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Sample records for combined hormone replacement

  1. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  2. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Wiersinga, W M

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption phase, associated with palpitations. Liothyronine (T(3)) has the same drawback and requires twice-daily administration in view of its short half-life. Synthetic levothyroxine (L-T(4)) has many advantages: in view of its long half-life, once-daily administration suffices, the occasional missing of a tablet causes no harm, and the extrathyroidal conversion of T(4) into T(3) (normally providing 80% of the daily T(3) production rate) remains fully operative, which may have some protective value during illness. Consequently, L-T(4) is nowadays preferred, and its long-term use is not associated with excess mortality. The mean T(4) dose required to normalize serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is 1.6 microg/kg per day, giving rise to serum free T(4) (fT(4)) concentrations that are slightly elevated or in the upper half of the normal reference range. The higher fT(4) values are probably due to the need to generate from T(4) the 20% of the daily T(3) production rate that otherwise is derived from the thyroid gland itself. The daily maintenance dose of T(4) varies widely between 75 and 250 microg. Assessment of the appropriate T(4) dose is by assay of TSH and fT(4), preferably in a blood sample taken before ingestion of the subsequent T(4) tablet. Dose adjustments can be necessary in pregnancy and when medications are used that are known to interfere with the absorption or metabolism of T(4). A new equilibrium is reached after approximately 6 weeks, implying that laboratory tests should not be done earlier. With a stable maintenance dose, an annual check-up usually suffices. Accumulated experience with L-T(4) replacement has identified some areas of concern. First, the

  3. Menopause: Hormone Replacement Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the uterus) took either estrogen or a placebo (sugar pill). Women in the other group were ... combination HRT (both estrogen and progestin) or a placebo. The specific brand of combination medicine used in ...

  4. Continuous hormone replacement therapy for menopause combining nomegestrol acetate and gel, patch, or oral estrogen: a comparison of amenorrhea rates.

    PubMed

    Blanc, B; Cravello, L; Micheletti, M C; d'Ercole, C; Zartarian, M

    1998-01-01

    This open-label, prospective, randomized, multicenter trial compared the incidence of amenorrhea in 54 postmenopausal women (mean age, 54.9 +/- 0.6 years) who underwent six 4-week cycles of continuous hormone replacement therapy combining a progestin-nomegestrol acetate 2.5 mg/d--plus one of three estrogens: percutaneous 17beta-estradiol gel (1.5 mg/d, group A), transdermal 17beta-estradiol patch (50 microg/d, group B), or oral estradiol valerate (2 mg/d, group C). Based on an intent-to-treat analysis, the rate of amenorrhea varied significantly according to which estrogen preparation was used. Calculated cycle by cycle, rates of amenorrhea were 67% to 83% for group A, 25% to 56% for group B, and 53% to 61% for group C. Overall rates of persistent amenorrhea were not statistically different between groups for cycles 1 through 3, but for cycles 4 through 6, significantly more women in groups A and C (67% and 46%, respectively) experienced amenorrhea than did those in group B (12%). Amenorrhea rates for the entire six-cycle period were 78% for group A, 48% for group B, and 60% for group C. These differences were not statistically significant. The differences in rates could not be attributed to endometrial atrophy, since when measured by transvaginal sonography, endometrial thickness did not differ significantly between groups. Of the original population, 7% withdrew prematurely because of bleeding. The data for all three groups confirmed that in two out of three women, the occurrence of amenorrhea during the first three cycles predicted continuation of amenorrhea during subsequent cycles and that for 51% of women, < or =10 days of bleeding during the first three cycles predicted amenorrhea during the last three cycles. Calculated as a function of the number of women included in the trial, the percentage of amenorrheic women (evaluated cycle by cycle or for the second three-cycle period) was highest when the progestin was combined with percutaneous 17beta

  5. Hormone replacement therapy and the endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Feeley, K; Wells, M

    2001-01-01

    Modern hormone replacement therapy (HRT) regimens contain oestrogen and progestogen, given either in a cyclical or continuous combined manner. Most endometrial biopsies from women on sequential HRT show weak secretory features. Approximately 15% show proliferative activity, although this figure may be less if more than nine days of progestogen is given in each cycle. A small proportion will show an inactive or atrophic endometrium. Up to 50% of biopsies from women on continuous combined HRT contain minimal endometrial tissue for histopathological analysis: this correlates well with an atrophic endometrium with no appreciable pathology. Of the 50% with more substantial material, approximately one half will show endometrial atrophy, and one half will show weak secretory features. Proliferative, menstrual, and pseudodecidual changes are rare. Approximately 20% of women given unopposed oestrogen for one year develop endometrial hyperplasia. The relative risk of endometrial carcinoma is two to three. This is dramatically reduced by the addition of progestogen to the regimen, but cyclical progestogen as part of a sequential HRT regimen does not completely eliminate the risk of carcinoma. The prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia associated with sequential HRT is 5.4%, and that of atypical hyperplasia (endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia) is 0.7%. Continuous combined HRT is not associated with the development of hyperplasia or carcinoma, and may normalise the endometrium of women who have developed complex hyperplasia on sequential HRT. The probability of a histopathologist finding clinically relevant pathology in an endometrial biopsy specimen of a patient on HRT is low and is more likely to be a manifestation of pre-existing disease. Key Words: endometrium • hormone replacement therapy • endometrial hyperplasia • endometrial carcinoma PMID:11376015

  6. Hormone replacement therapy: dilemmas in 2002.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Anne

    2003-01-01

    About 6 million women in the United States are prescribed a combined estrogen-progestin regimen during and after the menopause. The immediate benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) are relief of menopausal symptoms. Doctors and their patients have long presumed that the benefits on cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis outweigh the possible increased risk of breast cancer or venous thrombosis. The Women's Health Initiative, a National Institutes of Health program, is the first study to compare HRT to placebo in healthy women. The July 2002 report of increased cardiovascular events as well as increased breast cancer diagnosis in women on the HRT arm of the study brought widespread media coverage and has led to distress and confusion among women taking HRT. Women with a personal or family history of breast cancer pose a particular challenge to their physicians when they ask for advice about HRT. PMID:12813923

  7. Hormonal replacement therapy and gynecological cancer.

    PubMed

    Onnis, A; Marchetti, M

    1999-01-01

    The problem of quality of life and lifestyle in elderly women is today a very important social problem all over the world but particularly in rich western countries. Life expectancy of the population will be longer and longer in the future and for both females and males the biological involution correlated with the aging process must be delayed. The gonadal hormones stimulate the healthy state of the entire body (heart, skin, brain, bones, urogenital apparatus and so on) and consequently hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) is mandatory. In women the biological clock of menopause allows us to intervene at the right time, with personalized estrogenic, estroprogestinic or estroandrogenic treatments. Health benefits and groundless risks allow today a careful hormonal management even in women treated for gynaecological cancers (breast and endometrium as well). PMID:10412612

  8. Hormone replacement therapy for the adolescent patient.

    PubMed

    DiVasta, Amy D; Gordon, Catherine M

    2008-01-01

    Pubertal induction and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during adolescence are conducted with the aim of closely mirroring the pubertal changes that occur in children with a normal hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. The challenge for the clinician is to determine the most appropriate form, dosing, and duration of replacement therapy to achieve that goal in an individual patient. While the optimal regimen remains unclear and data in adolescents are limited, this review presents the evidence available to clinicians as they care for adolescent girls and young women. Both the goals and phases of HRT are reviewed, and commonly used medication regimens are presented. Both the benefits and risks associated with various methods of HRT are also discussed, as are special issues of concern regarding adolescent HRT, including eating disorders and bone health. PMID:18574226

  9. Hypoparathyroidism: Replacement Therapy with Parathyroid Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Underbjerg, Line; Sikjaer, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is characterized by low serum calcium levels caused by an insufficient secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Despite normalization of serum calcium levels by treatment with activated vitamin D analogues and calcium supplementation, patients are suffering from impaired quality of life (QoL) and are at increased risk of a number of comorbidities. Thus, despite normalization of calcium levels in response to conventional therapy, this should only be considered as an apparent normalization, as patients are suffering from a number of complications and calcium-phosphate homeostasis is not normalized in a physiological manner. In a number of recent studies, replacement therapy with recombinant human PTH (rhPTH(1-84)) as well as therapy with the N-terminal PTH fragment (rhPTH(1-34)) have been investigated. Both drugs have been shown to normalize serum calcium while reducing needs for activated vitamin D and calcium supplements. However, once a day injections cause large fluctuations in serum calcium. Twice a day injections diminish fluctuations, but don't restore the normal physiology of calcium homeostasis. Recent studies using pump-delivery have shown promising results on maintaining normocalcemia with minimal fluctuations in calcium levels. Further studies are needed to determine whether this may improve QoL and lower risk of complications. Such data are needed before replacement with the missing hormone can be recommended as standard therapy. PMID:26394728

  10. Hypoparathyroidism: Replacement Therapy with Parathyroid Hormone.

    PubMed

    Rejnmark, Lars; Underbjerg, Line; Sikjaer, Tanja

    2015-12-01

    Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is characterized by low serum calcium levels caused by an insufficient secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Despite normalization of serum calcium levels by treatment with activated vitamin D analogues and calcium supplementation, patients are suffering from impaired quality of life (QoL) and are at increased risk of a number of comorbidities. Thus, despite normalization of calcium levels in response to conventional therapy, this should only be considered as an apparent normalization, as patients are suffering from a number of complications and calcium-phosphate homeostasis is not normalized in a physiological manner. In a number of recent studies, replacement therapy with recombinant human PTH (rhPTH(1-84)) as well as therapy with the N-terminal PTH fragment (rhPTH(1-34)) have been investigated. Both drugs have been shown to normalize serum calcium while reducing needs for activated vitamin D and calcium supplements. However, once a day injections cause large fluctuations in serum calcium. Twice a day injections diminish fluctuations, but don't restore the normal physiology of calcium homeostasis. Recent studies using pump-delivery have shown promising results on maintaining normocalcemia with minimal fluctuations in calcium levels. Further studies are needed to determine whether this may improve QoL and lower risk of complications. Such data are needed before replacement with the missing hormone can be recommended as standard therapy. PMID:26394728

  11. Hormone replacement therapy: determinants of women's decisions.

    PubMed

    Marmoreo, J; Brown, J B; Batty, H R; Cummings, S; Powell, M

    1998-03-01

    Hormone replacement therapy: determinants of women's decisions. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the decision-making process used by menopausal women initiating or remaining on hormone replacement therapy (HRT), stopping HRT, or never starting HRT. Eight focus groups, composed of women reflecting these categories, were conducted. Four major themes or spheres of influence emerged as important in the women's decision-making process: the woman's internal influence--the interface between her perceptions and feelings including the symptoms of menopause, the benefits realized by HRT usage, and the experiences of negative side effects; interpersonal relationships, including the patient-physician relationship, family, friends and information networks; external influences, such as ageism and sexism; and consequences resulting from whichever treatment decision was chosen. A new concept was elucidated called "weighted influence" to underscore the dynamic interplay among the spheres. As information about HRT continues to grow and change, an understanding and application of these spheres of influence can assist physicians in engaging in a dialogue with their patients that allows individual evaluation and application of this new information. PMID:9731166

  12. Combination of hormone replacement therapy and high physical activity is associated with differences in Achilles tendon size in monozygotic female twin pairs.

    PubMed

    Finni, T; Kovanen, V; Ronkainen, P H A; Pöllänen, E; Bashford, G R; Kaprio, J; Alén, M; Kujala, U M; Sipilä, S

    2009-04-01

    Estrogen concentration has been suggested to play a role in tendon abnormalities and injury. In physically active postmenopausal women, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been suggested to decrease tendon diameter. We hypothesized that HRT use and physical activity are associated with Achilles tendon size and tissue structure. The study applied cotwin analysis of fourteen 54- to 62-yr-old identical female twin pairs with current discordance for HRT use for an average of 7 yr. Achilles tendon thickness and cross-sectional areas were determined by ultrasonography, and tendon structural organization was analyzed from the images using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Maximal voluntary and twitch torques from plantar flexor muscles were measured. Serum levels of estradiol, estrone, testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin were analyzed. Total daily metabolic equivalent score (MET-h/day) was calculated from physical activity questionnaires. Results showed that, in five physically active (MET > 4) pairs, the cotwins receiving HRT had greater estradiol level (P = 0.043) and smaller tendon cross-sectional area than their sisters (63 vs. 71 mm(2), P = 0.043). Among all pairs, Achilles tendon thickness and cross-sectional area did not significantly differ between HRT using and nonusing twin sisters. Intrapair correlation for Achilles tendon thickness was high, despite HRT use discordance (r = 0.84, P < 0.001). LDA distinguished different tendon structure only from two of six examined twin pairs who had a similar level of physical activity. In conclusion, the effect of HRT on Achilles tendon characteristics independent of genetic confounding may be present only in the presence of sufficient physical activity. In physically active twin pairs, the higher level of estrogen seems to be associated with smaller tendon size. PMID:19164771

  13. Sex hormone replacement in disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Wiebke; Bertelloni, Silvano

    2014-01-01

    People with disorders of sex development (DSD) may have impaired sex steroid production or their gonads removed before, during or after adolescence, thus requiring hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to induce puberty and/or maintain secondary sexual characteristics, to optimize bone health, and to promote physical and social well-being. Oestrogens are usually used for this purpose in persons reared as females (eventually combined with progestins if a uterus is present) and androgens in those reared as males. An alternative therapy for women with ascertained complete androgen insensitivity syndrome could be testosterone, because this is the main sex steroid hormone secreted by their gonads, but this approach remains to be better explored. Few sound evidence-based data are available to guide HRT administration at puberty and in adulthood in individuals with DSD, but recent data and new formulations may give better perspectives for the future. PMID:25247652

  14. The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media.

    PubMed

    Sato, G; Hayashi, I

    1976-12-01

    The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media. (Reemplazo del suero por hormonas en el medio de cultivo de células). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 120-121, 1976. The serum used in cell culture media can be replaced by a mixture of hormones and some accesory blood factors. The pituitary cell line GH3 can be grown in a medium in which serum is replaced by triiodothyronine, transferrin, parathormone, tyrotrophin releasing hormone and somatomedins. Hela and BHK cell strains can also be grown in serum free medium supplemented with hormones. Each cell type appears to have different hormonal requirements yet it may found that some hormones are required for most cell types. PMID:1026199

  15. TSH and thyroid hormones concentrations in patients with hypothyroidism receiving replacement therapy with L-thyroxine alone or in combination with L-triiodothyronine.

    PubMed

    Fadeyev, Valentin V; Morgunova, Tatiana B; Sytch, Julia P; Melnichenko, Galina A

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate parameters of thyroid function in patients with primary hypothyroidism receiving either monotherapy with L-T4 or combination L-T4+L-T3. Fifty-eight women with primary hypothyroidism receiving L-T4 were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomised into two groups: Group 1 (n=42) patients continued monotherapy with L-T4, and Group 2 (n=16) patients were switched to combined therapy with L-T4+L-T3 (25 microg L-T4 was replaced with 12.5 microg L-T3). The final examination was carried out 6 months thereafter. There was also a third group of 20 healthy women (control group). Under monotherapy with L-T4, serum FT4 levels were higher (p < 0.05) and FT3 lower (p < 0.05) than in the control group, while the monotherapy subgroup of patients with low-normal TSH had serum FT4 levels higher than in the control group (p < 0.05). Serum FT4 under combined therapy was significantly lower than in both control and monotherapy groups. FT3 levels did not differ between the two groups of combined and monotherapy subjects; the highest FT3 levels were in the control group. L-T4 replacement therapy is associated with non-physiologically high FT4 and low FT3 levels. Therapy with L-T3 once a day does not simulate the normal production of T3 by the thyroid. PMID:16613812

  16. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Comasco, Erika; Frokjaer, Vibe G.; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2014-01-01

    The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. The present review summarizes the findings of thirty-five studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri- and postmenopausal women treated with estrogen, or estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy. Seven studies using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist intervention as a model of hormonal withdrawal are also included. Cognitive paradigms are employed by the majority of studies evaluating the effect of unopposed estrogen or estrogen-progestagen treatment on peri- and postmenopausal women's brain. In randomized-controlled trials, estrogen treatment enhances activation of fronto-cingulate regions during cognitive functioning, though in many cases no difference in cognitive performance was present. Progestagens seems to counteract the effects of estrogens. Findings on cognitive functioning during acute ovarian hormone withdrawal suggest a decrease in activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, thus essentially corroborating the findings in postmenopausal women. Studies of the cholinergic and serotonergic systems indicate these systems as biological mediators of hormonal influences on the brain. More, hormonal replacement appears to increase cerebral blood flow in several cortical regions. On the other hand, studies on emotion processing in postmenopausal women are lacking. These results call for well-powered randomized-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal

  17. Hormone replacement therapy in a risk-benefit perspective.

    PubMed

    Daly, E; Vessey, M P; Barlow, D; Gray, A; McPherson, K; Roche, M

    1996-03-01

    The relative cost-effectiveness of different treatment strategies for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was assessed within the framework of a computer model. Where data were lacking, it was necessary to make assumptions about the effects of HRT, particularly in relation to combined oestrogen-progestogen therapy and cardiovascular disease; however, sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the impact of changing these assumptions on the cost-effectiveness equation. It appears that net expenditure by the NHS will depend critically on the direct costs of treatment, rather than on any indirect costs incurred or saved as a result of side-effects. In terms of mortality, a reduction in cardiovascular disease risk would have greatest impact and would overshadow any small increase in breast cancer risk which may be associated with long-term use. If the cardioprotective effect of oestrogen is real, our results suggest that long-term prophylactic treatment of hysterectomised women would be relatively cost-effective. Treatment of symptomatic menopausal women for any period of time appears to offer very good value for money. The lack of data relating to combined oestrogen-progestogen therapy and cardioprotection, and the major importance of the latter in the equation of benefits and risks, make it more difficult to draw conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of treating non-hysterectomised asymptomatic women for prophylactic reasons. PMID:8735363

  18. Antidiuretic hormone replacement therapy to prevent or ameliorate vasodilatory shock.

    PubMed

    Singh Ranger, Gurpreet

    2002-09-01

    Vasodilatory shock is a syndrome with high mortality. It is becoming evident that depletion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) after cardiac surgery or during sepsis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition. Established vasodilatory shock responds well to exogenous ADH infusion. It is possible that preventing ADH depletion at an earlier stage may abrogate the onset of vasodilatory shock, or at least reduce its severity. This paper examines the evidence supporting this concept, and the potential areas of concern in considering this particular type of hormone replacement therapy. PMID:12208165

  19. Hormone replacement therapy and the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Levancini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Fracture prevention is one of the public health priorities worldwide. Estrogen deficiency is the major factor in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis, the most common metabolic bone disease. Different effective treatments for osteoporosis are available. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) at different doses rapidly normalizes turnover, preserves bone mineral density (BMD) at all skeletal sites, leading to a significant, reduction in vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. Tibolone, a selective tissue estrogenic activity regulator (STEAR), is effective in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms, vaginal atrophy and prevention/treatment of osteoporosis with a clinical efficacy similar to that of conventional HRT. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) such as raloxifene and bazedoxifene reduce turnover and maintain or increase vertebral and femoral BMD and reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. The combination of bazedoxifene and conjugated estrogens, defined as tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC), is able to reduce climacteric symptoms, reduce bone turnover and preserve BMD. In conclusion, osteoporosis prevention can actually be considered as a major additional benefit in climacteric women who use HRT for treatment of climacteric symptoms. The use of a standard dose of HRT for osteoporosis prevention is based on biology, epidemiology, animal and preclinical data, observational studies and randomized, clinical trials. The antifracture effect of a lower dose HRT or TSEC is supported by the data on BMD and turnover, with compelling scientific evidence. PMID:26327857

  20. Thyroid Hormone Replacement in Patients Following Thyroidectomy for Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hannoush, Zeina C.; Weiss, Roy E.

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement therapy in patients following thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer, although a potentially straightforward clinical problem, can present the clinician and patient with a variety of challenges. Most often the problems are related to the dose and preparation of thyroid hormone (TH) to use. Some patients feel less well following thyroidectomy and/or radioiodine ablation than they did before their diagnosis. We present evidence that levothyroxine (L-T4) is the preparation of choice, and keeping the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) between detectable and 0.1 mU/L should be the standard of care in most cases. In unusual circumstances, when the patient remains clinically hypothyroid despite a suppressed TSH, we acknowledge there may be as yet unidentified factors influencing the body’s response to TH, and individualized therapy may be necessary in such patients. PMID:26886951

  1. Parathyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy in Hypoparathyroidism: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, X-X; Zhu, X-Y; Mei, G-H

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of human parathyroid hormone replacement therapy on specific disease-related outcomes in patients with hypoparathyroidism. Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until January 13, 2015 for randomized trials using the following search terms: hypoparathyroidism, parathyroid hormone/PTH, and hormone replacement therapy. Five randomized controlled trials (n=245) that investigated effect of either PTH (1-34) (3 trials) or PTH (1-84) (2 trials) on serum calcium, phosphate, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels, and urine level of calcium were included in the meta-analysis. Both PTH (1-34) and PTH (1-84) therapies were not associated with change in serum calcium level compared with calcitriol/placebo. The level of 24-h urine calcium excretion had a significant decrease in PTH (1-34)-treated group compared placebo/calcitriol (control) group (p≤0.012). PTH (1-34) did not change serum phosphate (p=0.053). PTH (1-84) did not change level of 24-h urine calcium excretion compared with control (p≥0.214) but it did decrease the levels of serum phosphorous (p=0.000). Both PTH-replacement therapies were not associated with change in serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level compared with control (p≥0.606), but were associated with a significant decrease in serum 25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels (p≤0.04). In conclusion, although the number of randomized trial is limited, our meta-analysis suggests that PTH (1-34) replacement therapy may maintain the serum calcium levels in the normal range by reducing the levels of urine calcium excretion, and both replacement therapies may maintain 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D serum levels by reducing serum level of 25-dihydroxyvitamin D. PMID:27254756

  2. Effect of ovariectomy and sex hormone replacement on glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes in rat hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hambali, Z; Ngah, W Z; Wahid, S A; Kadir, K A

    1995-01-01

    The effects of ovariectomy and hormone replacement in control and carcinogen treated female rats were investigated by measuring whole blood and liver glutathione (WGSH, HGSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GRx) and histological evaluation. Hepatocarcinogenesis was induced by diethylnitrosamine and 2-acetylaminofluorene. In control rats not receiving carcinogen, ovariectomy significantly increased the GST and GRx activities. Replacement with either estrogen or progesterone reduced the GST activities to below intact female values whereas replacement of both hormones together brought the GST activities to that of intact females. GRx activities were brought to intact female values by replacement with estrogen or progesterone, either singly or in combination. Neither ovariectomy nor sex hormone/s replacement influenced the levels of WGSH, HGSH and GPx activities. Carcinogen administration to intact rats increased all the parameters measured. Ovariectomized rats treated with carcinogen showed lower GPx and GRx activities at 2 mths. However, replacement with either progesterone or combined estrogen and progesterone increased GPx and GRx activities to original values. On the other hand GST and GPx activities in ovariectomized rats which had carcinogen treatment were lower than intact rats after 5 mths. Replacement with hormones either singly or both brought GST and GPx activities up to intact rat levels receiving carcinogen. The levels of WGSH, HGSH and GRx activities (5 mths) in carcinogen treated rats were not influenced by ovariectomy and/or hormone/s replacement. The results from this study suggested that ovariectomy reduced the severity of hepatocarcinogenesis which was restored by sex hormone/s replacement. PMID:7603748

  3. Genetics Home Reference: combined pituitary hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with combined pituitary hormone deficiency may have hypothyroidism, which is underactivity of the butterfly-shaped thyroid gland in the lower neck. Hypothyroidism can cause many symptoms, including weight gain and ...

  4. Is the somatopause an indication for growth hormone replacement?

    PubMed

    Savine, R; Sönksen, P H

    1999-01-01

    In the normal population, a gradual and progressive fall in spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion occurs with increasing age and is reflected in a parallel fall in circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, reduction in lean body mass, increase in body fat and rise in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Aging is also associated with a progressive failure of body functions and particularly with an increasing lack of physical strength and mobility. Many problems of aging are attributable to the progressive loss of lean tissues and to catabolic events. This can be and often is associated with a progressive decline in independence and quality of life, leading eventually to a prolonged dependence on others, followed by a distressing process of death. By analogy with the fall in ovarian function that inevitably eventually occurs in women with increasing age, this fall in GH secretion has been termed the somatopause. In cross-sectional studies on elderly people, the amount of GH secreted spontaneously correlates well with "good risk factors" such as body composition, mobility, lipid profiles and blood pressure. The important question that these scientific facts raises is whether this fall in GH secretion with increasing years is an important physiological safety event of the normal aging process, or whether it marks the development of GH deficiency which would benefit from GH replacement. It is established that a number of the clinical features of the somatopause are shared with the syndrome of adult-onset GH deficiency and Rudman first proposed the importance of GH in maintaining health and vitality with increasing age many years ago. In 1989, GH replacement was shown to be beneficial in adults with GH deficiency, and in 1990 Rudman showed remarkably similar beneficial effects in a group of elderly men with low plasma IGF-I values, but no underlying pituitary pathology, who were administered GH. In these adults, low doses of GH increased lean body mass

  5. Revisiting the Cutaneous Impact of Oral Hormone Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Piérard, Gérald E.; Humbert, Philippe; Berardesca, Enzo; Gaspard, Ulysse; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a key point moment in the specific aging process of women. It represents a universal evolution in life. Its initiation is defined by a 12-month amenorrhea following the ultimate menstrual period. It encompasses a series of different biologic and physiologic characteristics. This period of life appears to spot a decline in a series of skin functional performances initiating tissue atrophy, withering, and slackness. Any part of the skin is possibly altered, including the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, and hair follicles. Hormone replacement therapy (oral and nonoral) and transdermal estrogen therapy represent possible specific managements for women engaged in the climacteric phase. All the current reports indicate that chronologic aging, climacteric estrogen deficiency, and adequate hormone therapy exert profound effects on various parts of the skin. PMID:24455744

  6. Effects of hypophysectomy and subsequent hormonal replacement therapy on hormonal and osmoregulatory status of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch.

    PubMed

    Björnsson, B T; Yamauchi, K; Nishioka, R S; Deftos, L J; Bern, H A

    1987-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of hypophysectomy and subsequent hormone replacement therapy upon the hormonal and osmoregulatory status of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, in 7% seawater (SW) and SW. Following hypophysectomy, coho salmon were injected every 2 days for 8 days with thyroxine, growth hormone, and cortisol, alone or in combinations, and sampled 2 days after the final injection. Increased environmental salinity raises plasma sodium, calcium, and magnesium levels, as well as plasma osmolality. Cortisol is hypercalcemic and thyroxine is hypocalcemic in hypophysectomized salmon, but it is unclear whether these effects are due directly to calcium regulation or are the consequence of general effects on the plasma osmotic/ionic balance. Growth hormone and thyroxine together, but not separately, decrease and increase magnesium levels, at low and high environmental salinities, respectively, indicating a complex endocrine control of plasma magnesium. Gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity in hypophysectomized salmon is stimulated by growth hormone and cortisol, but inhibited by thyroxine and raised environmental salinity. This implies a complex endocrine control and indicates that hormonal support is needed to sustain or raise gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity in seawater. Increased environmental salinity induces elevation of plasma cortisol levels in apparent absence of pituitary control, indicating that the interrenals may respond to changes in external and/or internal environment, either directly or indirectly through extrapituitary hormonal or nervous control. Cortisol is a potent inhibitor of calcitonin secretion, as seen by the large decrease in plasma calcitonin levels in cortisol-treated hypophysectomized fish. The study was carried out at a time when thyroxine plasma levels were low. These basal levels were not affected by hypophysectomy, possibly indicating a basal release of thyroxine from the thyroid without stimulatory support of the pituitary gland. PMID

  7. Physiologic growth hormone replacement improves fasting lipid kinetics in patients with HIV lipodystrophy syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HIV lipodystrophy syndrome (HLS) is characterized by accelerated lipolysis, inadequate fat oxidation, increased hepatic reesterification, and a high frequency of growth hormone deficiency (GHD). The effect of growth hormone (GH) replacement on these lipid kinetic abnormalities is unknown. We aimed ...

  8. Hormone replacement therapy benefits meibomian gland dysfunction in perimenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiuming; Lin, Zhenyun; Liu, Yufang; Lin, Lin; Zhu, Binbin

    2016-08-01

    Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is believed to be the leading cause of dry eye (DE) disease worldwide. The connection between aging and MGD has long been recognized. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between MGD and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in perimenopausal women, and not have examined the prevalence of MGD in perimenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to address and evaluate the possible relationship between MGD and HRT in perimenopausal women.The results suggest that perimenopausal women have a high prevalence of DE related to perimenopausal symptoms. The study also shows that perimenopausal women who use HRT can gain benefits for DE as well as for perimenopausal symptoms. Physicians caring for women who are experiencing DE related to perimenopausal symptoms should consider HRT. PMID:27495030

  9. Hormone replacement therapy benefits meibomian gland dysfunction in perimenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xiuming; Lin, Zhenyun; Liu, Yufang; Lin, Lin; Zhu, Binbin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is believed to be the leading cause of dry eye (DE) disease worldwide. The connection between aging and MGD has long been recognized. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between MGD and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in perimenopausal women, and not have examined the prevalence of MGD in perimenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to address and evaluate the possible relationship between MGD and HRT in perimenopausal women. The results suggest that perimenopausal women have a high prevalence of DE related to perimenopausal symptoms. The study also shows that perimenopausal women who use HRT can gain benefits for DE as well as for perimenopausal symptoms. Physicians caring for women who are experiencing DE related to perimenopausal symptoms should consider HRT. PMID:27495030

  10. Plant derived alternatives for hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

    PubMed

    Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Jarry, Hubertus; Wuttke, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has undisputable positive effects on climacteric complaints, in the bone and on body weight but also several undesired side effects. Therefore, plant-derived alternatives are currently promoted. Phytoestrogens - primarily the isoflavones genistein, daidzein and coumestrol, stemming from soy (Glycine max) or red clover (Trifolium pratense) - were suggested to have the desired but not the undesired effects of estrogens. Most recently published placebo-controlled studies question the beneficial effects. When taken at the time of puberty however, phytoestrogens appear to protect against mammary cancer later in life. Extracts from the rhizome of Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) have no estrogenic effects. In a narrow dose range they have beneficial effects on climacteric complaints, which are due to several compounds with dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotoninergic and GABAergic actions that act together in the hypothalamus. Ecdysone is produced by several plants, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and was very early on shown to increase muscle mass. Later it became apparent that spinach extracts containing ecdysone decreased body fat load, thereby reducing secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by visceral adipocytes and oxidative stress. This had beneficial effects on body weight and serum lipids not only in obese postmenopausal but also in premenopausal women and in men. For the above-described plant extracts, solid placebo-controlled clinical trials are available. For other plant extracts claiming beneficial effects on climacteric complaints or postmenopausal diseases, no solid data are available. PMID:25436745

  11. Hormone replacement therapy is associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oestrogen and progestogen have the potential to influence gastro-intestinal motility; both are key components of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Results of observational studies in women taking HRT rely on self-reporting of gastro-oesophageal symptoms and the aetiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) remains unclear. This study investigated the association between HRT and GORD in menopausal women using validated general practice records. Methods 51,182 menopausal women were identified using the UK General Practice Research Database between 1995–2004. Of these, 8,831 were matched with and without hormone use. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for GORD and proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) use in hormone and non-hormone users, adjusting for age, co-morbidities, and co-pharmacy. Results In unadjusted analysis, all forms of hormone use (oestrogen-only, tibolone, combined HRT and progestogen) were statistically significantly associated with GORD. In adjusted models, this association remained statistically significant for oestrogen-only treatment (OR 1.49; 1.18–1.89). Unadjusted analysis showed a statistically significant association between PPI use and oestrogen-only and combined HRT treatment. When adjusted for covariates, oestrogen-only treatment was significant (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.03–1.74). Findings from the adjusted model demonstrated the greater use of PPI by progestogen users (OR 1.50; 1.01–2.22). Conclusions This first large cohort study of the association between GORD and HRT found a statistically significant association between oestrogen-only hormone and GORD and PPI use. This should be further investigated using prospective follow-up to validate the strength of association and describe its clinical significance. PMID:22642788

  12. Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency – Benefits, Side Effects, and Risks of Growth Hormone Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Mary L.; Merriam, George R.; Kargi, Atil Y.

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency of growth hormone (GH) in adults results in a syndrome characterized by decreased muscle mass and exercise capacity, increased visceral fat, impaired quality of life, unfavorable alterations in lipid profile and markers of cardiovascular risk, decrease in bone mass and integrity, and increased mortality. When dosed appropriately, GH replacement therapy (GHRT) is well tolerated, with a low incidence of side effects, and improves most of the alterations observed in GH deficiency (GHD); beneficial effects on mortality, cardiovascular events, and fracture rates, however, remain to be conclusively demonstrated. The potential of GH to act as a mitogen has resulted in concern over the possibility of increased de novo tumors or recurrence of pre-existing malignancies in individuals treated with GH. Though studies of adults who received GHRT in childhood have produced conflicting reports in this regard, long-term surveillance of adult GHRT has not demonstrated increased cancer risk or mortality. PMID:23761782

  13. Growth hormone deficiency during young adulthood and the benefits of growth hormone replacement

    PubMed Central

    Ahmid, M; Perry, C G; Ahmed, S F

    2016-01-01

    Until quite recently, the management of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) had focussed on the use of recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy to normalise final adult height. However, research over the past two decades that has demonstrated deficits in bone health and cardiac function, as well as impaired quality of life in adults with childhood-onset GHD (CO-GHD), has questioned this practice. Some of these studies suggested that there may be short-term benefits of rhGH in certain group of adolescents with GHD during transition, although the impact of GHD and replacement during the transition period has not been adequately investigated and its long-term benefits remain unclear. GH therapy remains expensive and well-designed long-term studies are needed to determine the cost effectiveness and clinical benefit of ongoing rhGH during transition and further into adulthood. In the absence of compelling data to justify widespread continuation of rhGH into adult life, there are several questions related to its use that remain unanswered. This paper reviews the effects of growth hormone deficiency on bone health, cardiovascular function, metabolic profile and quality of life during transition and young adulthood. PMID:27129699

  14. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy: three 'simple' questions, complex answers.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Antonio C; Casula, Sabina

    2012-07-01

    Current guidelines recommend that hypothyroid patients should be treated with levothyroxine, which in the vast majority of the cases leads to resolution of the symptoms and normalization of serum free T4 (FT4), T3 and TSH levels. However, a small group of hypothyroid patients remain symptomatic for neurocognitive dysfunction despite normal serum FT4 and TSH, which could be explained by localized brain hypothyroidism. More than half of the T3 in the brain is produced locally via the action of the type II deiodinase (D2) and variability/defects in this pathway could explain the residual symptoms. If this rationale is correct, adding liothyronine to the replacement therapy could prove beneficial. However, with a few exceptions, several clinical trials failed to identify any beneficial effects of combined therapy. More recently, the results of a large clinical trial revealed a better neurocognitive outcome with combined therapy only in hypothyroid patients carrying a polymorphism in the DIO2 gene. This obviously needs to be confirmed by other groups but it is tempting to speculate that combined levothyroxine and liothyronine has a place in the treatment of hypothyroidism, for some. PMID:24783002

  15. Hormonal effects on Tetrahymena: change in case of combined treatment.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Lajkó, Eszter; Pállinger, Eva

    2010-12-01

    In order to approach their natural conditions, populations of Tetrahymena were kept in Losina-Losinky's salt solution for 1 h, than in the tryptone+yeast medium. During this time they were treated with histamine, serotonin or insulin, or with the combinations of these hormones. Effect of the combined treatments on the production of serotonin (5HT), or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or triiodothyronine (T₃) by the cells was compared to the effect of single-hormone treatments. Significant differences were seen between the results obtained following the single or combined treatments. There was no summation of the effects, however an elevation or diminution of the hormone production was observed after the combined treatment, as compared with the untreated controls or with the use of one of the hormones in the samples. The experiments demonstrate that there is a hormonal regulation between the Tetrahymena cells and the hormones influence each other's effect. PMID:21183424

  16. [Decrease of labor absenteeism associated with hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Blümel, J E; Sáez, L; Roncagliolo, M E; Tacla, X; Brandt, A

    1995-08-01

    Absenteeism affects efficiency and costs of health care. Most of health workers are middle age women, whose climacteric symptoms may reduce their work capacity working at a public hospital in Santiago during 1992. Fifty-eight percent were postmenopausal and 34.8% of these were receiving hormone replacement therapy. Global absenteeism rate was 17.1 days/year. These figures were 14.8 days/year for premenopausal and 17.8 days/year for postmenopausal women (NS). Among the latter, those women receiving hormone replacement therapy had a significantly lower absenteeism rate (9.4 days/year compared to 20.4 days/year among those not receiving hormones). Osteoarticular diseases were responsible for 44.3% and psychiatric diseases for 18.1% of sick leaves. No differences in absenteeism were observed between different professional levels. We conclude that hormone replacement therapy is associated with a better working capacity in postmenopausal women. PMID:8657962

  17. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy from holistic and medical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Herrick, C A; Douglas, V; Carlson, J H

    1996-01-01

    Myths and other issues surrounding menopause are examined on the basis of historical and current literature from medicine, psychiatry, and psychiatric nursing, and on current research. Changes in the psychiatric view of menopause and mental illness reflect a more holistic view of menopause. Some effects of menopause during this normal transitional phase of a woman's life are explored with respect to the developmental, physiological, and cognitive/psychosocial domains. Concepts of menopause as disease or as normal development are discussed as well as issues related to "care or cure" interventions for menopausal women. Evidence supports the need for systematic longitudinal research studies on the use of hormone therapies to provide information on their long-term effects on the menopausal woman. The use of hormone therapies alone or in conjunction with other holistic interventions is discussed. Nurses have a professional responsibility to come to terms with the continuing conflict related to hormone therapies so that they may provide appropriate nursing interventions to celebrate this passage rather than deny it. PMID:8707535

  18. Saliva tests, part 2: salivary hormones, hormone replacement pharmacokinetics, and the importance of timely testing.

    PubMed

    Kells, John; Dollbaum, Charles M

    2009-01-01

    Published research has substantiated the accuracy of saliva testing in determining the values of specific hormones such as the major estrogens (estradiol, estrone, estriol), progesterone, androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone, testerone, 5a-dihydrotestosterone), cortisol, and melatonin. When compared with serum testing, saliva testing also offers multiple advantages in cost and convenience. In this second of a two-part series, we discuss in greater detail the types of hormones that can be accurately identified in saliva samples, the pharmacokinetics of hormone replacelment therapy,and the importance of timely testing. PMID:23966539

  19. Effect of hypophysectomy and growth hormone replacement on hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor messenger ribonucleic Acid levels.

