily attributed to cancer field effects (CFE) or malignancy-associated changes (MAC) in uninvolved areas. Classification of normal, cancerous and pre-cancerous oral lesions by in vivo Raman spectroscopy (RS) has already been demonstrated. In the present study, MAC/CFE in oral buccal mucosa were explored. In vivo Raman spectra from 84 subjects (722 spectra) under five categories - cancer and contralateral normal (opposite side of tumor), healthy controls (no tobacco habit, no cancer), habitués healthy controls (tobacco habit, no cancer) and non-habitués contralateral normal (no tobacco habit with cancer) were acquired. Mean and difference spectra suggest that loss of lipids and additional features representing proteins and DNA are characteristics of all pathological conditions, with respect to healthy controls. Spectral data were analyzed by PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross-validation. Results suggest that Raman characteristics of mucosa of healthy controls are exclusive, while those of habitués healthy controls are similar to those of contralateral normal mucosa. It was observed that the cluster of non-habitués contralateral normal mucosa is different from habitués healthy controls, suggesting that malignancy associated changes can be identified and also indicating that transformation of uninvolved oral mucosa due to tobacco habit or malignancy is different. The findings of the study demonstrate the potential of RS in identifying early transformation changes in oral mucosa and the efficacy of this approach in oral cancer applications. PMID:23392131

  13. Carbamazepine transbuccal delivery: the histo-morphological features of reconstituted human oral epithelium and buccal porcine mucosae in the transmucosal permeation.

    PubMed

    Campisi, G; Paderni, C; Saccone, R; Siragusa, M G; Lo Muzio, L; Tripodo, C; Giannola, L I; Florena, A M

    2008-01-01

    Transbuccal drug delivery is an attractive way of administration since several well-known advantages are provided, especially with respect to peroral management. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant which is useful in controlling neuropathic pain, and it is currently administered by peroral route, although its absorption and bioavailability is limited due to various factors. The oral cavity could be an interesting site for transbuccal CBZ delivery due to two properties: slow administration of constant low drug doses and less dose-related side effects. However, in transbuccal absorption a major limitation could be the low permeability of the mucosa which results in low drug bioavailability; thus the aptitude of the drug to penetrate the buccal mucosa has to be assessed by using tissue models resembling human normal mucosa. In our experience, CBZ well permeates mucosal membranes. In order to assess the efficacy of CBZ transbuccal delivery and to verify the reliability of these tissues in permeability testing before and after the passage of CBZ, the histo-morphological features of reconstituted human oral (RHO) epithelium (E) and buccal porcine mucosae were investigated. Significant histological changes due to CBZ passage were observed both in RHO-E and porcine mucosa. The main findings detected in RHO samples were cellular swellings with a signet ring-like appearance, nuclear swelling, prominent nucleoli lined against the nuclear membrane and the presence of keratohyalin granules. The most striking finding regarding porcine buccal mucosa was a cytoplasmic vacuolization, mainly involving the basal layer. PMID:19144275

  14. Induction of micronuclei in buccal mucosa on chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco.

    PubMed

    Sellappa, Sudha; Balakrishnan, Mythili; Raman, Sangeetha; Palanisamy, Subashini

    2009-06-01

    Betel quid containing areca nut and chewing tobacco is used in many parts of India. In this study we evaluated the micronuclei (MN) in buccal mucosa of healthy individuals from southern India, who were regularly chewing a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut and tobacco. A total of 44 subjects were examined. The study population included 15 chewers, 14 chewers with smoking habit and 15 controls with the mean age of 38.57 +/- 0.54, 34.50 +/- 0.95, and 33.28 +/- 0.89 years, respectively. The mean percentage of MN was 1.90 +/- 1.03 in chewers, 2.00 +/-1.12 in chewers with smoking habits and 0.81 +/- 0.66 in controls. There was no significant difference between the mean percentages of the two experimental groups. It can be concluded that a mixture of betel leaf, areca nut, and tobacco is unsafe for oral health. PMID:19550099

  15. In vitro permeation of mesembrine alkaloids from Sceletium tortuosum across porcine buccal, sublingual, and intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Shikanga, Emmanuel A; Hamman, Josias H; Chen, Weiyang; Combrinck, Sandra; Gericke, Nigel; Viljoen, Alvaro M

    2012-02-01

    Sceletium tortuosum is an indigenous South African plant that has traditionally been used for its mood-enhancing properties. Recently, products containing S. tortuosum have become increasingly popular and are commonly administered as tablets, capsules, teas, decoctions, or tinctures, while traditionally the dried plant material has been masticated. This study evaluated the in vitro permeability of the four major S. tortuosum alkaloids (i.e., mesembrine, mesembrenone, mesembrenol, and mesembranol) across porcine intestinal, sublingual, and buccal tissues in their pure form and in the form of three different crude plant extracts, namely water, methanol, and an acid-base alkaloid-enriched extract. The permeability of mesembrine across intestinal tissue was higher than that of the highly permeable reference compound caffeine (which served as a positive control for membrane permeability) both in its pure form, as well as in the form of crude extracts. The intestinal permeability of mesembranol was similar to that of caffeine, while those of mesembrenol and mesembrenone were lower than that of caffeine, but much higher than that of the poorly permeable reference compound atenolol (which served as a negative control for membrane permeability). In general, the permeabilities of the alkaloids were lower across the sublingual and the buccal tissues than across the intestinal tissue. However, comparing the transport of the alkaloids with that of the reference compounds, there are indications that transport across the membranes of the oral cavity may contribute considerably to the overall bioavailability of the alkaloids, depending on pre-systemic metabolism, when the plant material is chewed and kept in the mouth for prolonged periods. The results from this study confirmed the ability of the alkaloids of S. tortuosum in purified or crude extract form to permeate across intestinal, buccal, and sublingual mucosal tissues. PMID:22105579

  16. Nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells of patients with type I and II diabetes treated with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Meda, B C; Zamora-Perez, A L; Muñoz-Magallanes, T; Sánchez-Parada, M G; García Bañuelos, J J; Guerrero-Velázquez, C; Sánchez-Orozco, L V; Vera-Cruz, J M; Armendáriz-Borunda, J; Zúñiga-González, G M

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by high blood glucose. Excessive production of free radicals may cause oxidative damage to DNA and other molecules, leading to complications of the disease. It may be possible to delay or reduce such damage by administration of antioxidants such as folic acid (FA). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of FA on nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in the oral mucosa of patients with DM. NAs (micronucleated cells, binucleated cells, pyknotic nuclei, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, abnormally condensed chromatin, and nuclear buds) were analyzed in 2000 cells from 45 healthy individuals (control group) and 55 patients with controlled or uncontrolled type I or II DM; 35 patients in the latter group were treated with FA. Samples were taken from the FA group before and after treatment. An increased rate of NAs was found in patients with DM in comparison with that of the control group (P<0.001). FA supplementation in patients with DM reduced the frequency of NAs (20.4 ± 8.0 before treatment vs. 10.5 ± 5.2 after treatment; P<0.001). The type I and type II DM and controlled and uncontrolled DM subgroups were analyzed in terms of sex, age, and smoking habit. The significantly reduced frequencies of buccal mucosa cells with micronuclei, binucleation, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyorrhexis+abnormally condensed chromatin, karyolysis, and nuclear buds produced by FA supplementation in DM patients (P<0.02) are consistent with the idea that free radicals are responsible for the increased frequency of NAs in DM patients. PMID:26921015

  17. Enabling Noninvasive Systemic Delivery of the Kv1.3-Blocking Peptide HsTX1[R14A] via the Buccal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Boyd, Ben J; Larson, Ian C; Pennington, Michael W; Norton, Raymond S; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2016-07-01

    The peptide HsTX1[R14A] is a potent and selective blocker of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3, a well-recognized therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases. To overcome the poor oral absorption and consequent need for regular injections, the potential of the buccal mucosa for systemic delivery of HsTX1[R14A] was investigated. For in vitro studies, FITC-HsTX1[R14A] and HsTX1[R14A], in solution or formulated in a mucoadhesive chitosan-based gel (3%, w/v) with or without cetrimide (5%, w/w), were applied to porcine buccal epithelium mounted between Ussing chambers and buccal mucosal permeation assessed. HsTX1[R14A] was also administered to Swiss outbred mice at a dose of 10 mg/kg in the same formulations. In vitro, administration of FITC-HsTX1[R14A] and HsTX1[R14A] in the chitosan gel containing cetrimide resulted in detectable buccal permeation with 0.75% and 0.58%, respectively, of the applied dose appearing in the receptor chamber over 5 h. After buccal administration to mice, HsTX1[R14A] was detected in plasma, with the presence of cetrimide in the gel further enhancing plasma exposure, with area under the plasma concentration-time curve values of 77.9 ± 9.7 and 31.0 ± 2.3 nM·h, respectively. The buccal mucosa is a promising alternative administration route for the systemic delivery of HsTX1[R14A] for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:27312508

  18. A novel technique for cheek mucosa defect reconstruction using a pedicled buccal fat pad and buccinator myomucosal island flap.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Silvano; Ferri, Andrea; Bianchi, Bernardo; Copelli, Chiara; Magri, Alice Sara; Sesenna, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Reconstruction of cheek mucosa defects following tumor resections can be approached with several techniques, depending on size of the defect. Fasciocutaneous and perforators free flaps are widely employed today for such reconstructions. However, small defects or general health of the patient may limit their indications. Furthermore, approaching moderate size defects, some techniques, like temporalis muscle or fascia pedicled flaps, lead to contracture with limitation of mouth opening or trisma, and others, like intraoral local flaps, do not provide enough tissue for the reconstructions. In this work the authors propose, for reconstructing these kind of defects, the use of a buccinator myomucosal island flap and a buccal fat pad pedicled flap association. A case is reported and the surgical technique is explained. This new reconstructive technique can easily be used for reconstructing moderate-sized cheek defects, achieving optimal results: the internal mucosal lining is restored in few weeks without any retraction, contracture, of scars on the face limiting the aesthetic outcome and mouth opening. PMID:18620893

  19. Assessment of cervical lymph node metastasis for therapeutic decision-making in squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa: a prospective clinical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical metastasis has a tremendous impact on the prognosis in patients with carcinomas of the head and neck and the frequency of such spread is greater than 20% for most squamous cell carcinomas. With emerging evidence, focus is shifting to conservative neck procedures aimed at achieving good shoulder function without compromising oncologic safety. The purpose of this study was to analyze the pattern of nodal metastasis in patients presenting with squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa. Materials and methods This was a prospective clinical analysis of patients who were histologically diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal cavity and clinically N1 and had not received treatment anywhere else. Patients were analyzed for age and sex distribution, tumor staging, location, and metastasis. Results The incidence of metastatic lymph node in T4 (n=44) was the highest, that is, level I was 100% (44/44), level II was 43.18% (19/44), level III was 15.90% (7/44), and level IV was 4.5% (2/44). Level V was free of metastasis. Among T3 (n=10) lesions, incidence of metastasis in level I was 100% (10/10), level II was 20% (2/10), and level III, IV, and V were free of metastasis. Among T2 (n=6) lesions, incidence of lymph node metastasis in level I was 100% (6/6) and all other levels of lymph nodes were found free of metastasis. Conclusion Lymphatic spread from carcinoma of the buccal mucosa is low. Involvement of level IV is seen in only 3% of patients. A more conservative approach to the neck in patients with carcinoma of the buccal mucosa is recommended. PMID:23173732

  20. The role of tobacco as an etiological agent for oral cancer: Cytomorphometrical analysis of the buccal mucosa in tobacco users

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Megha; Sircar, Keya; Tandon, Ankita; Chowdhry, Aman; Popli, Deepika Bablani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Histopathological diagnosis of lesions arising from the intake of tobacco is based on subjective evaluation of morphological alterations within the lesional tissue. Oral exfoliative cytology is a non-invasive diagnostic technique for early detection of oral premalignant and malignant lesions. Morphometric techniques have been advocated as objective and reproducible methods of detecting changes before they are visible by routine microscopy and can facilitate differentiation of normal and abnormal epithelium. This study was conducted to assess the morphometric parameters (cell diameter, nuclear diameter and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio [N:C ratio]) in tobacco smokers and chewers and to evaluate the variations, if any. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on cytological smears obtained from oral lesions of patients with habit of tobacco smoking (Group B) and tobacco chewing (Group C). Group A comprised of subjects free from oral lesions and not using tobacco in any form. Patients with both the habits were excluded. The smears were stained using Papanicoloaou staining method. For morphometric analysis, Microimage 3.0 image analysis software was employed. The statistical test employed was an analysis of variance and P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results of this study showed that the cellular diameter was progressively reduced and nuclear diameter progressively increased from Group A to Group B to Group C. The N:C ratio also showed a progressive increase from Group A to Group C. Conclusion: The results confirmed that tobacco chewing and smoking influenced the cytomorphology of normal appearing buccal mucosa and the degree of these changes were found to be greater in chewers as compared to smokers. PMID:25540659

  1. Effectiveness of the supraomohyoid neck dissection in clinically N0 neck patients with squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa and gingivobuccal sulcus

    PubMed Central

    Rahamthulla, S. A. K. Uroof; Priya, P. Vani; Hussain, S. M. D. Javeed; Nasyam, Fazil Arshad; Akifuddin, Syed; Srinivas, Velpula Sasidhar

    2015-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the effectiveness of the supraomohyoid neck dissection in clinically N0 neck patients with squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa and gingivobuccal sulcus. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of five patients with squamous cell carcinoma of gingivobuccal mucosa of oral cavity with clinically N0 neck, conducted over a period of 2 years from July 2007 to Oct 2009 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Narayana Dental College and Hospital. The study was conducted in patients irrespective of age, sex, size, thickness, and type of differentiation of the lesion. All patients have clinically non-palpable lymphnodes (N0 neck), while patients with palpable lymphnodes, patients with previous surgery, and patients with previous radiotherapy were excluded from the study. Results: Level I was the commonest site of neck metastasis in our study. Among the five patients, two (40%) patients (case 2 and 3) had occult cervical metastasis (level IB nodes are histopathologically positive nodes) and the remaining three patients (60%) had no occult cervical metastasis. The recurrence rate was 20% for patients who received postoperative radiotherapy. There was no morbidity and postoperative dysfunction and the mortality rate was only 20% in our study. Conclusion: Supraomohyoid neck dissection is the therapeutic procedure in clinically N0 neck patients with squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa and gingivobuccal sulcus of mandible. Supraomohyoid neck dissection, when indicated, contributes to the concept of less-invasive surgery and offers functional and aesthetic advantages without compromising the clearance with minimal morbidity. PMID:25992339

  2. Evaluation of Various Nuclear Cytological Changes in Normal Buccal Mucosa and Peritumoural Area in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Receiving Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Minhas, Sadia; Kashif, Muhammad; Nagi, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the role of serial cytological assay in calculating the nuclear response of contralateral normal buccal mucosa and peritumoural area of squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity in patients receiving fractionated radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy. Materials and Methods. This prospective, nonrandomized study was comprised of 76 histologically confirmed cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma on cyclical chemoradiation treatment. Chemoradiosensitivity was evaluated using serial scrape smears taken before and after immediate exposure to CCRT, at 17th day of CCRT (mid of treatment), and at the end of treatment. The nuclear changes, such as multinucleation, micronucleation, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, nuclear budding, prominent nucleoli, and binucleation occurring in both irradiated cancer cells and contralateral normal buccal mucosa, had a statistically significant dose related increase with concomitant chemoradiotherapy (p < 0.05). Conclusion. We recommend regular use of serial cytological assay during CCRT as it may prove to be a valuable tool for assessment of chemoradiosensitivity and persistence of tumour/dysplastic cells after radiotherapy. PMID:27148467

  3. Capsaicin-evoked CGRP release from rat buccal mucosa: development of a model system for studying trigeminal mechanisms of neurogenic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Christopher M.; Leong, Anthony S.; Dussor, Gregory O.; Harding-Rose, Catherine; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.; Kilo, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Many of the physiological hallmarks associated with neurogenic inflammatory processes in cutaneous tissues are similarly present within orofacial structures. Such attributes include the dependence upon capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons and the involvement of certain inflammatory mediators derived therein, including calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). However, there are also important differences between the trigeminal and spinal nervous systems, and the potential contributions of neurogenic processes to inflammatory disease within the trigeminal system have yet to be fully elucidated. We present here a model system that affords the ability to study mechanisms regulating the efferent functions of peptidergic terminals that may subserve neurogenic inflammation within the oral cavity. Freshly dissected buccal mucosa tissue from adult, male, Sprague–Dawley rats was placed into chambers and superfused with oxygenated, Krebs buffer. Serial aliquots of the egressing superfusate were acquired and analysed by radioimmunoassay for immunoreactive CGRP (iCGRP). Addition of the selective excitotoxin, capsaicin (10–300 μM), to the superfusion buffer resulted in a significant, concentration-dependent increase in superfusate levels of iCGRP. Similarly, release of iCGRP from the buccal mucosa could also be evoked by a depolarizing concentration of potassium chloride (50 mM) or by the calcium ionophore A23187 (1 μM). The specific, capsaicin receptor antagonist, capsazepine (300 μM), completely abolished the capsaicin-evoked release of iCGRP while having no effect whatsoever on the potassium-evoked release. Moreover, capsaicin-evoked release was dependent upon the presence of extracellular calcium ions and was significantly, though incompletely, attenuated by neonatal capsaicin denervation. Collectively, these data indicate that the evoked neurosecretion of iCGRP in response to capsaicin occurs via a vanilloid receptor-mediated, exocytotic mechanism. The model system

  4. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pahwa, Mrinal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Pahwa, Mayank; Jain, Brig D. K.; Gupta, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as described by Asopa. Operative time, success rate, satisfaction rate, and complications were compared between the two groups. Mean follow-up was 12 months (6–24 months). Results. Ventral urethrotomy group had considerably lesser operative time although the difference was not statistically significant. Patients in dorsal group had mean maximum flow rate of 19.6 mL/min and mean residual urine of 27 mL, whereas ventral group had a mean maximum flow rate of 18.8 and residual urine of 32 mL. Eighteen out of twenty patients voided well in each group, and postoperative imaging study in these patients showed a good lumen with no evidence of leak or extravasation. Conclusion. Though ventral sagittal urethrotomy preserves the blood supply of urethra and intraoperative time was less than dorsal urethrotomy technique, there was no statistically significant difference in final outcome using either technique. PMID:24194754

  5. Histological study of hamster buccal mucosa following topical application of DMBA and exposition to low-power 337-nm laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros Rego, Christmas M. V.; Munin, Egberto; Redigolo, Marcela L.; Salgado, Miguel C.; de Souza, Hanriete P.; Colombo, C. E. D.; Nicolau, Renata A.; Alves, Leandro P.; Zangaro, Renato A.

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to analyze the histological changes on hamster buccal mucosa caused by the topical use of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and exposition to a 220 ´J/pulse nitrogen laser light (@ 337 nm) at an average power of 2,3 mW. Twenty-one hamsters divided into two experimental groups were treated six times with DMBA. One hamster was kept as control. Group I was composed by ten hamsters and was submitted only to DMBA. Group II, also with ten hamsters, received the same treatment as group I and was exposed to the laser radiation. The time duration of each irradiation section was 10 seconds. All the treatment happened in alternated days. The histological analysis took place twice, after the end of the treatment and after sixty days. Both experimental groups presented dilatation of vessels, thickening of the epithelial tissue and the presence of inflammatory infiltrates. The preliminary results indicates that in group II the number of dilated vessels and its new area are much more significant than in group I.

  6. Combination chemoprevention of hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by bovine milk lactoferrin and black tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Mohan, K V P Chandra; Letchoumy, P Vidjaya; Hara, Y; Nagini, S

    2008-03-01

    Combination chemoprevention is a promising approach for oral cancer prevention. The authors evaluated the combined chemopreventive effects of bovine milk lactoferrin (bLF) and black tea polyphenols (Polyphenon-B) in a clinically relevant in vivo model of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Although dietary administration of bLF and Polyphenon-B alone significantly reduced the tumor incidence, combined administration of bLF and polyphenon-B was more effective in inhibiting DMBA-induced genotoxicity and development of HBP carcinomas by modulation of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes and cellular redox status. These results suggest that a "designer item" approach will be useful for human oral cancer prevention strategies. PMID:18259952

  7. Comparative evaluation of genotoxicity by micronucleus assay in the buccal mucosa over comet assay in peripheral blood in oral precancer and cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Katarkar, Atul; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Khan, Masood H; Ray, Jay G; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2014-09-01

    Early detection and quantification of DNA damage in oral premalignancy or malignancy may help in management of the disease and improve survival rates. The comet assay has been successfully utilised to detect DNA damage in oral premalignant or malignancy. However, due to the invasive nature of collecting blood, it may be painful for many unwilling patients. This study compares the micronucleus (MN) assay in oral buccal mucosa cells with the comet assay in peripheral blood cells in a subset of oral habit-induced precancer and cancer patients. For this, MN assay of exfoliated epithelial cells was compared with comet assay of peripheral blood leucocytes among 260 participants, including those with oral lichen planus (OLP; n = 52), leukoplakia (LPK; n = 51), oral submucous fibrosis (OSF; n = 51), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC; n = 54) and normal volunteers (n = 52). Among the precancer groups, LPK patients showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage as reflected by both comet tail length (P < 0.0001) and micronuclei (MNi) frequency (P = 0.0009). The DNA damage pattern in precancer and cancer patients was OLP < OSF < LPK < OSCC, and with respective oral habits, it was multiple habits > cigarette + khaini > cigarette smokers > areca + khaini > areca. There was no significant difference in the comet length and MNi frequency between males and females who had oral chewing habits. An overall significant correlation was observed between MNi frequency and comet tail length with r = 0.844 and P < 0.0001. Thus, the extent of DNA damage evaluation by the comet assay in peripheral blood cells is perfectly reflected by the MN assay on oral exfoliated epithelial cells, and MNi frequency can be used with the same effectiveness and greater efficiency in early detection of oral premalignant conditions. PMID:25053835

  8. Cytogenetic Abnormality in Exfoliated Cells of Buccal Mucosa in Head and Neck Cancer Patients in the Tunisian Population: Impact of Different Exposure Sources

    PubMed Central

    Khlifi, Rim; Trabelsi-Ksibi, Fatma; Chakroun, Amine; Rebai, Ahmed; Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome/DNA instability could be one of the primary causes of malignant cell transformation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the spontaneous genetic damages in exfoliated cells of buccal mucosa of head and neck cancer (HNC) by counting micronucleus (MN) and binucleated (BN) cells frequencies. MN and BN frequencies were significantly increased in HNC patients compared with controls (5.53 ± 3.09/1000 cells, 5.63 ± 2.99/1000 cells versus 2.36 ± 2.11/1000 cells, 3.09 ± 1.82/1000 cells, P < 0.001). Regarding the gender and the age, the frequencies of the MN and BN were significantly higher than those of controls (P < 0.01). The evaluation of the MN and BN frequencies revealed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the cases in relation to the control group after controlling the risk factors (tobacco smoking and chewing and occupational exposure) of HNC. Moreover, MN and BN frequencies were significantly increased in smokers and chewers compared with nonsmokers and nonchewers among patients (P < 0.05). MN frequency was significantly (P = 0.014) different between patients occupationally exposed (6.99 ± 3.40/1000 cells) and nonexposed (4.70 ± 2.48/1000 cells) among HNC group. The logistic regression model illustrated that HNC was significantly associated with frequencies of MN (OR = 8.63, P < 0.0001) and BN (OR = 5.62, P = 0.001). Our results suggest that increased chromosome/DNA instabilities may be associated with HNC. PMID:23957010

  9. Epigenetic age predictions based on buccal swabs are more precise in combination with cell type-specific DNA methylation signatures.

    PubMed

    Eipel, Monika; Mayer, Felix; Arent, Tanja; Ferreira, Marcelo R P; Birkhofer, Carina; Gerstenmaier, Uwe; Costa, Ivan G; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Aging is reflected by highly reproducible DNA methylation (DNAm) changes that open new perspectives for estimation of chronological age in legal medicine. DNA can be harvested non-invasively from cells at the inside of a person's cheek using buccal swabs - but these specimens resemble heterogeneous mixtures of buccal epithelial cells and leukocytes with different epigenetic makeup. In this study, we have trained an age predictor based on three age-associated CpG sites (associated with the genesPDE4C, ASPA, and ITGA2B) for swab samples to reach a mean absolute deviation (MAD) between predicted and chronological age of 4.3 years in a training set and of 7.03 years in a validation set. Subsequently, the composition of buccal epithelial cells versus leukocytes was estimated by two additional CpGs (associated with the genes CD6 and SERPINB5). Results of this "Buccal-Cell-Signature" correlated with cell counts in cytological stains (R2 = 0.94). Combination of cell type-specific and age-associated CpGs into one multivariate model enabled age predictions with MADs of 5.09 years and 5.12 years in two independent validation sets. Our results demonstrate that the cellular composition in buccal swab samples can be determined by DNAm at two cell type-specific CpGs to improve epigenetic age predictions. PMID:27249102

  10. Epigenetic age predictions based on buccal swabs are more precise in combination with cell type-specific DNA methylation signatures

    PubMed Central

    Eipel, Monika; Mayer, Felix; Arent, Tanja; Ferreira, Marcelo R. P.; Birkhofer, Carina; Gerstenmaier, Uwe; Costa, Ivan G.; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Aging is reflected by highly reproducible DNA methylation (DNAm) changes that open new perspectives for estimation of chronological age in legal medicine. DNA can be harvested non-invasively from cells at the inside of a person's cheek using buccal swabs – but these specimens resemble heterogeneous mixtures of buccal epithelial cells and leukocytes with different epigenetic makeup. In this study, we have trained an age predictor based on three age-associated CpG sites (associated with the genes PDE4C, ASPA, and ITGA2B) for swab samples to reach a mean absolute deviation (MAD) between predicted and chronological age of 4.3 years in a training set and of 7.03 years in a validation set. Subsequently, the composition of buccal epithelial cells versus leukocytes was estimated by two additional CpGs (associated with the genes CD6 and SERPINB5). Results of this “Buccal-Cell-Signature” correlated with cell counts in cytological stains (R2 = 0.94). Combination of cell type-specific and age-associated CpGs into one multivariate model enabled age predictions with MADs of 5.09 years and 5.12 years in two independent validation sets. Our results demonstrate that the cellular composition in buccal swab samples can be determined by DNAm at two cell type-specific CpGs to improve epigenetic age predictions. PMID:27249102

  11. Effect of permeation enhancers in the mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate for unidirectional buccal drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Prasanth, V.V.; Puratchikody, A.; Mathew, S.T.; Ashok, K.B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the effect of various permeation enhancers on the permeation of salbutamol sulphate (SS) buccal patches through buccal mucosa in order to improve the bioavailability by avoiding the first pass metabolism in the liver and possibly in the gut wall and also achieve a better therapeutic effect. The influence of various permeation enhancers, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), linoleic acid (LA), isopropyl myristate (IPM) and oleic acid (OA) on the buccal absorption of SS from buccal patches containing different polymeric combinations such as hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), carbopol, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC), acid and water soluble chitosan (CHAS and CHWS) and Eudragit-L100 (EU-L100) was investigated. OA was the most efficient permeation enhancer increasing the flux greater than 8-fold compared with patches without permeation enhancer in HPMC based buccal patches when PEG-400 was used as the plasticizer. LA also exhibited a better permeation enhancing effect of over 4-fold in PVA and HPMC based buccal patches. In PVA based patches, both OA and LA were almost equally effective in improving the SS permeation irrespective of the plasticizer used. DMSO was more effective as a permeation enhancer in HPMC based patches when PG was the plasticizer. IPM showed maximum permeation enhancement of greater than 2-fold when PG was the plasticizer in HPMC based buccal patches. PMID:25657797

  12. Effect of permeation enhancers in the mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate for unidirectional buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Prasanth, V V; Puratchikody, A; Mathew, S T; Ashok, K B

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the effect of various permeation enhancers on the permeation of salbutamol sulphate (SS) buccal patches through buccal mucosa in order to improve the bioavailability by avoiding the first pass metabolism in the liver and possibly in the gut wall and also achieve a better therapeutic effect. The influence of various permeation enhancers, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), linoleic acid (LA), isopropyl myristate (IPM) and oleic acid (OA) on the buccal absorption of SS from buccal patches containing different polymeric combinations such as hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), carbopol, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyvinyl pyrollidone (PVP), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC), acid and water soluble chitosan (CHAS and CHWS) and Eudragit-L100 (EU-L100) was investigated. OA was the most efficient permeation enhancer increasing the flux greater than 8-fold compared with patches without permeation enhancer in HPMC based buccal patches when PEG-400 was used as the plasticizer. LA also exhibited a better permeation enhancing effect of over 4-fold in PVA and HPMC based buccal patches. In PVA based patches, both OA and LA were almost equally effective in improving the SS permeation irrespective of the plasticizer used. DMSO was more effective as a permeation enhancer in HPMC based patches when PG was the plasticizer. IPM showed maximum permeation enhancement of greater than 2-fold when PG was the plasticizer in HPMC based buccal patches. PMID:25657797

  13. Testosterone Buccal

    MedlinePlus

    Testosterone buccal systems are used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in men who have hypogonadism (a condition in which the ... sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone buccal systems work by replacing testosterone that is normally produced ...

  14. CHRONIC CIGARETTE SMOKING IS ASSOCIATED WITH DIMINISHED FOLATE STATUS, ALTERED FOLATE FORM DISTRIBUTION, AND INCREASED GENETIC DAMAGE IN THE BUCCAL MUCOSA OF HEALTHY ADULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Smoking causes genetic damage in buccal cells and increases the risk of oral cancer. Since folate is instrumental in DNA synthesis and repair, it is a determinant of genetic stability and therefore might attenuate the genotoxic effects of smoking. Objective: To compare folate metabolites...

  15. Treatment Outcome of Combined Modalities for Buccal Cancers: Unilateral or Bilateral Neck Radiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-Y.; Lee, L.-Y.; Huang, S.-F.; Kang, C.-J.; Fan, K.-H.; Wang, H.-M.; Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of treatment for buccal cancers and assess the impact of unilateral vs. bilateral adjuvant neck radiation. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the course of 145 patients newly diagnosed with buccal squamous cell carcinoma without distant metastases who completed definitive treatment between January 1994 and December 2000. Of 145 patients, 112 (77%) had Stage III or IV disease. All underwent radical surgery with postoperative radiotherapy (median dose, 64 Gy), including unilateral neck treatment in most (n = 120, 82.8%). After 1997, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy was given for high-risk patients with more than two involved lymph nodes, extracapsular spread, and/or positive margins. Results: The 5-year disease-specific survival rate for Stages I-IV was 87%, 83%, 61%, and 60%, respectively (p = 0.01). The most significant prognostic factor was N stage, with the 5-year disease-specific survival rate for N0, N1, and N2 being 79%, 65%, and 54%, respectively (p 0.001). For patients with more than two lymph nodes or positive extracapsular spread, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy improved locoregional control (p = 0.02). Locoregional control did not differ between patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral neck treatments (p = 0.95). Contralateral neck failure occurred in only 2.1%. Conclusions: In patients with buccal carcinoma after radical resection, ipsilateral neck radiation is adequate. Bilateral prophylactic neck treatment does not confer an added benefit.

  16. Antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing effect of lactoferrin and black tea polyphenol combination on hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chandra Mohan, Kurapathy Venkata Poorna; Devaraj, Halagowder; Prathiba, Duvuru; Hara, Yukihiko; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2006-10-01

    Combination chemoprevention using tea polyphenols as one of the components has received growing consideration in recent years. The present study was designed to evaluate the antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing effects of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) and black tea polyphenol (Polyphenon-B: P-B) combination on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Topical application of DMBA for 14 weeks induced buccal pouch tumours that showed aberrant expression of cytokeratins, a marker for epithelial carcinomas. This was associated with increased cell proliferation and evasion of apoptosis as revealed by upregulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, NF-kappaB, mutant p53, Bcl-2 and downregulation of Bax, Fas and caspase 3 protein expression. Although dietary administration of bLF and Polyphenon-B alone significantly reduced tumour incidence, combined administration of bLF and Polyphenon-B was more effective in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis by restoring normal cytokeratin expression, inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. These findings suggest that a "designer item" approach will be useful for human oral cancer prevention strategies. PMID:16905260

  17. Testosterone Buccal

    MedlinePlus

    ... not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone is used only for men with low testosterone levels caused by ... two doses in a row.Testosterone buccal systems only work when applied to the upper gum. Although ...

  18. A review on bioadhesive buccal drug delivery systems: current status of formulation and evaluation methods

    PubMed Central

    Chinna Reddy, P; Chaitanya, K.S.C.; Madhusudan Rao, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Owing to the ease of the administration, the oral cavity is an attractive site for the delivery of drugs. Through this route it is possible to realize mucosal (local effect) and transmucosal (systemic effect) drug administration. In the first case, the aim is to achieve a site-specific release of the drug on the mucosa, whereas the second case involves drug absorption through the mucosal barrier to reach the systemic circulation. The main obstacles that drugs meet when administered via the buccal route derive from the limited absorption area and the barrier properties of the mucosa. The effective physiological removal mechanisms of the oral cavity that take the formulation away from the absorption site are the other obstacles that have to be considered. The strategies studied to overcome such obstacles include the employment of new materials that, possibly, combine mucoadhesive, enzyme inhibitory and penetration enhancer properties and the design of innovative drug delivery systems which, besides improving patient compliance, favor a more intimate contact of the drug with the absorption mucosa. This presents a brief description of advantages and limitations of buccal drug delivery and the anatomical structure of oral mucosa, mechanisms of drug permeation followed by current formulation design in line with developments in buccal delivery systems and methodology in evaluating buccal formulations. PMID:23008684

  19. Hypoglycaemic effect of a novel insulin buccal formulation on rabbits.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui-Bi; Huang, Kai-Xun; Zhu, Yu-Shan; Gao, Qiu-Hua; Wu, Qing-Zhi; Tian, Wei-Qun; Sheng, Xi-Qun; Chen, Ze-Xian; Gao, Zhong-Hong

    2002-11-01

    Transmucosal delivery is a suitable route for insulin non-injection administration. In this study, the hypoglycaemic effect of INSULIN BUCCAL SPRAY (IBS), a formulation with soybean lecithin and propanediol combined as absorption enhancer for insulin on diabetic rabbits and rats, were investigated. The hypoglycaemic rate was calculated and the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the formulation in rabbits were studied. The results show that when the diabetic rabbits were administrated with IBS in dosages of 0.5, 1.5 and 4.5Ukg(-1), the blood glucose level decreased significantly compared with that of the control group and the hypoglycaemic effect lasted over 5h. The blood glucose decreasing rates are 22.4, 48.1 and 53.5%, respectively. The average bioavailability of IBS by buccal delivery versus subcutaneous injection is 29.2%. Meanwhile, the diabetic rats were administrated with IBS in dosages of 1.0, 3.0 and 9.0Ukg(-1), the blood glucose level decreased significantly compared with that of the control group and the hypoglycaemic effect lasted over 4h. The blood glucose decreasing rates are 24.6, 47.5 and 59.6%, respectively. Furthermore, the penetration of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled insulin through rabbit buccal mucosa was investigated by scanning the distribution of the fluorescent probe in the epithelium using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results revealed that FITC-insulin can pass through the buccal mucosa promoted by the enhancer and the passage of insulin across the epithelium includes both intracellular and paracellular routes. From the rabbit and rat experimental results showed that IBS is an effective buccal delivery system, which is promising for clinical trial and the future clinical application. PMID:12419651

  20. Raman microspectroscopic study of oral buccal mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Mamgain, Hitesh; Deshmukh, Atul; Kukreja, Lekha; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Oral cancer is the most common cancer among Indian males, with 5-year- survival-rates of less than 50%. Efficacy of Raman spectroscopic methods in non-invasive and objective diagnosis of oral cancers and confounding factors has already been demonstrated. The present Raman microspectroscopic study was undertaken for in-depth and site-specific analysis of normal and tumor tissues. 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained sections from 20 tissues were accrued. Raman data of 160 x 60 μm and 140 x 140 μm in normal and tumor sections, respectively, were acquired using WITec alpha 300R equipped with 532 nm laser, 50X objective and 600 gr/mm grating. Spectral data were corrected for CCDresponse, background. First-derivitized and vector-normalized data were then subjected to K-mean cluster analysis to generate Raman maps and correlated with their respective histopathology. In normal sections, stratification among epithelial layers i.e. basal, intermediate, superficial was observed. Tumor, stromal and inflammatory regions were identified in case of tumor section. Extracted spectra of the pathologically annotated regions were subjected to Principal component analysis. Findings suggest that all three layers of normal epithelium can be differentiated against tumor cells. In epithelium, basal and superficial layers can be separated while intermediate layer show misclassifications. In tumors, discrimination of inflammatory regions from tumor cells and tumor-stroma regions were observed. Finding of the study indicate Raman mapping can lead to molecular level insights of normal and pathological states.

  1. Effect of paclitaxel (TAXOL) alone and in combination with radiation on the gastrointestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, K.A.; Milas, L.; Peters, L.J.

    1995-07-30

    Paclitaxel is a potentially useful drug for augmenting the cytotoxic action of radiotherapy because it has independent cytotoxic activity against certain cancers and blocks cells in the radiosensitive mitotic phase of the cell cycle. However, all rapidly proliferating tissues, both normal and neoplastic, may be affected by this therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to define the in vivo response of rapidly dividing cells of the small bowel mucosa in mice to paclitaxel given alone and in combination with radiation. Paclitaxel blocked jejunal crypt cells in mitosis and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Fractionating the paclitaxel dose over 1-4 days did not result in any greater accumulation of mitotically blocked cells than did a single dose. Mitosis peaked 2-4 h after paclitaxel and returned to near normal by 24 h. Apoptosis lagged several hours behind mitosis and peaked about 6 h later than mitosis. Despite these kinetic perturbations, there was little or no enhancement of radiation effect when single doses were delivered 2-4 h after paclitaxel administration. The maximum sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.07 observed after a single paclitaxel dose of 40 mg/kg is consistent with independent crypt cell killing. Conversely, when radiation was given 24 h after paclitaxel, a significant protective effect of the drug (SER 0.89-0.92), most probably due to a regenerative overshoot induced by paclitaxel, was observed. Stem cells of the jejunal mucosa determining radiation response were not radiosensitized by paclitaxel with the drug concentrations and dose deliver schedules used, although additive cytotoxicity was observed with the highest drug dose. A radioprotective effect was observed when radiation was given 24 h after paclitaxel administration. 33 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. [Buccal epithelium reactivity in children].

    PubMed

    Kurkin, A V; Rybalkina, D Kh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the analysis of the buccal smears from 200 healthy children and children with chronic tonsillitis and chicken pox. The smears were stained using Pappenheim's method. The peculiarity of buccal mucosa cytograms of children of different ages was the significant increase in mature forms of the cells (presence of differentiation stage 5 and 6 cells) in adolescents. They also had a lower area of epitheliocytes at all the stages of differentiation and of their nuclei. In chronic tonsillitis and chicken pox, the complex of cytological changes was detected, that included the increase of the leukocyte number, changes in the proportions of epitheliocytes in cell population, augmentation of inflammation-destruction and destruction indexes. PMID:21539088

  3. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  4. The new heterologous fibrin sealant in combination with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the repair of the buccal branch of the facial nerve.

    PubMed

    Buchaim, Daniela Vieira; Rodrigues, Antonio de Castro; Buchaim, Rogerio Leone; Barraviera, Benedito; Junior, Rui Seabra Ferreira; Junior, Geraldo Marco Rosa; Bueno, Cleuber Rodrigo de Souza; Roque, Domingos Donizeti; Dias, Daniel Ventura; Dare, Leticia Rossi; Andreo, Jesus Carlos

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the repair of the buccal branch of the facial nerve with two surgical techniques: end-to-end epineural suture and coaptation with heterologous fibrin sealant. Forty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group (CG) in which the buccal branch of the facial nerve was collected without injury; (2) experimental group with suture (EGS) and experimental group with fibrin (EGF): The buccal branch of the facial nerve was transected on both sides of the face. End-to-end suture was performed on the right side and fibrin sealant on the left side; (3) Experimental group with suture and laser (EGSL) and experimental group with fibrin and laser (EGFL). All animals underwent the same surgical procedures in the EGS and EGF groups, in combination with the application of LLLT (wavelength of 830 nm, 30 mW optical power output of potency, and energy density of 6 J/cm(2)). The animals of the five groups were euthanized at 5 weeks post-surgery and 10 weeks post-surgery. Axonal sprouting was observed in the distal stump of the facial nerve in all experimental groups. The observed morphology was similar to the fibers of the control group, with a predominance of myelinated fibers. In the final period of the experiment, the EGSL presented the closest results to the CG, in all variables measured, except in the axon area. Both surgical techniques analyzed were effective in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, where the use of fibrin sealant allowed the manipulation of the nerve stumps without trauma. LLLT exhibited satisfactory results on facial nerve regeneration, being therefore a useful technique to stimulate axonal regeneration process. PMID:27112578

  5. The use of pedicled buccal fat pad combined with sequestrectomy in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Junquera, Luis; Pelaz, Alejandro; Hernando, Josué; Megías, Joaquim

    2012-01-01

    The use of pedicled buccal fat pad flap (BFP) has proved of value for the closure of oroantral and oronasal communications and is a well-established tool in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Otherwise, the perceived limitations of surgical therapy for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) have been widely discussed, and recommendations have largely been made to offer aggressive surgery only to stage 3 patients refractary to conservative management. Oroantral communication may be a common complication after sequestrectomy and bone debridement in upper maxillary BRONJ. We report a case series of stage 3 recalcitrant maxillary BRONJ surgically treated with extensive sequestrectomy and first reconstruction using pedicled BFP. All the cases presented an uneventful postoperative healing was uneventful without dehiscence, infection, necrosis or oroantral communication. We postulate that managing initially the site with BFP and primary closure may ensure a sufficient blood supply and adequate protection for an effective bone-healing response to occur. This technique may represent a mechanic protection and an abundant source of adipose-derived adult stem cells after debridement in upper maxillary BRONJ. We evaluate in this work results, advantages and indications of this technique. Key words: Buccal fat pad flap, bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws, oroantral communications, sequestrectomy. PMID:22143692

  6. A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Gilhotra, Ritu M; Ikram, Mohd; Srivastava, Sunny; Gilhotra, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. The objective of this paper is to review the works done so far in the field of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems (MBDDS), with a clinical perspective. Starting with a brief introduction of the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems, oral mucosa, and the theories of mucoadhesion, this article then proceeds to cover the works done so far in the field of MBDDS, categorizing them on the basis of ailments they are meant to cure. Additionally, we focus on the various patents, recent advancements, and challenges as well as the future prospects for mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems. PMID:24683406

  7. Films loaded with insulin-coated nanoparticles (ICNP) as potential platforms for peptide buccal delivery.

    PubMed

    Morales, Javier O; Huang, Siyuan; Williams, Robert O; McConville, Jason T

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this investigation was to develop films containing insulin-coated nanoparticles and evaluate their performance in vitro as potential peptide delivery systems. To incorporate insulin into the films, a new antisolvent co-precipitation fabrication process was adapted to obtain insulin-coated nanoparticles (ICNPs). The ICNPs were embedded in polymeric films containing a cationic polymethacrylate derivative (ERL) or a combination of ERL with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). ICNP-loaded films were characterized for morphology, mucoadhesion, and insulin release. Furthermore, in vitro insulin permeation was evaluated using a cultured tridimensional human buccal mucosa model. The antisolvent co-precipitation method was successfully adapted to obtain ICNPs with 40% (w/w) insulin load, achieving 323±8nm particles with a high zeta potential of 32.4±0.8mV, indicating good stability. High yields were obtained after manufacture and the insulin content did not decrease after one month storage. ICNP-embedded films using ERL as the polymer matrix presented excellent mucoadhesive and insulin release properties. A high permeation enhancement effect was observed for ICNP-loaded ERL films in comparison with ICNP-loaded ERL-HPMC films and a control insulin solution. ICNP-loaded ERL formulations were found to be more effective in terms of film performance and insulin permeation through the human buccal mucosa model, and thus are a promising delivery system for buccal administration of a peptide such as insulin. PMID:25016543

  8. The use of pedicled buccal fat pad combined with sequestrectomy in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the maxilla.

    PubMed

    Gallego, L; Junquera, L; Pelaz, A; Hernando, J; Megías, J

    2012-03-01

    The use of pedicled buccal fat pad flap (BFP) has proved of value for the closure of oroantral and oronasal communications and is a well-established tool in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Otherwise, the perceived limitations of surgical therapy for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) have been widely discussed, and recommendations have largely been made to offer aggressive surgery only to stage 3 patients refractary to conservative management. Oroantral communication may be a common complication after sequestrectomy and bone debridement in upper maxillary BRONJ. We report a case series of stage 3 recalcitrant maxillary BRONJ surgically treated with extensive sequestrectomy and first reconstruction using pedicled BFP. All the cases presented an uneventful postoperative healing was uneventful without dehiscence, infection, necrosis or oroantral communication. We postulate that managing initially the site with BFP and primary closure may ensure a sufficient blood supply and adequate protection for an effective bone-healing response to occur. This technique may represent a mechanic protection and an abundant source of adipose-derived adult stem cells after debridement in upper maxillary BRONJ. We evaluate in this work results, advantages and indications of this technique. PMID:22143692

  9. Development of Buccal Adhesive Tablet with Prolonged Antifungal activity: Optimization and ex vivo Deposition Studies

    PubMed Central

    Madgulkar, A.; Kadam, S.; Pokharkar, V.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to prepare buccal adhesive tablets of miconazole nitrate. The simplex centroid experimental design was used to arrive at optimum ratio of carbopol 934P, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M and polyvinylpyrollidone, which will provide desired drug release and mucoadhesion. Swelling index, mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release of the prepared tablet was determined. The drug release and bioadhesion was dependent on type and relative amounts of the polymers. The optimized combination was subjected to in vitro antifungal activity, transmucosal permeation, drug deposition in mucosa, residence time and bioadhesion studies. IR spectroscopy was used to investigate any interaction between drug and excipients. Dissolution of miconazole from tablets was sustained for 6 h. based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the prepared slow release buccoadhesive tablets of miconazole would markedly prolong the duration of antifungal activity. Comparison of in vitro antifungal activity of tablet with marketed gel showed that drug concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration were achieved immediately from both formulations but release from tablet was sustained up to 6 h, while the gel showed initially fast drug release, which did not sustain later. Drug permeation across buccal mucosa was minimum from the tablet as well as marketed gel; the deposition of drug in mucosa was higher in case of tablet. In vitro residence time and bioadhesive strength of tablet was higher than gel. Thus the buccoadhesive tablet of miconazole nitrate may offer better control of antifungal activity as compared to the gel formulation. PMID:20490296

  10. Development of Buccal Adhesive Tablet with Prolonged Antifungal activity: Optimization and ex vivo Deposition Studies.

    PubMed

    Madgulkar, A; Kadam, S; Pokharkar, V

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of the present work was to prepare buccal adhesive tablets of miconazole nitrate. The simplex centroid experimental design was used to arrive at optimum ratio of carbopol 934P, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M and polyvinylpyrollidone, which will provide desired drug release and mucoadhesion. Swelling index, mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release of the prepared tablet was determined. The drug release and bioadhesion was dependent on type and relative amounts of the polymers. The optimized combination was subjected to in vitro antifungal activity, transmucosal permeation, drug deposition in mucosa, residence time and bioadhesion studies. IR spectroscopy was used to investigate any interaction between drug and excipients. Dissolution of miconazole from tablets was sustained for 6 h. based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the prepared slow release buccoadhesive tablets of miconazole would markedly prolong the duration of antifungal activity. Comparison of in vitro antifungal activity of tablet with marketed gel showed that drug concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration were achieved immediately from both formulations but release from tablet was sustained up to 6 h, while the gel showed initially fast drug release, which did not sustain later. Drug permeation across buccal mucosa was minimum from the tablet as well as marketed gel; the deposition of drug in mucosa was higher in case of tablet. In vitro residence time and bioadhesive strength of tablet was higher than gel. Thus the buccoadhesive tablet of miconazole nitrate may offer better control of antifungal activity as compared to the gel formulation. PMID:20490296

  11. A Combination of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound and Nanohydroxyapatite Concordantly Enhances Osteogenesis of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells From Buccal Fat Pad

    PubMed Central

    Nagasaki, Rika; Mukudai, Yoshiki; Yoshizawa, Yasumasa; Nagasaki, Masahiro; Shiogama, Sunao; Suzuki, Maiko; Kondo, Seiji; Shintani, Satoru; Shirota, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    The osteogenic induction of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) has been regarded as an important step in bone tissue engineering. In the present study, we focused on the buccal fat pad (BFP) as a source of adipose tissue, since BFPs are encapsulated by adipose tissue and are often coextirpated during oral surgery. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is effective in the treatment of fractures, and nanohydroxyapatite (NHA) is known as a bone substitute material. Here we investigated the synergistic effects of LIPUS and NHA in the osteogenesis of ADSCs. A combination of LIPUS irritation and NHA as a scaffold significantly increased the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs in vitro, and in our in vivo study in which ADSCs were transplanted into calvarial bone defects of nude mice, the combinational effect greatly enhanced the new bone formation of the margin of the defects. These results demonstrate that synergistic effects of LIPUS and NHA are capable of effectively inducing the differentiation of ADSCs into osteoblasts, and they suggest a novel therapeutic strategy for bone regeneration by the autotransplantation of ADSCs. PMID:26858900

  12. Buccal films of prednisolone with enhanced bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Kumria, Rachna; Nair, Anroop B; Goomber, Garima; Gupta, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    The conventional formulation of prednisolone is considered to be low in efficacy, primarily on account of their failure in providing and maintaining effective therapeutic drug levels. This study aims to focus on development of a mucoadhesive buccal delivery system with a twofold objective of offering a rapid as well as a prolonged delivery of prednisolone coupled with enhanced therapeutic efficacy. Buccoadhesive films of prednisolone were prepared by solvent-casting method using hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (K100), Carbopol 940 and/or Eudragit NE 40 D. Placebo films possessing the most desirable physicomechanical properties were selected for drug loading. The effect of polymer and its content on film properties, i.e. mucoadhesive strength, swelling and hydration, in vitro drug release was studied. Based on these studies, film F7D was selected for ex vivo permeation across porcine cheek mucosa. The steady state flux of prednisolone across the buccal mucosa was found to be 105.33 ± 32.07 µg/cm(2)/h. A comparative pharmacokinetic study of prepared film (F7D) and oral suspension of prednisolone was conducted. In vivo data of buccal film show greater bioavailability (AUC0-α: 24.26 ± 4.06 µg.h/ml versus 10.65 ± 2.15 µg.h/ml) and higher Cmax (2.70 ± 0.38 µg/ml versus 2.29 ± 0.32 µg/ml) value when compared to oral suspension. The data observed from this study highlight the feasibility of the buccal route as a viable option for delivery of prednisolone. PMID:24892626

  13. Reference values and repeatability of buccal mucosal bleeding time in healthy sedated cats.

    PubMed

    Alatzas, Dimitrios G; Mylonakis, Mathios E; Kazakos, Giorgos M; Kostoulas, Polychronis; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Polizopoulou, Zoe S

    2014-02-01

    Bleeding time is a screening test for the evaluation of primary haemostasis. As there is currently limited information on the reference interval (RI) and repeatability of the test in the cat compared with the dog, the purpose of the study was to establish the RI of buccal mucosa bleeding time (BMBT) in healthy cats and to investigate the intra-observer repeatability of the test. Fifty-six cats were prospectively enrolled in the study. The animals were deemed to be healthy based on history, physical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and negative serological testing for feline leukaemia and immunodeficiency viruses. All cats were sedated with ketamine, dexmedetomidine and morphine, and the BMBT was sequentially measured in the left and right exposed buccal mucosa following a standardised incision made by a commercially available, disposable, bleeding time device. The mean BMBT was 58.6 s and the RIs ranged from 34 to 105 s (Bootstrap estimation). The intra-observer repeatability was up to 87 s (Bland-Altman plot). The results of this study imply that the combination of ketamine, dexmedetomidine and morphine is a safe and useful sedative protocol allowing for the reliable measurement of BMBT in the cat. The RI of feline BMBT may range from 34 to 105 s and the BMBT may differ by up to 87 s for any two consecutive readings for an individual cat. PMID:23985755

  14. In-vitro characterization of buccal iontophoresis: the case of sumatriptan succinate.

    PubMed

    Telò, Isabella; Tratta, Elena; Guasconi, Barbara; Nicoli, Sara; Pescina, Silvia; Govoni, Paolo; Santi, Patrizia; Padula, Cristina

    2016-06-15

    Buccal administration of sumatriptan succinate might be an interesting alternative to the present administration routes, due to its non-invasiveness and rapid onset of action, but because of its low permeability, a permeation enhancement strategy is required. The aim of this work was then to study, in-vitro, buccal iontophoresis of sumatriptan succinate. Permeation experiments were performed in-vitro across pig esophageal epithelium, a recently proposed model of human buccal mucosa, using vertical diffusion cells. The iontophoretic behavior of the tissue was characterized by measuring its isoelectric point (Na(+) transport number and the electroosmotic flow of acetaminophen determination) and by evaluating tissue integrity after current application. The results obtained confirm the usefulness of pig esophageal epithelium as an in-vitro model membrane for buccal drug delivery. The application of iontophoresis increased sumatriptan transport, proportionally to the current density applied, without tissue damage: electrotransport was the predominant mechanism. Integrating the results of the present work with literature data on the transport of other molecules across the buccal mucosa and across the skin, we can draw a general conclusion: the difference in passive transport across buccal mucosa and across the skin is influenced by permeant lipophilicity and by the penetration pathway. Finally, buccal iontophoretic administration of sumatriptan allows to administer 6mg of the drug in 1h, representing a promising alternative to the current administration routes. PMID:27113869

  15. Fentanyl Buccal Soluble Film: A Review in Breakthrough Cancer Pain.

    PubMed

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2016-05-01

    Fentanyl buccal soluble film (Onsolis(®), Breakyl(®), Painkyl™) comprises two layers: a mucoadhesive layer containing the active drug, and an inactive layer with the aim of preventing the diffusion of fentanyl into the oral cavity. It is approved in several countries worldwide, including the USA and those of the EU, for the management of breakthrough cancer pain in opioid-tolerant, adult patients with cancer. This article reviews the pharmacological properties of fentanyl buccal soluble film and its clinical efficacy and tolerability in these patients. Fentanyl buccal soluble film provides an additional option for transmucosal delivery of fentanyl, with approximately half of the dose undergoing an initial, rapid absorption via the buccal mucosa (accounting for its high bioavailability). In clinical trials, fentanyl buccal soluble film was associated with significant improvements in pain intensity scores versus placebo and was generally well tolerated. The most common adverse events were typical opioid-associated adverse events, such as nausea and vomiting. Fentanyl buccal soluble film is a useful option for the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain in opioid-tolerant patients. PMID:27007271

  16. [One stage combined endoscopic and per-oral buccal fat pad approach for large oro-antral-fistula closure with secondary chronic maxillary sinusitis].

    PubMed

    Horowitz, G; Koren, I; Carmel, N N; Balaban, S; Abu-Ghanem, S; Fliss, D M; Kleinman, S; Reiser, V

    2015-07-01

    There are numerous surgical approaches for oro-antral-fistula (OAF) closure. Secondary sinus disease is still considered by many experts a relative contra indication for primary closure. To describe a single-stage combined endoscopic sinus surgery and per-oral buccal fat pad (BFP) flap approach for large OAF causing chronic maxillary sinusitis. The records of all the patients with OAF and chronic manifestations of secondary rhinosinusitis that were treated between 2010 and 2013 in our tertiary care medical center were reviewed. The exclusion criteria were: OAF 5 mm, resolved sino-nasal disease, OAF secondary to malignancy, recurrent fistula, medical history that included radiotherapy to the maxillary bone and age <18 years. Each procedure was performed by a team consisting of a rhinologist and a maxillofacial surgeon. The surgical approach included an endoscopic middle antrostomy with maxillary sinus drainage, and a per-oral BFP regional flap for OAF closure. Total OAF closure, complications and need for revision surgeries. Forty-five patients that underwent OAF closure together with sinus surgery using a combined endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and BFP flap approach met the inclusion criteria. There were 28 males and 17 females with a mean ± SD age of 53.5 ± 14.9 years (range 22-80 years). The presenting signs and symptoms included purulent rhinorrhea (n = 22, 48.9%), foreign body in sinus (n = 10, 22.2%) nasal congestion (n = 7, 15.5%), halitosis (n = 6, 13.3%) and pain (n = 5, 12.2%). Surgical complications included local pain (n = 2, 4.4%), persistent rhinitis (n = 2, 4.4%) and synechia (n = 1, 2.2%). One patient required revision surgery due, to an unresolved OAF. The OAF of all the other 44 patients (97.8%) was closed after the first procedure and the paranasal sinuses on the treated side were completely recovered. The mean follow-up time for the group was 7.6 ± 4.3 months (7-21 months), and no untoward sequelae or recurrence were reported. Combined, one

  17. One stage combined endoscopic and per-oral buccal fat pad approach for large oro-antral-fistula closure with secondary chronic maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Gilad; Koren, Ilan; Carmel, Narin Nard; Balaban, Sagi; Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Fliss, Dan M; Kleinman, Shlomi; Reiser, Vadim

    2016-04-01

    There are numerous surgical approaches for oro-antral-fistula (OAF) closure. Secondary sinus disease is still considered by many experts a relative contra indication for primary closure. To describe a single-stage combined endoscopic sinus surgery and per-oral buccal fat pad (BFP) flap approach for large OAF causing chronic maxillary sinusitis. The records of all the patients with OAF and chronic manifestations of secondary rhinosinusitis that were treated between 2010 and 2013 in our tertiary care medical center were reviewed. The exclusion criteria were: OAF ≤ 5 mm, resolved sino-nasal disease, OAF secondary to malignancy, recurrent fistula, medical history that included radiotherapy to the maxillary bone and age <18 years. Each procedure was performed by a team consisting of a rhinologist and a maxillofacial surgeon. The surgical approach included an endoscopic middle antrostomy with maxillary sinus drainage, and a per-oral BFP regional flap for OAF closure. Total OAF closure, complications and need for revision surgeries. Forty-five patients that underwent OAF closure together with sinus surgery using a combined endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and BFP flap approach met the inclusion criteria. There were 28 males and 17 females with a mean ± SD age of 53.5 ± 14.9 years (range 22-80 years). The presenting signs and symptoms included purulent rhinorrhea (n = 22, 48.9 %), foreign body in sinus (n = 10, 22.2 %) nasal congestion (n = 7, 15.5 %), halitosis (n = 6, 13.3 %) and pain (n = 5, 12.2 %). Surgical complications included local pain (n = 2, 4.4 %), persistent rhinitis (n = 2, 4.4 %) and synechia (n = 1, 2.2 %). One patient required revision surgery due to an unresolved OAF. The OAF of all the other 44 patients (97.8 %) was closed after the first procedure and the paranasal sinuses on the treated side were completely recovered. The mean follow-up time for the group was 7.6 ± 4.3 months (7-21 months), and no untoward

  18. Outcomes of Dorsal and Ventral Buccal Graft Urethroplasty at a Tertiary Hospital in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kaggwa, S.; Galukande, M.; Dabanja, H.; Luweesi, H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Although the use of buccal mucosa in substitution urethroplasty has been practiced for some years, it has not been free of controversy over which surgical technique is the most appropriate to use. There is paucity of data in Sub-Saharan Africa about its success; this study presents the outcomes of dorsal and ventral buccal graft urethroplasty at a sub-Saharan tertiary hospital. Methods. This is a prospective study in which buccal mucosa was used for ventral and dorsal grafts; followup was up to two years. All patients provided informed written consent for the procedures. Results. Seventy-two patients with bulbar urethral strictures underwent buccal graft one-stage urethroplasty. Mean age was 55 years; etiology of the strictures was postinflammatory due to urethritis from sexually transmitted infections 97% (70/72) and trauma 3% (2/72). Buccal mucosa grafts were harvested from the cheek using a two-team approach. Grafts were placed on the ventral and dorsal urethral surfaces in 32 and 40 cases, respectively; the success rate was 84 and 80%, respectively. Repeated urethroplasty was successfully done among 10% (7/72) and patients reported resolution of symptoms in the follow-up period. Conclusion. There was no difference between dorsal and ventral onlay buccal graft outcomes for bulbar urethral strictures. The success rate was 80 to 84%. PMID:24944835

  19. Primary colorectal lymphoma comprising both components of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma combined with cytomegalovirus colitis.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Ryo; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Motoyasu, Osawa; Murao, Takahisa; Ishii, Manabu; Fujita, Minoru; Tokunaga, Hirotoshi; Akiyama, Takashi; Wada, Hideho; Sugihara, Takashi; Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken

    2016-04-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented to our hospital with diarrhea and abdominal pain. The macroscopic findings of colonoscopy revealed multiple submucosal tumors and multiple ulcers, which were localized in the sigmoid colon, and diffuse granular mucosa which extended to the total colon. The pathological diagnosis was malignant lymphoma comprising both components of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, because the large lymphoma cells were CD20+, CD10-, and CD5-. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis of colorectal biopsy samples from multiple ulcers revealed cytomegalovirus (CMV)-positive cells. The patient was diagnosed with primary colorectal lymphoma comprising both components of DLBCL and MALT lymphoma combined with CMV colitis. She received anti-viral medication and chemotherapy. PMID:27015999

  20. Traumatic Herniation of the Buccal Fat Pad Into the Oral Cavity of a 3.5-Year-Old Boy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Kalpna; Singh, Chanchal; Shishodia, Manisha

    2016-05-01

    The buccal fat pad represents a specialized type of tissue that is distinct from subcutaneous fat. Its primary function is to serve as a cushioning tissue and as a sucking pad. In this case report, we present an interesting lesion and its management, wherein a tiny traumatic perforation of the buccal mucosa caused a large portion of the buccal fat pad to extrude into the oral cavity. PMID:27290824

  1. Increased human buccal cell autofluorescence is a candidate biomarker of tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Paszkiewicz, Geraldine M; Timm, Earl A; Mahoney, Martin C; Wallace, Paul K; Sullivan Nasca, Maureen A; Tammela, Tracey L; Hutson, Alan; Pauly, John L

    2008-01-01

    Human buccal cells display diverse changes that are associated with smoked and smokeless tobacco, and clinicopathologic studies have correlated human buccal cell changes with oral cancer. Reported herein are the results of studies that were undertaken to identify a high-throughput technology that would advance efforts to use human buccal cells. We report that (a) a relatively large (mean +/- SD, 2.1 +/- 1.4 x 10(5) cells) population of human buccal cells can be collected in a noninvasive manner with a toothbrush and purified (>98% human buccal cells; n = 138 samples of the oral mucosa; n = 69 donors); (b) despite their large size (diameter, approximately 65 microm), the human buccal cells were analyzed successfully with a single laser cytometer (FACScan) and an advanced multispectral cytometer (FACSAria) having three lasers (excitation = 488, 633, and 407 nm wavelengths) and nine distinct emission channels; (c) cytometry revealed that the buccal cells expressed a high level of autofluorescence that was displayed over a broad spectrum (450-780 nm wavelength); (d) autofluorescence of human buccal cells collected from the left and right cheek was consistent, illustrating the reproducibility of the sample collection and assay procedure; (e) human buccal cell autofluorescence differed significantly among 69 adult subjects; and (f) a statistical difference (P = 0.018) between current, former, and never smokers. Summarily, this report is thought to be the first to show the application of flow cytometry for assaying human buccal cells and identifies buccal cell autofluorescence as a candidate biomarker of tobacco smoking. PMID:18199730

  2. Mucoadhesive system formed by liquid crystals for buccal administration of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carla; Watanabe, Evandro; Borgheti-Cardoso, Livia Neves; De Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Lara, Marilisa Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial approaches are valuable in controlling the development of buccal diseases, but some antibacterial agents have a short duration of activity. Therefore, the development of prolonged delivery systems would be advantageous. Liquid crystalline systems comprising monoolein (GMO)/water have been considered to be a potential vehicle to deliver drugs to the buccal mucosa because of the phase properties that allow for controlled drug release as well as its mucoadhesive properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a GMO/water system for the slow release of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride (PHMB) on the buccal mucosa and test the properties of this system with regard to swelling, release profile, antimicrobial activity, and strength of mucoadhesion, with the overall goal of treating buccal infections. The tested systems were capable of modulating drug release, which is controlled by diffusion of the drug throughout the system. Furthermore, PHMB appeared to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the system and may synergistically act with the drug to promote antimicrobial activity against S. mutas and C. albicans, indicating that liquid crystals may be suitable for the administration of PHMB on the buccal mucosa. Therefore, this system could be proposed as a novel system for mucoadhesive drug delivery. PMID:25336429

  3. Liposomal buccal mucoadhesive film for improved delivery and permeation of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Abd El Azim, Heba; Nafee, Noha; Ramadan, Alyaa; Khalafallah, Nawal

    2015-07-01

    This study aims at improving the buccal delivery of vitamin B6 (VB6) as a model highly water-soluble, low permeable vitamin. Two main strategies were combined; first VB6 was entrapped in liposomes, which were then formulated as mucoadhesive film. Both plain and VB6-loaded liposomes (LPs) containing Lipoid S100 and propylene glycol (∼ 200 nm) were then incorporated into mucoadhesive film composed of SCMC and HPMC. Results showed prolonged release of VB6 (72.65%, T50% diss 105 min) after 6h from LP-film compared to control film containing free VB6 (96.37%, T50% diss 30 min). Mucoadhesion was assessed both ex vivo on chicken pouch and in vivo in human. Mucoadhesive force of 0.2N and residence time of 4.4h were recorded. Ex vivo permeation of VB6, across chicken pouch mucosa indicated increased permeation from LP-systems compared to corresponding controls. Interestingly, incorporation of the vesicles in mucoadhesive film reduced the flux by 36.89% relative to LP-dispersion. Meanwhile, both films provided faster initial permeation than the liquid forms. Correlating the cumulative percent permeated ex vivo with the cumulative percent released in vitro indicated that LPs retarded VB6 release but improved permeation. These promising results represent a step forward in the field of buccal delivery of water-soluble vitamins. PMID:25899288

  4. Enhanced transbuccal salmon calcitonin (sCT) delivery: effect of chemical enhancers and electrical assistance on in vitro sCT buccal permeation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dong-Ho; Chun, Kyeung-Hwa; Jeon, Sang-Ok; Kang, Jeong-Won; Lee, Sangkil

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates the combined effect of absorption enhancers and electrical assistance on transbuccal salmon calcitonin (sCT) delivery, using fresh swine buccal tissue. We placed 200 IU (40 μg/mL) of each sCT formulation--containing various concentrations of ethanol, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and sodium deoxyglycocholate (SDGC)--onto the donor part of a Franz diffusion cell. Then, 0.5 mA/cm(2) of fixed anodal current was applied alone or combined with chemical enhancers. The amount of permeated sCT was analyzed using an ELISA kit, and biophysical changes of the buccal mucosa were investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy, and hematoxylin-eosin staining methods were used to evaluate histological alteration of the buccal tissues. The flux (J(s)) of sCT increased with the addition of absorption enhancer groups, but it was significantly enhanced by the application of anodal iontophoresis (ITP). FT-IR study revealed that all groups caused an increase in lipid fluidity but only the groups containing SDGC showed statistically significant difference. Although the histological data of SDGC groups showed a possibility for tissue damage, the present enhancing methods appear to be safe. In conclusion, the combination of absorption enhancers and electrical assistance is a potential strategy for the enhancement of transbuccal sCT delivery. PMID:21683790

  5. Application of buccal fat pad-derived stem cells in combination with autogenous iliac bone graft in the treatment of maxillomandibular atrophy: a preliminary human study.

    PubMed

    Khojasteh, A; Sadeghi, N

    2016-07-01

    Stem cell therapy for the treatment of bone defects is an alternative or adjunct to autologous bone grafting. This study assessed the efficacy of buccal fat pad-derived stem cells (BFPSCs) with iliac bone block grafting for the treatment of extensive human alveolar ridge defects. Eight patients with extensive jaw atrophy were selected for this study. The jaws were reconstructed with non-vascularized anterior iliac crest bone blocks. Gaps between the blocks were filled with freeze-dried bone granules and covered with a collagen membrane. In the test group (n=4), these granules were seeded with BFPSCs. Cone beam computed tomography scans were used to assess the amount of new bone formed at six sites in each patient. Trephine biopsies of 2-mm were also taken from the graft site during implant placement for histomorphometric analysis. The mean bone width change at the graft site was greater in the test group than in the control group (3.94±1.62mm vs. 3.01±0.89mm). New bone formation was 65.32% in the test group versus 49.21% in the control group. The application of BFPSCs in conjunction with iliac bone block grafts may increase the amount of new bone formation and decrease secondary bone resorption in extensively atrophic jaws. PMID:26846793

  6. Development and evaluation of tamarind seed xyloglucan-based mucoadhesive buccal films of rizatriptan benzoate.

    PubMed

    Avachat, Amelia M; Gujar, Kishore N; Wagh, Kishor V

    2013-01-16

    Mucoadhesive buccal films were developed using tamarind seed xyloglucan (TSX) as novel mucoadhesive polysaccharide polymer for systemic delivery of rizatriptan benzoate through buccal route. Formulations were prepared based on 3(2) factorial design with concentrations of TSX and carbopol 934P (CP) as independent variables. Three dependent variables considered were tensile strength, bioadhesion force and drug release. DSC analysis revealed no interaction between drug and polymers. Ex vivo diffusion studies were carried out using Franz diffusion cell, while bioadhesive properties were evaluated using texture analyzer with porcine buccal mucosa as model tissue. Results revealed that bilayer film containing 4% (w/v) TSX and 0.5% (w/v) CP in the drug layer and 1% (w/v) ethyl cellulose in backing layer demonstrated diffusion of 93.45% through the porcine buccal mucosa. Thus, this study suggests that tamarind seed polysaccharide can act as a potential mucoadhesive polymer for buccal delivery of a highly soluble drug like rizatriptan benzoate. PMID:23121942

  7. The expression profile of filaggrin-2 in the normal and pathologic human oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Makino, Teruhiko; Mizawa, Megumi; Inoue, Sayaka; Noguchi, Makoto; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2016-04-01

    The epithelial cells of the oral cavity show a remarkable degree of regional variation with respect to their morphology and keratinization status. In the oral cavity, the tongue and palate contain keratinizing stratified epithelia, while the buccal mucosa contains non-keratinizing stratified epithelia. We herein examined the expression of filaggrin-2, a member of the S100 fused-type protein family, in the oral mucosa. Filaggrin-2 was weakly expressed in the normal epithelium of the palate, but not in the buccal mucosa or tongue, although filaggrin protein was observed in the epithelium of the buccal mucosa and the palate. We next examined the expression of filaggrin-2 in the oral mucosa of subjects with hyperkeratotic diseases. The expression of filaggrin-2 was markedly increased in the epithelium of the oral mucosa in patients with lichen planus, leukokeratosis and leukoplakia. Filaggrin-2 positivity was observed in granules, some of which were co-localized with those of filaggrin. These results indicate that filaggrin-2 was expressed in the oral mucosa under certain pathological conditions, demonstrating that an aberrant protein expression, together with filaggrin, indicates the altered differentiation program including hyperkeratosis that occurs in these diseases. PMID:26858109

  8. Crossed linguo-buccal reflex in post-stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Nagumo, K; Hirayama, K; Nakajima, Y; Takahashi, M

    2000-12-15

    A pathological crossed orofacial reflex, called crossed linguo-buccal reflex in the present study, was observed in approximately 1/3 of post-stroke patients with central facial palsy. Stroking with pressure two or three times with a split wooden tongue-blade to the tongue or palate contralateral to the central facial palsy elicited a reflex movement consisting of retraction of the angle of mouth and medio-posterior withdrawal of the buccal mucosa on the paretic side. Seventy-seven patients with central hemifacial palsy caused by a unilateral cerebral lesion were examined clinically, electromyographically and by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, three men with bilateral cerebral lesions and bilateral crossed linguo-buccal reflexes were electromyographically examined. Twenty-two patients with unilateral cerebral lesions had this reflex. It was found that this reflex was most frequently observed in patients with a capsulo-caudate lesion involving the head of the caudate nucleus, the anterior limb and genu of the internal capsule. The electromyogram of the reflex showed increased activity in the orbicularis oris, depressor anguli oris, risorius, zygomaticus major and buccinator muscles on the paretic side with a long latency (254-856 ms), and a prolonged after-discharge after the stimulation. Reciprocal inhibition was observed in patients with bilateral positive reflexes. These findings suggest that liberation of the polysynaptic brainstem reflex in the medulla oblongata and pons from the indirect corticobulbar inhibition may underlie the occurrence of the crossed linguo-buccal reflex in post-stroke patients. PMID:11102639

  9. Dirofilariasis Presenting as an Infiltrative Mass in the Right Buccal Space.

    PubMed

    Vélez-Pérez, Anneliese; Liang, Li; Syklawer, Erica; Chavez, Violeta; Zhang, Songlin; Wanger, Audrey

    2016-10-01

    Dirofilariasis is caused by filarial nematodes (roundworms) of the genus Dirofilaria Dirofilariasis of the oral mucosa is very rare. Herein, we report a case of a 79-year-old man who had a slowly growing infiltrative mass in the right buccal space. Histopathologic examination showed an inflammatory infiltrate with eosinophilia, histiocytes, and small organisms (0.2-0.3 mm). Digital images were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which identified the parasite as a nematode in the genus Dirofilaria It appeared to be dead and degenerating, but external, fine longitudinal cuticular ridges and the presence of tall muscle cells were diagnostic. Thus, Dirofilaria, despite its rarity, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumor-like lesions in the buccal mucosa. PMID:27305941

  10. Bulbar urethral stricture: How to optimise the use of buccal mucosal grafts.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jonathan N; Wisenbaugh, Eric S; Martins, Francisco E

    2016-06-01

    The use of buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty (BMGU) for bulbar urethral strictures has gained widespread popularity since the first report in 1996. Over the last two decades, there have been many modifications in the surgical technique. This, along with better understanding of urethral anatomy, has allowed the BMG to become the 'gold standard' in urethral substitution. The present article reviews the evolution and techniques of BMGU in order to answer the question - how do we optimise the use of BMGs? PMID:27489734

  11. Buccal Exostosis: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Medsinge, Sonali V; Kohad, Ramesh; Budhiraja, Harmeeta; Singh, Atamjeet; Gurha, Shradha; Sharma, Akash

    2015-01-01

    Buccal exostoses are broad-based, non-malignant surface growth occurring on the outer or facial surface of the maxilla and/or mandible, found usually in the premolar and molar region. Etiology is still not established, but it has been suggested that the bony overgrowth can be because of abnormally increased masticatory forces to the teeth. They tend to appear in early adolescence and may very slowly increase in size with time. They are painless, self-limiting and may increase patient concern about poor esthetics, inability to perform oral hygiene procedures, and compromised periodontal health by causing food lodgment. The following article presents a very rare case of bilateral buccal-sided maxillary exostoses and its management with surgical exploration. PMID:26028907

  12. Preparation and in-vivo evaluation of dimenhydrinate buccal mucoadhesive films with enhanced bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Yildiz Pekoz, Ayca; Sedef Erdal, Meryem; Okyar, Alper; Ocak, Meltem; Tekeli, Fatma; Kaptan, Engin; Sagirli, Olcay; Araman, Ahmet

    2016-06-01

    Dimenhydrinate (DMH)-loaded buccal bioadhesive films for the prevention and treatment of motion sickness were prepared and optimized. This study examines the rate of drug release from the films for prolonged periods of time to reduce or limit the frequency of DMH administration. Based on preliminary studies using various polymers and concentrations, hydroxyethylcellulose (2.5, 3.0, and 3.2%), and xanthan gum (2.8%) were chosen as matrix polymers. The films were analyzed with respect to their mechanical, physicochemical, bioadhesive, swelling, and in-vitro release properties. In in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies, xanthan gum-based DMH buccal film was associated with significantly increased DMH plasma levels between 1 h and 5 h after DMH dosing when compared with an oral drug solution. The area under the curve AUC0-7 h value of the mucoadhesive buccal film was two-fold higher than the oral DMH solution. Histological analysis revealed that DMH films cause mild morphological and inflammatory changes in rabbit buccal mucosa. The DMH buccal film is effective for approximately 7 h, thus representing an option for single-dose antiemetic therapy. This dosage regimen could be particularly beneficial for chain travelers who travel for long periods of time. PMID:26460061

  13. Genipin-crosslinked catechol-chitosan mucoadhesive hydrogels for buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinke; Strandman, Satu; Zhu, Julian X X; Barralet, Jake; Cerruti, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Drug administration via buccal mucosa is an attractive drug delivery strategy due to good patient compliance, prolonged localized drug effect, and avoidance of gastrointestinal drug metabolism and first-pass elimination. Buccal drug delivery systems need to maintain an intimate contact with the mucosa lining in the wet conditions of the oral cavity for long enough to allow drug release and absorption. For decades, mucoadhesive polymers such as chitosan (CS) and its derivatives have been explored to achieve this. In this study, inspired by the excellent wet adhesion of marine mussel adhesive protein, we developed a buccal drug delivery system using a novel catechol-functionalized CS (Cat-CS) hydrogel. We covalently bonded catechol functional groups to the backbone of CS, and crosslinked the polymer with a non-toxic crosslinker genipin (GP). We achieved two degrees of catechol conjugation (9% and 19%), forming Cat9-CS/GP and Cat19-CS/GP hydrogels, respectively. We confirmed covalent bond formation during the catechol functionalization and GP crosslinking during the gel formation. The gelation time and the mechanical properties of Cat-CS hydrogels are similar to those of CS only hydrogels. Catechol groups significantly enhanced mucoadhesion in vitro (7 out of the 10 Cat19-CS hydrogels were still in contact with porcine mucosal membrane after 6 h, whereas all of the CS hydrogels lost contact after 1.5 h). The new hydrogel systems sustained the release of lidocaine for about 3 h. In-vivo, we compared buccal patches made of Cat19-CS/GP and CS/GP adhered to rabbit buccal mucosa. We were able to detect lidocaine in the rabbit's serum at concentration about 1 ng/ml only from the Cat19-CS patch, most likely due to the intimate contact provided by mucoadhesive Cat19-CS/GP systems. No inflammation was observed on the buccal tissue in contact with any of the patches tested. These results show that the proposed catechol-modified CS hydrogel is a promising mucoadhesive and

  14. Age and the architecture of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Abu Eid, Rasha; Sawair, Faleh; Landini, Gabriel; Saku, Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Age changes affect the oral mucosa (the protective lining of the oral cavity), but few of these have been studied objectively. The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyse a number of morphometric parameters of the ageing oral mucosa. The fractal dimension of the epithelial connective tissue interface (ECTI) was estimated in 42 samples of normal buccal mucosa to correlate any changes in their irregularity to the age of the individuals. Morphometric parameters extracted from theoretical cell areas computed programatically were also analysed. Results showed no significant change in ECTI complexity associated with age; however, there was indication that epithelial cells tended to become larger and flatter with age. Interestingly, while some parameters did not show significant differences case wise, cluster analysis showed that the data clustered the cases into three main age groups: one representing the first two decades of life, another group represents adult life (21-50 years) and the last group representing the ageing population (50-90 years). PMID:21559867

  15. Traumatic herniation of the buccal fat pad.

    PubMed

    Iehara, Tomoko; Tomoyasu, Chihiro; Nakajima, Hisakazu; Osamura, Toshio; Hosoi, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic herniation of the buccal fat pad is a rare traumatic disease. Treatment consists of either excision or replacement. We herein report the first case in which a traumatic herniation of the buccal fat pad healed naturally. It was necessary to differentiate the disease from lipoblastoma. A 17-month-old boy was admitted to a clinic with an intraoral tumor that had suddenly increased in size. The tumor was diagnosed as herniation of the buccal fat pad on pathology of a biopsy specimen. In the present case, the escaped buccal fat body returned naturally and engrafted without dysfunction or facial defects. Given that young children may easily fall down with various objects in their mouth, care is required to prevent traumatic accidents. Traumatic herniation of the buccal fat pad should be considered in the differentiation of tumors of the oral cavity in young children. PMID:26892590

  16. The role of autofluorescence diagnostics in the diseases of oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosciarz-Grzesiok, A.; Waskowska, J.; Kawczyk-Krupka, A.; Ledwon, A.; Misiak, A.; Latos, W.; Koszowski, R.; Sieron-Stoltny, K.; Sieron, A.

    2008-02-01

    Introduction. Life induced fluorescence (LIFE) diagnostics can be used as an imaging system of precancerous and neoplastic lesions of the oral mucosa. Neoplastic lesions are visible in pseudo colours, healthy tissue in green colour and abnormal tissue in red colour. All the observed colours present different intensity. Colour intensity is relevant to the grade of dysplasia, carcinoma progress and is called Numerological Value of Color Index (NCV). The aim of our study was to find correlation between autofluorescence diagnostics combined with NCV assessment and histopathological findings of taken specimen biopsies. Patients and methods. 10 patients participated in our study. Lesions affected a variety of intraoral sites. The most common location was: buccal, gingival and mandibular mucosa. Patients were examined using Life Induced Fluorescence diagnosis (400 - 750 nm wavelength) with Numerological Value of Color index (NCV) using Onco LIFE system. Afterwards the specimen biopsies from the lesions were taken and histopathological examination was performed. Results. Different NCV and dependence of NCV on the histopathological findings were observed. Conclusion. Diagnostic procedures with the application of white-light imaging with LIFE imaging is not only a significantly faster method and a better diagnostic tool of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions, but there exist also correlations between measured NCV and histopathological diagnosis. The farther investigations are necessary in order to prove these preliminary findings.

  17. Epithelioid leiomyoma of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Koutlas, I G; Manivel, J C

    1996-12-01

    Oral leiomyomas are rare because of the paucity of smooth muscle in the mouth. The solid and vascular types are the most frequent variants. The purpose of this article is to present the pathologic features and differential diagnosis of an example of epithelioid leiomyoma. A 50-year-old woman presented with a small raised nonpainful polypoid lesion of unknown duration on the right buccal mucosa. The tumor was well demarcated and consisted of large epithelioid cells with distinct cytoplasmic borders, round to oval nuclei, and prominent nucleoli. A few mitoses (4 in 20 high power fields) were present. Scattered spindle cells were also seen. The cytoplasm was eosinophilic to amphophilic and showed frequent clearing and retraction. Small capillaries were identified and surrounded by neoplastic cells that gave the lesion an angiomyomatous appearance. Masson trichrome stain highlighted focally smooth muscle cells. Immunohistochemical evaluation revealed staining for vimentin, desmin, and muscle-specific actim. PMID:8974140

  18. S-glutathionylation of buccal cell proteins as biomarkers of exposure to hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Grek, Christina L.; Reyes, Leticia; Townsend, Danyelle M.; Tew, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exogenous or endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can lead to oxidation of cellular nucleophiles, particularly cysteines in proteins. Commercial mouthwashes containing H2O2 provide the opportunity to determine clinically whether changes in S-glutathionylation of susceptible proteins in buccal mucosa cells can be used as biomarkers of ROS exposure. Methods Using an exploratory clinical protocol, 18 disease-free volunteers rinsed with a mouthwash containing 1.5% H2O2 (442 mM) over four consecutive days. Exfoliated buccal cell samples were collected prior and post-treatment and proteomics were used to identify S-glutathionylated proteins. Results Four consecutive daily treatments with the H2O2-containing mouthwash induced significant dose and time-dependent increases in S-glutathionylation of buccal cell proteins, stable for at least 30 min following treatments. Elevated levels of S-glutathionylation were maintained with subsequent daily exposure. Increased S-glutathionylation preceded and correlated with transcriptional activation of ROS sensitive genes, such as ATF3, and with the presence of 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine. Data from a human buccal cell line TR146 were consistent with the trial results. We identified twelve proteins that were S-glutathionylated following H2O2 exposure. Conclusions Buccal cells can predict exposure to ROS through increased levels of S-glutathionylation of proteins. These post-translationally modified proteins serve as biomarkers for the effects of H2O2 in the oral cavity and in the future, may be adaptable as extrapolated pharmacodynamic biomarkers for assessing the impact of other systemic drugs that cause ROS and/or impact redox homeostasis. General significance S-glutathionylation of buccal cell proteins can be used as a quantitative measure of exposure to ROS. PMID:26673080

  19. Chromosomal Damage and Apoptosis in Exfoliated Buccal Cells from Individuals with Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dórea, Lavínia Tércia Magalhães; Meireles, José Roberto Cardoso; Lessa, Júlia Paula Ramos; Oliveira, Márcio Campos; de Bragança Pereira, Carlos Alberto; Polpo de Campos, Adriano; Cerqueira, Eneida de Moraes Macílio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate cytological abnormalities indicative of chromosome damage (micronuclei) and apoptosis (karyorrhexis, pyknosis, and condensed chromatin) in exfoliated cells from the buccal mucosa of patients with oral cancer and control subjects. The sample included twenty individuals with oral cancer and forty individuals with normal buccal mucosa. Material was collected from the cheek epithelium in areas with lesions and areas without abnormalities. A minimum of one thousand cells was analyzed. Micronuclei were found significantly more frequently in cells collected from lesions than in cells from normal areas, independent of the presence/absence of cancer (P < 0.0001). They were also significantly more frequent in smokers and in mouthwash users (P < 0.0001). Apoptosis occurred significantly less frequently in individuals with oral cancer (P < 0.0001). These results show that oral cancer is associated with higher frequency of chromosomal damage and suggest that apoptosis is compromised in the buccal cells of individuals with this kind of neoplasia. PMID:22315605

  20. Biomarkers of Alzheimer’s Disease Risk in Peripheral Tissues; Focus on Buccal Cells

    PubMed Central

    François, Maxime; Leifert, Wayne; Martins, Ralph; Thomas, Philip; Fenech, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative disorder of the brain and is the most common form of dementia. To-date no simple, inexpensive and minimally invasive procedure is available to confirm with certainty the early diagnosis of AD prior to the manifestations of symptoms characteristic of the disease. Therefore, if population screening of individuals is to be performed, more suitable, easily accessible tissues would need to be used for a diagnostic test that would identify those who exhibit cellular pathology indicative of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD risk so that they can be prioritized for primary prevention. This need for minimally invasive tests could be achieved by targeting surrogate tissues, since it is now well recognized that AD is not only a disorder restricted to pathology and biomarkers within the brain. Human buccal cells for instance are accessible in a minimally invasive manner, and exhibit cytological and nuclear morphologies that may be indicative of accelerated ageing or neurodegenerative disorders such as AD. However, to our knowledge there is no review available in the literature covering the biology of buccal cells and their applications in AD biomarker research. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize some of the main findings of biomarkers reported for AD in peripheral tissues, with a further focus on the rationale for the use of the buccal mucosa (BM) for biomarkers of AD and the evidence to date of changes exhibited in buccal cells with AD. PMID:24938500

  1. Characterization of the contribution of buccal absorption to internal exposure to bisphenol A through the diet.

    PubMed

    Guignard, Davy; Gauderat, Glenn; Gayrard, Véronique; Lacroix, Marlène Z; Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Puel, Sylvie; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Viguié, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    The gavage route is often used for the toxicological evaluation of food contaminants. This route does not take into account absorption of the toxicants through the buccal mucosa, as evidenced in dogs for bisphenol A (BPA). Our goal was to determine the functional significance of buccal BPA absorption during dietary exposure. Four ewes received BPA by nasogastric gavage (100 mg/kg) and through food pellets (10 mg/kg), 13 days apart. The time course of serum concentrations of BPA and its main metabolite BPA-G was submitted to non-compartmental analysis. The dietary route led to 3-fold higher bioavailability as compared to gavage. The ratio of BPA-G to BPA concentrations varied greatly over time after the food administration, but not after gavage, suggesting a delayed metabolism of BPA after dietary exposure. The maximum entrance rate of BPA in the systemic circulation, determined by deconvolution analysis, was much higher after dietary administration than after gavage and a biphasic pattern of BPA entry was observed in 3 of the 4 ewes. Our results evidenced a dual mechanism of BPA absorption (buccal and digestive) after dietary exposure and highlight the necessity to take buccal absorption into account when evaluating food contaminants. PMID:27090580

  2. Autofluorescence spectroscopy of oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, S. K.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    1998-06-01

    We report the results of an in-vitro study on autofluorescence from pathologically characterized normal and malignant squamous tissues from the oral cavity. The study involved biopsy samples from 47 patients with oral cancer of which 11 patients had cancer of tongue, 17 of buccal mucosa and 19 of alveolus. The results of excitation and emission spectroscopy at several wavelengths (280 nm less than or equal to (lambda) exless than or equal to 460 nm; 340 nm less than or equal to (lambda) em less than or equal to 520 nm) showed that at (lambda) ex equals 337 nm and 400 nm the mean value for the spectrally integrated fluorescence intensity [(Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) )] from the normal tissue sites was about a factor of 2 larger than that from the malignant tissue sites. At other excitation wavelengths the difference in (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) was not statistically significant. Similarly, for (lambda) em equals 390 nm and 460 nm, the intensity of the 340 nm band of the excitation spectra from normal tissues was observed to be a factor of 2 larger than that from malignant tissues. Analysis of these results suggests that NADH concentration is higher in normal oral tissues compared to the malignant. This contrasts with our earlier observation of an reduced NADH concentration in normal sites of breast tissues vis a vis malignant sites. For the 337 nm excited emission spectra a 10-variable MVLR score (using (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) and normalized intensities at nine wavelengths as input parameters) provided a sensitivity and specificity of 95.7% and 93.1% over the sample size investigated.

  3. Localization of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in hamster buccal pouch epithelium treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

    SciTech Connect

    Solt, D.B.

    1981-07-01

    The utility of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) was explored as a histochemical marker for chemical carcinogenesis in hamster buccal pouch mucosa. One or both buccal pouches of 18 noninbred male Syrian golden hamsters were treated topically with 0.5% 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in mineral oil over 16 weeks to produce numerous epithelial lesions at various stages of neoplastic development. Both buccal pouches of 4 control animals were similarly treated with mineral oil alone. GGT activity was not detectable in untreated pouches or pouches treated with mineral oil alone. With this technique, multiple discrete GGT-stained areas were visible in wholemounts prepared at 1 and 6 weeks after the final application of DMBA. The experimental results were consistent with the hypothesis that the early GGT-stained cell populations are preneoplastic in nature.

  4. Influence of additives on a thermosensitive hydrogel for buccal delivery of salbutamol: relation between micellization, gelation, mechanic and release properties.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ni; Dumortier, Gilles; Maury, Marc; Mignet, Nathalie; Boudy, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    Thermosensitive hydrogels developed for buccal delivery of salbutamol were prepared using poloxamer analogs (Kolliphor(®) P407/P188), xanthan gum (Satiaxane(®) UCX930) and NaCl. P188 increased gelation temperature (Tsol-gel) by 2.5-5°C, micellization temperature (<1°C) and gelation time by >3s. To obtain a suitable Tsol-gel at 28-34°C, P407 and P188 concentrations were set to 18-19% and 1%. NaCl reduced Tsol-gel (>2°C) out of the optimal range. Six formulations containing 0.05-0.1% Satiaxane(®) fulfilled the temperature criteria. Concerning the gel strength, 1% P188 had no significant effect, NaCl increased it at 20°C, and Satiaxane(®) enhanced it at 20°C and 37°C. The release study using membrane-less (to mimic oral cavity) and membrane (to mimic buccal mucosa side) methods allowed a complete investigation showing that erosion and diffusion both contributed to the drug release but differed according to the formulation. In the membraneless method, simple P407 formulations had weak ability to retain salbutamol (T80=35 min). P188 accelerated drug release. NaCl accelerated release in the membraneless method by 5-11 min but slightly reduced it in the membrane method. The hydrogels containing Satiaxane(®) exhibited the slowest release. In the membrane method, combination of P407/P188/Satiaxane(®) provided a sustained diffusion with a burst effect (T25=9.6 min, T80=97.8 min), which provides potential clinical interests. PMID:24699353

  5. Evaluation of Cytological Alterations of Oral Mucosa in Smokers and Waterpipe Users

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Safoura; Feizi, Farideh; Mehdizadeh, Mohammad; Khafri, Soraya; Ahmadi, Behrang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Oral mucosal epithelia of smokers and waterpipe users are more susceptible to malignant alterations. The aim of this study was morphometric evaluation of the effects of using waterpipe on normal oral mucosa. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study, cytologic smear samples from the following three different areas: buccal mucosa, lateral surface of the tongue, and floor of the mouth (right) were taken from 40 smokers, 40 waterpipe users, and 40 normal individuals. They were then stained using Papanicolaou staining technique. Quantitative cytologic alterations such as nuclear and cytoplasmic size, nuclear-cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio, Feret ratio (FR), percent of karriorhexis, vacuolization of cytoplasm, two or multilobed nuclei, inflammation, and candida were evaluated. Quantitative evaluation was performed using MoticPlus 2 software, and 50 cells in each slide were studied. Practitioners were matched with age and sex in three groups. Results: An increase in nuclear size, the N/C ratio, and F.R, while a decrease in cytoplasm size were observed in lateral surface of the tongue, buccal mucosa and floor of the mouth of smokers, waterpipe users and normal individuals, respectively (p≤0.001). No statistically significant differences were observed in percent of karriorhexis, vacuolization of cytoplasm, and two or multilobed nuclei in oral mucosa of smokers, waterpipe users (p=0.8), and normal individuals (p=0.9) in buccal mucosa, tongue, and mouth floor areas. However, the percentage of inflammation and candida in smokers (p<0.001) and waterpipe users (p=0.002) were higher than normal individuals. Conclusion: Smoking and using waterpipe are effective in creating some quantitative cytometric alterations in oral mucosa; however, smoking shows greater effect in the cytometric alterations than using waterpipe. Role of cytology in screening and detection of oral mucosa malignancies in smokers and waterpipe users needs further studies. PMID:24381854

  6. Rare carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal minor salivary gland causing a therapeutic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kini, Yogesh; Desai, Chirag; Mahindra, Uma; Kalburge, Jitendra

    2012-04-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA), as a group, constitutes 12% of malignant salivary gland tumors. We present a case of CXPA of the buccal mucosa in a 17-year-old patient. The buccal mass was of a size of 3.0 cm located in the right cheek. Pleomorphic adenoma was the provisional diagnosis. The tumor was excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological evaluation revealed a pre-existing pleomorphic adenoma. However, on magnification, certain areas showed islands of dysplastic epithelial cells' invading the fibrous capsule and CXPA was diagnosed. The patient was recalled and secondary surgery of the site performed. No tumor tissue could be detected in the secondary resection specimen. There is no sign of recurrence since 2 years. PMID:22919226

  7. Morphologic and cytomorphometric analysis of exfoliated buccal mucosal cells in diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, H; Ramesh, V; Balamurali, PD

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is now known that the disease process of diabetes has effects on various tissues of the body. The following study was done to analyze the effects of diabetes on oral tissues. Aims: To study the morphology and cytomorphometry of the cells obtained in cytologic smears from the buccal mucosa of diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Smears were obtained from clinically normal buccal mucosa of 50 randomly selected diabetic patients attending the diabetic clinic and the out-patient department and of five healthy subjects as control. Smears were stained using Papanicolaou method, and using a micrometer mean values of nuclear diameter (ND), cell diameter (CD), cytoplasmic diameter (CyD) and nucleus: cytoplasm ratio (N: C ratio) were obtained for each patient. Diabetic patients were divided into four groups based on the glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) values for comparison. Statistical analysis used: Student’s T-test and Fisher’s F-test. Results: Statistically significant increase in ND (P=0.0367) was found in diabetic patients compared to controls. Degree of glycemic control significantly affected ND (P=0.0042) and N: C ratio (P=0.0055). In general, as the severity of diabetes increases, ND and N: C ratio rise gradually. Conclusions: Diabetes produces definite morphologic and cytomorphometric changes in the buccal mucosa of patients. However, further research in this direction is indicated, to analyze the significance of these findings as a tool for diabetes detection, as well as to obtain deeper insights into its effects on various tissues. PMID:21157560

  8. Buccal capnometry for quantitating the severity of hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Cammarata, Gianluca A A M; Weil, Max Harry; Castillo, Carlos J; Fries, Michael; Wang, Hao; Sun, Shijie; Tang, Wanchun

    2009-02-01

    We have recently demonstrated that measurement of buccal mucosal PCO2 (PBUCO2) is a reliable alternative to sublingual mucosal PCO2 for measuring the severity of hemorrhagic shock. We hypothesized that measurement of PBUCO2 would serve as a continuous and a more sensitive and specific measurement for predicting survival during hemorrhagic shock than conventional measurements and thereby better guide initial management. Four groups of five pentobarbital anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to be bled over 30 min in amounts estimated to be 25%, 30%, 35%, or 40% of total blood volume. With an optical PCO2 sensor applied noninvasively to the mucosa of the left inner cheek, PBUCO2 was continuously measured together with arterial pressure, end-tidal PCO2, and intermittent measurement of cardiac output, arterial blood lactate, and base deficit. Surviving animals had free access to water and food but no other treatment during the 72-h interval after recovery from anesthesia. After an estimated 40% blood loss, all animals died within 1 h. In the remaining animals, arterial pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide, cardiac index, blood lactate, and base deficit each failed to discriminate among animals with 35%, 30%, and 25% acute blood losses. This contrasted with PBUCO2, which discriminated between the magnitude of massive blood loss and untreated survival. Buccal mucosal PCO2 was predictive of outcome after rapid bleeding when compared with arterial pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide, cardiac index, arterial blood lactate, and base deficit. This measurement is therefore likely to serve as a useful guide for the immediate management of hemorrhagic shock. PMID:18520703

  9. Origin of primary sensory neurons innervating the buccal stretch receptor.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Onozuka, M; Nagasaki, S; Watanabe, K; Ozono, S

    1999-01-01

    The primary sensory neurons innervating mechanoreceptors in oro-facial regions have their cell bodies in either the trigeminal ganglion or the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. The buccal stretch receptor (BSR), a type of mechanoreceptor in the jaw of rodents, has recently been recognized as signaling the position of the mandible. The location of the primary afferent neurons innervating this receptor is unknown. To investigate the cell bodies of the BSR afferent neurons in rats, we applied wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) to the proximal stump of the severed nerve branch of the buccal nerve that supplied the BSR. HRP-labeled cell bodies were observed in the posterolateral portion of the ipsilateral trigeminal ganglion. None was found in the contralateral trigeminal ganglion or in the brainstem. All labeled cell bodies were oval or round and closely resembled pseudo-unipolar neurons. The mean diameter of the labeled somata ranged between 25.5 and 52.5 microm, with small (< or = 30 microm), medium (from 31 to 40 microm), and large somata (> or = 41 microm) accounting for 8.8%, 54.9%, and 36.3%, respectively. Among the myelinated nerve fibers in the branch in which WGA-HRP was applied, 78.5% terminated in the BSR and had larger fiber diameters than the rest, indicating that most of the medium and large HRP-labeled cell bodies were BSR afferents. From these results and the ontogenetic origin of this receptor, it is suggested that the BSR differentiated from the mechanoreceptors in the oral mucosa or the fascia of masticatory muscles. PMID:10065945

  10. Evaluation of different pig oral mucosa sites as permeability barrier models for drug permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Franz-Montan, Michelle; Serpe, Luciano; Martinelli, Claudia Cristina Maia; da Silva, Camila Batista; Santos, Cleiton Pita Dos; Novaes, Pedro Duarte; Volpato, Maria Cristina; de Paula, Eneida; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of preparation and storage conditions on the histology and permeability of different parts of porcine oral mucosa used for in vitro studies of transbuccal formulations. Fresh and frozen (-20°C and -80°C, with or without cryoprotectant) epithelia of porcine palatal, gingival, dorsum of the tongue, and buccal mucosa were submitted for histological analyses to determine the effects of storage conditions on barrier integrity. Permeation of lidocaine hydrochloride (used as a hydrophilic model drug) across fresh and previously frozen oral epithelium was measured in order to evaluate the barrier function. Histological evaluation demonstrated that the oral epithelium was successfully separated from the connective tissue, except for gingival mucosa. After storage under different conditions, all tissues presented desquamation of superficial layers and spherical spaces induced by the freezing process. The permeability of lidocaine hydrochloride varied among the fresh oral mucosa and generally increased after freezing. In conclusion, fresh epithelium from the buccal and dorsum of the tongue mucosa should be used for in vitro studies investigating hydrophilic drug transport when these are the desired clinical application sites. However, when the palate is the target site, both fresh and frozen (for up to 4weeks, without addition of cryoprotectant) samples could be used. The addition of glycerol as a cryoprotectant should be avoided due to increased lidocaine hydrochloride permeability. PMID:26435216

  11. Tissue reactions to suture materials in the oral mucosa of beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Shin, Seung-Il; Herr, Yeek; Park, Joon-Bong; Kwon, Young-Hyuk

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to compare and evaluate the inflammatory responses of three widely used suture materials in the keratinized gingiva and buccal mucosa of beagle dogs. Methods Silk, polyglycolic acid, and nylon sutures were placed within the mandibular keratinized gingiva and maxillary buccal mucosa of four male beagle dogs. Biopsies were taken 3, 7, and 14 days after suturing. Specimens were prepared with hematoxylin-eosin stain for evaluation under a light microscope. Results The suture materials placed in the oral mucosa elicited more inflammatory reactions than did those placed in the keratinized gingiva. The multifilament suture materials caused more inflammatory tissue reactions than did the monofilament suture materials in the oral mucosa. Conclusions If oral hygiene is well maintained and suture materials are placed in the keratinized gingiva, silk, nylon, and polyglycolic acid are considered to be proper suture materials for oral surgery. However, it is advisable to use monofilament suture materials if the suture site is within the oral mucosa. PMID:21954423

  12. Transmucosal sustained-delivery of chlorpheniramine maleate in rabbits using a novel, natural mucoadhesive gum as an excipient in buccal tablets.

    PubMed

    Alur, H H; Pather, S I; Mitra, A K; Johnston, T P

    1999-10-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the gum from Hakea gibbosa (Hakea) as a sustained-release and mucoadhesive component in buccal tablets following their application to the buccal mucosa of rabbits. Flat-faced core tablets containing either 22 or 32 mg of Hakea and 40 or 25 mg of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) per tablet with either sodium bicarbonate or tartaric acid in a 1:1.5 molar ratio were formulated using a direct compression technique and were coated with Cutina(R) on all but one face. The resulting plasma CPM concentration versus time profiles were determined following buccal application of the tablets in rabbits. The strength of mucoadhesion of the tablets was also quantitated in terms of the force of detachment as a function of time. Following the application of the mucoadhesive buccal tablets, the following values for several pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained. The force of detachment for the mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing 22 mg of Hakea and either 25 and 40 mg CPM, and 32 mg Hakea and 40 mg CPM increased from 1.64+/-0.47 to 7.32+/-0.34 N, 1.67+/-0.30 to 7.21+/-0.36 N, and 2.93+/-0.73 to 7.92+/-0.60 N, respectively from 5 to 90 min following application to excised intestinal mucosa. Addition of either sodium bicarbonate or tartaric acid, as well as higher amounts of CPM, did not affect the mucoadhesive bond strength. These results demonstrate that the novel, natural gum, H. gibbosa, may not only be used to sustain the release of CPM from a unidirectional-release buccal tablet, but also demonstrate that the tablets are sufficiently mucoadhesive for clinical application. The mucoadhesive strength as measured by the force of detachment, can be modulated by altering the amount of Hakea in the tablet. The mucoadhesive buccal tablets evaluated represent an improved transbuccal delivery system for conventional drug substances. PMID:10528077

  13. Buccal mucosal delivery of a potent peptide leads to therapeutically-relevant plasma concentrations for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Boyd, Ben J; White, Paul J; Pennington, Michael W; Norton, Raymond S; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2015-02-10

    Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin (ShK) is an immunomodulatory peptide currently under development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis by parenteral administration. To overcome the low patient compliance of conventional self-injections, we have investigated the potential of the buccal mucosa as an alternative delivery route for ShK both in vitro and in vivo. After application of fluorescent 5-Fam-ShK to untreated porcine buccal mucosa, there was no detectable peptide in the receptor chamber using an in vitro Ussing chamber model. However, the addition of the surfactants sodium taurodeoxycholate hydrate or cetrimide, and formulation of ShK in a chitosan mucoadhesive gel, led to 0.05-0.13% and 1.1% of the applied dose, respectively, appearing in the receptor chamber over 5h. Moreover, confocal microscopic studies demonstrated significantly enhanced buccal mucosal retention of the peptide (measured by mucosal fluorescence associated with 5-Fam-ShK) when enhancement strategies were employed. Administration of 5-Fam-ShK to mice (10mg/kg in a mucoadhesive chitosan-based gel (3%, w/v) with or without cetrimide (5%, w/w)) resulted in average plasma concentrations of 2.6-16.2nM between 2 and 6h, which were substantially higher than the pM concentrations required for therapeutic activity. This study demonstrated that the buccal mucosa is a promising administration route for the systemic delivery of ShK for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25482338

  14. The bacterial microbiota in the oral mucosa of rural Amerindians.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Monica; Costello, Elizabeth K; Hidalgo, Glida; Magris, Magda; Knight, Rob; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2010-11-01

    The oral microbiota plays an important role in buccal health and in diseases such as periodontitis and meningitis. The study of the human oral bacteria has so far focused on subjects from Western societies, while little is known about subjects from isolated communities. This work determined the composition of the oral mucosa microbiota from six Amazon Amerindians, and tested a sample preservation alternative to freezing. Paired oral swabs were taken from six adults of Guahibo ethnicity living in the community of Platanillal, Amazonas State, Venezuela. Replicate swabs were preserved in liquid nitrogen and in Aware Messenger fluid (Calypte). Buccal DNA was extracted, and the V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and pyrosequenced. A total of 17 214 oral bacterial sequences were obtained from the six subjects; these were binned into 1034 OTUs from 10 phyla, 30 families and 51 genera. The oral mucosa was highly dominated by four phyla: Firmicutes (mostly the genera Streptococcus and Veillonella), Proteobacteria (mostly Neisseria), Bacterioidetes (Prevotella) and Actinobacteria (Micrococcineae). Although the microbiota were similar at the phylum level, the Amerindians shared only 62 % of the families and 23 % of the genera with non-Amerindians from previous studies, and had a lower richness of genera (51 vs 177 reported in non-Amerindians). The Amerindians carried unidentified members of the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and their microbiota included soil bacteria Gp1 (Acidobacteriaceae) and Xylanibacter (Prevotellaceae), and the rare genus Phocoenobacter (Pasteurellaceae). Preserving buccal swabs in the Aware Messenger oral fluid collection device substantially altered the bacterial composition in comparison to freezing, and therefore this method cannot be used to preserve samples for the study of microbial communities. PMID:20847007

  15. Buccal capnometry to guide management of massive blood loss.

    PubMed

    Cammarata, Gianluca A A M; Weil, Max Harry; Fries, Michael; Tang, Wanchun; Sun, Shijie; Castillo, Carlos J

    2006-01-01

    In both clinical and experimental settings, tissue P(CO2) measured in the oral mucosa is a practical and reliable measurement of the severity of hypoperfusion. We hypothesized that a threshold level of buccal tissue P(CO2) (P(CO2) BU)) would prognosticate the effects of volume repletion on survival. Twenty pentobarbital-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley male breeder rats, each weighing approximately 0.5 kg, were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Animals were bled over an interval of 30 min in amounts estimated to be 25, 30, 35, or 40% of total blood volume. One-half hour after the completion of bleeding, each animal received an infusion of Ringer lactate solution over the ensuing 30 min in amounts equivalent to two times the volume of blood loss. P(CO2) BU) was measured continuously with an optical P(CO2) sensor applied noninvasively to the mucosa of the left cheek. Arterial pressure and end-tidal CO2 were measured over the same interval. Neurological deficit and 72-h survival were recorded. Aortic pressures were restored to near baseline values for each of the four groups after fluid resuscitation. This contrasted with the improvement of P(CO2) BU), which differentiated between animals with short and long durations of postintervention survival. After electrolyte fluid resuscitation in rats subjected to rapid bleeding, noninvasive measurement of P(CO2) BU) was predictive of outcomes. Neither noninvasive end-tidal P(CO2) nor invasive aortic pressure measurements achieved such discrimination. Accordingly, P(CO2) BU) fulfills the criterion of a noninvasive and reliable measurement to guide fluid management of hemorrhagic shock. PMID:16141375

  16. Composite HPMC and sodium alginate based buccal formulations for nicotine replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Obinna C; Boateng, Joshua S

    2016-10-01

    Smoking cessation is of current topical interest due to the significant negative health and economic impact in many countries. This study aimed to develop buccal films and wafers comprising HPMC and sodium alginate (SA) for potential use in nicotine replacement therapy via the buccal mucosa, as a cheap but effective alternative to currently used nicotine patch and chewing gum. The formulations were characterised using texture analyser (tensile and hardness, mucoadhesion), scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and swelling capacity. Drug loaded films and wafers were characterised for content uniformity (HPLC) whilst the drug loaded wafers only were further characterised for in vitro drug dissolution. SA modified and improved the functional properties of HPMC at optimum ratio of HPMC: SA of 1.25: 0.75. Generally, both films and wafers (blank and drug loaded) were amorphous in nature which impacted on swelling and mucoadhesive performance. HPMC-SA composite wafers showed a porous internal morphology with higher mucoadhesion, swelling index and drug loading capacity compared to the HPMC-SA composite films which were non-porous. The study demonstrates the potential use of composite HPMC-SA wafers in the buccal delivery nicotine. PMID:27222284

  17. Preparation of fluconazole buccal tablet and influence of formulation expedients on its properties.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saifulla P; Muzzammil, Shariff; Pramod, Kumar T M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of present study was to prepare buccal tablets of fluconazole for oral candidiasis. The dosage forms were designed to release the drug above the minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration and to overcome the side effects of systemic treatment. The buccal tablets were prepared by using Carbopol 71G and Noveon AA-1 by direct compression method. Microcrystalline cellulose was used as the filler and its effect was also studied. The prepared dosage forms were evaluated for physicochemical properties, in vitro release studies and mucoadhesive properties using sheep buccal mucosa as a model tissue. Tablets containing 50% of polymers (Carbopol & Noveon) were found to be the best with moderate swelling along with favorable bioadhesion force, residence time and in vitro drug release. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that drug released for 8 h, which in turn may reduce dosing frequency and improved patient compliance in oral candidiasis patients. PMID:21748974

  18. Radiation tolerance of the vaginal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hintz, b.L.; Kagan, A.R.; Chan, P.; Gilbert, H.A.; Nussbaum, H.; Rao, A.R.; Wollin, M.

    1980-06-01

    Sixteen patients with cancer of the vagina that were controlled locally for a minimum of eighteen months after teletherpay (T) or brachytherapy (B) or both (T and B), were analyzed for radiation tolerance of the vaginal mucosa. The site of vaginal necrosis did not always coincide with the site of the tumor. The posterior wall appeared more vulnerable than the anterior or lateral walls. For the distal vaginal mucosa, necrosis requiring surgical intervention occurred following combined T and B, if summated rad exceeded9800. The upper vagina tolerated higher dosages. No patient surgery for upper vaginal necrosis even though summated (T and B) dosage up to 14,000 rad was applied. Placing radioactive needles on the surface of the vaginal cylinder with or without interstitial perincal needles should be avoided. Further accumulation of data is needed to define these vaginal mucosa tolerance limits more closely.

  19. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  20. Biomechanics of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure-pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  1. Acid-induced increase in electrical conductance of guinea pig duodenal mucosa in vitro. Temporary protection by combined effects of bicarbonate and prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Macherey, H J; Petersen, K U

    1991-03-01

    Electrical conductance as a sensitive indicator of acid damage has been investigated in guinea pig duodenal mucosa using Ussing-chamber techniques. Reductions of luminal pH from 7.4 to 3.0, 2.3, or 2.0 caused concentration-dependent, progressive increases in conductance, accompanied (pH 2.0) by a continuous increase in hydrogen permeation as determined by pH-stat titration. Increases in conductance and hydrogen flux were related to base-line conductance, with higher values conditioning for a sooner onset and/or more marked elevation. Conductance increases were prevented by timely back titration. Recently, it has been shown that serosal HCO3 reduces conductance by actions dependent on prostaglandins and serosal Na and sensitive to loop diuretics. Here, serosal HCO3 delayed the onset of acid-induced conductance increase by approximately 8 minutes, an effect reduced by omission of serosal Na and during exposure to serosal furosemide (10(-3) mol/L). In the presence of serosal indomethacin (10(-4) mol/L) and HCO3, prostaglandin E2 (10(-6) mol/L serosal bath) delayed the conductance increase. Because HCO3 secretion is negligible in this model, these results indicate effects of HCO3/prostaglandin E2 beyond mere buffering of invading hydrogen. These results are consistent with intracellular actions that tighten the paracellular pathway against acid and thus provide temporary protection from acid injury. In agreement with this view, HCO3 also limited conductance increases after luminal alkalinization by a furosemide-sensitive action. PMID:1993487

  2. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of glibenclamide slow release mucoadhesive buccal film

    PubMed Central

    Bahri-Najafi, R.; Tavakoli, N.; Senemar, M.; Peikanpour, M.

    2014-01-01

    Buccal mucoadhesive systems among novel drug delivery systems have attracted great attention in recent years due to their ability to adhere and remain on the oral mucosa and to release their drug content gradually. Buccal mucoadhesive films can improve the drug therapeutic effect by enhancement of drug absorption through oral mucosa increasing the drug bioavailability via reducing the hepatic first pass effect. The aim of the current study was to formulate the drug as buccal bioadhesive film, which releases the drug at sufficient concentration with a sustain manner reducing the frequency of the dosage form administration. One of the advantagees of this formulation is better patient compliances due to the ease of administration with no water to swallow the product. The mucoadhesive films of glibenclamide were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K4M, K15M and Eudragit RL100 polymers and propylene glycol as plasticizer and co-solvent. Films were prepared using solvent casting method, and were evaluated with regard to drug content, thickness, weight variations, swelling index, tensile strength, ex vivo adhesion force and percentage of in vitro drug release. Films with high concentrations of HPMC K4M and K15M did not have favorable appearance and uniformity. The formulations prepared from Eudragit were transparent, uniform, flexible, and without bubble. The highest and the lowest percentages of swelling were observed for the films containing HPMC K15M and Eudragit RL100, respectively. Films made of HPMC K15M had adhesion force higher than those containing Eudragit RL100. Formulations with Eudragit RL100 showed the highest mean dissolution time (MDT). Drug release kinetics of all formulations followed Higuchi's model and the mechanism of diffusion was considered non-Fickian type. It was concluded that formulations containing Eudragit RL100 were more favorable than others with regard to uniformity, flexibility, rate and percentage of drug release. PMID

  3. Hemangioma of the buccal fat pad

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Ali; Saadat, Sarang; Moshiri, Roya; Shahmirzadi, Solaleh

    2014-01-01

    Hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood vessels. Buccal fat pad (BFP) is a rare place for hemangioma. In this report, clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings are described in a rare case of hemangioma with phleboliths involving the BFP, and a review is made of the international literature on this subject. PMID:24963256

  4. Evaluation of a novel, natural oligosaccharide gum as a sustained-release and mucoadhesive component of calcitonin buccal tablets.

    PubMed

    Alur, H H; Beal, J D; Pather, S I; Mitra, A K; Johnston, T P

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the gum from Hakea gibbosa (hakea) as a sustained-release and mucoadhesive component in buccal tablets for a model peptide, namely, salmon calcitonin. Flat-faced core tablets containing either 12 or 32 mg of hakea and 40 microg (200 IU) of salmon calcitonin (sCT) per tablet were formulated using a direct compression technique and were coated with Cutina on all but one face. The in vitro release profiles were sigmoidal in nature and according to a mathematical model indicated super Case II transport as the primary mechanism of release. The resulting plasma sCT and calcium concentrations were determined following both intravenous administration and buccal application of mucoadhesive tablets in rabbits. Following intravenous administration, the mean values determined for t(1/2) (alpha), t(1/2) (beta), V(d), and CL for sCT were 0.76 +/- 0.06 min, 67 +/- 18 min, 1484 +/- 454 mL/kg, and 19 +/- 2 mL/min.kg, respectively. Following the application of the mucoadhesive buccal tablets which contained 40 microg of sCT and either 12 or 32 mg of hakea, the calculated apparent bioavailability (F) and clearance (CL) were 37 +/- 6% and 19 +/- 3.3 mL/min.kg and 16 +/- 8% and 18 +/- 0.4 mL/min. kg, respectively. Serum calcium concentrations indicated that biologically active sCT was delivered across the rabbit buccal mucosa. The strength of mucoadhesion of the tablets was also quantitated in terms of the force of detachment as a function of time. The force of detachment for the mucoadhesive buccal tablets containing either 12 or 32 mg of hakea and 40 microg of sCT increased from 4.47 +/- 0.68 to 8.41 +/- 1.0 N and 8.23 +/- 1.62 to 14.98 +/- 1.63 N, respectively, from 5 to 90 min following application to excised rabbit intestinal mucosa. These results demonstrate that the novel, natural gum from Hakea gibbosa may be used to sustain the release of sCT from a unidirectional-release buccal tablet. The mechanism of in vitro release is likely to

  5. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in human buccal mucosal tissue and cell cultures. Complex mixtures related to habitual use of tobacco and betel quid inhibit the activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Egyhazi, S; Hansson, J; Bhide, S V; Kulkarni, P S; Grafström, R C

    1997-10-01

    Extracts prepared from tissue specimens of normal, non-tumourous human buccal mucosa, and cultured buccal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, exhibited O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity by catalysing the repair of the premutagenic O6-methylguanine lesion in isolated DNA with rates of 0.2 to 0.3 pmol/mg protein. An SV40 T antigen-immortalized buccal epithelial cell line termed SVpgC2a and a buccal squamous carcinoma line termed SqCC/Y1, both of which lack normal tumour suppressor gene p53 function, exhibited about 50 and 10% of the MGMT activity of normal cells, respectively. The normal, experimentally transformed and tumourous buccal cell types showed MGMT mRNA levels which correlated with their respective levels of MGMT activity. Exposure of buccal cell cultures to various organic or water-based extracts of products related to the use of tobacco and betel quid, decreased both cell survival (measured by reduction of tetrazolium dye) and MGMT activity (measured subsequently to the exposures in cellular extracts). Organic extracts of bidi smoke condensate and betel leaf showed higher potency than those of tobacco and snuff. An aqueous snuff extract also decreased both parameters, whereas an aqueous areca nut extract was without effect. The well-established sulph-hydryl-reactive agent Hg2+, a corrosion product of dental amalgam, served as a positive control and decreased MGMT activity following treatment of cells within a range of 1-10 microM. Taken together, significant MGMT activities were demonstrated in buccal tissue specimens and in the major buccal mucosal cell types in vitro. Lower than normal MGMT activity in two transformed buccal epithelial cell lines correlated with decreased MGMT mRNA and lack of functional p53. Finally, in vitro experiments suggested the potential inhibition of buccal mucosal MGMT activity by complex mixtures present in the saliva of tobacco and betel nut chewers. PMID:9363996

  6. Single stage ventral onlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for navicular fossa strictures

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Puskar Shyam; Nayak, Prasant; Mallick, Sujata; Gurumurthy, Srinivasan; David, Deepak; Mossadeq, A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The correction of fossa navicularis strictures poses a distinct reconstructive challenge as it requires attention to cosmesis, in addition to urethral patency. Different graft and flap based repairs have been described with variable success rates. However, the ideal management remains unclear. The feasibility and efficacy of a single stage ventral onlay buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty (VOBMGU) for navicular fossa strictures (NFS) was evaluated in the present study. Subjects and Methods: All patients with NFS attending urology out-patient department from March, 2009 onward accepting VOBMGU were evaluated prospectively. Patients with minimum 1 year of follow-up were included for analysis. The technique involves opening the diseased stenosed meatus ventrally up to the corona. The diseased mucosa is excised leaving a midline strip of native urethral mucosa on the dorsal side. The buccal mucosal graft (BMG) is fixed on either side of this strip over a 24 Fr. silicone catheter. The glans wings are apposed in midline taking anchoring bites on the mucosal graft ventrally. Post-operatively patients were reviewed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and annually thereafter. Cosmetic acceptance and splaying of the urinary stream was assessed with individual questionnaires. Results: A total of six patients underwent VOBMGU. Average flow rate at 3 months post-operatively was 12 ml/s. The end result was cosmetically highly acceptable. There was no fistula in any of the cases. With a median follow-up of 37 months, only one patient had a recurrence of stricture in a proximal site. Conclusions: VOBMGU is a viable technique for reconstruction of NFS with promising short term results. However, long-term follow-up is necessary. PMID:24497676

  7. Do you mind if I vape? Immediate effects of electronic cigarettes on perfusion in buccal mucosal tissue - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Reuther, William J; Hale, Beverley; Matharu, Jas; Blythe, John N; Brennan, Peter A

    2016-04-01

    The association between smoking and postoperative complications is compounded in patients who have oral and maxillofacial operations by an additional local effect, and patients often continue to smoke after operation despite advice to stop. Recent studies have suggested that nicotine may reduce inflammation and improve angiogenesis, so topical application may be beneficial for smokers. The electronic cigarette is increasing in popularity and more patients ask whether they can vape after operation. We investigated the effect of electronic cigarettes (of which half contained nicotine and half did not) on blood flow in the buccal mucosa in 10 volunteers immediately after vaping. Smokers were excluded as this was considered an additional variable in a small pilot study and our Trust has a no-smoking policy. After vaping for 5minutes, capillary blood flow was measured in the buccal mucosa at 5-minute intervals using a laser Doppler probe, and the results were expressed as arbitrary perfusion units. There was a wide variation in results and a small but significant rise (p=0.008) as a result of nicotine vaping, but these fell to the same levels as before within 30minutes. Electronic cigarettes may have an effect on blood flow to the oral mucosa, although further studies are needed to show whether they improve healing time after operation. Additional work is also needed to compare them with cigarettes. PMID:26809237

  8. Raman spectroscopy of normal oral buccal mucosa tissues: study on intact and incised biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C. Murali

    2011-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of among the top 10 malignancies. Optical spectroscopy, including Raman, is being actively pursued as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant, and malignant oral ex vivo tissues. Spectral features showed predominance of lipids and proteins in normal and cancer conditions, respectively, which were attributed to membrane lipids and surface proteins. In view of recent developments in deep tissue Raman spectroscopy, we have recorded Raman spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of 10 normal oral tissues on intact, as well as incised, biopsies after separation of epithelium from connective tissue. Spectral variations and similarities among different groups were explored by unsupervised (principal component analysis) and supervised (linear discriminant analysis, factorial discriminant analysis) methodologies. Clusters of spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of intact tissues show a high overlap; whereas spectra from separated epithelium and connective tissue sections yielded clear clusters, though they also overlap on clusters of intact tissues. Spectra of all four groups of normal tissues gave exclusive clusters when tested against malignant spectra. Thus, this study demonstrates that spectra recorded from the superior surface of an intact tissue may have contributions from deeper layers but has no bearing from the classification of a malignant tissues point of view.

  9. In vivo Raman spectroscopic identification of premalignant lesions in oral buccal mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Deshmukh, Atul; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2012-10-01

    Cancers of oral cavities are one of the most common malignancies in India and other south-Asian countries. Tobacco habits are the main etiological factors for oral cancer. Identification of premalignant lesions is required for improving survival rates related to oral cancer. Optical spectroscopy methods are projected as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant, and malignant oral ex-vivo tissues. We intend to evaluate potentials of Raman spectroscopy in detecting premalignant conditions. Spectra were recorded from premalignant patches, contralateral normal (opposite to tumor site), and cancerous sites of subjects with oral cancers and also from age-matched healthy subjects with and without tobacco habits. A total of 861 spectra from 104 subjects were recorded using a fiber-optic probe-coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Spectral differences in the 1200- to 1800-cm-1 region were subjected to unsupervised principal component analysis and supervised linear discriminant analysis followed by validation with leave-one-out and an independent test data set. Results suggest that premalignant conditions can be objectively discriminated with both normal and cancerous sites as well as from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits. Findings of the study further support efficacy of Raman spectroscopic approaches in oral-cancer applications.

  10. Vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture: A novel modification of surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    Gani, Johan; Chee, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To present a novel modification of surgical technique to treat female urethral stricture (FUS) by a vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal urethroplasty. Recurrent FUS represents an uncommon, though difficult clinical scenario to manage definitively. A variety of surgical techniques have been described to date, yet a lack of consensus on the optimal procedure persists. Materials and Methods We present a 51-year-old female with urethral stricture involving the entire urethra. Suspected etiology was iatrogenic from cystoscopy 17 years prior. Since then, the patient had undergone at least 25 formal urethral dilations and periods of self-dilation. In lithotomy position, the urethra was dilated to accommodate forceps, and ventral urethrotomy carried out sharply, exposing a bed of periurethral tissue. Buccal mucosa was harvested, and a ventral inlay technique facilitated by a nasal speculum, was used to place the graft from the proximal urethra/bladder neck to urethral meatus without a vaginal incision. Graft was sutured into place, and urethral Foley catheter inserted. Results The vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty was deemed successful as of last follow-up. Flexible cystoscopy demonstrated patency of the repair at 6 months. At 10 months of follow-up, the patient was voiding well, with no urinary incontinence. No further interventions have been required. Conclusions This case describes a novel modification of surgical technique for performing buccal mucosal urethroplasty for FUS. By avoiding incision of the vaginal mucosa, benefits may include reduced: morbidity, urinary incontinence, and wound complications including urethro-vaginal fistula. PMID:27437540

  11. Nuclear morphometric and morphological analysis of exfoliated buccal and tongue dorsum cells in type-1 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Zehra Safi; Bektas, Sibel; Battal, Fatih; Atmaca, Hulusi; Ermis, Bahri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus type 1 that results from immunologically mediated damage to the β-cells in the pancreas. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can be associated with salivary gland dysfunction and alterations in the oral epithelial cells. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative changes in buccal and tongue dorsum epithelial cells using an exfoliative cytology method in type 1 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: We performed light microscopic analysis of the buccal and tongue dorsum smears in thirty type 1 diabetic patients and thirty healthy individuals. The oral smears were stained using Papanicolaou method for cytological examination and nuclear morphometric analysis. In each case, the mean nuclear area, perimeter, length, breadth, and roundness factor were evaluated in each smear using the image analysis software (Q Win, Leica™). Results: The nuclear area, length, breadth, and perimeters were significantly higher in the diabetic group from tongue dorsum smear than that of the control group (P < 0.05). In the cytological examination, karyorrhexis-karyolysis-karyopyknosis, binucleation, nuclear membrane irregularity, cytoplasmic polymorphism, perinuclear halo were observed in oral smears with type 1 diabetic patients. Binucleation (P = 0.002) and nuclear membrane irregularity (P = 0.024) were significantly more common in buccal smears of diabetic group. Furthermore, the sensitivity of buccal mucosa was significantly higher in the diabetic group (P = 0.006). Conclusion: The light microscopic and nuclear morphometric study indicates that type 1 diabetes can produce morphological and nuclear morphometric changes in the oral mucosa that are noticeable with exfoliative cytology. PMID:25538382

  12. Preparation, characterization and buccal permeation of naratriptan.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Mohammed; Hadgraft, Jonathan; Lane, Majella E

    2015-09-30

    Naratriptan (NAR) is currently used for the management of migraine as the hydrochloride salt (NAR.HCl) and is administered as an oral tablet. This work evaluates the feasibility of buccal delivery of NAR in order to ensure faster onset of action and avoid the side-effects associated with conventional oral formulations. We hypothesized that the unionized form of NAR would permeate buccal tissue to a greater extent than the salt. Therefore the first stage of this work required preparation of the free base from NAR.HCl. Characterisation of the base with thermal and elemental analyses confirmed its purity; logP and logD values were also determined. The pH permeation profile of NAR was also determined in the range 7.4-10. Solubility studies in non-aqueous solvents indicated that Transcutol™ (TC) and dipropylene glycol (DPG) were suitable vehicles for the free base. Maximum amounts of NAR which permeated after 6h were ∼ 130 μg/cm(2). Based on the pH permeation results and studies conducted at two different doses NAR appears to permeate porcine buccal tissue via the transcellular route. Finally, estimates of likely systemic values suggest that optimised formulations should be taken forward for in vivo evaluation. PMID:26196276

  13. W-V flap: a new technique for reconstruction of female distal urethral stricture using vestibular mucosa.

    PubMed

    Dalela, Diwakar; Gupta, Piyush; Dalela, Disha; Govil, Tuhina

    2016-01-01

    A premenopausal woman having a totally occlusive distal urethral stricture, with suprapubic catheter (SPC) in situ, was referred to us for a definitive procedure. On discussion of the treatment options, the patient refused for a buccal or vaginal flap procedure. Thus, a local W-V flap was fashioned from the periurethral vestibular mucosa with seemingly excellent results, both in terms of resolution of her symptoms and a forwardly directed stream of urine without incontinence. PMID:27170612

  14. Polymeric mucoadhesive tablets for topical or systemic buccal delivery of clonazepam: Effect of cyclodextrin complexation.