    PubMed

    Eccleston, L M; Powell, J F; Clayton, R N

    1991-12-01

    Abstract The mechanisms by which the pituitary gland, and growth hormone (GH) in particular, affect growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) gene expression have been addressed using the technique of in situ hybridization. Anatomically matched sections through the mediobasal hypothalamus of control and hypophysectomized male rats, with or without GH hormone replacement, were analysed to obtain information on GRF mRNA levels within the arcuate nucleus and around the ventromedial hypothalamus. Hypophysectomy resulted in a 70% increase in the amount of GRF mRNA per cell (P<0.001), within neurons in the arcuate nucleus. GH replacement and T4 replacement separately partially attenuated this increase (GH replacement P< 0.001 versus hypophysectomy, T4 replacement P<0.05 versus hypophysectomy). Additionally, after hypophysectomy there was an 80% increase in the number of cells expressing the GRF gene in neurons around the ventromedial hypothalamus, when compared to shamoperated controls (P<0.01). Both GH and T4 replacement separately partially attenuated this phenomenon (P<0.01 versus hypophysectomized animals). Hypothyroidism alone did not affect GRF mRNA levels in either the arcuate nucleus or in the area surrounding the ventromedial hypothalamus. These results show that hypophysectomy increases GRF mRNA levels in two separate ways: by increasing the amount of mRNA produced per cell within the arcuate nucleus, and by increasing the number of cells expressing the gene in the area surrounding the ventromedial hypothalamus. This increase in the number of GRF mRNA-containing cells after hypophysectomy could result from the recruitment of neurons which previously did not express the GRF gene, and may reflect the plasticity of the adult central nervous system in response to a changing endocrine environment. This could represent part of a sensor mechanism to drive the production of GRF in the arcuate nucleus in response to extreme disruption of the GRF/ GH feedback loop. PMID

  20. Hormone replacement therapy may reduce the return of endogenous lead from bone to the circulation.

    PubMed Central

    Webber, C E; Chettle, D R; Bowins, R J; Beaumont, L F; Gordon, C L; Song, X; Blake, J M; McNutt, R H

    1995-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women suppresses the increase in bone resorption expected as circulating levels of endogenous estrogen decline. We tested the hypothesis that bone lead content might remain elevated in women on HRT. Fifty six women who at recruitment were on average 35 years postmenopausal were placed on calcium supplementation. Six months later 33 of these women were prescribed either low dose or moderate dose hormone replacement in addition to the calcium supplementation. After approximately 4 years of hormone replacement, lead content was measured at the tibia and calcaneus by in vivo fluorescence excitation, and lead concentrations were measured in serum, whole blood, and urine. Women not taking hormones had significantly lower lead concentrations in cortical bone compared to all women on HRT (p = 0.007). Tibia lead content (mean +/- SD) for women on calcium only was 11.13 +/- 6.22 microgram/g bone mineral. For women on HRT, tibia bone lead was 19.37 +/- 8.62 micrograms/g bone mineral on low-dose HRT and 16.87 +/- 11.68 micrograms/g bone mineral on moderate-dose HRT. There were no differences between groups for lead concentrations measured in trabecular bone, whole blood, serum or urine. Hormone replacement maintains cortical bone lead content. In women not on HRT, there will be a perimenopausal release of lead from bone. Images Figure 1. PMID:8747022

  1. Pyogenic granuloma occurring in a postmenopausal woman on hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Thomas M; Demsar, Williamr J; Herold, Robert W; Bisch, Frederick C; Gerlach, Robert C; Swiec, Gary D

    2011-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma is a benign nodular lesion occurring most commonly on the gingiva of females during periods of elevated sex hormones such as puberty and pregnancy. Possible molecular mechanisms responsible for the appearance of pyogenic granuloma in this demographic have been suggested. Increased incidence of pyogenic granuloma in post menopausal women on hormone replacement therapy has not been reported. A 49-year-old woman with preexisting titanium implant placement in the left posterior mandible presented with complaint of food impaction and slight discomfort associated with the implant. Clinical examination revealed slight soft tissue erythema and edema, but no foreign body could be identified. Subsequently, a nodular gingival lesion associated with the implant developed and was treated by conservative surgical excision. Histologic characteristics of the lesion were consistent with pyogenic granuloma. The patient was informed of the diagnosis. No evidence of recurrence could be identified after 6 months. Like peripubertal and pregnant women, postmenopausal women treated with hormone replacement therapy may be at increased risk for pyogenic granuloma. Observational studies designed to establish an association between hormone replacement therapy and pyogenic granuloma have not been conducted. Dentists should be aware of putative pathophysiologic mechanisms for pyogenic granuloma formation and the possibility that hormone replacement may trigger these mechanisms. PMID:21409768

  2. Cardiovascular Risk in Growth Hormone Deficiency: Beneficial Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lanes, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adulthood is associated with an increased risk of developing adverse cardiovascular events and with reduced life expectancy. Cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities have so far been evaluated only in a small number of children with GHD and adolescents. In this article we review these abnormalities and their underlying mechanisms and discuss the beneficial effect of growth hormone treatment in subjects with GHD. PMID:27241971

  3. Growth hormone replacement in adults - current standards and new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Höybye, Charlotte; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults is an established clinical syndrome characterised by adverse body composition with more body fat than lean body mass, unfavourable blood lipids, decreased physical fitness and poor quality of life. No specific biomarker for GHD exists and the sometimes difficult diagnosis should be made in accordance with, established guidelines. Measurements of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is often not sufficient for the diagnosis and stimulation tests of the GH reserve are required. After diagnosis of GHD, treatment with GH should be initiated with a low dose, and gradually increased aiming at obtaining an IGF-I level within the upper part of the normal range for age matched healthy controls. Most side effects are mild and transient and attenuated by gradual dose increments. Numerous studies have shown that GH treatment can improve body composition, cardiovascular risk factors, physical capacity and quality of life. However, studies on effects beyond 5 years are few and despite encouraging preliminary reports the ultimate endpoint demonstrating that GH treatment has beneficial effects on mortality, cardiovascular events and fractures without an increase in cancer incidence remain to be solidly demonstrated and studies to resolve these issues are awaited. Trials with long acting GH formulations are ongoing and available data indicate similar effects on outcome measures compared to the effects of daily injections. This review will give an overview of clinically relevant issues of GHD including advice for management of these patients. PMID:25617177

  4. Combined procedure of heart transplantation and ascending aorta replacement.

    PubMed

    de Castro, João Gonçalves; Estefanía, Rafael Hernández; Delgado, Cristian; Del Barrio, Loreto García; Rábago, Gregorio

    2016-06-01

    Concomitant heart transplantation and ascending aorta replacement is infrequent. In the few cases where this simultaneous procedure was performed, most patients were diagnosed with Marfan syndrome. We report the combined procedure of heart transplantation and ascending aorta replacement using the donor's ascending aorta, in a 70-year-old man who was not diagnosed with Marfan syndrome. This combined procedure can be performed successfully, providing a potentially life-saving heart transplant for patients with aortic disease of different etiologies. PMID:25737588

  5. Progestins and progesterone in hormone replacement therapy and the risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Campagnoli, Carlo; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Peris, Clementina; Berrino, Franco

    2005-01-01

    Controlled studies and most observational studies published over the last 5 years suggest that the addition of synthetic progestins to estrogen in hormone replacement therapy (HRT), particularly in continuous-combined regimen, increases the breast cancer (BC) risk compared to estrogen alone. By contrast, a recent study suggests that the addition of natural progesterone in cyclic regimens does not affect BC risk. This finding is consistent with in vivo data suggesting that progesterone does not have a detrimental effect on breast tissue. The increased BC risk found with the addition of synthetic progestins to estrogen could be due to the regimen and/or the kind of progestin used. Continuous-combined regimen inhibits the sloughing of mammary epithelium that occurs after progesterone withdrawal in a cyclic regimen. More importantly, the progestins used (medroxyprogesterone acetate and 19-Nortestosterone-derivatives) are endowed with some non-progesterone-like effects, which can potentiate the proliferative action of estrogens. Particularly relevant seem to be the metabolic and hepatocellular effects (decreased insulin sensitivity, increased levels and activity of insulin-like growth factor-I, and decreased levels of SHBG), which contrast the opposite effects induced by oral estrogen. PMID:15908197

  6. L-T4 bioequivalence and hormone replacement studies via feedback control simulations.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marisa; Samuels, Mary; DiStefano, Joseph J

    2006-12-01

    FDA Guidance for testing bioequivalence of levothyroxine (L-T(4)) preparations has been challenged by several groups, based on multiple issues. The efficacy of single versus combined hormone therapy also is receiving additional scrutiny. To examine these concerns, we developed a new nonlinear feedback system simulation model of whole-body regulation mechanisms involving dynamics of T(3), T(4), TSH, plasma protein binding, extravascular regulatory enzyme systems, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, all quantified from human data. To address bioequivalence, we explored how to best account for varying and unmeasured endogenous T(4) following dosing with exogenous oral L-T(4) in euthyroid volunteers in required pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, by simulating various dosing scenarios and developing a new and simple correction method. We computed and assessed dosing error effects and baseline corrections using simulator-predicted endogenous T(4) level variations, due to actual closed-loop effects, and compared these with approximate corrections computed directly from PK data. Predicted dose-responses were quite linear, and for constant baseline, 7-day half-life, and our new formula-correction methods, we established some bounds on bioequivalent dosages. Simulated replacement after thyroidectomy required 141 microg L-T(4) only to normalize T(3) tissue levels and 162 microg L-T(4) to normalize plasma T(3) levels. A combined dose of approximately 103 microg L-T(4) plus approximately 6 microg T(3) ( approximately 18:1 ratio) was needed to normalize both plasma T(3) and T(4) and average tissue T(3) levels. However, simulated average tissue T(3) levels were normalized with standard L-T(4)-only therapy, and plasma T(3) levels were still within the normal range. We suggest a simple and more accurate correction for endogenous T(4) in PK studies. Current standard L-T(4)-only treatment is supported for routine replacement needs. PMID:17199439

  7. Effect on endometrium of long term treatment with continuous combined oestrogen-progestogen replacement therapy: follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Michael; Sturdee, David W; Barlow, David H; Ulrich, Lian G; O'Brien, Karen; Campbell, Michael J; Vessey, Martin P; Bragg, Anthony J

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine effects of five years of treatment with an oral continuous combined regimen of 2 mg 17β-oestradiol and 1 mg norethisterone acetate on endometrial histology in postmenopausal women. Design Follow up study in postmenopausal women. Setting 31 menopause clinics in the United Kingdom. Participants 534 postmenopausal women, all with an intact uterus, who had completed nine months of treatment with oral continuous combined 2 mg 17β-oestradiol and 1 mg norethisterone acetate agreed to take part in a long term follow up study. Women were assigned to different groups on the basis of the treatment status immediately before entering the original study: 360 women had taken sequential oestrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy, 164 had taken no hormone replacement therapy, and 10 had taken unopposed oestrogen therapy. Methods Endometrial aspiration specimens were taken before the women started the continuous combined regimen, after 9 and 24-36 months, and at the end of the five year treatment period or on withdrawal from the study. Main outcome measure Results of endometrial histology. Results The duration of treatment with continuous combined hormone replacement therapy was 4.4 (range 1.1-5.9) years. Data on endometrial specimens were available for 526 women after nine months of treatment, 465 women after 24-36 months of treatment, and 398 women who completed the five years treatment (345 women) or were withdrawn between the two latter visits for biopsies (53 women). No cases of endometrial hyperplasia or malignancy were detected at biopsy; 69% of women had an endometrium classified as atrophic or unassessable on completion of the study or withdrawal from it. Before the continuous combined therapy was started, complex hyperplasia was detected in 21 women who had taken sequential hormone replacement therapy before the study and in one who had taken unopposed oestrogen. All of these women had normal results on histological examination of

  8. Effect of Cross-Sex Hormonal Replacement on Antioxidant Enzymes in Rat Retroperitoneal Fat Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez Espejel, Rodrigo; Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Pavón, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    We report the effect of cross-sex hormonal replacement on antioxidant enzymes from rat retroperitoneal fat adipocytes. Eight rats of each gender were assigned to each of the following groups: control groups were intact female or male (F and M, resp.). Experimental groups were ovariectomized F (OvxF), castrated M (CasM), OvxF plus testosterone (OvxF + T), and CasM plus estradiol (CasM + E2) groups. After sacrifice, retroperitoneal fat was dissected and processed for histology. Adipocytes were isolated and the following enzymatic activities were determined: Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). Also, glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured. In OvxF, retroperitoneal fat increased and adipocytes were enlarged, while in CasM rats a decrease in retroperitoneal fat and small adipocytes are observed. The cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats was associated with larger adipocytes and a further decreased activity of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, and GSH, in addition to an increase in LPO. CasM + E2 exhibited the opposite effects showing further activation antioxidant enzymes and decreases in LPO. In conclusion, E2 deficiency favors an increase in retroperitoneal fat and large adipocytes. Cross-sex hormonal replacement in F rats aggravates the condition by inhibiting antioxidant enzymes.

  9. Does hormone replacement normalize bone geometry in adolescents with anorexia nervosa?

    PubMed

    DiVasta, Amy D; Feldman, Henry A; Beck, Thomas J; LeBoff, Meryl S; Gordon, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    Young women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have reduced secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and estrogen contributing to skeletal deficits. In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effects of oral DHEA + combined oral contraceptive (COC) versus placebo on changes in bone geometry in young women with AN. Eighty women with AN, aged 13 to 27 years, received a random, double-blinded assignment to micronized DHEA (50 mg/day) + COC (20 µg ethinyl estradiol/0.1 mg levonorgestrel) or placebo for 18 months. Measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the total hip were obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 0, 6, 12, and 18 months. We used the Hip Structural Analysis (HSA) program to determine BMD, cross-sectional area (CSA), and section modulus at the femoral neck and shaft. Each measurement was expressed as a percentage of the age-, height-, and lean mass-specific mean from an independent sample of healthy adolescent females. Over the 18 months, DHEA + COC led to stabilization in femoral shaft BMD (0.0 ± 0.5% of normal mean for age, height, and lean mass/year) compared with decreases in the placebo group (-1.1 ± 0.5% per year, p = 0.03). Similarly, CSA, section modulus, and cortical thickness improved with treatment. In young women with AN, adrenal and gonadal hormone replacement improved bone health and increased cross-sectional geometry. Our results indicate that this combination treatment has a beneficial impact on surrogate measures of bone strength, and not only bone density, in young women with AN. PMID:23744513

  10. Does Hormone Replacement Normalize Bone Geometry in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa?

    PubMed Central

    DiVasta, Amy D.; Feldman, Henry A.; Beck, Thomas J.; LeBoff, Meryl S.; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Young women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have reduced secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and estrogen contributing to skeletal deficits. In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effects of oral DHEA+ combined oral contraceptive (COC) vs. placebo on changes in bone geometry in young women with AN. Eighty women with AN, aged 13-27 yr, received a random, double-blinded assignment to micronized DHEA (50 mg/d) + COC (20μg ethinyl estradiol/0.1mg levonorgestrel) or placebo for 18 mo. Measurements of aBMD at the total hip were obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 0, 6, 12, and 18 mo. We used the Hip Structural Analysis (HSA) Program to determine BMD, cross-sectional area (CSA), and section modulus at the femoral neck and shaft. Each measurement was expressed as a percentage of the age-, height-, and lean mass-specific mean from an independent sample of healthy adolescent females. Over the 18 months, DHEA+COC led to stabilization in femoral shaft BMD (0.0 ± 0.5 % of normal mean for age, height, and lean mass/year) compared with decreases in the placebo group (−1.1 ± 0.5% per year, p=0.03). Similarly, CSA, section modulus, and cortical thickness improved with treatment. In young women with AN, adrenal and gonadal hormone replacement improved bone health and increased cross sectional geometry. Our results indicate that this combination treatment has a beneficial impact on surrogate measures of bone strength, and not only bone density, in young women with AN. PMID:23744513

  11. TLR4-mediated brain inflammation halts neurogenesis: impact of hormonal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mouihate, Abdeslam

    2014-01-01

    Experimental and epidemiological data show that the severity and the duration of brain inflammation are attenuated in females compared to males. This attenuated brain inflammation is ascribed to 17β-estradiol. However, several studies suggest that 17β-estradiol is also endowed with proinflammatory properties. The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of hormonal replacement therapies on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain inflammation and its consequent effect on newly born neurons. Bilaterally ovariectomized rats received intrastriatal injection of LPS (250 ng/μl) and were subsequently given daily subcutaneous injections of either vehicle, 17β-estradiol (25 μg/kg) or 17β-estradiol and progesterone (5 mg/kg). Microglial activation and newly born neurons in the rostral migratory stream were monitored using double immunofluorescence. Nuclear factor κB (NFκB) signaling pathway and its target inflammatory proteins were assessed by either western blot [cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)]. LPS-induced activation of microglia, promoted NFκB signaling pathway and enhanced the production of proinflammatory proteins (TNF-α and COX-2). These proinflammatory responses were not attenuated by 17β-estradiol injection. Supplementation of 17β-estradiol with progesterone significantly dampened these proinflammatory processes. Interestingly, LPS-induced brain inflammation dampened the number of newly born neurons in the rostral migratory stream. Administration of combined 17β-estradiol and progesterone resulted in a significantly higher number of newly born neurons when compared to those seen in rats given either vehicle or 17β-estradiol alone. These data strongly suggest that combined 17β-estradiol and progesterone, and not 17β-estradiol alone, rescues neurogenesis from the deleterious effect of brain inflammation likely via the inhibition of the signaling pathways

  12. Guidelines for the Treatment of Hypothyroidism: Prepared by the American Thyroid Association Task Force on Thyroid Hormone Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Antonio C.; Bauer, Andrew J.; Burman, Kenneth D.; Cappola, Anne R.; Celi, Francesco S.; Cooper, David S.; Kim, Brian W.; Peeters, Robin P.; Rosenthal, M. Sara; Sawka, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A number of recent advances in our understanding of thyroid physiology may shed light on why some patients feel unwell while taking levothyroxine monotherapy. The purpose of this task force was to review the goals of levothyroxine therapy, the optimal prescription of conventional levothyroxine therapy, the sources of dissatisfaction with levothyroxine therapy, the evidence on treatment alternatives, and the relevant knowledge gaps. We wished to determine whether there are sufficient new data generated by well-designed studies to provide reason to pursue such therapies and change the current standard of care. This document is intended to inform clinical decision-making on thyroid hormone replacement therapy; it is not a replacement for individualized clinical judgment. Methods: Task force members identified 24 questions relevant to the treatment of hypothyroidism. The clinical literature relating to each question was then reviewed. Clinical reviews were supplemented, when relevant, with related mechanistic and bench research literature reviews, performed by our team of translational scientists. Ethics reviews were provided, when relevant, by a bioethicist. The responses to questions were formatted, when possible, in the form of a formal clinical recommendation statement. When responses were not suitable for a formal clinical recommendation, a summary response statement without a formal clinical recommendation was developed. For clinical recommendations, the supporting evidence was appraised, and the strength of each clinical recommendation was assessed, using the American College of Physicians system. The final document was organized so that each topic is introduced with a question, followed by a formal clinical recommendation. Stakeholder input was received at a national meeting, with some subsequent refinement of the clinical questions addressed in the document. Consensus was achieved for all recommendations by the task force. Results: We reviewed the

  13. Hormone replacement therapy in children: The use of growth hormone and IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Pfäffle, Roland

    2015-06-01

    Recombinant human GH (rhGH) has been available since 1985. This article gives an overview, what has been achieved over the past 30 years in respect to optimization of rhGH treatment for the individual child with GH deficiency and what are the safety issues concerned with this treatment. In the last twenty years significant scientific progress has been made in the diagnosis of GH deficiency, the genetic disorders that are associated with pituitary GH deficiency and the genetics that influence growth in general. On the other hand rhGH is not only used in states of GH deficiency but also various conditions without a proven GH deficiency by classical standards. Clinical studies that investigated both the genetics of growth and the individual responses to rhGH therapy in these patient populations were able to refine our concept about the physiology of normal growth. In most patients under rhGH treatment there is a considerable short-term effect, however the overall gain in growth obtained by a long-term treatment until final height still remains a matter of debate in some of the conditions treated. Also first studies on the long-term safety risks of rhGH treatment have raised the question whether this treatment is similarly safe for all the patient groups eligible for such a treatment. Therefore even in the face of a longstanding safety record of this drug replacement therapy the discussion about the right cost and risk to benefit ratio is continuing. Consequently there is still a need for carefully conducted long-term studies that use modern anthropometric, genetic, and laboratory techniques in order to provide the necessary information for clinicians to select the patients that will benefit best from this valuable treatment without any long term risk. PMID:26051295

  14. Effects of aerobic exercise on ectopic lipids in patients with growth hormone deficiency before and after growth hormone replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Christ, Emanuel R.; Egger, Andrea; Allemann, Sabin; Buehler, Tania; Kreis, Roland; Boesch, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone replacement therapy (GHRT) increases exercise capacity and insulin resistance while it decreases fat mass in growth hormone-deficient patients (GHD). Ectopic lipids (intramyocellular (IMCL) and intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL) are related to insulin resistance. The effect of GHRT on ectopic lipids is unknown. It is hypothesized that exercise-induced utilization of ectopic lipids is significantly decreased in GHD patients and normalized by GHRT. GHD (4 females, 6 males) and age/gender/waist-matched control subjects (CS) were studied. VO2max was assessed on a treadmill and insulin sensitivity determined by a two-step hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) fat were quantified by MR-imaging. IHCL and IMCL were measured before and after a 2 h exercise at 50–60% of VO2max using MR-spectroscopy (∆IMCL, ∆IHCL). Identical investigations were performed after 6 months of GHRT. VO2max was similar in GHD and CS and significantly increased after GHRT; GHRT significantly decreased SAT and VAT. 2 h-exercise resulted in a decrease in IMCL (significant in CS and GHRT) and a significant increase in IHCL in CS and GHD pre and post GHRT. GHRT didn’t significantly impact on ∆IMCL and ∆IHCL. We conclude that aerobic exercise affects ectopic lipids in patients and controls. GHRT increases exercise capacity without influencing ectopic lipids. PMID:26792091

  15. Book review of "The estrogen elixir: A history of hormone replacement therapy in America" by Elizabeth Siegel Watkins

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    "The Estrogen elixir: A history of hormone replacement therapy in America" by Elizabeth Siegel Watkins is a thoroughly documented cautionary tale of the information and advice offered to women in the perimenopausal period of their life, and the consequences of exposure to sexual hormones on their health and wellbeing.

  16. Adiposity, hormone replacement therapy use and breast cancer risk by age and hormone receptor status: a large prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Associations of hormone-receptor positive breast cancer with excess adiposity are reasonably well characterized; however, uncertainty remains regarding the association of body mass index (BMI) with hormone-receptor negative malignancies, and possible interactions by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. Methods Within the European EPIC cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the relationship of BMI, waist and hip circumferences with risk of estrogen-receptor (ER) negative and progesterone-receptor (PR) negative (n = 1,021) and ER+PR+ (n = 3,586) breast tumors within five-year age bands. Among postmenopausal women, the joint effects of BMI and HRT use were analyzed. Results For risk of ER-PR- tumors, there was no association of BMI across the age bands. However, when analyses were restricted to postmenopausal HRT never users, a positive risk association with BMI (third versus first tertile HR = 1.47 (1.01 to 2.15)) was observed. BMI was inversely associated with ER+PR+ tumors among women aged ≤49 years (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.79 (95%CI 0.68 to 0.91)), and positively associated with risk among women ≥65 years (HR = 1.25 (1.16 to 1.34)). Adjusting for BMI, waist and hip circumferences showed no further associations with risks of breast cancer subtypes. Current use of HRT was significantly associated with an increased risk of receptor-negative (HRT current use compared to HRT never use HR: 1.30 (1.05 to 1.62)) and positive tumors (HR: 1.74 (1.56 to 1.95)), although this risk increase was weaker for ER-PR- disease (Phet = 0.035). The association of HRT was significantly stronger in the leaner women (BMI ≤22.5 kg/m2) than for more overweight women (BMI ≥25.9 kg/m2) for, both, ER-PR- (HR: 1.74 (1.15 to 2.63)) and ER+PR+ (HR: 2.33 (1.84 to 2.92)) breast cancer and was not restricted to any particular HRT regime. Conclusions An elevated BMI may be positively associated with risk of ER-PR- tumors among postmenopausal women

  17. Persisting cyclical uterine bleeding in patients treated with radical radiation therapy and hormonal replacement for carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, M.J.; Bull, C.A.; Houghton, C.R.; Langlands, A.O. )

    1990-04-01

    Radical radiation therapy used for carcinoma of the cervix will ablate ovarian function. Since January 1986, our policy has been to administer oral combination oestrogen-progesterone replacement hormonal therapy to all premenopausal patients undergoing radical radiation with or without synchronous chemotherapy, for invasive cervix cancer. Five out of 22 (23%) such patients unexpectedly experienced between one and four episodes of cyclical per vaginal bleeding after the completion of radiation therapy. Bleeding episodes occurred in the absence of persistent tumor or radiation reaction, and suggest persisting endometrial response to exogenous hormonal stimulation. Uterine activity was temporarily retained in these five patients despite a minimal endometrial surface dose of between 4800 and 6490 cGy. The limited number of cycles before bleeding spontaneously ceased may represent the slow death of endometrial cells subsequent to radiation or radiochemotherapy treatment, and has not previously been described. In view of the paucity of data on the radiosensitivity of normal endometrium, we have carefully examined these patients who appear to have retained endometrial sensitivity to hormonal stimuli after radical radiation-chemotherapy for uterine cervix cancer.

  18. Reversal learning in gonadectomized marmosets with and without hormone replacement: are males more sensitive to punishment?

    PubMed

    LaClair, Matthew; Lacreuse, Agnès

    2016-05-01

    This study examined sex differences in executive function in middle-aged gonadectomized marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) with or without hormonal replacement. We tested ten castrated male (mean age 5.5 years) marmosets treated with testosterone cypionate (T, n = 5) or vehicle (n = 5) on Reversal Learning, which contributes to cognitive flexibility, and the Delayed Response task, measuring working memory. Their performance was compared to that of 11 ovariectomized females (mean age = 3.7 years) treated with Silastic capsules filled with 17-β estradiol (E2, n = 6) or empty capsules (n = 5), previously tested on the same tasks (Lacreuse et al. in J Neuroendocrinol 26:296-309, 2014. doi: 10.1111/jne.12147). Behavioral observations were conducted daily. Females exhibited more locomotor behaviors than males. Males and females did not differ in the number of trials taken to reach criterion on the reversals, but males had significantly longer response latencies, regardless of hormone replacement. They also had a greater number of refusals than females. Additionally, both control and T-treated males, but not females, had slower responses on incorrect trials, suggesting that males were making errors due to distraction, lack of motivation or uncertainty. Furthermore, although both males and females had slower responding following an incorrect compared to a correct trial, the sex difference in response latencies was disproportionally large following an incorrect trial. No sex difference was found in the Delayed Response task. Overall, slower response latencies in males than females during Reversal Learning, especially during and following an incorrect trial, may reflect greater sensitivity to punishment (omission of reward) and greater performance monitoring in males, compared to females. Because these differences occurred in gonadectomized animals and regardless of hormone replacement, they may be organized early in life. PMID:26909674

  19. [Critical appraisal: combined T3 and T4 replacement therapy is not better than replacement with T4 alone].

    PubMed

    Téllez T, Rafael

    2005-09-01

    Conflicting results have recently been published about the benefits of combined thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in treating hypothyroid patients. However these studies may have been underpowered to detect differences in psychological well-being specifically related to thyroxine replacement. We conducted a large, double-blind, randomized controlled trial of partial substitution of 50 microg of T4 by 10 microg of T3 (T3) vs placebo (T4 alone - 50 microg of T4 replaced) in 697 hypothyroid patients. Thyroid function showed a rise in the TSH (132%), a fall in Free T4 (35%, P <0.001) and unchanged basal Free T3 levels (P=0.92). At 3 months there was a large (39%) improvement in defined by the General Health Questionnaire 12 score (GHQ 12) in the control group compared with baseline and this was sustained at 12 months. Differences vs the intervention (T3) group were more modest with improvements in GHQ caseness (OR - 0.61; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.90; P=0.01) and HADS anxiety scores at 3 months (P <0.03) but not GHQ Likert scores, HADS depression, thyroid symptoms or visual analog scales of mood and the initial differences were lost at 12 months. These results may be consistent with a subgroup of patients showing transient improvement following partial substitution with T3 but do not provide conclusive evidence of specific benefit from partial substitution of T4 by T3 in patients on thyroxine replacement. They also emphasize the large and sustained that can follow changes in thyroid hormone administration. PMID:16311707

  20. The role of hormone replacement therapy in the intensive care management of deceased organ donors: a primer for nurses.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Keaton S; Kimmons, Lauren A; Jones, G Morgan

    2015-01-01

    Donation after brain death remains the primary contributor to the supply of organs available for transplantation in the United States. After brain death, both a surge of catecholamines and a dysregulation of the neurohormonal axis may result in hypotension, decreased organ perfusion, and reduced viability of organs to be transplanted. Hormone replacement therapy is widely used to maintain organ perfusion and has been shown to increase the number of organs procured. This article reviews the literature and mechanisms supporting the use of hormone replacement therapy in brain-dead organ donors and provides clinicians with information regarding the administration, monitoring, and preparation of thyroid hormone, arginine vasopressin, and corticosteroids. PMID:26335215

  1. Determination of hormone contaminants in milk replacers by high-performance liquid chromatography and immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Rapp, M; Meyer, H H

    1989-04-01

    Certain milk replacers were reported to cause 19-nortestosterone (NT)-positive urine samples after feeding them to veal calves. In order to find the possible source of contamination, milk replacers and crude fat and meat meal from homogenized veal calves and commercial crude fat from a rendering plant were analysed for NT plus its metabolites and constituents of illicit 'cocktails' (NT esters, estradiol benzoate and medroxyprogesterone acetate). The steroids were separated using different high-performance liquid chromatographic systems and measured by specific immunoassays. The results show that animal food processed from carcasses of treated animals contains hormone concentrations that may cause positive urine samples in animals fed on such feed. PMID:2745647

  2. An alternative regimen of hormone replacement therapy to improve patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Kemp, J F; Fryer, J A; Baber, R J

    1989-02-01

    In order to achieve the long-term benefits from hormone replacement therapy of a markedly reduced incidence of heart disease and osteoporosis, a high degree of compliance is essential. In an effort to obtain high compliance, it was decided to introduce a cyclic therapy of 6 months duration using conjugated oestrogens supported by a 10-day course of progestogens. A total of 85 patients were treated prospectively. Compliance was assessed by the number of patients continuing treatment, and endometrial response was assessed by office biopsy and cytological or histological examination. Five patients withdrew, giving an overall compliance rate of 94%. Two have subsequently resumed therapy, thus 98% of those enrolled are currently receiving hormone replacement therapy. No cases of endometrial carcinoma were detected during the trial period of 4 years. Two cases of mild atypical endometrial hyperplasia were detected but both were mild and reverted to secretory or inactive endometrium following progestogen therapy. This regimen provides a viable alternative for those women who are troubled by progestogenic side-effects and monthly withdrawal bleeding. PMID:2562774

  3. TOMOGRAFIC AND TENSIOMETRIC ASSESSMENT ON FEMURS FROM OOPHORECTOMIZED RATS SUBJECTED TO HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Martynetz, Fábio Alexandre; Pessole Biondo-Simões, Maria de Lourdes; Martynetz, Juliano Rodrigo; Martynetz, Tatiana Daher; Zimerman, Elise; Neto, Heraldo Mello

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the biomechanical and tomographic effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on femurs from rats subjected to induced menopause. Methods: Forty-five adult Wistar rats were divided equally into three groups. The first and second groups consisted of rats subjected to oophorectomy, and the third was the control group, consisting of nonoophorectomized rates. After verifying that hormone failure had occurred (exfoliative cytological test), only the first group received HRT, over a two-month period. After this period, the femurs were disarticulated and subjected to biomechanical tests in a universal testing machine to evaluate their strength, and were subjected to tomographic evaluation to determine the bone mineral density. Results: The exfoliative cytological test showed that hormone failure was induced in all the oophorectomized animals. A significant difference (p = 0.030) in maximum strength measurements was observed between the groups (higher in the group with HRT). Greater bone fragility was observed in the oophorectomized animals without HRT than in those with HRT (p = 0.010), in relation to the control group (p = 0.0107). There was greater bone strength in the oophorectomized rats with HRT than in those without HRT, and these values were similar to those of the control group (p = 0.179). In the tomographic evaluation, no significant differences were found between the groups (p = 0.625). Conclusion: A significant increase in bone strength was observed with the use of HRT. However, treatment with HRT did not show any significant change in bone mineral density. PMID:27019837

  4. Effects of oophorectomy and hormone replacement therapy on pituitary-gonadal function.

    PubMed

    Castelo-Branco, C; Martínez de Osaba, M J; Vanrezc, J A; Fortuny, A; González-Merlo, J

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how oophorectomy and different hormone replacement therapy (HRT) regimens using low doses of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 2.5 mg/day) influence the pituitary-gonadal axis function. Ninety (90) women, who had had regular menses prior to surgery, completed a 1-year follow-up period. Patients were assigned to 5 groups. The first (n = 16) received 0.625 mg/day conjugated equine oestrogens (CEE) cyclically, the second (n = 20) 50 micrograms day transdermal oestradiol (E2) cyclically and the third (n = 15) 0.625 mg/day CEE continuously. These 3 groups also received 2.5 mg MPA sequentially for the last 12 days of HRT administration. The fourth group (n = 20) received 0.625 mg/day CEE and 2.5 mg/day of MPA continuously, while the fifth (n = 19) constituted a control group. After oophorectomy all patients showed increases in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, and decreases in those of E2, oestrone (E1), prolactin (PRL), sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), androstenedione (delta A4) and testosterone (T). No changes were detected in dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) levels. After HRT, decreases in FSH, LH and PRL levels and increases in those of E2, E1 and SHBG were observed, but no changes were seen in T, delta A4 or DHEA-S plasma levels. As the differences that were found cannot be attributed to the presence of ovaries, it is reasonable to assume that they were perhaps due to the treatment. All these changes, with the exception of a decrease in PRL levels, are therefore to be expected after HRT. PMID:8231902

  5. Preservation of renal function by thyroid hormone replacement in elderly persons with subclinical hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hong; Liu, Dongmei; Zhao, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism in elderly persons is controversial. Previous studies have shown that there are interactions between kidney and thyroid function, but data regarding interventions that target thyroid function in elderly patients are scarce. We aimed to investigate the impact of thyroid hormone therapy on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in elderly patients. Material and methods Ninety elderly patients aged ≥ 65 years with subclinical hypothyroidism were followed for 36 months in our case-control study. The changes in the eGFR in patients with and without thyroid hormone replacement therapy were compared. The adverse effects during the treatment period were noted. Results The eGFR of both groups was similar at the beginning of the study (43.4 ±6.1 vs. 42.8 ±5.9 ml/min/1.73 m2; p = 0.62). With the decline in thyroid stimulating hormone levels after treatment, the eGFR of the treatment group significantly improved compared with the control group (45.8 ±4.8 vs. 35.8 ±5.3 ml/min/1.73 m2; p < 0.001); the eGFR increased rapidly over the first 6 months and then plateaued. No patients withdrew from the study, but the therapeutic dose was decreased in two patients due to angina pectoris. Conclusions Thyroid hormone therapy preserved renal function in elderly patients. Appropriate individual treatment should be considered in elderly patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. PMID:27478458

  6. Large-scale hormone replacement therapy and life expectancy: results from an international comparison among European and North American populations.

    PubMed Central

    Panico, S; Galasso, R; Celentano, E; Ciardullo, A V; Frova, L; Capocaccia, R; Trevisan, M; Berrino, F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An analysis was performed to determine the risks and benefits of a 10-year hormone replacement therapy regimen that had been applied to all women at 50 years of age in 8 countries. METHODS: Cumulative mortality with and without hormone replacement therapy over 20 years was estimated, with both current and predicted total and disease-specific secular mortality trends and the influence of a generational cohort effect taken into account. RESULTS: In countries with high ischemic heart disease frequency and predictable relative predominance of ischemic heart disease rates over breast cancer rates for the next 20 years, hormone replacement therapy could result in benefits with regard to overall mortality; this advantage decreases in younger-generation cohorts. In countries in which breast cancer mortality predominates over ischemic heart disease in early postmenopause and in which the predictable trends for both diseases reinforce this condition, a negative effect on overall mortality would be observed. In the United States, the effect of large-scale hormone replacement therapy would change over time. CONCLUSIONS: The long-term effect of hormone replacement therapy on life expectancy of postmenopausal women may vary among countries. PMID:10983196

  7. Elimination of Two Hormones by Ultrasonic and Ozone Combined Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Mingcan; Son, Younggyu; Lim, Myunghee; Na, Seungmin; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2010-07-01

    A direct ultrasonic (US) and ozone (O3) combination (US/O3) process for the removal of two hormones, estrone (E1) and estriol (E3), in aqueous solutions was investigated. These two hormones were detected in a wastewater treatment plant effluent in Korea. It was found that the ultrasonic/ozone process showed a higher removal performance than the US and O3 process even though the O3 process also showed approximately the same removal efficiency after 60 min. Chemical oxygen demand/total organic carbon (CODcr/TOC) ratios for E1 and E3 decreased, indicating that biodegradability could be increased significantly in the US/O3 process. The optimal pH condition was determined above the neutral pH condition.

  8. [Assessment of serum estrogen levels by RIA with HPLC during hormone replacement therapy].

    PubMed

    Yasui, T; Uemura, H; Yoneda, N; Irahara, M; Aono, T; Sunahara, S; Hata, K

    1995-07-01

    We studied the serum estradiol and estrone levels in 146 peri and postmenopausal women, and in 38 women who had complained of various climacteric disturbance symptoms during daily hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) 0.625 mg and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) 2.5 mg. Serum estradiol and estrone were measured before treatment, and at 6 months, and after one year of the HRT therapy by HPLC-radioimmunoassay. In 146 peri and postmenopausal women, the serum level of estradiol was from 3 to 6pg/ml. The serum level of estradiol in 38 women after HRT significantly increased (p < 0.01) from 3.34 to 23.6 pg/ml at 6 months, and 21.5 pg/ml at 12 months. The serum level of estrone significantly increased (p < 0.01) from 26.6pg/ml to 156.7pg/ml at 6 months, and 137.2pg/ml at 12 month. These results are very useful for deciding on the doses of hormones and the expected serum estradiol level in HRT for Japanese women. PMID:7636337

  9. INFLUENCES OF HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY ON OLFACTORY AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN THE MENOPAUSE

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Richard L.; Tourbier, Isabelle; Ng, Victoria; Neff, Jessica; Armstrong, Deborah; Battistini, Michelle; Sammel, Mary D.; Gettes, David; Evans, Dwight L.; Mirza, Natasha; Moberg, Paul J.; Connolly, Tim; Sondheimer, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction can be an early sign of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Since hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may protect against developing AD in postmenopausal women, the question arises as to whether it also protects against olfactory dysfunction in such women. Three olfactory and 12 neurocognitive tests were administered to 432 healthy postmenopausal women with varied HRT histories. Serum levels of reproductive hormones were obtained for all subjects; APOE-ε4 haplotype was determined for 77. National Adult Reading Test and Odor Memory/Discrimination Test (OMT) scores were positively influenced by HRT. Odor identification and OMT test scores were lower for women who scored poorly on a delayed recall test, a surrogate for mild cognitive impairment. WAIS-R NI Spatial Span Backwards Test scores were higher in women receiving estrogen plus progestin HRT and directly correlated with serum testosterone levels, the latter implying a positive effect of testosterone on spatial memory. APOE-ε4 was associated with poorer odor threshold test scores. These data suggest that HRT positively influences a limited number of olfactory and cognitive measures in the menopause. PMID:25850354

  10. Hormone replacement therapy in morphine-induced hypogonadic male chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In male patients suffering from chronic pain, opioid administration induces severe hypogonadism, leading to impaired physical and psychological conditions such as fatigue, anaemia and depression. Hormone replacement therapy is rarely considered for these hypogonadic patients, notwithstanding the various pharmacological solutions available. Methods To treat hypogonadism and to evaluate the consequent endocrine, physical and psychological changes in male chronic pain patients treated with morphine (epidural route), we tested the administration of testosterone via a gel formulation for one year. Hormonal (total testosterone, estradiol, free testosterone, DHT, cortisol), pain (VAS and other pain questionnaires), andrological (Ageing Males' Symptoms Scale - AMS) and psychological (POMS, CES-D and SF-36) parameters were evaluated at baseline (T0) and after 3, 6 and 12 months (T3, T6, T12 respectively). Results The daily administration of testosterone increased total and free testosterone and DHT at T3, and the levels remained high until T12. Pain rating indexes (QUID) progressively improved from T3 to T12 while the other pain parameters (VAS, Area%) remained unchanged. The AMS sexual dimension and SF-36 Mental Index displayed a significant improvement over time. Conclusions In conclusion, our results suggest that a constant, long-term supply of testosterone can induce a general improvement of the male chronic pain patient's quality of life, an important clinical aspect of pain management. PMID:21332999

  11. Effects of hormone replacement therapy on hemodynamic responses of postmenopausal women to passive heating.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, S L; Kenney, W L

    2000-07-01

    To examine the influence of chronic hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on the central and peripheral cardiovascular responses of postmenopausal women to direct passive heating, seven women taking estrogen replacement therapy, seven women taking estrogen and progesterone therapy, and seven women not taking HRT were passively heated with water-perfused suits to their individual limit of thermal tolerance. Measurements included heart rate (HR), cardiac output, blood pressure, skin blood flow, splanchnic blood flow, renal blood flow, esophageal temperature, and mean skin temperature. Cardiac output was higher in women taking estrogen and progesterone therapy than in women not taking HRT (7.12 +/- 0.70 vs. 5.02 +/- 0. 57 l/min at the limit of thermal tolerance, respectively; P < 0.05) because of a higher HR. However, when the HR data were plotted as a percentage of the maximum HR or percentage of HR reserve, there were no differences among the three groups of women. Neither splanchnic nor renal blood flow differed among the groups of women. These data suggest that HRT has little effect on the cardiovascular responses to direct passive heating. PMID:10904040

  12. [Primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events through hormone replacement therapy (HRT)].

    PubMed

    Pilz, Heidemarie

    2005-09-01

    A recently (2002) published, randomised, double blind placebo controlled trial of hormone replace ment therapy (HRT), the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), is not consistent with the decrease in cardiovascular disease under CEE/HPA seen in observational primary prevention studies like the Nurses' Health Study. Baseline characteristics of participants like age, body mass index, years since menopause and preexistent cardiovascular diseases may be responsible for the lack of benefit seen in this trial. Clinical outcome data of HRT from randomised trials in secondary prevention of cardiovasular diseases are limited. The first prospective, randomised placebo controlled trial, the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) in secondary prevention did not show any difference in CHD events between treatment groups and placebo during a follow up of 4.1 years. However, an increased risk of CHD was seen especially during the first year on HRT, subsequent years showed a decrease in event rate compared with never-users. One explanation for this lack of benefit may be a bi-directional effect of estrogen - early risk and late benefit - especially in an elderly study population with established atherosclerotic lesions. In postmenopausal women, estrogen replacement therapy affects LDL- and HDL-cholesterol levels favorably, causes vasodilatation by activating NOS, inhibits platelet aggregation and proinflammatory cell adhesion on endothelial cells of vascular wall. Estrogen can affect the cardiovascular system adversely by increasing triglycerid levels, CPR and proinflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Alternatives to HRT like phytoestrogens act via estrogen alpha and beta receptor modulation. Phytoestrogens may lower LDL-cholesterol levels without increasing triglyceride levels, they have shown antioxidannt properties as well as favorable effects on vascular reactivity. The importance of HRT and phytoestrogens in primary and secondary

  13. Thyroid hormone replacement one day before 131I therapy in patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kayano, Daiki; Taki, Junichi; Inaki, Anri; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Ayane; Fukuoka, Makoto; Kinuya, Seigo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study aimed to determine the efficacy of radioiodine-131 (131I) ablation therapy with thyroid hormone replacement one day before 131I administration in patients with well-differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Methods: This retrospective study included 29 patients who underwent 131I therapies twice for DTC during 6-12 months. Since all the patients obviously had residual lesions by their serum thyroglobulin levels or their scintigrams at the first therapies, they underwent the second 131I therapies without diagnostic scintigraphy after the first therapies. After confirming the sufficient elevation of TSH concentration, thyroid hormone replacement was resumed one day before 131I administration (3.7-7.4GBq). The ablation rate of thyroid remnant at the first 131I therapy was evaluated by comparing 131I post-therapeutic images of the two treatments. Results: Three patients were administrated thyroid hormone after 131I therapy because of insufficient TSH concentration under thyroid hormone withdrawal. In the remaining 26 patients, 41 thyroid remnant accumulations were detected in all 26 patients at the first 131I therapy. Based on the second 131I post-therapeutic images, successful ablation was confirmed in 24 of 26 patients (92.3%) and 38 of 41 sites (92.7%), which was comparable with historically reported ablation rates. Conclusion: Thyroid hormone replacement one day before 131I therapy could provide a sufficiently high ablation rate in patients with DTC.

  14. Effect of missed combined hormonal contraceptives on contraceptive effectiveness: a systematic review☆

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Steenland, Maria W.; Brahmi, Dalia; Marchbanks, Polly A.; Curtis, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) are popular methods of reversible contraception in the United States, but adherence remains an issue as reflected in their lower rates of typical use effectiveness. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence on the effect of missed CHCs on pregnancy rates as well as surrogate measures of contraceptive effectiveness (e.g., ovulation, follicular development, changes in hormone levels, cervical mucus quality). Study Design We searched the PubMed database for peer-reviewed articles published in any language from database inception through April 2012. We included studies that examined measures of contraceptive effectiveness during cycles with extended hormone-free intervals or nonadherence (e.g., omission of pills, delayed patch replacement) on days not adjacent to the hormone-free interval. We used standard abstract forms and grading systems to summarize and assess the quality of the evidence. Results The search strategy identified 1387 articles, of which 26 met our study selection criteria. There is wide variability in the amount of follicular development and risk of ovulation among women who extended the pill-free interval to 8–14 days; in general, the risk of ovulation was low, and among women who did ovulate, cycles were usually abnormal (i.e., low progesterone levels, small follicles and/or poor cervical mucus) (Level I, good, indirect to Level II-3, fair, indirect). Studies of women who missed one to four consecutive pills or 1–3 consecutive days of delay before patch replacement at times other than adjacent to the hormone-free interval reported little follicular activity and low risk of ovulation (Level I, fair, indirect to Level II-3, poor, indirect). Studies comparing 30 mcg versus 20 mcg mc ethinyl estradiol pills showed more follicular activity when 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol pills were missed (Level I, good, indirect). Conclusion Most of the studies in this evidence base relied on

  15. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of atrial fibrillation in Taiwanese menopause women: A nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Wei-Chung; Haung, Yaw-Bin; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Tang, Wei-Hua; Hsu, Po-Chao; Su, Ho-Ming; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Jhuo, Shih-Jie; Lee, Kun-Tai; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung; Chen, Chung-Yu; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lai, Wen-Ter

    2016-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with risk of vascular disease. The association between atrial fibrillation (AF), vascular events, and different HRTs, including estradiol and conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), has been controversial in previous studies. Thus, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate these associations. Female patients (>45 years old) first diagnosed with menopause were enrolled from National Health Insurance Research Dataset (1998–2008). Cox regression analysis estimated risk of new-onset AF, stroke, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) after exposure to estradiol or CEE. Of 5489 females (mean age = 55 years) enrolled, 1815 treated with estradiol and 3674 treated with CEE. Incidence per 103 person-years of AF, stroke, and MACE in CEE vs estradiol patients was 2.23 vs. 0.92, 14.0 vs. 9.09, and 15.55 vs. 10.47. As compared with patients treated with estradiol, those treated with CEE had a significantly higher incidence of AF, stroke, and MACE. The adjusted hazard ratios for each category were 1.96, 1.30, and 1.26, respectively. The significant results remained similar, even after use of propensity-score-matched strategy. In conclusion, CEE was associated with a higher risk of AF, stroke, and MACE than estradiol in menopausal females. Further exploration of underlying mechanisms is necessary. PMID:27052889

  16. Effects of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Insulin Resistance in Postmenopausal Diabetic Women

    PubMed Central

    Bitoska, Iskra; Krstevska, Branka; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Subeska-Stratrova, Slavica; Petrovski, Goran; Mishevska, Sasha Jovanovska; Ahmeti, Irfan; Todorova, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) is closely associated with diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, increased visceral fat in menopause is also associated with IR, which makes postmenopausal diabetic women in a big risk for cardiovascular diseases. There are conflicting reports about the effects on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on IR. AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of HRT on IR. METHODS: A total of 40 postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled and followed for 12 months. Half of them were assigned to take HRT, while the other half made the control group. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and insulinemia were measured in both groups at baseline and after 12 months. IR was represented by Homeostatic model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR). RESULTS: HRT was associated with significant decrease in HOMA-IR, FPG and insulinemia in the examined group. There was no significant reduction in FPG and no significant increase in insulinemia levels and HOMA-IR values in control group after 12 months. CONCLUSION: HRT was associated with statistically signifficant increase of insulin sensitivity. Larger clinical trials will be necessary to understand whether HRT may improve insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis in women with diabetes, especially when given shortly after entering menopause.

  17. Should a doctor prescribe hormone replacement therapy which has been manufactured from mare's urine?

    PubMed

    Cox, D

    1996-08-01

    Many clinicians are experiencing consumer resistance to the prescription of equine HRT (that is hormone replacement therapy which has been manufactured from mare's urine). In this paper I consider the ethical implications of prescribing these preparations. I decide that patients should have a right to refuse such treatment but also ask whether a prescribing doctor should choose one preparation over another on moral grounds. I determine that there is prima facie evidence to suggest that mares may suffer and that prescription of equine HRT (instead of synthetic oestrogen-oestriol) would therefore have to be justified in terms of either offering greater benefits to the women or offering greater value for money to the health service. I find that there is no substantial evidence to suggest that equine HRT offers unique advantages over and above oestriol. I conclude that it would be preferable for a doctor to recommend the synthetic oestrogen to women who want relief from the symptoms of the menopause and protection from osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:8863143

  18. Weighing the cons and pros: women's reasons for discontinuing hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Reece, Susan McClennan

    2002-01-01

    As a greater proportion of U.S. women move into midlife, there has been increased interest in meeting their preventive health needs. Although hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may not be an option for all postmenopausal women, it has been documented as prolonging life expectancy and protecting against osteoporosis. Despite its advantages for many women, often those who initiate HRT discontinue its use within a short time. The purpose of this qualitative study is to gain insights into women's reasons for discontinuing HRT. We collected data by semistructured interview from three diverse samples: 10 women who had been on HRT for two years or less, 11 health care providers of women, and 34 women who had gone off HRT. Reasons for discontinuing fell into seven broad categories: general Gestalt, somatic complaints, mind (knowledge, emotion), not being heard, hassles, indecisive medical community, and cons outweighed pros. Results indicate that women who discontinue HRT do so for a variety of reasons, many of which are connected to the health care system and its providers. Outcomes also suggest that sharing in decision making along with increased education, support, and individualized care are necessary to better address the preventive health care needs of postmenopausal women. PMID:11822557

  19. Should a doctor prescribe hormone replacement therapy which has been manufactured from mare's urine?

    PubMed Central

    Cox, D

    1996-01-01

    Many clinicians are experiencing consumer resistance to the prescription of equine HRT (that is hormone replacement therapy which has been manufactured from mare's urine). In this paper I consider the ethical implications of prescribing these preparations. I decide that patients should have a right to refuse such treatment but also ask whether a prescribing doctor should choose one preparation over another on moral grounds. I determine that there is prima facie evidence to suggest that mares may suffer and that prescription of equine HRT (instead of synthetic oestrogen-oestriol) would therefore have to be justified in terms of either offering greater benefits to the women or offering greater value for money to the health service. I find that there is no substantial evidence to suggest that equine HRT offers unique advantages over and above oestriol. I conclude that it would be preferable for a doctor to recommend the synthetic oestrogen to women who want relief from the symptoms of the menopause and protection from osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. PMID:8863143

  20. Evidence against benefit from replacement doses of thyroid hormones in nonthyroidal illness (NTI): studies using turpentine oil-injected rat.

    PubMed

    Chopra, I J; Huang, T S; Boado, R; Solomon, D H; Chua Teco, G N

    1987-12-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with saline or turpentine oil (5 mu 1/g bw sc at 3-day intervals x3) with or without replacement doses of T4 (0.8 g/100 g bw/day ip) or T3(0.3 microgram/100 g bw/day ip). Injection of turpentine oil to the rat consistently caused a significant reduction in serum total T4, total T3, free T4 index and TSH. Despite marked changes in thyroidal economy in experimental rat, iodothyronine 5'-monodeiodinating activity (MA) in the liver, the kidney and the hearth and the hepatic alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity were decreased inconsistently and when decreased, the various enzyme activities were not influenced appreciably by treatment with replacement doses of T4 or T3. Cerebral cortical T4 5-MA was normal or increased in the turpentine oil-injected rat. Dermal T4 5-MA was decreased in the turpentine oil-injected rat and replacement doses of thyroid hormones did not normalize it. Urinary excretion of urea nitrogen was normal in the turpentine oil-injected rat and did not change appreciably after treatment with thyroid hormones. Our data suggest that replacement doses of thyroid hormones are not beneficial to a host with altered thyroid economy during a systemic illness. PMID:3440823

  1. Different effect of hormone replacement therapy, DHEAS and tibolone on endothelial function in postmenopausal women with increased cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Antonello; Gambacciani, Marco; Vitale, Cristiana; Monteleone, Patrizia; Ciaponi, Massimo; Fini, Massimo; Genazzani, Andrea R; Mercuro, Giuseppe; Rosano, Giuseppe M C

    2005-04-11

    Menopause is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and with a decrease in endothelial function. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) improves endothelial function in post-menopausal women (PMW) without established atherosclerosis. New alternative treatments, among which tibolone (T) and DHEAS have been suggested to reduce postmenopausal cardiovascular risk. Although, in vitro animal studies have suggested that T and DHEAS improve endothelial function, their effect in humans has never been tested. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of HRT (continuous combined 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogen plus 2.5 mg/d medoxyprogesterone) DHEAS and T on endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD), plasma nitrite, nitrate and endothelin-1 levels in 16 PMW with increased cardiovascular risk in a double-blinded, double-crossover study. Women were randomized and treated for 4 weeks with HRT, T or DHEAS. Brachial artery diameter, FMD, endothelin-1 and plasma nitrite and nitrate levels were measured at baseline and after each treatment phase. Brachial artery diameters remained unchanged after each treatment phase. HRT significantly improved FMD compared to both baseline and to T and DHEAS therapies while no effect of T or DHEAS on FMD was noted. In conclusion, HRT, but neither T nor DHEAS, improves endothelial function and reduces plasma levels of endothelin-1 in PMW at risk of CAD. PMID:15780531

  2. Combined hormonal infusion simulates the metabolic response to injury.

    PubMed Central

    Bessey, P Q; Watters, J M; Aoki, T T; Wilmore, D W

    1984-01-01

    To investigate the role of hormones as mediators of the metabolic response to injury, nine normal male volunteers received a continuous 74-hour infusion of the three 'stress' hormones: cortisol, glucagon, and epinephrine. As a control, each subject received a saline infusion during another 4-day period. Diets were constant and matched on both occasions. Hormonal infusion achieved hormone concentrations similar to those seen following mild-moderate injury. With this alteration in the endocrine environment significant hypermetabolism, negative nitrogen and potassium balances, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, sodium retention, and peripheral leukocytosis were observed. Additional studies with single hormone infusions indicated that these responses resulted from both additive and synergistic interactions of the hormones. Triple hormone infusion simulated many of the metabolic responses observed following mild-moderate injury and other catabolic illnesses. PMID:6431917

  3. Unequal risks for breast cancer associated with different hormone replacement therapies: results from the E3N cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Agnès; Berrino, Franco; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2008-01-01

    Large numbers of hormone replacement therapies (HRTs) are available for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. It is still unclear whether some are more deleterious than others regarding breast cancer risk. The goal of this study was to assess and compare the association between different HRTs and breast cancer risk, using data from the French E3N cohort study. Invasive breast cancer cases were identified through biennial self-administered questionnaires completed from 1990 to 2002. During follow-up (mean duration 8.1 postmenopausal years), 2,354 cases of invasive breast cancer occurred among 80,377 postmenopausal women. Compared with HRT never-use, use of estrogen alone was associated with a significant 1.29-fold increased risk (95% confidence interval 1.02–1.65). The association of estrogen-progestagen combinations with breast cancer risk varied significantly according to the type of progestagen: the relative risk was 1.00 (0.83–1.22) for estrogen–progesterone, 1.16 (0.94–1.43) for estrogen–dydrogesterone, and 1.69 (1.50–1.91) for estrogen combined with other progestagens. This latter category involves progestins with different physiologic activities (androgenic, nonandrogenic, antiandrogenic), but their associations with breast cancer risk did not differ significantly from one another. This study found no evidence of an association with risk according to the route of estrogen administration (oral or transdermal/percutaneous). These findings suggest that the choice of the progestagen component in combined HRT is of importance regarding breast cancer risk; it could be preferable to use progesterone or dydrogesterone. PMID:17333341

  4. Efficacy of Postoperative Hormone Replacement Therapy on Prognosis of Patients with Serous Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong-Li; Chen, Jin-Hong; Lu, Wen; Li, Bi-Lan; Zhu, Qin-Yi; Wan, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecological cancer-associated death. Iatrogenic menopause might adversely affect the quality of life and health outcomes in young female cancer survivors. We evaluated whether postoperative hormone replacement therapy (HRT) had a negative influence on the progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with papillary serous ovarian cancer (SOC). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with papillary SOC, treated from January 1980 to December 2009, who suffered from menopause with or without HRT. Clinical characteristics of patients were compared between the two groups (HRT and non-HRT). Blood samples were collected from all the participants to detect serum cancer antigen (CA) 125. Hazard ratios with 95% confidential intervals for each variable were calculated by univariable and multivariable conditional Logistic regression analyses. Results: Among 112 identified patients, 31 were HRT users and 81 were not. The two groups did not significantly differ in median age at diagnosis (t = 0.652, P = 0.513), International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (χ2 = 0.565, P = 0.754), differentiation (χ2 = 1.728, P = 0.422), resection status (χ2 = 0.070, P = 0.791), relapse (χ2 = 0.109, P = 0.741), chemotherapy course (t = −1.079, P = 0.282), follow-up interval (t = 0.878, P = 0.382), or PFS (t = 0.580, P = 0.562). Median Kupperman score at the onset of HRT was 30.81 and 12.19 after the therapy (t = 3.302, P = 0.001). According to the analysis, the strongest independent variables in predicting PFS were FIGO stage and disease that was not optimally debulked. Conclusions: Postoperative HRT is not a prognostic factor for PFS of patients with papillary SOC. However, multicenter studies are needed to verify and extend our findings. PMID:27231169

  5. The Risk of Breast Cancer in Women Using Menopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jui-Yao; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2016-01-01

    Menopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) increases the risk of breast cancer in Western countries; however, there are fewer reports from the Asian population, which has a lower incidence of breast cancer. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted by analyzing longitudinal National Health Insurance claim data of a 200,000-person national representative cohort. A total of 22,929 women aged ≥45 years in 1997 without previous diagnosis of breast cancer were enrolled and stratified into two birth cohorts born before or after 1933. HRT prescriptions were traced in outpatient data files and incident breast cancer cases were identified from 1997 to 2004. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze breast cancer hazard ratio (HR). HRT users were censored after they discontinued HRT. The results showed that women born during 1933–1952 had a twofold increased risk of breast cancer (HR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.47–3.00) compared with women born before 1933, when adjusted for HRT use. When adjusted for the birth-cohort difference, HRT users had significantly increased breast cancer HR versus non-users after four years of use (adjusted HR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.03–2.13); the HR further increased to 1.95 (95% CI = 1.34–2.84) after eight years of use. In conclusion, a longer duration of current HRT use was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer independent of the birth-cohort difference. PMID:27187426

  6. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy modifies skeletal muscle composition and function: a study with monozygotic twin pairs.

    PubMed

    Ronkainen, Paula H A; Kovanen, Vuokko; Alén, Markku; Pöllänen, Eija; Palonen, Eeva-Maija; Ankarberg-Lindgren, Carina; Hämäläinen, Esa; Turpeinen, Ursula; Kujala, Urho M; Puolakka, Jukka; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2009-07-01

    We investigated whether long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with mobility and lower limb muscle performance and composition in postmenopausal women. Fifteen 54- to 62-yr-old monozygotic female twin pairs discordant for HRT were recruited from the Finnish Twin Cohort. Habitual (HWS) and maximal (MWS) walking speeds over 10 m, thigh muscle composition, lower body muscle power assessed as vertical jumping height, and maximal isometric hand grip and knee extension strengths were measured. Intrapair differences (IPD%) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The mean duration of HRT use was 6.9 +/- 4.1 yr. MWS was on average 7% (0.9 to 13.1%, P = 0.019) and muscle power 16% (-0.8 to 32.8%, P = 0.023) greater in HRT users than in their cotwins. Thigh muscle cross-sectional area tended to be larger (IPD% = 6%, 95% CI: -0.07 to 12.1%, P = 0.065), relative muscle area greater (IPD% = 8%, CI: 0.8 to 15.0%, P = 0.047), and relative fat area smaller (IPD% = -5%, CI: -11.3 to 1.2%, P = 0.047) in HRT users than in their sisters. There were no significant differences in maximal isometric strengths or HWS between users and nonusers. Subgroup analyses revealed that estrogen-containing therapies (11 pairs) significantly decreased total body and thigh fat content, whereas tibolone (4 pairs) tended to increase muscle cross-sectional area. This study showed that long-term HRT was associated with better mobility, greater muscle power, and favorable body and muscle composition among 54- to 62-yr-old women. The results indicate that HRT is a potential agent in preventing muscle weakness and mobility limitation in older women. PMID:19246654

  7. The effects of luteinizing hormone ablation/replacement versus steroid ablation/replacement on gene expression in the primate corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Cecily V.; Hennebold, Jon D.; Stouffer, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to provide a genome-wide analysis of the effects of luteinizing hormone (LH) versus steroid ablation/replacement on gene expression in the developed corpus luteum (CL) in primates during the menstrual cycle. On Days 9–11 of the luteal phase, female rhesus monkeys were left untreated (control) or received a GnRH antagonist Antide (A), A + LH, A + LH + the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor Trilostane (TRL) or A + LH + TRL + a progestin R5020. On Day 12 of the luteal phase, CL were removed and samples of RNA from individual CL were hybridized to Affymetrix™ rhesus macaque total genome microarrays. The greatest number of altered transcripts was associated with the ablation/replacement of LH, while steroid ablation/progestin replacement affected fewer transcripts. Replacement of LH during Antide treatment restored the expression of most transcripts to control levels. Validation of a subset of transcripts revealed that the expression patterns were similar between microarray and real-time PCR. Analyses of protein levels were subsequently determined for two transcripts. This is the first genome-wide analysis of LH and steroid regulation of gene transcription in the developed primate CL. Further analysis of novel transcripts identified in this data set can clarify the relative role for LH and steroids in CL maintenance and luteolysis. PMID:19168862

  8. Hormonal regulation of rat hypothalamic neuropeptide mRNAs: effect of hypophysectomy and hormone replacement on growth-hormone-releasing factor, somatostatin and the insulin-like growth factors.

    PubMed

    Wood, T L; Berelowitz, M; Gelato, M C; Roberts, C T; LeRoith, D; Millard, W J; McKelvy, J F

    1991-03-01

    Hormonal feedback regulation of hypothalamic peptides putatively involved in growth hormone (GH) regulation has been studied by measurement of steady-state mRNA levels in male hypophysectomized rats with or without thyroid hormone, corticosterone, testosterone or GH replacement. Hypothalamic GH-releasing factor (GRF) mRNA levels increased progressively following hypophysectomy to 420% of sham levels after 15 days while hypothalamic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) mRNA levels decreased to less than 40% of sham levels. Whole hypothalamic somatostatin mRNA levels were not significantly different from sham. One week of continuous GH infusion restored hypothalamic IGF-I mRNA to levels (95%) indistinguishable from those in sham-operated controls but had no effect on either IGF-II or GRF mRNA. Thyroid hormone, corticosterone and testosterone treatment without GH had no effect on the hypophysectomy-induced reduction of either IGF-I or IGF-II mRNA levels but reversed the elevation of GRF mRNA. We conclude that hypothalamic IGF-I may be involved in GH feedback regulation and thus may function as a hypothalamic modulator of GH. In contrast, IGF-II may be regulated by one of the pituitary trophic hormones but not by GH or the target hormones tested. Finally, hypothalamic GRF mRNA regulation appears to be complex and may include target hormone feedback. PMID:1674982

  9. The influence of growth hormone deficiency, growth hormone replacement therapy, and other aspects of hypopituitarism on fracture rate and bone mineral density. .

    PubMed

    Wüster, C; Abs, R; Bengtsson, B A; Bennmarker, H; Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Hernberg-Ståhl, E; Monson, J P; Westberg, B; Wilton, P

    2001-02-01

    To assess the influence of factors affecting fracture risk and bone density in adult hypopituitary patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), data from a large-scale pharmacoepidemiological survey (the Pharmacia & Upjohn International Metabolic Database [KIMS]) were analyzed and compared with data from a control population (the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study [EVOS]). The KIMS group consisted of 2084 patients (1112 men and 972 women) with various types of pituitary disease and EVOS consisted of 1176 individuals (581 men and 595 women). Fracture and bone mineral density (BMD) data were available from 2024 patients from the KIMS group and 392 patients from EVOS. The prevalence of fractures in patients with hypopituitarism was 2.66 times that in the non-GH-deficient EVOS population. Adult-onset hypopituitarism with GHD was associated with a higher fracture risk than childhood-onset disease, and patients with isolated GHD had a similar prevalence of fractures to those with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. Hormonal replacement therapy with L-thyroxine, glucocorticoids, and sex steroids did not affect the risk of fracture in KIMS patients. In addition, fracture rates in KIMS were independent of body mass index (BMI) and the country of origin. However, smoking was associated with a higher fracture rate in this group. In summary, this is the first large-scale analysis to support the hypothesis of an increased fracture risk in adult patients with hypopituitarism and GHD. This increased risk appears to be attributable to GHD alone, rather than to other pituitary hormone deficiencies or to their replacement therapy. PMID:11204440

  10. Combined hormonal contraceptives: prescribing patterns, compliance, and benefits versus risks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Combined hormonal contraceptives [combined oral contraceptives (COCs)] have been available for over 50 years and the impact of this invention may not be overestimated. Today over 100 million women are current users and in Western Europe and the United States approximately 80% of women of fertile ages can be considered as ever-users. Over the years several drawbacks have been identified and media alarms on risks are frequently presented, resulting in suboptimal compliance and low compliance and continuation rates. Poor compliance and discontinuation is a big problem and is not generally identified by prescribers. During ideal use COCs offer very good protection against unwanted pregnancies, however there is a big problem with compliance and continuation and thus the ‘real-life’ efficacy is much lower. Reasons for poor compliance include side effects and fear of side effects and it is crucial that the prescriber gives the individual woman thorough and balanced information on the benefits and risks. Most well known is the increased risk of venous thromboembolism, but also an elevated risk of arterial thrombosis and several types of cancer has been reported. The risk estimates are low but according to the large number of users a substantial number of extra cases will occur. However, use of COCs also offers several additional health benefits with significant impact on morbidity and quality of life. COC use is associated with a substantial decrease in the risk of ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer and colorectal cancer. Moreover, COCs are a major option of treatment for women suffering from heavy menstrual bleeding and dysmenorrhea as well as hirsutism and acne vulgaris. The net effect of the additional health effects of COC- use may very well be positive, i.e. a slight increase in life expectancy. PMID:25360241

  11. Effects of menopause and hormone replacement therapy on serum levels of coenzyme Q10 and other lipid-soluble antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Palan, Prabhudas R; Connell, Kathleen; Ramirez, Elizabeth; Inegbenijie, Christian; Gavara, Rachana Y; Ouseph, Jacob A; Mikhail, Magdy S

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines the influence of menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on serum levels of coenzyme Q(10) and other lipid-soluble antioxidants in normal women. Serum levels of coenzyme Q(10), alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, beta-carotene and lycopene in 50 premenopausal women (not using oral contraceptives), 33 healthy postmenopausal and 15 postmenopausal women on HRT ("Prempo"; combination of 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen and 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate) were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Lipid profiles were also analyzed. Significantly higher serum coenzyme Q(10) and alpha-tocopherol levels were detected in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women (P < 0.05, and < 0.001); whereas, in postmenopausal subjects on HRT, we detected a significant decrease in coenzyme Q(10) and gamma-tocopherol levels (P < 0.001, and < 0.05) and increased alpha-tocopherol levels (P < 0.05). Serum levels of beta-carotene, lycopene, LDL, HDL, cholesterol and triglyceride were comparable among the study groups. Coenzyme Q(10) is postulated to be involved in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) because of its bioenergetics role in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and its antioxidant properties at the mitochondrial and extramitochondrial levels. The decrease in serum concentrations of coenzyme Q(10), produced by HRT, may promote oxygen free radical-induced membrane damage and may, thus alter cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women. HRT-induced reductions in lipid-soluble antioxidant(s) levels, and its potential consequences on CVD, needs to be further investigated. PMID:16873930

  12. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause heavy bleeding and menstrual pain, such as fibroids and endometriosis . • Used continuously, they can reduce the ... Estrogen: A female hormone produced in the ovaries. Fibroids: Benign growths that form in the muscle of ...

  13. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  14. Hormonal replacement therapy and aging: Asian practical recommendations on testosterone supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Chan

    2003-12-01

    Profound and diffuse alterations in the production of gonadal and adrenal androgens as well as growth hormone are associated with aging. To convey this concept more appropriately, partial endocrine deficiency in the aging male (PEDAM) was introduced as a term for the phenomenon of hormonal alterations in the aging male. Hormones responsible for some of the manifestations associated with male aging are testosterone, growth hormone, dehydroepiansdrosterone (DHEA), melatonin, thyroid hormones and leptin. Of these, testosterone has been widely investigated and its beneficial and adverse effects on male bodily systems are relatively well established. However, a serious body of confusion and misunderstandings surrounding the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of men suspected of having androgen deficiency has been raised. Therefore, it is timely to provide practical criteria for diagnosis and treatment to avoid misconception about the use of testosterone in the aging male. To provide an understanding and information of the issues, the following headings are summarized: (1) Important clinical consideration on testosterone supplementation in the aging male; (2) Asian practical recommendations on testosterone supplementation in the aging male. PMID:14695985

  15. Role of chemotherapy in combination with hormonal therapy in first-line treatment of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ceresoli, G L; De Vincenzo, F; Sauta, M G; Bonomi, M; Zucali, P A

    2015-12-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is a heterogeneous disease, whose growth is driven by androgens and androgen receptors. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the standard treatment of hormone-naïve metastatic disease. The majority of patients are treated with medical castration with GnRH agonists or antagonists, which usually determines a profound PSA decline and a radiological and clinical benefit. However, essentially all patients experience progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and overall prognosis remains disappointing. Early targeting of cells that survive hormonal therapy may potentially prevent the development of CRPC. Several trials have explored the use of combination therapy with ADT and chemotherapy, targeting both the androgen dependent and independent cells simultaneously. Docetaxel was administered in combination with ADT to men with hormone-naïve metastatic prostate cancer, in the attempt to improve the duration and quality of patient survival. Three large randomized trials (the GETUG-15, CHAARTED and more recently the STAMPEDE study) have assessed these endpoints, with partially conflicting results. Overall, the results from these trials seem to support the use of early docetaxel combined with ADT in selected hormone-naïve metastatic PC patients. Full publication of the results of all studies, with longer follow-up, and the results of other ongoing trials in this setting will hopefully further define the role and the indications of this therapeutic strategy. PMID:26222275

  16. Combined enzyme replacement and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Hurler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bijarnia, Sunita; Shaw, Peter; Vimpani, Anne; Smith, Robert; Pacey, Verity; O'Grady, Helen; Christodoulou, John; Sillence, David

    2009-01-01

    We report the long-term follow-up of successful treatment of mucopolysaccharidosis type I H (MPS IH, Hurler syndrome) with combined enzyme replacement therapy and haematopoietic progenitor stem cell transplant. PMID:19712183

  17. [Replacement and supplementation of DHEA--is it a wellness hormone?].

    PubMed

    Brückel, Joachim

    2005-02-17

    DHEA is an adrenal steroid hormone, the physiological role of which is largely unknown. Since the DHEA/DHEAS levels decrease appreciably with age in most people, DHEA is often considered to have a role to play in the aging process, and its use as an anti-aging or wellness hormone to diminish age-related complaints is often propagated. Studies on this are, however, meager. Currently, there is no definitive indication for DHEA supplementation in persons with low DHEA levels. In adrenal cortex insufficiency in contrast, there is an absolute DHEA deficiency. In women suffering from Addisons's disease or pituitary insufficiency with high-grade DHEA and androgen deficiency, however, substitution makes good pathophysiological sense, and treatment can be useful. PMID:18441581

  18. Solution of the structure of Aspergillus niger acid alpha-amylase by combined molecular replacement and multiple isomorphous replacement methods.

    PubMed

    Brady, R L; Brzozowski, A M; Derewenda, Z S; Dodson, E J; Dodson, G G

    1991-08-01

    The crystal structure of Aspergillus niger acid alpha-amylase was solved by a combination of multiple isomorphous replacement and molecular replacement methods. The atomic coordinates of Aspergillus oryzae (TAKA) alpha-amylase (entry 2TAA in the Protein Data Bank) and experimental diffraction data from a new monoclinic crystal form of TAKA alpha-amylase, were used during the procedure. Sequence identity between the two proteins is approximately 80%. The atomic parameters derived from the molecular replacement solution were too inaccurate to initiate least-squares crystallographic refinement. The molecular model was extensively revised against the experimental electron density map calculated at 3 A resolution. Subsequent crystallographic refinement of this model using synchrotron data to 2.1 A resolution led to a conventional R factor of 16.8%. The structure conforms well to expected stereochemistry with bond lengths deviating from target values by 0.031 A, and planar groups showing a root-mean-square deviation from ideal planes of 0.025 A. PMID:1930834

  19. Testosterone hormone replacement therapy: state-of-the-art and emerging technologies.

    PubMed

    Leichtnam, Marie-Laure; Rolland, Hervé; Wüthrich, Patrick; Guy, Richard H

    2006-06-01

    In the human male, testosterone is the major circulating androgen. The clinical effects of androgen are numerous, and testosterone deficiency is associated with a number of clinical abnormalities. At present, a variety of preparations containing testosterone is available for the treatment of androgen deficiency. Ideally, those treatments have to produce and maintain physiologic serum concentrations of the hormone. This article reviews the current existing testosterone dosage forms on the market with their advantages and drawbacks and examines new and emerging technology developments concerning this therapy. In particular, the latest innovations in transdermal delivery are explored. PMID:16755346

  20. [Treatment of osteoporosis (with the exception of hormone replacement and its derivates].