    PubMed

    Mura, P; Cirri, M; Mennini, N; Casella, G; Maestrelli, F

    2016-11-01

    Two kinds of mucoadhesive buccal tablets of clonazepam (CLZ) were developed to provide, a prolonged local or systemic delivery respectively. Tablets prepared by direct compression of combinations of different polymers were tested for swelling, erosion and residence time properties. Carbopol 971P/hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and Poloxamer/chitosan mixtures were the best and were selected for drug loading. The effect of CLZ complexation with different cyclodextrins was investigated. Randomly-methylated-βCD (RAMEßCD) was the most effective, allowing 100% drug released increase from local-delivery buccal tablets. Kollicoat was the best among the tested backing-layers, assuring a unidirectional release from systemic-delivery buccal tablets (<0.8% drug released in simulated saliva after 24h). In vitro permeation studies from coated-tablets showed that CLZ loading as RAMEßCD-coground enabled a 5-times increase in drug flux and permeability. Therefore, complexation with RAMEßCD was a successful strategy to improve the CLZ performance from buccal tablets for both local or systemic action. PMID:27516327

  15. Clinical application of micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells: A systematic review and metanalysis.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Bonassi, Stefano; Knasmueller, Siegfried; Fenech, Michael; Bruzzone, Marco; Lando, Cecilia; Ceppi, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The micronucleus assay in uncultured exfoliated buccal mucosa cells, involving minimally invasive sampling, was successfully applied to evaluate inhalation and local exposure to genotoxic agents, impact of nutrition and lifestyle factors. The potential use of the assay in clinics to monitor the development of local oral lesions and as an early biomarker for tumors and different chronic disorders was also investigated. A systematic review of the literature was carried out focusing on the clinical application of the assay. The literature search updated to January 2015 allowed to retrieve 42 eligible articles. Fifty three percent of investigations are related to oral, head and neck cancer, and premalignant oral diseases. Our analysis evidences a potential usefulness of the MN assay applied in buccal exfoliated cells in the prescreening and in the follow up of precancerous oral lesions. A significant excess of MN, in patients compared with matched controls was observed for subgroups of oral and neck cancer (meta-MR of 2.40, 95% CI: 2.02-2.85) and leukoplakia (meta-MR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.51-2.35). The meta-analysis of studies available on other tumors (meta-MR 2.00; 95% CI:1.66-2.41) indicates that the MN frequency in buccal cells could reflect the chromosomal instability of other organs. Increased MN frequency was also observed in small size studies on patients with chronic diseases, with Alzheimer's disease and with Down syndrome. The application of the cytome approach providing information of genotoxic, cytotoxic and cytostatic effects is suggestive of the possibility of an improvement in the predictive value of the assay and this deserves further investigations. PMID:26596545

  16. Design and evaluation of buccal films as paediatric dosage form for transmucosal delivery of ondansetron.

    PubMed

    Trastullo, Ramona; Abruzzo, Angela; Saladini, Bruno; Gallucci, Maria Caterina; Cerchiara, Teresa; Luppi, Barbara; Bigucci, Federica

    2016-08-01

    In the process of implementation and innovation of paediatric dosage forms, buccal films for transmucosal administration of drug represent one of the most interesting approach. In fact, films are able to provide an extended duration of activity allowing minimal dosage and frequency and offer an exact and flexible dose, associated with ease of handling. The objective of the present study was to develop polymeric films for the sustained release of ondansetron hydrochloride, a selective inhibitor of 5-HT3 receptors indicated in paediatrics for the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy and postoperatively. Films were prepared by casting and drying of aqueous solutions containing different weight ratios of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) with chitosan (CH) or sodium hyaluronate (HA) or gelatin (GEL) and characterized for their physico-chemical and functional properties. The presence of HA, GEL and CH did not improve the mucoadhesive properties of HPMC film. The inclusion of GEL and CH in HPMC film increased in vitro drug release with respect to the inclusion of HA, although films containing HA showed the highest water uptake. Moreover in agreement with the release behaviour, the inclusion of CH and GEL provided higher drug permeation through porcine buccal mucosa with respect to HPMC film and ensured linear permeation profiles of drug. PMID:27267732

  17. Prelaminated Gracilis Flap with Buccal Mucosal Graft for Salvage of Devastated Urethra

    PubMed Central

    Nikolavsky, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    In patients with devastated bulbous urethra, that is, bulbar necrosis, failed fasciocutaneous repairs and “watering can perineum” repair options are limited by paucity of reliable local tissue suitable for reconstruction. In this case report we demonstrate a novel variation of a two-stage technique for reconstruction of a devastated bulbous urethra in a 57-year-old male who suffered penetrating trauma to his previously reconstructed urethra. Because of extensive loss of local tissue from the prior reconstruction and subsequent trauma and infection a 2-stage technique with use of gracilis was employed. This technique involved creation of two independently vascularized urethral hemi-plates prelaminated with buccal mucosa graft (BMG). In the first stage the dorsal plate was created by quilting buccal graft onto corpora cavernosa to create a temporary augmented perineal urethrostomy. In the same stage the future ventral neourethral plate was created by grafting another BMG onto the exposed distal gracilis muscle. Eight weeks later the two prelaminated plates were anastomosed by tunneling the gracilis-BMG composite into the perineum. At 8-month follow-up patient has normal voiding and continence. To our knowledge this is the first report of reconstructing an entire segment of devastated urethra in such a manner. PMID:26257976

  18. Inhibitory Activity of the Isoflavone Biochanin A on Intracellular Bacteria of Genus Chlamydia and Initial Development of a Buccal Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanski, Leena; Genina, Natalja; Uvell, Hanna; Malinovskaja, Kristina; Gylfe, Åsa; Laaksonen, Timo; Kolakovic, Ruzica; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Elofsson, Mikael; Sandler, Niklas; Vuorela, Pia M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump inhibitors, but their therapeutic use is limited by poor water-solubility and intense first-pass metabolism. Here, we report on effects of isoflavones against C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis and describe buccal permeability and initial formulation development for biochanin A. Biochanin A was the most potent Chlamydia growth inhibitor among the studied isoflavones, with an IC50 = 12 µM on C. pneumoniae inclusion counts and 6.5 µM on infectious progeny production, both determined by immunofluorescent staining of infected epithelial cell cultures. Encouraged by the permeation of biochanin A across porcine buccal mucosa without detectable metabolism, oromucosal film formulations were designed and prepared by a solvent casting method. The film formulations showed improved dissolution rate of biochanin A compared to powder or a physical mixture, presumably due to the solubilizing effect of hydrophilic additives and presence of biochanin A in amorphous state. In summary, biochanin A is a potent inhibitor of Chlamydia spp., and the in vitro dissolution results support the use of a buccal formulation to potentially improve its bioavailability in antichlamydial or other pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25514140

  19. Functional physico-chemical, ex vivo permeation and cell viability characterization of omeprazole loaded buccal films for paediatric drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sajjad; Trivedi, Vivek; Boateng, Joshua

    2016-03-16

    Buccal films were prepared from aqueous and ethanolic Metolose gels using the solvent casting approach (40°C). The hydration (PBS and simulated saliva), mucoadhesion, physical stability (20°C, 40°C), in vitro drug (omeprazole) dissolution (PBS and simulated saliva), ex vivo permeation (pig buccal mucosa) in the presence of simulated saliva, ex vivo bioadhesion and cell viability using MTT of films were investigated. Hydration and mucoadhesion results showed that swelling capacity and adhesion was higher in the presence of PBS than simulated saliva (SS) due to differences in ionic strength. Omeprazole was more stable at 20°C than 40°C whilst omeprazole release reached a plateau within 1h and faster in PBS than in SS. Fitting release data to kinetic models showed that Korsmeyer-Peppas equation best fit the dissolution data. Drug release in PBS was best described by zero order via non-Fickian diffusion but followed super case II transport in SS attributed to drug diffusion and polymer erosion. The amount of omeprazole permeating over 2h was 275 ug/cm(2) whilst the formulations and starting materials showed cell viability values greater than 95%, confirming their safety for potential use in paediatric buccal delivery. PMID:26802493

  20. Inhibitory activity of the isoflavone biochanin A on intracellular bacteria of genus Chlamydia and initial development of a buccal formulation.

    PubMed

    Hanski, Leena; Genina, Natalja; Uvell, Hanna; Malinovskaja, Kristina; Gylfe, Åsa; Laaksonen, Timo; Kolakovic, Ruzica; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Elofsson, Mikael; Sandler, Niklas; Vuorela, Pia M

    2014-01-01

    Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump inhibitors, but their therapeutic use is limited by poor water-solubility and intense first-pass metabolism. Here, we report on effects of isoflavones against C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis and describe buccal permeability and initial formulation development for biochanin A. Biochanin A was the most potent Chlamydia growth inhibitor among the studied isoflavones, with an IC50 = 12 µM on C. pneumoniae inclusion counts and 6.5 µM on infectious progeny production, both determined by immunofluorescent staining of infected epithelial cell cultures. Encouraged by the permeation of biochanin A across porcine buccal mucosa without detectable metabolism, oromucosal film formulations were designed and prepared by a solvent casting method. The film formulations showed improved dissolution rate of biochanin A compared to powder or a physical mixture, presumably due to the solubilizing effect of hydrophilic additives and presence of biochanin A in amorphous state. In summary, biochanin A is a potent inhibitor of Chlamydia spp., and the in vitro dissolution results support the use of a buccal formulation to potentially improve its bioavailability in antichlamydial or other pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25514140

  1. Cultivated Oral Mucosa Epithelium in Ocular Surface Reconstruction in Aniridia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Orzechowska-Wylegala, Boguslawa; Wowra, Bogumil; Wroblewska-Czajka, Ewa; Grolik, Maria; Szczubialka, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Maria; Puzzolo, Domenico; Wylegala, Edward A.; Micali, Antonio; Aragona, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Efficacy of cultivated oral mucosa epithelial transplantation (COMET) procedure in corneal epithelium restoration of aniridia patients. Methods. Study subjects were aniridia patients (13 patients; 17 eyes) with irregular, vascular conjunctival pannus involving visual axis who underwent autologous transplantation of cultivated epithelium. For the procedure oral mucosa epithelial cells were obtained from buccal mucosa with further enzymatic treatment. Suspension of single cells was seeded on previously prepared denuded amniotic membrane. Cultures were carried on culture dishes inserts in the presence of the inactivated with Mitomycin C monolayer of 3T3 fibroblasts. Cultures were carried for seven days. Stratified oral mucosa epithelium with its amniotic membrane carrier was transplanted on the surgically denuded corneal surface of aniridia patients with total or subtotal limbal stem cell deficiency. Outcome Measures. Corneal surface, epithelial regularity, and visual acuity improvement were evaluated. Results. At the end of the observation period, 76.4% of the eyes had regular transparent epithelium and 23.5% had developed epithelial defects or central corneal haze; in 88.2% of cases visual acuity had increased. VA range was from HM 0.05 before the surgery to HM up to 0.1 after surgery. Conclusion. Application of cultivated oral mucosa epithelium restores regular epithelium on the corneal surface with moderate improvement in quality of vision. PMID:26451366

  2. Management of Buccal Gap and Resorption of Buccal Plate in Immediate Implant Placement: A Clinical Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Hardik; Shah, Sheekha

    2015-01-01

    When a dental implant is placed into a fresh extraction socket, a space between the implant periphery and surrounding bone occurs. A gap can occur on any aspect of an immediately placed implant: Buccal, lingual or proximally. The objective of immediate implant placement is to provide an osseointegrated fixture suitable for an aesthetic and functional restoration. Bone fill in the gap between the implant and the peripheral bone is important. Surgical management of the buccal gap to obtain an optimal result is controversial and confusing with respect to the best techniques to achieve the following: Optimal bone fills in the gap, most coronal level of bone-to-implant contact, and the least amount of buccal bone loss and soft tissue recession. This clinical case report illustrates the management of the buccal gap and reducing buccal plate resorption when contemplating immediate implant placement. PMID:26225110

  3. Preliminary study of genotoxicity evaluation of orthodontic miniscrews on mucosa oral cells by the alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Martín-Cameán, Ana; Puerto, María; Jos, Ángeles; Azqueta, Amaya; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Solano, Enrique; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Miniscrew implants are widely used nowadays in orthodontic treatments due to their good results in clinical practice. However, data regarding the biocompatibility of commercially available orthodontic miniscrews and temporary devices are very scarce, and their role as genotoxicity inducers has been not previously evaluated with the alkaline comet assay. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA damage in buccal cells of patients subjected to orthodontic treatments. The alkaline comet assay has been applied in oral mucosa cells from patients treated with conventional orthodontic treatment in comparison to patients treated additionally with miniscrews, non-treated volunteers (control) and smoking volunteers (positive control). The application of orthodontic appliances and miniscrews induced significant and similar (2-fold) increases of %DNA in tail in comparison to control group. Females experienced a significant increase in %DNA in all the treatments in comparison to the control group, whereas males showed significant damage only with the combined orthodontic and miniscrew treatment. In conclusion, conventional orthodontic appliances induced genotoxicity, and the incorporation of miniscrews assayed did not imply any additional increase of DNA damage. PMID:26062010

  4. Analysis of the Genotoxic Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation using Buccal Micronucleus Assay: A Comparative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Sreedhar, Gadiputi; Mukherjee, Saikat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Micronucleus (MN) is considered to be a reliable marker for genotoxic damage and it determines the presence and the extent of the chromosomal damage. The MN is formed due to DNA damage or chromosomal disarrangements. The MN has a close association with cancer incidences. In the new era, mobile phones are constantly gaining popularity specifically in the young generation, but this device uses radiofrequency radiation that may have a possible carcinogenic effect. The available reports related to the carcinogenic effect of mobile radiation on oral mucosa are contradictory. Aim To explore the effects of mobile phone radiation on the MN frequency in oral mucosal cells. Materials and Methods The subjects were divided into two major groups: low mobile phone users and high mobile phone users. Subjects who used their mobile phone since less than five years and less than three hours a week comprised of the first group and those who used their mobile since more than five years and more than 10 hours a week comprised of the second group. Net surfing and text messaging was not considered in this study. Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were collected from both the groups and the cells were stained with DNA-specific stain acridine orange. Thousand exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were screened and the cells which were positive for micronuclei were counted. The micronucleus frequency was represented as mean±SD, and unpaired Student t-test was used for intergroup comparisons. Results The number of micronucleated cells/ 1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells was found to be significantly increased in high mobile phone users group than the low mobile phone users group. The use of mobile phone with the associated complaint of warmth around the ear showed a maximum increase in the number of micronucleated cells /1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells. Conclusion Mobile phone radiation even in the permissible range when used for longer duration causes significant genotoxicity

  5. Interaction of calcium sulfate with xanthan gum: effect on in vitro bioadhesion and drug release behavior from xanthan gum based buccal discs of buspirone.

    PubMed

    Jaipal, A; Pandey, M M; Abhishek, A; Vinay, S; Charde, S Y

    2013-11-01

    Bioadhesive polymers in buccal drug delivery systems play an important role in delivery of therapeutic drug molecules for local and systemic action. Xanthan gum, a GRAS listed natural polymer was used to design buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride by direct compression method. Effect of calcium sulfate on bioadhesive and drug release behavior of xanthan gum buccal discs was studied. Varying amount of calcium sulfate (0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%, w/w) in combination with xanthan gum was used to prepare buccal bioadhesive discs. Increase in calcium sulfate concentration resulted in faster drug release and decreased the bioadhesive strength of the designed discs. Further, in rheological evaluation it was observed that viscosity of xanthan gum gel reduces with increasing concentration of calcium sulfate. Compatibility of drug with various excipients was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. PMID:23907052

  6. Estimation of Salivary Glucose and Glycogen Content in Exfoliated Buccal Mucosal Cells of Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Gopinathan, Deepa Moothedathu; Sukumaran, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder which shows an increasing incidence worldwide. Constant monitoring of blood glucose in diabetic patient is required which involves painful invasive techniques. Saliva is gaining acceptance as diagnostic tool for various systemic diseases which can be collected noninvasively and by individuals with limited training. Aim The aim of the present study was to analyse the possibility of using salivary glucose and glycogen content of buccal mucosal cells as a diagnostic marker in Type II Diabetes mellitus patients which can be considered as adjuvant diagnostic tool to the gold standards. Materials and Methods Sample consists of 30 study and 30 control groups. Saliva was collected by passive drool method.Intravenous blood samples were collected for glucose estimation. Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were collected from apparently normal buccal mucosa, smeared on dry glass slide and stained with PAS. Blood and salivary glucose are estimated by Glucose Oxidase endpoint method. For Glycogen estimation, number of PAS positive cells in fifty unfolded cells was analysed. Results The results of the present study revealed a significant increase in the salivary glucose level and the number of PAS positive buccal mucosal cells in the diabetics than in the controls. The correlation between the fasting serum glucose and fasting salivary glucose and also that between fasting serum glucose and PAS positive cells was statistically significant. But the correlation between the staining intensity and fasting serum glucose was statistically insignificant. Conclusion With the results of the present study it is revealed that salivary glucose and PAS positive cells are increased in diabetics which can be considered as adjuvant diagnostic tool for Diabetes mellitus. PMID:26155572

  7. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  8. Exfoliative cytology of buccal squames: A quantitative cytomorphometric analysis of patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sankhla, Bharat; Sharma, Abhishek; Shetty, Raju Singam; Bolla, Sheetal Chowdary; Gantha, Naga Sribala; Reddy, Prasun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a third leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders and its prevalence has been increasing worldwide. Oral exfoliative cytology may be a more appropriate adjunctive diagnostic tool in conditions like diabetes mellitus, where the invasive techniques lose viability. Aims: The purpose of this study is to analyze the cytomorphometric changes in the exfoliated cells of the oral mucosa, as an adjunct to the diagnosis of diabetes. Materials and Methods: Smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of 30 diabetes patients (study group) and 30 healthy individuals (control group). All the smears were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain (PAP). In the PAP smears, the nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area (CA), and cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) were evaluated for 50 cells in each smear, using the Image Analysis Software (Magnus Pro™) and research microscope (Lawrence and Mayo™). Results: The results showed that the mean NA was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the study group, whereas, the mean CA did not exhibit a statistically significant difference (P > 0.001). The mean CNR was significantly lower in the study group (P < 0.001). Interpretation and Conclusion: The results associated with the clinical observations suggest that diabetes can produce morphological and functional alterations in the oral epithelial cells, detectable by microscopic and cytomorphometric analysis using exfoliative cytology, which can be used in the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:25374837

  9. Vermilion Reconstruction with Genital Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Weyandt, Gerhard H.; Woeckel, Achim; Kübler, Alexander C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Functional and aesthetical reconstruction, especially of the upper lip after ablative tumor surgery, can be very challenging. The skin of the lip might be sufficiently reconstructed by transpositional flaps from the nasolabial or facial area. Large defects of the lip mucosa, including the vestibule, are even more challenging due to the fact that flaps from the inner lining of the oral cavity often lead to functional impairments. We present a case of multiple vermilion and skin resections of the upper lip. At the last step, we had to resect even the whole vermilion mucosa, including parts of the oral mucosa of the vestibule, leaving a bare orbicularis oris muscle. To reconstruct the mucosal layer, we used a mucosal graft from the labia minora and placed it on the compromised lip and the former transpositional flaps for the reconstructed skin of the upper lip with very good functional and aesthetic results.

  10. Vermilion Reconstruction with Genital Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Müller-Richter, Urs D A; Weyandt, Gerhard H; Woeckel, Achim; Kübler, Alexander C

    2016-05-01

    Functional and aesthetical reconstruction, especially of the upper lip after ablative tumor surgery, can be very challenging. The skin of the lip might be sufficiently reconstructed by transpositional flaps from the nasolabial or facial area. Large defects of the lip mucosa, including the vestibule, are even more challenging due to the fact that flaps from the inner lining of the oral cavity often lead to functional impairments. We present a case of multiple vermilion and skin resections of the upper lip. At the last step, we had to resect even the whole vermilion mucosa, including parts of the oral mucosa of the vestibule, leaving a bare orbicularis oris muscle. To reconstruct the mucosal layer, we used a mucosal graft from the labia minora and placed it on the compromised lip and the former transpositional flaps for the reconstructed skin of the upper lip with very good functional and aesthetic results. PMID:27579226

  11. Transmucosal Implant Placement with Submarginal Connective Tissue Graft in Area of Shallow Buccal Bone Dehiscence: A Three-Year Follow-Up Case Series.

    PubMed

    Stefanini, Martina; Felice, Pietro; Mazzotti, Claudio; Marzadori, Matteo; Gherlone, Enrico F; Zucchelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present case series study was to evaluate the short- and long-term (3 years) soft tissue stability of a surgical technique combining transmucosal implant placement with submarginal connective tissue graft (CTG) in an area of shallow buccal bone dehiscence. A sample of 20 patients were treated by positioning a transmucosal implant in an intercalated edentulous area. A CTG sutured to the inner aspect of the buccal flap was used to cover the shallow buccal bone dehiscence. Clinical evaluations were made at 6 months (T₁) and 1 (T₂) and 3 (T₃) years after the surgery. Statistically significant increases in buccal soft tissue thickness and improvement of vertical soft tissue level were achieved at the T₁, T₂, and T₃ follow-ups. A significant increase in keratinized tissue height was also found at T₃. No significant marginal bone loss was recorded. The submarginal CTG technique was able to provide simultaneous vertical and horizontal soft tissue increases around single implants with shallow buccal bone dehiscence and no buccal mucosal recession or clinical signs of mucositis or peri-implantitis at 1 and 3 years. PMID:27560667

  12. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants.

    PubMed

    Haque, Shaikh Ershadul; Sheela, Angappan

    2015-01-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met), an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7). The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose. PMID:26491321

  13. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Shaikh Ershadul; Sheela, Angappan

    2015-01-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met), an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7). The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose. PMID:26491321

  14. Mycobacterium leprae is identified in the oral mucosa from paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy patients.

    PubMed

    Morgado de Abreu, M A M; Roselino, A M; Enokihara, M; Nonogaki, S; Prestes-Carneiro, L E; Weckx, L L M; Alchorne, M M A

    2014-01-01

    In leprosy, the nasal mucosa is considered as the principal route of transmission for the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. The objective of this study was to identify M. leprae in the oral mucosa of 50 untreated leprosy patients, including 21 paucibacillary (PB) and 29 multibacillary (MB) patients, using immunohistochemistry (IHC), with antibodies against bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and phenolic glycolipid antigen-1 (PGL-1), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with MntH-specific primers for M. leprae, and to compare the results. The material was represented by 163 paraffin blocks containing biopsy samples obtained from clinically normal sites (including the tongue, buccal mucosa and soft palate) and visible lesions anywhere in the oral mucosa. All patients and 158 available samples were included for IHC study. Among the 161 available samples for PCR, 110 had viable DNA. There was viable DNA in at least one area of the oral mucosa for 47 patients. M. leprae was detected in 70% and 78% of patients using IHC and PCR, respectively, and in 94% of the patients by at least one of the two diagnostic methods. There were no differences in detection of M. leprae between MB and PB patients. Similar results were obtained using anti-BCG and anti-PGL-1 antibodies, and immunoreactivity occurred predominantly on free-living bacteria on the epithelial surface, with a predilection for the tongue. Conversely, there was no area of predilection according to the PCR results. M. leprae is present in the oral mucosa at a high frequency, implicating this site as a potential means of leprosy transmission. PMID:23473290

  15. Novel strategies for the buccal delivery of macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Morales, Javier O; McConville, Jason T

    2014-05-01

    For years now, the delivery of small molecules through the buccal mucosal route has been described in the literature, but it has only been over the past decade that investigations into macromolecule delivery via the buccal route have sharply increased. The administration of macromolecules such as proteins and peptides, antibodies, or nucleic acids by buccal administration would be greatly enhanced due to the avoidance of the gastrointestinal conditions, rapid uptake into systemic circulation, as well as the potential for controlled drug delivery. Since macromolecules are faced with a number of specific challenges related to permeation through the epithelium, several strategies have been employed historically to improve their buccal absorption and subsequent bioavailability. Several conventional strategies to improve macromolecule penetration include the use of chemical permeation enhancers, enzyme inhibitors and the use of mucoadhesive materials acting as carriers. More recent approaches include the incorporation of the macromolecule as part of nanostructured delivery systems to further enhance targeting and delivery. This review focuses on the different permeation enhancing strategies as well as formulation design that are tailored to meet the challenges of active macromolecule delivery using the buccal mucosal route of administration. PMID:24611816

  16. Evaluation of Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus using Cytomorphometry of Buccal Cells and Correlation with Glycosylated Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Karthik, K Raghavendhar; Malathi, N; Poornima, K; Prakash, Sunil; Kadhiresan, R; Arunmozhi, U

    2015-01-01

    Background: To study cytological alterations in the exfoliated buccal cells of diabetic patients. To analyze the cytomorphometric findings in the smears of uncontrolled and controlled diabetic patients and compare it with that of normal healthy controls. To establish a correlation between cytomorphometric changes and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in diabetics and normal controls, for evaluation of glycemic control. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 40 confirmed diabetic patients from a hospital out-patient diabetic ward and 20 healthy individuals as controls (Group A: n = 20), in Chennai. Specific exclusion criteria were used to select the study group from a larger group of subjects. Based on HbA1c values, the diabetic patients were categorized into Group B = Controlled diabetics (n = 20) (HbA1c <7%) and Group C = Uncontrolled diabetics (n = 20) (HbA1c >9%). After informed consent, buccal smear was collected from clinically normal appearing mucosa and stained with papanicoloau (PAP) stain. Cytomorphometric analysis of selective PAP stained cells was done using image analysis software, Image Pro Plus 5.5 (Olympus) and parameters determined were average cytoplasmic area (CA), average nuclear area (NA) and cytoplasmic:nuclear (C: N) ratio for an average of 50 cells/patient. Results: Comparing the average NA among three groups, an increase through Group A, B, C, with a maximum significance between Group C and A was seen. The average C: N ratio showed a statistically significant difference between all three groups. Significant correlation existed between the HbA1c values and both the C: N ratio and average NA in all the three groups. Conclusions: Cytomorphometric analysis of buccal smears using the C: N ratio alteration as a reliable criteria, may serve as yet another non-invasive tool for screening programs for diabetic detection. And the technique may possibly be used also for evaluation of glycemic control in known diabetics. PMID:25859101

  17. Buccal plate augmentation: a new alternative to socket preservation.

    PubMed

    Caiazzo, Alfonso; Brugnami, Federico; Mehra, Pushkar

    2010-10-01

    Alveolar ridge resorption occurs after tooth extraction and has the potential to either complicate implant placement or impair the final esthetic result. Techniques to preserve natural bone and soft tissue contours are of great interest to clinicians and patients because even subtle postextraction buccal plate resorption may have significant clinical effects, particularly in the esthetic zone. Buccal plate augmentation (BPA) is a novel approach for ridge preservation aiming to avoid recession of the facial wall of the socket without interfering with the natural healing mechanism of the extraction socket. It consists of placement of bone graft material over an intact buccal plate, underneath the soft tissues in a surgically created pouch with an aim to maintain or augment the soft tissue esthetics of the region. PMID:20863942

  18. Surgical management of the bilateral maxillary buccal exostosis

    PubMed Central

    Chandna, Shalu; Sachdeva, Surinder; Kochar, Deepak; Kapil, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Buccal exostosis is benign, broad-based surface masses of the outer or facial aspect of the maxilla and less commonly, the mandible. They begin to develop in early adulthood and may very slowly enlarge over the years. A 24-year-old female presented with gingival enlargement on the buccal aspect of both the quadrants of the maxillary arch. The overgrowth was a cosmetic problem for the patient. The etiology of the overgrowth remains unclear though the provisional diagnosis indicates toward a bony enlargement, which was confirmed with the help of transgingival probing. The bony enlargement was treated with resective osseous surgery. The following paper presents a rare case of the bilateral maxillary buccal exostosis and its successful management. PMID:26229284

  19. Treatment of motion sickness in parabolic flight with buccal scopolamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William T.; Degioanni, Joseph J.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bungo, Michael W.; Kutyna, Frank A.; Homick, Jerry L.; Calkins, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of acute motion sickness induced by parabolic flight with a preparation of scopolamine placed in the buccal pouch was investigated. Twenty-one subjects flew aboard a KC-135 aircraft operated by NASA which performed parabolic maneuvers resulting in periods of 0-g, 1-g, and 1.8-g. Each subject flew once with a tablet containing scopolamine and once with a placebo in a random order, crossover design. Signs and symptoms of motion sickness were systematically recorded during each parabola by an investigator who was blind to the content of the tablet. Compared with flights using placebo, flights with buccal scopolamine resulted in significantly lower scores for nausea (31-35 percent reduction) and vomiting (50 percent reduction in number of parabolas with vomiting). Side effects of the drug during flight were negligible. It is concluded that buccal scopolamine is more effective than a placebo in treating ongoing motion sickness.

  20. Comparative Study of Genotoxicity in Different Tobacco Related Habits using Micronucleus Assay in Exfoliated Buccal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Jose, Maji; Saxena, Kartikay; K, Deepa; Prabhu, Vishnudas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral cancer is one of the most debilitating diseases afflicting mankind. Consumption of tobacco in various forms constitutes one of the most important etiological factors in initiation of oral cancer. When the focus of today’s research is to determine early genotoxic changes in human cells, micronucleus (MN) assay provides a simple, yet reliable indicator of genotoxic damage. Aims and Objectives: To identify and quantify micronuclei in the exfoliated cells of oral mucosa in individuals with different tobacco related habits and control group, to compare the genotoxicity of different tobacco related habits between each group and also with that of control group. Patients and Methods: In the present study buccal smears of 135 individuals with different tobacco related habits & buccal smears of 45 age and sex matched controls were obtained, stained using Giemsa stain and then observed under 100X magnification in order to identify and quantify micronuclei in the exfoliated cells of oral mucosa. Results: The mean Micronucleus (MN) count in individuals having smoking habit were 3.11 while the count was 0.50, 2.13, and 1.67 in normal control, smoking with beetle quid and smokeless tobacco habit respectively. MN count in smokers group was 2.6 times more compared to normal controls. MN count was more even in other groups when compared to normal control but to a lesser extent. Conclusion: From our study we concluded that tobacco in any form is genotoxic especially smokers are of higher risk and micronucleus assay can be used as a simple yet reliable marker for genotoxic evaluation. PMID:24995238

  1. Mucoadhesive properties of various pectins on gastrointestinal mucosa: an in vitro evaluation using texture analyzer.

    PubMed

    Thirawong, Nartaya; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Sriamornsak, Pornsak

    2007-08-01

    Mucoadhesive performance of various pectins with different degrees of esterification and molecular weights was examined with porcine gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa, i.e. buccal, stomach, small intestine and large intestine, using a texture analyzer equipped with mucoadhesive platform. The instrumental parameters and test conditions such as pre-hydration time of pectin disc, contact time, contact force, test speed of probe withdrawal, GI tissue and test medium were also studied. Two parameters derived from texture analysis, namely maximum detachment force (F(max)) and work of adhesion (W(ad)), were used as parameters for comparison of mucoadhesive performance. The results indicated that degree of hydration of pectin disc affected the mucoadhesive properties. The mucoadhesion of pectin increased with the increased contact time and contact force, but not by the increased probe withdrawal speed. Tissue from different parts of GI tract and test medium also influenced the mucoadhesion. Pectins showed a stronger mucoadhesion on large intestinal mucosa than on small intestinal mucosa. The mucoadhesive properties of pectins on gastric mucosa depended on pH of the medium; a higher F(max) and W(ad) in a pH 4.8 medium than a pH 1.2 medium was revealed. Additionally, pectin showed a significantly higher mucoadhesion than carbomer934P in most of the GI mucosa tested. The results also demonstrated that the mucoadhesive performance of pectins largely depended on their characteristics, i.e. higher degree of esterification and molecular weight gave a stronger mucoadhesion. These findings suggest that pectin can be used as a mucoadhesive carrier for GI-mucoadhesive drug delivery systems. PMID:17321731

  2. Determination of dependencies among in vitro and in vivo properties of prepared mucoadhesive buccal films using multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Vetchý, David; Landová, Hana; Gajdziok, Jan; Doležel, Petr; Daněk, Zdeněk; Štembírek, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Mucoadhesive films represent the most developed medical form of buccal application. Despite the intense focus on buccal film-based systems, there are no standardized methods for their evaluation, which limits the possibility of comparison of obtained data and evaluation of the significance of influence of formulation and process variables on properties of resulting films. The used principal component analysis, together with a partial least squares regression provided a unique insight into the effects of in vitro parameters of mucoadhesive buccal films on their in vivo properties and into interdependencies among the studied variables. In the present study eight various mucoadhesive buccal films based on mucoadhesive polymers (carmellose, polyethylene oxide) were prepared using a solvent casting method or a method of impregnation, respectively. An ethylcellulose or hydrophobic blend of white beeswax and white petrolatum were used as a backing layer. The addition of polyethylene oxide prolonged the in vivo film residence time (from 53.24±5.38-74.18±5.13 min to 71.05±3.15-98.12±1.75 min), and even more when combined with an ethylcellulose backing layer (98.12±1.75 min) and also improved the film's appearance. Tested non-woven textile shortened the in vivo film residence time (from 74.18±5.13-98.12±1.75 min to 53.24±5.38-81.00±8.47 min) and generally worsened the film's appearance. Mucoadhesive buccal films with a hydrophobic backing layer were associated with increased frequency of adverse effects. PMID:24333664

  3. The Hamster Buccal Pouch Model of Oral Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nagini, Siddavaram; Kowshik, Jaganathan

    2016-01-01

    The hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model is one of the most well-characterized animal tumor models used as a prelude to investigate multistage oral carcinogenesis and to assess the efficacy of chemointervention. Hamster buccal pouch carcinomas induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) show extensive similarities to human oral squamous cell carcinomas. The HBP model offers a number of advantages including a simple and predictable tumor induction procedure, easy accessibility for examination and follow-up of lesions, and reproducibility. This model can be used to test both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:27246045

  4. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on irradiated oral mucosa: microvessel density.

    PubMed

    Svalestad, J; Hellem, S; Thorsen, E; Johannessen, A C

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on microvascular tissue and cell proliferation in the oral mucosa. Twenty patients, aged 51-78 years, were allocated randomly to a treatment or a control group. All had a history of radiotherapy (50-70 Gy) to the orofacial region 2-6 years previously. Tissue samples were taken from the irradiated buccal oral mucosa before HBOT and at 6 months after treatment. In the control group, tissue samples were taken on two occasions, 6 months apart. The samples were subjected to immunohistochemistry staining: double staining with CD31 and D2-40 for microvessels, or Ki-67 for the analysis of cell proliferation. Blood vessel density and area were significantly increased after HBOT (P=0.002-0.041). D2-40-positive lymphatic vessels were significantly increased in number and area in the sub-epithelial area (P=0.002 and P=0.019, respectively). No significant differences were observed in the control group. There were no significant differences in Ki-67-expressing epithelial cells between the two groups. It is concluded that the density and area of blood and lymphatic vessels in the irradiated mucosa are increased by HBOT 6 months after therapy. Epithelial cell proliferation is not affected by HBOT. PMID:25604154

  5. Biomonitoring with Micronuclei Test in Buccal Cells of Female Farmers and Children Exposed to Pesticides of Maneadero Agricultural Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda-Yslas, Idalia Jazmin; Arellano-García, María Evarista; García-Zarate, Marco Antonio; Ruíz-Ruíz, Balam; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Feminization of the agricultural labor is common in Mexico; these women and their families are vulnerable to several health risks including genotoxicity. Previous papers have presented contradictory information with respect to indirect exposure to pesticides and DNA damage. We aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect in buccal mucosa from female farmers and children, working in the agricultural valley of Maneadero, Baja California. Frequencies of micronucleated cells (MNc) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in 2000 cells were obtained from the buccal mucosa of the study population (n = 144), divided in four groups: (1) farmers (n = 37), (2) unexposed (n = 35), (3) farmers' children (n = 34), and (4) unexposed children (n = 38). We compared frequencies of MNc and NA and fitted generalized linear models to investigate the interaction between these variables and exposition to pesticides. Differences were found between farmers and unexposed women in MNc (p < 0.0001), CC (p = 0.3376), and PN (p < 0.0001). With respect to exposed children, we found higher significant frequencies in MNc (p < 0.0001), LN (p < 0.0001), CC (p < 0.0001), and PN (p < 0.004) when compared to unexposed children. Therefore working as a farmer is a risk for genotoxic damage; more importantly indirectly exposed children were found to have genotoxic damage, which is of concern, since it could aid in future disturbances of their health. PMID:26981119

  6. Genetic damage in coal miners evaluated by buccal micronucleus cytome assay.

    PubMed

    León-Mejía, Grethel; Quintana, Milton; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dias, Johnny; Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; Hartmann, Andreas; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas; Da Silva, Juliana

    2014-09-01

    During coal mining activities, large quantities of coal dust, ashes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are released into the environment. This complex mixture presents one of the most important occupational hazards for health of workers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genetic damage together with the presence of inorganic elements, in an exposed workers population to coal mining residues of Guajira-Colombia. Thus, 100 exposed workers and 100 non-exposed control individuals were included in this study. To determine genetic damage we assessed the micronucleus (MN) frequencies and nuclear buds in buccal mucosa samples (BMCyt) assay, which were significantly higher in the exposed group than non-exposed control group. In addition, karyorrhectic and karyolytic cells were also significantly higher in the exposed group (cell death). No significant difference was observed between the exposed groups engaged in different mining activities. No correlation between age, alcohol consumption, time of service and MN assay data were found in this study. However, the content of inorganic elements in blood samples analyzed by a Particle-induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE) showed higher values of silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al) in the exposed group. In this study we discuss the possibility of DNA damage observed in the mine workers cells be a consequence of oxidative damage. PMID:24927390

  7. Development of cellulosic polymer based gel of novel ternary mixture of miconazole nitrate for buccal delivery.

    PubMed

    Rai, Vineet Kumar; Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Sinha, Priyam; Mishra, Nidhi; Luqman, Suaib; Dwivedi, Harinath; Kymonil, Koshy M; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2014-03-15

    Aim of the present investigation was to develop cellulosic polymer based mucoadhesive antifungal gel comprising novel ternary mixture of miconazole nitrate (MN) for buccal delivery. Crosslinking of gel was made by adjusting pH with triethanolamine (TEA) and gel formulation was optimized on the basis of flux of MN (0.562-1.751 mg/cm(2)/h) calculated from ex vivo permeation study. Based on statistically validated polynomial equation and plotted response surfaces, B17 was found to be the optimum batch. Texture profile in terms of adhesiveness (3.24 ± 0.012 g), firmness (10.83 ± 0.067 g), spreadability (3.63 ± 0.033 mJ) and extrudability (35.6 ± 0.1 mJ) of B17 was evaluated using a novel instrumental approach. The texture parameters were found to be consistent over 90 days. Ternary mixture containing gel showed broader zone of growth inhibition (32.67-47.33 mm) in comparison to marketed formulation containing pure MN (17.50-40.33 mm) against selected strains of fungi. In conclusion, consistent and effective mucoadhesive antifungal gel of MN with extended residence time in oral mucosa was developed. PMID:24528709

  8. Effects of subepithelial fibroblasts on epithelial differentiation in human skin and oral mucosa: heterotypically recombined organotypic culture model.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Mutsumi; Yoshimura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Yasutoshi; Harii, Kiyonori

    2003-09-01

    The stratified squamous epithelia differ regionally in their patterns of morphogenesis and differentiation. Although some reports suggested that the adult epithelial phenotype is an intrinsic property of the epithelium, there is increasing evidence that subepithelial connective tissue can modify the phenotypic expression of the epithelium. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether the differentiation of cutaneous and oral epithelia is influenced by underlying mesenchymal tissues. Three normal skin samples and three normal buccal mucosa samples were used for the experiments. Skin equivalents were constructed in four ways, depending on the combinations of keratinocytes (cutaneous or mucosal keratinocytes) and fibroblasts (dermal or mucosal fibroblasts), and the effects of subepithelial fibroblasts on the differentiation of oral and cutaneous keratinocytes were studied with histological examinations and immunohistochemical analyses with anti-cytokeratin (keratins 10 and 13) antibodies. For each experiment, three paired skin equivalents were constructed by using single parent keratinocyte and fibroblast sources for each group; consequently, nine (3 x 3) organotypic cultures per group were constructed and studied. The oral and cutaneous epithelial cells maintained their intrinsic keratin expression. The keratin expression patterns in oral and cutaneous epithelia of skin equivalents were generally similar to their original patterns but were partly modified exogenously by the topologically different fibroblasts. The mucosal keratinocytes were more differentiated and expressed keratin 10 when cocultured with dermal fibroblasts, and the expression patterns of keratin 13 in cutaneous keratinocytes cocultured with mucosal fibroblasts were different from those in keratinocytes cocultured with cutaneous fibroblasts. The results suggested that the epithelial phenotype and keratin expression could be extrinsically modified by mesenchymal fibroblasts. In epithelial

  9. In vivo bioavailability studies of sumatriptan succinate buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Shivanand, K; Raju, SA; Nizamuddin, S; Jayakar, B

    2011-01-01

    Back ground and the purpose of study Sumatriptan succinate is a Serotonin 5- HT1 receptor agonist, used in treatment of migraine. It is absorbed rapidly but incompletely when given orally and undergoes first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low absolute bioavailability of about 15%. The aim of this work was to design mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate to improve its bioavailability. Methods Mucoadhesive polymers carbopol 934 (Carbopol), HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M along with ethyl cellulose as an impermeable backing layer were used for the preparation of mucoadhesive bilayered tablets. In vivo bioavailability studies was also conducted in rabbits for optimized formulation using oral solution of sumatriptan succinate as standard. Results Bilayered buccal tablets (BBT) containing the mixture of Carbopol and HPMC K4M in the ratio 1:1 (T1) had the maximum percentage of in vitro drug release within 6 hrs. The optimized formulation (T1) followed non-Fickian release mechanism. The percentage relative bioavailability of sumatriptan succinate from selected bilayered buccal tablets (T1) was found to be 140.78%. Conclusions Bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate was successfully prepared with improved bioavailability. PMID:22615661

  10. Chimerism of buccal membrane cells in a monochorionic dizygotic twin.

    PubMed

    Fumoto, Seiko; Hosoi, Kenichiro; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Hoshina, Hiroaki; Yan, Kunimasa; Saji, Hiroh; Oka, Akira

    2014-04-01

    No monochorionic dizygotic twins (MCDZTs) with cellular chimerism involving cells other than blood cells have been reported in the literature to date. Here we report a probable first case of MCDZTs with buccal cell chimerism. A 32-year-old woman conceived twins by in vitro fertilization by using 2 cryopreserved blastocysts that were transferred into her uterus. An ultrasound scan at 8 weeks' gestation showed signs indicative of monochorionic twins. A healthy boy and a healthy girl were born, showing no sexual ambiguity. Cytogenetic analyses and microsatellite studies demonstrated chimerism in blood cells of both twins. Notably, repeated fluorescence in situ hybridization and microsatellite studies revealed chimerism in buccal cells obtained from 1 of the twins. Although the mechanism through which buccal cell chimerism was generated remains to be elucidated, ectopic differentiation of chimeric hematopoietic cells that migrated to the buccal membrane or the cellular transfer between the 2 embryos at the early stage of development might be responsible for the phenomenon. This hypothesis raises an interesting issue regarding embryonic development and cellular differentiation into organs during fetal development. Given the possibility of cryptic chimerism in various organs including gonadal tissues in MCDZTs, close observation will be required to determine whether complications develop in the course of the patients' growth. PMID:24685957

  11. Buccal Cell Cytokeratin 14 Correlates with Multiple Blood Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Leifert, Wayne R; Nguyen, Tori; Rembach, Alan; Martins, Ralph; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie; Masters, Colin L; Ames, David; Rowe, Christopher C; Macaulay, S Lance; François, Maxime; Fenech, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may reflect early stages of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our hypothesis was that cytokeratin 14 (CK14) expression could be used with blood-based biomarkers such as homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate to identify individuals with MCI or AD from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) flagship study of aging. Buccal cells from 54 individuals were analyzed by a newly developed method that is rapid, automated, and quantitative for buccal cell CK14 expression levels. CK14 was negatively correlated with plasma Mg²⁺ and LDL, while positively correlated with vitamin B12, red cell hematocrit/volume, and basophils in the MCI group and positively correlated with insulin and vitamin B12 in the AD group. The combined biomarker panel (CK14 expression, plasma vitamin B12, and homocysteine) was significantly lower in the MCI (p = 0.003) and AD (p = 0.0001) groups compared with controls. Receiver-operating characteristic curves yielded area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.829 for the MCI (p = 0.002) group and 0.856 for the AD (p = 0.0003) group. These complex associations of multiple related parameters highlight the differences between the MCI and AD cohorts and possibly an underlying metabolic pathology associated with the development of early memory impairment. The changes in buccal cell CK14 expression observed in this pilot study supports previous results suggesting the peripheral biomarkers and metabolic changes are not restricted to brain pathology alone in MCI and AD and could prove useful as a potential biomarker in identifying individuals with an increased risk of developing MCI and eventually AD. PMID:26402008

  12. Autonomic and adrenocortical reactivity and buccal cell telomere length in kindergarten children

    PubMed Central

    Kroenke, Candyce H; Epel, Elissa; Adler, Nancy; Bush, Nicole R.; Obradović, Jelena; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Stamperdahl, Juliet Lise; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between autonomic nervous system and adrenocortical reactivity to laboratory stressors and buccal cell telomere length (BTL) in children. Methods The study sample comprised 78 five- and six-year-old children from a longitudinal cohort study of kindergarten social hierarchies, biological responses to adversity, and child health. Buccal cell samples and reactivity measures were collected in the spring of the kindergarten year. BTL was measured by realtime PCR, as the telomere-to-single copy gene (T/S) ratio. Parents provided demographic information; parents and teachers reported children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Components of children’s autonomic (heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), pre-ejection period (PEP)) and adrenocortical (salivary cortisol) responses were monitored during standardized laboratory challenges. We examined relations between reactivity, internalizing and externalizing behavior, and BTL, adjusted for age, race, and gender. Results Heart rate and cortisol reactivity were inversely related to BTL, PEP was positively related to BTL, and RSA was unrelated. Internalizing behaviors were also inversely related to BTL (standardized β=−0.33, p=0.004). Split at the median of reactivity parameters, children with high sympathetic activation (decreasing PEP) and high parasympathetic withdrawal (decreasing RSA) did not differ with regard to BTL. However, children with both this profile and high cortisol reactivity (N=12) had significantly shorter BTL (0.80 vs. 1.00, χ2=7.6, p=0.006), compared with other children. Conclusions Autonomic and adrenocortical reactivity in combination were associated with shorter buccal cell telomere length in children. These data suggest that psychophysiological processes may influence, and that BTL may be a useful marker of, early biological aging. PMID:21873585

  13. Communication—Microelectrode Detection of Cholesterol Efflux from the Human Buccel Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaochun; Kelley, Thomas J.; Chiel, Hillel J.; Burgess, James D.

    2016-01-01

    It has previously demonstrated that cholesterol efflux from the cell plasma membrane is increased in a mouse model of cystic fibrosis (CF) compared to a wild-type control. A noninvasive means of characterizing plasma membrane cholesterol efflux at the surface of airway tissue of CF patients is needed to extend the trends found in animal models of CF to the human disease state. Microelectrode-induced cholesterol efflux from the plasma membrane of cells at the surface of tissue is proposed as a strategy to demonstrate increased cholesterol efflux for CF in human subjects. Data demonstrating detection of cholesterol efflux from the human buccal mucosa is reported as proof-of-concept for an in vivo diagnostic assay. PMID:27546897

  14. Buccal delivery of metformin: TR146 cell culture model evaluating the use of bioadhesive chitosan discs for drug permeability enhancement.

    PubMed

    Sander, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Jacobsen, Jette

    2013-12-31

    The oral cavity is considered an attractive site of drug administration. Metformin is currently, used in oral diabetes treatment. The aim of the current study was to study the feasibility of metformin, to permeate the buccal epithelium applying a bioadhesive and permeation enhancing drug delivery system. The in vitro TR146 cell culture model was used to study the effect of drug concentration (5-100mM) and the impact of a bioadhesive chitosan formulation (discs) and chitosan in solution (0-20mg/mL) acting as a permeation enhancer. The permeation of metformin occurred by passive diffusion via the paracellular pathway driven by the concentration gradient, yet with a possibility of increasing the metformin transport by using higher, donor concentrations. When using floating baskets, as a new application of the TR146 cell culture model, it was possible to observe a time-dependent effect of the bioadhesive metformin discs and, metformin permeation may be increased due to a combination of bioadhesion and permeation enhancement induced by chitosan, although the permeation enhancing effect of chitosan was not statistically significant. The limited apparent buccal permeability of metformin observed in vitro, suggest that in vivo absorption of therapeutic doses of metformin needs to take place as a combination of buccal and intestinal absorption as metformin therapy requires the use of high doses. PMID:24148665

  15. Provesicular granisetron hydrochloride buccal formulations: in vitro evaluation and preliminary investigation of in vivo performance.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sami; El-Setouhy, Doaa Ahmed; El-Latif Badawi, Alia Abd; El-Nabarawi, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-08-18

    Granisetron hydrochloride (granisetron) is a potent antiemetic that has been proven to be effective in acute and delayed emesis in cancer chemotherapy. Granisetron suffers from reduced oral bioavailability (≈60%) due to hepatic metabolism. In this study the combined advantage of provesicular carriers and buccal drug delivery has been explored aiming to sustain effect and improve bioavailability of granisetron via development of granisetron provesicular buccoadhesive tablets with suitable quality characteristics (hardness, drug content, in vitro release pattern, exvivo bioadhesion and in vivo bioadhesion behavior). Composition of the reconstituted niosomes from different prepared provesicular carriers regarding type of surfactant used and cholesterol concentration significantly affected both entrapment efficiency (%EE) and vesicle size. Span 80 proniosome-derived niosomes exhibited higher encapsulation efficiency and smaller particle size than those derived from span 20. Also, the effect of %EE and bioadhesive polymer type on in vitro drug release and in vivo performance of buccoadhesive tablets was investigated. Based on achievement of required in vitro release pattern (20-30% at 2h, 40-65% at 6h and 80-95% at 12h), in vivo swelling behavior, and in vivo adhesion time (>14 h) granisetron formulation (F19, 1.4 mg) comprising HPMC:carbopol 974P (7:3) and maltodextrin coated with the vesicular precursors span 80 and cholesterol (9:1) was chosen for in vivo study. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed higher bioavailability of buccal formulation relative to conventional oral formulation of granisetron (AUC0-∞ is 89.97 and 38.18 ng h/ml for buccal and oral formulation, respectively). A significantly lower and delayed Cmax (12.09±4.47 ng/ml, at 8h) was observed after buccal application compared to conventional oral tablet (31.66±10.15 ng/ml, at 0.5 h). The prepared provesicular buccoadhesive tablet of granisetron (F19) might help bypass hepatic first

  16. Synergy Effects of Three Plant Extracts on Protection of Gastric Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caihui; Su, Wen; Su, Xingli; Ni, Guojun; Liu, Tao; Kong, Yi

    2015-11-01

    The gastric mucosa protection effect of three natural plant extracts, Hericium erinaceus (HE), Centella asiatica (CA) and Amomum villosum (AV), were evaluated using the indomethacin damage model. Compared with a single extract, a combination of HE/CA/AV, especially with the ratios of 80:10:10, 45:45:10 and 45:10:45, showed significant synergistic effects for protection of the gastric mucosa with gastric ulcer inhibition rates of 97.8 ± 0.7%, 86.5 ± 2.8% and 86.1 ± 3.6%, respectively. Microscopic appearances of the gastric mucosa were carried out to help confirm the results. PMID:26749844

  17. Immediate placement of a porous-tantalum, trabecular metal-enhanced titanium dental implant with demineralized bone matrix into a socket with deficient buccal bone: A clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Bencharit, Sompop; Byrd, Warren C.; Hosseini, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    A missing or deficient buccal alveolar bone plate is often an important limiting factor for immediate implant placement. Titanium dental implants enhanced with porous, tantalum-based trabecular metal material (PTTM) are designed for osseoincorporation, a combination of vascularized bone ingrowth and osseointegration (bone on-growth). Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) contains growth factors with good handling characteristics. However, the combination of these 2 materials in facial alveolar bone regeneration associated with immediate implant therapy has not been reported. A 65-year-old Asian woman presented with a failing central incisor. Most of the buccal alveolar bone plate of the socket was missing. A PTTM enhanced implant was immediately placed with DBM. Cone beam CT scans 12 months after the insertion of the definitive restoration showed regeneration of buccal alveolar bone. A combination of a PTTM enhanced implant, DBM, and a custom healing abutment may have an advantage in retaining biologically active molecules and form a scaffold for neovascularization and osteogenesis. This treatment protocol may be a viable option for immediate implant therapy in a failed tooth with deficient buccal alveolar bone. PMID:25702965

  18. Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive buccal patches of losartan potassium by using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ikram, Md.; Gilhotra, Neeraj; Gilhotra, Ritu Mehra

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was undertaken with an aim to systematically design a model of factors that would yield an optimized sustained release dosage form of an anti-hypertensive agent, losartan potassium, using response surface methodology (RSM) by employing 32 full factorial design. Materials and Methods: Mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared using different grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (K4M and K100M) and polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30 by solvent casting method. The amount of the release retardant polymers – HPMC K4M (X1) and HPMC K100M (X2) was taken as an independent variable. The dependent variables were the burst release in 30 min (Y1), cumulative percentage release of drug after 8 h (Y2) and swelling index (Y3) of the patches. In vitro release and swelling studies were carried out and the data were fitted to kinetic equations. Results: The physicochemical, bioadhesive, and swelling properties of patches were found to vary significantly depending on the viscosity of the polymers and their combination. Patches showed an initial burst release preceding a more gradual sustained release phase following a nonfickian diffusion process. Discussion: The results indicate that suitable bioadhesive buccal patches with desired permeability could be prepared, facilitated with the RSM. PMID:26682205

  19. Rapid detection of chromosome 18 copy number in buccal smears using DNA probes and FISH

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.; Nunez, M.; Giraldez, R.

    1994-09-01

    Rapid diagnosis of trisomy 18 in newborns is often critical to clinical management decisions that must be made in a minimum of time. DNA probes combined with FISH can be used to accurately to determine the copy number of chromosome 18 in interphase cells. We have used the D18Z1 alpha satellite DNA probe to determine signal frequency in normal, previously karyotyped subjects, 12 females and 6 males. We also present one clinical case of trisomy 18, confirmed by karyotype, for comparison to the results obtained from normal subjects. Buccal smears, unlike cytogenetic preparations from peripheral blood, are quite resistant to penetration of probes and detection reagents resulting in higher levels of false monosomy. We have studied 19 individuals and have obtained consistent FISH results, ranging from 64 to 90% disomy. False monosomy rates ranged from 10 to 36%, while false trisomy or tetrasomy was less than 1% in all samples. High rates of false monosomy make this test questionable for detection of low order mosaicism for monosomy, but the extremely low false hyperploidy rate suggests that this is a dependable procedure for detection of trisomy 18, enabling the use of buccal epithelium which can be collected easily from even premature and tiny infants.

  20. Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol using simplex design method

    PubMed Central

    Shirsand, SB; Suresh, Sarasija; Keshavshetti, GG; Swamy, PV; Reddy, P Vijay Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study, mucoadhesive buccal bilayer tablets of atenolol were fabricated with the objective of avoiding first pass metabolism and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency. Hence, the aim of this work was to design oral controlled release mucoadhesive tablets of atenolol and to optimize the drug release profile and bioadhesion. Materials and Methods: Bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol were prepared by direct compression method using simplex method of optimization to investigate the combined effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (X1), Carbopol (X2) and mannitol (X3); the in vitro drug release (Y1) and mucoadhesive strength (Y2) were taken as responses. The designed tablets were evaluated for various physical and biological parameters like drug content uniformity, in vitro drug release, short-term stability, and drug- excipient interactions (FTIR). Results: The formulation C containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (10% w/w of matrix layer), Carbopol 934p (10% w/w of matrix layer) and mannitol (channeling agent, 40% w/w of matrix layer) was found to be promising. This formulation exhibited an in vitro drug release of 89.43% in 9 h along with satisfactory bioadhesion strength (7.20 g). Short-term stability studies on the promising formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dissolution characteristics (P<0.05). IR spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drug-excipient interactions. PMID:23071958

  1. Buccal versus sublingual nitroglycerin administration in the treatment of angina pectoris: a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Rydén, L; Schaffrath, R

    1987-09-01

    Buccal (Suscard) was compared with sublingual nitroglycerin (Nitromex) in 126 patients with stable angina pectoris. Following a dose adjustment period they were randomized to cross-over treatment, two weeks on sublingual and buccal nitroglycerin, respectively. The dosage of buccal nitroglycerin was 2.5 mg in 49% and 5.0 mg in 51%. The total number of treated acute anginal attacks was 31% less during the buccal compared to the sublingual nitroglycerin period (P less than 0.001) despite a reported physical activity level which was significantly higher during the buccal nitroglycerin period. The use of sublingual nitroglycerin and buccal nitroglycerin was considered equally simple by 67%, sublingual nitroglycerin easier by 19% and buccal nitroglycerin easier by 14% of the patients. Sublingual nitroglycerin was used prophylactically on 806 occasions and buccal nitroglycerin on 929 occasions (P less than 0.05) with success in 66% of the sublingual nitroglycerin-attempts and 74% of the buccal nitroglycerin-attempts (P less than 0.05). Considering only prophylactic use, buccal nitroglycerin was preferred by 81% and sublingual nitroglycerin by 4% (P less than 0.05). When given the opportunity only to select one of the two nitroglycerin formulations, 65% (P less than 0.05) preferred buccal nitroglycerin and 19% sublingual nitroglycerin. In conclusion, buccal nitroglycerin seems to be more efficacious than sublingual nitroglycerin. The explanation is probably that the two formulations are comparable in the treatment of acute anginal attacks, while buccal nitroglycerin has a more pronounced prophylactic effect due to its longer duration of action. PMID:3117554

  2. Mucoadhesive buccal films of glibenclamide: Development and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Muzib, Y Indira; Kumari, K Srujana

    2011-01-01

    Background: Glibenclamide is an oral hypoglycemic drug completely metabolized in the liver, the principal metabolite being very weakly active, buccal delivery may be useful for the treatment of diabetes more effectively. The aim of the present study was to design formulations and systematically evaluate in vitro and ex vivo performances of buccal films of glibenclamide so that the required therapeutic plasma concentrations can possibly be achieved more rapidly using the different grades of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as the base matrix. Materials and Methods: Mucoadhesive buccal films of glibenclamide were prepared by solvent casting technique using different grades of HPMC with different ratios. Prepared films were evaluated for weight, thickness, surface pH, swelling index (SI), folding endurance, drug content uniformity, in vitro release, and ex vivo permeation studies. Results: The film thickness and weight were in the range of 0.213–0.4892mm and 22.25–39.83 mg, respectively. The films exhibited controlled release over more than 6 h. HPMC, HPMCK100, and HPMC3000 films exhibited satisfactory swelling. Surface pH of buccal films was found to be 6.4–6.8. SI observed to be highest for GF12 (275.3 ± 12.17) and lowest for GF1 (173.5 ± 5.65). The films exhibited controlled release over more than 6 h. HPMC exhibited satisfactory swelling, an optimum residence time, and promising drug release. The Higuchi plots were found to be linear with correlation coefficient values of 0.8933, 0.9138, and 0.9947 for GF4, GF8, and GF9, respectively. Conclusions: Among all the formulations, GF9 shows good controlled release results correlated with ex vivo permeation studies. PMID:23071919

  3. Buccal Micronucleus Cytome Assay in Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Naga, Mallika Bokka Sri Satya; Gour, Shreya; Nallagutta, Nalini; Velidandla, Surekha; Manikya, Sangameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA) is a commonly inherited blood disorder preceded by episodes of pain, chronic haemolytic anaemia and severe infections. The underlying phenomenon which causes this disease is the point mutation in the haemoglobin beta gene (Hbβ) found on chromosome 11 p. Increased oxidative stress leads to DNA damage. DNA damage occurring in such conditions can be studied by the buccal micronucleus cytome assay, which is a minimally invasive method for studying chromosomal instability, cell death and regenerative potential of human buccal tissue. Aim To evaluate genomic instability in patients with sickle cell disease by buccal micronucleus cytome assay. Materials and Methods The study included 40 sickle cell anemia patients (Group A) and 40 age and sex matched controls (Group B). Buccal swabs were collected and stained with Papanicolaou (PAP). Number of cells with micronucleus, binuclei, nuclear bud, pyknosis and karyolysis were counted in two groups as parameters for the evaluation of genome stability. Results All the analysis was done using t-test. A p-value of <0.001 was considered statistically significant. There was a statistically significant increase in micronuclei number in SCA patients when compared with controls. Karyolytic (un-nucleated) cell number in Group A was more than to those of the controls. Conclusion The results might suggest that patients with sickle cell anaemia have genome instability which is represented by the presence of micronuclei in the somatic cells. Presence of apoptotic cells might only indicate the bodily damage to the tissue as a result of the disease. PMID:27504413

  4. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  5. Genetic damage in soybean workers exposed to pesticides: evaluation with the comet and buccal micronucleus cytome assays.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Danieli; Nunes, Emilene; Sarmento, Merielen; Porto, Carem; Dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-04-15

    Soybean cultivation is widespread in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil), especially in the city of Espumoso. Soybean workers in this region are increasingly exposed to a wide combination of chemical agents present in formulations of fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides. In the present study, the comet assay in peripheral leukocytes and the buccal micronucleus (MN) cytome assay (BMCyt) in exfoliated buccal cells were used to assess the effects of exposures to pesticides in soybean farm workers from Espumoso. A total of 127 individuals, 81 exposed and 46 non-exposed controls, were evaluated. Comet assay and BMCyt (micronuclei and nuclear buds) data revealed DNA damage in soybean workers. Cell death was also observed (condensed chromatin, karyorhectic, and karyolitic cells). Inhibition of non-specific choline esterase (BchE) was not observed in the workers. The trace element contents of buccal samples were analyzed by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Higher concentrations of Mg, Al, Si, P, S, and Cl were observed in cells from workers. No associations with use of personal protective equipment, gender, or mode of application of pesticides were observed. Our findings indicate the advisability of monitoring genetic toxicity in soybean farm workers exposed to pesticides. PMID:23347873

  6. Fentanyl buccal tablet for breakthrough cancer pain: why titrate?

    PubMed

    Kleeberg, Ulrich R; Filbet, Marilène; Zeppetella, Giovambattista

    2011-01-01

    Breakthrough cancer pain is a significant problem for many patients with cancer because of the fast onset and often unpredictable nature of the pain episodes. The rapid onset opioids therefore have a central role to play in the management of breakthrough cancer pain. The rapid onset opioid fentanyl buccal tablet provides a fast analgesic effect and is easy to administer. However, titration of the medication is essential in order to optimize the management of pain. This is because individual patient characteristics, comorbidities, and other treatments may influence the absorption, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of drugs. It is therefore important to individualize treatment by determining the effective dose for each patient, which is the dose that provides adequate analgesia and minimizes undesirable adverse effects. Data from clinical studies of fentanyl buccal tablet show that patients' effective doses ranged from 100 to 800 µg per episode, highlighting the need for the titration process. Following successful dose titration, treatment with fentanyl buccal tablet can achieve significant pain relief as early as 10 minutes after administration, resulting in a high level of patient satisfaction. PMID:20807349

  7. Hydrodynamic effects in buccal cell DNA sample collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidun, C. K.; Sozer, A. C.

    2003-11-01

    Many different methods can be used for collection of biological samples from individuals for DNA profiling purposes. However, blood and buccal cells are the two most popular sources of DNA. In situations where large numbers of samples have to be collected, buccal cell collection methods are the preferred choice because of minimized health risks and ease of collection, transportation, and storage. The normal practice in buccal cell collection is to rub a cotton swab or a piece of paper through the inner check of the subject in order to release the cells and to attach and collect the cells on the cotton or paper fibers. The problem with the current forms of sample collection and storage is that in some cases up to 20% of the samples collected do not result in a DNA profile of adequate quality to be reported by the laboratory without repeated testing. In this study, we consider the mechanics of a small sheet of paper being rubbed on the surface of the inner check. The process is not too different from coating a paper substrate with highly deformable material. The shear field developed between the paper and the fluid adjacent to the cells are estimated based on the available data. The action of the cell release and the cell adherence to the surface will be outlined.

  8. Role of naso-buccal passages in thermoregulation in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, G. D.; Raghavan, G. V.

    1970-01-01

    1. Experiments with a face-mask in which the temperature of the air in the face-mask was raised to 40° C while the ambient temperature in the chamber was maintained at 20° C, resulted in a marked increase in respiratory frequency and a slight decline in carotid blood temperature of unshorn sheep. Partially shorn sheep showed only small respiratory responses. 2. Localized infra-red irradiation of the naso-buccal area of unshorn sheep also resulted in an increased respiratory rate. 3. It is suggested that the initiation of polypnoea during infra-red irradiation of the naso-buccal region and following rise in the temperature of the air in the face-mask is due to stimulation of warm receptors in the upper respiratory tract. 4. Cooling the naso-buccal air in the face-mask to 10° C after thermal polypnoea had been established at an ambient temperature of 40° C resulted in a moderate decline of 30-40 respirations/min. This decline was attributed to the stimulation of cold receptors located in the upper respiratory tract. PMID:5500727

  9. Orthodontic forces released by low-friction versus conventional systems during alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth.

    PubMed

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Camporesi, Matteo; Defraia, Efisio

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the forces released by passive stainless steel self-ligating brackets (SLBs) and by a non-conventional elastomeric ligature-bracket system on conventional brackets ([slide ligatures on conventional brackets (SLCB)]) when compared with conventional elastomeric ligatures on conventional brackets (CLCB) during the alignment of apically or buccally malposed teeth in the maxillary arch. An experimental model consisting of five brackets was used to assess the forces released by the three different bracket-ligature systems with 0.012-inch super-elastic (SE) nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in the presence of different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment of the canine (ranging from 1.5 to 6 mm). The forces released by each wire/bracket/ligature combination with the three different amounts of apical or buccal canine misalignment were tested 20 times. Comparisons between the different types of wire/bracket/ligature systems were carried out by means of analysis of variance on ranks with Dunnett's post hoc test (P < 0.05). No difference in the amount of force released in presence of a misalignment of 1.5 mm was recorded among the three systems. At 3 mm of apical misalignment a significantly greater amount of orthodontic force was released by SLB or SLCB when compared with CLCB, while no significant differences were found among the three systems at 3 mm of buccal canine displacement. When correction of a large amount of misalignment (6 mm) was attempted, a noticeable amount of force for alignment was still generated by the passive SLB and SLCB systems while no force was released in presence of CLCB. PMID:20631083

  10. [Vesiculobullous lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Spijkervet, F K; Vissink, A; Raghoebar, G M; van der Waal, I

    2001-06-01

    In general practice, the dentist can be confronted with a vesiculobullous lesion of the oral mucosa. In many cases the lesion can be classified as recurrent herpes labialis, but many other causes can induce a vesiculobullous lesion of the oral mucosa and perioral skin as well. This article gives an overview of the various vesiculous and bullous lesions of the oral mucous membranes. Special attention is given to the possible causes and their treatment. PMID:11441714

  11. Overgrowth of oral mucosa and facial skin, a novel feature of aspartylglucosaminuria.

    PubMed

    Arvio, P; Arvio, M; Kero, M; Pirinen, S; Lukinmaa, P L

    1999-05-01

    Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA). The main symptom is progressive mental retardation. A spectrum of different mutations has been reported in this disease, one missense mutation (Cys163Ser) being responsible for the majority of Finnish cases. We were able to examine 66 Finnish AGU patients for changes in the oral mucosa and 44 of these for changes in facial skin. Biopsy specimens of 16 oral lesions, 12 of them associated with the teeth, plus two facial lesions were studied histologically. Immunohistochemical staining for AGA was performed on 15 oral specimens. Skin was seborrhoeic in adolescent and adult patients, with erythema of the facial skin already common in childhood. Of 44 patients, nine (20%) had facial angiofibromas, tumours primarily occurring in association with tuberous sclerosis. Oedemic buccal mucosa (leucoedema) and gingival overgrowths were more frequent in AGU patients than in controls (p<0.001). Of 16 oral mucosal lesions studied histologically, 15 represented fibroepithelial or epithelial hyperplasias and were reactive in nature. Cytoplasmic vacuolisation was evident in four. Immunohistochemically, expression of AGA in AGU patients' mucosal lesions did not differ from that seen in corresponding lesions of normal subjects. Thus, the high frequency of mucosal overgrowth in AGU patients does not appear to be directly associated with lysosomal storage or with alterations in the level of AGA expression. PMID:10353787

  12. Lyophilized sponges loaded with curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles for buccal delivery: Development and characterization.