    PubMed

    Lamy, Olivier; Mischler, Corinne; Krieg, Marc-Antoine

    2002-08-01

    Calcium and vitamin D supplementation are warranted for the treatment of osteoporosis, when other specific drugs are used. Vitamin D supplementation is necessary when the plasma level of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D is below 30 nmol/l (12 pg/l) in order to avoid any increase of the plasma parathyroid hormone level. Bisphosphonates are the most widely drugs used. Recent advances will provide patients with a more convenient therapeutically equivalent alternative: the once-weekly oral dosing regimen and probably the possibility to give infusions at intervals of up to one year. Parathyroid hormone administered subcutaneously daily produced a dramatic increase of trabecular and cortical bone mineral density, and an important decrease of vertebral and nonvertebral fracture risk. Strontium is a new original drug, which stimulates bone formation, and inhibits bone resorption. It significantly improves trabecular and cortical bone mass. Calcitonin not only prevents the recurrence of vertebral fractures, but possibly could decrease hip fractures risk. Hydrochlorothiazide preserves the bone mineral density, and decreases nonvertebral fracture risk, as showed in epidemiological studies. Large clinical trials with statins therapy in appropriate populations are required to find out whether these drugs have any role in preventing fractures. PMID:12357732

  1. Current state of hormone replacement therapy: the case for using trimegestone.

    PubMed

    Wahab, May; Al-Azzawi, Farook

    2006-07-01

    Estrogen deficiency has a negative impact on the quality of life of postmenopausal women and is associated with vasomotor symptoms, insomnia and emotional lability. Other manifestations of estrogen deficiency include dry skin, dry vagina and dyspareunia, in addition to bone loss. Estrogen replacement effectively reverses these changes. The only indication for the administration of a progestogen is to protect the postmenopausal uterus against the potential development of endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. PMID:19803961

  2. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... the foods you eat Sexual function Reproduction Mood Endocrine glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, thymus, thyroid, adrenal ...

  3. Effect of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy on bone mineral density in premenopausal and perimenopausal women: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, S L; Lebrun, C M

    2006-01-01

    Seventy five articles on the effect of oral contraceptives and other hormone replacement on bone density in premenopausal and perimenopausal women were reviewed. The evidence was appraised using the Oxford Centre for Evidence‐Based Medicine levels of evidence. There is good evidence for a positive effect of oral contraceptives on bone density in perimenopausal women, and fair evidence for a positive effect in “hypothalamic” oligo/amenorrhoeic premenopausal women. There is limited evidence for a positive effect in healthy and anorexic premenopausal women. In hypothalamic oligo/amenorrhoeic women, baseline bone density has been shown to be significantly lower than that in healthy controls, therefore the decision to treat is clinically more important. The ideal formulation(s) and duration of treatment remain to be determined by further longitudinal and prospective randomised controlled trials in larger subject populations. PMID:16371485

  4. A polymorphism in the leptin receptor gene at position 223 is associated with growth hormone replacement therapy responsiveness in idiopathic short stature and growth hormone deficiency patients.

    PubMed

    Su, Pen-Hua; Yang, Shun-Fa; Yu, Ju-Shan; Chen, Suh-Jen; Chen, Jia-Yuh

    2012-12-01

    We hypothesized that responses to growth hormone (GH) therapy by idiopathic short stature (ISS) and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) patients were associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes. We retrospectively enrolled ISS (n = 32) and GHD (n = 38) patients and forty healthy age-and gender-matched children. They were genotyped for the LEP promoter at nt.-2548, and LEPR K109R and LEPR Q223R polymorphisms. Clinical and laboratory variables were determined before and after 2 years of GH treatment. ISS patients with G/A or A/A genotypes of the LEPR Q223R SNP had a significantly higher height velocity (cm/y) than ISS patients with the G/G genotype at 2 years after GH treatment. For GHD patients, G/A or A/A genotype of the LEPR K109R SNP was associated with higher body weight, higher BMI, and higher weight velocity than patients with the G/G genotype before GH treatment, but not after GH treatment. G/A or A/A genotype of the LEPR Q223R SNP was associated with a significantly higher body weight, higher height velocity before treatment, but not after GH treatment. G/A or A/A genotype of the LEPR Q223R SNP was associated with a significantly higher weight velocity before treatment, but a significantly lower weight velocity was found at 2 years after GH treatment. These results suggest LEPR Q223R SNP (rs1137101) is associated with outcomes of GH replacement therapy in ISS and GHD patients. PMID:23009903

  5. Effects of oral chlortetracycline and dietary protein level on plasma concentrations of growth hormone and thyroid hormones in beef steers before and after challenge with a combination of thyrotropin-releasing hormone and growth hormone-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Rumsey, T S; McLeod, K; Elsasser, T H; Kahl, S; Baldwin, R L

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a subtherapeutic level of chlortetracycline (CTC) fed to growing beef steers under conditions of limited and adequate dietary protein on plasma concentrations of GH, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid hormones before and after an injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) + GHRH. Young beef steers (n = 32; average BW = 285 kg) were assigned to a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments of either a 10 or 13% crude protein diet (70% concentrate, 15% wheat straw, and 15% cottonseed hulls) and either a corn meal carrier or carrier + 350 mg of CTC daily top dressed on the diet. Steers were fed ad libitum amounts of diet for 56 d, and a jugular catheter was then placed in each steer in four groups (two steers from each treatment combination per group) during four consecutive days (one group per day). Each steer was injected via the jugular catheter with 1.0 microg/kg BW TRH + .1 microg/kg BW GHRH in 10 mL of saline at 0800. Blood samples were collected at -30, -15, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 120, 240, and 360 min after releasing hormone injection. Plasma samples were analyzed for GH, TSH, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). After 84 d on trial, the steers were slaughtered and the pituitary and samples of liver were collected and analyzed for 5'-deiodinase activity. Feeding CTC attenuated the GH response to releasing hormone challenge by 26% for both area under the response curve (P<.03) and peak response (P<.10). Likewise, CTC attenuated the TSH response to releasing hormone challenge for area under the response curve by 16% (P<.10) and peak response by 33% (P<.02), and attenuated the T4 response for area under the curve by 12% (P<.08) and peak response by 14% (P<.04). Type II deiodinase activity in the pituitary was 36% less (P<.02) in CTC-fed steers than in steers not fed CTC. The results of this study are interpreted to suggest that feeding subtherapeutic levels of CTC to young

  6. Testosterone Replacement Therapy Prevents Alterations of Coronary Vascular Reactivity Caused by Hormone Deficiency Induced by Castration

    PubMed Central

    Rouver, Wender Nascimento; Delgado, Nathalie Tristão Banhos; Menezes, Jussara Bezerra; Santos, Roger Lyrio; Moyses, Margareth Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effects of chronic treatment with different doses of testosterone on endothelium–dependent coronary vascular reactivity in male rats. Adult male rats were divided into four experimental groups: control (SHAM), castrated (CAST), castrated and immediately treated subcutaneously with a physiological dose (0.5 mg/kg/day, PHYSIO group) or supraphysiological dose (2.5 mg/kg/day, SUPRA group) of testosterone for 15 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was assessed at the end of treatment through tail plethysmography. After euthanasia, the heart was removed and coronary vascular reactivity was assessed using the Langendorff retrograde perfusion technique. A dose–response curve for bradykinin (BK) was constructed, followed by inhibition with 100 μM L-NAME, 2.8 μM indomethacin (INDO), L-NAME + INDO, or L-NAME + INDO + 0.75 μM clotrimazole (CLOT). We observed significant endothelium–dependent, BK–induced coronary vasodilation, which was abolished in the castrated group and restored in the PHYSIO and SUPRA groups. Furthermore, castration modulated the lipid and hormonal profiles and decreased body weight, and testosterone therapy restored all of these parameters. Our results revealed an increase in SBP in the SUPRA group. In addition, our data led us to conclude that physiological concentrations of testosterone may play a beneficial role in the cardiovascular system by maintaining an environment that is favourable for the activity of an endothelium–dependent vasodilator without increasing SBP. PMID:26322637

  7. Effects of hormone replacement therapy and aging on cognition: evidence for executive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wegesin, Domonick J; Stern, Yaakov

    2007-05-01

    The present study was designed to explore whether the frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging may be extended to describe the cognitive effects associated with estrogen use in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal estrogen-only users, estrogen + progesterone users, and non-users (60-80 years old), as well as young, regularly cycling women (18-30 years old) completed an item and source memory task. Since source memory is thought to rely more on executive processes than item memory, we hypothesized that aging and estrogen effects would be greater for source memory than for item memory. Neuropsychological tests explored whether the effects of aging and estrogen use were revealed on other tests of frontal lobe function. Results from the experimental task revealed greater aging and estrogen effects for source memory than for item memory, and neuropsychological results revealed aging and estrogen effects on a subset of tests of executive function. Women on estrogen + progesterone therapy did not outperform non-users, suggesting that the addition of progesterone to hormone therapy may mitigate the benefits induced by estrogen use alone. Overall, findings support the hypothesis that estrogen use may temper age-related cognitive decline by helping to maintain functions subserved by the frontal lobes. PMID:17453562

  8. Testosterone Replacement Therapy Prevents Alterations of Coronary Vascular Reactivity Caused by Hormone Deficiency Induced by Castration.

    PubMed

    Rouver, Wender Nascimento; Delgado, Nathalie Tristão Banhos; Menezes, Jussara Bezerra; Santos, Roger Lyrio; Moyses, Margareth Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effects of chronic treatment with different doses of testosterone on endothelium-dependent coronary vascular reactivity in male rats. Adult male rats were divided into four experimental groups: control (SHAM), castrated (CAST), castrated and immediately treated subcutaneously with a physiological dose (0.5 mg/kg/day, PHYSIO group) or supraphysiological dose (2.5 mg/kg/day, SUPRA group) of testosterone for 15 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was assessed at the end of treatment through tail plethysmography. After euthanasia, the heart was removed and coronary vascular reactivity was assessed using the Langendorff retrograde perfusion technique. A dose-response curve for bradykinin (BK) was constructed, followed by inhibition with 100 μM L-NAME, 2.8 μM indomethacin (INDO), L-NAME + INDO, or L-NAME + INDO + 0.75 μM clotrimazole (CLOT). We observed significant endothelium-dependent, BK-induced coronary vasodilation, which was abolished in the castrated group and restored in the PHYSIO and SUPRA groups. Furthermore, castration modulated the lipid and hormonal profiles and decreased body weight, and testosterone therapy restored all of these parameters. Our results revealed an increase in SBP in the SUPRA group. In addition, our data led us to conclude that physiological concentrations of testosterone may play a beneficial role in the cardiovascular system by maintaining an environment that is favourable for the activity of an endothelium-dependent vasodilator without increasing SBP. PMID:26322637

  9. EFFECT OF HORMONAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY ON C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AND CELL-ADHESION MOLECULES IN POSTMENOPAUSAL MOLECULES IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of two commonly prescribed formulations of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) on inflammatory markers were assessed in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, crossover study consisting of three different phases, each lasting 8 weeks: 1) placebo, 2) conjugated equine estrogens (C...

  10. Combined aortic and mitral valve replacement in an adult with Scheie's disease.

    PubMed

    Butman, S M; Karl, L; Copeland, J G

    1989-07-01

    Mitral, aortic, and coronary arterial disease have been described in the various mucopolysaccharidoses. We report the first successful combined aortic and mitral valve replacement in an adult female patient with severe aortic and mitral stenosis due to Scheie's syndrome, a mucopolysaccharide storage disease. Both annulae were of sufficient integrity for good prosthetic placement, and the patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery. PMID:2500310

  11. Hormone replacement therapy improves contractile function and myonuclear organization of single muscle fibres from postmenopausal monozygotic female twin pairs

    PubMed Central

    Qaisar, Rizwan; Renaud, Guillaume; Hedstrom, Yvette; Pöllänen, Eija; Ronkainen, Paula; Kaprio, Jaakko; Alen, Markku; Sipilä, Sarianna; Artemenko, Konstantin; Bergquist, Jonas; Kovanen, Vuokko; Larsson, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a decline in muscle mass and strength leading to increased physical dependency in old age. Postmenopausal women experience a greater decline than men of similar age in parallel with the decrease in female sex steroid hormone production. We recruited six monozygous female twin pairs (55–59 years old) where only one twin pair was on hormone replacement therapy (HRT use = 7.8 ± 4.3 years) to investigate the association of HRT with the cytoplasmic volume supported by individual myonuclei (myonuclear domain (MND) size,) together with specific force at the single fibre level. HRT use was associated with a significantly smaller (∼27%; P < 0.05) mean MND size in muscle fibres expressing the type I but not the IIa myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform. In comparison to non-users, higher specific force was recorded in HRT users both in muscle fibres expressing type I (∼27%; P < 0.05) and type IIa (∼23%; P < 0.05) MyHC isoforms. These differences were fibre-type dependent, i.e. the higher specific force in fast-twitch muscle fibres was primarily caused by higher force per cross-bridge while slow-twitch fibres relied on both a higher number and force per cross-bridge. HRT use had no effect on fibre cross-sectional area (CSA), velocity of unloaded shortening (V0) and relative proportion of MyHC isoforms. In conclusion, HRT appears to have significant positive effects on both regulation of muscle contraction and myonuclei organization in postmenopausal women. PMID:23459759

  12. Molecular modulation of estrogen-induced apoptosis by synthetic progestins in hormone replacement therapy: An insight into the Women’s Health Initiative study

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Elizabeth; Fan, Ping; Jordan, Virgil Craig

    2014-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is widely used to manage menopausal symptoms in women, and can comprise an estrogen alone or an estrogen combined with a progestin. The Women’s Health Initiative demonstrated in their randomized trials that estrogen alone HRT decreases the risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women, while combined estrogen plus a progestin (medroxyprogesterone acetate, MPA) HRT increases this risk. Long-term estrogen-deprived MCF-7:5C cells were used to model the post-menopausal breast cancer cell environment. MPA is able to modify E2-induced apoptosis in MCF-7:5C cells. MPA, similar to dexamethasone (Dex) increases GR transcriptional activity, increases SGK1, a GR target gene, and can be blocked by RU486 (an antiglucocorticoid), suggesting it functions through the GR. Norethindrone acetate (NETA), another progestin used in HRT, acts like an estrogen at high doses, up-regulating ER-target genes and generating apoptosis in MCF-7:5C cells. The data suggests that women taking HRT comprising an estrogen plus MPA may have an increased the risk of breast cancer due to MPA acting as a glucocorticoid and blunting E2-induced apoptosis in this environment. Therefore, perhaps other approved progestins (e.g. NETA) should be considered as alternatives to MPA. PMID:25304262

  13. Combined (mechanical and pharmacological) modalities for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in joint replacement surgery.

    PubMed

    Kakkos, S K; Warwick, D; Nicolaides, A N; Stansby, G P; Tsolakis, I A

    2012-06-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of intermittent mechanical compression combined with pharmacological thromboprophylaxis, against either mechanical compression or pharmacological prophylaxis in preventing deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism in patients undergoing hip or knee replacement. A total of six randomised controlled trials, evaluating a total of 1399 patients, were identified. In knee arthroplasty, the rate of DVT was reduced from 18.7% with anticoagulation alone to 3.7% with combined modalities (risk ratio (RR) 0.27, p = 0.03; number needed to treat: seven). There was moderate, albeit non-significant, heterogeneity (I(2) = 42%). In hip replacement, there was a non-significant reduction in DVT from 8.7% with mechanical compression alone to 7.2% with additional pharmacological prophylaxis (RR 0.84) and a significant reduction in DVT from 9.7% with anticoagulation alone to 0.9% with additional mechanical compression (RR 0.17, p < 0.001; number needed to treat: 12), with no heterogeneity (I(2) = 0%). The included studies had insufficient power to demonstrate an effect on pulmonary embolism. We conclude that the addition of intermittent mechanical leg compression augments the efficacy of anticoagulation in preventing DVT in patients undergoing both knee and hip replacement. Further research on the role of combined modalities in thromboprophylaxis in joint replacement and in other high-risk situations, such as fracture of the hip, is warranted. PMID:22628585

  14. Relationships of serum estradiol levels, menopausal duration, and mood during hormonal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D M; Vogel, W; Peterson, L G; Snyder, M B

    1997-10-01

    A study was undertaken in 38 menopausal women on-cyclic HRT (estropipate) and estropipate + nor-ethindrone). Serum estradiol levels during treatment were related to mood changes and platelet MAO activity. The relationship between serum estradiol levels and mood changes was found to be a function of the duration of menopause. Women with a short duration of menopause (12.9 months +/- 6.1) were compared to women with a long duration of menopause (76.6 months +/- 52.3). Women with a short duration of menopause had significantly lower mean serum estradiol levels during HRT compared to women with a long duration of menopause (216.9 +/- 62.3 vs. 291.13 +/- 118.12, respectively, p < .02). It had previously been reported that estrogen treatment in menopausal women had a positive effect on mood, whereas the combination of estrogen plus a progestin had a negative effect on mood. We found that the women with a long duration of menopause and higher treatment serum estradiol levels had significantly more dysphoria when receiving a combination of estrogen plus progestin than did the women with a short duration of menopause and lower serum estradiol levels. However, both short and long duration menopausal groups showed improvement in mood when estrogen was administered alone. Platelet MAO levels, a marker of adrenergic and serotonergic function thought to relate to mood, were negatively correlated with serum estradiol levels during HRT. We suggest that these paradoxical findings may be secondary to a prolonged estrogen deficiency state in women with a long duration of menopause. PMID:9373888

  15. Hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives and risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lagergren, Katarina; Lagergren, Jesper; Brusselaers, Nele

    2014-11-01

    There is an unexplained strong male predominance in the aetiology of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). The hypothesis that oestrogens are protective, deserves attention. A potential protective influence of exogenous oestrogen exposure, that is, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and oral contraceptives (OC) has been addressed only in studies of limited statistical power, and the individual studies have not provided conclusive results. We conducted a systematic literature search and meta-analysis on HRT and OC and the risk of OAC. We used the databases PubMed and the Web of Science. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by the Mantel-Haenszel random-effect method. A total of five studies were included. Compared to never users, ever users of HRT had a statistically significantly decreased risk of OAC (pooled OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58-0.98), and ever users of OC had a borderline significantly decreased risk of this cancer (pooled OR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.57-1.00). In conclusion, HRT and OC use seems to be associated with a decreased risk of OAC. However, further research is warranted. PMID:24676860

  16. Individual differences in changes in mood and platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity during hormonal replacement therapy in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D M; Vogel, W; Peterson, L G; Snyder, M B

    1996-10-01

    Estrogen replacement treatment in menopausal women has been reported to have a positive effect on mood states. However, the addition of a progestin partially negates this positive effect in some women. The opposite effects of estrogen and progestin on mood may relate to their opposite effects on adrenergic and serotonergic neural function. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 38 nondepressed menopausal women were cyclically treated with estrogen and estrogen plus progestin, or with placebo, for five 28-day cycles. This paper identifies the pretreatment attributes of women who do and do not have negative mood responses to progestin, and examines the relationship of these adverse side-effects to platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO), a marker of adrenergic and serotonergic functioning. Adverse mood responses to progestin occur in women with a long duration of menopause, low pretreatment serum estradiol and testosterone levels, high pretreatment serum FSH levels, low pretreatment platelet MAO activity, and pretreatment mood abnormalities. We conclude that adverse mood response to the addition of a progestin occurs in menopausal women who have low pretreatment gonadal hormone levels secondary to a long duration of menopause. Impaired central nervous system adrenergic and serotonergic functioning also may be a factor predisposing to a negative mood response to progestin. PMID:9044441

  17. The health-promoting behaviors and attitude towards menopause and hormone replacement therapy among women on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Winkler, J; Yogev, Y; Nahum, R; Blumberg, G; Fisher, M; Kaplan, B

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the health-related behaviors, knowledge and attitude towards menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) among women receiving dialysis treatment. The study population consisted of 44 women aged 55-75 years attending the dialysis unit. All women completed a 20-item questionnaire, which covered information on personal health-care habits, life style and attitude regarding menopause and HRT. The majority of participants were of desirable weight (body mass index < 25 kg/m2) and had a positive body image. About 80% had never smoked, and did not engage in regular physical activity. Over half underwent annual Pap smear, mammography, breast examination by a physician, and only a small minority performed breast self-examination. Surprisingly, 45% had used HRT in the past, but only 5% were current users. Although we expected postmenopausal women with a life-threatening disease to be more aware of personal health care than the general population, only a relatively small percentage of the study population safeguarded their health care, and used HRT. Stronger educational efforts may be needed to promote health-related behaviors and a positive attitude to health care, aging and menopause in this subgroup of patients. PMID:12587527

  18. Potentiation of mammary cancer inhibition by combination of antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone with docetaxel

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Stefan; Schally, Andrew V.; Engel, Jörg B.; Hohla, Florian; Heinrich, Elmar; Koester, Frank; Varga, Jozsef L.; Halmos, Gabor

    2007-01-01

    Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) are being developed for the treatment of various cancers. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of treatment with GHRH antagonist JMR-132 alone and in combination with docetaxel chemotherapy in nude mice bearing MX-1 human breast cancers. Specific high-affinity binding sites for GHRH were found on MX-1 tumor membranes using ligand competition assays with 125I-labeled GHRH antagonist JV-1-42. JMR-132 displaced radiolabeled JV-1-42 with an IC50 of 0.14 nM, indicating a high affinity of JMR-132 to GHRH receptors. Treatment of nude mice bearing xenografts of MX-1 with JMR-132 at 10 μg per day s.c. for 22 days significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited tumor volume by 62.9% and tumor weight by 47.8%. Docetaxel given twice at a dose of 20 mg/kg i.p. significantly reduced tumor volume and weight by 74.1% and 58.6%, respectively. Combination treatment with JMR-132 (10 μg/day) and docetaxel (20 mg/kg i.p.) led to growth arrest of most tumors as shown by an inhibition of tumor volume and weight by 97.7% and 95.6%, respectively (P < 0.001). Because no vital cancer cells were detected in some of the excised tumors, a total regression of the tumors was achieved in some cases. Treatment with JMR-132 also strongly reduced the concentration of EGF receptors in MX-1 tumors. Our results demonstrate that GHRH antagonists might provide a therapy for breast cancer and could be combined with docetaxel chemotherapy to enhance the efficacy of treatment. PMID:17261802

  19. Effect of hypophysectomy and hormonal replacement on the uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate in the metaphysis and shaft of the rat femur: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Trow, R.S.; Klingensmith, G.J.; Klingensmith, W.C.; Huffer, W.E.; Schalch, D.S.

    1983-03-01

    We have investigated the uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-MDP) in the metaphysis and shaft of the rat femur as affected by hypophysectomy and hormonal replacement with growth hormone and thyroxine. Two hours following injection of Tc-MDP, the metaphysis and a specimen of shaft were obtained and the metaphysis-to-shaft radioactivity ratio was measured. By five days after hypophysectomy the metaphysis-to-shaft ratio fell from a control value of 3.8 +/- 0.2 (mean +/- s.e.) to 2.4 +/- 0.2 (p less than 0.05) and remained significantly decreased throughout the 30-day study. When daily hormonal replacement with 0.5 mg of bovine growth hormone and 10 micrograms of thyroxine (both administered intraperitoneally) was given, beginning on the eighth day after hypophysectomy, the metaphysis-to-shaft ratio of Tc-MDP returned to control levels in twelve days. This model demonstrates the effect of growth hormone and thyroxine on the distribution of Tc-MDP, and may be useful as a radiobioassay of net circulating skeletal growth-promoting activity.

  20. Genetic modifiers of menopausal hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer risk: A genome-wide interaction study

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Anja; Hein, Rebecca; Lindström, Sara; Beckmann, Lars; Behrens, Sabine; Liu, Jianjun; Aschard, Hugues; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Jean; Truong, Thérèse; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Brüning, Thomas; Harth, Volker; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Southey, Melissa; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Eriksson, Mikael; Humpreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Olson, Janet E.; Stevens, Kristen N.; Vachon, Celine M.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk; Webb, Penny M.; Guénel, Pascal; Brauch, Hiltrud; Giles, Graham; García-Closas, Montserrat; Czene, Kamila; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Hunter, David J.; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Easton, Douglas F.; Hall, Per; Nevanlinna, Heli; Kraft, Peter; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Women using menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) are at increased risk to develop breast cancer (BC). To detect genetic modifiers of the association between current use of MHT and BC risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide case-only studies followed by replication in eleven case-control studies. We used a case-only design to assess interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and current MHT use on risk of overall and lobular BC. The discovery stage included 2,920 cases (541 lobular) from four genome-wide association studies. The top 1,391 SNPs showing P-values for interaction (Pint) <3.0×10−03 were selected for replication using pooled case-control data from eleven studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, including 7,689 cases (676 lobular) and 9,266 controls. Fixed effects meta-analysis was used to derive combined Pint. No SNP reached genome-wide significance in either the discovery or combined stage. We observed effect modification of current MHT use on overall BC risk by two SNPs on chr13 near POMP (combined Pint≤8.9×10−06), two SNPs in SLC25A21 (combined Pint≤4.8×10−05), and three SNPs in PLCG2 (combined Pint≤4.5×10−05). The association between lobular BC risk was potentially modified by one SNP in TMEFF2 (combined Pint≤2.7×10−05), one SNP in CD80 (combined Pint≤8.2×10−06), three SNPs on chr17 near TMEM132E (combined Pint≤2.2×10−06), and two SNPs on chr18 near SLC25A52 (combined Pint≤4.6×10−05). In conclusion, polymorphisms in genes related to solute transportation in mitochondria, transmembrane signaling and immune cell activation are potentially modifying BC risk associated with current use of MHT. These findings warrant replication in independent studies. PMID:24080446

  1. Climacteric medicine: European Menopause and Andropause Society (EMAS) 2004/2005 position statements on peri- and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Skouby, Sven O; Al-Azzawi, Farook; Barlow, David; Calaf-Alsina Erdogan Ertüngealp, Joaquin; Gompel, Anne; Graziottin, Alessandra; Hudita, Decebal; Pines, Amos; Rozenberg, Serge; Samsioe, Göran; Stevenson, John C

    2005-05-16

    In women experiencing distressing climacteric symptoms during the peri- and postmenopause there is conclusive evidence from abundant randomised controlled trials that systemic hormone replacement therapy (HRT) of any type affords symptom relief, with no alternative treatment producing similar effect. Though this evidence is accumulating, the question of how to provide best clinical practice in an attempt to both alleviate the menopausal symptoms and prevent the more long-term postmenopausal degenerative diseases is still under debate. When providing climacteric medicine, the dose and regimen of HRT needs to be individualised based on the principle of choosing the lowest appropriate dose in relation to severity of symptoms and on the menopausal age. However, few long-term data on different HRT formulations exist in symptomatic women, which also account for baseline risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), breast cancer and osteoporosis. In most cases, an individualized prescription together with life-style management will sustain possibilities for net beneficial effects on climacteric symptoms, quality of life (QoL), sexuality and osteoporosis, with only rare risk of severe adverse effects. With the perspective provided by recent epidemiological findings, not least from the estrogen only arm of the Women's Health Initiative Study (WHI), European Menopause and Andropause Society (EMAS) supports research activities in symptomatic women with new HRT formulations in order to affect positively the balance of clinical benefit and risk, including specific information on QoL and also account for the traditional differences in treatment modalities between the US and Europe, and the difference in BMI, life-style and diet. In women experiencing an early menopause (<45 year) current data support a specific overall benefit of HRT. At present, more long-term systemic HRT may be considered in women at high risk of osteoporotic fractures, in particular when alternate therapies are

  2. The relationship between fat distribution and coronary risk factors in sedentary postmenopausal women on and off hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Perry, A C; Allison, M; Applegate, E B; Jackson, M L; Miller, P C

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fat distribution and coronary risk factors (CRF) in sedentary overweight postmenopausal women both on and off hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Medical records and information were abstracted from nonsmoking women entering a weight loss program. A total of 33 women on HRT (mean age=50.12+/-5.2) and 51 nonusers (mean age=52.52+/-7.8) fulfilled subject eligibility requirements and were included in the data analysis. Results showed a significantly lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (p=0.009) and waist (p=0.010) and greater levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (p=0.035) in HRT users than in nonusers. After converting correlations to standard Z-scores and performing z-tests, the correlation between total cholesterol (T-Chol) and WHR was significantly greater in nonusers than in HRT users (p=0.038). A multiple regression analysis showed differences between groups in the ability of age and anthropometric variables to predict CRF. Although T-Chol could be predicted in nonusers (r2=0.24; p=0.011), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) could be significantly predicted in HRT users only (r2=0.28, p=0.055 and r2=0.40, p=0.005 for VLDL-C and SBP, respectively). These data suggest that there are differences between HRT users and nonusers in predictors of CRF, central adiposity, HDL-C, and the relationship between WHR and T-Chol. It is concluded that the significantly lower levels of central adiposity observed in HRT users may have clinical benefits with regard to CRF. PMID:9526969

  3. OGT and OGA expression in postmenopausal skeletal muscle associates with hormone replacement therapy and muscle cross-sectional area.

    PubMed

    Toivonen, Minna H M; Pöllänen, Eija; Ahtiainen, Maarit; Suominen, Harri; Taaffe, Dennis R; Cheng, Sulin; Takala, Timo; Kujala, Urho M; Tammi, Markku I; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2013-12-01

    Protein glycosylation via O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) is an important post-translational regulatory mechanism mediated by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and responsive to nutrients and stress. OGT attaches an O-GlcNAc moiety to proteins, while O-GlcNAcase (OGA) catalyzes O-GlcNAc removal. In skeletal muscle of experimental animals, prolonged increase in O-GlcNAcylation associates with age and muscle atrophy. Here we examined the effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and power training (PT) on muscle OGT and OGA gene expression in postmenopausal women generally prone to age-related muscle weakness. In addition, the associations of OGT and OGA gene expressions with muscle phenotype were analyzed. Twenty-seven 50-57-year-old women participated in a yearlong randomized placebo-controlled trial: HRT (n=10), PT (n=8) and control (n=9). OGT and OGA mRNA levels were measured from muscle samples obtained at baseline and after one year. Knee extensor muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), knee extension force, running speed and vertical jumping height were measured. During the yearlong intervention, HRT suppressed the aging-associated upregulation of OGT mRNA that occurred in the controls. The effects of PT were similar but weaker. HRT also tended to increase the OGA mRNA level compared to the controls. The change in the ratio of OGT to OGA gene expressions correlated negatively with the change in muscle CSA. Our results suggest that OGT and OGA gene expressions are associated with muscle size during the critical postmenopausal period. HRT and PT influence muscle OGT and OGA gene expression, which may be one of the mechanisms by which HRT and PT prevent aging-related loss of muscle mass. PMID:24365779

  4. [The level of pregnancy-associated alpha2-glycoprotein and the hormonal background during different options of hormonal replacement therapy in the menopausal syndrome].

    PubMed

    Zorina, V N; Predeina, E M; Zorina, R M; Levchenko, V G; Bazhenova, L G; Zorin, N A

    2007-07-01

    The authors studied the concentration of pregnancy-associated alpha2-glycoprotein (PA alpha2GP), a sensitive marker of estrogen-dependent tumors, and the association of its level with the serum content of a number of hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol (E-2), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DEAS-S), and testosterone in females receiving the groups of drugs containing: 1) estradiol valerate; 2) 17beta-estradiol, and 3) tibolone. The type of the active ingredient of a drug and the duration of its administration were shown to differently affect both the concentration of hypothalamopituitary hormones and steroid sex hormones and the level of PA alpha2GP). The latter increased significantly in Group 1 and insignificantly in Group 2 and did not differ from the normal values in Group 3, at the same time the concentration of E-2 elevated in Groups 1 and 2, rather than in Group 3; the level of DEAS-S increased in Groups 2 and 3 irrespective of the duration of use. Moreover, there were elevated levels of testosterone in Group 3 and those of DEAS-S in Group 1 only when the drugs were administered for 3-6 months. A number of correlations were found in the levels of PA alpha2GP with those of steroid hormones. The authors consider that individual monitoring of the level of PA alpha2GP in the females who need hormonal therapy in menopause provides a useful guide to choosing a drug, monitoring its use efficiency, and preventing malignant proliferation in proper time. PMID:17802803

  5. The Role of Sex Hormone Replacement Therapy on Self-Perceived Competence in Adolescents with Delayed Puberty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Jacqueline; Kulin, Howard E.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Finkelstein, Jordan W.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Kunselman, Susan J.; Liben, Lyye S.; D'Arcangelo, M. Rose; Demers, Lawrence M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined role of sex steroids in development of self-perceived competence among adolescents receiving hormone therapy for delayed puberty. Found that hormone treatments had a significant positive effect for both males and females in perceived job competence. Significant positive effects were also obtained for perceptions of romantic appeal and…

  6. Frequency of mutations in PROP-1 gene in Turkish children with combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kandemir, Nurgün; Vurallı, Doğuş; Taşkıran, Ekim; Gönç, Nazlı; Özön, Alev; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer; Yılmaz, Engin

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the prophet of Pit-1 (PROP-1) gene are responsible for most of the cases of combined pituitary hormone deficiencies (CPHD). We performed this study to determine the prevalence of PROP-1 mutations in a group of Turkish children with CPHD. Fifty-three children with the diagnosis of CPHD were included in this study. Clinical data were obtained from medical files, and hormonal evaluation and genetic screening for PROP-1 mutations were performed. A homozygous S109X mutation was found in the second exon in two brothers, and they had growth hormone (GH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiencies and normal prolactin levels. In the third exon of the PROP-1 gene, a heterozygous A142T polymorphism was found in 14 patients and a homozygous A142T polymorphism was found in 3 patients. In the first exon, a homozygous A9A polymorphism was found in 7 patients and a heterozygous A9A polymorphism was found in 31 patients. We assumed that mutations in the PROP-1 gene in cases with CPHD were expected to be more prevalent in our population due to consanguinity, but it was found that these mutations were far less than expected and that it was rare in non-familial cases. PMID:23692781

  7. Does the Progestogen Used in Combined Hormonal Contraception Affect Venous Thrombosis Risk?

    PubMed

    Han, Leo; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2015-12-01

    Combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) use a combination of estrogen and progestogen to provide contraception. The most important risk of using CHCs is venous thromboembolism (VTE). It is unclear whether the type of progestogen used in a method augments that risk. Although the evidence supporting an increase in thrombosis risk is not conclusive, neither is the evidence supporting the benefit of newer progestogens in terms of tolerability or continuation. The benefits of CHCs outweigh the risks and the absolute risk of VTE remains small. A balanced discussion of potential risks and benefits of particular CHC formulations is warranted during contraception counseling. PMID:26598309

  8. Elevated transaortic valvular gradients after combined aortic valve and mitral valve replacement: an intraoperative dilemma.

    PubMed

    Essandoh, Michael; Portillo, Juan; Zuleta-Alarcon, Alix; Castellon-Larios, Karina; Otey, Andrew; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B

    2015-03-01

    High transaortic valvular gradients, after combined aortic valve and mitral valve replacement, require prompt intraoperative diagnosis and appropriate management. The presence of high transaortic valvular gradients after cardiopulmonary bypass, in this setting, can be secondary to the following conditions: prosthesis dysfunction, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, supravalvular obstruction, prosthesis-patient mismatch, hyperkinetic left ventricle from administration of inotropes, left ventricular intracavitary gradients, pressure recovery phenomenon, and increased transvalvular blood flow resulting from hyperdynamic circulation or anemia. Transesophageal echocardiography is an extremely useful tool for timely diagnosis and treatment of this complication. We describe a case of a critically ill patient with endocarditis and acute lung injury, who presented for combined aortic valve and mitral valve replacement. Transesophageal echocardiographic assessment, post-cardiopulmonary bypass, revealed high transaortic valvular gradients due to encroachment of the mitral prosthesis strut on the left ventricular outflow tract, which was compounded by a small, hypertrophied, and hyperkinetic left ventricle. Discontinuation of inotropic support, administration of fluids, phenylephrine, and esmolol led to resolution of the high gradients and prevented further surgery. PMID:25549635

  9. Hormone replacement therapy affects iron status more than endometrial bleeding in older US women: A role for estrogen in iron homeostasis?

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth M

    2016-06-01

    High iron levels in women of post-reproductive age may be related to their increased risk of chronic disease as they become older, but the causes of this rise in iron in late life is unclear. Recently estrogen has been implicated in non-human models of iron homeostasis. Studying iron in women who take hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may provide insight into the relationship between iron status and hormonal status in older women. This study examines the association between HRT and iron status in women aged 50+ who took part in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Data were analyzed using multiple imputation, which corrects for missing data, and complex survey regression, which adjusts for NHANES sampling. Current HRT use was associated with lower ferritin (β=-34.13, p=0.0002), controlling for potential breakthrough bleeding with a hysterectomy variable. HRT was associated with lower iron stores in women of post-reproductive in the absence of uterine blood loss, indicating potential homeostatic hormonal control of iron status. This research demonstrates the utility of studying clinical hormonal therapy to advance new understandings about the basic biology of iron homeostasis in women. PMID:27105697

  10. A novel mutation in HESX1 causes combined pituitary hormone deficiency without septo optic dysplasia phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Masaki; Takahashi, Mai; Ohtsu, Yoshiaki; Sato, Takeshi; Narumi, Satoshi; Arakawa, Hirokazu; Hasegawa, Tomonobu

    2016-04-25

    Heterozygous and/or homozygous HESX1 mutations have been reported to cause isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) or combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD), in association with septo optic dysplasia (SOD). We report a novel heterozygous HESX1 mutation in a CPHD patient without SOD phenotypes. The propositus was a one-year-old Japanese girl. Shortly after birth, she was found to be hypoglycemic. She was diagnosed with central adrenal insufficiency based on low cortisol and ACTH at a time of severe hypoglycemia. Further endocrine studies indicated that the patient also had central hypothyroidism and growth hormone deficiency. Using a next-generation sequencing strategy, we identified a novel heterozygous HESX1 mutation, c.326G>A (p.Arg109Gln). Western blotting and subcellular localization revealed no significant difference between wild type and mutant HESX1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the mutant HESX1 abrogated DNA-binding ability. Mutant HESX1 was unable to repress PROP1-mediated activation. In conclusion, this study identified Arg109 as a critical residue in the HESX1 protein and extends our understanding of the phenotypic features, molecular mechanism, and developmental course associated with mutations in HESX1. When multiple genes need to be analyzed for mutations simultaneously, targeted sequence analysis of interesting genomic regions is an attractive approach. PMID:26781211

  11. Combined sewer overflows: an environmental source of hormones and wastewater micropollutants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, P.J.; Chalmers, A.T.; Gray, J.L.; Kolpin, D.W.; Foreman, W.T.; Wall, G.R.

    2012-01-01

    Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40–90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency.