    PubMed

    Hazzah, Heba A; Farid, Ragwa M; Nasra, Maha M A; El-Massik, Magda A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2015-08-15

    This study aimed to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive sponges as dosage forms for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles. For this purpose curcumin (Cur) was formulated as solid nanoparticles (SLN) using Gelucire 50/13, and polaxomer 407. The prepared CurSLN dispersion was thickened with different mucoadhesive polymers. Different concentrations of glycerol, and mannitol of range (0.25-20%), and (0-1%), respectively were also examined. The formed gel was poured into oblong molds and freeze dried to form mucoadhesive sponge to be applied to the buccal mucosa. The prepared sponges were evaluated for their, in-vivo residence time, in-vitro and in-vivo drug release, and hydration capacity. Surface morphology for the different sponges were examined using SEM. TEM was also carried out for sponge fragments previously dispersed into water. Infrared spectroscopy was conducted to investigate interaction between used ingredients. The results showed that the CurSLN loaded HPMC, and Polycarbophil sponges showed 4, and 15 h in-vivo residence time, respectively, providing a considerable amount of curcumin into saliva. The incorporation of glycerol and mannitol at concentration of 1% provided elegant and flexible sponges. The SEM showed that the deposition of CurSLN differed according to the type of polymer used. TEM confirmed the integrity of liberated CurSLN from sponges. IR spectra showed an interaction between HPMC and poloxamer 407, which affected its behavior as a gelling agent. The obtained results provide an efficient approach for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles in a solid dosage form keeping the nanoparticle characters and integrity. PMID:26189427

  13. Arecoline-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation from human buccal mucosal fibroblasts is mediated by ZEB1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Chao; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Lai, You-Liang; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Chi, Wan-Yu; Li, Jung Jung; Chang, Wen-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is considered as a pre-cancerous condition of the oral mucosa and is highly associated with habitual areca quid chewing. Arecoline is the major alkaloid in areca quid and is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of OSF. Our previous studies have demonstrated that arecoline could induce epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors in primary human buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs). Therefore, we investigated the expression of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), which is a well-known transcriptional factor in EMT, in OSF tissues and its role in arecoline-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation from BMFs. The expression of ZEB1, as well as the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), was significantly increased in OSF tissues, respectively. With immunofluorescence analysis, arecoline induced the formation of α-SMA-positive stress fibres in BMFs expressing nuclear ZEB1. Arecoline also induced collagen contraction of BMFs in vitro. By chromatin immunoprecipitation, the binding of ZEB1 to the α-SMA promoter in BMFs was increased by arecoline. The promoter activity of α-SMA in BMFs was also induced by arecoline, while knockdown of ZEB1 abolished arecoline-induced α-SMA promoter activity and collagen contraction of BMFs. Long-term exposure of BMFs to arecoline induced the expression of fibrogenic genes and ZEB1. Silencing of ZEB1 in fibrotic BMFs from an OSF patient also suppressed the expression of α-SMA and myofibroblast activity. Inhibition of insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 could suppress arecoline-induced ZEB1 activation in BMFs. Our data suggest that ZEB1 may participate in the pathogenesis of areca quid–associated OSF by activating the α-SMA promoter and inducing myofibroblast transdifferentiation from BMFs. PMID:24400868

  14. Controlled release effervescent buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: in vitro and in vivo evaluation studies.

    PubMed

    Jaipal, A; Pandey, M M; Charde, S Y; Sadhu, N; Srinivas, A; Prasad, R G

    2016-01-01

    In the present study controlled release effervescent buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) were designed using HPMC as rate controlling and bioadhesive polymer by direct compression method. Sodium bicarbonate and citric acid were used in varying amounts as effervescence forming agents. Carbon dioxide evolved due to reaction of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was explored for its potential as buccal permeation enhancer. The designed buccal discs were evaluated for physical characteristics and in vitro drug release studies. Bioadhesive behavior of designed buccal discs was assessed using texture analyzer. In vivo animal studies were performed in rabbits to study bioavailability of BS in the designed buccal discs and to establish permeation enhancement ability of carbon dioxide. It was observed that effervescent buccal discs have faster drug release compared to non-effervescent buccal discs in vitro and effervescent buccal discs demonstrated significant increase in bioavailability of drug when compared to non-effervescent formulation. Hence, effervescent buccal discs can be used as an alternative to improve the drug permeation resulting in better bioavailability. However, the amount of acid and base used for generation of carbon dioxide should be selected with care as this may damage the integrity of bioadhesive dosage form. PMID:24892624

  15. N-succinyl chitosan as buccal penetration enhancer for delivery of herbal agents in treatment of oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Neha; Kumar, Krishan; Kalia, A N; Arora, Saahil

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the major side effects of cancer chemotherapy (30-76%) and radiotherapy (over 50%). Current palliative treatments of oral mucositis include specialized agents like pelifermin, platelet derived factors etc. or oral hygienic agents which suffered from various drawbacks like systemic side effect, least effect owing to fast wash out of buccal mucosa, patient unfriendly delivery systems, and mere symptomatic relief. In this research work, N-succinyl chitosan gel delivery system of microemulsified eugenol, honey and sodium hyaluronate was prepared to explore their multiple and synergistic effects on various pathological factors of oral mucositis. N-succinyl chitosan was synthesized in our laboratory and loaded with microemulsified eugenol (10% v/v), honey (10% v/v) and sodium hyaluronate (0.2% w/v) to prepare orogel with optimum pH, spreadability, mucoadhesion strength, and viscosity. In vitro eugenol release from N-succinyl chitosan gel after 8 hours in PBS (pH-6.4) was found to be 87.45±0.14%, which was better in comparison to that released from chitosan gel. Ex vivo penetration studies using rat buccal mucosal tissue also suggested better J-efflux of eugenol through N-succinyl chitosan in comparison to chitosan gel with enhancement ratio (ER) of 1.71. The antimicrobial effect of N-succinyl chitosan based orogel against S. aureus and C. albicans efficacy was found to be statistically high in comparison to chitosan based orogel as well as marketed formulation of chlorhexidine (p<0.05). The N-succinyl chitosan orogel in 5-fluoro uracil induced oral mucositis animal (Wistar rats) model showed enhanced survival ratio, weight gain and high tissue regeneration activity than chitosan gel formulation within 15 days. The formulation was successful in elevating the survival and reducing the inflammation in the oral mucosa of animals compared to disease control (p<0.05) and hence suggesting the potential of N-succinyl chitosan orogel in the treatment of

  16. Genomic Landscape of Colorectal Mucosa and Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Borras, Ester; San Lucas, F Anthony; Chang, Kyle; Zhou, Ruoji; Masand, Gita; Fowler, Jerry; Mork, Maureen E; You, Y Nancy; Taggart, Melissa W; McAllister, Florencia; Jones, David A; Davies, Gareth E; Edelmann, Winfried; Ehli, Erik A; Lynch, Patrick M; Hawk, Ernest T; Capella, Gabriel; Scheet, Paul; Vilar, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    The molecular basis of the adenoma-to-carcinoma transition has been deduced using comparative analysis of genetic alterations observed through the sequential steps of intestinal carcinogenesis. However, comprehensive genomic analyses of adenomas and at-risk mucosa are still lacking. Therefore, our aim was to characterize the genomic landscape of colonic at-risk mucosa and adenomas. We analyzed the mutation profile and copy number changes of 25 adenomas and adjacent mucosa from 12 familial adenomatous polyposis patients using whole-exome sequencing and validated allelic imbalances (AI) in 37 adenomas using SNP arrays. We assessed for evidence of clonality and performed estimations on the proportions of driver and passenger mutations using a systems biology approach. Adenomas had lower mutational rates than did colorectal cancers and showed recurrent alterations in known cancer driver genes (APC, KRAS, FBXW7, TCF7L2) and AIs in chromosomes 5, 7, and 13. Moreover, 80% of adenomas had somatic alterations in WNT pathway genes. Adenomas displayed evidence of multiclonality similar to stage I carcinomas. Strong correlations between mutational rate and patient age were observed in at-risk mucosa and adenomas. Our data indicate that at least 23% of somatic mutations are present in at-risk mucosa prior to adenoma initiation. The genomic profiles of at-risk mucosa and adenomas illustrate the evolution from normal tissue to carcinoma via greater resolution of molecular changes at the inflection point of premalignant lesions. Furthermore, substantial genomic variation exists in at-risk mucosa before adenoma formation, and deregulation of the WNT pathway is required to foster carcinogenesis. Cancer Prev Res; 9(6); 417-27. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27221540

  17. Overgrowth of oral mucosa and facial skin, a novel feature of aspartylglucosaminuria

    PubMed Central

    Arvio, P.; Arvio, M.; Kero, M.; Pirinen, S.; Lukinmaa, P.

    1999-01-01

    Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA). The main symptom is progressive mental retardation. A spectrum of different mutations has been reported in this disease, one missense mutation (Cys163Ser) being responsible for the majority of Finnish cases. We were able to examine 66 Finnish AGU patients for changes in the oral mucosa and 44 of these for changes in facial skin. Biopsy specimens of 16 oral lesions, 12 of them associated with the teeth, plus two facial lesions were studied histologically. Immunohistochemical staining for AGA was performed on 15 oral specimens.
  Skin was seborrhoeic in adolescent and adult patients, with erythema of the facial skin already common in childhood. Of 44 patients, nine (20%) had facial angiofibromas, tumours primarily occurring in association with tuberous sclerosis. Oedemic buccal mucosa (leucoedema) and gingival overgrowths were more frequent in AGU patients than in controls (p<0.001).
  Of 16 oral mucosal lesions studied histologically, 15 represented fibroepithelial or epithelial hyperplasias and were reactive in nature. Cytoplasmic vacuolisation was evident in four. Immunohistochemically, expression of AGA in AGU patients' mucosal lesions did not differ from that seen in corresponding lesions of normal subjects. Thus, the high frequency of mucosal overgrowth in AGU patients does not appear to be directly associated with lysosomal storage or with alterations in the level of AGA expression.


Keywords: aspartylglucosaminidase; lysosomal storage disease; oral mucosa; skin tumours PMID:10353787

  18. A mechanistic based approach for enhancing buccal mucoadhesion of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Muff-Westergaard, Christian; Sander, Camilla; Madelung, Peter; Jacobsen, Jette

    2014-01-30

    Mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems can enhance rapid drug absorption by providing an increased retention time at the site of absorption and a steep concentration gradient. An understanding of the mechanisms behind mucoadhesion of polymers, e.g. chitosan, is necessary for improving the mucoadhesiveness of buccal formulations. The interaction between chitosan of different chain lengths and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) was studied using a complex coacervation model (CCM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a tensile detachment model (TDM). The effect of pH was assessed in all three models and the approach to add a buffer to chitosan based drug delivery systems is a means to optimize and enhance buccal drug absorption. The CCM demonstrated optimal interactions between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2. The ITC experiments showed a significantly increase in affinity between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2 compared to pH 6.3 and that the interactions were entropy driven. The TDM showed a significantly increase in strength of adhesion between chitosan discs and an artificial mucosal surface at pH 5.2 compared to pH 6.8, addition of PGM increased the total work of adhesion by a factor of 10 as compared to the wetted surface without PGM. These findings suggest that chitosan and PGM are able to interact by electrostatic interactions and by improving the conditions for electrostatic interactions, the adhesion between chitosan and PGM becomes stronger. Also, the three complementary methods were utilized to conclude the pH dependency on mucoadhesiveness. PMID:24291123

  19. Oral Insulin and Buccal Insulin: A Critical Reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Jacques, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Despite the availability of modern insulin injection devices with needles that are so sharp and thin that practically no injection pain takes place, it is still the dream of patients with diabetes to, for example, swallow a tablet with insulin. This is not associated with any pain and would allow more discretion. Therefore, availability of oral insulin would not only ease insulin therapy, it would certainly increase compliance. However, despite numerous attempts to develop such a “tablet” in the past 85 years, still no oral insulin is commercially available. Buccal insulin is currently in the last stages of clinical development by one company and might become available in the United States and Europe in the coming years (it is already on the market in some other countries). The aim of this review is to critically describe the different approaches that are currently under development. Optimal coverage of prandial insulin requirements is the aim with both routes of insulin administration (at least with most approaches). The speed of onset of metabolic effect seen with some oral insulin approaches is rapid, but absorption appears to be lower when the tablet is taken immediately prior to a meal. With all approaches, considerable amounts of insulin have to be applied in order to induce therapeutically relevant increases in the metabolic effect because of the low relative biopotency of buccal insulin. Unfortunately, the number of publications about clinical–experimental and clinical studies is surprisingly low. In addition, there is no study published in which the variability of the metabolic effect induced (with and without a meal) was studied adequately. In summary, after the failure of inhaled insulin, oral insulin and buccal insulin are hot candidates to come to the market as the next alternative routes of insulin administration. PMID:20144297

  20. In vitro systems toxicology approach to investigate the effects of repeated cigarette smoke exposure on human buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Schlage, Walter K; Iskandar, Anita R; Kostadinova, Radina; Xiang, Yang; Sewer, Alain; Majeed, Shoaib; Kuehn, Diana; Frentzel, Stefan; Talikka, Marja; Geertz, Marcel; Mathis, Carole; Ivanov, Nikolai; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2014-10-01

    Smoking has been associated with diseases of the lung, pulmonary airways and oral cavity. Cytologic, genomic and transcriptomic changes in oral mucosa correlate with oral pre-neoplasia, cancer and inflammation (e.g. periodontitis). Alteration of smoking-related gene expression changes in oral epithelial cells is similar to that in bronchial and nasal epithelial cells. Using a systems toxicology approach, we have previously assessed the impact of cigarette smoke (CS) seen as perturbations of biological processes in human nasal and bronchial organotypic epithelial culture models. Here, we report our further assessment using in vitro human oral organotypic epithelium models. We exposed the buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures to CS at the air-liquid interface. CS exposure was associated with increased secretion of inflammatory mediators, induction of cytochrome P450s activity and overall weak toxicity in both tissues. Using microarray technology, gene-set analysis and a novel computational modeling approach leveraging causal biological network models, we identified CS impact on xenobiotic metabolism-related pathways accompanied by a more subtle alteration in inflammatory processes. Gene-set analysis further indicated that the CS-induced pathways in the in vitro buccal tissue models resembled those in the in vivo buccal biopsies of smokers from a published dataset. These findings support the translatability of systems responses from in vitro to in vivo and demonstrate the applicability of oral organotypical tissue models for an impact assessment of CS on various tissues exposed during smoking, as well as for impact assessment of reduced-risk products. PMID:25046638

  1. Evaluation of the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in the buccal epithelial cells of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with three light-cured bonding composites by using micronucleus testing

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Sengul; Ozturk, Firat; Karatas, Orhan Hakki; Yalcin, Muhammet

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of fixed orthodontic treatment with three different light-cured orthodontic bonding composites by analyzing micronucleus (MN) formation in the buccal mucosa during a 6-month period. Methods Thirty healthy volunteers were selected from consecutive patients referred for orthodontic treatment. Equilibrium 2 brackets and molar tubes (Dentaurum) were bonded with three different light-cured orthodontic bonding composites-Transbond XT (3M Unitek), Kurasper F (Kuraray Europe), or GrenGloo (Ormco Corporation)- to all teeth in both arches. Exfoliated buccal epithelial cells were scraped from the middle part of the inner cheeks with sterile cement spatulas before treatment and at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. MNs and nuclear alterations, such as karyorrhexis (KR), karyolysis (KL), and binucleated cells (BNs), were scored under a light microscope. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to calculate statistical differences in degenerative nuclear abnormalities. Results MN rates did not significantly differ among different time points within the same cell type (p > 0.05). In contrast, the number of BNs in buccal epithelial cells significantly increased in all composite groups (p < 0.01, Transbond XT; p < 0.001, Kurasper F and GrenGloo). KL frequency significantly increased between the beginning and end of the study in the Kurasfer F (0.80 ± 0.79 to 1.90 ± 1.10; p < 0.05) and GrenGloo (1.30 ± 1.06 to 2.40 ± 1.08; p < 0.05) groups. Conclusions After 6 months of fixed orthodontic treatment with different light-cured composites, morphological signs of cytotoxicity were observed but genotoxic effects were absent. PMID:24892026

  2. Carnosinase activity of human gastrointestinal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Sadikali, F; Darwish, R; Watson, W C

    1975-01-01

    Carnosinase, the dipeptidase which hydrolyses carnosine and other histidine-containing dipeptides, was assayed in mucosal tissues of the human and of the rat gut. Kinetic properties of the intestinal enzyme were found to be similar to carnosinase of other animal tissues. Little or no activity was detected in human gastric or colonic mucosa, and the levels were lower in duodenal than jejunal mucosa. The distribution of carnosinase is similar to that of the disaccharidases. Mean carnosinase activity was 8-8 units/g weight in 15 patients with histologically normal mucosa compared with 5-7 units in five with villous atrophy. The enzyme levels increased with histological improvement of the mucosa in patients with coeliac disease on a gluten-free diet. Tolerance curves for carnosine and its constitutent amino acids showed malabsorption of the dipeptide in a patient with carnosinase deficiency. It is concluded that the intestinal mucosa has much less hydrolase activity for carnosine than for glycylglycine and other dipeptidases, and the relatively slow hydrolysis appears to be the rate-limiting step in the total absorptive process. PMID:1237444

  3. Formulation and evaluation of buccal film of Ivabradine hydrochloride for the treatment of stable angina pectoris

    PubMed Central

    Lodhi, Mohasin; Dubey, Akhilesh; Narayan, Reema; Prabhu, Prabhakara; Priya, Sneh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ivabradine hydrochloride is an anti-anginal drug with a biological half-life of about 2 h, and repeated daily administration is needed to maintain effective plasma level. Present investigation of buccal films of Ivabradine hydrochloride is an attempt to avoid the repeated administration and release of drug in more controlled fashion, thereby, to improve the bioavailability. Materials and Methods: Buccal patches were fabricated by solvent casting technique and were evaluated for its physical properties like physical appearance, weight uniformity, thickness, swelling index, surface pH, mucoadhesive time, and folding endurance, in vitro and ex vivo release studies. Results: A combination of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K15M and K100M with carbopol 940, PEG 6000 gave promising results. Further, the drug content of all the formulations was determined and was found to be uniform. All the formulations were subjected to in vitro release study using phosphate buffer pH 6.6. Patches exhibited drug release in the range of 90.36% ± 0.854 to 98.37% ± 0.589 at the end of six hrs. The best formulations (F2 and F5) containing the composition of HPMC K15-37.50 mg, carbopol-0.42 mg, PEG6000-16.87 mg, Aspertane-0.28 mg, Tween-0.0023 mg and HPMC K100-37.50 mg, carbopol-0.42 mg, PEG6000-16.87 mg, Aspertane-0.28 mg, Tween-0.0023 mg respectively exhibited in vitro drug release of 97.61% ± 0.589 and 98.37% ± 0.114 respectively. The results of ex vivo diffusion using goat cheek pouch revealed that the drug release rate was retarded up to seven hrs. Films prepared with permeation enhancer (Tween 80) showed faster drug release. Finally, stability studies were carried out by using human saliva for the optimized formulation (F2-F5). Conclusion: The present study indicated enormous potential of mucoadhesive buccal patches containing Ivabradine for systemic delivery with an added advantage of circumventing hepatic first pass metabolism. Further work is recommended to

  4. Penile Circular Fasciocutaneous (McAninch) Flap as an Option for Complex Anterior Urethral Stricture in Case of Non-Viable Buccal Mucosal Graft

    PubMed Central

    Vijayganapathy, Sundaramoorthy; Mallya, Ashwin; Sreenivas, Jayaram

    2016-01-01

    The penile circular fasciocutaneous flap (FCF) is employed in the successful single stage reconstruction of long segment complex anterior urethral strictures especially when buccal mucosa is unavailable due to various reasons. A 65-year-old gentleman, chronic smoker and tobacco chewer, hypertensive on treatment, presented with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms for 8 months. He had no prior urethral catheterization. On examination, he had circumcised penis, with stenosis of the external urethral meatus. Glans had no changes suggesting balanitis xerotica obliterans. Suprapubic cystostomy was done as he developed acute urinary retention during evaluation. Retrograde urethrogram (RGU) showed pan-anterior urethral stricture. He was planned for substitution urethroplasty. On oral cavity examination, he had moderate trismus with oral submucous fibrosis. As buccal mucosal graft was unavailable, he was planned for FCF. A ventral onlay tubularization FCF urethroplasty from meatus to bulbar urethra based on dartos dorsal pedicle was done. His postoperative recovery was uneventful. Pericatheter RGU did not show extravastion and he voided well with Qmax 14 ml/second. He is doing well at follow-up.

  5. Eosinophilic ulcer of oral mucosa: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Passador-Santos, Fabrício; Capella, Diogo L.; Manfro, Gabriel; Nodari, Rudy José; Presta, Andréia Antoniuk

    2012-01-01

    Summary Eosinophilic Ulcer (EU) is a rare self-limiting chronic benign lesion of the oral mucosa with pathogenesis still unclear, however it may resemble malignancies, traumatic ulcerations and some infections such as deep fungal infections, tuberculosis and primary syphilis. This is a case report of a patient with EU in the lateral border of the tongue with no history of associated trauma and refractory to treatment with drugs. The ulcer rapidly healed after an incisional biopsy and the definite diagnosis was achieved only combining histologic findings and the clinical follow-up. PMID:22783449

  6. Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

    1989-01-01

    Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

  7. Resveratrol suppresses myofibroblast activity of human buccal mucosal fibroblasts through the epigenetic inhibition of ZEB1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cheng-Chia; Wang, Bing-Yen; Huang, Yu-Hao; Hsieh, Yang-Chih; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Chang, Wen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a precancerous condition of the oral mucosa without specific therapeutic drugs. We previously demonstrated that the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) plays a pathogenic role in the induction of the myofibroblast activity of buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs) and contributes to the pathogenesis of OSF. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic flavonoid with anti-fibrosis activity in various tissues and has the capability to inhibit ZEB1 in oral cancer cells. We examined the effect of resveratrol on the myofibroblast activity of human primary fibrotic BMFs (fBMFs) derived from OSF tissues. With the collagen contraction assay, resveratrol displayed anti-myofibroblast activity in three fBMF lines. Resveratrol also inhibited the expression of fibrogenic genes at the mRNA and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The downregulation of ZEB1 in fBMFs by resveratrol was mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, such as the upregulated expression of miR-200c and the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), as well as the trimethylated lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3). Resveratrol also increased the binding of H3K27me3 to the ZEB1 promoter. The knockdown of EZH2 in fBMFs caused the upregulation of ZEB1 and suppressed the inhibitory effect of resveratrol. Furthermore, the reversed expression pattern between EZH2 and ZEB1 was observed in 6/8 OSF tissues with twofold upregulation of ZEB1 expression compared with the adjacent normal mucosa. In conclusion, our data suggest that resveratrol epigenetically inhibits ZEB1 expression to suppress the myofibroblast activity of fBMFs and may serve as a dietary supplement for OSF patients. PMID:26934322

  8. Nuclear anomalies in the buccal cells of calcite factory workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The micronucleus (MN) assay on exfoliated buccal cells is a useful and minimally invasive method for monitoring genetic damage in humans. To determine the genotoxic effects of calcite dust that forms during processing, MN assay was carried out in exfoliated buccal cells of 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) calcite factory workers and 50 (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) age- and sex-matched control subjects. Frequencies of nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and ‘broken eggs', were also evaluated. Micronuclei and the other aforementioned anomalies were analysed by two way analysis of covariance. The linear correlations between the types of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities were determined by Spearman's Rho. There was a positive correlation between micronuclei and other types of nuclear abnormalities in accordance with the Spearman's Rho test. Results showed statistically significant difference between calcite fabric workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in calcite fabric workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that calcite fabric workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. PMID:21637497

  9. Chemopreventive potential of 3-[2,6-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methylpiperidin-4-ylideneamino]-2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Thanusu, J; Kanagarajan, V; Nagini, S; Gopalakrishnan, M

    2010-12-01

    In the present work, a new bis heterocyclic compound comprising both the piperidone and thiohydantoin nuclei namely 3-[2,6-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methylpiperidin-4-ylideneamino]-2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one was synthesised and characterised with the help of mp, elemental analysis, FT-IR, MS and one-dimensional NMR ((1)H and (13)C) spectra. The inhibitory effect of 3-[2,6-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methylpiperidin-4-ylideneamino]-2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis was investigated in Syrian male hamsters. All the hamsters that were painted with DMBA on their buccal pouches for 14 weeks developed squamous cell carcinoma. Administration of 3-[2,6-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methylpiperidin-4-ylideneamino]-2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one effectively suppressed the oral carcinogenesis initiated with the DMBA as revealed by a reduced incidence of neoplasms. Lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) were used to biomonitor the chemopreventive potential of 3-[2,6-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methylpiperidin-4-ylideneamino]-2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one. Lipid peroxidation was found to be significantly decreased, whereas GSH, GPx, GST and GGT were elevated in the oral mucosa of tumour bearing animals. Our data suggest that 3-[2,6-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-3-methylpiperidin-4-ylideneamino]-2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one may exert its chemopreventive effects in the oral mucosa by modulation of lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and detoxification systems. PMID:20370536

  10. Bioengineered vocal fold mucosa for voice restoration.

    PubMed

    Ling, Changying; Li, Qiyao; Brown, Matthew E; Kishimoto, Yo; Toya, Yutaka; Devine, Erin E; Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Nishimoto, Kohei; Norman, Ian G; Tsegyal, Tenzin; Jiang, Jack J; Burlingham, William J; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Smith, Lloyd M; Frey, Brian L; Welham, Nathan V

    2015-11-18

    Patients with voice impairment caused by advanced vocal fold (VF) fibrosis or tissue loss have few treatment options. A transplantable, bioengineered VF mucosa would address the individual and societal costs of voice-related communication loss. Such a tissue must be biomechanically capable of aerodynamic-to-acoustic energy transfer and high-frequency vibration and physiologically capable of maintaining a barrier against the airway lumen. We isolated primary human VF fibroblasts and epithelial cells and cocultured them under organotypic conditions. The resulting engineered mucosae showed morphologic features of native tissue, proteome-level evidence of mucosal morphogenesis and emerging extracellular matrix complexity, and rudimentary barrier function in vitro. When grafted into canine larynges ex vivo, the mucosae generated vibratory behavior and acoustic output that were indistinguishable from those of native VF tissue. When grafted into humanized mice in vivo, the mucosae survived and were well tolerated by the human adaptive immune system. This tissue engineering approach has the potential to restore voice function in patients with otherwise untreatable VF mucosal disease. PMID:26582902

  11. Desmoplastic Melanocytic Nevus of Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Damm, Douglas D; Fowler, Craig B; Schmidt, David P

    2016-09-01

    The desmoplastic melanocytic nevus is an uncommon variant that easily may be confused with a fibrohistiocytic neoplasm or a desmoplastic melanoma. It is believed that the following report describes the first known example of a desmoplastic melanocytic nevus arising in the oral mucosa. The histopathologic and immunohistochemical features that allow separation from other microscopically similar pathoses are stressed. PMID:26747459

  12. Optical detection of (pre-)malignant lesions of the oral mucosa: autofluorescence characteristics of healthy mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Veld, Diana C. G.; Witjes, Max; Roodenburg, Jan L.; Star, Willem M.; Sterenborg, Hericus J. C. M.

    2001-10-01

    Previous clinical results demonstrate the potential of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy for early detection of (pre-)malignant lesions of the oral mucosa. For reliable diagnosis, it is necessary to study autofluorescence spectra of healthy mucosa first. We measured excitation-emission maps in healthy subjects and subjects with a history of cancer in the head -neck region. Our results show that different anatomical locations produce distinct autofluorescence spectra. Influences of, among others, smoking and drinking habits require further investigation.

  13. Nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal cells in Pakistani cotton weavers.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Wali; Nersesyan, Armen; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Cotton workers in small weaving household factories (power looms) in Pakistan are typically exposed to high levels of cotton dusts. Working in the textile manufacturing industry has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The study set out to determine potential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to cotton dusts in exfoliated buccal cells of exposed cotton workers. Nuclear anomalies reflecting cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were evaluated in a representative sample of 51 exposed male cotton weavers and in the same number of age-matched male non-exposed subjects applying the micronucleus cytome assay. Nuclear anomalies reflecting cytotoxicity (karyolysis, karyorrhexis, condensed chromatin and pyknosis) were significantly elevated in exposed cotton workers. The frequency of micronucleated cells increased significantly with increasing years of work in power looms (odds ratio = 1.043 per year; 95% confidence interval: 1.012-1.076, P = 0.007). Results were consistent with the typical inflammatory pattern and injury in epithelia due to unprotected occupational exposure to cotton dusts and other toxic, allergic and infectious substances in the working areas of the cotton industry. Occupational exposure in power looms induces cytotoxic effects and, upon chronic exposure, DNA damage. This may eventually result in typical obstructive patterns of pulmonary symptoms and in a clinical condition called byssinosis in exposed cotton workers. Long exposure may lead to chronic inflammation and cumulative damage of DNA in buccal stem cells that may indicate an increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:25805022

  14. Relative Transmissibility of an R5 Clade C Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Across Different Mucosae in Macaques Parallels the Relative Risks of Sexual HIV-1 Transmission Via Different Routes

    PubMed Central

    Chenine, Agnès L.; Siddappa, Nagadenahalli B.; Kramer, Victor G.; Sciaranghella, Gaia; Rasmussen, Robert A.; Lee, Sandra J.; Santosuosso, Michael; Poznansky, Mark C.; Velu, Vijayakumar; Amara, Rama R.; Souder, Chris; Anderson, Daniel C.; Villinger, François; Else, James G.; Novembre, Francis J.; Strobert, Elizabeth; O’Neil, Shawn P.; Secor, W. Evan; Ruprecht, Ruth M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Worldwide, ~90% of all HIV transmissions occur mucosally; almost all involve R5 strains. Risks of sexual HIV acquisition are highest for rectal, followed by vaginal and then oral exposures. Methods Mucosal lacerations may affect the rank-order of susceptibility to HIV but cannot be assessed in humans. We measured relative virus transmissibility across intact mucosae in macaques using a single stock of SHIV-1157ipd3N4, a simian-human immunodeficiency virus encoding a primary R5 HIV clade C env (SHIV-C). Results The penetrability of rhesus macaque mucosae differed significantly, with rectal challenge requiring the least virus, followed by the vaginal and then oral routes. These findings imply that intrinsic mucosal properties are responsible for the differential mucosal permeability. The latter paralleled the rank-order reported for humans, with relative risk estimates within the range of epidemiologic human studies. To test whether inflammation facilitates virus transmission – as predicted from human studies – we established a macaque model of localized buccal inflammation. Systemic infection occurred across inflamed, but not normal buccal mucosa. Conclusion Our primate data recapitulate virus transmission risks observed in humans, thus establishing R5 SHIV-1157ipd3N4 in macaques as a robust model system to study cofactors involved in human mucosal HIV transmission and its prevention. PMID:20214475

  15. [Pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with tuberculosis of oral mucosa, mandible and cervical lymph nodes].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, K; Ueda, S; Horie, T

    1995-04-01

    A case of pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with tuberculous of oral mucosa, mandible and cervical lymph nodes in 53-year-old man is reported. He was firstly treated for right side dental caries. He also received routinely an empiric antibiotic therapy, but discharge of pus continued. Then, pain of oral cavities spread to the right shoulder. The diagnosis of oral mucosa, osteomyelitis of mandible and lymph node tuberculosis was made by the histological examination of biopsy specimens and positive smear test for M. tuberculosis in granulation. The chest X-ray film showed multiple nodular shadows in bilateral lungs. The combination of INH, RFP and SM was applied initially and then SM was replaced by CS due to its side effect. Negative smear test for M. tuberculosis of oral mucosa was achieved five months after the initiation of treatment. PMID:7760539

  16. Human keratinocyte culture from the peritonsillar mucosa.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, P; Bonnekoh, B; Wevers, A; Michel, O; Mahrle, G; Krieg, T; Stennert, E

    1996-01-01

    Tonsillectomy tissue can be used as a routine source for cultures of oropharyngeal keratinocytes. In so doing, a peritonsillar strip of unaltered mucosa was dissected in the upper submucosa. Subsequent trypsinization yielded 7.0 +/- 3.4 x 10(6) keratinocytes per bilateral tonsillectomy. Keratinocyte attachment and growth in primary culture were promoted by sublethally irradiated 3T3 murine fibroblasts. Three subcultures could be performed without a feeder layer and were characterized by a population doubling time of 4.5 days during log growth phase. Electrophoretic and immunoblot analysis of the third subculture revealed a strong expression of keratin pairs 5/14 and 6/16 as well as keratins 7 and 19, whereas keratins 8/18 were expressed less intensely. The lowest intensity, was found for keratin 13, which is known to be indicative of the differentiated mucosa. The culture technique thus provides an easily available in vitro model for morphological and functional studies on the epithelial compartment of human oropharyngeal mucosa. PMID:8737778

  17. [Bioelectric properties of excised rabbit nasal mucosa].

    PubMed

    Suzumura, E; Takeuchi, K; Sakakura, Y

    1990-06-01

    The water flow across the respiratory epithelia is an important determinant of the efficiency of mucociliary clearance. Bulk water flow has been shown to be coupled to net ion flux. We studied ion transport across rabbit nasal mucosa by measuring bioelectric properties using Ussing chambers. Results were summarized as follows. (1) Compared with tracheal mucosa, nasal mucosa exhibited lower potential difference (p less than 0.01), lower short-circuit current (p less than 0.05), and higher conductance (p less than 0.01). (2) Ouabain 10(-4)M inhibited short-circuit current when added to the submucosal bath of Ussing chambers, and amiloride decreased short-circuit current to about 40% when added to the mucosal bath. (3) When the bubbling of the solution was changed from 95%O2, 5%CO2 to 100%N2, short-circuit current remarkably decreased. (4) A significant positive correlation existed between temperature ranging from 33 degrees C to 41 degrees C and short-circuit current (r = 0.46, p less than 0.02). PMID:2213352

  18. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using /sup 3/H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Mucoadhesive Buccal Nanoparticles Using Chitosan and Dextran Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Suh, Ji Woon; Lee, Ji-Soo; Ko, Sanghoon; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to formulate buccal mucoadhesive nanoparticles (NPs) using the natural mucoadhesive polymers. The natural mucoadhesive polymers chitosan (CS) and dextran sulfate sodium salt (DS) were used to prepare mucoadhesive NPs using the ionic gelation method. As the molecular weight of DS decreased, the amount of mucin and the number of buccal cells adsorbed on DS increased. The CS/DS NPs ranged from 100 to 200 nm in diameter. The adhesive interactions of CS/DS NPs with mucin were not significantly different from those of CS/sodium triphosphate pentabasic (TPP) NPs; however, CS/DS NPs exhibited 5 times greater mucoadhesive activity to buccal cells compared to control CS/TPP NPs in ex vivo adhesion tests. These results indicate that the buccal mucoadhesive properties of NPs can be improved using natural mucoadhesive polymers. PMID:27222213

  20. Evaluation of blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles for DNA profiling technique using STR markers

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Garima; Dogra, T D; Raina, Anupuma

    2015-01-01

    Aim To study the short tandem repeat (STR) pattern of DNA from the blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles of the recipients of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to examine whether these tissues contain donor derived cells. Methods The study enrolled 25 patients who sustained engraftment. Peripheral blood, buccal swabs, and hair follicles were collected on days 21-30, 90, and 180 after transplantation and the chimeric status of the recipients was evaluated. Results Donor derived cells existed in the blood and buccal swabs, but not in hair follicles, which can be used to obtain the pre-transplant sample of the recipient after transplant. Conclusion Peripheral blood and buccal swab do not serve as a reliable source of recipient’s origin for DNA analysis of individuals who underwent allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at least within 6 months after transplant. PMID:26088848

  1. Efficacy of several candidate protein biomarkers in the differentiation of vaginal from buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Simons, Joanne L; Vintiner, Sue K

    2012-11-01

    Currently, there is no accurate method to differentiate vaginal epithelial cells from buccal epithelial cells in biological samples typically encountered in forensic casework. This study tested the expression of a selection of candidate proteins in buccal and vaginal epithelial cells. We investigated six candidate biomarkers, such as loricrin, vimentin, stratifin, cytokeratin 4, cytokeratin 13, small proline-rich protein 2, and involucrin, using Western blot analysis on whole protein extracts and immunohistochemistry (IHC) on intact cells in an attempt to identify cell-specific markers that would differentiate these cells by microscopy. Involucrin, loricrin, and stratifin showed differential expression during Western blot analysis and were carried through to IHC. Although proteins unique to vaginal epithelial cells and buccal epithelial cells were not identified from among the proteins tested, the increased expression levels of two proteins, loricrin and stratifin in vaginal cells, when compared to buccal cells, do provide encouraging results in the search for epithelial cell-specific markers. PMID:22612601

  2. Testing hypotheses of dietary reconstruction from buccal dental microwear in Australopithecus afarensis.

    PubMed

    Estebaranz, F; Martínez, L M; Galbany, J; Turbón, D; Pérez-Pérez, A

    2009-12-01

    A recent study of occlusal microwear in Australopithecus afarensis described this species as an opportunistic dweller, living in both forested and open environments and greatly relying on fallback resources and using fewer food-processing activities than previously suggested. In the present study, analysis of buccal microwear variability in a sample of A. afarensis specimens (n=75 teeth) showed no significant correlations with the ecological shift that took place around 3.5Ma in Africa. These results are consistent with the occlusal microwear data available. In fact, significant correlations between buccal and occlusal microwear variables were found. However, comparison of the buccal microwear patterns showed clear similarities between A. afarensis and those hominoid species living in somewhat open environments, especially the Cameroon gorillas. A diet based mainly on succulent fruits and seasonal fallback resources would be consistent with the buccal microwear patterns observed. PMID:19875149

  3. Gene expression profiling of duodenal biopsies discriminates celiac disease mucosa from normal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bragde, Hanna; Jansson, Ulf; Jarlsfelt, Ingvar; Söderman, Jan

    2011-06-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is identified by histopathologic changes in the small intestine which normalize during a gluten-free diet. The histopathologic assessment of duodenal biopsies is usually routine but can be difficult. This study investigated gene expression profiling as a diagnostic tool. A total of 109 genes were selected to reflect alterations in crypt-villi architecture, inflammatory response, and intestinal permeability and were examined for differential expression in normal mucosa compared with CD mucosa in pediatric patients. Biopsies were classified using discriminant analysis of gene expression. Fifty genes were differentially expressed, of which eight (APOC3, CYP3A4, OCLN, MAD2L1, MKI67, CXCL11, IL17A, and CTLA4) discriminated normal mucosa from CD mucosa without classification errors using leave-one-out cross-validation (n = 39) and identified the degree of mucosal damage. Validation using an independent set of biopsies (n = 27) resulted in four discrepant cases. Biopsies from two of these cases showed a patchy distribution of lesions, indicating that discriminant analysis based on single biopsies failed to identify CD mucosa. In the other two cases, serology support class according to discriminant analysis and histologic specimens were judged suboptimal but assessable. Gene expression profiling shows promise as a diagnostic tool and for follow-up of CD, but further evaluation is needed. PMID:21378598

  4. Closure of oroantral communications with Bichat´s buccal fat pad. Level of patient satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-González, Rocío; Peñarrocha-Diago, María; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Aloy-Prósper, Amparo; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report the closure of oroantral communications with the pedicled buccal fat pad in a series of patients, and to determine the level of patient satisfaction after the surgery. Study Design: A prospective study of patients diagnosed of unilateral or bilateral oroantral communication (OAC) closed using the buccal fat pad between May 2012 and January 2013 was performed. Data analysis extended to: age, sex, and cause, location and size of oroantral communication. Complications and success related to buccal fat pad surgery were evaluated. Also, patient satisfaction was assessed after six months of surgery. Results: Nine patients (3 men and 6 women) with a mean age of 50.5 years and 11 OAC treated with buccal fat pads were included. The most common cause of oroantral communication was the extraction of molars. The average widest diameter of the oroantral communication was 7.1 mm. One week after the surgeries no complications were found. One month after surgery, one patient presented persistence of the oroantral communication; in this patient, the buccal fat pad technique was considered a failure, and a second intervention was performed using a buccal mucoperiosteal flap to achieve primary closure of soft tissues. After six months, patient showed closure of the communication and complete healing. All the other communications had been solved with Bichat´s ball technique, yielding a success rate of 90.9%. Mean patient overall satisfaction was 9.1 out of 10; patients were satisfied with phonetics (9.4), aesthetics (9) and chewing (9). Conclusions: The buccal fat pad technique was successful in closing 10 out of 11 oroantral communications and few complications were found. Patients were highly satisfied in overall with the treatment and with phonetics, aesthetics and chewing. Key words:Bichat’s fat pad, buccal fat pad, oroantral communication. PMID:25810838

  5. Onset of Buccal Pumping in Catshark Embryos: How Breathing Develops in the Egg Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Taketeru; Nakamura, Masaru; Sato, Keiichi; Takaoka, Hiroko; Toda, Minoru; Kawauchi, Junro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Respiration in fishes involves buccal pumping, which is characterized by the generation of nearly continuous water flow over the gills because of the rhythmic expansion/compression of the pharyngeal cavity. This mechanism is achieved by the functions of the vascular, skeletal, and muscular systems. However, the process by which the embryo establishes the mechanism remains a mystery. Morphological and kinematical observations on captive cloudy catsharks, Scyliorhinus torazame, have suggested that the embryo starts buccal pumping just before the respiratory slits open on the egg capsule. During the pre-opening period, the embryo acquires oxygen mainly via the external gill filaments. After slit opening, respiration of the embryo involves buccal pumping to pass water over the “internal gills.” The onset of buccal pumping accompanies four morphological changes: (1) regression of the external gill filaments, (2) development of blood vessels within the “internal gills,” (3) completion of the development of hyoid skeletal and muscular elements, and (4) development of the oral valve. A previous study showed that buccal pumping allows the embryo to actively regulate oxygen intake by changing the pumping frequency. Thus, establishment of buccal pumping in the egg capsule is probably important for embryo survival in the unstable oxygen environment of the egg capsule after slit opening. PMID:25329313

  6. Development of alginate microspheres as nystatin carriers for oral mucosa drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Martín, María J; Calpena, Ana C; Fernández, Francisco; Mallandrich, Mireia; Gálvez, Patricia; Clares, Beatriz

    2015-03-01

    To develop more effective antifungal mucoadhesive systems for the treatment of oral candidiasis, three types of microspheres, alginate (AM1), chitosan coated (CCM) and hydrogel (AM2) containing nystatin (Nys) were successfully elaborated by emulsification/internal gelation method. Physicochemical properties of microspheres resulted in 85-135 μm mean sizes, spherical shaped with narrow distribution. Optimal encapsulation efficiency and negative zeta potentials were observed. AM2 showed a consistent decrease in viscosity with increasing shear rate (Herschel-Bulkley). Optimal mucoadhesive properties and swelling behaviour where evidenced. Nys release from AM1 and CCM followed a concentration gradient pattern, contrary AM2 followed a complex release mechanism. All systems exhibited a marked fungicidal activity against Candida albicans strains. In vivo studies demonstrated that Nys was not found in systemic circulation assuring the safety of the treatment. Nys amounts retained in the mucosa were more than enough to ensure an effective fungicidal action without tissue damage. Based on the obtained results, AM2 could be proposed as the vehicle with the best properties for the buccal vehiculization of Nys. PMID:25498619

  7. A case of small cell carcinoma in the buccal region.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, K; Nozoe, E; Hirayama, Y; Miyawaki, A; Semba, I; Nakamura, N

    2009-09-01

    Small cell carcinoma (SCC) in the head and neck region is an extremely rare high-grade malignant tumor. The authors report a case of an SCC occurring in the left buccal region. An 85-year-old man exhibited left cheek swelling that rapidly increased in size. Histopathological examination revealed invasive growth of an SCC into the musculo-adipose tissue. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and CD56, but negative for cytokeratin 20. The patient received chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which resulted in marked regression of the tumor. Surgical resection was performed. The serum levels of NSE and pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (pro-GRP) increased and multiple metastases of the tumor occurred 1 month after surgery. SCCs tend to exhibit aggressive invasion and metastasis so chemotherapy for the whole body is recommended to prevent dissemination of the tumor cells. Serum levels of NSE and pro-GRP are considered to be useful tumor markers for understanding the status of the tumor and the clinical symptoms. PMID:19464148

  8. Amidated pectin-based wafers for econazole buccal delivery: formulation optimization and antimicrobial efficacy estimation.

    PubMed

    Mura, Paola; Mennini, Natascia; Kosalec, Ivan; Furlanetto, Sandra; Orlandini, Serena; Jug, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Combinations of low-methoxy amidated pectin (LMAP) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) were used to develop a lyophilized wafer formulation, aimed to obtain prolonged residence and controlled release of econazole nitrate (ECN) in the oral cavity. Ternary ECN/sulphobutylether-ß-cyclodextrin/citric acid complex, resulted as the most efficient system against selected Candida strains, was loaded into this formulation. The final product with the desired and predicted quality was developed by an experimental design strategy. The experimental values of mucoadhesion strength (28.37 ± 0.04 mg/cm(2)) and residence time (88.1 ± 0.1 min) obtained for the optimized wafer formulation were very close to the predicted ones, thus demonstrating the actual reliability and usefulness of the assumed model in the preparation of buccal wafers. The optimized formulation provided a constant ECN in situ release of 5mg/h and was efficacious against selected Candida strains in vitro. This clearly proved its potential as a novel effective delivery system for the therapy of oral candidiasis. PMID:25659694

  9. Development and In vitro Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Buccal Films of Nebivolol

    PubMed Central

    Mane, P. P.; Bushetti, S. S.; Keshavshetti, G. G.

    2014-01-01

    Nebivolol, a cardioselective β-blocker undergoes extensive metabolism in the liver after its oral administration resulting in low bioavailability. Oral administration of nebivolol also causes gastrointestinal disturbances characterised by stomach ache. To overcome these short comings, mucoadhesive buccal films of nebivolol were prepared using different concentrations of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and hydroxyl ethylcellulose in the ratios of 2:1, 4:1 and 6:1 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose in the ratio of 2:2, 4:3 and 6:4 by solvent casting technique. All the prepared films were found to be smooth, elegant and uniform in thickness and weight. Among the three polymer combinations used, 6:4 (BFN6) showed increased in vitro residence time, which appeared to be mainly due to mucoadhesive nature of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose. Evaluation of the films showed uniform dispersion of the drug throughout the formulation (96.21±0.71 to 97.02±0.12%). In vitro drug release studies showed better results at the end of 8 h. The release profile of all the formulations was subjected to kinetic analyses, which suggested that the drug was released by diffusion mechanism following super case-II transport. PMID:24843191

  10. Prelamination of Neourethra with Uterine Mucosa in Radial Forearm Osteocutaneous Free Flap Phalloplasty in the Female-to-Male Transgender Patient

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Christopher J.; Chim, Jimmy; Medina, Carlos A.; Demaso, Stephanie; Gomez, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Radial forearm free flap phalloplasty is the most commonly performed flap for neophallus construction in the female-to-male (FtM) transgender patient. Urological complications, however, can arise quite frequently and can prevent the patient from urinating in the standing position, an important postsurgical goal for many. Using mucosa to construct the fixed urethra and to prelaminate the penile urethra has been successful in reducing urologic complications, particularly strictures and fistulas. Until now, only buccal, vaginal, colonic, and bladder sites have been described as sources for these mucosal grafts. We present the successful use of uterine mucosa for prelamination of the neourethra in an FtM patient who underwent hysterectomy and vaginectomy at the prelamination stage of a radial forearm phalloplasty. Three months postoperatively, the patient was able to void while standing and showed no evidence of stricture or fistula on retrograde cystogram. These results suggest that uterine mucosa may be used for prelamination of the penile neourethra in patients undergoing phalloplasty. PMID:27069708

  11. [Implant positioned buccally of the alveolar process; a complication].

    PubMed

    Abas, I; Meijer, G J

    2016-02-01

    Because of a blue discolouration of her mucosa a 58-year-old patient visited her new dentist. Her medical history revealed that several months before an implant in the region of dental element 22 had been installed. When palpating the alveolar region, a painless hard swelling was felt. As a malposition of the implant was suspected, it was decided to have a cone beam computed tomography-scan made. The sagittal scan revealed that apically the implant in the region of dental element 22 was not embedded in the jawbone. Following the placement of an implant, it is always necessary to verify that the implant procedure has been carried out successfully; palpating the implant bed is always required. PMID:26878714

  12. Honey and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Aida; Somi, Mohammad H; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Modaresi, Jabiz; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is a complex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumor properties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates the risk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisive role in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship between consumption of honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 subjects over 18 years old, referred to two hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Subjects were undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 62 subjects were finally enrolled. Honey consumption was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technique. We tested polynomial curve to find the best fit between honey consumption and apoptosis. Results: A positive relation between honey consumption and apoptosis was found (P=0.024). Our results indicated that the final and the best fit curve was: apoptosis = 1.714+1.648(honey amount) - 0.533(honey amount)2 +1.833×10-5(honey amount)7. Conclusion: Honey consumption had positive effects on gastric cancer by inducing apoptosis in gastric mucosa. PMID:24688918

  13. Combination Trimodality Therapy Using Vismodegib for Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Face.

    PubMed

    Block, Alec M; Alite, Fiori; Diaz, Aidnag Z; Borrowdale, Richard W; Clark, Joseph I; Choi, Mehee

    2015-01-01

    Background. For large basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) of the head and neck, definitive surgery often requires extensive resection and reconstruction that may result in prolonged recovery and limited cosmesis. Vismodegib, a small-molecule inhibitor of the hedgehog pathway, is approved for advanced and metastatic BCCs. We present a case of advanced BCC treated with combination of vismodegib, radiotherapy, and local excision resulting in excellent response and cosmesis. Case Presentation. A 64-year-old gentleman presented with a 5-year history of a 7 cm enlarging right cheek mass, with extensive vascularization, central ulceration, and skin, soft tissue, and buccal mucosa involvement. Biopsy revealed BCC, nodular type. Up-front surgical option involved a large resection and reconstruction. After multidisciplinary discussion, we recommended and he opted for combined modality of vismodegib, radiotherapy, and local excision. The patient tolerated vismodegib well and his right cheek lesion decreased significantly in size. He was then treated with radiotherapy followed by local excision that revealed only focal residual BCC. Currently, he is without evidence of disease and has excellent cosmesis. Conclusions. We report a case of locally advanced BCC treated with trimodality therapy with vismodegib, radiotherapy, and local excision, resulting in excellent outcome and facial cosmesis, without requiring extensive resection or reconstructive surgery. PMID:26504605

  14. Small Buccal Fat Pad Cells Have High Osteogenic Differentiation Potential.

    PubMed

    Tsurumachi, Niina; Akita, Daisuke; Kano, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Taro; Toriumi, Taku; Kazama, Tomohiko; Oki, Yoshinao; Tamura, Yoko; Tonogi, Morio; Isokawa, Keitaro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Honda, Masaki

    2016-03-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from mature adipocytes have mesenchymal stem cells' (MSCs) characteristics. Generally, mature adipocytes are 60-110 μm in diameter; however, association between adipocyte size and dedifferentiation efficiency is still unknown. This study, therefore, investigated the dedifferentiation efficiency of adipocytes based on cell diameter. Buccal fat pad was harvested from five human donors and dissociated by collagenase digestion. After exclusion of unwanted stromal cells by centrifugation, floating adipocytes were collected and their size distribution was analyzed. The floating adipocytes were then separated into two groups depending on cell size using 40- and 100-μm nylon mesh filters: cell diameters less than 40 μm (small adipocytes: S-adipocytes) and cell diameters of 40-100 μm (large adipocytes: L-adipocytes). Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of adipocyte dedifferentiation and then characterized the resultant DFAT cells. The S-adipocytes showed a higher capacity to dedifferentiate into DFAT cells (S-DFAT cells) compared to the L-adipocytes (L-DFAT cells). The S-DFAT cells also showed a relatively higher proportion of CD146-positive cells than L-DFAT cells, and exhibited more osteogenic differentiation ability based on the alkaline phosphatase activity and amount of calcium deposition. These results suggested that the S- and L-DFAT cells had distinct characteristics, and that the higher dedifferentiation potential of S-adipocytes compared to L-adipocytes gives the former group an advantage in yielding DFAT cells. PMID:26651216

  15. Azithromycin buccal patch in treatment of chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Sajith Abdul; Vandana, K. L.; Thimmashetty, J.; Dalvi, Priyanka Jairaj

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to explore the clinical, microbiological, and biochemical impact of azithromycin (AZM) buccal patch in chronic generalized patients as a monotherapy as well as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy. Materials and Methods: A parallel design was used forty periodontitis patients were randomly allocated into five groups, namely Group 1 scaling root planing (SRP) alone, Group 2 (SRP + AZM patch group), Group 3 (SRP + AZM tablet group), Group 4 (AZM patch monotherapy), and Group 5 (AZM tablet as monotherapy). Plaque index, gingival bleeding index, modified gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were assessed at baseline and 21 and 90 days. Subgingival pooled plaque sample was collected to assess periodontopathogens like Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) by anaerobic culture method. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was also evaluated at baseline and 21 days. Periodontal maintenance was performed in Group 1 until 90th day, and clinical parameter was assessed at the end of 90th day. Results: SRP + AZM tablets showed greater reduction in clinical parameters (P < 0.05) AZM as monotherapy did not offer clinical benefits over SRP. Baseline data were compared at the end, i.e., 90th day a significant reduction in plaque scores, gingival bleeding, and PPD was observed however no significant gain in the clinical attachment was observed. Conclusion: The monotherapy resulted in no improvement of periodontal parameters, microbial parameters, and TNF-α level. It is safe to use AZM + SRP as a mode of nonsurgical treatment in periodontitis patients. PMID:27127325

  16. Identification of Control Parameters for Brass Player’s Embouchure by Measuring Contact Pressure on the Teeth Buccal Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourakata, Itaru; Moriyama, Kozo; Hara, Toshiaki

    For the technical improvement for brass instrument players it is important to obtain the detailed control parameters for embouchure building. While many investigators have reported the preliminary data on the muscle behavior, the precise aspects are unrevealed so far. The purpose of the present paper is to study dynamic perioral muscle behavior of French horn players and to investigate their lip valve function by measuring the contact pressure on teeth buccal surface during playing. It was shown from the experimental results that the advanced players contracted depressor angulioris and levator angulioris especially for high tone playing. It is considered that the combined contraction by these muscles contributes to forming smaller lip aperture being suitable to produce higher tones. Inversely a strong contraction of m. buccinator, which is widely believed to work to give hard tension to player’s lip, was observed insignificantly in the advanced players.

  17. Assessment of buccal bone thickness of aesthetic maxillary region: a cone-beam computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Tania; Navarro, Pablo; Salamanca, Carlos; Beltrán, Víctor; Borie, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze the anatomical dimensions of the buccal bone walls of the aesthetic maxillary region for immediate implant placement, based upon cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans in a sample of adult patients. Methods Two calibrated examiners analyzed a sample of 50 CBCT scans, performing morphometric analyses of both incisors and canines on the left and right sides. Subsequently, in the sagittal view, a line was traced through the major axis of the selected tooth. Then, a second line (E) was traced from the buccal to the palatal wall at the level of the observed bone ridges. The heights of the buccal and palatal bone ridges were determined at the major axis of the tooth. The buccal bone thickness was measured across five lines. The first was at the level of line E. The second was at the most apical point of the tooth, and the other three lines were equidistant between the apical and the cervical lines, and parallel to them. Statistical analysis was performed with a significance level of P≤0.05 for the bone thickness means and standard deviations per tooth and patient for the five lines at varying depths. Results The means of the buccal wall thicknesses in the central incisors, lateral incisors and canines were 1.14±0.65 mm, 0.95±0.67 mm and 1.15±0.68 mm, respectively. Additionally, only on the left side were significant differences in some measurements of buccal bone thickness observed according to age and gender. However, age and gender did not show significant differences in heights between the palatal and buccal plates. In a few cases, the buccal wall had a greater height than the palatal wall. Conclusions Less than 10% of sites showed more than a 2-mm thickness of the buccal bone wall, with the exception of the central incisor region, wherein 14.4% of cases were ≥2 mm. PMID:26550524

  18. Evidence for homologous peptidergic neurons in the buccal ganglia of diverse nudibranch mollusks.

    PubMed

    Watson, W H; Willows, A O

    1992-03-01

    The buccal ganglia of seven nudibranches (Aeolidia papillosa, Armina californica, Dirona albolineata, D. picta, Hermissenda crassicornis, Melibe leonina, and Tritonia diomedea) were examined to explore possible homologies between large cells that reacted with antibodies directed against small cardioactive peptide B (SCPB). The buccal ganglion of each species possessed a pair of large, dorsal-lateral, whitish neurons that contained an SCPB-like peptide. We refer to these neurons as the SLB (SCPB-immunoreactive Large Buccal) cells. In all species examined, the SLB cells project out the gastroesophageal nerves and appear to innervate the esophagus. In each species, an apparent rhythmic feeding motor program (FMP) was observed by intracellular recording from both SLB neurons and other neurons in isolated preparations of the buccal ganglia. SLB cells often fire at a high frequency, and usually burst in a specific phase relation to the FMP activity. Stimulation of SLB cells enhances expression of the feeding motor program, either by potentiating existing activity or eliciting the FMP in quiescent preparations. Finally, perfusion of isolated buccal ganglia with SCPB excites the SLB cells and activates FMPs. Thus, both the immunohistochemical and electrophysiological data suggest that the SLB cells within three suborders of the opisthobranchia (Dendronotacea, Arminacea, and Aeolidacea) are homologous. A comparison of our data with previously published studies indicates that SLB cell homologs may exist in other gastropods as well. PMID:1527526

  19. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits. PMID:25223623

  20. Products used on female genital mucosa.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Lennon, Lisa; Ajayi, Funmi

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of products are used by women in the genital area and, therefore, come into contact with the genital mucosa. The largest category of such products would be those used for cleanliness and odor control, such as soaps and body washes, douches, premoistened wipes and towelettes, dusting powder and deodorant sprays. A second large category of products are those intended to absorb fluids, such as products used for menstrual protection (tampons, pads and panty liners) and incontinence protection. Lubricants and moisturizers, and aesthetic products (hair removal products and dyes) are also fairly common. In addition, over the counter medications are now available for the treatment of fungal infections. This chapter briefly discusses the products women use on or around the genital area, the perceived or real benefits, and the potential health effects of these products. PMID:21325843

  1. [Pigmented lesions of the genital mucosa].

    PubMed

    Hengge, U R; Meurer, M

    2005-06-01

    Pigmented lesions of the genital mucosa are more frequent in women than in men. They represent a spectrum of different benign entities. A biopsy is always recommended when the diagnosis cannot be made with certainty on clinical examination and dermatoscopy. Differential diagnostic considerations include melanocytic nevi, blue nevi and syndromes featuring lentigines. Malignant melanomas of the penis and vulva are uncommon tumors which usually appear in elderly patients. They frequently present as painless palpable nodules at routine examination. The treatment consists of excision with histological control of the margins. An aggressive surgical approach has not been shown to prolong the poor 5-year survival. Cooperation with gynecologists and urologists is essential for the optimal management of such patients. PMID:15905972

  2. Laminated sponges as challenging solid hydrophilic matrices for the buccal delivery of carvedilol microemulsion systems: Development and proof of concept via mucoadhesion and pharmacokinetic assessments in healthy human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elbary, Ahmed; Makky, Amna M A; Tadros, Mina Ibrahim; Alaa-Eldin, Ahmed Adel

    2016-01-20

    Carvedilol (CVD) suffers from low absolute bioavailability (25%) due to its limited aqueous solubility and hepatic first-pass metabolism. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) laminated buccal sponges loaded with CVD microemulsions (CVD-ME) were exploited to surmount such limitations. Six pseudoternary-phase diagrams were constructed using Capmul® MCM C8/Capmul® PG8, Tween® 80, propylene glycol and water. Six CVD-ME systems (0.625% w/v) were incorporated into HPMC core sponges backed with Ethocel® layers. The sponges were preliminary evaluated via FT-IR, DSC and XRD. The surface pH, morphology and in vitro drug release studies were evaluated. In vivo mucoadhesion and absorption studies of the best achieved laminated sponges (F4) were assessed in healthy volunteers. CVD-ME systems displayed nano-spherical clear droplets. The sponges showed interconnecting porous matrices through which CVD was dispersed in amorphous state. No intermolecular interaction was detected between CVD and HPMC. The surface pH values were almost neutral. The sponges loaded with CVD-ME systems showed more sustained-release profiles than those loaded with CVD-powder. Compared to Dilatrend® tablets, the significantly (P<0.05) higher bioavailability (1.5 folds), delayed Tmax and prolonged MRT(0-∞) unraveled the dual-potential of F4 sponges for water-insoluble drugs, like CVD, in improving drug oral bioavailability and in controlling drug release kinetics via buccal mucosa. PMID:26546947

  3. Clinical reliability of radial forearm free flap in repair of buccal defects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ideal method for buccal defects should provide good outcome of both function and appearance; our goal is to highlight the reliability of radial forearm flap in buccal reconstruction. Methods A retrospective study was conducted. From 2005 to 2012, 20 radial forearm flaps were used to repair the defects. We analyzed the superiority and reliability of the flap; in addition, we reviewed some related literature and made a comparison between radial forearm flap and platysma flap. Results All radial forearm flaps totally survived, but two flaps suffered venous obstruction, hematoma, respectively. Radial forearm flap preserved the original interincisal distance well. In our follow-up, all patients had sufficient mouth-opening width (mean: 4.3 cm). Conclusion Radial forearm flap is a reliable method for buccal defect reconstruction. PMID:23363472

  4. CT and MR Imaging of the Buccal Space: Normal Anatomy and Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Moon, Min Hoan; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, In-One; Chang, Kee-Hyun

    2005-01-01

    The buccal space is an anatomical compartment lying anterior to the masticator space and lateral to the buccinator muscle. Since the major purpose of imaging is to define the likely anatomic origin and also the extent of a given lesion, thorough knowledge of the normal anatomy of the buccal space is essential, and this knowledge can aid the physician in narrowing down the list of possible maladies on the differential diagnosis. We illustrate here in this paper the important anatomic landmarks and typical pathologic conditions of the buccal space such as the developmental lesions and the neoplastic lesions. Knowledge of the expected pathologic conditions is useful for the radiologist when interpreting facial CT and MR images. PMID:15782016

  5. Morphological characteristics of the canine and feline stomach mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zahariev, P; Sapundzhiev, E; Pupaki, D; Rashev, P; Palov, A; Todorov, T

    2010-12-01

    The stomach mucosa structure in animals belonging to Order Carnivora indicates some specific characteristics in comparison with the other mammals. Between the bases of the mucosal glands and the lamina muscularis mucosae there is an additional plate which most of the morphologists have defined as lamina subglandularis. In currently used Nomina histologica this layer is indicated as stratum compactum in carnivorous stomach mucosa. The investigation aims were to study and compare canine and feline stomach tunica mucosa characteristics as well as to measure the thickness of stratum compactum and to specify some of the certain collagen types and fibronectin compounds. Conventional and differential histological and ultrastructural methods and immuno-histochemical approaches for investigation of the canine and feline stomach samples were used. The specific organization of the carnivorous stomach wall arrangement was established. In the structure of the canine stomach mucosa, no evidence of stratum compactum was observed. The presence of stratum compactum in feline stomach mucosa was ascertained and measured. Using an immunohistochemical method very high expression of collagen type IV and fibronectin, moderate positive reaction of collagen type III, and a comparatively weakest expression of collagen types I and V in the structure of stratum compactum from cat stomach mucosa was shown. The obtained results clarify the characteristics of the stomach mucosa morphology and could be used as a basis for distinguishing the stomach wall structure of the animal species belonging to Canidae and Felidae families although they are both carnivores. PMID:20825386

  6. Urethral mucosa prolapse in an 18-year-old adolescent.

    PubMed

    Olumide, Akadiri; Kayode Olusegun, Ajenifuja; Babatola, Bakare

    2013-01-01

    Urethra mucosa prolapse is a benign condition in which there is a circular protrusion of the distal urethra through the external urethra meatus. It is more commonly seen in prepubertal black girls and postmenopausal white women. It is rare in the reproductive age group. This case describes the presentation and management of an 18-year-old adolescent with urethra mucosa prolapse. PMID:24109533

  7. Lichenoid reaction to carbamazepine in the oral mucosa: case report.

    PubMed

    Artico, Gabriela; Bruno, Ingrid S; Seo, Juliana; Hirota, Silvio K; Acay, Renata; Migliari, Dante A

    2011-01-01

    Lichenoid drug reactions are more common in skin, but they may also occur in the oral mucosa. It is difficult to diagnose these lesions due to their clinical similarity to the idiopathic oral lichen planus lesions. The present article reports a case of lichenoid reaction in oral mucosa associated to the use of carbamazepine, emphasizing the diagnostic process. PMID:22068798

  8. Dose Proportionality of Fentanyl Buccal Tablet in Healthy Japanese Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Mona; Tempero, Kenneth; Jiang, John G; Thompson, Jeffrey; Simonson, Philip G

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to assess the dose proportionality, safety, and tolerability of fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) in Japanese volunteers. Methods Healthy, opioid-naive Japanese adults received single-dose FBT 100, 200, 400, and 800 µg in a randomized, open-label, crossover fashion. Naltrexone was given to minimize the opioid effects of fentanyl. Peak serum fentanyl concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax (tmax), area under the serum fentanyl concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to infinity (AUC0–∞), and AUC from 0 to the last quantifiable concentration (AUC0–last) were summarized using descriptive statistics. Dose proportionality was claimed if the ln-ln plots of Cmax, AUC0–∞, and AUC0–last vs. dose were linear and the 90% confidence intervals (CI) of the slopes were within 0.8927 and 1.1073. The safety population comprised volunteers who received ≥1 FBT. Results Twenty-five volunteers were enrolled, 23 were included in the safety population (mean age 35.3 years), and 19 completed the study. The assessment of dose proportionality did not meet the statistical criteria (slope [90% CI]: 0.9118 [0.8601, 0.9635] for Cmax, 1.0756 [1.0377, 1.1136] for AUC0–∞, and 1.0992 [1.0677, 1.1307] for AUC0–last). However, the increase in systemic exposure with dose appeared linear, and a post hoc analysis of partial AUCs from time 0 to 8, 12, 18, and 24 hours supported dose proportionality. Median tmax of 90 minutes (range 30–180 minutes) was independent of dose. Adverse events (AEs) were mild or moderate. The most frequent AEs were nausea (N = 9), dizziness (N = 8), headache (N = 6), somnolence (N = 6), dyspepsia (N = 5), and vomiting (N = 3). No application-site or serious AEs were reported. Conclusions Systemic exposure to FBT was approximately dose proportional across the range 100 µg to 800 µg in healthy Japanese adults. Adverse events were mild or moderate. PMID:19915713

  9. Differences between buccal and lingual bone quality and quantity of peri-implant regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Elias, Kathy L; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Clements, Matthew; Brantley, William A; Lee, Damian J; Han, Jung-Suk

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether peri-implant bone tissue properties are different between the buccal and lingual regions treated by growth factors. Four dental implant groups were used: titanium (Ti) implants, alumina-blasted zirconia implants (ATZ-N), alumina-blasted zirconia implants with demineralized bone matrix (DBM) (ATZ-D), and alumina-blasted zirconia implants with rhBMP-2 (ATZ-B). These implants were placed in mandibles of six male dogs. Nanoindentation elastic modulus (E) and plastic hardness (H) were measured for the buccal and lingual bone tissues adjacent and away from the implants at 3 and 6 weeks post-implantation. A total of 2281 indentations were conducted for 48 placed implants. The peri-implant buccal region had less bone quantity resulting from lower height and narrower width of bone tissue than the lingual region. Buccal bone tissues had significant greater mean values of E and H than lingual bone tissues at each distance and healing period (p<0.007). Nearly all implant treatment groups displayed lower mean values of the E at the lingual bone tissues than at the buccal bone tissues (p<0.046) although the difference was not significant for the Ti implant group (p=0.758). The DBM and rhBMP-2 treatments stimulated more peri-implant bone remodeling at the lingual region, producing more immature new bone tissues with lower E than at the buccal region. This finding suggests that the growth factor treatments to the zirconia implant system may help balance the quantity and quality differences between the peri-implant bone tissues. PMID:26773652

  10. Assessment of the mutagenic potential of Cr(VI) in the oral mucosa of Big Blue® transgenic F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Young, Robert R; Suh, Mina; Dinesdurage, Harshini R; Elbekai, Reem H; Harris, Mark A; Rohr, Annette C; Proctor, Deborah M

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water was associated with an increased incidence of oral tumors in F344 rats in a 2-year cancer bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. These tumors primarily occurred at 180 ppm Cr(VI) and appeared to originate from the gingival mucosa surrounding the upper molar teeth. To investigate whether these tumors could have resulted from a mutagenic mode of action (MOA), a transgenic mutation assay based on OECD Test Guideline 488 was conducted in Big Blue(®) TgF344 rats. The mutagenic oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) served as a positive control. Mutant frequency was measured in the inner gingiva with adjacent palate, and outer gingiva with adjacent buccal tissue. Exposure to 10 ppm 4-NQO in drinking water for 28 days increased mutant frequency in the cII transgene significantly, from 39.1 ± 7.5 × 10(-6) to 688 ± 250 × 10(-6) in the gingival/buccal region, and from 49.8 ± 17.8 × 10(-6) to 1818 ± 362 × 10(-6) in the gingival/palate region. Exposure to 180 ppm Cr(VI) in drinking water for 28 days did not significantly increase the mutant frequency in the gingival/buccal (44.4 ± 25.4 × 10(-6)) or the gingival/palate (57.8 ± 9.1 × 10(-6)) regions relative to controls. These data indicate that high (∼180,000 times expected human exposure), tumorigenic concentrations of Cr(VI) did not significantly increase mutations in the gingival epithelium, and suggest that Cr(VI) does not act by a mutagenic MOA in the rat oral cavity. PMID:26010270

  11. DNA DAMAGE IN BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 ? 23.7 g/L (mean ? SEM) and ...

  12. High-throughput sequencing of forensic genetic samples using punches of FTA cards with buccal swabs.

    PubMed

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Buchard, Anders; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that punches from buccal swab samples preserved on FTA cards can be used for high-throughput DNA sequencing, also known as massively parallel sequencing (MPS). We typed 44 reference samples with the HID-Ion AmpliSeq Identity Panel using washed 1.2 mm punches from FTA cards with buccal swabs and compared the results with those obtained with DNA extracted using the EZ1 DNA Investigator Kit. Concordant profiles were obtained for all samples. Our protocol includes simple punch, wash, and PCR steps, reducing cost and hands-on time in the laboratory. Furthermore, it facilitates automation of DNA sequencing. PMID:27625209

  13. The buccal gland of Lampetra japonica is a source of diverse bioactive proteins.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rong; Pang, Yue; Li, Qing Wei

    2012-05-01

    The parasitic phase lampreys (Lampetra japonica) are bloodsuckers in the marine, and their buccal gland secretion (lamphredin) contains various regulators such as anticoagulants, ion channel blockers, and immune suppressors like those from leeches, insects, ticks, vampire bats, and snakes. This review focuses on the functions and characteristics of the active proteins from the buccal gland of L. japonica for the first time, and provides new insights into the parasitic mechanisms of lampreys and the possibilities of developing drugs such as novel anticoagulants, thrombolytic agents, local anesthetics, and immunosuppressants. PMID:22586701

  14. Detection of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in oral mucosa of women with cervical lesions and their relation to oral sex practices

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have either investigated the relationship of HPV with oral cancer or the prevalence of HPV on the oral cavity. The purpose of this investigation was to study the prevalence of HPV in oral cavity of women with oral sex practices and cervical lesions. Methods Forty six (46) non-smokers and non-alcoholic patients attended the "Clínica de Displasias" of "Ciudad Juarez" were sampled. This population had a CIN diagnosis sometime between the previous six months. On previous consent they filled out a questionnaire related to their oral sex practices. Afterwards one swab from cheeks and another from palate/gum were taken; PCR was used to determine generic HPV, HPV16 and HPV18. Results Seventy two percent (72%) of the patients stated to have oral sex practices regularly which all of them were positive to HPV either in oral mucus, palate/gum or both. The total of the given results showed that 35% had HPV16; among those distributed in 26% with regular oral sex practices and 9% stated as never practiced oral sex. An association was found between oral HPV16 positivity and progression to cervical CIN advanced lesions. On the other hand HPV18 was not detected. The frequency of HPV16 was higher in buccal mucosa (23%) versus palate/gum (16%). Conclusions This study suggests that buccal HPV16 infection is associated with CIN progression. PMID:21129222

  15. Verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa: An epidemiological and follow-up study of patients treated with surgery in 5 last years

    PubMed Central

    Dean-Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos-Granados, Francisco J.; Heredero-Jung, Susana; García-García, Blas; Ruiz-Masera, Juan J.; Arévalo-Arévalo, Rafael; Zafra-Camacho, Francisco; Valenzuela-Salas, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Oral Verrucous Carcinoma (OVC) is described apart of the Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) due to its specific properties. The objective of our study is to show our series of cases of OVC and to compare with the SCC in terms of clinical manifestations, epidemiology, histopathology, treatment and follow-up. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all the OVC treated in our department between January-2007 and December-2011. The analyzed variables were sex, age, localization in the oral cavity, histopathology, number of biopsies needed to diagnose OVC, TNM classification, treatment and recurrences during follow-up. Results: Our sample was composed by n=14 patients, 57% female, with a mean age of 69.14 years. The most common localization was buccal mucosa (n=5). Seven patients were diagnosed of OVC with the first biopsy. TNM classification was: pT1: 7 patients, pT2: 3 patients, pT3: 3 patients, pT4: 1 patient. No cervical metastases were observed either in cervical neck dissection or during the follow-up of the patients. The treatment was surgery with clinical resection margins up to 1 cm in all cases, followed by radiotherapy in selected cases. Only n=1 patient (7.69%) presented a recurrence after 34 months of follow-up. The overall survival rate was 92.85%. Conclusions: In our population, OVC represents the 6.16% of all oral cavity and oropharynx cancer, and is more frequent in female patients above 70 years old. It uses to rise over a previous lesion, and usually affects the buccal mucosa. In patients with high suspicious lesions, more than one biopsy may be needed to diagnose OVC. No patient showed cervical dissemination. In our experience, treatment based on local resection, without cervical neck dissection, could be a good option for these patients. Key words:Verrucous carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, oral cancer, oral cavity, epidemiology, follow-up. PMID:24880446

  16. Ornithine transcarbamylase and disaccharidase activities in damaged intestinal mucosa of children--diagnosis of hereditary ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency in mucosa.

    PubMed

    Cathelineau, L; Briand, P; Rabier, D; Navarro, J

    1985-12-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) and disaccharidase activities were measured in the intestinal mucosa from 182 children. Sixty-nine had normal mucosa, whereas the others had different degrees of mucosal damage. Brush border disaccharidases are significantly decreased in all degrees of villous atrophy. In contrast, OTC is not affected in moderate atrophy and only slightly decreased in severe atrophy. Consequently, the OTC-to-lactase ratio increases with the degree of atrophy and permits discrimination between normal and damaged mucosa. The assay of OTC activity in intestinal mucosa for the diagnosis of hereditary deficiency in male hemizygote patients generally provides nonambiguously low results, whereas in heterozygote females the amount of residual activity is in the range of the results found in damaged mucosa. PMID:4067786

  17. Poloxamer bioadhesive hydrogel for buccal drug delivery: Cytotoxicity and trans-epithelial permeability evaluations using TR146 human buccal epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ni; Mignet, Nathalie; Dumortier, Gilles; Olivier, Elodie; Seguin, Johanne; Maury, Marc; Scherman, Daniel; Rat, Patrice; Boudy, Vincent

    2015-11-30

    A salbutamol sulfate (SS)-Poloxamer bioadhesive hydrogel specially developed for buccal administration was investigated by studying interactions with TR146 human buccal epithelium cells (i.e. cellular toxicity (i) and trans-epithelial SS diffusion (ii)). The assessment of cell viability (MTT, Alamar Blue), membrane integrity (Neutral Red), and apoptosis assay (Hoechst 33342), were performed and associated to Digital Holographic Microscopy analysis. After the treatment of 2h, SS solution induced drastic cellular alterations that were prevented by hydrogels in relation with the concentrations of poloxamer and xanthan gum. The formulation containing P407 19%/P188 1%/Satiaxane 0.1% showed the best tolerance after single and multiple administrations and significantly reduced the trans-epithelial permeability from 5.00±0.29 (×10(3)) (SS solution) to 1.83±0.22 cm/h. Digital Holographic Microscopy images in good agreement with the viability data confirmed the great interest of this direct technique. In conclusion, the proposed hydrogels represent a safe and efficient buccal drug delivery platform. PMID:26403384

  18. Mucoadhesive patches of Salbutamol sulphate for unidirectional buccal drug delivery: development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Puratchikody, Ayarivan; Prasanth, V V; Mathew, Sam T; Kumar, B Ashok

    2011-07-01

    Mucoadhesive buccal patches of Salbutamol Sulphate were prepared using five different polymers (polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP]), polyvinyl alcohol [PVA], water soluble chitosan [CH(WS)], acid soluble chitosan [CH(AS)], hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose [HPMC])in various proportions and combinations (CH(WS)/PVP/HPMC, CH(WS)/PVA/HPMC, CH(AS)/PVP/HPMC, and CH(AS)/PVA/HPMC). A 3(2) full factorial design was used to design the experiments. A total of 72 patches were prepared. Thickness of the patches ranged between 0.3±0.003 and 0.6±0.009 mm. Mass of the patches were in the range of 68.12±4.6 to 95.02±7.2 mg. Patches showed increased mass whenever PEG -400 was used as plasticizer. The surface pH of patches were acidic to neutral (pH 4-pH 7). Patches showed satisfactory drug loading efficiency (85%to 97%). Eight formulations(C9, C18, C27, C36, D9, D18, D27, and D36)-which showed high folding endurance- were selected for further characterization. Patches with PEG -400 showed higher swelling index when compared to PG. The residence time of the patches ranged between 115 min and 120 min. Formulation C18 showed the maximum in vitro drug release of 101.4 % over a period of 120 min. Formulations D36 and C36 were best fitted to Higuchi model. The remaining formulations were best fitted to the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. Drug permeation was fast and showed the similar profile as that of the in vitro drug release. Patches were stable, during and at the end of the accelerated stability study. PMID:21453255

  19. Combining large area fluorescence with multiphoton microscopy for improved detection of oral epithelial neoplasia (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Rahul; Yang, Jinping; Qiu, Suimin; McCammon, Susan; Resto, Vicente; Vargas, Gracie

    2016-03-01

    Volumetric Multiphoton Autofluorescence Microscopy (MPAM) and Second Harmonic Generation Microscopy (SHGM) show promise for revealing indicators of neoplasia representing the complex microstructural organization of mucosa, potentially providing high specificity for detection of neoplasia, but is limited by small imaging area. Large area fluorescence methods on the other hand show high sensitivity appropriate for screening but are hampered by low specificity. In this study, we apply MPAM-SHGM following guidance from large area fluorescence, by either autofluorescence or a targeted metabolic fluorophore, as a potentially clinically viable approach for detection of oral neoplasia. Sites of high neoplastic potentially were identified by large area red/green autofluorescence or by a fluorescently labelled deoxy-glucose analog, 2-deoxy-2-[(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]-D-glucose (2-NBDG) to highlight areas of high glucose uptake across the buccal pouch of a hamster model for OSCC. Follow-up MPAM-SHGM was conducted on regions of interests (ROIs) to assess whether microscopy would reveal microscopic features associated with neoplasia to confirm or exclude large area fluorescence findings. Parameters for analysis included cytologic metrics, 3D epithelial connective tissue interface metrics (MPAM-SHGM) and intensity of fluorescence (widefield). Imaged sites were biopsied and processed for histology and graded by a pathologist. A small sample of human ex vivo tissues were also imaged. A generalized linear model combining image metrics from large area fluorescence and volumetric MPAM-SHGM indicated the ability to delineate normal and inflammation from neoplasia.

  20. High prevalence of buccal ulcerations in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides (Centrarchidae) from Michigan inland lakes associated with Myzobdella lugubris Leidy 1851 (Annelida: Hirudinea)

    PubMed Central

    Faisal, M.; Schulz, C.; Eissa, A.; Whelan, G.

    2011-01-01

    Widespread mouth ulcerations were observed in largemouth bass collected from eight inland lakes in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan during the summer months of 2002 and 2003. These ulcerations were associated with, and most likely caused by, leech parasitism. Through the use of morphological dichotomous keys, it was determined that all leeches collected are of one species: Myzobdella lugubris. Among the eight lakes examined, Lake Orion and Devils Lake had the highest prevalence of leech parasitism (34% and 29%, respectively) and mouth ulcerations (53% and 68%, respectively). Statistical analyses demonstrated that leech and ulcer prevalence varied significantly from one lake to the other. Additionally, it was determined that the relationship between the prevalence of ulcers and the prevalence of leech attachment is significant, indicating that leech parasitism is most likely the cause of ulceration. The ulcers exhibited deep hemorrhagic centers and raised irregular edges. Affected areas lost their epithelial lining and submucosa, with masses of bacteria colonizing the damaged tissues. Since largemouth bass is a popular global sportfish and critical to the food web of inland lakes, there are concerns that the presence of leeches, damaged buccal mucosa, and general unsightliness may negatively affect this important sportfishery. PMID:21395209

  1. [The effect of antioxidants on the activity of acid hydrolases in blood leukocytes from patients with leukoplakia of mouth mucosa].

    PubMed

    Petrovich, Iu A; Mashkilleĭson, A L; Suleĭmanova, G G; Lagunov, A I

    1989-01-01

    Activity of acid hydrolases, alkaline phosphatase and leucine aminopeptidase was studied in leukocytes of patients with leukoplakia of mouth mucosa before and after the treatment involving antioxidant drugs. The enzymatic activity studied was increased in leukoplakia. Cryotherapy combined with antioxidants and the treatment with antioxidants only contributed to a decrease in these enzymes activity. PMID:2617939

  2. Active matrix metalloproteinase-7 is associated with invasion in buccal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hui-Ching; Su, Chih-Ying; Huang, Hsuang-Ying; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Chien, Chih-Yen; Du, Yung-Ying; Chuang, Jiin-Haur

    2008-12-01

    Protein microarrays have shown that matrix metalloproteinase-7 is upregulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, but its role in local tissue invasion is still uncertain. We investigated the expression of active matrix metalloproteinase-7, using tissue microarray, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting, in oral tissues from 24 patients with buccal squamous cell carcinoma, and correlated the findings with clinicopathological features. Normal buccal tissue samples from the same patients, obtained at sites at least 1 cm from tumor tissue, served as normal controls. Total matrix metalloproteinase-7 was detected on western blots in 9 of 15 (60%) tumor tissue samples and in 2 of 15 (13%) normal mucosal samples; this difference was significant (P=0.008). Moreover, the active matrix metalloproteinase-7 was expressed only in eight of the nine (89%) tumor samples that expressed matrix metalloproteinase-7, and in none of the normal tissue samples, regardless of the expression status of the pro-matrix metalloproteinase-7. Immunostaining of matrix metalloproteinase-7 was observed histologically in both tumor and nonneoplastic epithelium, but immunostaining of active matrix metalloproteinase-7 was present only in tumor nests. Expression of active matrix metalloproteinase-7 was associated with larger tumor size (P=0.022) and was significantly higher in buccal squamous cell carcinoma with adjacent skin or bone invasion (P=0.036). In conclusion, active matrix metalloproteinase-7 expression was associated with more aggressive buccal squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:18931651

  3. [Inhibition of adherence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to human buccal epithelium by glycoside hydrolases from marine hydrobiontes].

    PubMed

    Zaporozhets, T S; Makarenkova, I D; Bakunina, I Iu; Burtseva, Iu V; Kusaĭkin, M I; Balabanova, L A; Zviagintseva, T N; Besednova, N N; Rasskazov, V A

    2010-01-01

    A possibility of adhesion inhibition of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to human buccal epithelium by glycoside hydrolases of marine hydrobiontes was investigated using alpha-galactosidase from marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. KMM 701, total enzyme preparation and beta-1,3-glucanase from marine fungi Chaetomium, total enzyme preparation and beta-1,3-glucanase from marine mollusk Littorina kurila, and total enzyme preparation from crystalline style of marine mollusk Spisula sachalinensis were used. The enzymes were added to test-tubes containing buccal epithelial cells and/or the toxigenic bacterial strain C. diphtheriae No 1129, v. gravis. All the investigated enzymes were able to abort C. diphtheriae adherence, to human buccal epithelocytes. Inhibition of adhesion was more pronounced in the case of treatment of epithelocytes with highly purified enzymes of marine hydrobiontes in comparison with total enzyme preparations. The significant inhibition of C. diphtheriae adhesion was observed when the enzymes were added to the epithelocytes with the attached microorganisms. The results obtained show that glycoside hydrolases of marine hydrobiontes degrade any carbohydrates expressed on cell surface of bacterium or human buccal epithelocytes, impair unique lectin-carbohydrate interaction and prevent the adhesion. PMID:20695214

  4. Periodontal responses to augmented corticotomy with collagen membrane application during orthodontic buccal tipping in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Yeol; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Herr, Yeek; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200 g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19 ± 14.60° and 28.12 ± 11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9 ± 19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface. PMID:25276824

  5. Periodontal Responses to Augmented Corticotomy with Collagen Membrane Application during Orthodontic Buccal Tipping in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Yeek; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200 g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19 ± 14.60° and 28.12 ± 11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9 ± 19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface. PMID:25276824

  6. Cell volume regulation in goldfish intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Groot, J A

    1981-11-01

    1. Ion and water content of goldfish intestinal mucosa, stripped free from muscular layers were measured under various incubation conditions. 2. Ouabain induces an increase in cation content that is electrically compensated for by chloride. The increase in solute content is accompanied by an increase in water content. 3. When extracellular chloride is partially replaced by sulphate, ouabain does induce cell shrinkage. 4. Anoxia induces a rapid increase in cell volume that is restored by oxygenation of the incubation solution. Ouabain prevents the restoration of volume. 5. It is concluded that the classical ouabain-sensitive Na/K pump participates in the maintenance of cellular volume. We suggest that the constancy in volume after ouabain poisoning as is reported for many tissues might be due to a low chloride conductance of its membranes. 6. Anisotonic media (range: 0.6-1.2 isotonicity), made by variation on mannitol concentration, induce changes in cell water content that deviates from the simplified van't Hoff equation by about 10%. No change in water content after the initial increase was found. 7. We conclude that goldfish enterocytes do not possess a mechanism for rapid volume readjustment. PMID:7322833

  7. Metabolism of heme and bilirubin in rat and human small intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, F; Bissell, D M

    1982-01-01

    Formation of heme, bilirubin, and bilirubin conjugates has been examined in mucosal cells isolated from the rat upper small intestine. Intact, viable cells were prepared by enzymatic dissociation using a combined vascular and luminal perfusion and incubated with an isotopically labeled precursor, delta-amino-[2,3-3H]levulinic acid. Labeled heme and bile pigment were formed with kinetics similar to those exhibited by hepatocytes. Moreover, the newly formed bilirubin was converted rapidly to both mono- and diglucuronide conjugates. In addition, cell-free extracts of small intestinal mucosa from rats or humans exhibited a bilirubin-UDP-glucuronyl transferase activity that was qualitatively similar to that present in liver. The data suggest that the small intestinal mucosa normally contributes to bilirubin metabolism. PMID:6806320

  8. Characteristic power Doppler sonographic images of tumorous and non-tumorous buccal space lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, I; Kaneda, T; Sasaki, Y; Sekiya, K; Tokunaga, S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristic power Doppler sonographic images of buccal space tumorous and non-tumorous lesions. Methods: 48 patients with buccal space lesions were evaluated with greyscale sonography followed by power Doppler sonography with a 12 MHz linear transducer. On greyscale sonography, buccal space lesions were assessed for the boundary (clear or unclear), echogenicity (hypoechoic or isoechoic) and internal architecture (homogeneous or heterogeneous). Power Doppler sonography was performed to evaluate the vascular signals within the buccal space lesions. Results: 48 lesions were found in the 48 patients; of these 48 lesions, 28 were tumourous and 20 were non-tumourous. In the 28 tumours, 15 cases showed clear boundaries, 15 cases were hypoechoic relative to adjacent tissues and 22 cases presented with a heterogeneous appearance on greyscale sonography. The internal vascularity of 19 tumours was shown using power Doppler sonography. In the 20 non-tumorous lesions, 11 cases showed clear boundaries, 17 cases were hypoechoic relative to adjacent tissues and 13 cases presented with a homogeneous appearance on greyscale sonography. 18 non-tumorous lesions showed no internal vascularity using power Doppler sonography. Logistic multivariate regression analysis between the tumour group and the non-tumorous lesions group demonstrated that the internal architecture (odds ratio = 8.270, p = 0.029) and vascular signals (odds ratio = 17.533, p = 0.003) were significant variables. Conclusions: Power Doppler sonography is a useful technique for the differential diagnosis of tumorous and non-tumorous buccal space lesions. PMID:23520393

  9. Characterisation of the fibrinogenolytic properties of the buccal gland secretion from Lampetra japonica.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rong; Li, Qing-Wei; Perrett, Sarah; He, Rong-Qiao

    2007-03-01

    Lampetra japonica is representative of the ancient cyclostomota class of animals, and its buccal gland secretion (called lamphredin) is known to act as an anticoagulant. In this study, it was observed by both native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE that the secretion mainly contained two protein bands, buccal gland secretion protein-1 (BGSP-1, 159,909 Da) and buccal gland secretion protein-2 (BGSP-2, 25,660 Da). The N-terminal amino acids of BGSP-1 (EAESF QNLKT RICGG LNGLG) and BGSP-2 (TSVND WKLLD TKLSA NRKVI) were sequenced. Using a Sephadex G-75 column, we isolated BGSP-1, BGSP-2 and small peptides from the buccal gland secretion, but found only BGSP-1 showed fibrinogenolytic activity. BGSP-1 and lamphredin were found to rapidly degrade the alpha chain of human fibrinogen, slowly degrade the beta chain and hardly degrade the gamma chain. BGSP-1 and lamphredin showed a similar map by SDS-PAGE for the degradation of fibrinogen by cleavage at Ala(10)-Glu(11) and His(368)-Ser(369). BGSP-1 was also found to hydrolyze neuronal protein tau at Glu(12)-Asp(13) and Gln(244)-Thr(245). Further study showed that lamphredin and BGSP-1 were inactivated in the presence of a metal chelating agent EDTA. However, addition of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) but not Zn(2+) restored the fibrinogenolytic activity. This suggests that BGSP-1 acts in the buccal gland as a metalloproteinase with a broad substrate specificity. Furthermore, the secretion showed cytolytic properties towards human SH-SY5Y and HeLa cells in culture, and lamphredin at a 50-fold dilution induced cell death. PMID:17029742

  10. Effects of tetracycline HCl conditioning and fibrin-fibronectin system application in the treatment of buccal gingival recession with guided tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Trombelli, L; Schincaglia, G P; Zangari, F; Griselli, A; Scabbia, A; Calura, G

    1995-05-01

    A split-mouth clinical trial was designed to evaluate the effect of treating deep wide buccal gingival recession with guided tissue regeneration using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane combined with tetracycline HCl (TTC) root conditioning and fibrin-fibronectin sealing system (FFSS) application. Eight patients, aged 25 to 57 years, each presenting two similar mucogingival defects, were selected. The two bilateral recessions were randomly assigned in each patient to either test or control treatment procedure. After initial therapy, each patient was examined for assessment of plaque, gingivitis, recession depth (RD), probing depth (PD), probing attachment level (PAL), and keratinized tissue width (KT). The test procedure included the elevation of mucoperiosteal flap at the buccal aspect of the alveolar process. The root was debrided and demineralized with 100 mg/ml TTC solution for 4 minutes using a burnishing technique with cotton pellets. A teflon membrane was secured and a film of FFSS was applied between the membrane and the root surface. The buccal flap was sutured to completely submerge the membrane. Control treatment included gingival flap surgery with barrier membrane alone. After 6 weeks, the membrane was removed. Healing was evaluated 6 months after surgery. Both test and control procedures resulted in highly significant recession reduction (3.0 mm +/- 1.1 and 2.6 mm +/- 1.2, respectively) and attachment gain (3.6 mm +/- 1.7 and 2.6 mm +/- 1.1, respectively). Mean root coverage was of 67% in the TTC + FFSS treated sites and 60% in membrane-only treated sites. However, only treatment with TTC + FFSS significantly reduced PD and increased KT (P < 0.05). When treatments were compared, changes in PD and PAL were significantly greater in TTC + FFSS treated sites (P < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7623249

  11. Evaluation of 3-(4'-(4″-fluorophenyl)-6'-phenylpyrimidin-2'-yl)-2-phenylthiazolidin-4-one for in vivo modulation of biomarkers of chemoprevention in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Thanusu, J; Kanagarajan, V; Nagini, S; Gopalakrishnan, M

    2011-06-01

    A new bis heterocycle comprising both bioactive 2-aminopyrimidine and thiazolidin-4-one nuclei namely 3-(4'-(4″-fluorophenyl)-6'-phenylpyrimidin-2'-yl)-2-phenylthiazolidin-4-one 3 was synthesized, characterized with the help of melting point, elemental analysis, FT-IR, MS, one-dimensional NMR ((1)H, (13)C) spectra and we evaluated the chemopreventive potential of 3-(4'-(4″-fluorophenyl)-6'-phenylpyrimidin-2'-yl)-2-phenylthiazolidin-4-one based on in vivo inhibitory effects on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Administration of 3 effectively suppressed oral carcinogenesis initiated with DMBA as revealed by the reduced incidence of neoplasms. Lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) content, and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) were used to biomonitor the chemopreventive potential of 3. Lipid peroxidation was found to be significantly decreased, whereas GSH, GPx, GST, and GGT were elevated in the oral mucosa of tumor-bearing animals. Our data suggest that 3 may exert its chemopreventive effects in the oral mucosa by modulation of lipid peroxidation and enhancing the levels of GSH, GPx, and GST. PMID:21028942

  12. Roseomonas mucosa Isolated from Bloodstream of Pediatric Patient ▿

    PubMed Central

    Bard, J. Dien; Deville, J. G.; Summanen, P. H.; Lewinski, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of catheter-related bacteremia associated with Roseomonas mucosa isolated from an immunocompromised pediatric patient with a history of multiple episodes of urinary tract infection and bacteremia. PMID:20534804

  13. [Premalignant lesions and conditions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Bruaset, I

    1989-04-01

    An overview is presented of the premalignant lesions and conditions of the oral mucosa. The dentist can play an important role in the detection of these lesions, thereby reducing the chance of premalignant transformation. PMID:2622509

  14. Effects of garlic preparations on the gastrointestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, T; Kashimoto, N; Kasuga, S

    2001-03-01

    The effects of garlic preparations, including dehydrated raw garlic powder (RGP), dehydrated boiled garlic powder (BGP) and aged garlic extract (AGE), on the gastric mucosa were determined using a newly established endoscopic air-powder delivery system, which can deliver solid materials directly into the stomach. Among the three preparations, RGP caused severe damage, including erosion. BGP also caused reddening of the mucosa, whereas AGE did not cause any undesirable effects. The safety of enteric-coated garlic products was also determined. Direct administration of pulverized enteric-coated products on the gastric mucosa caused reddening of the mucosa. When an enteric-coated tablet was administered orally, it caused loss of epithelial cells at the top of crypts in the ileum. These results suggest that caution be used with regard to safety and effectiveness when choosing a garlic preparation because some preparations may have undesirable effects, including gastrointestinal problems. PMID:11238827

  15. Increased density of tolerogenic dendritic cells in the small bowel mucosa of celiac patients

    PubMed Central

    Vorobjova, Tamara; Uibo, Oivi; Heilman, Kaire; Uibo, Raivo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the densities of dendritic cells (DCs) and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their interrelations in the small bowel mucosa in untreated celiac disease (CD) patients with and without type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Seventy-four patients (45 female, 29 male, mean age 11.1 ± 6.8 years) who underwent small bowel biopsy were studied. CD without T1D was diagnosed in 18 patients, and CD with T1D was diagnosed in 15 patients. Normal small bowel mucosa was found in two T1D patients. Thirty-nine patients (mean age 12.8 ± 4.9 years) with other diagnoses (functional dyspepsia, duodenal ulcer, erosive gastritis, etc.) formed the control group. All CD patients had partial or subtotal villous atrophy according to the Marsh classification: Marsh grade IIIa in 9, grade IIIb in 21 and grade IIIc in 3 cases. Thirty-nine patients without CD and 2 with T1D had normal small bowel mucosa (Marsh grade 0). The densities of CD11c+, IDO+, CD103+, Langerin (CD207+) DCs and FOXP3+ Tregs were investigated by immunohistochemistry (on paraffin-embedded specimens) and immunofluorescence (on cryostat sections) methods using a combination of mono- and double-staining. Sixty-six serum samples were tested for IgA-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) using a fully automated EliA™ Celikey® IgA assay (Pharmacia Diagnostics, Freiburg, Germany). RESULTS: The density of CD11c+ DCs was significantly increased in CD patients compared with patients with normal mucosa (21.67 ± 2.49 vs 13.58 ± 1.51, P = 0.007). The numbers of FOXP3+ cells were significantly higher in CD patients (10.66 ± 1.50 vs 1.92 ± 0.37, P = 0.0002) and in patients with CD and coexisting T1D (8.11 ± 1.64 vs 1.92 ± 0.37, P = 0.002) compared with patients with normal mucosa. The density of FOXP3+ cells significantly correlated with the histological grade of atrophic changes in the small bowel mucosa according to the March classification (r = 0.62; P < 0.0001) and with levels of IgA antibody (r = 0.55; P < 0

  16. Effects of female sex hormones on adhesion of Candida albicans yeast-like fungi to the buccal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Kravtsov, E G; Anokhina, I V; Rybas, Ya A; Sachivkina, N P; Ermolaev, A V; Brodskaya, S B

    2014-06-01

    Hormonal regulation of receptor expression and glycogen concentrations in the epithelial cells of the oral cavity remains poorly studied. Adhesion of microorganisms to the vaginal epithelium correlates with their adhesion to the buccal epithelium. Analysis of the correlation between Candida adhesion to the vaginal and buccal epithelium depending on the hormonal status has demonstrated that activity of Candida albicans strains in the buccal epithelium correlates with their adhesion activity in the vaginal epithelium, with the coefficient of correlations (r) reaching 0.76. PMID:24958376

  17. Scap is required for sterol synthesis and crypt growth in intestinal mucosa[S

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Matthew R.; Cantoria, Mary Jo; Linden, Albert G.; January, Brandon A.; Liang, Guosheng; Engelking, Luke J.

    2015-01-01

    SREBP cleavage-activating protein (Scap) is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein required for cleavage and activation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), which activate the transcription of genes in sterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. Liver-specific loss of Scap is well tolerated; hepatic synthesis of sterols and fatty acids is reduced, but mice are otherwise healthy. To determine whether Scap loss is tolerated in the intestine, we generated a mouse model (Vil-Scap−) in which tamoxifen-inducible Cre-ERT2, a fusion protein of Cre recombinase with a mutated ligand binding domain of the human estrogen receptor, ablates Scap in intestinal mucosa. After 4 days of tamoxifen, Vil-Scap− mice succumb with a severe enteropathy and near-complete collapse of intestinal mucosa. Organoids grown ex vivo from intestinal crypts of Vil-Scap− mice are readily killed when Scap is deleted by 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Death is prevented when culture medium is supplemented with cholesterol and oleate. These data show that, unlike the liver, the intestine requires Scap to sustain tissue integrity by maintaining the high levels of lipid synthesis necessary for proliferation of intestinal crypts. PMID:25896350

  18. Morphoclinical aspects of the human paraprostethic gingival mucosa.

    PubMed

    Scrieciu, Monica; Niculescu, Mihaela; Mercuţ, Veronica; Andrei, Victoria; Pancă, Oana Adina

    2005-01-01

    The multiple and various changes that the human gingival mucosa undergoes when coming into contact with a denture, require a histopathological study correlated with that of clinical manifestations. The highlighting of the histological lesions of the prosthetic field's mucosa is extremely important in the study concerning the tolerance of the oral cavity tissues towards the materials of dentures, because it has been observed that different materials can cause the same type of clinical changes. The clinical research has been carried out having as a basis a group of patients, carriers of fixed dentures made of different materials, the study method consisting in their clinical evaluation. The investigation of microscopic preparations, obtained through drawing mucosa from those patients under study, has been made by using both usual colorations for an overall examination of the tissue architecture, as well as special colorations for pointing out certain structures. The results of the investigation have made clear the fact that the clinical changes of the prosthetic field's mucosa can be adaptable to the denture or can react pathologically to the various possibilities of denture aggression. The histopathological picture of the paraprosthetic mucosa lesions is polymorphous due to the morphofunctional complexity as well as to the reacting capacity of the oral mucosa when interfering with a fixed denture. PMID:16688373

  19. Stage IV intramucosal gastric marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type.

    PubMed

    Ohtaka, Masahiko; Sato, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Shouji; Sueki, Ryouta; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Uetake, Tomoyoshi; Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Iwao, Noriaki; Kirito, Keita; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

    2013-04-01

    A 45-year-old woman with no symptoms underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. A discolored area was noted at the greater curvature of the gastric upper body. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated thickening of the second sonographic layer indicating that the depth of invasion was confined to the mucosa. A urea breath test and anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody test were negative. A computed tomography scan showed a consolidation at the right lung. Gastric biopsy and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) demonstrated a monotonous proliferation of atypical small lymphocytes. A diagnosis of gastric marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type (MALT lymphoma) was made. The clinical stage was stage IV. A genetic analysis showed rearrangement of the joining region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene and identical clones in both lesions. An API2-MALT1 fusion gene was detected in the gastric lesion. After H. pylori eradication treatment, combination treatment with rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP) was performed; 6 months later an endoscopy revealed complete disappearance of the lesion. Multiple gastric biopsies showed no infiltrating atypical lymphocytes. Similarly, the lesion in the lung showed complete remission (CR) on CT and TBLB. This report shows that a gastric MALT lymphoma located in the mucosa and disseminated to the lung maintained CR by R-CHOP. PMID:26181449

  20. Endoscopic evaluation of celiac disease severity and its correlation with histopathological aspects of the duodenal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bonatto, Mauro W.; Kotze, Luiz; Orlandoski, Marcia; Tsuchyia, Ricardo; de Carvalho, Carlos A.; Lima, Doryane; Kurachi, Gustavo; Orso, Ivan R.B.; Kotze, Lorete

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disorder affecting genetically predisposed individuals, triggered and maintained by the ingestion of gluten. Triggered and maintained by the ingestion of gluten, celiac disease is a chronic systemic autoimmune disorder affecting genetically predisposed individuals. Persistent related inflammation of the duodenal mucosa causes atrophy architecture detectable on esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and histopathology. We investigated the association between endoscopic features and histopathological findings (Marsh) for duodenal mucosa in celiac disease patients and propose an endoscopic classification of severity. Patients and methods: Between January 2000 and March 2010, an electronic database containing 34,540 EDGs of patients aged > 14 years was searched for cases of CD. Out of 109 cases, 85 met the inclusion criteria: conventional EGD combined with chromoendoscopy, zoom and biopsy. EGD types 0, I and II corresponds to Marsh grades 0, 1 and 2, respectively, while EGD type III corresponds to Marsh grade 3 and 4. Results: Five patients (5.8 %) were EGD I but not Marsh grade 1; 25 patients (29.4 %) were EGD II, 4 of whom (16 %) were classified as Marsh grade 2; and 55 patients (64.7 %) were EGD III, 51 (92.7 %) of whom were classified as Marsh grades 3 and 4. The Spearman correlation coefficient (r = 0.33) revealed a significant association between the methods (P = 0.002). Conclusions: Changes in the duodenal mucosa detected on EGD were significantly and positively associated with histopathologic findings. The use of chromoendoscopy in addition to conventional EGD enhances changes in the duodenal mucosa and permits diagnosis of CD, even in routine examinations. The proposed endoscopic classification is practical and easily reproducible and provides valuable information regarding disease extension. PMID:27556094

  1. Consistent and clinically relevant effects with fentanyl buccal tablet in the treatment of patients receiving maintenance opioid therapy and experiencing cancer-related breakthrough pain.

    PubMed

    Zeppetella, Giovambattista; Messina, John; Xie, Fang; Slatkin, Neal E

    2010-01-01

    Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) has shown efficacy and tolerability in patients with cancer-related persistent pain treated with maintenance opioids. We conducted a combined analysis of two similarly designed, randomized, placebo-controlled studies to further evaluate the consistency and clinical relevance of analgesia outcomes. Of the 252 patients enrolled, 150 fulfilled the criteria for efficacy analysis and experienced 1,417 breakthrough pain episodes. A consistently greater effect was noted with FBT vs. placebo on the following measures: improvements from baseline of >or=33% and >or=50% in pain intensity (PI), a >or=2-point reduction in PI, and a score of >or=2 for pain relief. Improvements in these clinically meaningful efficacy measures were seen with FBT at 15 minutes (earliest common evaluation) and remained evident at 60 minutes (final common evaluation). They were also reflected in a more favorable global medication performance assessment for FBT over placebo. FBT was generally well tolerated; most adverse events were typical of potent opioid use in a cancer population. Application-site (buccal) abnormalities were infrequent and led to withdrawal of three patients. There were no serious adverse events or deaths attributable to FBT. This analysis suggests that FBT provides an analgesic effect that is consistent across multiple clinically relevant efficacy measures. PMID:20230447

  2. Leptin Promotes Wound Healing in the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Umeki, Hirochika; Tokuyama, Reiko; Ide, Shinji; Okubo, Mitsuru; Tadokoro, Susumu; Tezuka, Mitsuki; Tatehara, Seiko; Satomura, Kazuhito

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Leptin, a 16 kDa circulating anti-obesity hormone, exhibits many physiological properties. Recently, leptin was isolated from saliva; however, its function in the oral cavity is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the physiological role of leptin in the oral cavity by focusing on its effect on wound healing in the oral mucosa. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis was used to examine the expression of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) in human/rabbit oral mucosa. To investigate the effect of leptin on wound healing in the oral mucosa, chemical wounds were created in rabbit oral mucosa, and leptin was topically administered to the wound. The process of wound repair was histologically observed and quantitatively analyzed by measuring the area of ulceration and the duration required for complete healing. The effect of leptin on the proliferation, differentiation and migration of human oral mucosal epithelial cells (RT7 cells) was investigated using crystal violet staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and a wound healing assay, respectively. Results Ob-R was expressed in spinous/granular cells in the epithelial tissue and vascular endothelial cells in the subepithelial connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Topical administration of leptin significantly promoted wound healing and shortened the duration required for complete healing. Histological analysis of gingival tissue beneath the ulceration showed a denser distribution of blood vessels in the leptin-treated group. Although the proliferation and differentiation of RT7 cells were not affected by leptin, the migration of these cells was accelerated in the presence of leptin. Conclusion Topically administered leptin was shown to promote wound healing in the oral mucosa by accelerating epithelial cell migration and enhancing angiogenesis around the wounded area. These results strongly suggest that topical administration of leptin may be useful as a treatment to promote wound

  3. Thermosensitive and Mucoadhesive Sol-Gel Composites of Paclitaxel/Dimethyl-β-Cyclodextrin for Buccal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bong-Seok; Ng, Choon Lian; Davaa, Enkhzaya; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a buccal paclitaxel delivery system using the thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F127 (PF127) and the mucoadhesive polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO). The anticancer agent paclitaxel is usually used to treat ovarian, breast, and non-small-cell lung cancer. To improve its aqueous solubility, paclitaxel was incorporated into an inclusion complex with (2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DMβCD). The formation of the paclitaxel inclusion complex was evaluated using various techniques, including x-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydrogels were prepared using a cold method. Concentrations of 18, 20, and 23% (w/v) PF127 were dissolved in distilled water including paclitaxel and stored overnight in a refrigerator at 4°C. PEO was added at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1% (w/v). Each formulation included paclitaxel (0.5 mg/mL). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogels was measured using the tube-inverting method. Drug release from the hydrogels was measured using a Franz diffusion cell containing pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) buffer at 37°C. The cytotoxicity of each formulation was measured using the MTT assay with a human oral cancer cell (KB cell). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogel decreased when PF127 was present and varied according to the presence of mucoadhesive polymers. The in vitro release was sustained and the release rate was slowed by the addition of the mucoadhesive polymer. The cytotoxicity of the blank formulation was low, although the drug-loaded hydrogel showed acceptable cytotoxicity. The results of our study suggest that the combination of a PF 127-based mucoadhesive hydrogel formulation and inclusion complexes improves the in vitro release and cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel. PMID:25275485

  4. Development and characterization of Eudragit based mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Vasantha, Prasanth Viswanadhan; Puratchikody, Ayarivan; Mathew, Sam Thomarayil; Balaraman, Ashok Kumar

    2011-01-01

    For systemic drug delivery, the buccal region offers an attractive route of drug administration. Salbutamol sulfate is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It’s oral bioavailability is ∼40% due to extensive first pass metabolism. Salbutamol sulfate patches were prepared using Eudragit L-100, HPMC, PVA and Carbopol 934 in various proportions and combinations using PEG-400/PG as plasticizers. Patches were laminated on one side with a water impermeable backing layer for unidirectional drug release. The thickness of medicated patches were ranged between 0.23 ± 0.008 and 0.59 ± 0.007 mm and mass varied between 65.23 ± 3.3 and 117.92 ± 4.2 mg. Patches showed an increase in mass and swelling index with PEG-400 when compared with PG. The surface-pH of patches ranged between 6 and 7. Formulations E7 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 15 mL HPMC K4M, 7.5 mL PVA and 2 mL PEG-400), E12 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 7.5 mL PVA, 15 mL Carbopol and 2 mL PEG-400), F7 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 15 mL HPMC K4M, 7.5 mL PVA and 2 mL PG), and F12 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 7.5 mL PVA, 15 mL Carbopol and 2 mL PG) showed high folding endurance. Residence time of the tested patches ranged between 101 and 110 min. The maximum in vitro release was found to be 99.93% over a period of 120 min for formulation F12. Data of in vitro release from patches were fitted to different kinetic models such as Higuchi and Korsmeyer–Peppas models to explain the release profile. Formulations E7 and F7 were best fitted to the non-Fickian, where as formulations E12 and F12 showed Fickian/anomalous drug release. Stability studies indicated that there was no change in the chemical and physical characteristics during the test period. PMID:23960761

  5. Development of an ANN optimized mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen and lidocaine for dental pain.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Amjad; Syed, Muhammad Ali; Abbas, Nasir; Hanif, Sana; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Hussain, Khalid; Akhlaq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2016-06-01

    A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB) and lidocaine HCl (LID) was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9) were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate (SA). The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release), which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach. PMID:27279067

  6. Variations in the buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness of impacted mandibular third molar: our classification and treatment perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jing; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Yang, Chi; Qian, Wen-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Selecting either buccal or lingual approach for the mandibular third molar surgical extraction has been an intense debate for years. The aim of this observational retrospective study was to classify the molar based on the proximity to the external cortical bone, and analyze the position of inferior alveolar canal (IAC) of each type. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) data of 110 deeply impacted mandibular third molars from 91 consecutive patients were analyzed. A new classification based on the mean deduction value (MD) of buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness was proposed: MD≥1 mm was classified as buccal position, 1 mm>MD>−1 mm was classified as central position, MD≤−1 mm was classified as lingual position. The study samples were distributed as: buccal position (1.8%) in 2 subjects, central position (10.9%) in 12 and lingual position (87.3%) in 96. Ninety-six molars (87.3%) contacted the IAC. The buccal and inferior IAC course were the most common types in impacted third molar, especially in lingually positioned ones. Our study suggested that amongst deeply impacted mandibular third molars, lingual position occupies the largest proportion, followed by the central, and then the buccal type. PMID:26759181

  7. Variations in the buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness of impacted mandibular third molar: our classification and treatment perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Yang, Chi; Qian, Wen-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Selecting either buccal or lingual approach for the mandibular third molar surgical extraction has been an intense debate for years. The aim of this observational retrospective study was to classify the molar based on the proximity to the external cortical bone, and analyze the position of inferior alveolar canal (IAC) of each type. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) data of 110 deeply impacted mandibular third molars from 91 consecutive patients were analyzed. A new classification based on the mean deduction value (MD) of buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness was proposed: MD≥1 mm was classified as buccal position, 1 mm>MD>-1 mm was classified as central position, MD≤-1 mm was classified as lingual position. The study samples were distributed as: buccal position (1.8%) in 2 subjects, central position (10.9%) in 12 and lingual position (87.3%) in 96. Ninety-six molars (87.3%) contacted the IAC. The buccal and inferior IAC course were the most common types in impacted third molar, especially in lingually positioned ones. Our study suggested that amongst deeply impacted mandibular third molars, lingual position occupies the largest proportion, followed by the central, and then the buccal type. PMID:26759181

  8. Drug-induced lesions of the oesophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    Lesions of the oesophageal mucosa are observed in various situations: most often with gastrooesophageal reflux disease, but also with infections, cancer, contact with a toxic substance, etc. When they are symptomatic, these lesions provoke burning sensations, dysphagia, regurgitation and sometimes dorsal pain. The changes to the oesophageal mucosa may take various forms: inflammation, erosion, ulceration or necrosis. Serious or even fatal complications can develop but are rare; they include oesophageal perforation, stricture and haemorrhage. Some oral drugs damage the oesophageal mucosa through direct contact. The symptoms often develop several hours after ingestion. The pain is of sudden onset. The resulting lesions are solitary or multiple ulcers that vary in depth and usually occur in the upper portion of the oesophagus. Various factors prolong contact between a drug and the oesophageal mucosa, in particular: swallowing the drug with insufficient liquid or just before lying down; capsule forms; and oesophageal abnormalities. The drugs most frequently implicated are tetracyclines, particularly doxycycline, bisphosphonates and various nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Many drugs, used in various situations, provoke gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, sometimes causing mucosal lesions in the lower oesophagus: calcium-channel blockers, nitrates, exenatide and liraglutide, drugs with antimuscarinic effects, theophylline, etc. Some drugs affect all mucous membranes in the body, including the oesophageal mucosa, irrespective of their route of administration: cancer drugs, isotretinoin, and nicorandil. PMID:26417631

  9. Cleft palate cells can regenerate a palatal mucosa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Lamme, E N; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M; Krapels, I P C; Bian, Z; Marres, H; Spauwen, P H M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Von den Hoff, J W

    2008-08-01

    Cleft palate repair leaves full-thickness mucosal defects on the palate. Healing might be improved by implantation of a mucosal substitute. However, the genetic and phenotypic deviations of cleft palate cells may hamper tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to construct mucosal substitutes from cleft palate cells, and to compare these with substitutes from normal palatal cells, and with native palatal mucosa. Biopsies from the palatal mucosa of eight children with cleft palate and eight age-matched control individuals were taken. Three biopsies of both groups were processed for (immuno)histochemistry; 5 were used to culture mucosal substitutes. Histology showed that the substitutes from cleft-palate and non-cleft-palate cells were comparable, but the number of cell layers was less than in native palatal mucosa. All epithelial layers in native palatal mucosa and mucosal substitutes expressed the cytokeratins 5, 10, and 16, and the proliferation marker Ki67. Heparan sulphate and decorin were present in the basal membrane and the underlying connective tissue, respectively. We conclude that mucosal cells from children with cleft palate can regenerate an oral mucosa in vitro. PMID:18650554

  10. Visibility of artificial buccal recurrent caries under restorations using different radiographic techniques.

    PubMed

    Murat, S; Kamburoğlu, K; Isayev, A; Kurşun, S; Yüksel, S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess intraoral images and two cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems for detection of artificial buccal recurrent caries under restorations. Class V cavities were made for composite (30 teeth) and amalgam (30 teeth). Full restorations with thermoplastic polymer (30 teeth) and nickel-chromium metal crown (30 teeth) were constructed. In 60 teeth, artificial buccal recurrent caries were simulated; 60 other teeth served as controls. Intraoral film, intraoral digital, Veraviewepocs 3D, and Kodak 9000 images were scored twice. κ Coefficients were calculated and Az values were compared using Z-tests, with a significance level of α=0.05. Higher interobserver agreement was obtained from the CBCT images compared with the intraoral images. The Az values of both readings of all three observers were highest for the Veraviewepocs 3D followed by Kodak 9000 except for the second reading of the third observer. CBCT outperformed intraoral radiography in detection of artificial buccal recurrent caries under restorations. PMID:22917443

  11. Buccal Micronuclei Assay as a Tool For Biomonitoring DNA Damage in Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Vidyalakshmi, S.; Nirmal, R. Madhavan; Veeravarmal, V.; Santhadevy, A.; Sumathy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The malignant transformation rate of Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is between 0% and 5.8%. Oral lesions of lichen planus clinically presents itself multifocally, simulating the process of field cancerization in high risk malignancies. The Buccal MicroNucleus Cytome Assay (BMN Assay) provides a platform to identify the high risk individuals by evaluating the markers of nuclear damage at an earliest micro invasive phase. Aim To evaluate DNA damage in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells in individuals with oral lichen planus lesions and thereby to delineate the high risk group. Materials and Methods Buccal smears from 22 OLP and 10 control samples were stained in modified Feulgen-Rossenback reaction for micronuclei assay. Cytological evaluation of number of MicroNucleated cells (CMN), Total Number of Micronuclei (TMN) in micronucleated cells was done in both groups. Results Frequency of micronucleated cells (CMN) when compared among the study and control group, a mean value of 4.27 ± 1.80 and 0.90 ± 0.88 were obtained respectively. On comparing the total number of micronuclei in the micronucleated cells (TMN) between the study and control groups, a mean value of 5.38 ± 2.42 and 1.5 ± 0.88 were obtained respectively. Conclusion There was a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei and the micronucleated cells in the oral lichen planus as compared to normal individuals.

  12. Ethanolic leaf extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) inhibits buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, R; Bhuvaneswari, V; Ramesh, V; Nagini, S

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the chemopreventive effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract in the initiation and post-initiation phases of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. The frequency of bone marrow micronuclei as well as the concentrations of lipid peroxides, ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and the activities of the GSH-dependent enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the buccal pouch, liver and erythrocytes were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. All the hamsters painted with DMBA alone for 14 weeks developed buccal pouch carcinomas that showed diminished lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status associated with increased frequencies of bone marrow micronuclei. In the liver and erythrocytes of tumour-bearing animals, enhanced lipid peroxidation was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defences. Administration of ethanolic neem leaf extract effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis as revealed by the absence of tumours in the initiation phase and reduced tumour incidence in the post-initiation phase. In addition, ethanolic neem leaf extract modulated lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status in the pouch, liver and erythrocytes and reduced the incidence of bone marrow micronuclei. The results of the present study, demonstrate that ethanolic neem leaf extract inhibits the development of DMBA-induced HBP tumours by protecting against oxidative stress. PMID:15473007

  13. Temperature rise and shear bond strength of bondable buccal tubes bonded by various light sources.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Cagri; Irmak, Ozgür; Bagis, Yildirim Hakan; Ulusoy, Ozgür Ilke Atasoy

    2008-08-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to determine the intrapulpal temperature changes and to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of bondable buccal tubes bonded by high-intensity light sources. Ninety caries-free human first molar teeth extracted for periodontal reasons were used. For the temperature measurement test, 30 teeth were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) whereas 60 teeth were used in three groups (n = 20) for SBS testing. Three light sources, high-intensity halogen, blue light-emitting diode (LED), and xenon plasma arc (PAC), were used for polymerization of Transbond XT. Temperature variations (Delta T) were recorded by a K-type thermocouple wire connected to a data logger. For SBS testing, a universal testing machine was used at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute until buccal tube bonding failure occurred. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The high-intensity halogen light resulted in significantly (P < 0.01) higher intrapulpal temperature changes than the LED or PAC. The results of the shear bond test revealed significant (P < 0.05) differences only between the halogen and LED groups. The findings of the present investigation showed that high-intensity curing devices can safely be used in bonding buccal tubes to molar teeth without causing a deleterious effect on the dental pulp. PMID:18632840

  14. Buccal Injection of 2% Lidocaine With Epinephrine for the Removal of Maxillary Third Molars

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sunil; Verma, Ajay; Sachdeva, Akash

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate if 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine could provide palatal anesthesia in maxillary tooth removal with a single buccal injection. The subjects included in the clinical study were those requiring extraction of the maxillary third molar of either side. For the purpose of comparison, the sample was randomly divided into 2 main groups: group 1 (study group) included 100 subjects who were to receive a single injection before extraction, and group 2 (control group) included 100 subjects who were to receive a single buccal injection and a single palatal injection before extraction. After 5 minutes the extraction was performed. All patients were observed for Faces Pain Scale during extraction and asked for the same on a 100-mm visual analog scale after extraction. According to visual analog scale and Faces Pain Scale scores, when maxillary third molar removal without palatal injection (study group) and with palatal injection (control group) were compared the difference was not statistically significant (P > .05). Removal of maxillary third molars without palatal injection is possible by depositing 2 mL of 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine to the buccal vestibule of the tooth. PMID:24010986

  15. Cytomorphometric Characteristics of Buccal Mucosal Cells in Behçet's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aktunc, Erol; Oz, Zehra Safi; Bektas, Sibel; Altinyazar, Cevdet; Koca, Rafet; Bostan, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to compare the cytomorphometric characteristics of the buccal cells of Behçet's disease patients with those of healthy controls. Methods. This case-control study compared a group of 30 patients with Behçet's disease with an age- and gender-matched control group of 30 healthy individuals. The buccal mucosal smears were stained using the Papanicolaou technique for cytomorphometric analyses. The nuclear and cytoplasmic areas were evaluated using digital image analysis; the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic areas and nuclear roundness are presented. Results. The nuclear and cytoplasmic areas of the BD patients' cells were significantly smaller than those of the healthy controls' cells, while the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio and neutrophil infiltration rate did not differ significantly between the groups. However, the nuclear area, cytoplasmic area, nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, and nuclear roundness factor were significantly higher in patients without aphthae. The neutrophil infiltration rate did not differ significantly in patients with or without aphthae. Conclusion. Behçet's disease can produce cytomorphometric changes in buccal cells that are detectable by exfoliative cytology and cytomorphometric analysis techniques. PMID:27088074

  16. Buccal dental microwear analyses support greater specialization in consumption of hard foodstuffs for Australopithecus anamensis.

    PubMed

    Estebaranz, Ferran; Galbany, Jordi; Martínez, Laura; Turbón, Daniel; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Molar occlusal microwear texture and anisotropy analyses of 3 Australopithecus anamensis fossil specimens have shown complexity values similar to those of Au. afarensis, indicating that neither of these hominin species had a diet dominated by hard food. However, many researchers have suggested that these were some of the earliest hominins to have such diets. Here we examine buccal microwear patterns of 5 Au. anamensis, 26 Au. afarensis, 48 Hominoidea and 80 Cercopithecoidea primate specimens for independent evidence of dietary adaptations of Au. anamensis. The buccal microwear results obtained suggest that the diet of Au. anamensis relied heavily on hard, brittle food, at least seasonally. This is similar to the diet of the extant Cercopithecoidea primates, including Papio anubis and Chlorocebus aethiops, both of which live in wooded, seasonal savannah environments and have diets that include fruit and grasses, but also underground storage organs (USOs), such as corms or blades, as well as leaves and seeds, and also Mandrillus and Cercocebus, from forested environments with frugivorous-granivorous diets. Furthermore, the buccal microwear patterns of Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis clearly differed - in clear contrast to occlusal enamel texture observations-, which support previous dietary interpretations based on both anatomical and palaeocological reconstructions. PMID:22781583

  17. Histochemical study of the olfactory mucosae of the horse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Hyup; Park, Changnam; Bang, Hyojin; Ahn, Meejung; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Seungjoon; Shin, Taekyun

    2016-05-01

    The olfactory mucosae of the horse were examined by using histology and lectin histochemistry to characterize the carbohydrate sugar residues therein. Histological findings revealed that olfactory epithelium (OE) consisted of both olfactory marker protein (OMP)- and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5-positive receptor cells, supporting cells and basal cells with intervening secretory ducts from Bowman's glands. Mucus histochemistry showed that Bowman's gland acini contain periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reagent-positive neutral mucins and alcian blue pH 2.5-positive mucosubstances. Lectin histochemistry revealed that a variety of carbohydrate sugar residues, including N-acetylglucosamine, mannose, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine, fucose and complex type N-glycan groups, are present in the various cell types in the olfactory mucosa at varying levels. Collectively, this is the first descriptive study of horse olfactory mucosa to characterize carbohydrate sugar residues in the OE and Bowman's glands. PMID:27040092

  18. Harvesting oral mucosa for one-stage anterior urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Sanjay Balwant; Barbagli, Guido; Sansalone, Salvatore; Joshi, Pankaj Mangalkumar

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa has been the most popular substitute material for urethral reconstructive surgery because it is easy to harvest, is easy to access, has a concealed donor site scar, and obviates most of the problems associated with other grafts. However, the success of using oral mucosa for urethral surgery is mainly attributed to the biological properties of this tissue. Herein, the surgical steps of harvesting oral mucosa from the inner cheek are presented with an emphasis on tips and tricks to render the process easier and more reproducible and to prevent intra and post-operative complications. The following steps are emphasized: Nasal intubation, ovoid shape graft, delicate harvesting leaving the muscle intact, donor site closure and removal of submucosal tissue. PMID:24497698

  19. Oral focal mucinosis of palatal mucosa: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Vipin; Singh, Jagmohan

    2012-01-01

    Oral focal mucinosis (OFM), an oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis, is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Its pathogenesis may be due to the overproduction of hyaluronic acid by a fibroblast, at the expense of collagen production, resulting in focal myxoid degeneration of the connective tissue, primarily affecting the mucosa overlying the bone. It has no distinctive clinical features, as the diagnosis is solely based on the histopathological features. This article reports of a 32-year-old female having the rare disease of oral focal mucinosis, involving the posterior palatal mucosa, and discusses its clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of myxomatous lesions of the oral cavity. PMID:23230367

  20. Estimation of trace metal elements in oral mucosa specimens by using SR-XRF, PIXE, and XAFS.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Tomoko; Uo, Motohiro; Wada, Takahiro; Omagari, Daisuke; Komiyama, Kazuo; Noguchi, Tadahide; Jinbu, Yoshinori; Kusama, Mikio

    2015-02-01

    The effects of dissolved elements from metal dental restorations are a major concern in lesions of the oral mucosa, and the evaluation of accumulated metal elements, especially their distribution and chemical state, is essential for determining the precise effects of trace metals. In this study, X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation (SR-XRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) were applied for distribution analysis of the trace metal elements contained in the oral mucosa, and the chemical states of the elements were estimated using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis. Appropriate combination of these analysis techniques, particularly SR-XRF and PIXE, to visualize the distributions of the elements in the oral mucosa allowed for the observation and evaluation of accumulated metal ions and debris. Importantly, the analyses in this study could be carried out using conventional histopathological specimens without damaging the specimens. Therefore, this method would be applicable for the detection of accumulated trace metal elements in biopsy specimens from the oral mucosa. PMID:25522792

  1. Micro- and Nanosized Particles in Nasal Mucosa: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate presence and quantity of micro- and nanosized particles (NPs) and interindividual differences in their distribution and composition in nasal mucosa. Methods. Six samples of nasal mucosa obtained by mucotomy from patients with chronic hypertrophic rhinosinusitis were examined. Samples divided into 4 parts according to the distance from the nostrils were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy to detect solid particles and characterize their morphology and composition. A novel method of quantification of the particles was designed and used to evaluate interindividual differences in distribution of the particles. The findings were compared with patients' employment history. Results. In all the samples, NPs of different elemental composition were found (iron, barium, copper, titanium, etc.), predominantly in the parts most distant from nostrils, in various depths from the surface of the mucosa and interindividual differences in their quantity and composition were found, possibly in relation to professional exposition. Conclusions. This study has proven the possibility of quantification of distribution of micro- and nanosized particles in tissue samples and that the NPs may deposit in deeper layers of mucosa and their elemental composition may be related to professional exposition to the sources of NPs. PMID:26125023

  2. MAGE-A antigens in lesions of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Eva; Rauthe, Stephan; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Reuther, Tobias; Kochel, Michael; Kriegebaum, Ulrike; Kübler, Alexander C; Müller-Richter, Urs D A

    2011-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma develops continuously out of predamaged oral mucosa. For the physician and pathologist, difficulties arise in distinguishing precancerous from cancerous lesions. MAGE-A antigens are tumor antigens that are found solely in malignant transformed cells. These antigens might be useful in distinguishing precancerous from cancerous lesions. The aim of this study was to verify this assumption by comparing MAGE-A expression in benign, precancerous, and cancerous lesions of the oral mucosa. Retrospectively, biopsies of different oral lesions were randomly selected. The lesions that were included are 64 benign oral lesions (25 traumatic lesions (oral ulcers), 13 dental follicles, and 26 epulis), 26 oral lichen planus, 123 epithelial precursor lesions (32 epithelial hyperplasia found in leukoplakias, 24 epithelial dysplasia found in leukoplakias, 26 erythroplasia with oral epithelial dysplasia, and 41 carcinomas in situ in erythroleukoplakias). The lesions were immunohistochemically stained with the poly-MAGE-A antibody 57B, and the results were compared. Biopsies of oral lichen planus, oral ulcers, dental follicles, epulis, and leukoplakia without dysplasia showed no positive staining for MAGE-A antigens. Leukoplakia with dysplasia, dysplasia, and carcinomata in situ displayed positive staining in 33%, 65%, and 56% of the cases, respectively. MAGE-A antigens were not detectable via immunohistochemistry in benign lesions of the oral mucosa. The staining rate of dysplastic precancerous lesions or malignant lesions ranged from 33% to 65%. The MAGE-A antigens might facilitate better differentiation between precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral mucosa. PMID:20174843

  3. Epigenetic maturation in colonic mucosa continues beyond infancy in mice.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monozygotic twin and other epidemiologic studies indicate that epigenetic processes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases that commonly affect the colonic mucosa. The peak onset of these disorders in young adulthood, suggests that epigenetic changes normally o...