  12. Combined Sewer Overflows: An Environmental Source of Hormones and Wastewater Micropollutants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40–90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency. PMID:22540536

  13. Combined sewer overflows: an environmental source of hormones and wastewater micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Phillips, P J; Chalmers, A T; Gray, J L; Kolpin, D W; Foreman, W T; Wall, G R

    2012-05-15

    Data were collected at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, (serving 30,000 people) to assess the relative contribution of CSO (combined sewer overflow) bypass flows and treated wastewater effluent to the load of steroid hormones and other wastewater micropollutants (WMPs) from a WWTP to a lake. Flow-weighted composite samples were collected over a 13 month period at this WWTP from CSO bypass flows or plant influent flows (n = 28) and treated effluent discharges (n = 22). Although CSO discharges represent 10% of the total annual water discharge (CSO plus treated plant effluent discharges) from the WWTP, CSO discharges contribute 40-90% of the annual load for hormones and WMPs with high (>90%) wastewater treatment removal efficiency. By contrast, compounds with low removal efficiencies (<90%) have less than 10% of annual load contributed by CSO discharges. Concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and WMPs generally are 10 times higher in CSO discharges compared to treated wastewater discharges. Compound concentrations in samples of CSO discharges generally decrease with increasing flow because of wastewater dilution by rainfall runoff. By contrast, concentrations of hormones and many WMPs in samples from treated discharges can increase with increasing flow due to decreasing removal efficiency. PMID:22540536

  14. Combined Sewer Overflows as a Source of Hormones to Surface Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, P.; Chalmers, A.; Gray, J. L.; Foreman, W.; Kolpin, D. W.; Wall, G.; Esposito, K.

    2009-12-01

    Some sources of hormones to surface water, such as wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluent, have been well documented, but other sources, particularly wet-weather discharges from combined-sewer-overflows (CSOs), are not well characterized. Flow-weighted composite samples of secondarily treated WWTP effluent and untreated sewage discharges from WWTP inflows and CSO discharges were collected during 12 storms and 6 non-storm conditions from November 2007-December 2008 at the main Burlington Vermont WWTP. Concentrations of many androgens and estrogens were highest in samples from untreated sewage, and lower in samples from treated sewage. For example, concentrations of estriol in CSO samples ranged from 5 to over 100 ng/L (nanograms per liter), but were generally less than 1 ng/L in treated sewage. Many androgens were detected in CSO discharge samples in concentrations ranging from 1 to over 1000 ng/L, but were not detected above 1 ng/L in treated samples. For many of the hormones, including androgens and estriol, CSO discharges comprised over half of the total load discharged by the WWTP, even though annual CSO discharge is less than 10% of the treated plant discharge. These results indicate that untreated discharges during CSO events can be a major source of some hormones and other wastewater compounds to the environment.

  15. Effect of a combination of norethynodrel and mestranol on plasma luteinizing hormone in normal women.

    PubMed

    Abraham, G E; Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D

    1969-08-01

    Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 6 normal nulliparous women (ages 21-25) during 2 consecutive menstrual cycles. Cycle 1 served as the control, while a combination of 5 mg norethynodrel and .075 mg mestranol (Enovid) was administered daily during the second cycle. Midcycle LH peaks observed in all subjects during the control cycle were completely suppressed in the treated cycle. Basal LH levels during the treated cycle were significantly lower than during the follicular phase of control cycles. Mechanisms by which Enovid could affect plasma LH include decreased synthesis or release of LH and different sites of drug action with different dosages. PMID:5794834

  16. A LONGER INTERVAL WITHOUT GROWTH HORMONE REPLACEMENT AND FEMALE GENDER ARE ASSOCIATED WITH LOWER BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN ADULTS WITH CHILDHOOD ONSET GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY - A KIMS DATABASE ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Tritos, Nicholas A; Hamrahian, Amir H; King, Donna; Greenspan, Susan L; Cook, David M; Jönsson, Peter J; Wajnrajch, Michael P; Koltowska – Häggstrom, Maria; Biller, Beverly MK

    2016-01-01

    Objective Childhood onset growth hormone deficiency (COGHD) is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD). Adults with persistent COGHD may be at risk for insufficient bone accrual or bone loss during adulthood. The purpose of this study was to identify BMD predictors and characterize the effects of GH replacement on BMD in COGHD adults with persistent GHD. Design Retrospective analysis of the KIMS database. Methods Variables predicting standardized BMD (sBMD) were identified. The effect of GH replacement (3 years) on BMD was examined. Results 314 COGHD adults (148 women, 166 men; 62 non-naïve, 178 semi-naïve, and 74 true naïve, depending on length and timing of previous GH replacement), who had BMD measured in lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) at study entry. In semi-naïve subjects, a longer gap in GH replacement between childhood and adulthood was predictive of lower sBMD in the FN (r= −0.18, P=0.038). Thyrotropin deficiency predicted lower sBMD in the LS (r= −0.16,P=0.052). In true naïve patients, a longer gap between onset of pituitary disease and study entry (r= −0.35,P=0.012) and female gender (r= −0.27,P=0.043) independently predicted lower sBMD in the FN. There were no differences in BMD increases between non-naïve, semi-naïve and true naïve subjects on GH replacement. Conclusions In semi-naïve subjects a longer interval off GH replacement was associated with lower sBMD in the FN. Among true naïve patients, a longer gap between the onset of pituitary disease and GH replacement, and female gender predicted lower sBMD in the FN. PMID:22711759

  17. Replacement of alfalfa neutral detergent fiber with a combination of nonforage fiber sources.

    PubMed

    Clark, P W; Armentano, L E

    1997-04-01

    Sixteen Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of replacing alfalfa neutral detergent fiber (NDF), with NDF from a combination of whole linted cottonseed, dried distillers grains, and wheat middlings. The four diets were a basal control diet that was low in forage and fiber [(5.9 g of corn silage NDF and 6.1 g of alfalfa NDF/100 g of dry matter (DM)], a normal forage diet (low forage plus 10 g of additional alfalfa NDF/100 g of DM), and two low forage diets with either 5 or 10 g of NDF from the nonforage fiber sources added per 100 g of DM. Milk yield, milk protein yield, and milk protein percentage were higher, and milk fat percentage and fat yield were lower, for cows fed the low forage diets than for those fed the alfalfa control diet that was higher in fiber. Among the low forage diets, dry matter intake, milk fat percentage, and fat yield all increased linearly as NDF content increased. The ratio of acetate to propionate in the rumen and rumination times were greater for the normal forage control diet than for the high nonforage fiber diet. Added NDF from these nonforage fiber sources increased milk fat percentage and yield, but this increase was less than the NDF from alfalfa and less than predicted. In agreement with results of similar previous trials, milk protein yield and percentage were increased when alfalfa NDF was replaced with fiber from nonforage fiber sources. PMID:9149962

  18. Soy isoflavone phyto-pharmaceuticals in interleukin-6 affections. Multi-purpose nutraceuticals at the crossroad of hormone replacement, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory therapy.

    PubMed

    Dijsselbloem, Nathalie; Vanden Berghe, Wim; De Naeyer, An; Haegeman, Guy

    2004-09-15

    synthetic selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), which are currently applied in hormone replacement therapy (HRT). As phyto-chemicals integrate hormonal ligand activities and interference with signaling cascades, therapeutic use may not be restricted to hormonal ailments only, but may have applications in cancer chemoprevention and/or NF-kappaB-related inflammatory disorders as well. PMID:15313415

  19. Fatal Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to Use of Unopposed Estrogen and Combined Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pocobelli, Gaia; Newcomb, Polly A.; Li, Christopher I.; Cook, Linda S.; Barlow, William E.; Weiss, Noel S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of combined hormone therapy (CHT) is associated with increased breast cancer incidence, but it is unclear whether this translates into increased breast cancer mortality. Methods We conducted a population-based nested case-control study in Saskatchewan, Canada, where a population-based prescription drug database has existed since 1975. We evaluated fatal breast cancer risk in relation to recency and duration of use of CHT and unopposed estrogen hormone therapy (EHT). Results A total of 1,288 cases and 12,535 controls were included in the analyses. Exclusive use of EHT was not associated with fatal breast cancer risk, either overall or within categories of recency or duration (odds ratio (OR) for current versus never use=1.1; 95% CI (confidence interval), 0.8–1.3). Use of CHT (includes women who had also used EHT) was also not associated with fatal breast cancer risk (OR for current versus never use=0.9; 95% CI, 0.7–1.3), except for a suggestion of an increased risk with current long-term use. Conclusion Consistent with prior studies, we observed no increased risk of fatal breast cancer associated with use of EHT. To date only a few studies have evaluated fatal breast cancer risk in relation to use of CHT, and collectively the results are inconsistent. PMID:24671356

  20. Combined effects of cadmium and decabrominated diphenyl ether on thyroid hormones in rats.

    PubMed

    Curčić, Marijana; Janković, Saša; Jaćević, Vesna; Stanković, Sanja; Vučinić, Slavica; Durgo, Ksenija; Bulat, Zorica; Antonijević, Biljana

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to see how a mixture of cadmium (Cd) and decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE209) affect thyroid function, namely thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxin (T4), free thyroxin (FT4), triiodothyronin (T3), and free triiodothyronin (FT3) in Wistar rats (eight per group) receiving either a single substance or their combination by gavage for 28 days. Three groups were receiving Cd alone in the doses of 2.5 mg kg-1, 7.5 mg kg-1, or 15 mg kg-1 b. w. a day, three groups were receiving BDE209 in the doses of 1000 mg kg-1, 2000 mg kg-1, or 4000 mg kg-1 b. w. a day, while nine groups were receiving different mixtures of Cd and BDE209 in these doses (3x3 design). The results have indicated that the Cd+BDE209 mixtures more potently disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis than would be expected from these chemicals alone. PMID:23152375

  1. Twenty-four hour hormone profiles of TSH, Free T3 and free T4 in hypothyroid patients on combined T3/T4 therapy.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, P; Siddique, H; Simmons, D J; Greenwood, R; Dayan, C M

    2007-04-01

    The benefits of using thyroxine (T4) plus triiodothyronine (T3) in combination in thyroid hormone replacement are unproven but many individuals continue to be treated with this regime. When T3 is used alone for hypothyroidism, it results in wide fluctuations of thyroid hormone levels. However, only limited data exists on combined T3/T4 therapy. In this study, we have compared 24-hour profiles of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 (fT4) and free T3 (fT3) and cardiovascular parameters in 10 hypothyroid patients who had been on once daily combined T3/T4 therapy for more than 3 months with 10 patients on T4 alone. Twenty patients, who were part of a larger study, investigating the long-term benefits of combined T3/T4 therapy, were recruited into this sub-study. Over 24-hours, 12 samples were taken for thyroid hormones. Their 24-hour pulse and BP is also monitored on a separate occasion. On T4 alone, a modest 16% rise in fT4 with no change in fT3 was seen in the first 4-hours post-dose. In contrast, on combined treatment, fT3 levels showed a marked rise of 42% within the first 4-hours post-dose (T3/T4:T4=6.24: 4.63 mU/L, p<0.001). Mean exposure to fT3 calculated by area under the curve (AUC) was higher (T3/T4:T4=1148:1062, p<0.0001) on T3. Circadian rhythm of TSH was maintained on both treatments. No difference in pulse or blood pressure over the 24-hours was seen between the groups. Our data suggests that despite chronic combined T3/T4 therapy, wide peak-to-trough variation in fT3 levels persists. Although no immediate cardiovascular effects were seen, the long-term consequences for patients on combined therapy are unknown. PMID:17479444

  2. Can anti-Mullerian hormone replace ultrasonographic evaluation in polycystic ovary syndrome? A review of current progress

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Several studies over the past decade have now consistently indicated that the serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels are at least 2–3-fold higher in the patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which also corresponds to the increased number of AMH producing preantral and small antral follicles. Moreover, AMH levels have been found to be associated in direct proportion to the follicle numbers per ovary or antral follicular count, assessed by the transvaginal ultrasound (TVS). Furthermore, AMH correlates directly with the rising serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels in PCOS. Hence, serum AMH in women with oligo-anovulation and/or hyperandrogenemia could indicate the presence of underlying PCOS, when reliable TVS is not feasible, or not acceptable, either due to the virginal status or psycho-social issue. In addition, the imaging quality of abdominal ultrasound is often impaired by obesity, which typically occurs in PCOS women. Indeed, PCOS occurs most commonly in young females who cannot be subjected to invasive TVS for various reasons; therefore, a desirable alternative to TVS is urgently required to diagnose the most prevalent endocrine abnormality of young women. This review will analyze the currently available evidence regarding the role of AMH in the diagnosis of PCOS. PMID:26693422

  3. Effects of gonadectomy and hormone replacement on a spontaneous novel object recognition task in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Aubele, T.; Kaufman, R.; Montalment, F.; Kritzer, M.F.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies in adult male rats have shown that gonadal hormones influence performance on certain working memory and other types of cognitive tasks that are sensitive to lesions of the medial and/or orbital prefrontal cortices. This study asked whether gonadal hormone modulation of prefrontal cortical function in males also extends to the perirhinal division of the rat prefrontal cortex. Specifically, sham-operated control, gonadectomized, and gonadectomized rats supplemented with testosterone propionate or estradiol were tested on a spontaneous novel object recognition task, a paradigm where performance has been shown to be impaired by perirhinal cortical lesions. Using analyses of variance, regression analyses and post-hoc testing to evaluate group differences, it was found that during both the sample and test trials of the task all four groups spent similar absolute and proportional amounts of time ambulating, rearing, stationary, and exploring the two objects present. All groups also explored each of the two identical objects present during sample trials equally. However, during the test trials, only the control and gonadectomized rats given testosterone showed the expected increase in exploration of the novel objects presented, whereas the gonadectomized and gonadectomized, estradiol-supplemental groups continued to explore the novel and familiar objects equally. That regression analyses also identified significant correlations between low bulbospongiosus muscle weight and impaired novel vs. familiar object discrimination further indicates that gonadectomy in adult male rats adversely affects spontaneous novel object recognition in an androgen-sensitive, estrogen-insensitive manner. PMID:18511051

  4. The effect of combined hormonal contraceptives use on brain reactivity during response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gingnell, Malin; Bannbers, Elin; Engman, Jonas; Frick, Andreas; Moby, Lena; Wikström, Johan; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2016-04-01

    Objectives Cognitive control, which can be described as the ability to moderate impulses, has not previously been investigated in users of combined hormonal contraception (CHC). Given the suggested modulatory role of ovarian steroids in prefrontal dopaminergic function, which in turn taps into cognitive control, this randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled oral contraceptive trial set out to investigate the brain activity pattern during response inhibition in CHC users. Methods Thirty-four women were randomised to one treatment cycle with a levonorgestrel-containing CHC or placebo. The women performed a Go/NoGo task to measure brain activity during response inhibition by use of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to and during the CHC/placebo treatment cycle. Results No differences between CHC and placebo users in number of correct inhibitions were found during treatment, but only women on CHC significantly improved their performance between the baseline and treatment assessments. During the treatment cycle CHC users displayed decreased activity in the right middle frontal gyrus in comparison with placebo users. No other significant activations were evident between treatment groups or within groups. Conclusion Overall, CHC use had marginal effects on brain activity during response inhibition. If anything, the findings of the study may suggest reduced effort or increased efficiency in maintaining orbitofrontal cortex inhibitory cognitive control when using a combined oral contraceptive. PMID:26291330

  5. Palbociclib in Combination With Tamoxifen as First Line Therapy for Metastatic Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-05

    Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  6. A New Combination of Testosterone and Nestorone Transdermal Gels for Male Hormonal Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Ilani, Niloufar; Roth, Mara Y.; Amory, John K.; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Dart, Clint; Page, Stephanie T.; Bremner, William J.; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Kumar, Narender; Blithe, Diana L.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Combinations of testosterone (T) and nestorone (NES; a nonandrogenic progestin) transdermal gels may suppress spermatogenesis and prove appealing to men for contraception. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of T gel alone or combined with NES gel in suppressing spermatogenesis. Design and Setting: This was a randomized, double-blind, comparator clinical trial conducted at two academic medical centers. Participants: Ninety-nine healthy male volunteers participated in the study. Interventions: Volunteers were randomized to one of three treatment groups applying daily transdermal gels (group 1: T gel 10 g + NES 0 mg/placebo gel; group 2: T gel 10 g + NES gel 8 mg; group 3: T gel 10 g + NES gel 12 mg). Main Outcome Variable: The main outcome variable of the study was the percentage of men whose sperm concentration was suppressed to 1 million/ml or less by 20–24 wk of treatment. Results: Efficacy data analyses were performed on 56 subjects who adhered to the protocol and completed at least 20 wk of treatment. The percentage of men whose sperm concentration was 1 million/ml or less was significantly higher for T + NES 8 mg (89%, P < 0.0001) and T + NES 12 mg (88%, P = 0.0002) compared with T + NES 0 mg group (23%). The median serum total and free T concentrations in all groups were maintained within the adult male range throughout the treatment period. Adverse effects were minimal in all groups. Conclusion: A combination of daily NES + T gels suppressed sperm concentration to 1 million/ml or less in 88.5% of men, with minimal adverse effects, and may be further studied as a male transdermal hormonal contraceptive. PMID:22791756

  7. Systemic but No Local Effects of Combined Zoledronate and Parathyroid Hormone Treatment in Experimental Autoimmune Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Kresten Krarup; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Hauge, Ellen-Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Local bone erosions and osteoporosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are the result of a more pronounced bone resorption than bone formation. Present treatment strategies for RA inhibit inflammation, but do not directly target bone erosions. The aim of the study was in experimental arthritis to investigate the juxtaarticular and systemic effects of simultaneous osteoclast inhibition with zoledronate (ZLN) and osteoblast stimulation with parathyroid hormone (PTH). Methods Arthritis was induced in 36 SKG mice. The mice were randomized to three treatment groups and an untreated group: ZLN, PTH, PTH+ZLN, and untreated. Arthritis score and ankle width measurements were performed. Histological sections were cut from the right hind paw, and design-based stereological estimators were used to quantify histological variables of bone volume and bone formation and resorption. The femora were DXA- and μCT-scanned, and the bone strength was determined at the femoral neck and mid-diaphysis. Results Locally, we found no differences in arthritis score or ankle width throughout the study. Similarly, none of the treatments inhibited bone erosions or stimulated bone formation in the paw. Systemically, all treatments improved bone mineral density, strength of the femoral neck and mid-diaphysis, and μCT parameters of both cortical and trabecular bone. In addition, there was an additive effect of combination treatment compared with single treatments for most trabecular parameters including bone mineral density and bone volume fraction. Conclusions No local effect on bone was found by the combined action of inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. However, a clear systemic effect of the combination treatment was demonstrated. PMID:24637846

  8. The Efficacy of Parathyroid Hormone Analogues in Combination With Bisphosphonates for the Treatment of Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wan; Chen, Wenjian; Lin, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogues increase bone strength primarily by stimulating bone formation, whereas antiresorptive drugs (bisphosphonates) reduce bone resorption. Therefore, some studies have been designed to test the hypothesis that the concurrent administration of the 2 agents would increase bone density more than the use of either one alone. This meta-analysis aimed to determine whether combining PTH analogues with bisphosphonates would be superior to PTH alone. Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant publications up to March, 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing PTH analogues combined bisphosphonates with PTH for osteoporosis were analyzed. According to the Cochrane Handbook for systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.2, we identified eligible studies, evaluated the methodological quality, and abstracted relevant data. Totally 7 studies involving 641 patients were included for meta-analysis. The pooled data showed that there were no significant differences in the percent change of spine BMD (MD1-year = −0.97, 95% CI −2.81 to 0.86, P = 0.30; MD2-year =  − 0.57, 95% CI −5.01 to 6.14, P = 0.84), femoral neck BMD (MD1-year = 0.60, 95% CI −0.91 to 2.10, P = 0.44; MD2-year = −0.73, 95% CI −4.97 to 3.51, P = 0.74), the risk of vertebral fracture (risk ratio [RR] = 1.27; 95% CI 0.29–5.57; P = 0.75), and the risk of nonvertebral fracture (RR = 0.97; 95% CI 0.40–2.35; P = 0.95) between the 2 groups, whereas combination group improves the percent change of hip BMD at 1 year (MD = 1.16, 95% CI 0.56–1.76; P < 0.01) than PTH analogues group. Our results showed that there was no evidence for the superiority of combination therapy, although significant change was found for hip BMD at 1 year in combination group. Further large multicenter randomized controlled trials are still needed to investigate the efficacy of combination therapy. PMID:26402797

  9. Combined effects of venlafaxine, nicotine replacement, and brief counseling on smoking cessation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, 147 smokers were randomly assigned to receive either venlafaxine or placebo in conjunction with behavioral counseling (9 weekly sessions) and transdermal nicotine replacement therapy (22 mg/day). Patients began medication 2 weeks before quitting and continued for 18 weeks after quitti...

  10. Knowledge-attitude-practice survey among Portuguese gynaecologists regarding combined hormonal contraceptives methods.

    PubMed

    Bombas, Teresa; Costa, Ana Rosa; Palma, Fátima; Vicente, Lisa; Sá, José Luís; Nogueira, Ana Maria; Andrade, Sofia

    2012-04-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices of Portuguese gynaecologists regarding combined hormonal contraceptives. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 303 gynaecologists. Results Ninety percent of the gynaecologists considered that deciding on contraceptive methods is a process wherein the woman has her say. Efficacy, safety and the woman's preference were the major factors influencing gynaecologists, while efficacy, tolerability and ease of use were the major factors perceived by the specialists to influence the women's choice. Gynaecologists believed that only 2% of women taking the pill were 100% compliant compared to 48% of those using the patch and 75% of those using the ring. The lower risk of omission was the strong point for the latter methods. Side effects were the main reason to change to another method. Vaginal manipulation was the most difficult topic to discuss. Conclusions Most gynaecologists decided with the woman on the contraceptive method. The main reasons for the gynaecologist's recommendation of a given contraceptive method and the women's choice were different. Counselling implies an open discussion and topics related to sexuality were considered difficult to discuss. Improving communication skills and understanding women's requirements are critical for contraceptive counselling. PMID:22200109

  11. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: An update in the genetic aetiologies of combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Castinetti, Frederic; Reynaud, Rachel; Saveanu, Alexandru; Jullien, Nicolas; Quentien, Marie Helene; Rochette, Claire; Barlier, Anne; Enjalbert, Alain; Brue, Thierry

    2016-06-01

    Over the last 5 years, new actors involved in the pathogenesis of combined pituitary hormone deficiency in humans have been reported: they included a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily glycoprotein and ciliary G protein-coupled receptors, as well as new transcription factors and signalling molecules. New modes of inheritance for alterations of genes encoding transcription factors have also been described. Finally, actors known to be involved in a very specific phenotype (hypogonadotroph hypogonadism for instance) have been identified in a wider range of phenotypes. These data thus suggest that new mechanisms could explain the low rate of aetiological identification in this heterogeneous group of diseases. Taking into account the fact that several reviews have been published in recent years on classical aetiologies of CPHD such as mutations of POU1F1 or PROP1, we focused the present overview on the data published in the last 5 years, to provide the reader with an updated review on this rapidly evolving field of knowledge. PMID:26733480

  12. Prevention of liver ischemia reperfusion injury by a combined thyroid hormone and fish oil protocol.

    PubMed

    Mardones, Marcelo; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Romanque, Pamela; Covarrubias, Natalia; Anghileri, Fiorella; Fernández, Virginia; Videla, Luis A; Tapia, Gladys

    2012-09-01

    Several preconditioning strategies are used to prevent ischemia-reperfusion (IR) liver injury, a deleterious condition associated with tissue resection, transplantation or trauma. Although thyroid hormone (T₃) administration exerts significant protection against liver IR injury in the rat, its clinical application is controversial due to possible adverse effects. Considering that prevention of liver IR injury has also been achieved by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation to rats, we studied the effect of n-3 PUFA dietary supplementation plus a lower dose of T₃ against IR injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving fish oil (300 mg/kg) for 3 days followed by a single intraperitoneal dose of 0.05 mg T₃/kg were subjected to 1 h of ischemia followed by 20 h of reperfusion. Parameters of liver injury (serum transaminases, histology) and oxidative stress (liver contents of GSH and oxidized proteins) were correlated with fatty acid composition, NF-κB activity, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and haptoglobin expression. IR significantly modified liver histology; enhanced serum transaminases, TNF-α response or liver oxidative stress; and decreased liver NF-κB activity and haptoglobin expression. Although IR injury was not prevented by either n-3 PUFA supplementation or T₃ administration, substantial decrease in liver injury and oxidative stress was achieved by the combined protocol, which also led to increased liver n-3 PUFA content and decreased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios, with recovery of NF-κB activity and TNF-α and haptoglobin expression. Prevention of liver IR injury achieved by a combined protocol of T₃ and n-3 PUFA supplementation may represent a novel noninvasive preconditioning strategy with potential clinical application. PMID:22137030

  13. Combination of long-acting microcapsules of the D-tryptophan-6 analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone with chemotherapy: investigation in the rat prostate cancer model.

    PubMed Central

    Schally, A V; Redding, T W

    1985-01-01

    The effect of combining hormonal treatment consisting of long-acting microcapsules of the agonist [D-Trp6]LH-RH (the D-tryptophan-6 analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) with the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide was investigated in the Dunning R-3327H rat prostate cancer model. Microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH formulated from poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and calculated to release a controlled dose of 25 micrograms/day were injected intramuscularly once a month. Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) (5 mg/kg of body weight) was injected intraperitoneally twice a week. When the therapy was started 90 days after tumor transplantation--at the time that the cancers were well developed-and was continued for 2 months, tumor volume was significantly reduced by the microcapsules or Cytoxan given alone. The combination of these two agents similarly inhibited tumor growth but did not show a synergistic effect. In another study, the treatment was started 2 months after transplantation, when the developing tumors measured 60-70 mm3. Throughout the treatment period of 100 days, the microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH reduced tumor volume more than Cytoxan did, and the combination of the two drugs appeared to completely arrest tumor growth. Tumor weights also were diminished significantly in all experimental groups, the decrease in weight being smaller in the Cytoxan-treated group than in rats that received the microcapsules. The combination of Cytoxan plus the microcapsules was 10-100 times more effective than the single agents in reducing tumor weights. In both experiments, testes and ventral prostate weights were significantly diminished, serum testosterone was suppressed to undetectable levels, and prolactin values were reduced by administration of microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH alone or in combination with Cytoxan. These results in rats suggest that combined administration of long acting microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH with a chemotherapeutic agent, started soon after the

  14. The effect of hypophysectomy and growth hormone replacement on sst1 and sst2 somatostatin receptor subtype messenger ribonucleic acids in the arcuate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Guo, F; Beaudet, A; Tannenbaum, G S

    1996-09-01

    Although considerable evidence indicates that somatostatin (SRIF) exerts direct actions on GH-releasing hormone-containing arcuate neurons within the hypothalamus to modulate hypophyseal GH secretion, the underlying mechanism(s) remains to be elucidated. We recently demonstrated high levels of expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) coding for two prototypic receptors of the recently cloned SRIF receptor (sst) family, sst1 and sst2, in the arcuate nucleus of the rat hypothalamus. However, information on the biological roles of these receptor subtypes and the factors regulating their expression is lacking. In the present study, we hypothesized that perturbations in GH would influence sst mRNA levels in cells of the arcuate nucleus in vivo. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of hypophysectomy (HPX) and HPX with GH replacement, on sst1 and sst2 mRNA levels in the brains of adult male rats by in situ hybridization using 35S-labeled antisense riboprobes. The number of labeled cells and the density of silver grains per cell were quantified using a computer-assisted image analysis system. Two weeks after HPX, there was a 50-60% reduction in both the number and labeling density of sst1 and sst2 mRNA-expressing cells in the arcuate nucleus compared to those in sham-operated control rats. Administration of recombinant human GH (200 micrograms/day for 7 days by continuous sc infusion using osmotic minipumps) to HPX rats augmented both the cell number (P < 0.05) and labeling density (P < 0.01) of sst1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus, but did not significantly alter sst2 mRNA levels compared to those in HPX rats infused with H2O. There were no significant changes in sst1 and sst2 mRNA levels in extra-arcuate areas, including the cerebral cortex and medial habenula, or in suprachiasmatic, medial preoptic, and magnocellular preoptic nuclei after either HPX or GH replacement. These results indicate that the expression of both sst1 and sst2 SRIF receptor subtypes in

  15. Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy Attenuates Atrial Remodeling and Reduces Atrial Fibrillation Inducibility in a Rat Myocardial Infarction-Heart Failure Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youhua; Dedkov, Eduard I.; Lee, Bianca; Li, Ying; Pun, Khusbu; Gerdes, A. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Heart failure (HF) is associated with increased atrial fibrillation (AF) risk. Accumulating evidence suggests the presence of myocardial tissue hypothyroidism in HF, which may contribute to HF development. Our recent report demonstrated that hypothyroidism, like hyperthyroidism, leads to increased AF inducibility. This study was designed to investigate the effect of thyroid hormone (TH) replacement therapy on AF arrhythmogenesis in HF. Methods and Results Myocardial infarction (MI) was produced in rats by coronary artery ligation. Rats with large MIs (>40%) were randomized into L-thyroxine (T4, n=14) and placebo (n=15) groups 2 weeks after MI. Rats received 3.3 mg T4 (in 60-day release form) or placebo pellets in respective groups for 2 months. Compared with the placebo, T4 treatment improved cardiac function and decreased left ventricular internal diameters as well as left atrial diameter. T4 treatment attenuated atrial effective refractory period prolongation (45±1.5 ms in placebo group vs 37±1.6 ms in T4 group, P<0.01) and reduced AF inducibility (AF/atrial flutter /tachycardia were inducible in 11/15 rats, or 73% in placebo vs 4/14 rats, or 29% in the T4 treated group, P<0.05). Arrhythmia reduction was associated with decreased atrial fibrosis but was not associated with connexin 43 changes. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first study demonstrating that TH replacement therapy in HF attenuates atrial remodeling and reduces AF inducibility post MI-HF. Clinical studies are needed to confirm such benefits in patients. PMID:25305503

  16. Effects of Botanicals and Combined Hormone Therapy on Cognition in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Pauline M.; Rubin, Leah H.; Fornelli, Deanne; Drogos, Lauren; Banuvar, Suzanne; Shulman, Lee P.; Geller, Stacie E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize the effects of red clover, black cohosh, and combined hormone therapy on cognitive function in comparison to placebo in women with moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms. Design In a Phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 66 midlife women (out of 89 from a parent study; mean age=53 y) with ≥ 35 weekly hot flashes were randomized to receive red clover (120 mg), black cohosh (128 mg), CEE/MPA (0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogens plus 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate), or placebo. Participants completed measures of verbal memory (primary outcome) and other cognitive measures (secondary outcomes) before and during the 12th treatment month. A subset of 19 women completed objective, physiological measures of hot flashes using ambulatory skin conductance monitors. Results There was no impact of either of the botanical treatments on any cognitive measure. Compared to placebo, CEE/MPA led to greater decline in verbal learning (one of five verbal memory measures). This effect just missed statistical significance (p=0.057) in unadjusted analyses, but reached significance (p=.02) after adjusting for vasomotor symptoms. Neither botanical treatment group showed a change in verbal memory that differed from the placebo group (ps>0.28), even after controlling for improvements in hot flashes. In secondary outcomes, CEE/MPA led to a decrease in immediate digit recall and an improvement in letter fluency. Only CEE/MPA significantly reduced objective hot flashes. Conclusions Results indicate no effects of a red clover (phytoestrogen) supplement or black cohosh on cognitive function. CEE/MPA reduces objective hot flashes but worsens some aspects of verbal memory. PMID:19590458

  17. The combined effect of parathyroid hormone and bone graft on implant fixation

    PubMed Central

    Daugaard, H.; Elmengaard, B.; Andreassen, T. T.; Baas, J.; Bechtold, J. E.; Søballe, K.

    2013-01-01

    Impaction allograft is an established method of securing initial stability of an implant in arthroplasty. Subsequent bone integration can be prolonged, and the volume of allograft may not be maintained. Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone has an anabolic effect on bone and may therefore improve integration of an implant. Using a canine implant model we tested the hypothesis that administration of parathyroid hormone may improve osseo-integration of implants surrounded by bone graft. In 20 dogs a cylindrical porous-coated titanium alloy implant was inserted into normal cancellous bone in the proximal humerus and surrounded by a circumferential gap of 2.5 mm. Morsellised allograft was impacted around the implant. Half of the animals were given daily injections of human parathyroid hormone (1-34) 5 μg/kg for four weeks and half received control injections. The two groups were compared by mechanical testing and histomorphometry. We observed a significant increase in new bone formation within the bone graft in the parathyroid hormone group. There were no significant differences in the volume of allograft, bone-implant contact or in the mechanical parameters. These findings suggest that parathyroid hormone improves new bone formation in impacted morsellised allograft around an implant and retains the graft volume without significant resorption. Fixation of the implant was neither improved nor compromised at the final follow-up of four weeks. PMID:21196558

  18. [The correction of the hormonal disorders in the combined treatment of Sudeck's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, N L; Gaev, A V; Permiakova, K G

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of the results of complex examination of the patients with the Sudeck syndrome, the disorders in reproductive hormones in individuals of both sexes were revealed. The character and degree of pronouncement of these changes were defined, their correction was performed. The result obtained is positive. PMID:7543627

  19. Combined heat shock protein 90 and ribosomal RNA sequence phylogeny supports multiple replacements of dinoflagellate plastids.

    PubMed

    Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Minge, Marianne A; Cavalier-Smith, Tom; Nedreklepp, Joachim M; Klaveness, Dag; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2006-01-01

    Dinoflagellates harbour diverse plastids obtained from several algal groups, including haptophytes, diatoms, cryptophytes, and prasinophytes. Their major plastid type with the accessory pigment peridinin is found in the vast majority of photosynthetic species. Some species of dinoflagellates have other aberrantly pigmented plastids. We sequenced the nuclear small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of the "green" dinoflagellate Gymnodinium chlorophorum and show that it is sister to Lepidodinium viride, indicating that their common ancestor obtained the prasinophyte (or other green alga) plastid in one event. As the placement of dinoflagellate species that acquired green algal or haptophyte plastids is unclear from small and large subunit (LSU) rRNA trees, we tested the usefulness of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 gene for dinoflagellate phylogeny by sequencing it from four species with aberrant plastids (G. chlorophorum, Karlodinium micrum, Karenia brevis, and Karenia mikimotoi) plus Alexandrium tamarense, and constructing phylogenetic trees for Hsp90 and rRNAs, separately and together. Analyses of the Hsp90 and concatenated data suggest an ancestral origin of the peridinin-containing plastid, and two independent replacements of the peridinin plastid soon after the early radiation of the dinoflagellates. Thus, the Hsp90 gene seems to be a promising phylogenetic marker for dinoflagellate phylogeny. PMID:16677346

  20. Enzyme replacement therapy prior to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I: 10year combined experience of 2 centres.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arunabha; Miller, Weston; Orchard, Paul J; Jones, Simon A; Mercer, Jean; Church, Heather J; Tylee, Karen; Lund, Troy; Bigger, Brian W; Tolar, Jakub; Wynn, Robert F

    2016-03-01

    Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the treatment of choice for the severe form of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I, or Hurler syndrome. In many centres standard practice is to deliver enzyme replacement therapy alongside haematopoietic stem cell transplantation to improve the condition of the patient prior to transplant. We report the combined 10year experience of this approach in two paediatric metabolic and transplant centres. Of 81 patients who underwent a first transplant procedure for Hurler, 88% (71/81) survived and 81% (66/81) were alive and engrafted at a median follow-up of 46months (range 3-124months). The incidence of grade II-IV acute and any chronic graft versus host disease was 17% and 11% respectively. Urinary glycosaminoglycans were significantly reduced after a period of enzyme replacement therapy, and further reductions were seen at 13-24months and 25+months after transplantation. In several individuals with decreased cardiac contractility, an improvement of their condition during enzyme replacement therapy enabled them to undergo transplantation, with one individual receiving full intensity conditioning. PMID:26832957

  1. A combined approach identifies a limited number of new thyroid hormone target genes in post-natal mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Quignodon, Laure; Grijota-Martinez, Carmen; Compe, Emmanuel; Guyot, Romain; Allioli, Nathalie; Laperrière, David; Walker, Robert; Meltzer, Paul; Mader, Sylvie; Samarut, Jacques; Flamant, Frédéric

    2007-07-01

    Thyroid hormones act directly on gene transcription in the post-natal developing cerebellum, controlling neuronal, and glial cell differentiation. We have combined three experimental approaches to identify the target genes that are underlying this phenomenon: 1) a microarray analysis of gene expression to identify hormone responsive genes in the cerebellum of Pax8-/- mice, a transgenic mouse model of congenital hypothyroidism; 2) a similar microarray analysis on primary culture of cerebellum neurons; and 3) a bioinformatics screen of conserved putative-binding sites in the mouse genome. This identifies surprisingly a small set of target genes, which, for some of them, might be key regulators of cerebellum development and neuronal differentiation. PMID:17601882

  2. Acute Hormonal and Force Responses to Combined Strength and Endurance Loadings in Men and Women: The “Order Effect”

    PubMed Central

    S. Taipale, Ritva; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine acute responses and recovery of serum hormones and muscle force following combined strength (S) and endurance (E) loading sessions in which the order of exercises is reversed (ES vs. SE). Methods This cross-over study design included recreationally endurance trained men and women (age 21–45 years, n = 12 men n = 10 women) who performed both loadings. Maximal bilateral isometric strength (MVC), isometric rate of force development (RFD) and serum concentrations of testosterone (T), cortisol (C), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured during and after both loadings. Results Both of the present combined (ES and SE) loadings led to a greater acute decrease in MVC in men than in women, while RFD was slightly affected only in men. Recovery of MVC and RFD to baseline was complete at 24 h regardless of the order of exercises. In men, neuromuscular fatigue was accompanied by increased C concentrations observed post SE. This was followed by decreased concentrations of T at 24 h and 48 h that were significantly lower than those observed following ES. GH response in men also differed significantly post loadings. In women, only a significant difference in T between ES and SE loadings was observed at post. Conclusion These observed differences in hormonal responses despite similarities in neuromuscular fatigue in men indicate the presence of an order effect as the body was not fully recovered at 48 h following SE. These findings may be applicable in training prescription in order to optimize specific training adaptations. PMID:23408956

  3. [Completion pneumonectomy combined with graft replacement of thoracic aortic aneurysm by simple clamping].