  4. Differences in reactive hyperemia between the intestinal mucosa and muscularis.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, A P; Riedel, G L

    1984-12-01

    In a previous study of regional intestinal blood flow by laser-Doppler velocimetry, we noted that the mucosa displayed reactive hyperemia following arterial occlusion but that the muscularis did not. Therefore, to determine whether this observation is generally valid, we compared responses of the mucosa and muscularis externa to arterial occlusion. We measured total blood flow to isolated loops of canine small bowel with an electromagnetic flow probe on the supply artery; blood flow either in the mucosa or in the muscularis was measured by laser-Doppler velocimetry. Mucosal and total blood flow consistently showed reactive hyperemia in response to a 60-s occlusion, but the muscularis did not. To determine whether metabolic rate influenced reactive hyperemia, we increased enteric oxygen uptake by placing 5% bile and transportable solutes in the lumen; these agents increased oxygen consumption by 36%. After a 60-s occlusion, the durations of both total and mucosal reactive hyperemia were significantly prolonged by increased metabolic rate. Similarly, the payback-to-debt ratios in both total and mucosal blood flows were significantly increased at elevated metabolic rate. These data support the conclusions that reactive hyperemia occurs more frequently and has a greater magnitude in the mucosa compared with the muscularis and both total and mucosal reactive hyperemia are strongly influenced by the preocclusive oxygen demand. These findings therefore constitute further evidence that metabolic factors contribute to reactive hyperemia in the intestinal circulation. PMID:6391202

  5. Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbino, Andrea; Debellis, Lucantonio; Caroppo, Rosa; Curci, Silvana; Colella, Matilde

    2010-06-01

    Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (I{sub sc}), transepithelial potential (V{sub t}) and resistance (R{sub t}) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 {mu}M to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminal side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in I{sub sc} cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H{sub 2} histamine receptor, 2) Ca{sup 2+} signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.

  6. Ct Anatomy of Buccal Fat Pad and its Role in Volumetric Alterations of Face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guryanov, R. A.; Guryanov, A. S.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of our study is the revision of the anatomy of buccal fat pad and its role in a volumetric pattern of face. Bichat fat pad is a fatty anatomical structure with body and numerous process enclosed between the bony and muscular structures in temporal, pterygopalatine fossae and extents to the cheek area. Nevertheless, the opinion about its structure and role in forming of volume pattern of face sometimes could be controversial. The Bichat fat pad consists on predominately hormone insensitive fat tissue with underdeveloped stroma, this leads to the stability of the fat pad volume and lesser radiodensity in contrast to the subcutaneous fat. Moreover, the buccal fat pad is delimited from the subcutaneous fat of cheek area by the strong capsule. This feature allows us to use CT to divide the Bichat fat pad from the surrounding tissues. The thorough embryological data provide the distinction of Bichat fat pad from the subcutaneous fat of cheek area even at the stage of development. On the other hand, the border between the masticatory muscles and the processes of the fat pad is not evident and resembles cellular spaces in the other anatomical areas. To elicit the role of the buccal fat pad in volume pattern of face and its function we have performed the several experiments, analyzed the postoperative results after Bichat fat pad resection using surface scanner and CT data. At first, we have performed the gravity test: the patient's face photogrammetry scanning in horizontal and vertical position of head and it revealed the excess of volume in temporal area in horizontal position. To exclude mechanism of overflowing of the skin and subcutaneous fat over the zygomatic arch we have placed the markers on the skin surface at the different areas of face including the projection of ligaments and found out that the migration of soft tissue over the zygomatic arch is about 3-5 mm and almost the same in temporal area. However, the acquired result was unsatisfying because

  7. Buccal swab as a reliable predictor for X inactivation ratio in inaccessible tissues

    PubMed Central

    de Hoon, Bas; Monkhorst, Kim; Riegman, Peter; Laven, Joop S E; Gribnau, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the epigenetic phenomenon of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) every woman is a mosaic of cells with either an inactive paternal X chromosome or an inactive maternal X chromosome. The ratio between inactive paternal and maternal X chromosomes is different for every female individual, and can influence an X-encoded trait or disease. A multitude of X linked conditions is known, and for many of them it is recognised that the phenotype in affected female carriers of the causative mutation is modulated by the XCI ratio. To predict disease severity an XCI ratio is usually determined in peripheral blood samples. However, the correlation between XCI ratios in peripheral blood and disease affected tissues, that are often inaccessible, is poorly understood. Here, we tested several tissues obtained from autopsies of 12 female individuals for patch size and XCI ratio. Methods XCI ratios were analysed using methyl-sensitive PCR-based assays for the AR, PCSK1N and SLITRK4 loci. XCI patch size was analysed by testing the XCI ratio of tissue samples with decreasing size. Results XCI patch size was analysed for liver, muscle, ovary and brain samples and was found too small to confound testing for XCI ratio in these tissues. XCI ratios were determined in the easily accessible tissues, blood, buccal epithelium and hair follicle, and compared with ratios in several inaccessible tissues. Conclusions Buccal epithelium is preferable over peripheral blood for predicting XCI ratios of inaccessible tissues. Ovary is the only inaccessible tissue showing a poor correlation to blood and buccal epithelium, but has a good correlation to hair follicle instead. PMID:26220467

  8. Anti-angiogenic activities of CRBGP from buccal glands of lampreys (Lampetra japonica).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi; Liu, Yu; Duan, Dandan; Gou, Meng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jihong; Li, Qingwei; Xiao, Rong

    2016-04-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), characterized by 16 conserved cysteines, are distributed in a wide range of organisms, such as secernenteas, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. In the previous studies, a novel CRISP family member (cysteine-rich buccal gland protein, CRBGP) was separated from the buccal gland of lampreys (Lampetra japonica, L. japonica). Lamprey CRBGP could not only suppress depolarization-induced contraction of rat tail arterial smooth muscle, but also block voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). In the present study, the anti-angiogenic activities of lamprey CRBGP were investigated using endothelial cells and chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) models. In vitro assays, lamprey CRBGP is able to induce human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis by disturbing the calcium homeostasis and mitochondria functions. In addition, lamprey CRBGP could inhibit proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion and tube formation of HUVECs by affecting the organization of F-actin and expression level of matrix metallo-proteinase 2 (MMP-2), matrix metallo-proteinase 9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) which are related to angiogenesis. In vivo assays, lamprey CRBGP could suppress the blood vessel formation in CAM models. Therefore, lamprey CRBGP is an important protein present in the buccal gland of lampreys and might help lampreys suppress the contraction of blood vessels, nociceptive responses and wound healing of host fishes during their feeding time. In addition, lamprey CRBGP might have the potential to act as an effective anti-angiogenic factor for the treatment of abnormal angiogenesis induced diseases. PMID:26616010

  9. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, V.; Patel, V.; Paranjape, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

  10. Layered nanoemulsions as mucoadhesive buccal systems for controlled delivery of oral cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Amy; Pham, Jimmy TH; Wang, Dawei; Brownlow, Bill; Elbayoumi, Tamer A

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers are considered the eighth most common cancer worldwide, with relatively poor prognosis (62% of patients surviving 5 years, after diagnosis). The aim of this study was to develop a proof-of-concept mucoadhesive lozenge/buccal tablet, as a potential platform for direct sustained delivery of therapeutic antimitotic nanomedicines. Our system would serve as an adjuvant therapy for oral cancer patients undergoing full-scale diagnostic and operative treatment plans. We utilized lipid-based nanocarriers, namely nanoemulsions (NEs), containing mixed-polyethoxylated emulsifiers and a tocopheryl moiety–enriched oil phase. Prototype NEs, loaded with the proapoptotic lipophilic drug genistein (Gen), were further processed into buccal tablet formulations. The chitosan polyelectrolyte solution overcoat rendered NE droplets cationic, by acting as a mucoadhesive interfacial NE layer. With approximate size of 110 nm, the positively charged chitosan-layered NE (+25 mV) vs negatively charged chitosan-free/primary aqueous NE (−28 mV) exhibited a controlled-release profile and effective mucoadhesion for liquid oral spray prototypes. When punch-pressed, porous NE-based buccal tablets were physically evaluated for hardness, friability, and swelling in addition to ex vivo tissue mucoadhesion force and retention time measurements. Chitosan-containing NE tablets were found equivalent to primary NE and placebo tablets in compression tests, yet significantly superior in all ex vivo adhesion and in vitro release assays (P≤0.05). Following biocompatibility screening of prototype chitosan-layered NEs, substantial anticancer activity of selected cationic Gen-loaded NE formulations, against two oropahryngeal carcinomas, was observed. The data strongly indicate the potential of such nanomucoadhesive systems as maintenance therapy for oral cancer patients awaiting surgical removal, or postresection of identified cancerous lesions. PMID:25759580

  11. Modulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes by ethanolic neem leaf extract during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, R; Velmurugan, B; Nagini, S

    2005-06-01

    Chemoprevention by medicinal plants is a promising approach for controlling cancer. There is substantial evidence to indicate that chemopreventive agents exert their anticarcinogenic effects by modulation of phase I and phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Therefore, we examined the chemopreventive potential of ethanolic neem leaf extract (ENLE) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Hamsters were divided into four groups of six animals each. The right buccal pouches of animals in Group I were painted with 0.5 per cent DMBA in liquid paraffin three times per week. Animals in Group 2 painted with DMBA as in group 1, received in addition, intragastric administration of ENLE at a concentration of 200 mg/kg bw three times per week on days alternate to DMBA application. Group 3 was given ENLE alone. Animals in Group 4 served as controls. All animals were killed after an experimental period of 14 weeks. Five out of six hamsters painted with DMBA alone developed squamous cell carcinomas in the buccal pouch. The HBP tumours showed an increase in phase I carcinogen activation (cytochrome P450 and b5) and phase II detoxification enzyme (glutathione-S-transferase, DT-diaphorase and NADPH-diaphorase) activities. In the liver of tumour-bearing animals, enhanced cytochrome P450 and b5 levels were accompanied by a decrease in phase II detoxification enzyme activities. Administration of ENLE effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP tumours, decreased cytochrome P450 and b5 levels, and enhanced phase II enzyme activities in the pouch and liver. Our results suggest that the modulation of DMBA metabolism is a possible mechanism for the chemopreventive effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract. PMID:16110755

  12. The effect of buccal corticotomy on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement of maxillary canine

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbakhshi, Mohammad Reza; Motamedi, Ali Mohammad Kalantar; Feizbakhsh, Masoud; Mogharehabed, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Selective alveolar corticotomy is defined as an intentional injury to cortical bone. This technique is an effective means of accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of buccal corticotomy in accelerating maxillary canine retraction. Materials and Methods: The sample in this clinical trial study consisted of 15 adult female patients with therapeutic need for extraction of maxillary first premolars and maximum canine retraction. By use of split-mouth design, at the time of premolars extraction, buccal corticotomy was performed around the maxillary first premolar, randomly on one side of maxilla, and the other side was reserved as the control side. Canine retraction was performed by use of friction – less mechanic with simple vertical loop. Every 2 weeks, distance between canines and second premolars was measured until complete space closure. The velocity of space closure was calculated to evaluate the effect of this technique in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test, and the significance was set at 0.05. Results: The rate of canine retraction was significantly higher on the corticotomy side than the control side by an average of 1.8 mm/month versus 1.1 mm/month in the corticotomy side and control side, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Based on result of this study, corticotomy can accelerates the rate of orthodontic tooth movement about two times faster than conventional orthodontics and it is significant in early stages after surgical porsedure. Therefore Buccal corticotomy is a useful adjunct technique for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:27605986

  13. Comparative Mapping of GABA-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Buccal Ganglia of Nudipleura Molluscs.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2016-04-15

    Phylogenetic comparisons of neurotransmitter distribution are important for understanding the ground plan organization of nervous systems. This study describes the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in the buccal ganglia of six sea slug species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Euthyneura, Nudipleura). In the nudibranch species, Hermissenda crassicornis, Tritonia diomedea, Tochuina tetraquetra, and Dendronotus iris, the number of GABA-ir neurons was highly consistent. Another nudibranch, Melibe leonina, however, contained approximately half the number of GABA-ir neurons. This may relate to its loss of a radula and its unique feeding behavior. The GABA immunoreactivity in a sister group to the nudibranchs, Pleurobranchaea californica, differed drastically from that of the nudibranchs. Not only did it have significantly more GABA-ir neurons but it also had a unique GABA distribution pattern. Furthermore, unlike the nudibranchs, the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution was also different from that of other, more distantly related, euopisthobranch and panpulmonate snails and slugs. This suggests that the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution may be a derived feature, unique to this lineage. The majority of GABA-ir axons and neuropil in the Nudipleura were restricted to the buccal ganglia, commissures, and connectives. However, in Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, we detected a few GABA-ir fibers in buccal nerves that innervate feeding muscles. Although the specific functions of the GABA-ir neurons in the species in this study are not known, the innervation pattern suggests these neurons may play an integrative or regulatory role in bilaterally coordinated behaviors in the Nudipleura. PMID:26355705

  14. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets.

    PubMed

    Sabale, V; Patel, V; Paranjape, A

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

  15. Management of recurrent anterior urethral strictures following buccal mucosal graft-urethroplasty: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Javali, Tarun Dilip; Katti, Amit; Nagaraj, Harohalli K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the safety, feasibility and outcome of redo buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty in patients presenting with recurrent anterior urethral stricture following previous failed BMG urethroplasty. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of 21 patients with recurrent anterior urethral stricture after buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty, who underwent redo urethroplasty at our institute between January 2008 to January 2014. All patients underwent preoperative evaluation in the form of uroflowmetry, RGU, sonourethrogram and urethroscopy. Among patients with isolated bulbar urethral stricture, who had previously undergone ventral onlay, redo dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty was done and vice versa (9+8 patients). Three patients, who had previously undergone Kulkarni-Barbagli urethroplasty, underwent dorsal free graft urethroplasty by ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach. One patient who had previously undergone urethroplasty by ASOPA technique underwent 2-stage Bracka repair. Catheter removal was done on 21st postoperative day. Follow-up consisted of uroflow, PVR and AUA-SS. Failure was defined as requirement of any post operative procedure. Results: Idiopathic urethral strictures constituted the predominant etiology. Eleven patients presented with stricture recurrence involving the entire grafted area, while the remaining 10 patients had fibrotic ring like strictures at the proximal/distal graft-urethral anastomotic sites. The success rate of redo surgery was 85.7% at a mean follow-up of 41.8 months (range: 1 yr-6 yrs). Among the 18 patients who required no intervention during the follow-up period, the graft survival was longer compared to their initial time to failure. Conclusion: Redo buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty is safe and feasible with good intermediate term outcomes. PMID:26834398

  16. Palatopharyngoplasty with bilateral buccal mucosal graft repair to alleviate oropharyngeal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Jared J; Vaughn, Cory A; Shaikh, Faisal A; Stocks, Rose Mary; Thompson, Jerome W

    2015-09-01

    Oropharyngeal stenosis is rare, but known complication from tonsillectomy procedure. A 15-year-old female presented with refractory dyspnea, mild obstructive sleep apnea, and dysphagia. She underwent tonsillectomy 3 years prior. Severe cicatricial oropharyngeal scar involving soft palate, anterior tonsillar pillars, and base of tongue, resulted in 1-cm(2) airway. Case report describing lysis of severe palatopharyngeal scar bands from tonsillectomy misadventure with immediate buccal mucosal grafts to repair resultant oropharyngeal defects. Patient no longer complains of difficulty breathing or dysphagia. PMID:26145205

  17. The adhesiometer: a simple device to measure adherence of barium sulfate to intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Salomonowitz, E; Frick, M P; Cragg, A H; Lund, G

    1984-04-01

    A simple, inexpensive device assessing barium sulfate adherence to alimentary tract mucosa was tested in an animal study using pigs and dogs. Interaction of gastric, intestinal, and colonic mucosal lining with three different barium preparations was studied. In both pigs and dogs, barium adherence to gastric mucosa was significantly stronger when compared with colonic mucosa. PMID:6608230

  18. Proximity of the mandibular molar root apex from the buccal bone surface: a cone-beam computed tomographic study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dokyung; Jin, Myoung-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the proximity of the mandibular molar apex to the buccal bone surface in order to provide anatomic information for apical surgery. Materials and Methods Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 127 mandibular first molars and 153 mandibular second molars were analyzed from 160 patients' records. The distance was measured from the buccal bone surface to the root apex and the apical 3.0 mm on the cross-sectional view of CBCT. Results The second molar apex and apical 3 mm were located significantly deeper relative to the buccal bone surface compared with the first molar (p < 0.01). For the mandibular second molars, the distance from the buccal bone surface to the root apex was significantly shorter in patients over 70 years of age (p < 0.05). Furthermore, this distance was significantly shorter when the first molar was missing compared to nonmissing cases (p < 0.05). For the mandibular first molars, the distance to the distal root apex of one distal-rooted tooth was significantly greater than the distance to the disto-buccal root apex (p < 0.01). In mandibular second molar, the distance to the apex of C-shaped roots was significantly greater than the distance to the mesial root apex of non-C-shaped roots (p < 0.01). Conclusions For apical surgery in mandibular molars, the distance from the buccal bone surface to the apex and apical 3 mm is significantly affected by the location, patient age, an adjacent missing anterior tooth, and root configuration. PMID:27508159

  19. A Systematic Review of the Use of Buccal Midazolam in the Emergency Treatment of Prolonged Seizures in Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Background: Buccal midazolam is widely used in children for the emergency treatment of epilepsy, and these children are graduating into adult learning disability services. Aims: The aim of this paper was to appraise the evidence for buccal midazolam as a treatment for prolonged seizures in adults with learning disabilities. Method: A literature…

  20. Bipaddled anterolateral thigh perforator flap for simultaneous reconstruction of bilateral buccal defects following oral cancer ablation or release of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Chen; Changchien, Chih-Hsuan; Su, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    It is a challenge to simultaneously reconstruct bilateral buccal defects following oral cancer ablation or release of oral submucous fibrosis. In this study, we report two cases where bipaddled anterolateral thigh perforator flaps were used to resurface two separate buccal defects. PMID:27619322

  1. Carrier-free cultured autologous oral mucosa epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) for corneal epithelium reconstruction: a histological study.

    PubMed

    Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; Oliva, Joan; Wood, Andrew; Hoft, Richard; Pan, Derek; Thropay, Jacquelyn; Makalinao, Andrew; French, Samuel W; Niihara, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the therapeutic effects of carrier-free cultured autologous oral mucosa epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) transplantation for experimentally induced severe rabbit limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Buccal biopsies were performed and CAOMECS were cultured and transplanted onto diseased corneas. Six-month follow-up examinations indicated that three out of four corneas with CAOMECS grafts showed a decrease in superficial vascularization, while almost all the sham corneas did not show a similar decrease. H&E staining of corneas showed that CAOMECS transplantation reduced blood vessel invasion of central cornea, reduced lymphocyte infiltration and fibrotic tissue formation. DeltaNp63 stained markedly in the grafted cornea and to a lesser extent in the sham corneas. PCNA and Ki-67 staining were much greater in the sham corneas than in the grafted and normal corneas. K3 and K13 staining demonstrated that CAOMECS transplanted corneas had much more K3- and less K13- positive cells compared to the sham corneas. Muc5AC was decreased in the central region of grafted corneas. Very little alpha-smooth muscle actin (aSMA) staining was detected in grafted corneas, while there was a greater amount of aSMA staining in sham corneas. Staining for anti-angiogenic factor TIMP -3 was also increased, and pro-angiogenic factor MMP-3 was decreased in grafted corneas compared to sham corneas. Our results indicate that CAOMECS grafts resulted in improved epithelialization of the corneal surface and decreased vascularization and fibrosis of the diseased corneas. PMID:25881998

  2. Adherence of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to rat and human colonic mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Ravdin, J I; John, J E; Johnston, L I; Innes, D J; Guerrant, R L

    1985-01-01

    We studied the adherence of [3H]thymidine-labeled axenic Entamoeba histolytica (strain HM1-IMSS) to in vitro preparations of rat and human colonic mucosa. Studies were performed with fixed or unfixed rat colonic mucosa, unfixed rat mucosa exposed to trypsin, unfixed rat submucosa, and fixed human colonic mucosa. Twenty percent of the amebae adhered to fixed rat colonic mucosa; adherence was specifically inhibited by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc), galactose, and asialofetuin. The adherence of amebae to fixed human colonic mucosa was also GalNAc inhibitable. Greater adherence was found with unfixed rat colonic mucosa (40.9%) and was not GalNAc inhibitable unless the tissue was first exposed to trypsin. However, GalNAc did inhibit the adherence of amebae to unfixed rat submucosa. Glutaraldehyde fixation of amebae inactivates known amebic adhesion proteins; there was a markedly decreased adherence of fixed amebae to trypsin-exposed mucosa or fixed rat colonic mucosa. However, fixed or viable amebae had equal levels of adherence to unfixed rat colonic mucosa, suggesting the presence of a host adhesion protein that binds to receptors on amebae. Human (10%) and rabbit (5%) immune sera reduced the adherence of viable amebae to fixed rat colonic mucosa. We concluded that the GalNAc-inhibitable adhesion protein on the surface of E. histolytica trophozoites mediated adherence to fixed rat mucosa, fixed human colonic mucosa, trypsin-exposed unfixed rat mucosa, and unfixed rat submucosa. The surface of unfixed rat colonic mucosa contained a glutaraldehyde- and trypsin-sensitive host adhesion protein, perhaps in the overlying mucus blanket, which bound viable or fixed E. histolytica trophozoites. Images PMID:2580787

  3. Treatment of Oroantral Fistula in Pediatric Patient using Buccal Fat Pad

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Ruchi; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Virendra; Bhagol, Amrish

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brief background: Oroantral communication (OAC) is the space created between the maxillary sinus and the oral cavity, which, if not treated, will progress to oroantral fistula (OAF). Several methods of surgical OAC repair have been described, but only a few have gained recognition. Materials and methods: A 13 years old male child patient with complaint of difficulty in drinking water and change in voice diagnosed as OAF managed with closure with buccal fat pad (BFP). Discussion: Oroantral fistula is an abnormal communication resulting most frequently from extraction of the upper posterior teeth. Many techniques have been proposed for the closure. The preferred technique may vary from one surgeon to another. Conclusion: The adequate availability of BFP in children, effortless mobilization excellent blood supply and minimal donor site morbidity make it a perfect flap for OAF closure in pediatric patient. How to cite this article: Agrawal A, Singhal R, Kumar P, Singh V, Bhagol A. Treatment of Oroantral Fistula in Pediatric Patient using Buccal Fat Pad. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):138-140. PMID:26379383

  4. Altered cytokeratin expression during chemoprevention of hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by S-allylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Balasenthil, Seetharaman; Rao, Kunchala S; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2003-01-01

    We examined the effect of S-allylcysteine (SAC), a water-soluble garlic constituent, on cytokeratin expression, a sensitive and specific marker for differentiation status during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis in male Syrian hamsters. Hamsters were divided into four groups of six animals each. Animals in group 1 were painted with a 0.5% solution of DMBA in liquid paraffin on the right buccal pouches three times a week for 14 weeks. Group 2 animals were painted with DMBA as in group I, and in addition they received orally 200 mg/kg of SAC on days alternate to DMBA application. Group 3 animals received SAC as in group 2. Group 4 animals received neither DMBA nor SAC and served as the control. The hamsters were killed after an experimental period of 14 weeks. Cytokeratin expression was detected by Western blot analysis using monoclonal antibodies AE1 and AE3. In DMBA-induced HBP tumors, the decreased expression of high molecular weight cytokeratins of molecular mass between 55-70 kDa was observed. Administration of SAC (200 mg/kg) to animals painted with DMBA suppressed the incidence of DMBA-induced carcinomas and was associated with restoration of normal cytokeratin expression. The results of the present study suggest that inhibition of HBP tumorigenesis by SAC may be due to its regulatory effects on differentiation, tumor invasiveness, and its ability to migrate and form metastases. PMID:14704476

  5. Development of a buccal mucoadhesive film for fast dissolution: mathematical rationale, production and physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Vila, Marta M D C; Tardelli, Edgard R; Chaud, Marco V; Tubino, Matthieu; Balcão, Victor M

    2014-11-01

    The validity of a mathematical rationale for preparation of a fast-dissolving buccal mucoadhesive was tested. A buccal mucoadhesive biopolymeric formulation has been developed having pullulan as the main component. The formulation was duly evaluated physicochemically, via assays for intrinsic viscosity (resulting in 71.61 cm3 g(-1)), differential scanning calorimetry analysis (resulting in a Tg = 63 °C), thermogravimetric analysis (244-341 °C), moisture content determinations (14%, w/w), dissolution timeframe (41.6 s), mucoadhesion force (40 kg/cm2), scanning electron microscopy analyses (critical ray under 1.0 μm), mechanic strength (tensile strength = 58 N/mm2, deformation = 4.4%). The mucoadhesive formulation exhibited important characteristics for a drug carrier, that is, a 6 cm2 area, a fast dissolution timeframe, an adequate mucoadhesivity, resistance to both oxygen and water vapor penetration, increased viscosity in solution (ranging from 33.2 cm3/g to 71.61 cm3/g), easy molding, suitable water solubility and transparency. PMID:24191772

  6. Epigenetic Variation in Monozygotic Twins: A Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation in Buccal Cells

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Jenny; Ehli, Erik A.; Slieker, Roderick C.; Bartels, Meike; Weber, Zachary M.; Davies, Gareth E.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic marks in humans. Yet, it is largely unknown what causes variation in DNA methylation between individuals. The comparison of DNA methylation profiles of monozygotic (MZ) twins offers a unique experimental design to examine the extent to which such variation is related to individual-specific environmental influences and stochastic events or to familial factors (DNA sequence and shared environment). We measured genome-wide DNA methylation in buccal samples from ten MZ pairs (age 8–19) using the Illumina 450k array and examined twin correlations for methylation level at 420,921 CpGs after QC. After selecting CpGs showing the most variation in the methylation level between subjects, the mean genome-wide correlation (rho) was 0.54. The correlation was higher, on average, for CpGs within CpG islands (CGIs), compared to CGI shores, shelves and non-CGI regions, particularly at hypomethylated CpGs. This finding suggests that individual-specific environmental and stochastic influences account for more variation in DNA methylation in CpG-poor regions. Our findings also indicate that it is worthwhile to examine heritable and shared environmental influences on buccal DNA methylation in larger studies that also include dizygotic twins. PMID:24802513

  7. Epigenetic variation in monozygotic twins: a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in buccal cells.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Jenny; Ehli, Erik A; Slieker, Roderick C; Bartels, Meike; Weber, Zachary M; Davies, Gareth E; Slagboom, P Eline; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied epigenetic marks in humans. Yet, it is largely unknown what causes variation in DNA methylation between individuals. The comparison of DNA methylation profiles of monozygotic (MZ) twins offers a unique experimental design to examine the extent to which such variation is related to individual-specific environmental influences and stochastic events or to familial factors (DNA sequence and shared environment). We measured genome-wide DNA methylation in buccal samples from ten MZ pairs (age 8-19) using the Illumina 450k array and examined twin correlations for methylation level at 420,921 CpGs after QC. After selecting CpGs showing the most variation in the methylation level between subjects, the mean genome-wide correlation (rho) was 0.54. The correlation was higher, on average, for CpGs within CpG islands (CGIs), compared to CGI shores, shelves and non-CGI regions, particularly at hypomethylated CpGs. This finding suggests that individual-specific environmental and stochastic influences account for more variation in DNA methylation in CpG-poor regions. Our findings also indicate that it is worthwhile to examine heritable and shared environmental influences on buccal DNA methylation in larger studies that also include dizygotic twins. PMID:24802513

  8. A simple and cost-effective protocol for DNA isolation from buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Aidar, Marisi; Line, Sergio Roberto Peres

    2007-01-01

    Buccal cells provide a convenient source of DNA for epidemiological studies. The goal of this study was to develop a convenient method to obtain buccal cells from mouthwash samples to be used as a source of DNA, and to evaluate the stability of the DNA in mouthwash solution over time. The procedures used in the method described in this paper avoid the use of any organic solvents. This is achieved by salting out the cellular proteins by dehydration and precipitation with a saturated ammonium acetate solution. The protocol described here is fast, simple to perform, sensitive, economical and several samples can be processed at the same time. The analyses provide consistent evidence that DNA extracted by this methodology is sufficient for several PCR amplifications. The total DNA yield ranged from 5 to 93 microg (median 15 microg, mean 20.71 microg). DNA can be extracted and PCR amplified after storage of mouthwash solution at room temperature for periods of up to 30 days. PMID:17982556

  9. Single stage: dorsolateral onlay buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures using perineal route

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, Vikram; Devaraju, Shishir; Vernekar, Ritesh; Hiremath, Murigendra

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To assess the outcome of single stage dorsolateral onlay buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures (>4cm long) using a perineal incision. Materials and Methods From August 2010 to August 2013, 20 patients underwent BMG urethroplasty. The cause of stricture was Lichen sclerosis in 12 cases (60%), Instrumentation in 5 cases (25%), and unknown in 3 cases (15%). Strictures were approached through a perineal skin incision and penis was invaginated into it to access the entire urethra. All the grafts were placed dorsolaterally, preserving the bulbospongiosus muscle, central tendon of perineum and one-sided attachement of corpus spongiosum. Procedure was considered to be failure if the patient required instrumentation postoperatively. Results Mean stricture length was 8.5cm (range 4 to 12cm). Mean follow-up was 22.7 months (range 12 to 36 months). Overall success rate was 85%. There were 3 failures (meatal stenosis in 1, proximal stricture in 1 and whole length recurrent stricture in 1). Other complications included wound infection, urethrocutaneous fistula, brownish discharge per urethra and scrotal oedema. Conclusion Dorsolateral buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures using a single perineal incision is simple, safe and easily reproducible by urologists with a good outcome. PMID:27286122

  10. Effects on the nasal mucosa of upper respiratory viruses (common cold).

    PubMed

    Winther, B

    1994-04-01

    Delineation of the pathogenesis of symptoms during common colds is the overall aim of this work. The studies included in this thesis have focused on the histopathologic changes in the nasal mucosa produced by infection with respiratory viruses. The accepted concept when these studies were undertaken was that cold symptoms were caused by destruction of nasal epithelium by virus and that epithelial damage sometimes led to secondary bacterial infection evidenced by purulent nasal secretions. The pathogenesis of cold symptoms has been reviewed in this thesis based on investigations by others and my own research. Chapter 1 described the clinical design of a naturally acquired cold model and an experimental rhinovirus cold model which were used. The advantages of the experimental model over the natural cold model are that the viral etiology is known and that volunteers can be studied beginning at viral inoculation rather than onset of symptoms. Unfortunately, the experimental model is very expensive. Chapter 2 reviewed the histopathology of the nasal mucosa during colds. The degree of destruction of the mucosa during naturally acquired colds reported in the literature has varied. We did not detect any discernible damage of the epithelium by light and scanning electron microscopy in naturally acquired colds. We repeated the study in volunteers with rhinovirus colds and again did not find any damage to the surface epithelium (light microscopy). Although different viruses may cause epithelial damage in naturally acquired colds, in rhinovirus colds the epithelium of the anterior part of the inferior turbinate is not destroyed. There was an early influx of neutrophils into the nasal mucosa in patients both with naturally acquired colds (day 2 after onset) and with experimental rhinovirus colds. This discovery in combination with the minimal damage of the nasal epithelium led to formulation of a new hypothesis of how cold symptoms may be produced. The influx of neutrophils

  11. Olfactory Mucosa Tissue Based Biosensor for Bioelectronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qingjun; Ye, Weiwei; Yu, Hui; Hu, Ning; Cai, Hua; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    Biological olfactory system can distinguish thousands of odors. In order to realize the biomimetic design of electronic nose on the principle of mammalian olfactory system, we have reported bioelectronic nose based on cultured olfactory cells. In this study, the electrical property of the tissue-semiconductor interface was analyzed by the volume conductor theory and the sheet conductor model. Olfactory mucosa tissue of rat was isolated and fixed on the surface of the light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), with the natural stations of the neuronal populations and functional receptor unit of the cilia well reserved. By the extracellular potentials of the olfactory receptor cells of the mucosa tissue monitored, both the simulation and the experimental results suggested that this tissue-semiconductor hybrid system was sensitive to odorants stimulation.

  12. [Microflora of pharyngeal mucosa in children with solid tumors].

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, V B; Baturo, A P; Romanenko, E E; Kostinov, M P; Zaeva, G E; Mikhaĭlova, S N; Leonova, A Iu; Moiseenko, E I

    2008-01-01

    Microbiological study of pharyngeal mucosa in 43 children with solid tumors revealed that 77.2% of isolated microorganisms belonged to Gram-positive flora. It was shown that streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus were the main species. Species composition of streptococci included both pyogenic (S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. dysgalactiae, S. equi) andviridans species (S. acidominimus, S. oralis and "S. milleri" group). Nocardioform actinomycetes, corynebacteria and other staphylococci were referred to additional microflora. Accidental microflora was represented by Neisseria spp., non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, enterobacteria and yeast-like fungi. Microbiologic study of pharyngeal mucosa biocenosis showed that monoculture was present only in 2.3% of cases; in other cases microorganisms formed both intra-genus and inter-species associations. 2-6-component associations were revealed with predominance of 3-4-component associations (37.2% and 32.6% respectively). Relationship of distribution of microorganisms belonging to main and additional microflora was revealed. PMID:19186552

  13. Concentrations of acidic antiinflammatory drugs in gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Frey, H H; El-Sayed, M A

    1977-12-01

    In rats, the concentrations of the acidic antiinflammatory drugs salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, phenylbutazone, flufenamic acid and indomethacin in the glandular portion of the gastric mucosa were determined 30 and 60 min after oral or subcutaneous administration. In another series of experiments, solutions of the drugs were introduced into the ligated stomach and the concentrations in the mucosa and in the contents of the stomach were determined after 60 min. The ratio between the concentrations in the musoca and those in serum or gastric contents were much lower than expected according to the distribution by passive non-ionic diffusion. This apparent discrepancy may be explained as a result of a drug-induced damage to the mucosal cell allowing free diffusion of ionized drug across the cell membrane. PMID:603322

  14. Two Cases of Bacteremia Due to Roseomonas mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Kyung; Moon, Jung Suk; Song, Kyung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Roseomonas is a genus of pink-pigmented nonfermentative bacilli. These slow-growing, gram-negative cocobacilli form pink-colored colonies on sheep blood agar. They differ from other pink-pigmented nonfermenters, including Methylobacterium, in morphology, biochemical characteristics, and DNA sequence. Roseomonas strains are rarely isolated in clinical laboratories; therefore, we report two cases in order to improve our ability to identify these pathogens. We isolated two strains of Roseomonas mucosa from the venous blood cultures of two patients, an 84-yr-old woman with common bile duct obstruction and a 17-yr-old male with acute myeloid leukemia who had an indwelling central-venous catheter for chemotherapy. The isolated strains were confirmed as R. mucosa by 16S rRNA sequencing. PMID:27139611

  15. Regeneration of mandibular ameloblastoma defect with the help of autologous dental pulp stem cells and buccal pad of fat stromal vascular fraction

    PubMed Central

    Manimaran, K.; Sharma, Rohini; Sankaranarayanan, S.; Perumal, S. Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is benign odontogenic tumor, which is locally aggressive in behavior. Till date, the treatment of choice is resection and reconstruction using a variety of modalities. Inadequate resection may lead to many complications such as bone deformity and dysfunction. This report is about a 14-year-old male with ameloblastoma treated with autologous dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and evidence of bone regeneration. Marsupialization was performed; tooth was extracted and sent for DPSC cultivation. On the day of surgery, SVF was processed from buccal pad of fat, and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) was prepared from patient's peripheral blood. During the procedure, labial plate resection and curating of tumor lining were done. After which, a mesh packed with SyboGraft T-plug, prepared SVF, DPSCs, and PRF were placed over lingual cortex and pressure dressing was done. After the 1st month of surgery the postoperative course was uneventful, the wound shrinkage led to exposure of mesh in the intraoral region. Removal of exposed mesh was done. The correction surgery with removal of part of mesh and primary closure was achieved with SyboGraft plug, SVF and PRF. Enhanced bone formation was seen in post-operative OPG and CT Scan after 10th month. In this article, we propose an innovative approach to manage these cases by using a combination of autologous DPSC and buccal pad of fat SVF to regenerate a mandibular defect left by the resection of an ameloblastoma with 1.5 year follow-up. We were able to demonstrate bone regeneration using this technique with no recurrence of tumor.

  16. Regeneration of mandibular ameloblastoma defect with the help of autologous dental pulp stem cells and buccal pad of fat stromal vascular fraction.

    PubMed

    Manimaran, K; Sharma, Rohini; Sankaranarayanan, S; Perumal, S Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is benign odontogenic tumor, which is locally aggressive in behavior. Till date, the treatment of choice is resection and reconstruction using a variety of modalities. Inadequate resection may lead to many complications such as bone deformity and dysfunction. This report is about a 14-year-old male with ameloblastoma treated with autologous dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and evidence of bone regeneration. Marsupialization was performed; tooth was extracted and sent for DPSC cultivation. On the day of surgery, SVF was processed from buccal pad of fat, and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) was prepared from patient's peripheral blood. During the procedure, labial plate resection and curating of tumor lining were done. After which, a mesh packed with SyboGraft T-plug, prepared SVF, DPSCs, and PRF were placed over lingual cortex and pressure dressing was done. After the 1(st) month of surgery the postoperative course was uneventful, the wound shrinkage led to exposure of mesh in the intraoral region. Removal of exposed mesh was done. The correction surgery with removal of part of mesh and primary closure was achieved with SyboGraft plug, SVF and PRF. Enhanced bone formation was seen in post-operative OPG and CT Scan after 10(th) month. In this article, we propose an innovative approach to manage these cases by using a combination of autologous DPSC and buccal pad of fat SVF to regenerate a mandibular defect left by the resection of an ameloblastoma with 1.5 year follow-up. We were able to demonstrate bone regeneration using this technique with no recurrence of tumor. PMID:27563616

  17. Total Reconstruction of the Upper Lip Using Bilateral Nasolabial Flaps, Submental Flap, and Mucosa Graft following Complete Resection for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Oseni, O. G.; Fadare, A. E.; Majaro, M. O.; Olaitan, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Lip reconstruction following resection for tumour or following extensive trauma may pose a challenge. This is more so when the resection is total and a complete lip has to be constructed. We present a case of lip reconstruction following a total resection of the upper lip. The procedure used in this case was a combination of bilateral nasolabial flaps with a submental flap and buccal mucosal graft lining. We believe that this provides an alternative method of total upper lip reconstruction with minimal disruption of the facial aesthesis. PMID:26693378

  18. The quantitative assessment of normal canine small intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hart, I R; Kidder, D E

    1978-09-01

    Quanitative methods of assessing the architecture of small intestinal mucosa have been applied to biopsy material from normal dogs. Mucosal samples taken from four predetermined sites show that there are significant quantitative differences between the various levels of the small bowel. Animals of one year of age and older show no correlation between age or weight and mucosal dimensions. The significance of these findings, in relation to examination of biopsy material from cases of clinical small intestinal disease, is discussed. PMID:364574

  19. Zur Struktur der Solenocyten (Cyrtocyten) von Anaitides mucosa (Annelida, Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, K.

    1981-12-01

    Based on electron microscopic observations, the structure of the solenocytes of A. mucosa is described. The tube of the solenocyte is made up of 14 15 rods. These rods, which are filled with regularly packed filaments, are interconnected by an amorphous to filamentous substance. A single flagellum, lying in the tube, is surrounded by a sheet of amorphous material. The functional organization of the solenocytes is discussed.

  20. Alteration of gene expression in rat colon mucosa after exercise.

    PubMed

    Buehlmeyer, K; Doering, F; Daniel, H; Kindermann, B; Schulz, T; Michna, H

    2008-01-01

    The development of colon cancer is highly influenced by lifestyle factors such as nutrition and physical inactivity. Detailed biological mechanisms are thus far unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of regular treadmill exercise on gene expression in rat colon mucosa. For this purpose, 6-week-old male Wistar rats completed a stress-free voluntary treadmill exercise period of 12 weeks. Sedentary rats served as a control group. In the colon mucosa, steady-state mRNA expression levels of approximately 10,000 genes were compared between both groups by micro-array analysis (MWG rat 10K array). A total of 8846 mRNAs were detected above background level. Regular exercise led to a decreased expression of 47 genes at a threshold-factor of 2.0. Three genes were found to be up-regulated in the exercise group. The identified genes encode proteins involved in signal transduction (n=11), transport (n=8), immune system (n=7), cytoskeleton (n=6), protein targeting (n=6), metabolism (n=5), transcription (n=3) and vascularization (n=2). Among the genes regulated by regular exercise, the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase 2 (BHMT2) seems to be of particular interest. Physical activity may protect against aberrant methylation by repressing the BHMT2 gene and thus contribute to a decreased risk of developing colon cancer. We have also identified vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) and calcium-independent phospholipase a2 (iPL-A2), all of them with markedly reduced transcript levels in the mucosa of active rats. In summary, our experiment presents the first gene expression pattern in rat colon mucosa following regular treadmill activity and represents an important step in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the preventive effect of physical activity on the development of colon cancer. PMID:18342145

  1. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome with esophagitis and Barrett mucosa.

    PubMed

    Karl, T R; Pindyck, F; Sicular, A

    1983-10-01

    Although esophageal disease in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is being recognized with increasing frequency, Barrett esophagus is seen only rarely. Basal lower esophageal sphincter pressure is probably not different in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and non-Zollinger-Ellison syndrome patients. Circulating gastrin, therefore, cannot be the major determinant of lower esophageal sphincter pressure in vivo. Total gastrectomy and resection of all metaplastic esophagus, when feasible, is the treatment of choice for patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and Barrett mucosa. PMID:6624733

  2. Untersuchungen zur Regeneration des Hinterendes bei Anaitides mucosa (Polychaeta, Phyllodocidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhrkasten, A.

    1983-06-01

    Caudal regeneration was investigated in decerebrate Anaitides mucosa and in brain-intact individuals. Both groups show an identical capacity to regenerate lost caudal segments. Furthermore there is no difference in males and females. Low temperature (5 °C) inhibits the regeneration of caudal segments, but it is necessary for normal oogenesis. Under conditions of high temperature (15 °C), caudal regeneration is very extensive. At the same time degeneration of most oocytes occurs.

  3. Evaluation of Microbial Load in Oropharyngeal Mucosa from Tannery Workers

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos-Arévalo, Diana C.; Castellanos-Arévalo, Andrea P.; Camarena-Pozos, David A.; Colli-Mull, Juan G.; Maldonado-Vega, María

    2014-01-01

    Background Animal skin provides an ideal medium for the propagation of microorganisms and it is used like raw material in the tannery and footware industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate and identify the microbial load in oropharyngeal mucosa of tannery employees. Methods The health risk was estimated based on the identification of microorganisms found in the oropharyngeal mucosa samples. The study was conducted in a tanners group and a control group. Samples were taken from oropharyngeal mucosa and inoculated on plates with selective medium. In the samples, bacteria were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis and the yeasts through a presumptive method. In addition, the sensitivity of these microorganisms to antibiotics/antifungals was evaluated. Results The identified bacteria belonged to the families Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Neisseriaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae, of which some species are considered as pathogenic or opportunistic microorganisms; these bacteria were not present in the control group. Forty-two percent of bacteria identified in the tanners group are correlated with respiratory diseases. Yeasts were also identified, including the following species: Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, and Candida krusei. Regarding the sensitivity test of bacteria identified in the tanners group, 90% showed sensitivity to piperacillin/tazobactam, 87% showed sensitivity to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, 74% showed sensitivity to ampicillin/sulbactam, and 58% showed sensitivity to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Conclusion Several of the bacteria and yeast identified in the oropharyngeal mucosa of tanners have been correlated with infections in humans and have already been reported as airborne microorganisms in this working environment, representing a health risk for workers. PMID:25830072

  4. l-Menthol sprayed on gastric mucosa causes edematous change

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Akihiro; Hachiya, Hiroki; Yumura, Takayuki; Ito, Shun; Hayashi, Shintaro; Nozaki, Masashi; Yoshida, Atsui; Ohashi, Noritsugu

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aims: l-Menthol (LM), sprayed on the distal gastric mucosa, is a safe antispasmodic agent used during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). However, it seems to affect gastric mucosal endoscopic findings. Therefore, we evaluated whether LM causes specific changes and impacts the endoscopic morphology of gastric lesions. Patients and methods: A total of 98 patients scheduled to undergo EGD were randomly assigned to receive LM solution (160 mg of 0.8 % LM added to 2.5 mL of indigo carmine [IC]; n = 49; LM group) or decuple-diluted IC solution without LM (n = 49; placebo group). We compared the incidence of specific mucosal changes and the difference in the endoscopic findings of several gastric lesions between these groups. Results: Annular-reticular – like mucosal changes appeared immediately after the administration of LM solution. This change was observed in 71.4 % of the LM group compared with 12.2 % of the placebo group (P < 0.01). In the placebo group, this change was observed in 14.7 % of subjects with atrophic gastritis compared with 6.7 % of those without atrophic gastritis (P = 0.39), whereas in the LM group, this change was observed in 84.8 % of subjects with atrophic gastritis compared with 43.8 % of those without atrophic gastritis (P < 0.01). Most early gastric cancers, erosions, and ulcers observed in this study became well demarcated after LM administration, although the incidence of gastric lesions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusion: LM changes the gastric mucosa into edematous mucosa, and this occurs more frequently in atrophic gastric mucosa than in pathologic lesions. LM may facilitate the demarcation of pathologic gastric lesions without intestinal metaplasia. PMID:26135260

  5. Method of expression of certain bacterial microflora mucosa olfactory area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrunin, Oleg G.; Nosova, Yana V.; Shushlyapina, Natalia O.; Surtel, Wojciech; Burlibay, Aron; Zhassandykyzy, Maral

    2015-12-01

    The article is devoted to the actual problem - the development of new express diagnostic methods, based on which a doctor-otolaryngologist can quickly and efficiently determine a violation of smell. The work is based on the methods of processing and analysis of medical images and signals. We have also identified informative indicators of endoscopic image of the olfactory region of the nasal mucosa of the upper course.

  6. Esophageal mucosa exfoliation induced by oxalic acid poisoning: A case report

    PubMed Central

    WANG, JIERU; KAN, BAOTIAN; JIAN, XIANGDONG; WU, XIAOPENG; YU, GUANCAI; SUN, JING

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the case of a 44-year-old woman with oral oxalic acid poisoning. As the illness progressed, the patient exhibited severe metabolic acidosis, large-area esophageal mucosa injury and acute kidney injury, which required dialysis. A guide wire slipped out of position during the process of hemodialysis and moved back and forth in the veins, but was removed successfully by interventional endovascular treatment. However, the patient's esophageal mucosa exfoliated, which lead to severe benign esophageal stenosis and dysphagia. Balloon distention was conducted twice in the upper digestive tract using X-ray location in combination with a dumb-bell bladder and interventional wire. The patient exhibited convulsions, shock, embolism and loss of consciousness while undergoing the second balloon distention procedure. Following symptomatic treatment, the patient eventually remained in a stable condition, the digestive tract expansion procedure was not resumed and a jejunostomy was performed in order to facilitate enteral nutrition, which was administered via the jejunum and had little stimulatory effect on the pancreas. Following various treatments, the patient's condition improved markedly, with renal function returning to normal. PMID:26889241

  7. Local Immunoglobulin E in the Nasal Mucosa: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    De Schryver, Els; Devuyst, Lien; Derycke, Lara; Dullaers, Melissa; Van Zele, Thibaut; Bachert, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) can be highly elevated in the airway mucosa independently of IgE serum levels and atopic status. Mostly, systemic markers are assessed to investigate inflammation in airway disease for research or clinical practice. A more accurate but more cumbersome approach to determine inflammation at the target organ would be to evaluate markers locally. We review evidence for local production of IgE in allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Diagnostic and therapeutic consequences in clinical practice are discussed. We describe that the airway mucosa has the intrinsic capability to produce IgE. Moreover, not only do IgE-positive B cells reside within the mucosa, but all tools are present locally for affinity maturation by somatic hypermutation (SHM), clonal expansion, and class switch recombination to IgE. Recognizing local IgE in the absence of systemic IgE has diagnostic and therapeutic consequences. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of local IgE in patients with a history of AR or CRSwNP. PMID:25749769

  8. Nested PCR for detection of HSV-1 in oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Jalouli, Miranda-Masoumeh; Jalouli, Jamshid; Hasséus, Bengt; Öhman, Jenny; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been estimated that 15%-20% of human tumours are driven by infection and inflammation, and viral infections play an important role in malignant transformation. The evidence that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) could be involved in the aetiology of oral cancer varies from weak to persuasive. This study aimed to investigate by nested PCR (NPCR) the prevalence of HSV-1 in samples from normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Material and Methods We investigated the prevalence of HSV-1 in biopsies obtained from 26 fresh, normal oral mucosa from healthy volunteers as well as 53 oral leukoplakia and 27 OSCC paraffin-embedded samples. DNA was extracted from the specimens and investigated for the presence of HSV-1 by nested polymerase chain reaction (NPCR) and DNA sequencing. Results HSV-1 was detected in 14 (54%) of the healthy samples, in 19 (36%) of the oral leukoplakia samples, and in 14 (52%) of the OSCC samples. The differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions We observed a high incidence of HSV-1 in healthy oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and OSCC tissues. Thus, no connection between OSCC development and presence of HSV-1 was detected. Key words:HSV-1, nested PCR, PCR. PMID:26449432

  9. Acylation of lysolecithin in the intestinal mucosa of rats

    PubMed Central

    Subbaiah, P. V.; Sastry, P. S.; Ganguly, J.

    1970-01-01

    1. The presence of an active acyl-CoA–lysolecithin (1-acylglycerophosphorylcholine) acyltransferase was demonstrated in rat intestinal mucosa. 2. ATP and CoA were necessary for the incorporation of free [1-14C]oleic acid into lecithin (phosphatidylcholine). 3. The reaction was about 20 times as fast with [1-14C]oleoyl-CoA as with free oleic acid, CoA and ATP. 4. With 1-acylglycerophosphorylcholine as the acceptor, both oleic acid and palmitic acid were incorporated into the β-position of lecithin; the incorporation of palmitic acid was 60% of that of oleic acid. 5. Of the various analogues of lysolecithin tested as acyl acceptors from [1-14C]oleoyl CoA, a lysolecithin with a long-chain fatty acid at the 1-position was most efficient. 6. The enzyme was mostly present in the brush-border-free particulate fraction of the intestinal mucosa. 7. Of the various tissues of rats tested for the activity, intestinal mucosa was found to be the most active, with testes, liver, kidneys and spleen following it in decreasing order. PMID:5484668

  10. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mexican Welders Occupationally Exposed to Welding-Fumes Using the Micronucleus Test on Exfoliated Oral Mucosa Cells: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jara-Ettinger, Ana Cecilia; López-Tavera, Juan Carlos; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes. Previous studies show that the exposure to such fumes is associated with damage to genetic material and increased cancer risk. In this study, we evaluate the genotoxic effect of welding-fumes using the Micronucleus Test on oral mucosa cells of Mexican welders. Material and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, matched case-control study of n = 66 (33 exposed welders, and 33 healthy controls). Buccal mucosa smears were collected and stained with acridine orange, observed under 100x optical amplification with a fluorescence lamp, and a single-blinded observer counted the number of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities per 2,000 observed cells. We compared the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities, and fitted generalised linear models to investigate the interactions between nuclear abnormalities and the exposure to welding-fumes, while controlling for smoking and age. Results Binucleated cells and condensed-chromatin cells showed statistically significant differences between cases and controls. The frequency of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities (lobed-nuclei, pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjusting for smoking, the regression results showed that the occurrence of binucleated cells could be predicted by the exposure to welding-fumes plus the presence of tobacco consumption; for the condensed-chromatin cells, our model showed that the exposure to welding-fumes is the only reliable predictor. Conclusions Our findings suggest that Mexican welders who are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes have increased counts of binucleated and condensed-chromatin cells. Nevertheless, the frequencies of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities did not differ between cases and controls. Further studies should shed more light on this subject. PMID:26244938

  11. Black tea polyphenols protect against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Letchoumy, P Vidjaya; Chandra Mohan, K V P; Kumaraguruparan, R; Hara, Y; Nagini, S

    2006-01-01

    Dietary chemoprevention has emerged as a cost-effective approach for cancer control. We evaluated the chemopreventive effects of black tea polyphenols (Polyphenon-B) administration during the preinitiation phase of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the buccal pouch and the concentration of lipid peroxides, protein carbonyl, and the antioxidant status in the buccal pouch, liver and erythrocytes were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. All the hamsters painted with DMBA alone for 14 weeks developed buccal pouch carcinomas associated with increased expression of PCNA, diminished lipid and protein oxidation, and enhanced antioxidant status. In the liver and erythrocytes of tumor-bearing animals, enhanced oxidation of lipids and proteins was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defenses. Dietary administration of Polyphenon-B effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis as revealed by decreased incidence of tumours and PCNA expression. In addition, Polyphenon-B modulated lipid and protein oxidation and enhanced the antioxidant status in the pouch, liver, and erythrocytes. We suggest that Polyphenon-B exerts its chemopreventive effects by inhibiting cell proliferation in the target tissue and modulating the oxidant-antioxidant status in the target as well as in host tissues. PMID:17120615

  12. The Impact of Buccal Bone Defects and Immediate Placement on the Esthetic Outcome of Maxillary Anterior Single-Tooth Implants.

    PubMed

    Kamperos, Georgios; Zambara, Ioanna; Petsinis, Vassileios; Zambaras, Dimitrios

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of buccal bone defects and immediate placement on the esthetic outcome of maxillary anterior single-tooth implants. The archives of the Department of Dental Implants & Tissue Regeneration at Hygeia Hospital during a 5-year period (2010-2014) were retrospectively analyzed, in search of patients treated with a single-tooth implant after extraction of a maxillary incisor. The status of the buccal bone plate and the time of implant placement were recorded. The pink esthetic score (PES) of each case was evaluated, with a maximum score of 14. In total, 91 patients were included in the study. The mean PES was 10.5. The outcome was considered satisfactory (PES ≥ 8) in 89% and (almost) perfect (PES ≥ 12) in 35% of the cases. Immediate implant placement had no impact on PES (P > .05), even though it demonstrated slightly greater variability. On the other hand, buccal bone defects had a negative effect on PES (P < .0001). In conclusion, a satisfactory esthetic outcome can be achieved in single-tooth implants in the anterior maxilla. The presence of buccal bone defects is considered a negative prognostic factor, whereas immediate implant placement does not affect the esthetic outcome. PMID:27077689

  13. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K.; Wilkerson, C.; Meisner, L. |

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Localization of Molecular Correlates of Memory Consolidation to Buccal Ganglia Mechanoafferent Neurons after Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2012-01-01

    Training paradigms affecting "Aplysia" withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of…

  15. Barrett's esophagus: photodynamic therapy for ablation of dysplasia, reduction of specialized mucosa and treatment of superficial esophageal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overholt, Bergein F.; Panjehpour, Masoud

    1995-03-01

    Fifteen patients with Barrett's esophagus and dysplasia were treated with photodynamic therapy. Four patients also had early, superficial esophageal cancers and 5 had esophageal polyps. Light was delivered via a standard diffuser or a centering esophageal balloon. Eight patients maintained on omeprazole and followed for 6 - 54 months are the subject of this report. Photodynamic therapy ablated dysplastic or malignant mucosa in patients with superficial cancer. Healing and partial replacement of Barrett's mucosa with normal squamous epithelium occurred in all patients and complete replacement with squamous epithelium was found in two. Side effects included photosensitivity and mild-moderate chest pain and dysphagia for 5 - 7 days. In three patients with extensive circumferential mucosal ablation in the proximal esophagus, healing was associated with esophageal strictures which were treated successfully by esophageal dilation. Strictures were not found in the distal esophagus. Photodynamic therapy combined with long-term acid inhibition provides effective endoscopic therapy of Barrett's mucosal dysplasia and superficial (Tis-T1) esophageal cancer. The windowed centering balloon improves delivery of photodynamic therapy to diffusely abnormal esophageal mucosa.

  16. The pressures of suction feeding: the relation between buccal pressure and induced fluid speed in centrarchid fishes.

    PubMed

    Higham, Timothy E; Day, Steven W; Wainwright, Peter C

    2006-09-01

    Suction feeding fish rapidly expand their oral cavity, resulting in a flow of water directed towards the mouth that is accompanied by a drop in pressure inside the buccal cavity. Pressure inside the mouth and fluid speed external to the mouth are understood to be mechanically linked but the relationship between them has never been empirically determined in any suction feeder. We present the first simultaneous measurements of fluid speed and buccal pressure during suction feeding in fishes. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and high-speed video were used to measure the maximum fluid speed in front of the mouth of four largemouth bass and three bluegill sunfish by positioning a vertical laser sheet on the mid-sagittal plane of the fish. Peak magnitude of pressure inside the buccal cavity was quantified using a transducer positioned within a catheter that opened into the dorsal wall of the buccal cavity. In both species the time of peak pressure preceded the time of peak fluid speed by as much as 42 ms, indicating a role for unsteady flow effects in shaping this relation. We parameterized an existing model of suction feeding to determine whether the relationship between peak pressures and fluid speeds that we observed could be predicted using just a few kinematic variables. The model predicted much higher fluid speeds than we measured at all values of peak pressure and gave a scaling exponent between them (0.51) that was higher than observed (0.36 for largemouth bass, 0.38 for bluegill). The scaling between peak buccal pressure and peak fluid speed at the mouth aperture differed in the two species, supporting the recent conclusion that species morphology affects this relation such that a general pattern may not hold. PMID:16916963

  17. Evaluation of the Tolerability of Switching Patients on Chronic Full μ-Opioid Agonist Therapy to Buccal Buprenorphine

    PubMed Central

    Gruener, Daniel; Kirby, Todd; Xiang, Qinfang; Tzanis, Evan; Finn, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objective Assess whether patients with chronic pain receiving 80 to 220 mg oral morphine sulfate equivalent of a full μ-opioid agonist could be transitioned to buccal buprenorphine at approximately 50% of their full dose without inducing opioid withdrawal or sacrificing analgesic efficacy. Methods. A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, two-period crossover study in adult patients receiving around-the-clock full opioid agonist therapy and confirmed to be opioid dependent by naloxone challenge. Study doses were substituted at the time of the regular dose schedule for each patient. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a maximum Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale score ≥ 13 (moderate withdrawal) or use of rescue medication. Results. 35 subjects on ≥ 80 mg morphine sulfate equivalent per day were evaluable for opioid withdrawal. One patient during buccal buprenorphine treatment and two during 50% full μ-opioid agonist treatment experienced opioid withdrawal of at least moderate intensity. The mean maximum Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale scores were similar, and numerically lower on buccal buprenorphine. There were no significant differences in pain ratings between treatments. The most frequent adverse events with buccal buprenorphine were headache (19%), vomiting (13%), nausea, diarrhea, and drug withdrawal syndrome (each 9%), and with full μ-opioid agonist were headache (16%), drug withdrawal syndrome (13%), and nausea (6%). Conclusions. Chronic pain patients treated with around-the-clock full μ-opioid agonist therapy can be switched to buccal buprenorphine (a partial μ-opioid agonist) at approximately 50% of the full μ-opioid agonist dose without an increased risk of opioid withdrawal or loss of pain control. PMID:26917621

  18. Pedicled buccal fat pad graft for root coverage in severe gingival recession defect

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Saurav; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Satpathy, Anurag; Das, Abhaya Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Gingival recession (GR) is a condition resulting in root exposure which leads to root sensitivity, pain, root caries, plaque retention, poor esthetics, and tooth loss. Sites exhibiting Miller Class III and IV GR are not suitable for treatment with surgical root coverage techniques, and their prognosis are very poor with current techniques. In this case report, pedicled buccal fat pad (PBFP) was employed as subepithelial graft technique for root coverage of maxillary tooth with Class III GR defect along with furcation involvement and the absence of keratinized gingiva. PBFP as the subepithelial graft is likely to increase the predictability and outcome of root coverage procedures in the treatment of cases with poor prognosis, owing to its pedicled vascularity. PBFP may be considered as a reliable modality for root coverage of such severe maxillary posterior GR defects, as reported, that could not be repaired by other conventional procedures. PMID:27143839

  19. Pedicled buccal fat pad graft for root coverage in severe gingival recession defect.

    PubMed

    Panda, Saurav; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Satpathy, Anurag; Das, Abhaya Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Gingival recession (GR) is a condition resulting in root exposure which leads to root sensitivity, pain, root caries, plaque retention, poor esthetics, and tooth loss. Sites exhibiting Miller Class III and IV GR are not suitable for treatment with surgical root coverage techniques, and their prognosis are very poor with current techniques. In this case report, pedicled buccal fat pad (PBFP) was employed as subepithelial graft technique for root coverage of maxillary tooth with Class III GR defect along with furcation involvement and the absence of keratinized gingiva. PBFP as the subepithelial graft is likely to increase the predictability and outcome of root coverage procedures in the treatment of cases with poor prognosis, owing to its pedicled vascularity. PBFP may be considered as a reliable modality for root coverage of such severe maxillary posterior GR defects, as reported, that could not be repaired by other conventional procedures. PMID:27143839

  20. Phlebolith in arteriovenous malformation in buccal fat pad masquerading sialolith: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Saha, Arpita; Mohapatra, Mounabati; Patra, Susama; Saha, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare vascular lesion in the buccal fat pad (BFP). One of the important complications associated with these lesions is phlebolith formation within it. To the best of authors' knowledge, there is no medical literature on AVM with phlebolith formation in BFP till date. The present case is a 12-year-old boy who presented with a swelling in the right side of the face, clinically diagnosed to be sialocele with sialolith. Excision of the mass was done, and histopathology revealed AVM with the formation of phlebolith. This rare entity needs to be kept in mind while evaluating a case of calcification in BFP. The first case of AVM with phlebolith formation in BFP is reported here along with brief review of literature. PMID:26097367

  1. Phlebolith in arteriovenous malformation in buccal fat pad masquerading sialolith: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Arpita; Mohapatra, Mounabati; Patra, Susama; Saha, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare vascular lesion in the buccal fat pad (BFP). One of the important complications associated with these lesions is phlebolith formation within it. To the best of authors’ knowledge, there is no medical literature on AVM with phlebolith formation in BFP till date. The present case is a 12-year-old boy who presented with a swelling in the right side of the face, clinically diagnosed to be sialocele with sialolith. Excision of the mass was done, and histopathology revealed AVM with the formation of phlebolith. This rare entity needs to be kept in mind while evaluating a case of calcification in BFP. The first case of AVM with phlebolith formation in BFP is reported here along with brief review of literature. PMID:26097367

  2. Autotransplantation of a Buccally Erupted Matured Mandibular Third Molar to Replace a Grossly Decayed Second Molar.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sukhwant Singh; Bodh, Ranjeet; Kaushik, Aishvarya; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2016-02-01

    Autotransplantation can be a treatment option for tooth loss as an alternative to fixed or implant-supported prostheses. It has predictable results comparable to implants, with reported success rates often greater than 90%. In present case, buccally erupted matured third molar was autotransplanted in extraction socket of grossly carious mandibular second molar. The tooth was splinted for 1 week followed by root canal treatment. After 12 months follow up, tooth was in perfect state of function and aesthetic with healthy periapical and periodontal architecture. High success rate was found in immature tooth transplantation in previous case reports. This case report describes that even matured tooth can also be used as donor if atraumatic extraction is possible and endodontic treatment is well performed. PMID:27042593

  3. Autotransplantation of a Buccally Erupted Matured Mandibular Third Molar to Replace a Grossly Decayed Second Molar

    PubMed Central

    Bodh, Ranjeet; Kaushik, Aishvarya; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Autotransplantation can be a treatment option for tooth loss as an alternative to fixed or implant-supported prostheses. It has predictable results comparable to implants, with reported success rates often greater than 90%. In present case, buccally erupted matured third molar was autotransplanted in extraction socket of grossly carious mandibular second molar. The tooth was splinted for 1 week followed by root canal treatment. After 12 months follow up, tooth was in perfect state of function and aesthetic with healthy periapical and periodontal architecture. High success rate was found in immature tooth transplantation in previous case reports. This case report describes that even matured tooth can also be used as donor if atraumatic extraction is possible and endodontic treatment is well performed. PMID:27042593

  4. Mucosa-Associated Bacterial Microbiome of the Gastrointestinal Tract of Weaned Pigs and Dynamics Linked to Dietary Calcium-Phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Evelyne; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Zebeli, Qendrim; Wagner, Martin; Ritzmann, Mathias; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary composition largely influences pig’s gastrointestinal microbiota and represents a useful prophylactic tool against enteric disturbances in young pigs. Despite the importance for host-microbe interactions and bacterial colonization, dietary responses of the mucosa-associated bacterial communities are less well investigated. In the present study, we characterized the mucosa-associated bacterial communities at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach, ileum and colon, and identified shifts in these communities in response to different dietary calcium-phosphorus (Ca-P) contents (100% versus 190% of the Ca and P requirements) in combination with two basal diets (wheat-barley- or corn-based) in weaned pigs. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from 93 mucosal samples yielded 447,849 sequences, clustering into 997 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity level. OTUs were assigned to 198 genera belonging to 14 different phyla. Correlation-based networks revealed strong interactions among OTUs at the various gastrointestinal sites. Our data describe a previously not reported high diversity and species richness at the Pars non-glandularis of the stomach in weaned pigs. Moreover, high versus adequate Ca-P content significantly promoted Lactobacillus by 14.9% units (1.4 fold change) at the gastric Pars non-glandularis (P = 0.035). Discriminant analysis revealed dynamic changes in OTU composition in response to dietary cereals and Ca-P contents at all gastrointestinal sites which were less distinguishable at higher taxonomic levels. Overall, this study revealed a distinct mucosa-associated bacterial community at the different gut sites, and a strong effect of high Ca-P diets on the gastric community, thereby markedly expanding our comprehension on mucosa-associated microbiota and their diet-related dynamics in weaned pigs. PMID:24466298

  5. Synchronous Upper and Lower Gastrointestinal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Michael; Wong, John Lin Hieng; Paneesha, Shankara; Rudzki, Zbigniew; Arasaradnam, Ramesh; Nwokolo, Chuka

    2016-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) is a subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, comprising ∼17% of all gastrointestinal (GI) tract lymphomas. It is associated with chronic inflammation and autoimmunity, for example Helicobacter pylori gastritis and Sjogren's syndrome, respectively. Approximately 50% of GI MALTomas occur in the stomach, with small bowel and colonic lesions being less frequent. Synchronous upper and lower GI MALTomas occur rarely, with few cases reported. We present the case of a 73-year-old patient who presented with change in bowel habit and was found to have synchronous multifocal upper and lower GI MALTomas, which did not respond to H. pylori cure or to rituximab therapy, but did respond to a combination of surgery and chemotherapy with rituximab and bendamustine.

  6. Endoscopic machine vision system for blood-supply estimation of the nasal mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balas, Constantin J.; Christodoulou, P. N.; Prokopakis, E. P.; Helidonis, Emmanuel S.

    1996-12-01

    We have developed a machine vision system, which combines imaging and absolute color measurement techniques, for remote, objective, 2D color and color difference measurements. This imaging colorimeter adapted on an endoscope was used to evaluate nasal mucosa color changes induced by the administration of a sympathomimetic agent, with vasoconstrictive properties. The demonstrated reproducible and reliable measurements indicate the efficacy of the described system, for the potent vasoconstriction assessment of different pharmacotherapeutic agents, and suggests that it can also be useful for evaluating individuals, with allergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis, and inflammation disorders of the paranasal sinuses. Machine vision techniques in endoscopy providing objective indices for optical tissue characterization and analysis can serve in understanding the pathophysiology of tissue lesions, and in the objective evaluation of their response to different therapeutic schemes, in several medical fields.

  7. Dietary inferences through buccal microwear analysis of middle and upper Pleistocene human fossils.

    PubMed

    Lalueza, C; Pérez-Pérez, A; Turbón, D

    1996-07-01

    Buccal microwear has been studied in a sample of 153 molar teeth from different modern hunter-gatherer, pastoralist, and agriculturalist groups, with different diets (Inuit, Fueguians, Bushmen, Australian aborigines, Andamanese, Indians from Vancouver, Veddahs, Tasmanians, Lapps, and Hindus), preserved at museum collections. Molds of an area of the buccal surface have been obtained and observed at 100x magnification in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The length and orientation of each striation have been determined with a semiautomatic program of an image analyzer system (IBAS). Results show that intergroup variability is significantly higher than the intragroup variability. There exists a tendency toward fewer striations and a higher proportion of vertical striations in the carnivorous groups than in the vegetarian ones. This microwear pattern is concordant with biomechanics (predominantly vertical mandible movements in meat eaters) and phytolith content in plants (more abrasive particles in vegetarian diets). The variability found has been used in a multivariate analysis as a base to compare the microwear pattern of a sample of 20 Middle and Upper Pleistocene fossils, mainly from Europe, analyzed with the same methodology. The sample includes specimens usually classified as archaic H. sapiens (Broken Hill, Banyoles, Montmaurin, La Chaise-Suard, La Chaise-Bourgeios et Delaunay), Neanderthal (La Quina V, Gibraltar 2, Tabun 1 and 2, Amud 1, Malarnaud, St. Cesaire, Marillac), and anatomically modern H. sapiens (Skhül 4, Qafzeh 9, Cro-Magnon 4, Abri-Pataud, Veyrier, La Madelaine, Rond-du-Barry). Results indicate that some of the Neanderthal specimens have a microwear pattern close to that of the carnivorous groups (such as Inuit and Fueguians), suggesting that these individuals follow a hunter strategy. In contrast, archaic H. sapiens and H. sapiens sapiens seem to have a more abrasive diet, probably more depending on vegetable materials, than the Neanderthals

  8. Increased apoptosis in gastric mucosa adjacent to intestinal metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    van Grieken, N C T; Meijer, G A; zur Hausen, A; Meuwissen, S G M; Baak, J P A; Kuipers, E J

    2003-01-01

    Background: The biological processes involved in the development of gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia are still incompletely understood. Reports testing the hypothesis that apoptosis leads to atrophy have yielded conflicting results. The availability of new antibodies for the detection of apoptotic cells in tissue sections has facilitated the analysis of the role of apoptosis in the gastritis–atrophy–intestinal metaplasia sequence. Methods: Archival material from 40 gastric resection specimens with normal mucosa (n = 5), chronic active gastritis (n = 17), or intestinal metaplasia (n = 18) was studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies directed against cleaved cytokeratin 18 and active caspase 3. Slides were scored on a 0–3 scale for the presence of apoptotic cells. Results: Normal gastric mucosa contained low numbers of apoptotic cells at the surface epithelium (mean score, 0.20). This number was significantly increased in cases with chronic gastritis (mean score, 1.06) and in those with intestinal metaplasia (mean score, 2.56). Within the intestinal metaplasia cases, 44 different foci of intestinal metaplasia were identified. In 39 of these 44 areas, concentrations of apoptotic cells were seen immediately adjacent to the foci of intestinal metaplasia, but not in the metaplastic epithelium itself. Conclusions: Apoptosis is uncommon in normal gastric mucosa. Chronic inflammation and intestinal metaplasia are associated with increased apoptosis, but occur mainly at the mucosal surface and not in the deeper layers. These findings do not support the concept that apoptosis underlies the loss of gastric glands and leads to atrophy, but the observed concentration of apoptotic epithelial cells adjacent to foci of intestinal metaplasia could be related to heterogeneity of epithelial damage, causing apoptosis, to which intestinal metaplasia is a response. PMID:12719456

  9. Design of sensors for microcirculation investigation in pharyngeal mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareew, Gleb O.; Mareew, Oleg V.; Fedosov, Ivan V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-08-01

    Sensors designed for research of blood microcirculation in pharyngeal mucosa by a laser Doppler flowmetry, are described and considered in view of anatomic and physiological features of objects of research. Two designs of sensors for laser Doppler flowmetry are described - non-contact and contact. The results of and clinical testing at norm and different pathologies of pharynx of on calibration of sensors, and also their comparative technical characteristics and materials of clinical researches of microcirculation are resulted at norm and at a various pathology.

  10. Autoimmune enteropathy: not all flat mucosa mean coeliac disease

    PubMed Central

    Volta, Umberto; Mumolo, Maria Gloria; Caio, Giacomo; Boschetti, Elisa; Latorre, Rocco; Giancola, Fiorella; Paterini, Paola; Giorgio, Roberto De

    2016-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman complaining of severe malabsorption was diagnosed with celiac disease based on the findings of flat, small intestinal mucosa and HLA-DQ2 positivity, although celiac serology was negative. This diagnosis was questioned due to the lack of clinical and histological improvement after a long period of strict gluten-free diet. The detection of enterocyte autoantibodies guided to the correct diagnosis of autoimmune enteropathy, leading to a complete recovery of the patient following an appropriate immunosuppressive treatment. Autoimmune enteropathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of malabsorption with severe villous atrophy, including those cases with negative celiac-related serology. PMID:27099674

  11. Extensive amalgam tattoo on the alveolar-gingival mucosa.

    PubMed

    Galletta, Vivian C; Artico, Gabriela; Dal Vechio, Aluana M C; Lemos Jr, Celso A; Migliari, Dante A

    2011-01-01

    Amalgam tattoos are common exogenous pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa occurring mainly by inadvertent placement of amalgam particles into soft tissues. The diagnosis of amalgam tattoo is simple, usually based on clinical findings associated with presence or history of amalgam fillings removal. Intraoral X-rays may be helpful in detecting amalgam-related radiopacity. In cases where amalgam tattoo cannot be differentiated from other causes of oral pigmentation, a biopsy should be performed. This article deals with an extensive amalgam tattoo lesion which required a biopsy for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:22147048

  12. Buccal swab analysis of mitochondrial enzyme deficiency and DNA defects in a child with suspected myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers (MERRF).

    PubMed

    Yorns, William R; Valencia, Ignacio; Jayaraman, Aditya; Sheth, Sudip; Legido, Agustin; Goldenthal, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    The authors describe mitochondrial studies in a 6-year-old patient with a seizure disorder that can be seen in myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers. Using a recently developed noninvasive approach, analysis of buccal mitochondrial enzyme function revealed severe respiratory complex I and IV deficiencies in the patient. In addition, analysis of buccal mitochondrial DNA showed significant amounts of the common 5 kb and 7.4 kb mitochondrial DNA deletions, also detectable in blood. This study suggests that a buccal swab approach can be used to informatively examine mitochondrial dysfunction in children with seizures and may be applicable to screening mitochondrial disease with other clinical presentations. PMID:22114216

  13. Prevalence of human papillomaviruses in the healthy oral mucosa of women with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion and of their partners as compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Tatár, Tímea Zsófia; Kis, Andrea; Szabó, Éva; Czompa, Levente; Boda, Róbert; Tar, Ildikó; Szarka, Krisztina

    2015-10-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) carriage rates were investigated in relation to genital HPV carriage in women with HPV-associated cervical lesions and male partner of such women, including several couples, in comparison with healthy individuals. Buccal and lingual mucosa of 60 males and 149 females with healthy oral mucosa and without known genital lesion, genital and oral mucosa of further 40 females with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 34 male sexual partners of women with HSIL (including 20 couples) were sampled. HPV DNA was detected using MY/GP PCR. Genotype was determined by sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Virus copy numbers were determined by real-time PCR. Overall, oral HPV carriage rate was 5.7% (12/209) in healthy individuals; average copy number was 5.8 × 10(2) copies/1 μg DNA; male and female rates were comparable. Oral carriage in women with HSIL was significantly higher, 20.0% (8/40, P = 0.003); males with partners with HSIL showed a carriage rate of 17.6% (6/34), copy numbers were similar to the healthy controls. In contrast, genital carriage rate (52.9%, 18/34 vs. 82.5%, 33/40; P = 0.006) and average copy number were lower in males (5.0 × 10(5) vs. 7.8 × 10(5) copies/1 μg DNA; P = 0.01). Oral copy numbers in these groups and in healthy individuals were comparable. High-risk genotypes were dominant; couples usually had the same genotype in the genital sample. In conclusion, genital HPV carriage is a risk factor of oral carriage for the individual or for the sexual partner, but alone is not sufficient to produce an oral HPV infection in most cases. PMID:25495524

  14. [Morphological changes in esophageal mucosa in children with overweight].

    PubMed

    Dubrovskaia, M I; Tertychnyĭ, A S; Mukhina, Iu G; Volodina, I I; Mamchenko, S I

    2010-01-01

    In present work we studied the morphological features of the esophageal mucosa in 63 children with endoscopic diagnosis of the distal esophagitis having overweight and normal weight of a body. The biopsies were taken at level of 3 cm above a Z-line and at level of 1 cm above a Z-line. Dystrophic and dysregenerative changes were revealed at the majority of children and half of children had inflammatory changes of the esophageal mucosa regardless of weight of a body. These changes are more pronounced at level of 1 cm above a Z-line, their occurrence decreases with a distance from low esophageal sphincter. We used the pathology score system for assess the esophageal biopsies. According our scale we obtained following results: at level of 1 cm above Z-lines at 95% of children had the normal, minimum or mild features of esophagitis regardless of weight of a body. Morphological evidence of a reflux esophagitis was diagnosed statistically more often at level of 1 cm above Z lines in comparison with level of 3 cm above Z-lines (p < 0.01) as among children with overweight of the body (78 and 43% accordingly), and among children with normal weight of the body (78 and 35% accordingly). The obtained data will be allowed to avoid hyperdiagnostics of esophageal lesions in children. PMID:20405708

  15. Optimum Topical Delivery of Adrenergic Agonists to Oral Mucosa Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Soref, Cheryl M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Identify an orotopical vehicle to deliver an α-adrenergic vasoconstrictor to submucosal vasculature that is readily palatable to cancer/bone marrow transplant patients that suppresses chemo-radiotherapy-associated oral mucositis. Methods A [3H] norepinephrine ligand binding assay was developed to quantify receptor binding in hamster oral mucosa. Vehicle components (alcohols, polyols, cellulose, PVP) were tested versus [3H] norepinephrine binding. Vehicle refinement was also done to mask phenylephrine bitter taste and achieve human subject acceptance. The optimized vehicle was tested with α-adrenergic active agents to suppress radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. Results The ligand binding assay quantified dose- and time-dependent, saturable binding of [3H] norepinephrine. An ethanol:glycerol:propylene glycol:water (6:6:8:80) vehicle provided the best delivery and binding. Further vehicle modification (flavoring and sucralose) yielded a vehicle with excellent taste scores in humans. Addition of phenylephrine, norepinephrine or epinephrine to the optimized vehicle and painting into mouse mouths 20 min before 19 Gy irradiation conferred significant suppression of the weight loss (P < 0.001) observed in mice who received oral vehicle. Conclusion We identified a highly efficient vehicle for the topical delivery of phenylephrine to the oral mucosa of both hamster and human subjects. This will enable its testing to suppress oral mucositis in an upcoming human clinical trial. PMID:25079392

  16. Alterations in the laryngeal mucosa after exposure to asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Kambic, V; Radsel, Z; Gale, N

    1989-01-01

    The laryngeal mucosa of 195 workers in an asbestos cement factory (Salonit Anhovo, Yugoslavia) and in a control group was examined. The factory manufactures asbestos cement products containing about 13% of asbestos (8% amosite, 12% crocidolite, and 80% chrysotile) of different provenance. Alterations in the laryngeal mucosa were more frequent in the factory workers than in the control group. The changes, mostly consistent with chronic laryngitis, were closely related to the degree of workplace pollution and less so to the duration of employment Ten workers exhibiting the most severe clinical changes underwent biopsy, the results of which showed histomorphological changes characteristic of hyperplastic chronic laryngitis. Four tissue specimens were examined also by scanning electron microscopy and in three of them asbestos fibres were found on the epithelial surface. No case of laryngeal carcinoma was identified. On the basis of our results it is thought that asbestos related changes of the larynx should receive more attention and that the use of the term "laryngeal asbestosis" is justified. The clinical picture is non-specific but in view of their frequency such changes should be considered a consequence of exposure to asbestos. Images PMID:2489023

  17. Bax is downregulated in inflamed colonic mucosa of ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Iimura, M; Nakamura, T; Shinozaki, S; Iizuka, B; Inoue, Y; Suzuki, S; Hayashi, N

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—One form of epithelial cell injury in inflamed colonic mucosa in ulcerative colitis (UC) is reported to involve apoptosis of these cells. Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bcl-2 are the major regulators of apoptosis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the involvement of the Bax/Bcl-2 system in induction of apoptosis of the inflamed colonic epithelium in UC.
METHODS—Colonic epithelium was isolated from colonic biopsy specimens. Expression of CD95, Bax, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-2 proteins was determined by western blotting. Bax gene expression was assessed by both reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by Southern hybridisation and a real time PCR assay.
RESULTS—Equal levels of expression of CD95, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-2 proteins were noted in normal and UC colonic epithelia. Equal levels of expression of Bax protein and mRNA were noted in epithelia of normal colon and inactive UC. Levels of expression of Bax protein and mRNA were markedly reduced in inflamed UC colonic epithelium.
CONCLUSIONS—Our study showed for the first time downregulation of Bax in inflamed colonic epithelium of UC. The Bax/Bcl-2 system did not seem to be involved in induction of apoptosis of epithelial cells in the inflamed colonic mucosa of UC.


Keywords: ulcerative colitis; apoptosis; Bax; Bcl-2; Bcl-xL; CD95 PMID:10896914

  18. The Length of the Barrett's Mucosa in Baboons, Revisited

    PubMed Central

    RUBIO, CARLOS A.; NILSSON, JOHN R.; OWSTON, MICHAEL; DICK, EDWARD J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chewing of regurgitated food with rumination elicits, gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in baboons. Protracted reflux transforms the distal multilayered squamous cell-lined epithelium into columnar-lined mucosa, with mucus-producing glands having interspersed oxyntic glands. In humans, this histological constellation is called Barrett's mucosa type 2 (BMT2). Materials and Methods The distal esophagus together with the proximal stomach was removed en bloc, at autopsy, from 35 adult baboons. Longitudinal sections were stained with toluidine blue, a stain that permits easy discrimination between parietal and chief gastric glands. Using a calibrated ocular scale, the length of the BMT2 was assessed in all 35 baboons. Results The mean length of the BMT2 was 9.80 mm (range 1.0 mm–40.2 mm). Conclusion BMT2 in baboons is an integrated part of the natural phenomenon of mucosal adaptation to daily regurgitation of gastric acid into the distal esophagus (natural GER), whereas BMT2 in humans might reflect an evolutionary atavism in the esophagus, triggered by a non-physiological disorder (pathological GER). The baboon offers a suitable model to monitor the series of histological events that take place in the distal esophagus under the influence of protracted GER. PMID:22843881

  19. Preparation and characterization of a biologic scaffold from esophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Keane, Timothy J; Londono, Ricardo; Carey, Ryan M; Carruthers, Christopher A; Reing, Janet E; Dearth, Christopher L; D'Amore, Antonio; Medberry, Christopher J; Badylak, Stephen F

    2013-09-01

    Biologic scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are commonly used to facilitate a constructive remodeling response in several types of tissue, including the esophagus. Surgical manipulation of the esophagus is often complicated by stricture, but preclinical and clinical studies have shown that the use of an ECM scaffold can mitigate stricture and promote a constructive outcome after resection of full circumference esophageal mucosa. Recognizing the potential benefits of ECM derived from homologous tissue (i.e., site-specific ECM), the objective of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and assess the in-vivo remodeling properties of ECM from porcine esophageal mucosa. The developed protocol for esophageal ECM preparation is compliant with previously established criteria of decellularization and results in a scaffold that maintains important biologic components and an ultrastructure consistent with a basement membrane complex. Perivascular stem cells remained viable when seeded upon the esophageal ECM scaffold in-vitro, and the in-vivo host response showed a pattern of constructive remodeling when implanted in soft tissue. PMID:23777917

  20. Subarachnoid space of the CNS, nasal mucosa, and lymphatic system.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R T; Tigges, J; Arnold, W

    1979-04-01

    We have briefly reviewed the literature pertaining to the movement of tracer molecules and infectious organisms within the olfactory nerve. There is a body of evidence indicating that tracers placed in the CSF will quickly move via the olfactory nerve to the nasal mucosa and then to the cervical lymph nodes. Organic and inorganic tracer materials and organisms as diverse as viruses, a bacillus, and an amoeba, when placed in the nasal cavity, have been shown to move from the nasal mucosa via the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb and the CSF. We think that a portion of the data on tracer movement is due to incorporation of tracer materials and organisms into the axoplasm of the olfactory neurons with subsequent anterograde or retrograde axoplasmic transport. However, some of the movement of tracers may occur within the olfactory perineural space. This space may be continuous with a subarachnoid extension that surrounds the olfactory nerve as it penetrates the cribriform plate. To our knowledge, no one has yet followed the perineural space to determine if it is continuous from olfactory receptor to olfactory bulb. The consideration of this space and its role is the main reason for this review. PMID:85446

  1. Aberrant Gene Expression Profile of Unaffected Colon Mucosa from Patients with Unifocal Colon Polyp

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Jingjing; Ma, Lili; Yang, Jiayin; Xu, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate gene expression profiles in unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp to investigate the potential mucosa impairment in normal-appearing colon mucosa from these patients. Material/Methods Colon polyp patients were prospectively recruited. We obtained colon biopsies from the normal-appearing sites and polyp tissue through colonoscopy. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays. Gene ontology and clustering were evaluated by bioinformatics. Results We detected a total of 711 genes (274 up-regulated and 437 down-regulated) in polyp tissue and 256 genes (170 up-regulated and 86 down-regulated) in normal-appearing colon mucosa, with at least a 3-fold of change compared to healthy controls. Heatmapping of the gene expression showed similar gene alteration patterns between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue. Gene ontology analyses confirmed the overlapped molecular functions and pathways of altered gene expression between unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue from patients with unifocal colon polyp. The most significantly altered genes in normal-appearing tissues in polyp patients include immune response, external side of plasma membrane, nucleus, and cellular response to zinc ion. Conclusions Significant gene expression alterations exist in unaffected colon mucosa from patients with unifocal colon polyp. Unaffected colon mucosa and polyp tissue share great similarity and overlapping of altered gene expression profiles, indicating the potential possibility of recurrence of colon polyps due to underlying molecular abnormalities of colon mucosa in these patients. PMID:26675397

  2. Multiple recurrent vesicles in oral mucosa suggestive of superficial mucocele: An unusual presentation of allergic stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Motallebnejad, Mina; Shirzad, Atena; Molania, Tahere; Seyedmajidi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Superficial mucocele presents as small, clear vesicle on noninflamed mucosa. In this study, we report several vesicles on the bucal mucosa of a woman diagnosed as superficial mucocele. Case Presentation: A 48-year old woman presented with multiple vesicles on her labial mucosa, ventral surface of the tongue, floor of the mouth and palate. A mucosal biopsy was taken from the vesicle. Histopathologically, intraepithelial mucocele was diagnosed. The lesion was successfully treated with mouthwash betamethasone. There has been no recurrence for 18 months. Conclusion: In the present study, several mucoceles were seen in the oral mucosa. No similar case was reported previously. PMID:24294477

  3. Engraftment and regenerative effects of bone marrow stromal cell transplantation on damaged rat olfactory mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jang-Woo; Jo, Hyo Gyeong; Park, Sang Man; Ku, Cheol Hyo; Park, Dong-Joon

    2016-09-01

    To develop a new therapeutic method to treat olfactory deficits, we investigated the engraftment and regenerative effects of transplanted bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on damaged rat olfactory mucosa. To induce olfactory nerve degeneration, one side of the olfactory mucosa of Sprague-Dawley rats was damaged via Triton X-100 irrigation. Phosphate-buffered saline containing syngeneic BMSCs was injected into the olfactory mucosa for transplantation. PKH fluorescent cell dye labeling of BMSCs was used to monitor the transplanted cells. After transplantation of BMSCs, the thickness and regeneration of olfactory mucosa were analyzed using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. S100 immunohistochemical staining was used to measure nerve sheath regeneration. The increase in NGF (nerve growth factor) level in the olfactory mucosa was measured by Western blot analysis. Transplanted bone marrow stromal cells were engrafted to the lamia propria of damaged mucosa. The mean time for normalization of thickness and morphological recovery of the olfactory mucosa was 4 weeks in the therapeutic group and 9 weeks in the control group. S100 immunoreactivity was higher on the BMSC-treated side than on the control side. During regeneration, the expression of NGF increased in the olfactory mucosa of the experimental group. Based on these results, BMSC transplantation accelerated regeneration of olfactory mucosa damaged by Triton X-100, and NGF may be essential to this regenerative process. PMID:26940801

  4. Comparative endoscopic evaluation of normal and ulcerated gastric mucosae in Thoroughbred foals

    PubMed Central

    OKAI, Kazuhiko; TAHARAGUCHI, Sadao; ORITA, Yasuhiro; YOKOTA, Hiroshi; TANIYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to early diagnosis and treatment of gastric ulcer of foals, we examined the gastric mucosa of healthy and affected foals using an endoscope. In healthy foals, the characteristic changes in the development of the squamous mucosa were seen mainly in the squamous mucosa, and maturation of the squamous mucosa in the greater curvature (GC-S) occurred more slowly than that of the squamous mucosa in the lesser curvature (LC-S). Epithelial desquamation in the LC-S and GC-S was observed between 6 and 90 days but was not observed in the LC-S at about 60 days, whereas it was observed in the GC-S until 90 days old. These findings suggest that there is a difference in the development of the gastric mucosa by region and that desquamation continues over a term longer than studies have reported in the past. In the affected foals, the minimum age at which gastric ulcer was observed was 4 days old. Gastric ulcers formed predominantly in the squamous mucosa (LC-S and GC-S) of foals with an immature mucosa before the weaning period, and the peak incidence occurred between 61 and 90 days old. The differences in the ulceration sites were considered to depend on the difference in the development (maturation) stage of the squamous mucosa. The grading score of the gastric ulcer increased with the growth of the affected foals. The gastric ulcer might be enhanced greatly by stress in the weaning period. PMID:25648790

  5. Two-photon autofluorescence spectroscopy of oral mucosa tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward, Kert; Shilagard, Tuya; Qiu, Suimin; Vargas, Gracie

    2011-03-01

    The survival rate for individuals diagnosed with oral cancer is correlated with the stage of detection. Thus the development of novel techniques for the earliest possible detection of malignancies is of critical importance. Single photon (1P) autofluorescence spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful diagnostic tool in this regard, but 2P (two photon) spectroscopy remains essentially unexplored. In this investigation, a spectroscopic system was incorporated into a custom-built 2P laser scanning microscope. Oral cancer was induced in the buccal pouch of Syrian Golden hamsters by tri-weekly topical application of 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA).Three separated sites where investigated in each hamster at four excitation wavelengths from 780 nm to 890 nm. A Total of 8 hamsters were investigated (4 normal and 4 DMBA treated). All investigated sites were imaged via 2p imaging, marked for biopsy, processed for histology and H&E staining, and graded by a pathologist. The in vivo emission spectrum for normal, mild/high grade dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma is presented. It is shown that the hamsters with various stages of dysplasia are characterized by spectral differences as a function of depth and excitation wavelength, compared to normal hamsters.

  6. Rapid multispectral endoscopic imaging system for near real-time mapping of the mucosa blood supply in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Fawzy, Yasser; Lam, Stephen; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a fast multispectral endoscopic imaging system that is capable of acquiring images in 18 optimized spectral bands spanning 400-760 nm by combining a customized light source with six triple-band filters and a standard color CCD camera. A method is developed to calibrate the spectral response of the CCD camera. Imaging speed of 15 spectral image cubes/second is achieved. A spectral analysis algorithm based on a linear matrix inversion approach is developed and implemented in a graphics processing unit (GPU) to map the mucosa blood supply in the lung in vivo. Clinical measurements on human lung patients are demonstrated. PMID:26309761

  7. Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Lacrimal Gland: Sustained Remission after Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hasosah, Mohammed; Baothman, Abdullah; Satti, Mohamed; Kutbi, Suzanne; Alghamdi, Khaled; Jacobson, Kevan

    2011-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is the third most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and it is strongly associated with helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach. MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland usually presents as a localized disease process in extranodal tissues. The treatment options of MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland chiefly include radiation of the tumor, chemotherapy, surgical removal, or a combination of these strategies. We report a case of localized MALT lymphoma of the lacrimal gland, with prolonged sustained remission after eradication of gastric Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection. He sustains in remission of lacrimal MALT lymphoma for four years without chemotherapy or radiotherapy. PMID:22606434

  8. Articaine and mepivacaine buccal infiltration in securing mandibular first molar pulp anesthesia following mepivacaine inferior alveolar nerve block: A randomized, double-blind crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Gazal, Giath; Alharbi, Abdullah Muteb; Al-Samadani, Khalid HidayatAllah; Kanaa, Mohammad Dib

    2015-01-01

    Aims: A crossover double-blind, randomized study was designed to explore the efficacy of 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline buccal infiltration and 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline buccal infiltration following 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) for testing pulp anesthesia of mandibular first molar teeth in adult volunteers. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 healthy adult volunteers received two regimens with at least 1-week apart; one with 4% articaine buccal infiltration and 2% mepivacaine IANB (articaine regimen) and another with 2% mepivacaine buccal infiltration supplemented to 2% mepivacaine IANB (mepivacaine regimen). Pulp testing of first molar tooth was electronically measured twice at baseline, then at intervals of 2 min for the first 10 min, then every 5 min until 45 min postinjection. Anesthetic success was considered when two consecutive maximal stimulation on pulp testing readings without sensation were obtained within 10 min and continuously sustained for 45 min postinjection. Results: In total, the number of no sensations to maximum pulp testing for first molar teeth were significantly higher after articaine regimen than mepivacaine during 45 min postinjection (267 vs. 250 episodes, respectively, P < 0.001), however, both articaine and mepivacaine buccal infiltrations are equally effective in securing anesthetic success for first molar pulp anesthesia when supplemented to mepivacaine IANB injections (P > 0.05). Interestingly, volunteers in the articaine regimen provided faster onset and longer duration (means 2.78 min, 42.22 min, respectively) than mepivacaine regimen (means 4.26 min, 40.74 min, respectively) for first molar pulp anesthesia (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Supplementary mepivacaine and articaine buccal infiltrations produced similar successful first molar pulp anesthesia following mepivacaine IANB injections in volunteers. Articaine buccal infiltration produced faster onset and

  9. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic action of budesonide after buccal administration in healthy subjects and patients with oral chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Karin; Halter, Jörg; Bertz, Hartmut; Lopez-Lazaro, Luis; Gratwohl, Alois; Finke, Jürgen

    2009-03-01

    Buccal administration of budesonide (mouthwash) may be effective as a topical add-on therapy in patients with oral chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Safety of approved oral budesonide is based on high intestinal and hepatic extraction by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) enzymes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presystemic extraction and pharmacodynamic action of buccal budesonide. Oral budesonide (3 mg) was taken as reference to which various single and multiple dose regimens of buccal budesonide were compared. Budesonide and the 2 main CYP3A-dependent metabolites (6beta-hydroxybudesonide, 16alpha-hydroxyprednisolone) were analyzed in blood and urine along with the drug's effect on endogenous cortisol in 12 healthy subjects and 7 patients with oral cGVHD. We assessed CYP3A-dependent metabolites in both healthy subjects and patients after buccal budesonide. Whereas systemic exposure to budesonide was markedly lower in healthy subjects after the mouthwash compared to oral dosing (mean relative bioavailability 18%-36%), the systemic concentrations thereafter in patients were as high as those after the identical dose of oral budesonide. Reduced buccal CYP3A activity (lower inactivation of budesonide) in patients contributed to this remarkable difference. Endogenous cortisol was suppressed in some patients during 1 week of continuous treatment with buccal budesonide (3 x 3 mg per day). We are the first to report the biotransformation of budesonide via CYP3A enzymes after buccal drug administration. Only 2% of a buccal dose of budesonide achieves systemic circulation in healthy individuals; that fraction is 10% in patients with oral cGVHD, probably because of alterations in drug uptake and metabolization. PMID:19203724

  10. Sensory disturbances of buccal and lingual nerve by muscle compression: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-González, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several studies on cadavers dissection have shown that collateral branches of the trigeminal nerve cross muscle bundles on their way, being a possible etiological factor of some nerve disturbances. Case Report A 45-year-old man attended to the Temporomandibular Joint and Orofacial Pain Unit of the Master of Oral Surgery and Implantology in Hospital Odontològic of Barcelona University, referring tingling in the left hemifacial región and ipsilateral lingual side for one year, with discomfort when shaving or skin compression. Discussion Several branches of the trigeminal nerve follow a path through the masticatory muscles, being the lingual nerve and buccal nerve the most involved. The hyperactivity of the muscle bundles that are crossed by nerve structures generates a compression that could explain certain orofacial neuropathies (numbness and / or pain) in which a clear etiologic factor can not be identified. Key words:Buccal nerve, paresthesia, idiopathic trigeminal sensory neuropathy. PMID:26855715

  11. Experimental evidence for the role of lipids in adherence of Candida spp. to human buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ghannoum, M A; Burns, G R; Elteen, K A; Radwan, S S

    1986-01-01

    Lipids extracted from Candida albicans and C. tropicalis, but not from the weakly adherent C. pseudotropicalis, significantly blocked in vitro adherence of the respective yeast cells to buccal epithelial cells. The percentage of reduction from control values ranged between 16.4 and 42.1%, depending on the species, the strain, and the solvent used for lipid extraction. The constituent lipid classes of both the acetone and chloroform-methanol extracts of C. albicans ATCC 10231 were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The individual classes were isolated by preparative thin-layer chromatography and then tested for their effects on the adherence of this strain to buccal epithelial cells. Individual phospholipids, sterols, and steryl esters blocked adherence significantly (between 15.5 and 55.7% reduction). Triacylglycerols and free fatty acids showed no effect whatsoever. The same results were obtained when standard lipid samples were investigated. Images PMID:3759234

  12. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Chen, Ying-Ru; Lee, Jeng-Woei

    2010-02-01

    One of the best strategies to prevent the occurrence of oral cancer is to eliminate oral precancers and block their further malignant transformation. Previous studies showed that photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy (photosan-PDT) is very effective for human head and neck cancers. To avoid the systemic photodynamic toxicity of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Twelve 10-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were used in this study. DMBA was applied to the left buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks and mineral oil was painted on the right buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks as the normal controls. Six hamsters were euthanized for tissue harvest. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were consistently induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions in the remaining 6 hamsters were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan-gel. We found that PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan-gel. The precancerous lesions in 4 hamsters were treated with topical photosan-PDT using the 635-nm LED light once or twice a week. Complete regression of the precancerous lesions was found after 2-4 PDT treatments by visual and histological examination. Our findings indicate that topical photosan-PDT is a very effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  13. Dose-response effect of tomato paste on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneswari, V; Velmurugan, B; Nagini, S

    2004-06-01

    We evaluated the dose-response effect of tomato paste on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis using lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH) and the GSH-dependent enzymes; glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) as biomarkers of chemoprevention. Hamsters were divided into eight groups of six animals each. The right buccal pouches of animals in group 1 were painted with a 0.5 per cent DMBA in liquid paraffin three times per week. Animals in groups 2 to 4 painted with DMBA as in group 1, received in addition, intragastric administration of tomato paste containing lycopene at concentrations of 2.5, 5 and 10 mgkg(-1)bw, respectively three times per week on days alternate to DMBA application. Groups 5 through 7 were given tomato paste alone. Animals in group 8 served as controls. All animals were killed after an experimental period of 14 weeks. Lipid peroxidation and GSH-dependent antioxidants were measured in the buccal pouch, liver and erythrocytes. Diminished lipid peroxidation in the HBP tumours was associated with enhanced levels of GSH and GSH-dependent enzymes. In contrast to the buccal pouch, the liver and erythrocytes of tumour-bearing hamsters exhibited elevated lipid peroxidation accompanied by compromised antioxidant status. Administration of tomato paste significantly reduced the incidence of HBP tumours, modulated lipid peroxidation and enhanced GSH and GSH-dependent enzymes in the pouch, liver and erythrocytes. Among the three doses used, tomato paste containing 5 mgkg(-1)bw lycopene showed the optimum effect. It is suggested that tomato paste exerts its chemopreventive effects by modulating lipid peroxidation and enhancing antioxidants in the target organ as well as in the liver and erythrocytes. PMID:15354408

  14. Role of specific determinants in mannan of Candida albicans serotype A in adherence to human buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Miyakawa, Y; Kuribayashi, T; Kagaya, K; Suzuki, M; Nakase, T; Fukazawa, Y

    1992-01-01

    Candida albicans serotype A (C. albicans A) possesses a specific antigen, designated antigen 6, which resides in mannans on the cell surface. To determine the role of the mannan moiety of the C. albicans cell wall in adherence to buccal epithelial cells, we used antigen 6-deficient mutants which had been isolated by screening with an agglutinating monoclonal antibody against antigen 6 (MAb-6). 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis of the purified mannans from the mutants showed a loss of the signals related to that beta-linkage of the side chains. Moreover, acetolyzed fragments of the mutant mannans showed a decreased amount of mannohexaose and mannopentaose. The mutant yeast cells exhibited significantly reduced ability to adhere both to exfoliated buccal epithelial cells and to a human buccal cell line. A number of strains of C. albicans A, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata, all of which bear antigen 6, showed significantly higher adherence to the cell line than did those of C. albicans serotype B, which lack antigen 6. The whole mannan from the C. albicans A parent inhibited the adherence of C. albicans A to epithelial cells dose dependently, whereas mannan from a mutant strains did not. Moreover, C. albicans A treated with MAb-6 or polyclonal factor 6 serum showed reduced adherence. A close correlation was found between adhesive ability and agglutinability with MAb-6 in the C. albicans A parent, the antigenic mutants, and their spontaneous revertants. These results suggest that so far as mannan adhesion is concerned, serotype A-specific determinants are largely involved in the mechanisms of adherence of C. albicans A to human buccal epithelial cells. PMID:1375200

  15. Training with Inedible Food in "Aplysia" Causes Expression of C/EBP in the Buccal but Not Cerebral Ganglion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, David; Lyons, Lisa C.; Perelman, Alexander; Green, Charity L.; Motro, Benny; Eskin, Arnold; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2008-01-01

    Training with inedible food in "Aplysia" increased expression of the transcription factor C/EBP in the buccal ganglia, which primarily have a motor function, but not in the cerebral or pleural ganglia. C/EBP mRNA increased immediately after training, as well as 1-2 h later. The increased expression of C/EBP protein lagged the increase in mRNA.…

  16. Best evidence topic report. Buccal midazolam as an alternative to rectal diazepam for prolonged seizures in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Body, Richard; Ijaz, Mawra

    2005-05-01

    A short cut review was carried out to establish whether buccal midazolam is better than rectal diazepam for treating prolonged seizures in childhood and adolescence. Eight papers were found using the reported search, of which two presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results, and study weaknesses of these best papers are tabulated. A clinical bottom line is stated. PMID:15843707

  17. Differences in adhesion of Candida albicans 3153A cells exhibiting switch phenotypes to buccal epithelium and stratum corneum.

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, K; Wertz, P W; Drake, D; Morrow, B; Soll, D R

    1994-01-01

    Cells of the laboratory strain 3153A of Candida albicans can be stimulated to undergo high-frequency phenotypic switching by a low dose of UV. We have compared the adhesive properties of cells exhibiting the basic original smooth (o-smooth) phenotype and three switch phenotypes (star, irregular wrinkle, and revertant smooth) to buccal epithelium and stratum corneum. The generalized hierarchy of adhesion is as follows: o-smooth > irregular wrinkle > revertant smooth > star. This is the inverse of the hierarchy of the proportions of elongate hyphae formed by these phenotypes in culture. These results suggest that the differences in adhesion between o-smooth and the three switch phenotypes of strain 3153A reflect, at least in part, the level of interference due to the formation of elongate hyphae, which tend to cause clumping in suspension. No major differences in the levels of adhesion of cells of the different phenotypes between buccal epithelium and stratum corneum were observed. Results which demonstrate that buccal epithelium induces germination (hypha formation) by conditioning the medium are also presented. Images PMID:8132340

  18. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  19. Surgical treatment of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws with the use of buccal fat pad: case report.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Luiz Fernando Mathias; Alonso, Kleber; Basso, Elaine Cristina; Dib, Luciano Lauria

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BROJ) has been described since 2003 as an adverse effect of bisphosphonate medications. These drugs act on the vasculature and bone remodeling, mainly on osteoclastic activity and can cause areas of necrotic bone exposure. Treatment for the BROJ is not yet defined, but surgical treatment is one of the forms proposed, which may cause oral deformities like sinus communication in some cases. In situations like this the buccal fat pad is an important alternative for coating nasal-oral communications, due its large blood supply, elasticity, absence of restriction by age and safety. This paper presents the case of a 58-year-old woman with BROJ in the left maxilla caused by the use of zoledronic acid for metastatic breast cancer. The extensive necrotic bone area was surgically removed resulting in oral sinus communication. A buccal fat pad was used to cover the defect. More studies should be performed regarding the treatment of BROJ but, if necessary, a buccal fat pad flap could be an alternative to solve nasal-oral communications related to BROJ. PMID:26200161

  20. Dorsally Placed Buccal Mucosal Graft Urethroplasty in Treatment of Long Urethral Strictures Using One-Stage Transperineal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tavakkoli Tabassi, Kamyar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the results of one-stage buccal mucosal urethroplasty in treatment of long urethral strictures. Methods. This retrospective study was carried out on 117 patients with long urethral strictures who underwent one-stage transperineal urethroplasty with dorsally placed buccal mucosal grafts (BMG). Success was defined as no need for any intervention during the follow-up period. Results. Among 117 patients with mean age of 39.55 ± 15.98 years, the strictures were located in penile urethra in 46 patients (39.32%), bulbar urethra in 33 (28.20%) and were panurethral in 38 (32.48%). The etiology of the urethral stricture was sexually transmitted disease (STD) in 17 (14.53%), lichen sclerosus in 15 (12.82%), trauma in 15 (12.82%), catheterization in 13 (11.11%), transurethral resection (TUR) in 6 (5.13%), and unknown in 51 (43.59%). The mean length of strictures was 9.31 ± 2.46 centimeters. During the mean followup of 18.9 ± 6.7 months success rate was 93.94% in bulbar strictures, 97.83% in penile strictures, and 84.21% in panurethral strictures (P value: 0.061). Conclusions. The success rate of transperineal urethroplasty with dorsally placed buccal mucosal grafts is equal in different sites of strictures with different etiologies. So reconstruction of long urethral strictures may be safely and effectively performed at a simple single operative procedure using this method of urethroplasty.

  1. Chemopreventive and antioxidant efficacy of (6)-paradol in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Kathiresan; Manoharan, Shanmugam; Vijayaanand, Mariadoss Arokia; Sugunadevi, Govindasamy

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluated the chemopreventive potential of (6)-paradol, a pungent phenolic constituent of ginger, on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. The mechanistic pathway for the chemopreventive potential of (6)-paradol was evaluated by measuring the status of tumor incidence, volume and burden as well as by analyzing the status of phase II detoxification agents, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was induced in hamster buccal pouches by painting them with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. We observed 100% tumor formation with marked biochemical abnormalities in tumor-bearing animals compared to control animals. Oral administration of 30 mg/kg b.w. (6)-paradol to DMBA-treated hamsters on alternate days from DMBA painting for 14 weeks, significantly reduced the formation of tumors and improved the status of detoxification agents, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants. Therefore, the present study suggests that (6)-paradol has potent chemopreventive, anti-lipid peroxidative and antioxidant potentials as well as a modulating effect on phase II detoxification enzyme and reduced glutathione (GSH) in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. PMID:21273675

  2. Morphology of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in odontocetes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernanda M O; Guimarães, Juliana P; Vergara-Parente, Jociery E; Carvalho, Vitor L; Carolina, Ana; Meirelles, O; Marmontel, Miriam; Oliveira, Bruno S S P; Santos, Silvanise M; Becegato, Estella Z; Evangelista, Janaina S A M; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in odontocetes from the Brazilian coast and freshwater systems. Seven species were evaluated and tissue samples were analyzed by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. Laryngeal tonsil was a palpable oval mass located in the larynx, composed of a lymphoepithelial complex. Dense collections of lymphocytes were found in the skin of male fetus and calf. Clusters of lymphoid tissue were found in the uterine cervix of a reproductively active juvenile female and along the pulmonary artery of an adult female. Lymphoid tissues associated with the gastrointestinal tract were characterized by diffusely arranged or organized lymphocytes. The anal tonsil was composed of an aggregate of lymphoid tissue occurring exclusively in the anal canal, being composed of squamous epithelium branches. MALT was present in different tissues and organic systems of cetaceans, providing constant protection against mucosal pathogens present in their environment. PMID:27380767

  3. Pyogenic Granuloma on the Upper Labial Mucosa: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    K A, Kamala; Ashok, L.; G P, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma is thought to represent an exuberant tissue response to a local irritation or trauma. It is a reactional response to constant minor trauma and it might be related to hormonal changes. Clinically, these lesions usually present as single nodules or sessile papules with smooth or lobulated surfaces. These may be seen in any size, from a few millimetres to several centimetres. Pyogenic granuloma of the oral cavity is known to involve the gingiva more commonly (75% of all the cases). An extragingival occurrence of pyogenic granuloma is rare. This paper has described an extragingival pyogenic granuloma which occurred on the upper labial mucosa in a 30 years old female patient. PMID:23905151

  4. [Primary melanoma of the nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa].

    PubMed

    Raĭkov, S; Avramov, T; Despotov, O

    2001-01-01

    The authors make short review on the one of most malignant neoplasms in human pathology--its incidence, ethiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognostic features. We present a clinical case from our practice--a melanoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses--a rare localization. Melanocarcinomas of the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are almost uniformly fatal. Undoubtedly some of the contributory reasons for their grave prognosis are the delay in detection and in accurate histologic diagnosis, the frequent injudicious therapy, the difficulties in adequate operative removal. Melanomas o mucous membranes may arise in mucosa lined by either normally present, or metaplastic stratified squamous epithelium. PMID:12024680

  5. Early histological changes of ileal mucosa after augmentation cystoplasty.

    PubMed

    Cetinel, S; San, T; Cetinel, B; Uygun, N; Hürdağ, C

    2001-07-01

    Segments of bowel are used routinely for transplantation in various pathological conditions such as contracted bladders or poorly compliant neuropathic bladders. However, little is known how these intestinal segments adopt to a toxic environment caused by urine. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine early histological changes of ileal mucosa after augmentation cystoplasty. Seven patients with augmentation cystoplasty underwent random cold-cup biopsies of ileal segments after a mean period of 14.4 months after cystoplasty and morphological changes were evaluated using light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Most pronounced features were varying degrees of villous atrophy, increased numbers of Paneth and goblet cells. Severity of atrophic villous changes were not related to the length of the interval between surgery and endoscopic biopsy. These findings may be explained as adaptations of bowel tissue to counteract noxious effects of urine and to maintain its epithelial function in the bladder. PMID:11482379

  6. Effect of dietary fat on the small intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Maxton, D G; Cynk, E U; Jenkins, A P; Thompson, R P

    1989-09-01

    The presence of food within the small intestinal lumen promotes mucosal cell proliferation. To define the trophic role of triglycerides, three groups of eight female Wistar rats were isocalorically fed for four weeks with either Vivonex, or Vivonex with 50% calorie substitution with an essential fatty acid mixture, or Vivonex with 50% calorie substitution with a saturated fatty acid mixture. Although Vivonex caused greater body weight gain, both essential fatty acids and saturated fatty acids increased small intestinal weight, mucosal weight, protein and DNA overall, and in each of three intestinal segments (proximal, middle and distal), compared with Vivonex. Mucosal indices were similar for essential fatty acids and saturated fatty acids. These results show that triglycerides, regardless of essential fatty acid content, are trophic to the rat small intestinal mucosa. PMID:2806993

  7. Endobronchial recurrence of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Charles R; VanAsselberg, Chad B; Cook-Glen, Celeste L; Bhagat, Rajesh; Abraham, George E

    2012-10-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a diagnostic challenge when arising from bronchiolar submucosal tissue. The case herein describes a man with a lung mass and a remote history of gastric MALT lymphoma. After undergoing a bronchoscopic examination and tissue sampling, he was diagnosed with pulmonary recurrence of gastric MALT lymphoma. The diagnosis of MALT lymphoma in the lung can be challenging. Radiographic findings are typically nonspecific, and tissue biopsy by surgical means is often required. The diagnosis of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma has been previously demonstrated bronchoscopically when a needle aspiration is performed. This case supports the position that bronchoscopy with needle aspiration, and flow cytometry should be performed in all patients in whom pulmonary MALT lymphoma is suspected. PMID:23207539

  8. Mechanisms of histamine stimulated secretion in rabbit ileal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Linaker, B D; McKay, J S; Higgs, N B; Turnberg, L A

    1981-11-01

    Histamine is present in high concentrations in the intestine and we investigated the possibility that it might have a role here in intestinal transport. When added to the basal side of rabbit ileal mucosa in vitro histamine (10(-4)M) induced a short-lived increase in electrical potential difference and short circuit current. It inhibited net chloride absorption but did not influence sodium transport. Alkali secretion, measured by a pH stat technique, was inhibited, suggesting that bicarbonate secretion was reduced. Both the electrical and ion flux responses to histamine were blocked by the H1 receptor blocker diphenhydramine, but not by the H2 receptor blocker cimetidine. The presence of specific H1 histamine receptors was further supported by shifts in the dose-response curve to histamine by four different concentrations of diphenhydramine. Calculation of a pA2 value from these "Schild' plots provided a figure of 7.85, which is similar to that for H1 receptors in other tissues. Aminoguanidine, a histaminase blocker, had no electrical effects alone but shifted the histamine dose response curve to the left. These studies indicate that histamine inhibits chloride absorption and alkali secretion, possibly by influencing a chloride/bicarbonate exchange process, through specific mucosal H1 receptors. Enhancement of histamine effects by a histaminase inhibitor suggests that histaminases are present in the intestinal mucosa and supports the possibility of a role for endogenous histamine in influencing ion transport. The observations indicate a mechanism by which absorption might be impaired in diseases in which histamine is liberated locally in the intestine. PMID:7308851

  9. Dosimetry Model for Radioactivity Localized to Intestinal Mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.; Rajon, Didier; Breitz, Hazel B.; Goris, Michael L.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Knox, Susan J.

    2004-06-30

    This paper provides a new model for calculating radiation absorbed dose to the full thickness of the small and large intestinal walls, and to the mucosal layers. The model was used to estimate the intestinal radiation doses from yttrium-90-labeled-DOTA-biotin binding to NR-LU-10-streptavidin in patients. We selected model parameters from published data and observations and used the model to calculate energy absorbed fractions using the EGS4 radiation transport code. We determined the cumulated 90Y activity in the small and large intestines of patients from gamma camera images and calculated absorbed doses to the mucosal layer and to the whole intestinal wall. The mean absorbed dose to the wall of the small intestine was 16.2 mGy/MBq (60 cGy/mCi) administered from 90Y localized in the mucosa and 70 mGy/MBq (260 cGy/mCi) to the mucosal layer within the wall. Doses to the large intestinal wall and to the mucosa of the large intestine were lower than those for small intestine by a factor of about 2.5. These doses are greater by factors of about 5 to 6 than those that would have been calculated using the standard MIRD models that assume the intestinal activity is in the bowel contents. The specific uptake of radiopharmaceuticals in mucosal tissues may lead to dose-related intestinal toxicities. Tissue dosimetry at the sub-organ level is useful for better understanding intestinal tract radiotoxicity and associated dose-response relationships.

  10. Quantification and characterization of mucosa-associated and intracellular Escherichia coli in inflamatory bowel disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and aims: Mucosa-associated E. coli are abundant in Crohn’s disease (CD) but whether these bacteria gain intracellular access within the mucosa is less certain. If E. coli does gain intracellular access in CD, the contribution of bacterial pathogenicity as opposed to a defect in host inna...

  11. The microbiome of the oral mucosa in irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fourie, Nicolaas H.; Wang, Dan; Abey, Sarah K.; Sherwin, LeeAnne B.; Joseph, Paule V.; Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Ferguson, Eric G.; Henderson, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    abstract Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a poorly understood disorder characterized by persistent symptoms, including visceral pain. Studies have demonstrated oral microbiome differences in inflammatory bowel diseases suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in the study of non-oral conditions. In this exploratory study we examine whether differences exist in the oral microbiome of IBS participants and healthy controls, and whether the oral microbiome relates to symptom severity. The oral buccal mucosal microbiome of 38 participants was characterized using PhyloChip microarrays. The severity of visceral pain was assessed by orally administering a gastrointestinal test solution. Participants self-reported their induced visceral pain. Pain severity was highest in IBS participants (P = 0.0002), particularly IBS-overweight participants (P = 0.02), and was robustly correlated to the abundance of 60 OTUs, 4 genera, 5 families and 4 orders of bacteria (r2 > 0.4, P < 0.001). IBS-overweight participants showed decreased richness in the phylum Bacteroidetes (P = 0.007) and the genus Bacillus (P = 0.008). Analysis of β-diversity found significant separation of the IBS-overweight group (P < 0.05). Our oral microbial results are concordant with described fecal and colonic microbiome-IBS and -weight associations. Having IBS and being overweight, rather than IBS-subtypes, was the most important factor in describing the severity of visceral pain and variation in the microbiome. Pain severity was strongly correlated to the abundance of many taxa, suggesting the potential of the oral microbiome in diagnosis and patient phenotyping. The oral microbiome has potential as a source of microbial information in IBS. PMID:26963804

  12. Fimbria-mediated adherence of Candida albicans to glycosphingolipid receptors on human buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, L; Lee, K K; Sheth, H B; Lane-Bell, P; Srivastava, G; Hindsgaul, O; Paranchych, W; Hodges, R S; Irvin, R T

    1994-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunist fungal pathogen that has the ability to adhere to host cell surface receptors via a number of adhesins. Yu et al. (L. Yu, K. K. Lee, K. Ens, P. C. Doig, M. R. Carpenter, W. Staddon, R. S. Hodges, W. Paranchych, and R. T. Irvin, Infect. Immun. 62:2834-2842, 1994) described the purification and initial characterization of a fimbrial adhesin from C. albicans. In this paper, we show that C. albicans fimbriae also bind to asialo-GM1 [gangliotetraosylceramide: beta Gal(1-3)beta GalNAc(1-4) beta Gal(1-4)beta Glc(1-1)Cer] immobilized on microtiter plates in a saturable and concentration-dependent manner. C. albicans fimbrial binding to exfoliated human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) was inhibited by asialo-GM1 in in vitro binding assays. The fimbriae interact with the glycosphingolipid receptors via the carbohydrate portion of the receptors, since fimbriae were observed to bind to synthetic beta GalNAc(1-4)beta Gal-protein conjugates and the disaccharide was able to inhibit binding of fimbriae to BECs in in vitro binding assays. We conclude from these results that the C. albicans yeast form expresses a fimbrial adhesin that binds to glycosphingolipids displayed on the surface of human BECs. Images PMID:8005674

  13. Disposable on-chip microfluidic system for buccal cell lysis, DNA purification, and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Cho, Woong; Maeng, Joon-Ho; Ahn, Yoomin; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports the development of a disposable, integrated biochip for DNA sample preparation and PCR. The hybrid biochip (25 × 45 mm) is composed of a disposable PDMS layer with a microchannel chamber and reusable glass substrate integrated with a microheater and thermal microsensor. Lysis, purification, and PCR can be performed sequentially on this microfluidic device. Cell lysis is achieved by heat and purification is performed by mechanical filtration. Passive check valves are integrated to enable sample preparation and PCR in a fixed sequence. Reactor temperature is needed to lysis and PCR reaction is controlled within ±1°C by PID controller of LabVIEW software. Buccal epithelial cell lysis, DNA purification, and SY158 gene PCR amplification were successfully performed on this novel chip. Our experiments confirm that the entire process, except the off-chip gel electrophoresis, requires only approximately 1 h for completion. This disposable microfluidic chip for sample preparation and PCR can be easily united with other technologies to realize a fully integrated DNA chip. PMID:23784986

  14. Potential Uses, Limitations, and Basic Procedures of Micronuclei and Nuclear Abnormalities in Buccal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Nava, Arnulfo; Flores-García, Aurelio; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomarkers as tools to evaluate genotoxicity is increasing recently. Methods that have been used previously to evaluate genomic instability are frequently expensive, complicated, and invasive. The micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) technique in buccal cells offers a great opportunity to evaluate in a clear and precise way the appearance of genetic damage whether it is present as a consequence of occupational or environmental risk. This technique is reliable, fast, relatively simple, cheap, and minimally invasive and causes no pain. So, it is well accepted by patients; it can also be used to assess the genotoxic effect derived from drug use or as a result of having a chronic disease. Furthermore the beneficial effects derived from changes in life style or taking additional supplements can also be evaluated. In the present paper, we aim to focus on the explanation of MN test and its usefulness as a biomarker; we further give details about procedures to perform and interpret the results of the test and review some factors that could have an influence on the results of the technique. PMID:24778463

  15. Multivariate toxicity screening of liposomal formulations on a human buccal cell line.

    PubMed

    Smistad, Gro; Jacobsen, Jette; Sande, Sverre A

    2007-02-01

    The influence of various formulation factors on the in vitro cellular toxicity of liposomes on human buccal cells (TR146), were studied by using the concept of statistical experimental design and multivariate evaluation. The factors investigated were the type of main phospholipid (egg-PC, DMPC, DPPC), lipid concentration, the type of charge, liposome size, and amount and nature of the charged component (diacyl-PA, diacyl-PG, diacyl-PS, stearylamine (SA), diacyl-TAP) in the liposomes. Both full factorial design and D-optimal designs were created. Several significant main factors and interactions were revealed. Positively charged liposomes were shown to be toxic. The toxicity of negatively charged liposomes was relatively low. Diacyl-TAP was less toxic than SA, and DPPC was less toxic than DMPC. Low level of positively charged component was favourable and essential when using egg-PC as the main lipid. The amount of negatively charged component, the liposome size, and the total lipid concentration did not affect the toxicity within the experimental room. DPPC appeared to be a good candidate when formulating both positively and negatively charged liposomes with low cellular toxicity. The concept of statistical experimental design and multivariate evaluation was shown to be a useful approach in cell toxicity screening studies. PMID:16997516

  16. Metastatic Uterine Leiomyosarcoma in the Upper Buccal Gingiva Misdiagnosed as an Epulis

    PubMed Central

    Cassoni, Andrea; Terenzi, Valentina; Bartoli, Davina; Zadeh, Oriana Rajabtork; Battisti, Andrea; Pagnoni, Mario; Conte, Davide; Lembo, Alessandro; Bosco, Sandro; Alesini, Francesco; Valentini, Valentino

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare tumor constituting 1% of all uterine malignancies. This sarcoma demonstrates an aggressive growth pattern with an high rate of recurrence with hematologic dissemination; the most common sites are lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity, head and neck district being rarely interested. Only other four cases of metastasis in the oral cavity have been previously described. The treatment of choice is surgery and the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation has limited impact on clinical outcome. In case of metastases, surgical excision can be performed considering extent of disease, number and type of distant lesions, disease free interval from the initial diagnosis to the time of metastases, and expected life span. We illustrate a case of uterine LMS metastasis in the upper buccal gingiva that occurred during chemotherapy in a 63-year-old woman that underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for a diagnosis of LMS staged as pT2bN0 and that developed lung metastases eight months after primary treatment. Surgical excision of the oral mass (previously misdiagnosed as epulis at a dental center) and contemporary reconstruction with pedicled temporalis muscle flap was performed in order to improve quality of life. Even if resection was achieved in free margins, “local” relapse was observed 5 months after surgery. PMID:25386373

  17. The flavonoid quercetin modulates the hallmark capabilities of hamster buccal pouch tumors.

    PubMed

    Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi Vidya; Vinothini, Govindarajah; Murugan, Ramalingam Senthil; Manikandan, Palrasu; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated the protective effects of dietary phytochemicals against cancer risk. Quercetin, a ubiquitous dietary flavonoid, has attracted considerable attention owing to its potent antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. The present study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive as well as the therapeutic ability of quercetin to modulate the key hallmark capabilities of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinomas. We analyzed the expression of markers associated with cell proliferation and survival (PCNA, p21, p53, cyclin D1, GST-P), apoptosis (Fas, Fas-L, Bcl-2 family proteins, cytochrome-C, Apaf-1, caspases, PARP, survivin, cFLIP, API1), invasion (MMPs, TIMP-2, RECK), angiogenesis (PlGF, VEGF, VEGF receptors, HIF-1α), as well as the epigenetic markers (HDAC-1, DNMT1) by immunohistochemical, Western blot, and RT-PCR analyses. Simultaneous administration of quercetin to DMBA-painted hamsters reduced tumor incidence and tumor burden, while posttreatment of quercetin resulted in a significant tumor growth delay. In addition, quercetin administration induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and blocked invasion and angiogenesis. We found a positive correlation between the inhibition of HDAC-1 and DNMT1 by quercetin and its anticancer properties. A dietary phytochemical such as quercetin that modulates a plethora of molecules offers promise as an ideal candidate for multitargeted cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:21294050

  18. Obliteration of Recurrent Large Dentigerous Cyst Using Bilateral Buccal Fat Pad Sling Flaps.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwan Jun; Lee, Jun Beom

    2016-07-01

    Dentigerous cyst (DC), also known as follicular cyst, is an odontogenic cyst with fluid accumulation between the crown and enamel organ of an unerupted tooth, pushing the crown away from the alveolar bone. The patients with DC in the maxillary sinus should be evaluated thoroughly by extraoral and intraoral examinations, proper diagnostic imaging procedures, and pathologic examination to avoid misdiagnosis of maxillary sinusitis. The standard treatment for DC in the maxillary sinus is often removed by Caldwell-Luc approach. Furthermore, marsupialization or functional endoscopic sinus surgery may be performed because of the size, location of the cysts, or the age of the patients. Sometimes, DC recurred and it made contour deformity. The buccal fat pad (BFP) was mentioned for the first time by Heister in 1732 and better described by Bichat in 1802. Egyedi was the first to report use of the BFP in oral reconstruction for the closure of oroantral and oronasal communications, and Tideman et al showed there was no need to cover BFP by a skin graft when used for defects of oral cavity. So, the authors report our experience with the bilateral pedicled sling BFP flap for intraoral reconstruction after larger recurrent DC removal and describe advantages, operative procedure, and possible complications of the DC. PMID:27391514

  19. Micelle-enhanced spectrofluorimetric determination of amlexanox in bioadhesive buccal tablets: application to content uniformity testing.