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, A; Takao, M; Kanemitsu, S; Fujinaga, K; Yan, G; Cruz, B P; Onoda, K; Shimono, T; Shimpo, H; Namikawa, S; Yuasa, H; Yada, I

    1999-01-01

    A 59-years-old male patient who had left upper lobe partial resection 30 years ago. He was seen at the family physician because of cough. A chest X-ray was showing an abnormal mass shadow measuring 3 x 4 cm in left lower lobe like honey comb. And squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was detected in his sputum. He was diagnosed as primary lung cancer and introduced to our department to have operation. Chest CT-scan was showing lung tumor suspected SCC measuring 4.3 x 2.6 cm in segment 8 faced chest wall. At the same time, we detected thoracic aortic aneurysm and subcarinal lymph node, but could not see where the boundary is, so it was hard to distinguish between parietal thrombus with thoracic aortic aneurysm and swelling subcarinal lymph node. We decided it swelling subcarinal lymph node by three-dimensional treated CT-scan. Aortic angiography was showing proximal descending aortic aneurysm measuring diameter was 4.5 cm. Abdominal CT-scan was showing infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm measuring diameter was 5.5 cm. He was diagnosed as primary lung cancer (It. S8, SCC) (cT2N2M0, Stage IIIB), thoracic aortic aneurysm, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and had completion pneumonectomy (R 2 b) for primary lung cancer and graft replacement with aneurysm dissection for thoracic aortic aneurysm without extracorporeal circulation. In this operation, we could find swelling subcarinal lymph node measuring 5 x 3 cm instead of parietal thrombus with thoracic aortic aneurysm. Pathological examination diagnosed middle differential SCC and no metastasis from dissected lymph node (PT2N0M0, Stage I A). PMID:10024802

  4. Phase II Trial of Exemestane in Combination With Fulvestrant in Postmenopausal Women With Advanced, Hormone-Responsive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mrózek, Ewa; Layman, Rachel; Ramaswamy, Bhuvaneswari; Schaaf, Larry; Li, Xiaobai; Ottman, Susan; Shapiro, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Exemestane, the irreversible steroidal aromatase inhibitor, and fulvestrant, the pure estrogen antagonist, are active as single drugs in postmenopausal women with advanced hormone-responsive breast cancer. We designed a phase II study with the purpose of determining whether combining these 2 drugs with different and potentially complementary mechanisms of action will improve the clinical benefit. Patients and Methods Forty postmenopausal women with hormone-responsive advanced breast cancer received intramuscular injection of fulvestrant 250 mg every 28 days in combination with daily exemestane 25 mg until disease progression. We examined the influence of fulvestrant on exemestane pharmacokinetics and the effect of exemestane and fulvestrant on serum IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) and IGFBP-3 (IGF-binding protein 3) levels. Results The observed proportion of patients free of progressive disease at 6 months after the initiation of treatment with exemestane and fulvestrant was 50%, a rate similar to that achieved with single-agent exemestane or fulvestrant in the first- or second-line setting. Pharmacokinetics parameters showed that coadministration of fulvestrant did not result in clinically relevant changes in exemestane plasma concentrations. A comparison of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels demonstrated the increase of 35% and 12%, respectively, in mean levels from baseline to day 120. Conclusions The combination of exemestane and fulvestrant did not improve clinical benefit. The observed lack of improved efficacy was not related to altered drug exposure. PMID:22444722

  5. Zonal corticosteroid hormone biosynthesis in the adrenal cortex in rats exposed to emotional stress combined with salt loading

    SciTech Connect

    Shul'ga, V.A.

    1987-07-01

    The authors study the pattern of biosynthesis of corticosteroid hormones in the zona glomerulosa and the combined zona fasciculata + zona reticularis of the adrenals, which are responsible for the mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid function of the glands, during simultaneous exposure of animals to salt loading and emotional stress. Experiments were carried out on rats. The adrenals were divided into parts and samples were incubated in vitro with the addition of /sup 3/H-progesterone to each sample. The specific activity of the /sup 3/H-labeled corticosteroids decreased significantly in rats with a normal salt intake exposed to emotional stress.

  6. Combined Hypofractionated Radiation and Hormone Therapy for the Treatment of Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yassa, Michael; Fortin, Bernard; Fortin, Marie-Andree; Lambert, Carole; Van Nguyen, Thu; Bahary, Jean-Paul

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: Because of the low alpha/beta value of prostate cancer, a therapeutic gain may be possible with a hypofractionated radiation scheme, and this gain may be further increased with the adjunct of hormone therapy. A Phase II study was undertaken to study the toxicity of such a treatment. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were recruited for this study. Neoadjuvant and concomitant hormone therapy consisted of one injection of leuprolide acetate (4-month preparation) and 1 month of oral nonsteroidal, anti-androgen medication starting on the day of the injection. Radiation treatment was started 8 weeks after the injection and patients received 57 Gy in 19 fractions. Results: Median follow-up was 46 months. The treatment was well tolerated and no interruptions occurred. The majority (59%) had Grade 0 or 1 acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity, whereas 36% had Grade 2 and 5% had Grade 3 acute GU toxicity. Only Grade 1 or 2 gastrointestinal toxicity was seen. All chronic toxicity was of Grade 1 or 2 except for 3 patients (8%) with Grade 3 toxicity. Sixty-eight percent (68%) of patients had no long-term side effects from the treatment. At time of analysis, 79% showed no sign of treatment failure. Conclusions: Hypofractionated radiation with neoadjuvant and concomitant hormone therapy is well tolerated with no significant short- or long-term morbidity. Control for this risk group is good, and comparative Phase III studies should be undertaken to determine whether this treatment is superior to new evolving treatments.

  7. [Induction of fetal lung maturity with combined hormonal therapy in premature labor].

    PubMed

    Serman, F; Pazols, R; Benavides, C; Sandoval, J; Ferres, I; Lamoza, P

    1994-01-01

    Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (THR) induce fetal pulmonary maturation by direct stimulation, and increase of fetal T3 and T4 which produce biochemical and structural pulmonary maturation. To evaluate the effectivity of TRH associated to corticoides in the prevention of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature labor, we administered TRH plus Cidoten to patients with imminent premature labor and gestational age (GA) < or = 32 weeks. In a total of 12 patients, tolerance was good in 85% (n = 10), birthweight was 1.782 +/- 488 g (x +/- 2 SD). RDS incidence of only 15.3% and chronic lung disease (CLD) incidence = 0. Newborn of mothers treated with TRH plus corticoids form in evident premature labor in our unit, showed laser rates of RDS and CLD than the described in literature for newborn of similar weight and GA treated only with corticoids. PMID:7809432

  8. Two coexisting heterozygous frameshift mutations in PROP1 are responsible for a different phenotype of combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ziemnicka, K; Budny, B; Drobnik, K; Baszko-Błaszyk, D; Stajgis, M; Katulska, K; Waśko, R; Wrotkowska, E; Słomski, R; Ruchała, M

    2016-08-01

    The role of genetic background in childhood-onset combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) has been extensively studied. The major contributors are the PROP1, POU1F1, LHX3, LHX4 and HESX1 genes coding transcription factors implicated in pituitary organogenesis. The clinical consequences of mutations encompass impaired synthesis of a growth hormone (GH) and one or more concurrent pituitary hormones (i.e. LH, FSH, TSH, PRL). Manifestation of the disorder may vary due to various mutation impacts on the final gene products or an influence of environmental factors during pituitary organogenesis. We describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of two brothers aged 47 and 39 years presenting an uncommon manifestation of congenital hypopituitarism. Sequencing of the PROP1, POU1F1, LHX3, LHX4 and HESX1 genes was performed to confirm the genetic origin of the disorder. A compound heterozygosity in the PROP1 gene has been identified for both probands. The first change represents a mutational hot spot (c.150delA, p.R53fsX164), whereas the second is a novel alteration (p.R112X) that leads to protein disruption. Based on precise genetic diagnosis, an in silico prediction of a p.R112X mutation on protein architecture was performed. The resulting clinical phenotype was surprisingly distinct compared to most patients with genetic alterations in PROP1 reported in the current literature. This may be caused by a residual activity of a newly identified p.R112X protein that preserves over 70 % of the homeodomain structure. This examination may confirm a key role of a DNA-binding homeodomain in maintaining PROP1 functionality and suggests a conceivable explanation of an unusual phenotype. PMID:26608600

  9. Excess iodine and high-fat diet combination modulates lipid profile, thyroid hormone, and hepatic LDLr expression values in mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Hao; Xin, Peng; Zhao, Lina; Xu, Jian; Xia, Yun; Yang, Xuefeng; Sun, Xiufa; Hao, Liping

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the combined effect of excess iodine and high-fat diet on lipid metabolism and its potential molecular mechanism. Sixty Balb/c mice were randomly allocated to three control groups or three excess iodine groups and fed with a high-fat diet in the absence or presence of 1,200 μg/L iodine for 1, 3, or 6 months, respectively. Serum lipid parameters and serum thyroid hormones were measured. Expressions of scavenger receptor class B type-I (SR-BI) and low density lipoproteins receptor (LDLr) mRNA and protein in liver were detected. Thyroid histology and liver type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase activity were analyzed. At the end of 3 and 6 months, compared with control, serum TC, TG, and LDL-C in excess iodine group were significantly lower (p < 0.05). LDLr expression in liver was increased significantly (p < 0.05) and parallel to the change of serum TC and TG. TT3 and TT4 levels in serum were elevated and TSH decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Liver type I iodothyronine deiodinase activity was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than control at the end of 6 months. Moreover, a time course damage effect of excess iodine combined with high-fat diet on thyroid glands was observed. The present findings demonstrated that excess iodine combined with high-fat diet could cause damage to thyroid glands and lead to thyroid hormone disorder. Those in turn caused the upregulation of hepatic LDLr gene, which resulted in the disorder in serum lipids. PMID:22222482

  10. Pharmacokinetics of the first combination 17β-estradiol/progesterone capsule in clinical development for menopausal hormone therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pickar, James H.; Bon, Charles; Amadio, Julia M.; Mirkin, Sebastian; Bernick, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study aims to compare the pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of a capsule combining 17β-estradiol and progesterone in a non–peanut oil–containing formulation with those of widely used and approved separate formulations of estradiol and progesterone coadministered to healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: This was an open-label, balanced, randomized, single-dose, two-treatment, three-period, three-sequence, cross-over, partial-replicate, reference-scaled study. Postmenopausal women (aged 40-65 y) were randomly assigned to one of three dosing sequences of test and reference products (TRR, RTR, or RRT, where T is the test drug and R is the coadministered reference product), with each of the three periods separated by a 14-day washout. The primary pharmacokinetic endpoints were Cmax, AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-inf) for the test and reference products, assessed for bioequivalence using the scaled average bioequivalence or unscaled average bioequivalence method. Safety was assessed by clinical observation, participant-reported adverse events, and laboratory data, including blood levels of hormones. Results: Sixty-six women were randomly assigned, and 62 women (94.0%) completed all three study periods. All AUC and Cmax parameters met bioequivalence criteria for all analytes (estradiol, progesterone, and estrone), except Cmax for total estrone. The extent of estradiol and progesterone absorption was similar between the test product and the reference products. Four adverse events—all considered mild and unrelated to the study drugs—were reported. Conclusions: The combination 17β-estradiol/progesterone product demonstrates bioavailability similar to those of the respective reference products of estradiol and progesterone. If regulatory approval is obtained, this new hormone therapy would be the first treatment of menopause symptoms to combine progesterone with 17β-estradiol in an oral formulation. PMID:25944519

  11. Combined QM/MM study of thyroid and steroid hormone analogue interactions with αvβ3 integrin.

    PubMed

    Freindorf, Marek; Furlani, Thomas R; Kong, Jing; Cody, Vivian; Davis, Faith B; Davis, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Recent biochemical studies have identified a cell surface receptor for thyroid and steroid hormones that bind near the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) recognition site on the heterodimeric αvβ3 integrin. To further characterize the intermolecular interactions for a series of hormone analogues, combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods were used to calculate their interaction energies. All calculations were performed in the presence of either calcium (Ca(2+)) or magnesium (Mg(2+)) ions. These data reveal that 3,5'-triiodothyronine (T(3)) and 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyroacetic acid (T(4)ac) bound in two different modes, occupying two alternate sites, one of which is along the Arg side chain of the RGD cyclic peptide site. These orientations differ from those of the other ligands whose alternate binding modes placed the ligands deeper within the RGD binding pocket. These observations are consistent with biological data that indicate the presence of two discrete binding sites that control distinct downstream signal transduction pathways for T(3). PMID:22547930

  12. Luteinizing hormone downregulation but not estrogen replacement improves ovariectomy-associated cognition and spine density loss independently of treatment onset timing.

    PubMed

    Blair, Jeffrey A; Palm, Russell; Chang, Jaewon; McGee, Henry; Zhu, Xiongwei; Wang, Xinglong; Casadesus, Gemma

    2016-02-01

    Age-related changes in reproductive hormone levels are a well-known risk factor for the development of cognitive dysfunction and dementia in women. We and others have shown an important contribution of gonadotropins in this process. Lowering serum gonadotropin levels is able to rescue cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease and menopause models, but whether this is time-dependent and the exact mechanism through which gonadotropins regulate cognitive function is unknown. We show that pharmacologically lowering serum levels of luteinizing hormone lead to cognitive improvement immediately after ovariectomy and with a 4month interval after ovariectomy, when the benefits of 17β-estradiol are known to disappear in rodents. Importantly, we show that these improvements are associated with spine density changes at both time points. These findings suggest a role of luteinizing hormone in learning and memory and neuroplasticity processes as well as provide an alternative therapeutic strategy of menopause associated cognitive loss. PMID:26497249

  13. Combination Treatment with Progesterone and Vitamin D Hormone May Be More Effective than Monotherapy for Nervous System Injury and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cekic, Milos; Sayeed, Iqbal; Stein, Donald G.

    2010-01-01

    More than two decades of pre-clinical research and two recent clinical trials have shown that progesterone (PROG) and its metabolites exert beneficial effects after traumatic brain injury (TBI) through a number of metabolic and physiological pathways that can reduce damage in many different tissues and organ systems. Emerging data on 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VDH), itself a steroid hormone, have begun to provide evidence that, like PROG, it too is neuroprotective, although some of its actions may involve different pathways. Both agents have high safety profiles, act on many different injury and pathological mechanisms, and are clinically relevant, easy to administer, and inexpensive. Furthermore, vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in a large segment of the population, especially the elderly and institutionalized, and can significantly affect recovery after CNS injury. The combination of PROG and VDH in pre-clinical and clinical studies is a novel and compelling approach to TBI treatment. PMID:19394357

  14. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 30 • Have used combination hormone therapy (estrogen plus progestin) for more than five years • Have a mother, ... know that estrogen (the major female hormone) and progestin (a synthetic form of progesterone, another female hormone) ...

  15. En bloc aortic and mitral valve replacement and left ventricular outflow tract enlargement using a combined transaortic and trans-septal atrial approach.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohammed; Windsor, Jimmy; Ricci, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Aortic and mitral valve replacement with division and reconstruction of the inter-valvular fibrous body has been described in clinical situations involving infective endocarditis, extensive annular calcifications and diminutive valve annuli. Herein, we describe a combined transaortic and trans-septal approach with division of the inter-valvular fibrosa for combined aortic and mitral valve replacement. The reconstruction of the inter-valvular fibrous body, atrial walls and aortic root was carried out using a 'three-patch' technique with bovine pericardium. PMID:26409564

  16. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... is to closely replicate normal thyroid functioning. Pure, synthetic thyroxine (T4) works in the same way as ... needing thyroid hormone replacement (see Hypothyroidism brochure ). Pure synthetic thyroxine (T4), taken once daily by mouth, successfully ...

  17. Combined Use of Etomidate and Dexmedetomidine Produces an Additive Effect in Inhibiting the Secretion of Human Adrenocortical Hormones.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hongbin; Zhang, Mazhong; Cai, Meihua; Liu, Jinfen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The direct effects of etomidate were investigated on the secretion of cortisol and its precursors by dispersed cells from the adrenal cortex of human of animals. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is an anesthetic agent that may interfere with cortisol secretion via an unknown mechanism, such as involving inhibition of 11b-hydroxylase and the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme system. The aim of this study was to determine whether dexmedetomidine (DEX) has a similar inhibitory effect on adrenocortical function, and whether combined use of etomidate (ETO) and DEX could produce a synergistic action in inhibiting the secretion of human adrenocortical hormones. MATERIAL AND METHODS Human adrenocortical cells were exposed to different concentrations of ETO and DEX. The dose-effect model between the ETO concentration and the mean secretion of cortisone (CORT) and aldosterone (ALDO) per hour was estimated. RESULTS Hill's equation well-described the dose-effect correlation between the ETO concentration and the amount of ALDO and CORT secretion. When the DEX concentration was introduced into the model by using E0 (basal secretion) as the covariate, the goodness of fit of the ETO-CORT dose-effect model was improved significantly and the objective function value was reduced by 4.55 points (P<0.05). The parameters of the final ETO-ALDO pharmacodynamics model were EC50=9.74, Emax=1.20, E0=1.33, and γ=18.5; the parameters of the final ETO-CORT pharmacodynamics model were EC50=9.49, Emax=8.16, E0=8.57, and γ=37.0. In the presence of DEX, E0 was 8.57-0.0247×(CDEX-4.6), and the other parameters remained unchanged. All parameters but γ were natural logarithm conversion values. CONCLUSIONS Combined use of DEX and ETO reduced ETO's inhibitory E0 (basal secretion) of CORT from human adrenocortical cells in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that combined use of ETO and DEX produced an additive effect in inhibiting the secretion of human adrenocortical hormones. PMID:26568275

  18. Combined Use of Etomidate and Dexmedetomidine Produces an Additive Effect in Inhibiting the Secretion of Human Adrenocortical Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hongbin; Zhang, Mazhong; Cai, Meihua; Liu, Jinfen

    2015-01-01

    Background The direct effects of etomidate were investigated on the secretion of cortisol and its precursors by dispersed cells from the adrenal cortex of human of animals. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is an anesthetic agent that may interfere with cortisol secretion via an unknown mechanism, such as involving inhibition of 11β-hydroxylase and the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme system. The aim of this study was to determine whether dexmedetomidine (DEX) has a similar inhibitory effect on adrenocortical function, and whether combined use of etomidate (ETO) and DEX could produce a synergistic action in inhibiting the secretion of human adrenocortical hormones. Material/Methods Human adrenocortical cells were exposed to different concentrations of ETO and DEX. The dose-effect model between the ETO concentration and the mean secretion of cortisone (CORT) and aldosterone (ALDO) per hour was estimated. Results Hill’s equation well-described the dose-effect correlation between the ETO concentration and the amount of ALDO and CORT secretion. When the DEX concentration was introduced into the model by using E0 (basal secretion) as the covariate, the goodness of fit of the ETO-CORT dose-effect model was improved significantly and the objective function value was reduced by 4.55 points (P<0.05). The parameters of the final ETO-ALDO pharmacodynamics model were EC50=9.74, Emax=1.20, E0=1.33, and γ=18.5; the parameters of the final ETO-CORT pharmacodynamics model were EC50=9.49, Emax=8.16, E0=8.57, and γ=37.0. In the presence of DEX, E0 was 8.57–0.0247×(CDEX–4.6), and the other parameters remained unchanged. All parameters but γ were natural logarithm conversion values. Conclusions Combined use of DEX and ETO reduced ETO’s inhibitory E0 (basal secretion) of CORT from human adrenocortical cells in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that combined use of ETO and DEX produced an additive effect in inhibiting the secretion of human adrenocortical hormones. PMID

  19. Combined effects of levonorgestrel and quinestrol on reproductive hormone levels and receptor expression in females of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaohui; Shi, Dazhao

    2012-01-01

    The effects of treatment with a combination of levonorgestrel and quinestrol (EP-1; ratio of 2:1) on reproductive hormone levels and the expression of their receptors in female Mongolian gerbils were examined. We show that serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) decreased, whereas serum estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) increased after EP-1 treatment. EP1 down-regulated mRNA expression of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and the estrogen receptor (ER) βin the ovary. EP-1 up-regulated the mRNA expression of the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and the progesterone receptor (PR) in the ovary as well as ERα and PR in the uterus of Mongolian gerbils. The effects were time-dependent and dose-dependent. EP-1 had no obvious effects on ERα mRNA expression in the ovary. The current study demonstrates that the effect of EP-1 on the expression of ER subtypes is tissue-specific in Mongolian gerbils. EP-1 disrupted the reproductive endocrinology of the Mongolian gerbil. These findings suggest that the effects of EP-1 on reproductive hormone levels and their receptor expression in Mongolian gerbils may be the result of synergistic actions of levonorgestrel and quinestrol, with quinestrol playing the major role. PMID:22233494

  20. Combined Administration of Human Ghrelin and Human Growth Hormone Attenuates Organ Injury and Improves Survival in Aged Septic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weng-Lang; Ma, Gaifeng; Zhou, Mian; Aziz, Monowar; Yen, Hao-Ting; Marvropoulos, Spyros A; Ojamaa, Kaie; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a major healthcare concern, especially in the elderly population. The use of an animal model closely resembling clinical conditions in this population may provide a better prediction in translating bench studies to the bedside. Ghrelin inhibits sympathetic nerve activity and inflammation in young septic animals; however, aged animals become hyporesponsive to ghrelin. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of combined human ghrelin and growth hormone (GH) for sepsis treatment in the elderly utilizing a clinically relevant animal model of sepsis. Male Fischer 344 rats 22 to 24 months old were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Human ghrelin plus GH or vehicle (normal saline) was administered subcutaneously at 5 h after CLP. At 20 h after CLP, blood and tissue samples were collected for various analyses. Combined treatment attenuated serum levels of lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in aged septic rats. The integrity of the microscopic structure in the lungs, liver and kidneys was well preserved after treatment. Expression of IL-6, TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine as well as myeloperoxidase activity and caspase-3 activation were significantly reduced in the lungs and liver of treated rats. Moreover, treated rats showed an improvement in cardiovascular function and increased expression of ghrelin receptor and c-fos in the brainstem. Finally, the 10-d survival of aged septic rats was increased from 29% to 64% after combined treatment and was associated with less body weight loss. Our findings warrant the development of combined human ghrelin and GH for sepsis treatment in the geriatric population. PMID:26835699

  1. Growth response and feed utilization of juvenile hybrid catfish fed diets containing distiller's dried grains with solubles to replace a combination of soybean meal and corn meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in aquaria with juveile hybrid catfish (channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus X blue catfish I. furcatus) to evaluate distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a replacement for a combination of soybean meal (SBM) and corn meal (CM). Twenty-five 75-L glass aquaria ...

  2. Individual and combined effects of noise-like whole-body vibration and parathyroid hormone treatment on bone defect repair in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sato, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and exposure to whole-body vibration on osteoporotic fracture healing has been previously investigated, but data on their concurrent use are lacking. Thus, we evaluated the effects of intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone, whole-body vibration, and their combination on bone repair in osteoporotic mice. Noise-like whole-body vibration with a broad frequency range was used instead of conventional sine-wave whole-body vibration at a specific frequency. Mice were ovariectomized at 9 weeks of age and subjected to drill-hole surgery in the right tibial diaphysis at 11 weeks. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 12 each): a control group, and groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone, noise-like whole-body vibration, and both. From postoperative day 2, the groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration were subcutaneously administered parathyroid hormone at a dose of 30 µg/kg/day. The groups treated with noise-like whole-body vibration and groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration were exposed to noise-like whole-body vibration at a root mean squared acceleration of 0.3g and frequency components of 45-100 Hz for 20 min/day. Following 18 days of interventions, the right tibiae were harvested, and the regenerated bone was analyzed by micro-computed tomography and nanoindentation testing. Compared with the control group, callus volume fraction was 40% higher in groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and 73% higher in groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration, and callus thickness was 35% wider in groups treated with both

  3. Hormone levels

    MedlinePlus

    Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

  4. Effect of combined excess iodine and low-protein diet on thyroid hormones and ultrastructure in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Lin, Xinying; Liu, Xihua; Yang, Qun; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu; Bian, Jianchao

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to illustrate the combined effect of excess iodine and low-protein diet on the thyroid, and the potential molecular mechanism of this effect. One hundred ninety-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following groups: normal; 10- (10HI), 50- (50HI), or 100-fold excess iodine (100HI); low-protein; and low-protein combined with 10- (L10HI), 50- (L50HI), or 100-fold excess iodine (L100HI). At the end of 2, 4, or 6 months, the rats were sacrificed for iodine concentration and thyroid hormone analyses. The histological appearance of the thyroid gland was observed at the end of 6 months. At the end of 6 months, the serum total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyronine (TT3), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) levels in the 100HI, L10HI, L50HI, and L100HI groups were significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Serum TT4, FT4, TT3, and FT3 levels in the low-protein excess iodine groups were significantly lower than the groups with an equal amount of excess iodine alone (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Light and electron microscopy showed that excess iodine caused damage to the ultrastructure of thyroid and apoptosis of follicular epithelial cells. In the 100HI, L50HI, and L100HI groups, thyroid follicular epithelial cells became flattened, and follicles became distended with colloid. The damage was more serious in low-protein groups. The present findings demonstrated that the low-protein diet aggravated the damage to the thyroid caused by excess iodine alone. PMID:24037684

  5. Profile of follitropin alpha/lutropin alpha combination for the stimulation of follicular development in women with severe luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Leonardo; Selman, Helmy

    2016-01-01

    A severe gonadotropin deficiency together with chronic estradiol deficiency leading to amenorrhea characterizes patients suffering from hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Administration of both follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to these patients has been shown to be essential in achieving successful stimulation of follicular development, ovulation, and rescue of fertility. In recent years, the availability of both recombinant FSH (rFSH) and recombinant LH (rLH) has provided a new therapeutic option for the stimulation of follicular growth in hypopituitary–hypogonadotropic women (World Health Organization Group I). In this article, we review the data reported in the literature to highlight the role and the efficacy of using recombinant gonadotropins, rFSH and rLH, in the treatment of women with severe LH/FSH deficiency. Although the studies on this issue are limited and the experiences available in the literature are few due to the small number of such patients, it is clearly evident that the recombinant gonadotropins rFSH and rLH are efficient in treating patients affected by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The results observed in the studies reported in this review suggest that recombinant gonadotropins are able to induce proper follicular growth, oocyte maturation, and eventually pregnancy in this group of women. Moreover, the clinical use of recombinant gonadotropins in this type of patients has given more insight into some endocrinological aspects of ovarian function that have not yet been fully understood. PMID:27307766

  6. Growth hormone (GH) replacement decreases serum total and LDL-cholesterol in hypopituitary patients on maintenance HMG CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) therapy

    PubMed Central

    Monson, John P; Jönsson, Peter; Koltowska-Häggström, Maria; Kourides, Ione

    2007-01-01

    Objective Adult onset GH deficiency (GHD) is characterized by abnormalities of serum lipoprotein profiles and GH replacement results in favourable alterations in serum total and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. Preliminary evidence has indicated that the effect of GH replacement in this respect may be additive to that of HMG CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) therapy. We have examined this possibility during prospective follow-up of adult onset hypopituitary patients enrolled in KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database), a pharmacoepidemiological study of GH replacement in adult hypopituitary patients. Design Lipoprotein profiles were measured centrally at baseline and after 12 months GH replacement therapy. Patients Sixty-one hypopituitary patients (30 male, 31 female) on maintenance statin therapy (mean 2·5 ± 2·7 SD years before GH) (statin group – SG) and 1247 (608 male, 639 female) patients not on hypolipidaemic therapy (nonstatin group – NSG) were studied. All patients were naïve or had not received GH replacement during the 6 months prior to study. Patients who developed diabetes mellitus during the first year of GH therapy or in the subsequent year and those with childhood onset GHD were excluded from this analysis. An established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was present in 18% SG and 4·4% NSG at baseline. Measurements Serum concentrations of total, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides and IGF-I were measured centrally in all patients and LDL-cholesterol was estimated using Friedewald's formula. Results The relative frequency of various statin use was simvastatin 52% (15·8 ± 8·1 mg, mean ± SD), atorvastatin 30% (14·4 ± 7·8 mg), pravastatin 9·8% (31·6 mg ± 13·9 mg), lovastatin 6·6% (17·5 ± 5 mg) and fluvastatin 1·6% (40 mg). Baseline serum total and LDL-cholesterol (mean ± SD) were 5·2 ± 1·4 and 3·1 ± 1·3 mmol/l in SG and 5·8 ± 1·2 and 3·7 ± 1·0 mmol/l in NSG, respectively (P < 0·0001

  7. Tissue deiodinase activity during prolonged critical illness: effects of exogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone and its combination with growth hormone-releasing peptide-2.

    PubMed

    Debaveye, Yves; Ellger, Björn; Mebis, Liese; Van Herck, Erik; Coopmans, Willy; Darras, Veerle; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2005-12-01

    Prolonged critical illness is characterized by reduced pulsatile TSH secretion, causing reduced thyroid hormone release and profound changes in thyroid hormone metabolism, resulting in low circulating T(3) and elevated rT(3) levels. To further unravel the underlying mechanisms, we investigated the effects of exogenous TRH and GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) in an in vivo model of prolonged critical illness. Burn-injured, parenterally fed rabbits were randomized to receive 4-d treatment with saline, 60 microg/kg.h GHRP-2, 60 microg/kg.h TRH, or 60 microg/kg.h TRH plus 60 microg/kg.h GHRP-2 started on d 4 of the illness (n = 8/group). The activities of the deiodinase 1 (D1), D2, and D3 in snap-frozen liver, kidney, and muscle as well as their impact on circulating thyroid hormone levels were studied. Compared with healthy controls, hepatic D1 activity in the saline-treated, ill animals was significantly down-regulated (P = 0.02), and D3 activity tended to be up-regulated (P = 0.06). Infusion of TRH and TRH plus GHRP-2 restored the catalytic activity of D1 (P = 0.02) and increased T(3) levels back within physiological range (P = 0.008). D3 activity was normalized by all three interventions, but only addition of GHRP-2 to TRH prevented the rise in rT(3) seen with TRH alone (P = 0.02). Liver D1 and D3 activity were correlated (respectively, positively and negatively) with the changes in circulating T(3) (r = 0.84 and r = -0.65) and the T(3)/rT(3) ratio (r = 0.71 and r = -0.60). We conclude that D1 activity during critical illness is suppressed and related to the alterations within the thyrotropic axis, whereas D3 activity tends to be increased and under the joint control of the somatotropic and thyrotropic axes. PMID:16150898

  8. Long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy on hematopoiesis in a large cohort of children with GH deficiency.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Andrea; Capalbo, Donatella; De Martino, Lucia; Rezzuto, Martina; Di Mase, Raffaella; Pignata, Claudio; Salerno, Mariacarolina

    2016-07-01

    The aim of our prospective case-control study was to evaluate long-term effects of GH replacement therapy on erythrocytes parameters, leukocytes, and platelets numbers in a large cohort of children with isolated GH deficiency (GHD). Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, red cell distribution width, number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and platelets, ferritin, and C-reactive protein were evaluated in 85 children with isolated GHD (10.20 ± 3.50 years) before and annually during the first 5 years of GH replacement therapy and in 85 healthy children age and sex comparable to patients during 5 years of follow-up. Compared with controls, GHD children at study entry showed lower Hb (-1.18 ± 0.87 vs. -0.40 ± 0.90 SDS, p < 0.0001), red cells number (-0.24 ± 0.81 vs. 0.25 ± 1.14 SDS, p < 0.0001), and Hct (-1.18 ± 0.86 vs. -0.68 ± 0.99 SDS, p < 0.0001). Twelve GHD patients (14 %) showed a normocytic anemia. GH therapy was associated with a significant increase in Hb, Hct, and red cells number which became all comparable to controls within the first 2 years of treatment. Moreover, hemoglobin levels normalized in all anemic GHD patients after 5 years of therapy. No difference between patients and controls was found in leukocytes and platelets numbers neither at baseline nor during the study. GHD in childhood is associated with an impairment of erythropoiesis which causes a normocytic anemia in a considerable percentage of patients. GH replacement therapy exerts a beneficial effect leading to a significant increase of erythrocytes parameters and recovery from anemia. Neither GHD nor GH replacement treatment exerts effects on leukocytes or platelets numbers. PMID:26511947

  9. Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yeung Bae; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Byung Chan; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2013-01-01

    Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simultaneous exposure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF signals for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg (total 4.0 W/kg). At 4 and 8 weeks after the experiment began, each experimental group's 40 rats (male 20, female 20) were autopsied. Exposure for 8 weeks to simultaneous CDMA and WCDMA RF did not affect serum levels in rats of melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) as assessed by the ELISA method. PMID:23239176

  10. Effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on serum hormone levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yeung Bae; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Byung Chan; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2013-05-01

    Despite more than a decade of research on the endocrine system, there have been no published studies about the effects of concurrent exposure of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on this system. The present study investigated the several parameters of the endocrine system including melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone, stress hormone and sex hormone after code division multiple access (CDMA, 849 MHz) and wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA, 1.95 GHz) signals for simultaneous exposure in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to RF-EMF signals for 45 min/day, 5 days/week for up to 8 weeks. The whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of CDMA or WCDMA was 2.0 W/kg (total 4.0 W/kg). At 4 and 8 weeks after the experiment began, each experimental group's 40 rats (male 20, female 20) were autopsied. Exposure for 8 weeks to simultaneous CDMA and WCDMA RF did not affect serum levels in rats of melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) as assessed by the ELISA method. PMID:23239176

  11. Combined administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, progesterone, and meloxicam is an effective treatment for the repeat-breeder cow.

    PubMed

    Amiridis, G S; Tsiligianni, Th; Dovolou, E; Rekkas, C; Vouzaras, D; Menegatos, I

    2009-09-01

    In practice, the etiologic treatment of the repeat-breeder cow is nearly infeasible. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a combined treatment would benefit the conception rate of repeat-breeder cows. The components of this regimen target ovulation defects, late progesterone (P4) rise, and premature luteolysis. In a 5-year period, 402 repeat-breeder cows were divided in five groups, and treatment regimens consisted of the following: gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; Group 1, n=115, 0.012mg buserelin im 4 to 6h before artificial insemination); P4 (Group 2, n=51, 100mg P4 intravaginally, on Days 5 to 7); meloxicam (Group 3, n=31, 0.5mgkg(-1), 24h(-1) melomicronxicam sc, on Days 16 to 18); GnRH+P4+meloxicam (Group 4, n=98); and no treatment (Group 5, control, n=107). Artificial insemination was conducted only after overt estrus; thereafter, the duration of the estrous cycle was assessed in all cows that were detected to return to heat. The conception and pregnancy rate was compared among groups. The proportion of cows that returned to estrus after artificial insemination did not differ among groups; the duration of estrous cycle was the shortest in Group 1 and the longest in Group 4. In Group 4, pregnancy rate was higher (P<0.05) than that of Groups 1 and 5 (35.71% vs. 20.00% and 17.76% for Groups 4, 1, and 5, respectively), but though numerically higher, it did not differ statistically from that of Groups 2 (27.45%) and 3 (22.58%). Our results imply that a multifaceted protocol has to be applied for the successful treatment of the repeat-breeder cow. PMID:19501897

  12. Sustained long-term immune responses after in situ gene therapy combined with radiotherapy and hormonal therapy in prostate cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Tetsuo; Teh, Bin S.; Mai, W.-Y.; Kusaka, Nobuyuki; Naruishi, Koji; Fattah, Elmoataz Abdel; Aguilar-Cordova, Estuardo; Butler, E. Brian; Thompson, Timothy C.

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To explore long-term immune responses after combined radio-gene-hormonal therapy. Methods and Materials: Thirty-three patients with prostate specific antigen 10 or higher or Gleason score of 7 or higher or clinical stage T2b to T3 were treated with gene therapy that consisted of 3 separate intraprostatic injections of AdHSV-tk on Days 0, 56, and 70. Each injection was followed by 2 weeks of valacyclovir. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was delivered 2 days after the second AdHSV-tk injection for 7 weeks. Hormonal therapy was initiated on Day 0 and continued for 4 months or 2.3 years. Blood samples were taken before, during, and after treatment. Lymphocytes were analyzed by fluorescent antibody cell sorting (FACS). Results: Median follow-up was 26 months (range, 4-48 months). The mean percentages of DR{sup +}CD8{sup +} T cells were increased at all timepoints up to 8 months. The mean percentages of DR{sup +}CD4{sup +} T cells were increased later and sustained longer until 12 months. Long-term (2.3 years) use of hormonal therapy did not affect the percentage of any lymphocyte population. Conclusions: Sustained long-term (up to 8 to 12 months) systemic T-cell responses were noted after combined radio-gene-hormonal therapy for prostate cancer. Prolonged use of hormonal therapy does not suppress this response. These results suggest the potential for sustained activation of cell-mediated immune responses against cancer.

  13. Pharmacological control of the hormonally modulated immune response. II. Blockade of antibody production by a combination of drugs acting on neuroendocrine functions. Its prevention by gonadotropins and corticotrophin.

    PubMed Central

    Pierpaoli, W; Maestroni, G J

    1978-01-01

    Injection of a combination of three drugs, 5-hydroxytryptophan, the alpha-blocker phentolamine and the neuroleptic drug haloperidol into mice before or together with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) induces a complete and long-lasting inhibition of antibody production to SRBC and leads to specific unresponsiveness. The mice unresponsive to SRBC respond normally to another antigen. Treatment with a combination of luteotropic (LH), follicle stimulating (FSH) and corticotropic hormone (ACTH) before administration of drugs and antigen prevents the immune blockade. Injection of SRBC induces an early elevation of LH in blood. This effect is prevented by previous administration of the three drugs in combination. The hormonal response to a second injection of the same antigen of mice previously made 'unresponsive' is different from that of immunized animals. The suppression of these hormonal changes which follow antigen injection by drugs acting on neuroendocrine regulation and cell membrane adrenergic receptors represents a step forward in efforts aimed at a pharmacological control of acquired immunity. PMID:205502

  14. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, William L

    2012-10-31

    The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a refined and unrefined form) were to be investigated, with emphasis of the development of a system capable of reliably and repeatedly combusting glycerol as well as an analysis of the emissions produced during glycerol combustion. Focus was placed on quantifying common emissions in comparison to more traditional fuels and this work showed that the burner developed was able to completely combust glycerol within a relatively wide range of operating conditions. Additionally, focus was placed on examining specific emissions in more detail, namely interesting NOx emissions observed in initial trials, acrolein and other volatile organic emissions, and particulate and ash emissions. This work showed that the combustion of crude glycerol could result in significantly reduced NOx emissions as a function of the high fuel bound oxygen content within the glycerol fuel. It also showed that when burned properly, the combustion of crude glycerol did not result in excessive emissions of acrolein or any other VOC compared to the combustion from more traditional fuels. Lastly however, this work has shown that in any practical application in which glycerol is being burned, it will be necessary to explore ash mitigation techniques due to the very high particulate matter concentrations produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus of this work was directed to developing a commercialization strategy for the use of glycerol as a fuel replacement. This strategy has identified a 30 month plan for the scaling up of the laboratory scale burner into a pre-pilot scale system. Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude

  15. Ankle replacement

    MedlinePlus

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... Ankle replacement surgery is most often done while you are under general anesthesia. This means you will ...