    PubMed

    Walash, M I; Belal, F; Tolba, M M; Halawa, M I

    2015-09-01

    A highly sensitive, simple and rapid spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of Amlexanox (AMX) in its bioadhesive buccal tablets. The proposed method is based on measuring the native fluorescence of the methanolic solution of AMX at 400 nm after excitation at 242 nm in 0.2 M borate buffer (pH 10) and 0.5% w/v sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution. The interaction of AMX with SDS was studied, and the enhanced fluorescence intensity was exploited to develop an assay method for the determination of AMX. The relative fluorescence intensity-concentration plot was rectilinear over the range 5.0-80.0 ng/mL, with a lower detection limit of 0.57 ng/mL and a lower quantification limit of 1.74 ng/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of AMX in its commercial tablets. Moreover, content uniformity testing was conducted by applying official USP guidelines. Statistical evaluation and comparison of the data obtained using the proposed and comparison methods revealed good accuracy and precision for the proposed method. PMID:25611457

  20. The application of a crosslinked pectin-based wafer matrix for gradual buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Rubina P; Pillay, Viness; Choonara, Yahya E; Du Toit, Lisa C; Ndesendo, Valence M K; Kumar, Pradeep; Khan, Riaz A

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop crosslinked wafer matrices and establish the influence of the crosslinker type and processing sequence on achieving gradual buccal drug delivery. Three sets of drug-loaded crosslinked pectin wafers were produced employing the model water-soluble antihistamine, diphenhydramine and were compared with noncrosslinked wafers. The formulations were crosslinked with CaCl(2), BaCl(2), or ZnSO(4) pre- or postlyophilization (sets 1 and 2) as well as pre- and postlyophilization (set 3), respectively. The surface morphology, porositometry, molecular vibrational transitions, textural attributes, thermal and in vitro drug release were characterized and supported by in silico molecular mechanics simulations. Results revealed that crosslinked wafers produced smaller pore sizes (107.63 Å) compared with noncrosslinked matrices (180.53 Å) due to molecular crosslinks formed between pectin chains. Drug release performance was dependent on the wafer crosslinking production sequence. Noncrosslinked wafers displayed burst-release with 82% drug released at t(30min) compared with first-order kinetic profiles obtained for prelyophilized crosslinked matrices (50% released at t(30min) followed by steady release). Wafers crosslinked postlyophilization displayed superior control of drug release (40% at t(30min)). Molecular mechanics simulations corroborated with the experimental data and established that Ba(++), having the largest atomic radii (1.35 Å) formed a number of ionic bridges producing wafers of higher porosity (0.048 cm(2)/g) and had more influence on drug release. PMID:22323418

  1. Spray-dried Amioca starch/Carbopol 974P mixtures as buccal bioadhesive carriers.

    PubMed

    Ameye, D; Mus, D; Foreman, P; Remon, J P

    2005-09-14

    In the present study, spray-dried Amioca starch/Carbopol 974P mixtures were evaluated as potential buccal bioadhesive tablets. Carbopol (C 974P) concentrations from 5 to 75% were tested. All spray-dried mixtures showed a comparable or better bioadhesive capacity compared to a reference formulation (DDWM/C 974P 95/5). The bioadhesive capacities of Amioca/Carbopol 974P mixtures were improved by spray-drying. All spray-dried mixtures showed significantly higher work of adhesion values compared to their equivalent physical mixtures. The influence of Carbopol concentration on the in vivo adhesion time of placebo tablets and in vitro miconazole nitrate release was tested. The ratio Amioca/C 974P 70/30 showed the longest in vivo adhesion time (24.5+/-8.5 h). Lower and higher C 974P concentrations had a shorter in vivo adhesion time. The mixtures containing between 15 and 30% C 974P could all sustain the in vitro miconazole nitrate release over 20 h. Again, lower and higher C 974P concentrations showed a faster in vitro miconazole release. The drug loading capacity of a spray-dried mixture containing 20% C 974P was investigated in vivo in dogs using testosterone as model drug. The spray-dried mixture could be loaded with 60% drug without loosing its in vivo bioadhesive and pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:16019172

  2. New Saliva DNA Collection Method Compared to Buccal Cell Collection Techniques for Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    ROGERS, NIKKI L.; COLE, SHELLEY A.; LAN, HAO-CHANG; CROSSA, ALDO; DEMERATH, ELLEN W.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies may require noninvasive methods for off-site DNA collection. We compared the DNA yield and quality obtained using a whole-saliva collection device (Oragene™ DNA collection kit) to those from three established noninvasive methods (cytobrush, foam swab, and oral rinse). Each method was tested on 17 adult volunteers from our center, using a random crossover collection design and analyzed using repeated-measures statistics. DNA yield and quality were assessed via gel electrophoresis, spectophotometry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification rate. The whole-saliva method provided a significantly greater DNA yield (mean ± SD = 154.9 ± 103.05 μg, median = 181.88) than the other methods (oral rinse = 54.74 ± 41.72 μg, 36.56; swab = 11.44 ± 7.39 μg, 10.72; cytobrush = 12.66 ± 6.19, 13.22 μg) (all pairwise P < 0.05). Oral-rinse and whole-saliva samples provided the best DNA quality, whereas cytobrush and swab samples provided poorer quality DNA, as shown by lower OD260/OD280 and OD260/OD230 ratios. We conclude that both a 10-ml oral-rinse sample and 2-ml whole-saliva sample provide sufficient DNA quantity and better quality DNA for genetic epidemiological studies than do the commonly used buccal swab and brush techniques. PMID:17421001

  3. New saliva DNA collection method compared to buccal cell collection techniques for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nikki L; Cole, Shelley A; Lan, Hao-Chang; Crossa, Aldo; Demerath, Ellen W

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies may require noninvasive methods for off-site DNA collection. We compared the DNA yield and quality obtained using a whole-saliva collection device (Oragene DNA collection kit) to those from three established noninvasive methods (cytobrush, foam swab, and oral rinse). Each method was tested on 17 adult volunteers from our center, using a random crossover collection design and analyzed using repeated-measures statistics. DNA yield and quality were assessed via gel electrophoresis, spectophotometry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification rate. The whole-saliva method provided a significantly greater DNA yield (mean +/- SD = 154.9 +/- 103.05 microg, median = 181.88) than the other methods (oral rinse = 54.74 +/- 41.72 microg, 36.56; swab = 11.44 +/- 7.39 microg, 10.72; cytobrush = 12.66 +/- 6.19, 13.22 microg) (all pairwise P < 0.05). Oral-rinse and whole-saliva samples provided the best DNA quality, whereas cytobrush and swab samples provided poorer quality DNA, as shown by lower OD(260)/OD(280) and OD(260)/OD(230) ratios. We conclude that both a 10-ml oral-rinse sample and 2-ml whole-saliva sample provide sufficient DNA quantity and better quality DNA for genetic epidemiological studies than do the commonly used buccal swab and brush techniques. PMID:17421001

  4. An in-vitro method for buccal adhesion studies: importance of instrument variables.

    PubMed

    Wong, C F; Yuen, K H; Peh, K K

    1999-03-25

    A method using a texture analyzer equipment and chicken pouch as the biological tissue was investigated for measuring the bioadhesive properties of polymers under simulated buccal conditions. The method was evaluated using two polymers, namely Carbopol 974P and Methocel K4M while the instrument variables studied included the contact force, contact time and speed of withdrawal of the probe from the tissue. The parameters measured were the work of adhesion and peak detachment force. Longer contact time and faster probe speed not only gave better reproducibility of results, but also better sensitivities for both parameters measured. On the other hand, a certain level of contact force was found essential for achieving good bioadhesion, above which there was no further contribution to the bioadhesion process. When the method was applied to determine the bioadhesiveness of several polymers, the values obtained for the work of adhesion and peak detachment force were quite consistent in the ranking of the polymers. The Carbopols were found to have the highest values, followed by gelatin, sodium carboxymethyl celluloses and hydroxypropylmethyl celluloses. On the other hand, Alginic acid, Eudragit RLPO and RSPO, and Chitosan appeared to have low bioadhesive values. PMID:10089291

  5. Comparison of Gastric Microbiota Between Gastric Juice and Mucosa by Next Generation Sequencing Method

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jihee; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Jaeyeon; Jo, Hyun Jin; Park, Ji Hyun; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Seok, Yeong-Jae; Kim, Yeon-Ran; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2016-01-01

    Background: Not much is known about the role of gastric microbiota except for Helicobacter pylori in human health and disease. In this study, we aimed to detect human gastric microbiota in both gastric mucosa and gastric juice by barcoded 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and to compare the results from mucosa and juice. Methods: Gastric biopsies and stomach juices were collected from 4 subjects who underwent standard endoscopy at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Gastric microbiota of antral mucosa, corpus mucosa samples, and gastric fluids were analyzed by barcoded 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The analysis focused on bacteria, such as H. pylori and nitrosating or nitrate-reducing bacteria. Results: Gastric fluid samples showed higher diversity compared to that of gastric mucosa samples. The mean of operational taxonomic units was higher in gastric fluid than in gastric mucosa. The samples of gastric fluid and gastric mucosa showed different composition of phyla. The composition of H. pylori and Proteobacteria was higher in mucosa samples compared to gastric fluid samples (H. pylori, 66.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.033; Proteobacteria, 75.4% vs. 26.3%, P = 0.041), while Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes were proportioned relatively less in mucosa samples than gastric fluid. However there was no significant difference. (Actinobacteria, 3.5% vs. 20.2%, P = 0.312; Bacteroidetes, 6.0% vs. 14.8%, P = 0.329; Firmicutes, 12.8% vs. 33.4%, P = 0.246). Conclusions: Even though these samples were small, gastric mucosa could be more effective than gastric fluid in the detection of meaningful gastric microbiota by pyrosequencing. PMID:27051651

  6. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells alleviate nasal mucosa radiation damage in a guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hong-Gang; Ji, Fang; Zheng, Chun-Quan; Wang, Chun-Hua; Li, Jing

    2015-02-01

    Nasal complications after radiotherapy severely affect the quality of life of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, and there is a compelling need to find novel therapies for nasal epithelial cell radiation damage. Therefore, we investigated the therapeutic effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in guinea pig model of nasal mucosa radiation damage and explored its therapeutic mechanism. Cultured hUC-MSCs were injected intravenously immediately after radiation in the nasal mucosa-radiation-damage guinea pig model. Migration of hUC-MSCs into the nasal mucosa and the potential for differentiation into nasal epithelial cells were evaluated by immunofluorescence. The therapeutic effects of hUC-MSCs were evaluated by mucus clearance time (MCT), degree of nasal mucosa edema, and the nasal mucosa cilia form and coverage ratio. Results indicate that the hUC-MSCs migrated to the nasal mucosa lamina propria and did not differentiate into nasal epithelial cells in this model. The MCT and degree of mucosal edema were improved at 1 week and 1 month after radiation, respectively, but no difference was found at 3 months and 6 months after radiation. The nasal mucosa cilia form and coverage ratio was not improved 6 months after radiation. Thus, hUC-MSCs can migrate to the nasal mucosa lamina propria and improve MCT and mucosa edema within a short time period, but these cells are unable to differentiate into nasal epithelial cells and improve nasal epithelial regeneration in the nasal mucosa radiation damage guinea pig model. PMID:25209829

  7. Increased CCL24/eotaxin-2 with postnatal ozone exposure in allergen-sensitized infant monkeys is not associated with recruitment of eosinophils to airway mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Debbie L.; Gerriets, Joan E.; Schelegle, Edward S.; Hyde, Dallas M.; Miller, Lisa A.

    2011-12-15

    Epidemiology supports a causal link between air pollutant exposure and childhood asthma, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have previously reported that ozone exposure can alter the anatomic distribution of CD25+ lymphocytes in airways of allergen-sensitized infant rhesus monkeys. Here, we hypothesized that ozone may also affect eosinophil trafficking to allergen-sensitized infant airways. To test this hypothesis, we measured blood, lavage, and airway mucosa eosinophils in 3-month old monkeys following cyclical ozone and house dust mite (HDM) aerosol exposures. We also determined if eotaxin family members (CCL11, CCL24, CCL26) are associated with eosinophil location in response to exposures. In lavage, eosinophil numbers increased in animals exposed to ozone and/or HDM. Ozone + HDM animals showed significantly increased CCL24 and CCL26 protein in lavage, but the concentration of CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 was independent of eosinophil number for all exposure groups. In airway mucosa, eosinophils increased with exposure to HDM alone; comparatively, ozone and ozone + HDM resulted in reduced eosinophils. CCL26 mRNA and immunofluorescence staining increased in airway mucosa of HDM alone animals and correlated with eosinophil volume. In ozone + HDM animal groups, CCL24 mRNA and immunofluorescence increased along with CCR3 mRNA, but did not correlate with airway mucosa eosinophils. Cumulatively, our data indicate that ozone exposure results in a profile of airway eosinophil migration that is distinct from HDM mediated pathways. CCL24 was found to be induced only by combined ozone and HDM exposure, however expression was not associated with the presence of eosinophils within the airway mucosa. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ozone can modulate the localization of eosinophils in infant allergic airways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of eotaxins within the lung is affected by ozone and allergen exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CCL24 induction by

  8. Novel Application of Percutaneous Cryotherapy for the Treatment of Recurrent Oral Bleeding From a Noninvoluting Congenital Hemangioma Involving the Right Buccal Space and Maxillary Tuberosity

    SciTech Connect

    Salehian, Sepand; Gemmete, Joseph J.; Kasten, Steven; Edwards, Sean P.

    2011-02-15

    Cryotherapy is the application of varying extremes of cold temperatures to destroy abnormal tissue. The intent of this article is to describe a novel technique using percutaneous cryotherapy for treating a noninvoluting congenital craniofacial hemangioma (NICH). An 18-year-old woman with type 1 von Willebrand's disease, as well as a qualitative platelet aggregation disorder, presented with multiple recurrent episodes of oral bleeding from a NICH involving the right buccal space and maxillary tuberosity. The patient was initially treated with a combination of endovascular particulate embolization, percutaneous sclerotherapy, tissue cauterization, and laser therapy between the ages of 4 and 8 years of age. At 18 years of age, the patient presented with recurrent episodes of oral bleeding related to the NICH. Endovascular embolization was performed using particulate and a liquid embolic agent with limited success. Due to the refractory nature of this bleeding, the patient underwent successful lesion ablation using percutaneous cryotherapy. At 9-month follow-up, the patient is asymptomatic with no episodes of recurrent bleeding.

  9. Morphological specializations of the buccal cavity in relation to the food and feeding habit of a carp Cirrhinus mrigala: a scanning electron microscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Yashpal, Madhu; Kumari, Usha; Mittal, Swati; Mittal, Ajay Kumar

    2009-06-01

    The buccal cavity of an herbivorous fish, Cirrhinus mrigala, was investigated by scanning electron microscopy to determine its surface ultrastructure. The buccal cavity shows significant adaptive modifications in relation to food and feeding ecology of the fish. The buccal cavity of the fish is of modest size and limited capacity, which is considered an adaptation with respect to the small-sized food items primarily consumed by the fish that could be accommodated in a small space. Modification of surface epithelial cells, on the upper jaw, into characteristic structures-the unculi-is considered an adaptation to browse or scrap, to grasp food materials, e.g., algal felts, and to protect the epithelial surface against abrasions, likely to occur during their characteristic feeding behavior. Differentiation of the highly specialized lamellar organ on the anterior region of the palate could be an adaptation playing a significant role in the selection, retention, and sorting out of palatable food particles from the unpalatable items ingested by the fish. The filamentous epithelial projections and the lingulate epithelial projections on the palatal organ in the posterior region of the palate are considered to serve a critical function in final selection, handling, maneuvering, and propelling the food particles toward the esophagus. The abundance of different categories of taste buds in the buccal cavity suggests that gustation is well developed and the fish is highly responsive in the evaluation and the selection of the preferred palatable food items. The secretions of mucous cells in the buccal cavity are associated with multiple functions-particle entrapment, lubrication of the buccal epithelium and food particles to assist smooth passage of food, and to protect the epithelium from possible abrasion. These morphological characteristics ensure efficient working of the buccal cavity in the assessment of the quality and palatability of ingested food, their retention and

  10. Chitosan-based mucoadhesive films containing 5-aminolevulinic acid for buccal cancer's treatment.

    PubMed

    Costa, Irina dos Santos Miranda; Abranches, Renata Pereira; Garcia, Maria Teresa Junqueira; Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma

    2014-11-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a relatively new method to treat various kinds of tumors, including those of the oral cavity. The topical 5-ALA-PDT treatment for tumors of the oral mucosa is preferred, since when administered systemically, there is a general photosensitization drawback in the patient. However, 5-ALA is a hydrophilic molecule and its penetration and retention is limited by topical route, including oral mucosa. We propose a topical delivery system of chitosan-based mucoadhesive film, aiming to promote greater retention of 5-ALA in tissue. The chitosan (CHT) films (4% w/w) were prepared using the solvent evaporation/casting technique. They were tested without 5-ALA resulting in permeability to water vapor (W.V.P=2.15-8.54 g mm/(h cm(2)Pa) swelling ∼300.0% (±10.5) at 4 h or 24 h and in vitro residence time >24 h for all tests. CHT films containing 10.0% (w/w) 5-ALA have resulted in average weight of 0.22 g and thickness of 0.608 mm as suitable characteristics for oral application. In the presence of CHT films both in vitro permeation and retention of 5-ALA (1.0% or 10.0%) were increased. However, 10.0% 5-ALA presented highest values of permeation and retention (∼4 and 17 times respectively, compared to propylene glycol vehicle). On the other hand, in vitro mucoadhesion of CHT films was decreased (18.2-fold and 3.1-fold) by 5-ALA addition (1.0% or 10.0% respectively). However, CHT film containing 10.0% of 5-ALA can be a potential delivery system for topical use in the treatment of tumors of the oral cavity using PDT because it favored the retention of 5-ALA in this tissue and has shown convenient mucoadhesion. PMID:25190225

  11. Integrating-Sphere Measurements for Determining Optical Properties of Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, A. M.; Cardona, J. C.; Garzón, I.; Oliveira, A. C.; Ghinea, R.; Alaminos, M.; Pérez, M. M.

    2015-02-01

    Surgical procedures carried out in the oral and maxillofacial region can result in large tissue defects. Accounting for the shortage of oral mucosa to replace the excised tissues, different models of an organotypic substitute of the oral mucosa generated by tissue engineering have recently been proposed. In this work, the propagation of light radiation through artificial human oral mucosa substitutes based on fibrin-agarose scaffolds (fibrin, fibrin-0.1% agarose, fibrin-0.2%agarose) is investigated, and their optical properties are determined using the inverse adding-doubling (IAD) method based on integrating-sphere measurements. Similar values for the absorption and scattering coefficients between the fibrin and fibrin-0.1% agarose bioengineered tissues and the native oral mucosa were found. These results suggest the adequacy of these biomaterials for potential clinical use in human oral mucosa applications. These optical properties represent useful references and data for applications requiring the knowledge of the light transport through this type of tissues, applications used in clinical practice. It also provides a new method of information analysis for the quality control of the development of the artificial nanostructured oral mucosa substitutes and its comparison with native oral mucosa tissues.

  12. Simultaneous liquid chromatographic determination of carotenoids, retinoids, and tocopherols in human buccal mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Y S; Peng, Y M

    1992-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data have suggested that some micronutrients, including various carotenoids, retinoids, and alpha-tocopherol, may have chemopreventive activity against certain types of human cancer. In order to define the role of these micronutrients in cancer prevention, it is necessary to measure their concentrations in the target tissues, since these are critical to the chemopreventive effect. We have developed a sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography procedure for the simultaneous determination of lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, cis-beta-carotene, retinol, retinyl palmitate, alpha-tocopherol, and gamma-tocopherol in an easily accessible human target tissue, the buccal mucosal cells. This procedure used a gradient of two mobile phases which consisted of acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran, methanol, 1% ammonium acetate, and butylated hydroxytoluene (in v/v/v/v/w): mobile phase A, 85:5:5:5:0.05; mobile phase B, 55:35:5:5:0.05. The run time, including reequilibration, was 47 min: from 100% A to 100% B in 27 min, remaining at that mobile phase for 10 min, then back to 100% A at 43 min at a constant flow rate of 1.3 ml/min. The high-performance liquid chromatography effluent was monitored at 300, 325, and 452 nm for tocopherols, retinoids, and carotenoids, respectively, with a photodiode array detector. The average recovery was 83% for lycopene and > 92% for others. The precision of the assay for all the compounds was less than 10% in a 1-month period. The micronutrients were extracted by incubating the cells with protease, followed by vortex mixing with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in ethanol containing 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene, and, finally, hexane extraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1305470

  13. Buccal acetaminophen provides fast analgesia: two randomized clinical trials in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Gisèle; Macian, Nicolas; Libert, Frédéric; Cardot, J Michel; Coissard, Séverine; Perovitch, Philippe; Maury, Marc; Dubray, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Background Acetaminophen (APAP) by oral or intravenous (iv) routes is used for mild to moderate pain but may take time to be effective. When fast relief is required and/or oral or iv routes are not available because of the patient’s condition, the transmucosal route may be an alternative. Methodology A new transmucosal/buccal (b) pharmaceutical form of APAP dissolved in 50% wt alcohol is compared with other routes of administration. Two consecutive randomized, crossover, double-blind clinical trials (CT1: NCT00982215 and CT2: NCT01206985) included 16 healthy volunteers. CT1 compared the pharmacology of 250 mg bAPAP with 1 g iv APAP. CT2 compared the pharmacodynamics of 125 mg bAPAP with 1 g iv and 125 mg sublingual (s) APAP. Mechanical pain thresholds are recorded in response to mechanical stimuli applied on the forearm several times during 120 minutes. The objective is to compare the time of onset of antinociception and the antinociception (area under the curve) between the routes of administration with analysis of variance (significance P<0.05). Results bAPAP has a faster time of antinociception onset (15 minutes, P<0.01) and greater antinociception at 50 minutes (P<0.01, CT1) and 30 minutes (P<0.01, CT2) than ivAPAP and sAPAP. All routes are similar after 50 minutes. Conclusion bAPAP has a faster antinociceptive action in healthy volunteers. This attractive alternative to other routes would be useful in situations where oral or iv routes are not available. This finding must now be confirmed in patients suffering from acute pain of mild and moderate intensity. PMID:25302017

  14. Regeneration of Vocal Fold Mucosa Using Tissue-Engineered Structures with Oral Mucosal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fukahori, Mioko; Chitose, Shun-ichi; Sato, Kiminori; Sueyoshi, Shintaro; Kurita, Takashi; Umeno, Hirohito; Monden, Yu; Yamakawa, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Scarred vocal folds result in irregular vibrations during phonation due to stiffness of the vocal fold mucosa. To date, a completely satisfactory corrective procedure has yet to be achieved. We hypothesize that a potential treatment option for this disease is to replace scarred vocal folds with organotypic mucosa. The purpose of this study is to regenerate vocal fold mucosa using a tissue-engineered structure with autologous oral mucosal cells. Study Design Animal experiment using eight beagles (including three controls). Methods A 3 mm by 3 mm specimen of canine oral mucosa was surgically excised and divided into epithelial and subepithelial tissues. Epithelial cells and fibroblasts were isolated and cultured separately. The proliferated epithelial cells were co-cultured on oriented collagen gels containing the proliferated fibroblasts for an additional two weeks. The organotypic cultured tissues were transplanted to the mucosa-deficient vocal folds. Two months after transplantation, vocal fold vibrations and morphological characteristics were observed. Results A tissue-engineered vocal fold mucosa, consisting of stratified epithelium and lamina propria, was successfully fabricated to closely resemble the normal layered vocal fold mucosa. Laryngeal stroboscopy revealed regular but slightly small mucosal waves at the transplanted site. Immunohistochemically, stratified epithelium expressed cytokeratin, and the distributed cells in the lamina propria expressed vimentin. Elastic Van Gieson staining revealed a decreased number of elastic fibers in the lamina propria of the transplanted site. Conclusion The fabricated mucosa with autologous oral mucosal cells successfully restored the vocal fold mucosa. This reconstruction technique could offer substantial clinical advantages for treating intractable diseases such as scarring of the vocal folds. PMID:26730600

  15. Immunohistochemical changes in morphologically involved and uninvolved colonic mucosa of patients with idiopathic proctitis.

    PubMed Central

    Das, K M; Erber, W F; Rubinstein, A

    1977-01-01

    Alterations in secretory component, IgA, IgG, and IgM were studied by immunofluorescent techniques in mucosal biopsy specimens obtained at colonoscopy from inflamed and grossly uninvolved colonic mucosa from 12 patients with idiopathic proctitis. Parotid-salivary secretory component and IgA and serum immunoglobulins were also investigated. Decreased secretory IgA was observed in the epithelium of all grossly involved rectal mucosa and in 40% of proximal normal mucosa. Salivary secretory IgA was not diminished. These observations suggest that a local immune defect may be pathogenetically related to idiopathic proctitis. Images PMID:320226

  16. Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma identified by chromoendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang-Wook; Lee, Seung-Hwa; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min; Kang, Joon-Koo; Kim, Do-Wan; Lee, Jeong-Hun

    2014-12-28

    Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are a rare occurrence and the definitive treatment has not been established. Solitary or multiple, elevated or polypoid lesions are the usual appearances of MALT lymphoma in the large intestine and sometimes the surface may reveal abnormal vascularity. Herein, we report a case of MALT lymphoma and review the relevant literature. Upon colonoscopy, a suspected pathologic lesion was observed in the proximal transverse colon. The lesion could be distinguished more prominently after using narrow-band imaging mode and indigo carmine-dye spraying chromoendoscopy. Histopathologic examination of this biopsy specimen revealed lymphoepithelial lesions with diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells effacing the glandular architecture and centrocyte-like cells infiltrating the lamina propria. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that tumor cells were positive for CD20 and Bcl-2e, and negative for CD10, CD23, and Bcl-6. According to Ann-Arbor staging system, the patient had stage IIE. A partial colectomy with dissection of the paracolic lymph nodes was performed. Until now, there is no recurrence of lymphoma at follow-up. PMID:25561821

  17. A laser device for fusion of nasal mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sooklal, Valmiki; McClure, Jesse; Hooper, Luke; Larson, Michael

    2010-02-01

    A prototype device has been created to fuse septal tissue membranes as an alternative to sutures or staples through the controlled application of laser heating and pressure to induce protein denaturation and subsequent tissue fusion, through renaturation and intertwining, across the interface. Lasers have been used to close wounds in controlled laboratory tests over the last 15 years. Many encouraging results have been obtained; however, no commercial delivery systems are currently available. This is due primarily to two factors: requiring an inordinate amount of experience on the part of the operator, and attempting to achieve general applicability for multiple tissue systems. The present device overcomes these barriers as it is tailored for the particular application of septal laser fusion, namely for the coaptation of mucoperichondrial membranes. The important parameters involved in fusing biological tissues are identified. The development of the device followed from computational modeling based on Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport and on engineering firstprinciples. Experiments were designed and analyzed using orthogonal arrays, employing a subset of the relevant parameters, i.e., laser irradiance, dwell time and spot size, for a range of wavelengths. The in vitro fusion experiments employed 1cm by 1cm sections of equine nasal mucosa having a nominal thickness of 1mm.

  18. Significance of Paneth Cells in Histologically Unremarkable Rectal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Pezhouh, Maryam K; Cheng, Edaire; Weinberg, Arthur G; Park, Jason Y

    2016-07-01

    Paneth cell metaplasia of the rectal epithelium is a common histologic finding in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease. However, the clinical significance of isolated Paneth cells in otherwise unremarkable rectal mucosa has not been extensively examined. This study examined the frequency and clinical correlates of rectal Paneth cells in 245 biopsies obtained from patients between the ages of 2 weeks to 20 years in a pediatric tertiary care facility from 2010 to 2011. The specimens comprised 193 endoscopic pinch biopsies and 52 rectal suction biopsies. All 245 cases were endoscopically and histologically unremarkable with no prominence of eosinophils, no altered mucosal architecture, and no inflammation. Paneth cells were present in 42 cases (17.1%), which is higher than previous reports. Only 1 of 42 patients with rectal Paneth cells was subsequently diagnosed with Crohn disease. In our study population, the finding of Paneth cells was associated with young age, and the incidence of Paneth cell cases decreased with increasing age (χ=13.69, P=0.0002). Constipation was the most common presenting symptom in patients with rectal Paneth cells and was highly associated with the presence of Paneth cells (odds ratio 4.5, 95% confidence interval: 2.2-9.0). Paneth cells in otherwise unremarkable pediatric rectal biopsies are not rare and frequently occur in common conditions such as idiopathic constipation. PMID:26900817

  19. Do Antimicrobial Peptides and Complement Collaborate in the Intestinal Mucosa?

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Zoë A.; Jain, Umang; Van Limbergen, Johan; Stadnyk, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    It is well understood that multiple antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are constitutively deployed by the epithelium to bolster the innate defenses along the entire length of the intestines. In addition to this constitutive/homeostatic production, AMPs may be inducible and levels changed during disease. In contrast to this level of knowledge on AMP sources and roles in the intestines, our understanding of the complement cascade in the healthy and diseased intestines is rudimentary. Epithelial cells make many complement proteins and there is compelling evidence that complement becomes activated in the lumen. With the common goal of defending the host against microbes, the opportunities for cross-talk between these two processes is great, both in terms of actions on the target microbes but also on regulating the synthesis and secretion of the alternate family of molecules. This possibility is beginning to become apparent with the finding that colonic epithelial cells possess anaphylatoxin receptors. There still remains much to be learned about the possible points of collaboration between AMPs and complement, for example, whether there is reciprocal control over expression in the intestinal mucosa in homeostasis and restoring the balance following infection and inflammation. PMID:25688244

  20. Late effects of radiotherapy on oral mucosa in humans.

    PubMed

    Handschel, J; Sunderkötter, C; Kruse-Lösler, B; Prott, F J; Meyer, U; Piffko, J; Joos, U

    2001-04-01

    In order to gain further understanding of the late effects of radiotherapy on oral mucosa, we analysed the histomorphological alterations, the cell populations in the subepithelial tissue, and the endothelial expression pattern of different adhesion molecules. Biopsies were taken from patients before irradiation, directly after 60 Gy, and 6-12 months after radiotherapy. Besides the histomorphological evaluation of the vessels, the endothelial expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin was determined as well as the distribution of LFA-1-, Mac-1-, VLA-4-, RM3/1-, 27E10- and 25F9-bearing cells in the subepithelial tissue. The expression of ICAM-1 was downregulated after radiotherapy, whereas the percentage of LFA-1- and VLA-4-bearing cells increased. VCAM-1 remained at low levels. The subepithelial infiltration was still dominated by RM3/1-positive macrophages. The number of vessels decreased, while the lumen of the remaining vessels increased. In conclusion, the late effects of radiotherapy are characterized by a decreased number of blood vessels and by significantly different expression patterns of the adhesion molecules studied, and of integrins and macrophage subpopulations, compared to the conditions before irradiation and directly after irradiation with 60 Gy. PMID:11347662

  1. Enzymatic sulfation of mucus glycoprotein in gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Liau, Y.H.; Carter, S.R.; Gwozdzinski, K.; Nadziejko, C.; Slomiany, A.; Slomiany, B.L.

    1986-05-01

    Among the posttranslational modifications that mucus glycoprotein undergo prior to secretion into the gastric lumen is the process of sulfation of the carbohydrate chains. These sulfate groups impart strongly negative charge to nucus glycoprotein and are thought to play a major role in the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity. The authors report here the presence and some properties of an enzyme involved in the sulfation of gastric mucus glycoprotein. The sulfotransferase activity which catalyzes the transfer of sulfate ester group from PAPS to mucus glycoprotein was located in the detergent extracts of the microsomal fraction of rat gastric mucosa. Optimum enzymatic activity for sulfation of gastric mucin was obtained using 0.5% Triton X-100 and 25mM NaF at a pH of 6.8. ATP, ADP, MgCl/sub 2/ and MnCl/sub 2/ at concentrations examined were inhibitory. Under optimal conditions, the rate of sulfate incorporation was proportional to the microsomal enzyme protein concentration up to 50..mu..g and remained constant with time of incubation for at least 1h. The apparent Km value of the enzyme for gastric mucus glycoprotein was 8.3 x 10/sup -6/M. The /sup 35/S-labeled product of the enzyme reaction cochromatographed on Bio-Gel A-50 with gastric mucin, and gave on CsCl equilibrium density gradient centrifugation a band at the density of 1.48 in which the /sup 35/S label coincided with the glycoprotein.

  2. Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma identified by chromoendoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang-Wook; Lee, Seung-Hwa; Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min; Kang, Joon-Koo; Kim, Do-Wan; Lee, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Colonic mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are a rare occurrence and the definitive treatment has not been established. Solitary or multiple, elevated or polypoid lesions are the usual appearances of MALT lymphoma in the large intestine and sometimes the surface may reveal abnormal vascularity. Herein, we report a case of MALT lymphoma and review the relevant literature. Upon colonoscopy, a suspected pathologic lesion was observed in the proximal transverse colon. The lesion could be distinguished more prominently after using narrow-band imaging mode and indigo carmine-dye spraying chromoendoscopy. Histopathologic examination of this biopsy specimen revealed lymphoepithelial lesions with diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells effacing the glandular architecture and centrocyte-like cells infiltrating the lamina propria. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that tumor cells were positive for CD20 and Bcl-2e, and negative for CD10, CD23, and Bcl-6. According to Ann-Arbor staging system, the patient had stage IIE. A partial colectomy with dissection of the paracolic lymph nodes was performed. Until now, there is no recurrence of lymphoma at follow-up. PMID:25561821

  3. Studies on the phospholipases of rat intestinal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Subbaiah, P. V.; Ganguly, J.

    1970-01-01

    1. Subcellular distribution and characteristics of different phospholipases of rat intestinal mucosa were studied. 2. The presence of free fatty acid was necessary for the maximal hydrolysis of lecithin (phosphatidylcholine), but there was no accumulation of lysolecithin (1 or 2-acylglycerophosphorylcholine);lysolecithin accumulated when the reaction was carried out in the presence of sodium deoxycholate and at or above pH8.0. 3. The fatty acid-activated phospholipase B as well as lysolecithinase showed optimum activity at pH6.5, whereas for the phospholipase A it was about pH8.6. 4. The bulk of the phospholipase A was present in the microsomal fraction, whereas the phospholipase B and lysolecithinase activities were distributed between the microsomal and soluble fractions of the mucosal homogenate. 5. Phospholipase A was equally distributed between the brush border and brush-border-free particulate fraction, with the brush border having highest specific activity, whereas the other two activities were distributed between the brush-border-free particulate and soluble fractions. 6. Various treatments showed marked differences between the phospholipase A and phospholipase B activities, but not between phospholipase B and lysolecithinase activities. 7. By using (β[1-14C]-oleoyl) lecithin it was shown that the mucosal phospholipase A was specific for the β-ester linkage of the lecithin molecule. PMID:5484667

  4. Effect of GaAIAs low-level laser therapy on the healing of human palate mucosa after connective tissue graft harvesting: randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dias, Stephanie Botti Fernanandes; Fonseca, Marcus Vinícius Alves; Dos Santos, Nídia Cristina Castro; Mathias, Ingrid Fernandes; Martinho, Frederico Canato; Junior, Milton Santamaria; Jardini, Maria Aparecida Neves; Santamaria, Mauro Pedrine

    2015-08-01

    Among the available techniques to treat gingival recession, connective tissue graft (CTG) presents more foreseeability and better results in the long term. However, this technique causes morbidity and discomfort in the palatine region due to graft removal at that site. The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the influence of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the healing of the donor palatine area after CTG. Thirty-two patients presenting buccal gingival recession were selected and randomly assigned to receive LLLT irradiation (test group) or LLLT sham (control group) in the palatine area after connective graft removal. A diode laser (AsGaAl, 660 nm) was applied to test the sites immediately after surgery and every other day for 7 days. The evaluated parameters were wound remaining area (WRA), scar and tissue colorimetry (TC), tissue thickness (TT), and postoperative discomfort (D). These parameters were evaluated at baseline and 7, 14, 45, 60, and 90 days after surgery. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used for analysis. The test group presented statistically significant smaller wounds at days 14 and 45. None of the patients presented a scar at the operated area, and colorimetry analysis revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between groups (p > 0.05). Patients reported mild to moderate discomfort, with low consumption of analgesic pills. We concluded that LLLT irradiation can accelerate wound healing on palatine mucosa after connective tissue removal for root coverage techniques (ClinicalTrial.org NCT02239042). PMID:25373688

  5. Effect of HPMC and mannitol on drug release and bioadhesion behavior of buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: In-vitro and in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Jaipal, A.; Pandey, M.M.; Charde, S.Y.; Raut, P.P.; Prasanth, K.V.; Prasad, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of orally compromised therapeutic drug molecules to the systemic circulation via buccal route has gained a significant interest in recent past. Bioadhesive polymers play a major role in designing such buccal dosage forms, as they help in adhesion of designed delivery system to mucosal membrane and also prolong release of drug from delivery system. In the present study, HPMC (release retarding polymer) and mannitol (diluent and pore former) were used to prepare bioadhesive and controlled release buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) by direct compression method. Compatibility of BS with various excipients used during the study was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. Effect of mannitol and HPMC on drug release and bioadhesive strength was studied using a 32 factorial design. The drug release rate from delivery system decreased with increasing levels of HPMC in formulations. However, bioadhesive strength of formulations increased with increasing proportion of HPMC in buccal discs. Increased levels of mannitol resulted in faster rate of drug release and rapid in vitro uptake of water due to the formation of channels in the matrix. Pharmacokinetic studies of designed bioadhesive buccal discs in rabbits demonstrated a 10-fold increase in bioavailability in comparison with oral bioavailability of buspirone reported. PMID:26106280

  6. Effect of HPMC and mannitol on drug release and bioadhesion behavior of buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: In-vitro and in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Jaipal, A; Pandey, M M; Charde, S Y; Raut, P P; Prasanth, K V; Prasad, R G

    2015-07-01

    Delivery of orally compromised therapeutic drug molecules to the systemic circulation via buccal route has gained a significant interest in recent past. Bioadhesive polymers play a major role in designing such buccal dosage forms, as they help in adhesion of designed delivery system to mucosal membrane and also prolong release of drug from delivery system. In the present study, HPMC (release retarding polymer) and mannitol (diluent and pore former) were used to prepare bioadhesive and controlled release buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) by direct compression method. Compatibility of BS with various excipients used during the study was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. Effect of mannitol and HPMC on drug release and bioadhesive strength was studied using a 3(2) factorial design. The drug release rate from delivery system decreased with increasing levels of HPMC in formulations. However, bioadhesive strength of formulations increased with increasing proportion of HPMC in buccal discs. Increased levels of mannitol resulted in faster rate of drug release and rapid in vitro uptake of water due to the formation of channels in the matrix. Pharmacokinetic studies of designed bioadhesive buccal discs in rabbits demonstrated a 10-fold increase in bioavailability in comparison with oral bioavailability of buspirone reported. PMID:26106280

  7. Modulating Effect of Enicostemma littorale on the Expression Pattern of Apoptotic, Cell Proliferative, Inflammatory and Angiogenic Markers During 7, 12-Dimethylbenz (a) Anthracene Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Manoharan, Shanmugam; Rajasekaran, Duraisamy; Prabhakar, Murugaraj Manoj; Karthikeyan, Sekar; Manimaran, Asokan

    2015-01-01

    Enicostemma littorale leaves are traditionally used for the treatment of several diseases, including inflammation and cancer. This study has taken effort to explore the antitumor initiating potential of E. littorale leaves (ElELet) by analyzing the expression pattern of apoptotic (p53, Bcl-2 and Bcl-2 associated X-protein), cell-proliferative (cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen), angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor), invasive (matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9), and inflammatory (NF-κB and cyclooxygenase-2) markers during 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral tumors were induced in the buccal pouches of hamsters using the potent site and organ specific carcinogen, DMBA. DMBA application 3 times a week for 14 weeks resulted in tumor formation in the buccal pouches. Hundred percent tumor formations with dysregulation in the expression pattern of apoptotic, cell proliferative, inflammatory, angiogenic, and invasive markers were observed in the buccal pouches of hamsters treated with DMBA alone. ElELet at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight orally to DMBA treated hamsters significantly prevented the tumor formation as well as corrected the abnormalities in the expression pattern of above mentioned molecular markers. ElELet thus modulated the expression pattern of all the above mentioned molecular markers in favor of the suppression of cell proliferation occurring in DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. PMID:26862274

  8. Modulating Effect of Enicostemma littorale on the Expression Pattern of Apoptotic, Cell Proliferative, Inflammatory and Angiogenic Markers During 7, 12-Dimethylbenz (a) Anthracene Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Shanmugam; Rajasekaran, Duraisamy; Prabhakar, Murugaraj Manoj; Karthikeyan, Sekar; Manimaran, Asokan

    2015-01-01

    Enicostemma littorale leaves are traditionally used for the treatment of several diseases, including inflammation and cancer. This study has taken effort to explore the antitumor initiating potential of E. littorale leaves (ElELet) by analyzing the expression pattern of apoptotic (p53, Bcl-2 and Bcl-2 associated X-protein), cell-proliferative (cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen), angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor), invasive (matrix metalloproteinase-2 and 9), and inflammatory (NF-κB and cyclooxygenase-2) markers during 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral tumors were induced in the buccal pouches of hamsters using the potent site and organ specific carcinogen, DMBA. DMBA application 3 times a week for 14 weeks resulted in tumor formation in the buccal pouches. Hundred percent tumor formations with dysregulation in the expression pattern of apoptotic, cell proliferative, inflammatory, angiogenic, and invasive markers were observed in the buccal pouches of hamsters treated with DMBA alone. ElELet at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight orally to DMBA treated hamsters significantly prevented the tumor formation as well as corrected the abnormalities in the expression pattern of above mentioned molecular markers. ElELet thus modulated the expression pattern of all the above mentioned molecular markers in favor of the suppression of cell proliferation occurring in DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. PMID:26862274

  9. Creating Drug Solubilization Compartments via Phase Separation in Multicomponent Buccal Patches Prepared by Direct Hot Melt Extrusion-Injection Molding.

    PubMed

    Alhijjaj, Muqdad; Bouman, Jacob; Wellner, Nikolaus; Belton, Peter; Qi, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Creating in situ phase separation in solid dispersion based formulations to allow enhanced functionality of the dosage form, such as improving dissolution of poorly soluble model drug as well as being mucoadhesive, can significantly maximize the in vitro and in vivo performance of the dosage form. This formulation strategy can benefit a wide range of solid dosage forms for oral and alternative routes of delivery. This study using buccal patches as an example created separated phases in situ of the buccal patches by selecting the excipients with different miscibility with each other and the model drug. The quaternary dispersion based buccal patches containing PEG, PEO, Tween 80, and felodipine were prepared by direct hot melt extrusion-injection molding (HME-IM). The partial miscibility between Tween 80 and semicrystalline PEG-PEO led to the phase separation after extrusion. The Tween phases acted as drug solubilization compartments, and the PEG-PEO phase had the primary function of providing mucoadhesion and carrier controlled dissolution. As felodipine was preferably solubilized in the amorphous regions of PEG-PEO, the high crystallinity of PEG-PEO resulted in an overall low drug solubilizing capacity. Tween 80 was added to improve the solubilization capacity of the system as the model drug showed good solubility in Tween. Increasing the drug loading led to the supersaturation of drug in Tween compartments and crystalline drug dispersed in PEG-PEO phases. The spatial distribution of these phase-separated compartments was mapped using X-ray micro-CT, which revealed that the domain size and heterogeneity of the phase separation increased with increasing the drug loading. The outcome of this study provides new insights into the applicability of in situ formed phase separation as a formulation strategy for the delivery of poorly soluble drugs and demonstrated the basic principle of excipient selection for such technology. PMID:26551593

  10. Diet-Related Buccal Dental Microwear Patterns in Central African Pygmy Foragers and Bantu-Speaking Farmer and Pastoralist Populations

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Alejandro; Ramírez-Rozzi, Fernando V.; De Juan, Joaquín; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Pygmy hunter-gatherers from Central Africa have shared a network of socioeconomic interactions with non-Pygmy Bantu speakers since agropastoral lifestyle spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnographic studies have reported that their diets differ in consumption of both animal proteins and starch grains. Hunted meat and gathered plant foods, especially underground storage organs (USOs), are dietary staples for pygmies. However, scarce information exists about forager–farmer interaction and the agricultural products used by pygmies. Since the effects of dietary preferences on teeth in modern and past pygmies remain unknown, we explored dietary history through quantitative analysis of buccal microwear on cheek teeth in well-documented Baka pygmies. We then determined if microwear patterns differ among other Pygmy groups (Aka, Mbuti, and Babongo) and between Bantu-speaking farmer and pastoralist populations from past centuries. The buccal dental microwear patterns of Pygmy hunter-gatherers and non-Pygmy Bantu pastoralists show lower scratch densities, indicative of diets more intensively based on nonabrasive foodstuffs, compared with Bantu farmers, who consume larger amounts of grit from stoneground foods. The Baka pygmies showed microwear patterns similar to those of ancient Aka and Mbuti, suggesting that the mechanical properties of their preferred diets have not significantly changed through time. In contrast, Babongo pygmies showed scratch densities and lengths similar to those of the farmers, consistent with sociocultural contacts and genetic factors. Our findings support that buccal microwear patterns predict dietary habits independent of ecological conditions and reflect the abrasive properties of preferred or fallback foods such as USOs, which may have contributed to the dietary specializations of ancient human populations. PMID:24367696

  11. Gene-expression profiling of buccal epithelium among non-smoking women exposed to household air pollution from smoky coal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Teresa W; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Hu, Wei; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Xiaohui; Alekseyev, Yuriy; Xu, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Steiling, Katrina; Downward, George S; Silverman, Debra T; Wei, Fusheng; Wu, Guoping; Li, Jihua; Lenburg, Marc E; Rothman, Nathaniel; Spira, Avrum; Lan, Qing

    2015-12-01

    In China's rural counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, lung cancer rates are among the highest in the world. While the elevated disease risk in this population has been linked to the usage of smoky (bituminous) coal as compared to smokeless (anthracite) coal, the underlying molecular changes associated with this exposure remains unclear. To understand the physiologic effects of smoky coal exposure, we analyzed the genome-wide gene-expression profiles in buccal epithelial cells collected from healthy, non-smoking female residents of Xuanwei and Fuyuan who burn smoky (n = 26) and smokeless (n = 9) coal. Gene-expression was profiled via microarrays, and changes associated with coal type were correlated to household levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Expression levels of 282 genes were altered with smoky versus smokeless coal exposure (P < 0.005), including the 2-fold increase of proinflammatory IL8 and decrease of proapoptotic CASP3. This signature was more correlated with carcinogenic PAHs (e.g. Benzo[a]pyrene; r = 0.41) than with non-carcinogenic PAHs (e.g. Fluorene; r = 0.08) or PM2.5 (r = 0.05). Genes altered with smoky coal exposure were concordantly enriched with tobacco exposure in previously profiled buccal biopsies of smokers and non-smokers (GSEA, q < 0.05). This is the first study to identify a signature of buccal epithelial gene-expression that is associated with smoky coal exposure, which in part is similar to the molecular response to tobacco smoke, thereby lending biologic plausibility to prior epidemiological studies that have linked this exposure to lung cancer risk. PMID:26468118

  12. Mucoadhesive buccal films containing phospholipid-bile salts-mixed micelles as an effective carrier for Cucurbitacin B delivery.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qingyuan; Shen, Chengying; Li, Xianyi; Shen, Baode; Yu, Chao; Xu, Pinghua; Xu, He; Han, Jin; Yuan, Hailong

    2015-05-01

    Cucurbitacin B (Cu B), a potent anti-cancer agent, suffers with the problems of water-insoluble, gastrointestinal side effects and non-specific toxicity via oral administration and drawbacks in patient's compliance and acceptance through injections. An integration of nanoscale carriers with mucoadhesive buccal films drug delivery system would resolve these issues effectively with greater therapeutic benefits and clinical significance. Thus, the drug loaded mucoadhesive buccal film was developed and characterized in this study and the carboxymethyl chitosan (CCS) was chosen as a bioadhesive polymer, glycerol was chosen as a plasticizer and phospholipid-bile salts-mixed micelles (PL-BS-MMs) was selected as the nanoscale carriers. The CCS-films containing Cu B loaded PL-SDC-MMs was evaluated for the mechanical properties, mucoadhesion properties, in vitro water-uptake, in vitro release and morphological properties, respectively. The optimal CCS-films containing Cu B loaded PL-SDC-MMs was easily reconstituted in a transparent and clear solution with spherical micelles in the submicron range. The in vivo study revealed a greater and more extended release of Cu B from nanoscale CCS-films compared to that from a conventional CCS films (C-CCS-films) and oral marketed tablet (Hulusupian). The absorption of Cu B from CCS-films containing Cu B loaded PL-SDC-MMs resulted in 2.69-fold increased in bioavailability as compared to conventional tablet formulation and 10.46 times with reference to the C-CCS-films formulation. Thus, this kind of mucoadhesive buccal film might be an alternative safe route for delivery of Cu B with better patient compliance and higher bioavailability for the treatments. PMID:24467528

  13. Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model

    PubMed Central

    Letchoumy, Paramasivame Vidjaya; Mohan, Kurapathy Venkata Poorna Chandra; Prathiba, Duvuru; Hara, Yukihiko; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2007-01-01

    Background To evaluate the relative chemopreventive efficacy of two black tea polyphenols, Polyphenon-B [P-B] and BTF-35 on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Methods Hamsters were divided into 6 groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in groups 1–3 were painted with 0.5% of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. While hamsters in group 1 received no further treatment, animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing 0.05% P-B and BTF-35 respectively, four weeks before DMBA painting that was continued until the end of the experiments. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given P-B and BTF-35 alone respectively as in groups 2 and 3. Group 6 animals served as the untreated control. All the animals were sacrificed after 18 weeks. The expression of p21, cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), cytokeratins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was analysed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Results DMBA treated animals developed buccal pouch carcinomas that displayed increased expression of p21, cyclin D1, GST-P, NF-κB, cytokeratins, VEGF and Bcl-2 with decreased expression of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Dietary administration of both P-B and BTF-35 reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by modulating markers of cell proliferation, cell survival, tumour infiltration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Conclusion The results of the present study provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. The greater efficacy of BTF-35 in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis and modulating multiple molecular targets may have a potential role in the prevention of oral cancer. PMID:18053169

  14. Buccal Swabbing as a Noninvasive Method To Determine Bacterial, Archaeal, and Eukaryotic Microbial Community Structures in the Rumen

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Michelle R.; Jonker, Arjan; McCulloch, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of rumen microbial community structure based on small-subunit rRNA marker genes in metagenomic DNA samples provides important insights into the dominant taxa present in the rumen and allows assessment of community differences between individuals or in response to treatments applied to ruminants. However, natural animal-to-animal variation in rumen microbial community composition can limit the power of a study considerably, especially when only subtle differences are expected between treatment groups. Thus, trials with large numbers of animals may be necessary to overcome this variation. Because ruminants pass large amounts of rumen material to their oral cavities when they chew their cud, oral samples may contain good representations of the rumen microbiota and be useful in lieu of rumen samples to study rumen microbial communities. We compared bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic community structures in DNAs extracted from buccal swabs to those in DNAs from samples collected directly from the rumen by use of a stomach tube for sheep on four different diets. After bioinformatic depletion of potential oral taxa from libraries of samples collected via buccal swabs, bacterial communities showed significant clustering by diet (R = 0.37; analysis of similarity [ANOSIM]) rather than by sampling method (R = 0.07). Archaeal, ciliate protozoal, and anaerobic fungal communities also showed significant clustering by diet rather than by sampling method, even without adjustment for potentially orally associated microorganisms. These findings indicate that buccal swabs may in future allow quick and noninvasive sampling for analysis of rumen microbial communities in large numbers of ruminants. PMID:26276109

  15. Buccal swabbing as a noninvasive method to determine bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic microbial community structures in the rumen.

    PubMed

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Kirk, Michelle R; Jonker, Arjan; McCulloch, Alan; Janssen, Peter H

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of rumen microbial community structure based on small-subunit rRNA marker genes in metagenomic DNA samples provides important insights into the dominant taxa present in the rumen and allows assessment of community differences between individuals or in response to treatments applied to ruminants. However, natural animal-to-animal variation in rumen microbial community composition can limit the power of a study considerably, especially when only subtle differences are expected between treatment groups. Thus, trials with large numbers of animals may be necessary to overcome this variation. Because ruminants pass large amounts of rumen material to their oral cavities when they chew their cud, oral samples may contain good representations of the rumen microbiota and be useful in lieu of rumen samples to study rumen microbial communities. We compared bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic community structures in DNAs extracted from buccal swabs to those in DNAs from samples collected directly from the rumen by use of a stomach tube for sheep on four different diets. After bioinformatic depletion of potential oral taxa from libraries of samples collected via buccal swabs, bacterial communities showed significant clustering by diet (R = 0.37; analysis of similarity [ANOSIM]) rather than by sampling method (R = 0.07). Archaeal, ciliate protozoal, and anaerobic fungal communities also showed significant clustering by diet rather than by sampling method, even without adjustment for potentially orally associated microorganisms. These findings indicate that buccal swabs may in future allow quick and noninvasive sampling for analysis of rumen microbial communities in large numbers of ruminants. PMID:26276109

  16. Characterization of Regulatory T-Cell Markers in CD4+ T Cells of the Upper Airway Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Ballke, Christina; Gran, Einar; Baekkevold, Espen S.; Jahnsen, Frode L.

    2016-01-01

    CD4+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) comprise a heterogeneous population of cells the regulate immune responses and prevent autoimmunity. Most reports on human Tregs are derived from studies of peripheral blood, although Tregs mainly exert their functions in the periphery. Here we performed a detailed analysis of Tregs in the human upper airway mucosa under non-inflammatory conditions, and found that 10% of all CD4+ T cells expressed the transcription factor FOXP3 and the memory marker CD45RO, as well as high levels of CTLA-4. The majority of FOXP3+CD4+ T cells co-expressed the transcription factor Helios and produced very little cytokines, compatible with being thymus-derived Tregs. FOXP3+Helios-CD4+ T cells were more heterogeneous. A mean of 24% produced the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10, whereas a large fraction also produced IL-2, IFN-μ or IL-17. A significant population (6%) of FOXP3-negative T cells also produced IL-10, usually in combination with IFN-μ. Together, we found that CD4+ T cells in the upper airways differed functionally from their counterparts in peripheral blood, including higher expression of IL-10. Moreover, our findings suggest that several subsets of CD4+ T cells with functionally distinct regulatory properties reside in the upper airway mucosa which should be taken into account when targeting Tregs for therapy. PMID:26866695

  17. Two novel RFX6 variants in siblings with Mitchell-Riley syndrome with later diabetes onset and heterotopic gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Skopkova, Martina; Ciljakova, Miriam; Havlicekova, Zuzana; Vojtkova, Jarmila; Valentinova, Lucia; Danis, Daniel; Murgas, Dalibor; Szepeova, Renata; Stanik, Juraj; Banovcin, Peter; Klimes, Iwar; Gasperikova, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    Mitchell-Riley syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the RFX6 gene, is defined as a combination of neonatal diabetes mellitus and serious congenital gastrointestinal defects. We describe Mitchell-Riley syndrome in two sisters with two novel compound heterozygous variants in the RFX6 gene: c.1154G > A, p.(Arg385Gln), and c.1316_1319delTCTA, p.(Ile439Thrfs*13). Both sisters present milder forms of the syndrome, likely due to possible residual activity of the p.Arg385Gln variant, which is localized in a dimerization domain of the RFX6 transcription factor. We propose that the prognosis is dependent on patient RFX6 genotype and possible residual activity of RFX6 transcription factor. Both sisters had atypical later onset of diabetes, at 2 years and 10 months and 2 years and 7 months, respectively. This supports the need of extending the definition of diabetes in Mitchell-Riley syndrome from neonatal to childhood onset and regular glyceamia check in patients with gastrointestinal tract malformations typical for Mitchell-Riley syndrome. The clinical course in both sisters improved significantly after surgical removal of parts of the small intestine with heterotopic gastric mucosa. We suggest that gastric mucosa heterotopy is an important actionable part of Mitchell-Riley syndrome and could have been responsible for the malabsorption, failure to thrive and severe anemia present in previously reported patients with Mitchell-Riley syndrome. PMID:27523286

  18. Description of a Rare Case of Nodular Fasciitis of the Apical Aspect of the Upper Buccal Sulcus

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Ana Amélia; Cariri Neto, Eldon Guttenberg; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti; Passador-Santos, Fabricio; Alves, Maria Teresa de Seixas; Soares, Andresa Borges

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of nodular fasciitis (NF) of the oral cavity, discussing the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical characteristics. Histopathologic diagnosis of this type of lesion can be challenging due to its differential diagnosis, which principally includes sarcoma. The patient presented with a painless, well-defined nodule, reported as increasing in size, located at the apical aspect of the upper left buccal sulcus. Histologically, the lesion revealed spindle cell proliferation arranged in fascicles, while immunohistochemistry demonstrated positivity for smooth muscle actin. Eight months after complete surgical excision, no signs of local recurrence have been observed. PMID:27066277

  19. Amorphous Formulation and in Vitro Performance Testing of Instantly Disintegrating Buccal Tablets for the Emergency Delivery of Naloxone.

    PubMed

    Alqurshi, Abdulmalik; Kumar, Zahrae; McDonald, Rebecca; Strang, John; Buanz, Asma; Ahmed, Shagufta; Allen, Elizabeth; Cameron, Peter; Rickard, James A; Sandhu, Verity; Holt, Chris; Stansfield, Rebecca; Taylor, David; Forbes, Ben; Royall, Paul G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a freeze-dried buccal tablet for the rapid delivery of naloxone in opioid overdose. The tablet composition was optimized to produce an amorphous matrix, which was confirmed by the absence of peaks associated with crystallinity observed by differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. Tablets with high gelatin content lacked adequate porosity. Mannitol was added to the formulation to bridge and intercalate gelatin's tight polymer aggregates, however sodium bicarbonate was also required to prevent crystallization within the tablets. A linear reduction in mannitol's recrystallization enthalpy was observed with increasing sodium bicarbonate concentration (ΔrecryH = -20.3[NaHCO3] + 220.9; r(2) = 0.9, n = 18). The minimum sodium bicarbonate concentration for full inhibition of mannitol crystallization was 10.9% w/w. Freeze-dried tablets with lower amounts of sodium bicarbonate possessed a crystalline fraction that PXRD identified as mannitol hemihydrate from the unique peak at 9.7° 2θ. Mannitol's greater affinity for both ions and residual water rather than its affinity for self-association was the mechanism for the inhibition of crystallization observed here. The optimized tablet (composition mannitol 24% w/w (4.26 mg), gelatin 65% w/w (11.7 mg), sodium bicarbonate 11% w/w (1.98 mg), and naloxone 800 μg) formed predominantly amorphous tablets that disintegrated in less than 10 s. Optimized tablets were chemically and physically stable over 9 months storage at 25 °C. As speed of drug liberation is the critical performance attribute for a solid dosage form designed to deliver drug in an emergency, a novel imaging based in vitro disintegration assay for buccal tablets was developed. The assay was optimized with regard to conditions in the buccal cavity: i.e., temperature 33-37 °C, volume of medium (0.1-0.7 mL), and use of mucin-containing biorelevant medium. The disintegration assay was sensitive to temperature

  20. Effect of total parenteral nutrition, systemic sepsis, and glutamine on gut mucosa in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshida, S.; Leskiw, M. J.; Schluter, M. D.; Bush, K. T.; Nagele, R. G.; Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Stein, T. P.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the combination of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and systemic sepsis on mucosal morphology and protein synthesis was investigated. Rats were given a standard TPN mixture consisting of glucose (216 kcal.kg-1.day-1), lipid (24 kcal.kg-1.day-1), and amino acids (1.5 g N.kg-1.day-1) for 5 days. On the 5th day the rats (n = 37) were randomized into four groups according to diet as follows: 1) control nonseptic on standard TPN, 2) control nonseptic on TPN with glutamine, 3) septic on standard TPN, and 4) septic with the TPN supplemented with glutamine. Twenty hours after the injection of Escherichia coli, the rats were given a 4-h constant infusion of [U-14C]leucine to determine the mucosal fractional protein synthesis rates. The following results were obtained. 1) Histological examination showed that systemic sepsis caused tissue damage to the ileum and jejunum. 2) Glutamine supplementation attenuated these changes. 3) There were no visible changes to the colon either from glutamine supplementation or sepsis. 4) Sepsis was associated with an increase in mucosal protein synthesis and decreased muscle synthesis. 5) Addition of glutamine to the TPN mix further increased protein synthesis in the intestinal mucosa of septic rats.

  1. Gastric B-cell mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a clinicopathological study in 56 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Castrillo, J M; Montalban, C; Obeso, G; Piris, M A; Rivas, M C

    1992-01-01

    Clinico-pathological features of 56 patients with primary gastric lymphoma were evaluated retrospectively. All cases were regraded according to a classification of Isaacson et al into high grade and low grade B-cell mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. A third group of mixed grade was recognised in 11 patients with low grade who also had occasional areas of high grade. Low grade and mixed grade patients had a 100% actuarial survival at 156 months, which was significantly better (p < 0.01) than that of 52% for patients with high grade disease. Different treatment methods--surgery, chemotherapy, or a combination of both--did not significantly affect survival. Low grade tumours occurred mainly in men with a history of several years, and who presented with non-specific gastric symptoms without remarkable exploratory or laboratory findings: most patients were in stage IE-IIE and achieved remission and cure. High grade can have a shorter history, systemic symptoms, abnormal exploratory and laboratory findings, gastric tumour masses, stage IV disease, and a worse outcome. The only significant prognostic factors for survival were the type of lymphoma and stage IV disease. These findings support the Isaacson classification system which separates two extreme groups of gastric lymphomas with different morphology, behaviour, and outcome. The presence of limited areas of high grade in a specimen showing low grade does not change the outcome but suggests that primary gastric lymphoma forms a continuum between these extreme types. PMID:1446850

  2. Analysis of normal and diseased colon mucosa using ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boustany, Nada N.; Manoharan, Ramasamy; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    1996-04-01

    Ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy was used to characterize normal and diseased colon mucosa in vitro. A tunable mode-locked Titanium:Sapphire laser operating at 76 MHz was used to irradiate normal and diseased colon tissue samples with 251 nm light generated from the third harmonic of the fundamental radiation. The Raman scattered light was collected and analyzed using a 1 meter spectrometer fitted with a UV coated, liquid nitrogen cooled CCD detector. The measured spectra show prominent bands that correspond to those of known tissue constituents including nucleic acids, aromatic amino acids and lipids. Using the Raman lineshapes measured from pure solutions of nucleotides, tryptophan, tyrosine, FAD, and from lipid-rich serosal fat, the colon spectra were modeled by a least square fitting algorithm whereby the colon spectra were assumed to be a linear combination of the pure biochemical lineshapes. The relative Raman scattering cross section of each biochemical was determined so that the relative concentration of each compound with respect to the others, could be extracted from a given tissue spectrum.

  3. Dendritic Cell Subsets in Oral Mucosa of Allergic and Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Reinartz, Susanne M.; van Tongeren, Joost; van Egmond, Danielle; de Groot, Esther J. J.; Fokkens, Wytske J.; van Drunen, Cornelis M.

    2016-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry was used to identify, enumerate, and describe the tissue distribution of Langerhans type (CD1a and CD207), myeloid (CD1c and CD141), and plasmacytoid (CD303 and CD304) dendritic cell subsets in oral mucosa of allergic and non-allergic individuals. Allergic individuals have more CD141+ myeloid cells in epithelium and more CD1a+ Langerhans cells in the lamina propria compared to healthy controls, but similar numbers for the other DC subtypes. Our data are the first to describe the presence of CD303+ plasmacytoid DCs in human oral mucosa and a dense intraepithelial network of CD141+ DCs. The number of Langerhans type DCs (CD1a and CD207) and myeloid DCs (CD1c), was higher in the oral mucosa than in the nasal mucosa of the same individual independent of the atopic status. PMID:27166951

  4. Mechanism of acute pancreatitis complicated with injury of intestinal mucosa barrier*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-ping; Zhang, Jie; Song, Qiao-ling; Chen, Han-qin

    2007-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute abdomen in clinic with a rapid onset and dangerous pathogenetic condition. AP can cause an injury of intestinal mucosa barrier, leading to translocation of bacteria or endotoxin through multiple routes, bacterial translocation (BT), gutorigin endotoxaemia, and secondary infection of pancreatic tissue, and then cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), which are important factors influencing AP’s severity and mortality. Meanwhile, the injury of intestinal mucosa barrier plays a key role in AP’s process. Therefore, it is clinically important to study the relationship between the injury of intestinal mucosa barrier and AP. In addition, many factors such as microcirculation disturbance, ischemical reperfusion injury, excessive release of inflammatory mediators and apoptosis may also play important roles in the damage of intestinal mucosa barrier. In this review, we summarize studies on mechanisms of AP. PMID:18257123

  5. Lanthanum phosphate deposition in the gastric mucosa of patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Kanzaki, Hiromitzu; Tanaka, Takehiro; Kawano, Seiji; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    A 77-year-old Japanese man underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection twice over a 5-year period for the treatment of two separate early gastric cancers. He had been taking lanthanum carbonate, an orally administered phosphate binder, for 3 years. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed reddish mucosa in the greater curvature and anterior wall of the gastric angle, while granular, white deposits were also observed in some areas of this reddish mucosa. Additionally, biopsy specimens from the gastric mucosa revealed the deposition of fine, amorphous, eosinophilic material, which appeared bright on scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed the presence of lanthanum and phosphate in these bright areas, and elemental mapping confirmed that their distribution was identical to that seen in the bright areas. Based on these findings, the diagnosis of lanthanum phosphate deposition in the gastric mucosa was determined. PMID:27383105

  6. Acute necrotizing enterocolitis of preterm piglets is characterized by dysbiosis of ileal mucosa-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Foster, Derek M; Cadenas, Maria B; Stone, Maria R; Jacobi, Sheila K; Stauffer, Stephen H; Pease, Anthony; Gookin, Jody L

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of bacteria involved in pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is limited by infant fragility, analysis restricted to feces, use of culture-based methods, and lack of clinically-relevant animal models. This study used a unique preterm piglet model to characterize spontaneous differences in microbiome composition of NEC-predisposed regions of gut.  Preterm piglets (n=23) were cesarean-delivered and nurtured for 30 hours over which time 52% developed NEC. Bacterial DNA from ileal content, ileal mucosa, and colonic mucosa were PCR amplified, subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and targeted 16S rDNA qPCR.  Preterm ileal mucosa was specifically bereft in diversity of bacteria compared to ileal content and colonic mucosa. Preterm ileum was restricted to representation by only Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi. In piglets with NEC, ileal mucosa was uniquely characterized by increases in number of Firmicutes and diversity of phyla to include Actinobacteria and uncultured bacteria. Five specific TRFLP profiles, corresponding in closest identity to Clostridium butyricum, C. neonatale, C. proteolyticum, Streptomyces spp., and Leptolyngbya spp., were significantly more prevalent or observed only among samples from piglets with NEC. Total numbers of Clostridium spp. and C. butyricum were significantly greater in samples of NEC ileal mucosa but not ileal content or colonic mucosa. These results provide strong support for ileal mucosa as a focus for investigation of specific dysbiosis associated with NEC and suggest a significant role for Clostridium spp., and members of the Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria in the pathogenesis of NEC in preterm piglets. PMID:21983069

  7. Acute necrotizing enterocolitis of preterm piglets is characterized by dysbiosis of ileal mucosa-associated bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Foster, Derek M; Cadenas, Maria B; Stone, Maria R; Jacobi, Sheila K; Stauffer, Stephen H; Pease, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of bacteria involved in pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is limited by infant fragility, analysis restricted to feces, use of culture-based methods and lack of clinically-relevant animal models. This study used a unique preterm piglet model to characterize spontaneous differences in microbiome composition of NEC-predisposed regions of gut. Preterm piglets (n = 23) were cesarean-delivered and nurtured for 30 h over which time 52% developed NEC. Bacterial DNA from ileal content, ileal mucosa and colonic mucosa were PCR amplified, subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and targeted 16s rDNA qPCR. Preterm ileal mucosa was specifically bereft in diversity of bacteria compared to ileal content and colonic mucosa. Preterm ileum was restricted to representation by only Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi. In piglets with NEC, ileal mucosa was uniquely characterized by increases in number of Firmicutes and diversity of phyla to include Actinobacteria and uncultured bacteria. Five specific TRFLP profiles, corresponding in closest identity to Clostridium butyricum, C. neonatale, C. proteolyticum, Streptomyces spp. and Leptolyngbya spp., were significantly more prevalent or observed only among samples from piglets with NEC. Total numbers of Clostridium spp. and C. butyricum were significantly greater in samples of NEC ileal mucosa but not ileal content or colonic mucosa. These results provide strong support for ileal mucosa as a focus for investigation of specific dysbiosis associated with NEC and suggest a significant role for Clostridium spp., and members of the Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria in the pathogenesis of NEC in preterm piglets. PMID:21983069

  8. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of primary school children exposed to air pollutants: micronuclei analysis of buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Demircigil, Gonca Çakmak; Erdem, Onur; Gaga, Eftade O; Altuğ, Hicran; Demirel, Gülçin; Özden, Özlem; Arı, Akif; Örnektekin, Sermin; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; van Doorn, Wim; Burgaz, Sema

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing attempt in the world to determine the exposures of children to environmental chemicals. To analyze the genotoxic effect of air pollution, micronucleus (MN) assay was carried out in buccal epithelial cells (BECs) of children living in an urban city of Turkey. Children from two schools at urban-traffic and suburban sites were investigated in summer and winter seasons for the deter