  16. Postmenopausal hormone therapy: the way ahead.

    PubMed

    Pines, Amos

    2007-05-20

    This article follows the milestones in the history of postmenopausal hormone treatment, with a look into the future. In the first era, hormones were regarded as an anti-aging panacea, the fountain of eternal youth. It was recommended then that every postmenopausal woman should consider the use of hormone replacement therapy. In the second era, people realized that hormones are medications, and as such should be given for clear and scientifically proven indications. When the issue of harm as a result of hormone treatment led to professional and public debates, the concept was changed into a clinically oriented approach commonly phrased as "the expected benefits should be weighed individually against potential risks". In the third era, individualization had a further step, stressing the prognostic importance of the following parameters: women's age, age at start of hormone use, duration of therapy, dosage, route of administration, and the exact type and combination of estrogen and progestogen. The fourth era is already knocking on our door, as new molecules are sought, which will maximize the desired effects of therapy while minimizing or eliminating the risks. The fifth era is still a wishful thinking, searching for the ultimate treatment which will be based on individual gene mapping and accurate assessment of the chance to achieve treatment goals vis-à-vis the risk of having a serious adverse event. PMID:17376615

  17. Genesis of two most prevalent PROP1 gene variants causing combined pituitary hormone deficiency in 21 populations.

    PubMed

    Dusatkova, Petra; Pfäffle, Roland; Brown, Milton R; Akulevich, Natallia; Arnhold, Ivo J P; Kalina, Maria A; Kot, Karolina; Krzisnik, Ciril; Lemos, Manuel C; Malikova, Jana; Navardauskaite, Ruta; Obermannova, Barbora; Pribilincova, Zuzana; Sallai, Agnes; Stipancic, Gordana; Verkauskiene, Rasa; Cinek, Ondrej; Blum, Werner F; Parks, John S; Austerlitz, Frederic; Lebl, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Two variants (c.[301_302delAG];[301_302delAG] and c.[150delA];[150delA]) in the PROP1 gene are the most common genetic causes of recessively inherited combined pituitary hormones deficiency (CPHD). Our objective was to analyze in detail the origin of the two most prevalent variants. In the multicentric study were included 237 patients with CPHD and their 15 relatives carrying c.[301_302delAG];[301_302delAG] or c.[150delA];[150delA] or c.[301_302delAG];[ 150delA]. They originated from 21 different countries worldwide. We genotyped 21 single-nucleotide variant markers flanking the 9.6-Mb region around the PROP1 gene that are not in mutual linkage disequilibrium in the general populations--a finding of a common haplotype would be indicative of ancestral origin of the variant. Haplotypes were reconstructed by Phase and Haploview software, and the variant age was estimated using an allelic association method. We demonstrated the ancestral origin of both variants--c.[301_302delAG] was carried on 0.2 Mb-long haplotype in a majority of European patients arising ~101 generations ago (confidence interval 90.1-116.4). Patients from the Iberian Peninsula displayed a different haplotype, which was estimated to have emerged 23.3 (20.1-29.1) generations ago. Subsequently, the data indicated that both the haplotypes were transmitted to Latin American patients ~13.8 (12.2-17.0) and 16.4 (14.4-20.1) generations ago, respectively. The c.[150delA] variant that was carried on a haplotype spanning about 0.3 Mb was estimated to appear 43.7 (38.4-52.7) generations ago. We present strong evidence that the most frequent variants in the PROP1 gene are not a consequence of variant hot spots as previously assumed, but are founder variants. PMID:26059845

  18. Combined modification of intracellular and extracellular loci on human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor provides a mechanism for enhanced expression.

    PubMed

    Maya-Núñez, G; Janovick, J A; Conn, P M

    2000-12-01

    The mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor (GnRH-R) has been a therapeutic target for human and animal medicine. This receptor is a unique G-protein-coupled receptor that lacks the intracellular C-terminal domain commonly associated with this family. Development of highthrough put screens for agents active in humans has been hampered by low expression levels of the hGnRH-R in cellular models. Two sites have attracted the interest of laboratories studying regulation of expression. The chimeric addition of the C-terminal tail from catfish GnRH-R (cfGnRH-R) to the rat GnRH-R significantly augmented receptor expression in GH3 cells. In addition, rodent GnRH-R contains 327 amino acids, but cow, sheep, and human GnRH-R (hGnRH-R) contain 328 residues, the "additional" residue being a Lys 191. Deletion of Lys 191 (del 191) from the hGnRH-R resulted in increased receptor expression levels and decreased internalization rates in both COS-7 and HEK 293 cells. In this study, the combined effect of the addition of the C-tail from cfGnRH-R and deletion of the Lys 191 from the hGnRH-R was compared to expression of the wild-type (WT) or either alteration alone in a transient expression system using primate cells. The altered receptor (hGnRH-R[del 191]-C-tail) showed significantly increased receptor expression at the cell surface compared with the WT or either modification alone. The inositol phosphate response to stimulation was also significantly elevated in response to GnRH agonist. After treatment with a GnRH agonist, the altered receptors showed a slower internalization rate. The homologous steady-state regulation of the WT and the altered receptors was similar, although the response of the altered receptors was significantly decreased. These results suggest that the conformational change in the receptor as a result of the deletion of Lys 191 and the addition of the C-terminus tail substantially increased the steady-state receptor expression and decreased

  19. Combined 3D-QSAR, molecular docking and molecular dynamics study on thyroid hormone activity of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers to thyroid receptors β

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaolin; Ye, Li; Wang, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xinzhou; Liu, Hongling; Zhu, Yongliang; Yu, Hongxia

    2012-12-15

    Several recent reports suggested that hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (HO-PBDEs) may disturb thyroid hormone homeostasis. To illuminate the structural features for thyroid hormone activity of HO-PBDEs and the binding mode between HO-PBDEs and thyroid hormone receptor (TR), the hormone activity of a series of HO-PBDEs to thyroid receptors β was studied based on the combination of 3D-QSAR, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) methods. The ligand- and receptor-based 3D-QSAR models were obtained using Comparative Molecular Similarity Index Analysis (CoMSIA) method. The optimum CoMSIA model with region focusing yielded satisfactory statistical results: leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient (q{sup 2}) was 0.571 and non-cross-validation correlation coefficient (r{sup 2}) was 0.951. Furthermore, the results of internal validation such as bootstrapping, leave-many-out cross-validation, and progressive scrambling as well as external validation indicated the rationality and good predictive ability of the best model. In addition, molecular docking elucidated the conformations of compounds and key amino acid residues at the docking pocket, MD simulation further determined the binding process and validated the rationality of docking results. -- Highlights: ► The thyroid hormone activities of HO-PBDEs were studied by 3D-QSAR. ► The binding modes between HO-PBDEs and TRβ were explored. ► 3D-QSAR, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) methods were performed.

  20. Improvement of embryo production by the replacement of the last two doses of porcine follicle-stimulating hormone with equine chorionic gonadotropin in Sindhi donors.

    PubMed

    Mattos, M C C; Bastos, M R; Guardieiro, M M; Carvalho, J O; Franco, M M; Mourão, G B; Barros, C M; Sartori, R

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the superovulatory (SOV) response of Sindhi (Bos indicus) donors submitted to an ovarian follicular superstimulatory protocol replacing the last two doses of pFSH by eCG. Forty-eight SOV treatments were performed in a crossover design in 19 nulliparous and primiparous females that were randomly divided into two groups: FSH (n=24), which consisted of eight pFSH injections, or FSH/eCG (n=24), which consisted of six pFSH injections followed by two eCG injections. Each female underwent two or three SOV treatments that consisted of an i.m. injection of 2mg estradiol benzoate and the insertion of an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device on Day 0. On Day 4, superstimulatory treatments were initiated and 100mg pFSH was divided into twice daily decreasing doses over a 4-day period. In the FSH/eCG group, the last two doses of pFSH were replaced by two doses of eCG (150 IU eCG each). At the time of the fifth and sixth injections of FSH, 0.150 mg PGF(2α) was injected i.m. The intravaginal progesterone-releasing device was removed at the time of the last FSH or eCG injection and ovulation was induced with 0.2 mg GnRH 18 h later. All females were artificially inseminated with frozen-thawed semen from the same bull 6 and 18 h after GnRH treatment. Seven days after GnRH treatment, embryos/ova were recovered and classified. Follicular superstimulatory (number of follicles ≥6mm at the time of the last FSH or eCG injection) and SOV (CL number) responses were determined by transrectal ultrasonography. Data were analyzed using generalized linear models and results were presented as least squares means±standard error. The FSH/eCG group had higher superstimulatory (33.8±3.9 compared to 23.8±2.6 follicles; P=0.03) and SOV (16.8±2.9 compared to 10.8±2.1 CL; P=0.10) responses. Although the number of total ova/embryos was not different between groups (8.2±1.8 compared to 5.9±1.4 for FSH/eCG and FSH groups, respectively; P=0.25), the number

  1. Impact of hormonal treatment duration in combination with radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer: Meta-analysis of randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hormone therapy plus radiotherapy significantly decreases recurrences and mortality of patients affected by locally advanced prostate cancer. In order to determine if difference exists according to the hormonal treatment duration, a literature-based meta-analysis was performed. Methods Relative risks (RR) were derived through a random-effect model. Differences in primary (biochemical failure, BF; cancer-specific survival, CSS), and secondary outcomes (overall survival, OS; local or distant recurrence, LR/DM) were explored. Absolute differences (AD) and the number needed to treat (NNT) were calculated. Heterogeneity, a meta-regression for clinic-pathological predictors and a correlation test for surrogates were conducted. Results Five trials (3,424 patients) were included. Patient population ranged from 267 to 1,521 patients. The longer hormonal treatment significantly improves BF (with significant heterogeneity) with an absolute benefit of 10.1%, and a non significant trend in CSS. With regard to secondary end-points, the longer hormonal treatment significantly decrease both the LR and the DM with an absolute difference of 11.7% and 11.5%. Any significant difference in OS was observed. None of the three identified clinico-pathological predictors (median PSA, range 9.5-20.35, Gleason score 7-10, 27-55% patients/trial, and T3-4, 13-77% patients/trial), did significantly affect outcomes. At the meta-regression analysis a significant correlation between the overall treatment benefit in BF, CSS, OS, LR and DM, and the length of the treatment was found (p≤0.03). Conclusions Although with significant heterogeneity (reflecting different patient' risk stratifications), a longer hormonal treatment duration significantly decreases biochemical, local and distant recurrences, with a trend for longer cancer specific survival. PMID:21143897

  2. Transient Increased Calcium and Calcitriol Requirements After Discontinuation of Human Synthetic Parathyroid Hormone 1-34 (hPTH 1-34) Replacement Therapy in Hypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Gafni, Rachel I; Guthrie, Lori C; Kelly, Marilyn H; Brillante, Beth A; Christie, C Michele; Reynolds, James C; Yovetich, Nancy A; James, Robert; Collins, Michael T

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic human PTH 1-34 (hPTH 1-34) replacement therapy in hypoparathyroidism maintains eucalcemia and converts quiescent bone to high-turnover bone. However, the skeletal and metabolic effects of drug discontinuation have not been reported. Nine subjects with hypoparathyroidism received subcutaneous injections of hPTH 1-34 two to three times daily for 19.8 to 61.3 months and then transitioned back to calcium and calcitriol. Biochemistries and bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were assessed at baseline, while on treatment, and at follow-up 3 to 12 months after drug discontinuation. Two subjects developed hypocalcemia when hPTH 1-34 was abruptly discontinued. Thus, to avoid hypocalcemia, subjects were slowly weaned from hPTH 1-34 over several weeks. When hPTH 1-34 was stopped, subjects were requiring two to three times pretreatment doses of calcitriol and calcium to maintain blood calcium levels. Doses were gradually reduced over many weeks until calcium levels were stable on doses similar to baseline. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), N-telopeptide (NTX), and osteocalcin (OC) increased significantly with hPTH 1-34; at follow-up, BSAP and NTX had returned to baseline while OC was still slightly elevated. During treatment, BMD was unchanged at the hip and lateral spine but declined at the anterior-posterior (AP) spine, radius, and total body. During weaning, BMD increased, with the hip and lateral spine exceeding pre-hPTH 1-34 values and the whole body returning to baseline. AP spine was increased non-significantly compared to baseline at follow-up. hPTH 1-34 must be gradually weaned in hypoparathyroid patients with high doses of oral medications given to avoid hypocalcemia. The transient increased requirements accompanied by increased BMD after long-term hPTH 1-34 therapy suggest a reversal of the expanded remodeling space favoring bone formation as the skeleton returns to a low-turnover state, reminiscent of the hungry

  3. Decreasing cardiovascular risk factors in obese individuals using a combination of PGX® meal replacements and PGX® granules in a 12-week clinical weight modification program.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Ronald G; Lyon, Michael R; Kacinik, Veronica; Gahler, Roland J; Manjoo, Priya; Purnama, Monica; Wood, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In this open, clinically based, weight modification program, we determined in six sedentary obese adults (five women; one male; age range 30-62 years) that the combination of a modified calorie diet plus PGX® meal replacement and PGX® supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in several cardiovascular risk factors over a 12-week time period. This included a significant improvement in lipids (-0.98 mmol/l LDL-C), reduction in average weight (-9.2 kg), mean reduction in fat (-4.1%) and an increase in fat-free mass (2.8%). PMID:23652638

  4. Sensitive determinations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Cr elements in aqueous solutions using chemical replacement combined with surface-enhanced laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, X Y; Hao, Z Q; Li, C M; Li, J M; Yi, R X; Shen, M; Li, K H; Guo, L B; Li, X Y; Lu, Y F; Zeng, X Y

    2016-06-13

    In this study, chemical replacement combined with surface-enhanced laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CR-SENLIBS) was for the first time applied to improve the detection sensitivities of trace heavy metal elements in aqueous solutions. Utilizing chemical replacement effect, heavy metal ions in aqueous solution were enriched on the magnesium alloy surface as a solid replacement layer through reacting with the high chemical activity metallic magnesium (Mg) within 1 minute. Unitary and mixed solutions with Cu, Pb, Cd, and Cr elements were prepared to construct calibration curves, respectively. The CR-SENLIBS showed a much better detection sensitivity and accuracy for both unitary and mixed solutions. The coefficients of determination R2 of the calibration curves were above 0.96, and the LoDs were of the same order of magnitude, i.e., in the range of 0.016-0.386 μg/mL for the unitary solution, and in the range of 0.025-0.420 μg/mL for the mixed solution. These results show that CR-SENLIBS is a feasible method for improving the detection sensitivity of trace element in liquid sample, which definitely provides a way for wider application of LIBS in water quality monitoring. PMID:27410358

  5. Hip Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... replacement is an operation in which a damaged hip joint is removed and replaced with an artificial joint. ... are many medical conditions that can damage the hip joint. (Watch the video to learn about what goes ...

  6. Hip Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgeon removes damaged cartilage and bone from your hip joint and replaces them with new, man-made parts. A hip replacement can Relieve pain Help your hip joint work better Improve walking and other movements The ...

  7. Two simple cleanup methods combined with LC-MS/MS for quantification of steroid hormones in in vivo and in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Weisser, Johan Juhl; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Poulsen, Rikke; Larsen, Lizette Weber; Cornett, Claus; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2016-07-01

    Measuring both progestagens, androgens, corticosteroids as well as estrogens with a single method makes it possible to investigate the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the main pathways in the mammalian steroidogenesis. This paper presents two simple methods for the determination of the major steroid hormones in biological matrixes using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(2)). A novel method was developed for the determination of 14 steroids in the H295R in vitro assay without the need for solid phase extraction (SPE) purification prior to LC-MS(2) analysis. The in vitro assay was validated by exposing H295R cells to prochloraz for inhibiting steroid hormone secretion and by exposing cells to forskolin for inducing steroid hormone secretion. The developed method fulfills the recommendations for the H295R assay suggested by the OECD. Furthermore, a simple off-line SPE methodology was developed for the necessary clean-up of in vivo assays. Samples, such as gonad tissue, plasma and serum, are complex biological matrixes, and the SPE methodology was optimized to remove salts and proteins prior to elution of target analytes. At the same time, lipophilic compounds were retained on the SPE cartridge during elution. This, combined with the multi-steroid LC-MS(2) method, made it possible to determine 10 steroids in male Sprague-Dawley rat gonad tissue. Furthermore, it was possible to quantify 6 steroids in the plasma. In general, the observed concentration of steroid hormones in plasma, testes, and H295R cell medium corresponded well with previous studies. The off-line SPE method was validated using spiked charcoal-stripped serum. Method recovery, accuracy, precision and robustness were all good. Instrument sensitivity was in the range of 55-530 pg/mL (LLOQ). PMID:27150205

  8. Combined effects of endogenous sex hormone levels and mammographic density on postmenopausal breast cancer risk: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study

    PubMed Central

    Schoemaker, M J; Folkerd, E J; Jones, M E; Rae, M; Allen, S; Ashworth, A; Dowsett, M; Swerdlow, A J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mammographic density and sex hormone levels are strong risk factors for breast cancer, but it is unclear whether they represent the same aetiological entity or are independent risk factors. Methods: Within the Breakthrough Generations Study cohort, we conducted a case–control study of 265 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and 343 controls with prediagnostic mammograms and blood samples. Plasma was assayed for oestradiol, testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations and mammographic density assessed by Cumulus. Results: Oestradiol and testosterone were negatively and SHBG positively associated with percentage density and absolute dense area, but after adjusting for body mass index the associations remained significant only for SHBG. Breast cancer risk was independently and significantly positively associated with percentage density (P=0.002), oestradiol (P=0.002) and testosterone (P=0.007) levels. Women in the highest tertile of both density and sex hormone level were at greatest risk, with an odds ratio of 7.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.89–21.1) for oestradiol and 4.57 (95% CI: 1.75–11.9) for testosterone and high density compared with those who were in the lowest tertiles. The cumulative risk of breast cancer in the highest oestradiol and density tertiles, representing 8% of controls, was estimated as 12.8% at ages 50–69 years and 19.4% at ages 20–79 years, and in the lowest tertiles was 1.7% and 4.3%, respectively. Associations of breast cancer risk with tertiles of mammographic dense area were less strong than for percentage density. Conclusions: Endogenous sex hormone levels and mammographic density are independent risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer, which in combination can identify women who might benefit from increased frequency of screening and chemoprophylaxis. PMID:24518596

  9. Effects of withholding feed on thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test results and effects of combined testing on oral sugar test and thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test results in horses.

    PubMed

    Restifo, Melissa M; Frank, Nicholas; Hermida, Pilar; Sanchez-Londoño, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess effects of withholding feed on thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test results used in diagnosis of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction in horses and determine effects of combined testing on results of the TRH stimulation test and the oral sugar test (OST) used in diagnosis of equine metabolic syndrome. ANIMALS 30 adult horses. PROCEDURES All horses underwent TRH stimulation tests under fed and nonfed conditions, an OST alone, and an OST combined with TRH stimulation testing. For TRH stimulation tests, plasma ACTH concentrations were measured before (baseline) and 10 minutes after (poststimulation) IV TRH administration. For the OST, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured before (baseline) and 60 and 90 minutes after oral corn syrup administration. For combined testing, the TRH stimulation test was initiated immediately after 60-minute posttreatment sample collection for the OST. Results were compared among methods by Wilcoxon matched-pairs, signed rank tests, paired t tests, and Bland-Altman analysis. RESULTS Feeding conditions did not affect median ACTH concentrations when TRH stimulation tests were performed alone. Median baseline ACTH concentration did not differ between TRH stimulation tests performed alone (under fed or nonfed conditions) and those combined with OSTs. Median poststimulation ACTH concentration was significantly lower for combined tests than for solitary TRH stimulation tests. Mean 60-minute plasma glucose concentration was significantly lower for solitary OSTs than for combined tests, but this difference could not be attributed to TRH administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Combined testing in the manner described impacted ACTH concentrations during TRH stimulation tests and is not recommended at this time. PMID:27347827

  10. Effect of Acarbose, Sitagliptin and combination therapy on blood glucose, insulin, and incretin hormone concentrations in experimentally induced postprandial hyperglycemia of healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Mori, Akihiro; Ueda, Kaori; Lee, Peter; Oda, Hitomi; Ishioka, Katsumi; Arai, Toshiro; Sako, Toshinori

    2016-06-01

    Acarbose (AC) and Sitagliptin (STGP) are oral hypoglycemic agents currently used either alone or in conjunction with human diabetic (Type 2) patients. AC has been used with diabetic cats, but not STGP thus far. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the potential use of AC or STGP alone and in combination for diabetic cats, by observing their effect on short-term post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, and incretin hormone (active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and total glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)) concentrations in five healthy cats, following ingestion of a meal with maltose. All treatments tended (p<0.10; 5-7.5% reduction) to reduce postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC), with an accompanying significant reduction (p<0.05, 35-45%) in postprandial insulin AUC as compared to no treatment. Meanwhile, a significant increase (p<0.05) in postprandial active GLP-1 AUC was observed with STGP (100% higher) and combined treatment (130% greater), as compared to either AC or no treatment. Lastly, a significant reduction (p<0.05) in postprandial total GIP AUC was observed with STGP (21% reduction) and combined treatment (7% reduction) as compared to control. Overall, AC, STGP, or combined treatment can significantly induce positive post-prandial changes to insulin and incretin hormone levels of healthy cats. Increasing active GLP-1 and reducing postprandial hyperglycemia appear to be the principal mechanisms of combined treatment. Considering the different, but complementary mechanisms of action by which AC and STGP induce lower glucose and insulin levels, combination therapy with both these agents offers great potential for treating diabetic cats in the future. PMID:27234550

  11. Postmenopausal hormone therapy: cardiovascular risks.

    PubMed

    2003-04-01

    (1) The WHI study was published in 2002: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial in more than 16 000 women with an average age of 63 years at enrollment. The paper reports data on the long-term adverse effects of combined equine estrogen-progestin hormone replacement therapy, taken for 5 years. (2) On average, a yearly excess of 19 severe adverse events per 10 000 women occurred in the estrogen-progestin group. Relative to the placebo group, there were an extra 8 pulmonary embolisms, 7 coronary events, 8 strokes and 8 cases of invasive breast cancer. In contrast, there were 6 fewer colorectal cancers and 5 fewer hip fractures in the active treatment group. (3) The differences in the frequency of coronary events and venous thromboembolism emerged after the first year of treatment, while the curves for stroke and breast cancer diverged after the second and fifth years, respectively. (4) The overall mortality rate did not differ between the two groups. (5) A placebo-controlled trial of the same hormone combination (HERS trial), given for 4.1 years as secondary prophylaxis against coronary heart disease was published in 1998. The drug was ineffective during the trial, and during unblinded post-trial follow-up of 2 321 women for an average of 2.7 years (HERS II study). (6) The estrogen-progestin combination used in these trials did not reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (in primary or secondary prophylaxis) or the risk of stroke. On the contrary, both risks increased. (7) The increased incidence of deep venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism associated with estrogen-progestin replacement therapy was confirmed in these trials, even among women with no relevant history. (8) The WHI trial also confirmed the increased risk of breast cancer in women on hormone replacement therapy, but did not study its impact on outcome or mortality. (9) The WHI trial confirmed the beneficial impact of estrogen-progestin combination therapy on the risk of

  12. Postero-Lateral Disc Prosthesis Combined With a Unilateral Facet Replacement Device Maintains Quantity and Quality of Motion at a Single Lumbar Level

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Aniruddh N.; Doarn, Michael C.; Gaskins, Roger B.; James, Chris R.; Cabezas, Andres F.; Castellvi, Antonio E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mechanically replacing one or more pain generating articulations in the functional spinal unit (FSU) may be a motion preservation alternative to arthrodesis at the affected level. Baseline biomechanical data elucidating the quantity and quality of motion in such arthroplasty constructs is non-existent. Purpose The purpose of the study was to quantify the motion-preserving effect of a posterior total disc replacement (PDR) combined with a unilateral facet replacement (FR) system at a single lumbar level (L4-L5). We hypothesized that reinforcement of the FSU with unilateral FR to replace the resected, native facet joint following PDR implantation would restore quality and quantity of motion and additionally not change biomechanics at the adjacent levels. Study Design In-vitro study using human cadaveric lumbar spines. Methods Six (n = 6) cadaveric lumbar spines (L1-S1) were evaluated using a pure-moment stability testing protocol (±7.5 Nm) in flexion-extension (F/E), lateral bending (LB) and axial rotation (AR). Each specimen was tested in: (1) intact; (2) unilateral FR; and (3) unilateral FR + PDR conditions. Index and adjacent level ROM (using hybrid protocol) were determined opto-electronically. Interpedicular travel (IPT) and instantaneous center of rotation (ICR) at the index level were radiographically determined for each condition. ROM, ICR, and IPT measurements were compared (repeated measures ANOVA) between the three conditions. Results Compared to the intact spine, no significant changes in F/E, LB or AR ROM were identified as a result of unilateral FR or unilateral FR + PDR. No significant changes in adjacent L3-L4 or L5-S1 ROM were identified in any loading mode. No significant differences in IPT were identified between the three test conditions in F/E, LB or AR at the L4-L5 level. The ICRs qualitatively were similar for the intact and unilateral FR conditions and appeared to follow placement (along the anterior-posterior (AP) direction) of

  13. Hormone replacement therapy enhances IGF-1 signaling in skeletal muscle by diminishing miR-182 and miR-223 expressions: a study on postmenopausal monozygotic twin pairs

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Fabiola; Ahtiainen, Maarit; Lazzarini, Raffaella; Pöllänen, Eija; Capri, Miriam; Lorenzi, Maria; Fulgenzi, Gianluca; Albertini, Maria C; Salvioli, Stefano; Alen, Markku J; Kujala, Urho M; Borghetti, Giulia; Babini, Lucia; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sipilä, Sarianna; Franceschi, Claudio; Kovanen, Vuokko; Procopio, Antonio D

    2014-01-01

    MiRNAs are fine-tuning modifiers of skeletal muscle regulation, but knowledge of their hormonal control is lacking. We used a co-twin case–control study design, that is, monozygotic postmenopausal twin pairs discordant for estrogen-based hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to explore estrogen-dependent skeletal muscle regulation via miRNAs. MiRNA profiles were determined from vastus lateralis muscle of nine healthy 54–62-years-old monozygotic female twin pairs discordant for HRT (median 7 years). MCF-7 cells, human myoblast cultures and mouse muscle experiments were used to confirm estrogen’s causal role on the expression of specific miRNAs, their target mRNAs and proteins and finally the activation of related signaling pathway. Of the 230 miRNAs expressed at detectable levels in muscle samples, qPCR confirmed significantly lower miR-182, miR-223 and miR-142-3p expressions in HRT using than in their nonusing co-twins. Insulin/IGF-1 signaling emerged one common pathway targeted by these miRNAs. IGF-1R and FOXO3A mRNA and protein were more abundantly expressed in muscle samples of HRT users than nonusers. In vitro assays confirmed effective targeting of miR-182 and miR-223 on IGF-1R and FOXO3A mRNA as well as a dose-dependent miR-182 and miR-223 down-regulations concomitantly with up-regulation of FOXO3A and IGF-1R expression. Novel finding is the postmenopausal HRT-reduced miRs-182, miR-223 and miR-142-3p expression in female skeletal muscle. The observed miRNA-mediated enhancement of the target genes’ IGF-1R and FOXO3A expression as well as the activation of insulin/IGF-1 pathway signaling via phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR is an important mechanism for positive estrogen impact on skeletal muscle of postmenopausal women. PMID:25040542

  14. [Preliminary results of treatment of hormone-dependent metastatic carcinoma of the breast with the bromocriptin-medroxyprogesterone acetate combination].

    PubMed

    Mussa, A; Dogliotti, L; Di Carlo, F

    1977-06-30

    A brief account of the concept of hormone dependence in breast neoplasia is followed by the presentation of results obtained with an association of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) and 2-bromo-alpha-ergocriptine (CB 154) in 14 women with metastatic cancer of the breast, hormone dependent due to the presence of the cytoplasmic receptor for 17-beta-oestradiol. All patients, in fertile or premenopausal stage, were subjected to prior surgical ovariectomy. MAP was given i.m. at a dose of 1 g/day for 30 days and then 150 mg/day. In the same time 2.5 mg CB 154 were administered every 6 hr per os. Evaluation in accordance with the criteria proposed by the Coop Breast Cancer Group showed that rapid improvement was obtained in all cases, persisting (at the time of writing) for a minimum of 6 months to a maximum of 2 yr of observation. In addition, rapid disappearance of pain was noted, particularly in subjects with secondary bone lesions. Side-effects were in all cases of slight consequence and suspension of the treatment was never necessary. The mechanism of the two drugs and the advantages of their association are discussed. PMID:577604

  15. Prebiotic Fibre Supplementation In Combination With Metformin Modifies Appetite, Energy Metabolism, And Gut Satiety Hormones In Obese Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyra, Kim Alicia

    The prebiotic fibre, oligofructose (OFS), reduces energy intake and improves glycemic control in rodents and man. Metformin (MT) is a commonly used insulin-sensitizing agent that may limit weight gain in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to determine if using OFS as an adjunct to MT therapy (AD) modifies satiety hormone production and metabolism in obese rats. Independently, OFS and MT decreased energy intake, body fat, hepatic triglyceride content, plasma leptin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) levels. OFS and AD but not MT rats showed superior glycemic control during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) compared to C. Area under the curve for GIP was lowest in ADThe prebiotic fibre, oligofructose (OFS), reduces energy intake and improves glycemic control in rodents and man. Metformin (MT) is a commonly used insulin-sensitizing agent that may limit weight gain in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to determine if using OFS as an adjunct to MT therapy (AD) modifies satiety hormone production and metabolism in obese rats. Independently, OFS and MT decreased energy intake, body fat, hepatic triglyceride content, plasma leptin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) levels. OFS and AD but not MT rats showed superior glycemic control during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) compared to C. Area under the curve for GIP was lowest in AD

  16. A Preliminary Study on the Effect of Combined Nicotine Replacement Therapy on Alcohol Responses and Alcohol Self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Udo, Tomoko; Harrison, Emily L.R.; Shi, Julia; Tetrault, Jeanette; McKee, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Limiting alcohol consumption may help prevent alcohol-mediated smoking relapse in heavy drinking smokers. This pilot study examined whether combining a nicotine patch with nicotine nasal spray has stronger attenuating effects on alcohol response and consumption than a nicotine patch alone. Methods Twenty-two non-alcohol dependent heavy drinking smokers completed the double-blind cross-over, placebo-controlled study (21mg nicotine patch + nicotine or placebo nasal spray). Six hours after 21mg nicotine patch application, subjective and physiological responses to a priming drink (0.3 g/kg) were assessed, followed by two 1-hr alcohol self-administration periods, with possible consumption of up to 4 drinks per period (each 0.15 g/kg). Nasal spray (1 mg [active] or 0 mg [placebo] per dose) was administered 10 min prior to the priming dose and each self-administration period. Results Active nasal spray did not increase serum nicotine levels, compared with placebo administration. The number of drinks consumed did not differ by the nasal spray conditions. However, positive subjective responses to the priming drink were lower in the active nasal spray condition than the placebo nasal spray condition. During the self-administration period, urge to drink was also lower in the active spray condition than the placebo condition. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Augmenting the nicotine patch with nicotine nasal spray attenuated positive subjective alcohol response and craving and suggests that future studies should investigate whether these findings translate to a clinical setting. PMID:24131167

  17. [A beam of dawn light of study on gossypol as a safe, effective, and reversible male antifertility contraceptive--evaluation of the studies by using low dose gossypol combined with steroid hormone for male contraception].

    PubMed

    Xue, S

    2000-06-01

    The present paper is an evaluation of the studies of two articles published in this issue of the journal which adopted a new regimen of low dose gossypol(12 mg.kg-1.d-1) combined with steroid hormones (methyltestosterone 20 mg.kg-1.d-1 and ethinyl estradiol 100 micrograms.kg-1.d-1) for 6 weeks as initial dose, and a similar low dose gossypol alone for 12 weeks as maintenance dose. Results showed that the dosage regimen could damage the epididymal sperms and onset of antifertility within 6 weeks in male rats, and prevent the incidence of the side effect of irreversible azoospermia. There was no adverse effect in viscera tissues, and the infertility could be reversible in about 6 weeks following withdrawal of gossypol. Male volunteers taking low dose gossypol (15 mg/d) could induce antifertility within 12 weeks, then followed by a maintenance dose of gossypol(10 mg/d) for 44 weeks. All of them remained infertile, and without developing hypokalemia and irreversible azoospermia. The fertility and the inducing abnormal histone-to-protamine replacement reaction as well as alteration of nuclear basic proteins could be recovered 10 weeks after withdrawal of drug treatment. These results provide a new approach for using the new regimen in clinical trial and a new prospect of gossypol as a potential male contraceptive. PMID:12903461

  18. Traumatic Brain Injury and Aging: Is a Combination of Progesterone and Vitamin D Hormone a Simple Solution to a Complex Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Cekic, Milos; Stein, Donald G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although progress is being made in the development of new clinical treatments for traumatic brain injury (TBI), little is known about whether such treatments are effective in older patients, in whom frailty, prior medical conditions, altered metabolism, and changing sensitivity to medications all can affect outcomes following a brain injury. In this review we consider TBI to be a complex, highly variable, and systemic disorder that may require a new pharmacotherapeutic approach, one using combinations or cocktails of drugs to treat the many components of the injury cascade. We review some recent research on the role of vitamin D hormone and vitamin D deficiency in older subjects, and on the interactions of these factors with progesterone, the only treatment for TBI that has shown clinical effectiveness. Progesterone is now in phase III multicenter trial testing in the United States. We also discuss some of the potential mechanisms and pathways through which the combination of hormones may work, singly and in synergy, to enhance survival and recovery after TBI. PMID:20129500

  19. METHIMZOLE AND THYROID HORMONE REPLACEMENT IN BROILERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven-day-old chickens were fed diets containing 18% crude protein + 0 or 1 g methimazole/kg to produce either euthyroid or hypothyroid groups of birds at 28 d of age. These two groups were then offered diets containing either 0 or 1 mg triiodothyronine (T3)/kg diet. Birds were sampled at 0, 2, 5 an...

  20. Phytotherapy as alternative to hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Molla, Maria Dolores Julia; Hidalgo-Mora, Juan Jose; Soteras, Marta Gurrea

    2011-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are a group of non-steroidal compounds of plant origin that present structural and functional similarities with estradiol. Isoflavones are their most widely known category. There are different mechanisms of action of isoflavones accepted, although they may be considered as selective modulators of estrogen receptors. On the other hand, Cimicifuga Racemosa is a perennial plant used traditionally for problems related to menstruation. Its action mechanisms have not been totally identified. There is a growing interest in the usefulness of phytotherapy in the treatment of symptoms and menopause-related diseases. Isoflavones and Cimicifuga Racemosa moderately improve vasomotor symptoms in menopausal women, particularly in those who have a greater number of hot flushes. Furthermore, trials performed with soy isoflavones have observed a reduction of the loss of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women and a slight decrease in LDL cholesterol. In short, phytotherapy will constitute a therapeutic option that can offer assistance to women who want to improve their quality of life through relief of vasomotor symptoms or benefit from other effects for their health. PMID:21196369

  1. Estrogen and Progestin (Hormone Replacement Therapy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website (http://goo.gl/c4Rm4p) for ...

  2. Estrogen and Progestin (Hormone Replacement Therapy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... every day.Ortho-Prefest comes in a blister card containing 30 tablets. Take one pink tablet (containing ... until you finish all the tablets on the card. Begin a new blister card the day after ...

  3. [Mitral Valve Replacement with a Low-Profile Bioprosthesis in Combination with Septal Myectomy for Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Koji; Sakaguchi, Shuhei; Nakamura, Eisaku; Yano, Mitsuhiro

    2015-06-01

    An 83-year-old woman diagnosed with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy was referred to our hospital. Her echocardiogram revealed diffuse left ventricular hypertrophy, severe mitral valve regurgitation with systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve, and left ventricular obstruction with a peak outflow gradient of 142 mmHg. Cardiac catheterization revealed a peak pressure gradient of 60 mmHg across the left ventricular outflow tract. Because of the patient's advanced age, as well as uncertainty regarding our ability to resolve her mitral regurgitation, we performed mitral valve replacement with a St. Jude Medical Epic porcine low-profile bioprosthesis in combination with septal myectomy. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. At 1 year after the operation, her functional status was New York Heart Association class I. The echocardiogram showed the peak outflow gradient markedly decreased to 9 mmHg. PMID:26066877

  4. A patent ductus arteriosus complicating cardiopulmonary bypass for combined coronary artery bypass grafting and aortic valve replacement only discovered by computed tomography 3D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    van Middendorp, Lars B; Maessen, Jos G; Sardari Nia, Peyman

    2014-12-01

    We describe the case of a 59-year old male patient undergoing combined coronary artery bypass grafting and aortic valve replacement. Manipulation of the heart during cardiopulmonary bypass significantly decreased venous return. Several measures were necessary to improve venous return to a level at which continuation of the procedure was safe. Based on the initial troubles with venous return, we decided to selectively cross-clamp the aorta. This resulted in a large amount of backflow of oxygenated blood from the left ventricle, necessitating additional vents in the pulmonary artery and directly in the left ventricle. The procedure was continued uneventfully, and postoperative recovery was without significant complications. Postoperative 2D computed tomography did not show any signs of a shunt, but 3D reconstruction showed a small patent ductus arteriosus. PMID:25164136

  5. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Androgen deprivation therapy; ADT; Androgen suppression therapy; Combined androgen blockade ... Androgens cause prostate cancer cells to grow. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer lowers the effect level of ...

  6. Effect of combination therapy of siRNA targeting growth hormone receptor and 5-fluorouracil in hepatic metastasis of colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, DONG; ZHANG, YI; LIANG, DAOMING; YUAN, YONG; ZENG, DEMIAO; CHEN, JIAYONG; YANG, JIE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting human growth hormone receptor (hGHR) combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on the hepatic metastasis of colon cancer. The animal model of liver metastases using human SW480 colon cancer cells was established on BALB/c mice and the siRNA interfering plasmid targeting hGHR gene was constructed. The tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into the saline control, plasmid, growth hormone (GH), 5-FU, 5-FU+plasmid and 5-FU+plasmid+GH groups. The liver metastasis in each group was observed. All the animals showed liver metastases and using siRNA-interfering plasmid treatment the incidence of liver metastases was significantly reduced in the tumor groups compared to the saline or GH group. The combined treatment of interfering plasmid and 5-FU slightly decreased the incidence of liver metastases in the tumor groups compared to the plasmid alone or 5-FU alone treatment, although the findings were not statistically significant. On the basis of the combination of interfering plasmid and 5-FU, the additional GH did not increase the incidence of liver metastases (P>0.05), but improved the weight loss of the mice (P<0.05) induced by the inhibition of GHR and toxicity of 5-FU. The present results showed that siRNA targeting hGHR is able to reduce the incidence of liver metastases of human SW480 colon cancer cells in mice. Thus, GHR may be important in tumor metastasis. PMID:26788158

  7. Effects of endurance training only versus same-session combined endurance and strength training on physical performance and serum hormone concentrations in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Moritz; Mykkänen, Olli-Pekka; Doma, Kenji; Mazzolari, Raffaele; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endurance training only (E, n = 14) and same-session combined training, when strength training is repeatedly preceded by endurance loading (endurance and strength training (E+S), n = 13) on endurance (1000-m running time during incremental field test) and strength performance (1-repetition maximum (1RM) in dynamic leg press), basal serum hormone concentrations, and endurance loading-induced force and hormone responses in recreationally endurance-trained men. E was identical in the 2 groups and consisted of steady-state and interval running, 4-6 times per week for 24 weeks. E+S performed additional mixed-maximal and explosive-strength training (2 times per week) immediately following an incremental running session (35-45 min, 65%-85% maximal heart rate). E and E+S decreased running time at week 12 (-8% ± 5%, p = 0.001 and -7% ± 3%, p < 0.001) and 24 (-13% ± 5%, p < 0.001 and -9% ± 5%, p = 0.001). Strength performance decreased in E at week 24 (-5% ± 5%, p = 0.014) but was maintained in E+S (between-groups at week 12 and 24, p = 0.014 and 0.011, respectively). Basal serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations remained unaltered in E and E+S but testosterone/sex hormone binding globulin ratio decreased in E+S at week 12 (-19% ± 26%, p = 0.006). At week 0 and 24, endurance loading-induced acute force (-5% to -9%, p = 0.032 to 0.001) and testosterone and cortisol responses (18%-47%, p = 0.013 to p < 0.001) were similar between E and E+S. This study showed no endurance performance benefits when strength training was performed repeatedly after endurance training compared with endurance training only. This was supported by similar acute responses in force and hormonal measures immediately post-endurance loading after the training with sustained 1RM strength in E+S. PMID:25494869

  8. Comparison of UV photolysis, nanofiltration, and their combination to remove hormones from a drinking water source and reduce endocrine disrupting activity.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Sandra; Rodrigues, Alexandre; Cardoso, Vitor V; Benoliel, Maria J; Crespo, João G; Pereira, Vanessa J

    2016-06-01

    A sequential water treatment combining low pressure ultraviolet direct photolysis with nanofiltration was evaluated to remove hormones from water, reduce endocrine disrupting activity, and overcome the drawbacks associated with the individual processes (production of a nanofiltration-concentrated retentate and formation of toxic by-products). 17β-Estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, estrone, estriol, and progesterone were spiked into a real water sample collected after the sedimentation process of a drinking water treatment plant. Even though the nanofiltration process alone showed similar results to the combined treatment in terms of the water quality produced, the combined treatment offered advantage in terms of the load of the retentate and decrease in the endocrine-disrupting activity of the samples. Moreover, the photolysis by-products produced, with higher endocrine disrupting activity than the parent compounds, were effectively retained by the membrane. The combination of direct LP/UV photolysis with nanofiltration is promising for a drinking water utility that needs to cope with sudden punctual discharges or deterioration of the water quality and wants to decrease the levels of chemicals in the nanofiltration retentate. PMID:26924700

  9. Transcripts of genes encoding reproductive neuroendocrine hormones and androgen receptor in the brain and testis of goldfish exposed to vinclozolin, flutamide, testosterone, and their combinations.

    PubMed

    Golshan, Mahdi; Habibi, Hamid R; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi

    2016-08-01

    Vinclozolin (VZ) is a pesticide that acts as an anti-androgen to impair reproduction in mammals. However, VZ-induced disruption of reproduction is largely unknown in fish. In the present study, we have established a combination exposure in which adult goldfish were exposed to VZ (30 and 100 μg/L), anti-androgen flutamide (Flu, 300 μg/L), and androgen testosterone (T, 1 μg/L) to better understand effects of VZ on reproductive endocrine system. mRNA levels of kisspeptin (kiss-1 and kiss-2) and its receptor (gpr54), salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gnrh3) and androgen receptor (ar) in the mid-brain, and luteinizing hormone receptor (lhr) in the testis were analyzed and compared with those of control following 10 days of exposure. kiss-1 mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to 100 µg/L VZ and to Flu, while kiss-2 mRNA level was increased following exposure to Flu and to combinations of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu, 100 µg/L VZ with T, and Flu with T. gpr54 mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to Flu and to combination of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu and 100 µg/L VZ with T. gnrh3 mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to 100 µg/L VZ, to Flu, and to combinations of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu, 100 µg/L VZ with T, and Flu with T. The mid-brain ar mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to Flu and to combinations of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu, 100 µg/L VZ with T, and Flu with T. Testicular lhr mRNA level was increased in goldfish exposed to Flu and to combination of 30 µg/L VZ with Flu. These results suggest that VZ and Flu are capable of interfering with kisspeptin and GnRH systems to alter pituitary and testicular horonal functions in adult goldfish and the brain ar mediates VZ-induced disruption of androgen production. PMID:26899179

  10. Sex disparity in colonic adenomagenesis involves promotion by male hormones, not protection by female hormones.

    PubMed

    Amos-Landgraf, James M; Heijmans, Jarom; Wielenga, Mattheus C B; Dunkin, Elisa; Krentz, Kathy J; Clipson, Linda; Ederveen, Antwan G; Groothuis, Patrick G; Mosselman, Sietse; Muncan, Vanesa; Hommes, Daniel W; Shedlovsky, Alexandra; Dove, William F; van den Brink, Gijs R

    2014-11-18

    It recently has been recognized that men develop colonic adenomas and carcinomas at an earlier age and at a higher rate than women. In the Apc(Pirc/+) (Pirc) rat model of early colonic cancer, this sex susceptibility was recapitulated, with male Pirc rats developing twice as many adenomas as females. Analysis of large datasets revealed that the Apc(Min/+) mouse also shows enhanced male susceptibility to adenomagenesis, but only in the colon. In addition, WT mice treated with injections of the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) showed increased numbers of colonic adenomas in males. The mechanism underlying these observations was investigated by manipulation of hormonal status. The preponderance of colonic adenomas in the Pirc rat model allowed a statistically significant investigation in vivo of the mechanism of sex hormone action on the development of colonic adenomas. Females depleted of endogenous hormones by ovariectomy did not exhibit a change in prevalence of adenomas, nor was any effect observed with replacement of one or a combination of female hormones. In contrast, depletion of male hormones by orchidectomy (castration) markedly protected the Pirc rat from adenoma development, whereas supplementation with testosterone reversed that effect. These observations were recapitulated in the AOM mouse model. Androgen receptor was undetectable in the colon or adenomas, making it likely that testosterone acts indirectly on the tumor lineage. Our findings suggest that indirect tumor-promoting effects of testosterone likely explain the disparity between the sexes in the development of colonic adenomas. PMID:25368192

  11. Opioid and cocaine combined effect on cocaine-induced changes in HPA and HPG axes hormones in men.

    PubMed

    Goletiani, Nathalie V; Mendelson, Jack H; Sholar, Michelle B; Siegel, Arthur J; Mello, Nancy K

    2009-02-01

    Nalbuphine, a mixed micro-/kappa-opioid analgesic, may have potential as a new medication for the treatment of cocaine abuse. Kappa-opioid agonists functionally antagonize some abuse-related and locomotor effects of cocaine, and both kappa-selective and mixed micro-/kappa-opioids reduce cocaine self-administration by rhesus monkeys. Because cocaine's interactions with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and (HPA) hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes may contribute to its reinforcing properties, we examined the effects of cocaine alone and in combination with nalbuphine. Neuroendocrine effects of a single dose of cocaine alone (0.2 mg/kg, IV), with nalbuphine (5 mg/70 kg, IV)+cocaine (0.2 mg/kg, IV) in combination were compared in seven adult men (ages 18-35) who met DSM-IV criteria for current cocaine abuse. Cocaine alone, and in combination with nalbuphine was administered on separate test days under placebo-controlled, double blind conditions. Cocaine stimulated ACTH, cortisol, and LH, whereas cocaine+nalbuphine in combination produced a smaller increase in ACTH, and decreased cortisol and LH. Thus it appears that nalbuphine attenuated cocaine's effects on ACTH, cortisol, and LH. These data are consistent with our earlier report that nalbuphine modestly attenuated cocaine's positive subjective effects, and that the subjective and cardiovascular effects of cocaine+nalbuphine in combination were not additive. PMID:18848957

  12. Shoulder replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... the opening at the end of the shoulder blade, called the socket. This type of joint allows ... head. The socket part (glenoid) of your shoulder blade will be replaced with a smooth plastic shell ( ...

  13. Knee Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not helping you anymore. When you have a total knee replacement, the surgeon removes damaged cartilage and bone ...

  14. [Oral combined hormonal contraception containing nomegestrol acetate and 17beta-oestradiol--the statement of Polish Gynecological Society Experts Group].

    PubMed

    Debski, Romuald; Kotarski, Jan; Paszkowski, Tomasz; Pawelczyk, Leszek; Poreba, Ryszard; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta; Tomaszewski, Jacek

    2012-04-01

    Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) combined with E2 (Zoely) is a monophasic oral contraceptive (OC) which safety and efficacy was confirmed in a number of level I evidence clinical trials. Zoely is highly effective OC, especially in overweight and obese patients, with good cycle control, safe and well tolerated. NOMAC/E2 combination causes no or minimal weight gain and is characterized by minimal influence on bone mineral density or blood pressure and presence of acne. Moreover lipids profile, carbohydrates metabolism, haemostasis and endocrine glands functioning were not affected. High tolerance and acceptance of NOMAC/E2 combination by women, low adverse event profile, fast recovery of ovarian activity and ovulation is a reasonable treatment tool in everyday practice. PMID:22712267

  15. Combined herbicide and saline stress differentially modulates hormonal regulation and antioxidant defense system in Oryza sativa cultivars.

    PubMed

    Islam, Faisal; Ali, Basharat; Wang, Jian; Farooq, Muhammad A; Gill, Rafaqat A; Ali, Shafaqat; Wang, Danying; Zhou, Weijun

    2016-10-01

    Plants are simultaneously exposed to a combination of biotic and abiotic stresses in field conditions. Crops respond to the combined stress in a unique way which cannot be understood by extrapolating the results of individual stress. In the present study, effects of individual and combined stress of herbicide (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and salinity (NaCl) on two Oryza sativa cultivars (ZJ 88 and XS 134) were investigated. Both herbicide and saline stress affected the plant growth differentially and produced oxidative stress in rice cultivars. Interestingly, the combination of herbicide and salinity showed a significant protection to both rice cultivars by reducing ROS (H2O2, O2(-)) and lipid peroxidation through modulation of enzymatic (SOD, POD, CAT and APX) and non-enzymatic (TSP, sugars, phenolic and proline) antioxidants. In addition, active regulation of transcript levels of genes encoding Na(+) and K(+) (OsHKT1;5, OsLti6a,b, OsHKT2;1, OsSOS1, OsCNGC1, OsNHX1 and OsAKT1) transporter proteins reduced sodium and enhanced potassium accumulation under combined stress, resulted a better growth and ionic homeostasis in both rice cultivars. The production of ABA and IAA was significantly higher in cultivar XS 134 compared to cultivar ZJ 88 under control conditions. However, combined herbicide and saline stress enhanced the accumulation of phytohormones (IAA and ABA) and transcription of ethylene in cultivar ZJ 88, which might be one of the factors responsible for poor salt tolerance in sensitive cultivar. These findings indicated that herbicide application under saline stress confers tolerance to salinity in rice cultivars, likely by reducing oxidative damage, modulating mineral absorption, upgradation of antioxidant defense and by dynamic regulation of key genes involved in Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis in plants. PMID:27258572

  16. Replacement of Lys Linker with Arg Linker Resulting in Improved Melanoma Uptake and Reduced Renal Uptake of Tc-99m-Labeled Arg-Gly-Asp-Conjugated Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Hybrid Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianquan; Guo, Haixun; Padilla, R. Steve; Berwick, Marianne; Miao, Yubin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reduce the non-specific renal uptake of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-conjugated alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) hybrid peptide through structural modification or L-lysine co-injection. The RGD motif {cyclic(Arg-Gly-Asp-dTyr-Asp)} was coupled to [Cys3,4,10, d-Phe7, Arg11]α-MSH3-13 {(Arg11)CCMSH} through the Arg linker (substituting the Lys linker) to generate a novel RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH hybrid peptide. The melanoma targeting and pharmacokinetic properties of 99mTc-RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice. The effect of L-lysine co-injection on the renal uptake was determined through the co-injection of L-lysine with 99mTc-RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH or 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH. Replacement of the Lys linker with an Arg linker exhibited a profound effect in reducing the non-specific renal uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH, as well as increasing the tumor uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH compared to 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH. 99mTc-RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH exhibited high tumor uptake (21.41 ± 3.74% ID/g at 2 h post-injection) and prolonged tumor retention (6.81 ± 3.71% ID/g at 24 h post-injection) in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing mice. The renal uptake values of 99mTc-RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH were 40.14-64.08% of those of 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH (p<0.05) at 0.5, 2, 4 and 24 h post-injection. Co-injection of L-lysine was effective in decreasing the renal uptakes of 99mTc-RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH by 27.7% and 99mTc-RGD-Lys-(Arg11)CCMSH by 52.1% at 2 h post-injection. Substitution of the Lys linker with an Arg linker dramatically improved the melanoma uptake and reduced the renal uptake of 99mTc-RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH, warranting the further evaluation of 188Re-labeled RGD-Arg-(Arg11)CCMSH as a novel MC1 receptor-targeting therapeutic peptide for melanoma treatment in the future. PMID:20728365

  17. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    ligands and selective estrogen and androgen receptor modulators (SERMs, SARMs) promise to reduce health risks associated with classical hormonal therapies, whilst maintaining the positive effects on muscle repair. Dietary supplements containing compounds with structural similarity to estrogens (phytoestrogens) are increasingly used as alternatives to classical hormone-replacement therapies (HRT), but the effects on skeletal muscle are currently largely unknown. Research has started to investigate the combined effects of exercise and alternative HRTs, such as soy isoflavones, on skeletal muscle regenerative processes to provide safer and more efficient therapies to promote muscle regeneration and maintenance of muscle mass and strength in the aging population. PMID:23888432

  18. Molecular analysis of PROP1, POU1F1, LHX3, and HESX1 in Turkish patients with combined pituitary hormone deficiency: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Baş, Firdevs; Uyguner, Z Oya; Darendeliler, Feyza; Aycan, Zehra; Çetinkaya, Ergun; Berberoğlu, Merih; Şiklar, Zeynep; Öcal, Gönül; Darcan, Şükran; Gökşen, Damla; Topaloğlu, Ali Kemal; Yüksel, Bilgin; Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Ercan, Oya; Evliyaoğlu, Olcay; Çetinkaya, Semra; Şen, Yaşar; Atabek, Emre; Toksoy, Güven; Aydin, Banu Küçükemre; Bundak, Rüveyde

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the specific mutations in PROP1, POU1F1, LHX3, and HESX1 genes in patients with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) in Turkey. Seventy-six patients with CPHD were included in this study. Based on clinical, hormonal, and neuro-radiological data, relevant transcription factor genes were evaluated by Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Total frequency of mutations was 30.9 % in patients with CPHD. Frequency was significantly higher in familial patients (p = 0.001). Three different types of mutations in PROP1 gene (complete gene deletion, c.301-302delAG, a novel mutation; IVS1+2T>G) were found in 12 unrelated patients (21.8 %). Mutations in PROP1 gene were markedly higher in familial than in sporadic cases (58.8 vs. 5.3 %, p < 0.001). Homozygous complete gene deletion was the most common mutation in PROP1 gene (8/12) and was identified in six familial patients. Four different homozygous mutations [p.Q4X, novel mutations; exons 1-2 deletion, p.V153F, p.I244S] were detected in POU1F1 gene. Central precocious puberty was firstly observed in a sporadic-male patient with homozygous POU1F1 (p.I244S) mutation. A homozygous mutation in HESX1 gene (p.R160H) was detected in one patient. This study is the first to investigate specific mutations in CPHD patients in Turkey. Complete deletion in PROP1 gene was the most common mutation encountered in patients with CPHD. We believe that the results of this study will contribute to the establishment of genetic screening strategies in Turkey, as well as to the studies on phenotype-genotype correlations and early diagnosis of CPHD patients. PMID:25500790

  19. The impact of coronary artery disease severity on late survival after combined aortic valve replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting – experience of a single cardiac surgery center

    PubMed Central

    Misterski, Marcin; Stachowiak, Wojciech; Buczkowski, Piotr; Stefaniak, Sebastian; Puślecki, Mateusz; Urbanowicz, Tomasz; Budniak, Wiktor; Jemielity, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) may have an impact on the outcomes of patients (pts) after aortic valve replacement (AVR) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Aim The aim of the study was to analyze survival after simultaneous AVR and CABG with respect to CAD severity. Material and methods The study involved 143 consecutive pts (40 women and 103 men) with a mean age of 65.1 ± 7.7 years treated between 2006 and 2009. The indication for surgery was aortic stenosis accompanied by left main or three-vessel disease (group A; n = 43) and by single- or two-vessel disease (group B; n = 100). In-hospital and late mortality were analyzed. Post-discharge survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Moreover, selected preoperative clinical and echocardiographic data as well as intraoperative variables were compared between the groups. Results In-hospital mortality was 4.7% in group A and 3.0% in group B (NS). The 12-month and 48-month survival probability rates were 0.88 ± 0.05 and 0.83 ± 0.06 in group A, and 0.97 ± 0.01 and 0.92 ± 0.03 in group B, respectively (p < 0.05). Patients in group A and B differed (p < 0.05) with respect to the preoperative prevalence of arterial hypertension (65.1% vs. 42.0%) and atrial fibrillation (18.6% vs. 6.0%) as well as with regard to the rate of complete revascularization (20.9% vs. 85.0%, group A and B, respectively). Conclusions Coronary artery disease severity impacts long-term survival after combined AVR and CABG. Patients with left main or three-vessel disease more often undergo incomplete surgical revascularization, and this fact may be one of the predictors of an unfavorable outcome. PMID:26336450

  20. Comparing Motivational Interviewing-Based Treatment and its combination with Nicotine Replacement Therapy on smoking cessation in prisoners: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Farzad; Afshari, Reza; Babaei, Ali; Abasspour, Hassan; Vahedian-Shahroodi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of smoking is much higher in prisoners than it is in the general population. Prisoners who smoke cause many health problems for themselves and other prisoners. Therefore, we should help them stop smoking. Objective To compare the effects of motivational interviewing-based (MI-based) treatment and its combination with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on smoking cessation in prisoners at Mashhad Central Prison. Methods The study was designed as a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial, and it began in February 2013 and ended in February 2014. Two hundred and thirteen prisoners met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled in the study. They were divided randomly into three groups, i.e., MI-based treatment, MI with NRT, and the control group, which didn’t receive any therapy. The outcome measures were reported after intervention and at a 90-day follow-up, and changes in the CO levels in expired air and nicotine dependency were measured. Results The average age of the subjects was 37.59 ± 8.76, and their mean duration of imprisonment was 3.3 ± 1.90 years. They smoked an average of 21.84 ± 8.72 cigarettes per day. Analysis of the concentration of CO in expired air in the pre-test, post-test, and at the follow-up for the three groups showed that the variations in the mean CO concentrations in the MI group and the MI with NRT group at the pre-test and at the post-test were statistically significant (p < 0.001), but no significant changes occurred between the post-test and the follow-up (p > 0.050). In addition, the results indicated that CO concentration in expired air in the MI with NRT group was statistically significant, with better efficacy of smoking cessation, compared with control group and the MI group after the follow-up (p = 0.02). Conclusions Motivational interviewing combined with NRT for smoking cessation is more effective than MI alone, and it resulted in a significant decrease in the CO concentration in expired

  1. Combination therapy with statins.

    PubMed

    Gylling, Helena; Miettinen, Tatu A

    2002-09-01

    Statins effectively inhibit cholesterol synthesis and are currently the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. However, patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and those unwilling to take, or who cannot tolerate statins, and patients with combined hyperlipidemia require a combination treatment. Statins combined with cholesterol malabsorption, caused, e.g., by plant stanol esters or ezetimibe (Schering-Plough Corp/Merck & Co Inc), or with bile acid malabsorption, caused by bile acid binding resins or guar gum, inhibit compensatory increases in cholesterol synthesis and effectively lower LDL cholesterol levels. Combination therapy of statins with fibrates should be controlled by lipidology experts. Recent information on indications and advantages of combining statins with n-3 fatty acids, hormone replacement therapy, or niacin, will also be discussed. PMID:12498007

  2. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; ...

  3. [What's new in hormone replacement therapy for postmenopausal women? I. Advantages of hormone replacement therapy (HRT)].

    PubMed

    Martin-Du Pan, R C; Luzuy, F

    2000-06-01

    Different cohort studies have shown that HRT decreases the risk of cardio-vascular (C-V) disease and the risk of bone fracture by 30 to 50%. The only controlled study (HERS study) did not show any benefit of HRT with estradiol and medroxyprogesterone (MPG) in secondary prevention. The beneficial effect of estrogens on coronary dilatation and on HDL cholesterol could be attenuated by some progestogens such as MPG but not by nomegestrol acetate. In this framework, the comparative metabolic effects of different progestogens and tibolone are described in this article. The effects of estrogens on mood and of androgens on libido are discussed. The preventive effect of estrogens on osteoporosis and on Alzheimer disease is compared to other nonhormonal treatments. PMID:11014096

  4. The effects of combined human parathyroid hormone (1-34) and simvastatin treatment on the interface of hydroxyapatite-coated titanium rods implanted into osteopenic rats femurs.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhou-Shan; Zhou, Wan-Shu; Bai, Bing-li; Cui, Wei; Lv, Yang-Xun; Yu, Xian-Bin; Huang, Zheng-Liang; Tu, Kai-kai; Zhou, Qiang; Sun, Tao; Li, Hang; Yang, Lei

    2016-03-01

    The effect of human parathyroid hormone 1-34 (PTH) and simvastatin (SIM) alone could promote bone healing in osteoporotic implant fixation, but there are no reports about the combined use of PTH and SIM for promotion of bone healing around implant in osteoporotic settings. This study aims to investigate effects of PTH + SIM on implant stabilization in osteopenic rats. Fourteen weeks after chronically fed a low protein diet, osteopenic rats randomly received implants. Subsequently, the animals were randomly divided into four groups: Control, SIM, PTH and PTH + SIM. Then all rats from groups PTH, SIM and PTH + SIM received PTH (40 μg/kg, three times a week), SIM (25 mg/kg, daily), or both for 12 weeks. The results of our study indicated that all treatments promoted bone healing around implant compared to Control, but PTH + SIM treatment showed significantly stronger effects than PTH or SIM alone in histological, micro-CT, and biomechanical tests. The results indicated additive effects of PTH and SIM on implant fixation in osteoporotic rats. PMID:26758890

  5. Combining bottom-up and top-down mass spectrometric strategies for de novo sequencing of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone from Cancer borealis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mingming; Chen, Ruibing; Ge, Ying; He, Huan; Marshall, Alan G; Li, Lingjun

    2009-01-01

    The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is a 72-amino acid residue polypeptide with multiple physiological effects. The X-organ/sinus gland is the primary source for CHH and its family members. However, the amino acid sequence of CHH in Cancer borealis , a premier model system for neuromodulation, has not been characterized. In this study, a novel hybrid strategy combining "bottom-up" and "top-down" methodologies enabled direct sequencing of CHH peptide in the sinus gland of C. borealis . Multiple mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques were employed to characterize the CHH peptide, including direct tissue analysis by MALDI-FT-ICR-MS, de novo sequencing of tryptic digested CHH by nano-LC/ESI-Q-TOF MS and intact CHH analysis by LC/FT-ICR-MS. In-trap cleaning removed the extensive matrix adducts of CHH in the direct tissue analysis by MALDI-FT-ICR-MS. Fragmentation efficiency of the intact CHH was drastically improved after the reduction-alkylation of the disulfide bonds. The sequence coverage was further enhanced by employing multiple complementary fragmentation techniques. Overall, this example is the largest neuropeptide de novo sequenced in C. borealis by mass spectrometric methods. PMID:19046072

  6. Associations of hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives with risk of colorectal cancer defined by clinicopathological factors, beta-catenin alterations, expression of cyclin D1, p53, and microsatellite-instability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HRT) and oral contraceptive (OC) use have in several studies been reported to be associated with a decreased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, data on the association between HRT and OC and risk of different clinicopathological and molecular subsets of CRC are lacking. The aim of this molecular pathological epidemiology study was therefore to evaluate the associations between HRT and OC use and risk of specific CRC subgroups, overall and by tumour site. Method In the population-based prospective cohort study Mamö Diet and Cancer, including 17035 women, 304 cases of CRC were diagnosed up until 31 December 2008. Immunohistochemical expression of beta-catenin, cyclin D1, p53 and MSI-screening status had previously been assessed in tissue microarrays with tumours from 280 cases. HRT was assessed as current use of combined HRT (CHRT) or unopposed oestrogen (ERT), and analysed among 12583 peri-and postmenopausal women. OC use was assessed as ever vs never use among all women in the cohort. A multivariate Cox regression model was applied to determine hazard ratios for risk of CRC, overall and according to molecular subgroups, in relation to HRT and OC use. Results There was no significantly reduced risk of CRC by CHRT or ERT use, however a reduced risk of T-stage 1–2 tumours was seen among CHRT users (HR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.09-0.77). Analysis stratified by tumour location revealed a reduced overall risk of rectal, but not colon, cancer among CHRT and ERT users, including T stage 1–2, lymph node negative, distant metastasis-free, cyclin D1 - and p53 negative tumours. In unadjusted analysis, OC use was significantly associated with a reduced overall risk of CRC (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.44-0.71), but this significance was not retained in adjusted analysis (HR: 1.05: 95% CI: 0.80-1.37). A similar risk reduction was seen for the majority of clinicopathological and molecular subgroups. Conclusion Our findings provide information on

  7. Combined treatment with parathyroid hormone (1-34) and beta-tricalcium phosphate had an additive effect on local bone formation in a rat defect model.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhou-Shan; Tu, Kai-Kai; Huang, Zheng-Liang; Zhou, Qiang; Sun, Tao; Xu, Hong-Ming; Zhou, Yu-Long; Lv, Yang-Xun; Cui, Wei; Yang, Lei

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of following combined treatment with parathyroid hormone (1-34) (PTH) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on local bone formation in a rat 3-mm critical-size defect at distal femur. Twelve weeks after bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) and sham operation (sham), all animals were randomly divided into four groups: group OVX, group OVX + β-TCP, group sham, and group sham + β-TCP, then all rats underwent bone defect in the bilateral distal femurs, and β-TCP were implanted into critical-sized defects for group OVX + β-TCP and group sham + β-TCP. After defect operation, all animals were received following subcutaneous injections with PTH (60 μg/kg, three times a week) until death at 4 and 8 weeks. The defected area in distal femurs of rats was harvested for evaluation by histology, micro-CT, and biomechanics. The results of our study show that systemic usage of PTH or local usage of β-TCP can increase the healing of defects in OVX or sham rats. Furthermore, treatments with PTH and β-TCP showed a stronger effect on accelerating the local bone formation than used alone. Osteoporosis can limit the function of PTH and/or β-TCP. The results from our study demonstrate that combination of PTH and β-TCP had an additive effect on local bone formation in non-osteoporosis and/or osteoporosis rats. PMID:26429350

  8. The promotion of osteochondral repair by combined intra-articular injection of parathyroid hormone-related protein and implantation of a bi-layer collagen-silk scaffold.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jialin; Tao, Jiadong; Hu, Changchang; Chen, Longkun; Zhao, Hongshi; Xu, Guowei; Heng, Boon C; Ouyang, Hong Wei

    2013-08-01

    The repair of osteochondral defects can be enhanced with scaffolds but is often accompanied with undesirable terminal differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has been shown to inhibit aberrant differentiation, but administration at inappropriate time points would have adverse effects on chondrogenesis. This study aims to develop an effective tissue engineering strategy by combining PTHrP and collagen-silk scaffold for osteochondral defect repair. The underlying mechanisms of the synergistic effect of combining PTHrP administration with collagen-silk scaffold implantation for rabbit knee joint osteochondral defect repair were investigated. In vitro studies showed that PTHrP treatment significantly reduced Alizarin Red staining and expression of terminal differentiation-related markers. This is achieved in part through blocking activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. For the in vivo repair study, intra-articular injection of PTHrP was carried out at three different time windows (4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 weeks) together with implantation of a bi-layer collagen-silk scaffold. Defects treated with PTHrP at the 4-6 weeks time window exhibited better regeneration (reconstitution of cartilage and subchondral bone) with minimal terminal differentiation (hypertrophy, ossification and matrix degradation), as well as enhanced chondrogenesis (cell shape, Col2 and GAG accumulation) compared with treatment at other time windows. Furthermore, the timing of PTHrP administration also influenced PTHrP receptor expression, thus affecting the treatment outcome. Our results demonstrated that intra-articular injection of PTHrP at 4-6 weeks post-injury together with collagen-silk scaffold implantation is an effective strategy for inhibiting terminal differentiation and enhancing chondrogenesis, thus improving cartilage repair and regeneration in a rabbit model. PMID:23702148

  9. Prognostic Significance of 5-Year PSA Value for Predicting Prostate Cancer Recurrence After Brachytherapy Alone and Combined With Hormonal Therapy and/or External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, Richard G. Klein, Thomas J.; Cesaretti, Jamie A.; Stone, Nelson N.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prognosis and outcomes of patients who remain free of biochemical failure during the first 5 years after treatment. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2002, 742 patients with prostate cancer were treated with brachytherapy alone (n = 306), brachytherapy and hormonal therapy (n = 212), or combined implantation and external beam radiotherapy (with or without hormonal therapy; n = 224). These patients were free of biochemical failure (American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology [ASTRO] definition) during the first 5 post-treatment years and had a documented 5-year prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value. The median follow-up was 6.93 years. Results: The actuarial 10-year freedom from PSA failure rate was 97% using the ASTRO definition and 95% using the Phoenix definition. The median 5-year PSA level was 0.03 ng/mL (range, 0-3.6). The 5-year PSA value was {<=}0.01 in 47.7%, >0.01-0.10 in 31.1%, >0.10-0.2 in 10.2%, >0.2-0.5 in 7.82%, and >0.5 in 3.10%. The 5-year PSA value had prognostic significance, with a PSA value of {<=}0.2 ng/mL (n = 661) corresponding to a 10-year freedom from PSA failure rate of 99% with the ASTRO definition and 98% with the Phoenix definition vs. 86% (ASTRO definition) and 81% (Phoenix definition) for a PSA value {>=}0.2 ng/mL (n = 81; p < .0001). The treatment regimen had no effect on biochemical failure. None of the 742 patients in this study developed metastatic disease or died of prostate cancer. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that the prognosis for patients treated with brachytherapy and who remain biochemically free of disease for {>=}5 years is excellent and none developed metastatic disease during the first 10 years after treatment. The 5-year PSA value is prognostic, and patients with a PSA value <0.2 ng/mL are unlikely to develop subsequent biochemical relapse.

  10. Effects of acute feed restriction combined with targeted use of increasing luteinizing hormone content of follicle-stimulating hormone preparations on ovarian superstimulation, fertilization, and embryo quality in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bender, R W; Hackbart, K S; Dresch, A R; Carvalho, P D; Vieira, L M; Crump, P M; Guenther, J N; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Combs, D K; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-02-01

    Multiple metabolic and hormonal factors can affect the success of protocols for ovarian superstimulation. In this study, the effect of acute feed restriction and increased LH content in the superstimulatory FSH preparation on numbers of ovulations, fertilization, and embryo quality in lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Two experiments were performed using a Latin square design with treatments arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial: feed restriction (FR; 25% reduction in dry matter intake) compared with ad libitum (AL) feeding, combined with high (H) versus low (L) LH in the last 4 injections of the superstimulatory protocol. As expected, FR decreased circulating insulin concentrations (26.7 vs. 46.0 μU/mL). Two analyses were performed: one that evaluated the complete Latin square in experiment 2 and a second that evaluated only the first periods of experiments 1 and 2. For both analyses, follicle numbers, ovulation rates, and corpora lutea on d 7 were not different. In the first period analysis of experiments 1 and 2, we observed an interaction between feed allowance and amount of LH on fertilization rates, percentage of embryos or oocytes that were quality 1 and 2 embryos, and number of embryos or oocytes that were degenerate. Fertilization rates were greater for the AL-L (89.4%) and FR-H (80.1%) treatments compared with the AL-H (47.9%) and FR-L (59.9%) treatments. Similarly, the proportion of total embryos or oocytes designated as quality 1 and 2 embryos was greater for AL-L (76.7%) and FR-H (73.4%) treatments compared with AL-H (35.6%) and FR-L (47.3%) treatments. In addition, the number of degenerate embryos was decreased for AL-L (1.3) and FR-H (0.4) treatments compared with the AL-H (2.6) and FR-L (2.3) treatments. Thus, cows with either too low (FR-L) or too high (AL-H) insulin and LH stimulation had lesser embryo production after superstimulation because of reduced fertilization rate and increased percentage of degenerate embryos. Therefore, interaction of the

  11. Insect Control (II): Hormones and Viruses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Jean L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses research in the use of hormones and viruses to control insect populations. Although entomologists do not think that pheromones, hormones, and viruses will completely replace more conventional chemical insecticides, they will become increasingly important and will reduce our dependence on traditional insecticides. (JR)

  12. Molecular replacement.

    PubMed

    Toth, Eric A

    2007-01-01

    As more protein structures are solved, the likelihood that current structural investigations will involve proteins for which there exists no homologous structure continually decreases. The extraction of phase information from diffraction experiments is one of several great barriers that crystallographers must overcome on the path to structure solution. One means to overcome this obstacle, the technique of molecular replacement, uses the structural similarity between proteins with similar sequences to give a good first estimate of the phases for the diffraction data of the protein of interest. The programs that execute this technique currently come in many flavors, from traditional Patterson-based methods, to stochastic searches in greater than three dimensions, to maximum likelihood-enhanced molecular replacement, each possessing unique advantages that can shake loose a recalcitrant solution. As crystallographers aim to solve larger macromolecular complexes that more faithfully depict the actors in cellular events, having existing phase information for parts of those biological machines will reinforce the technological advancements in data collection and structure solution that have already produced mammoth structures like the ribosome, yielding an ever-clearer picture of the inner workings of biology. PMID:17172763

  13. Hot issues in female and male hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Gava, Giulia; Lantadilla, Claudia; Martelli, Valentina; Fattorini, Anna; Seracchioli, Renato; Meriggiola, Maria C

    2016-02-01

    In recent years a number of significant developments in the field of female hormonal contraception have been made which have produced new formulations and delivery systems providing high efficacy, safety and important non-contraceptive benefits. In particular long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) formulations have been demonstrated to ensure extremely high efficacy in typical use, minimal contraindications, optimal safety in all women thereby representing the best option for most women of all ages. Their effectiveness is not reliant upon user adherence and their ability to reduce unintended pregnancies and abortions has been proven. Unfortunately the same considerations cannot be made for male hormonal contraception. Although a large number of men are interested and would welcome the opportunity to use male contraceptive methods, no safe, effective and reversible methods are available on the market. Current methods available for men are limited to condoms and vasectomy. Highly effective prototype regimens have been developed but the pharmaceutical industry is unwilling to pursue further development and market these products. Of all new approaches to male contraception, hormonal methods are the closest to clinical application. These are based on the reversible suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone with subsequent reversible inhibition of spermatogenesis and consequent replacement to maintain androgen dependent physiological functions. Most approaches tested combination regimens such as testosterone and a progestin or testosterone and a GnRH analog. PMID:26633041

  14. The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. ); Gutai, J.P. ); Powell, J.G. )

    1989-06-01

    Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.

  15. Combined Association of Vitamin D and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Men and Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ningjian; Zhai, Hualing; Zhu, Chaoxia; Li, Qin; Han, Bing; Chen, Yi; Zhu, Chunfang; Chen, Yingchao; Xia, Fangzhen; Lin, Dongping; Lu, Yingli

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the combined associations of 25(OH)-vitamin D and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in men and postmenopausal women. Our data, which were based on the population, were collected from 16 sites in East China in 2014. There were 2700 men with a mean age of 53 years and 1461 women over 55 who were considered postmenopausal enrolled in the study. Levels of 25(OH)D and SHBG were measured using chemiluminescence assay. NAFLD was measured using liver ultrasound. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models examined associations of 25(OH)D and SHBG tertiles with odds of mild and moderate-severe NAFLD. Both the low 25(OH)D and low SHBG groups were significantly associated with higher odds of mild NAFLD (men: OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.05, 1.78 in low 25(OH)D group; OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.23, 2.45 in low SHBG group; women: OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.08, 2.12 in low 25(OH)D group; OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.48, 3.14 in low SHBG group) and moderate-severe NAFLD (men: OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.24, 2.10 in low 25(OH)D group; OR 3.42, 95% CI 2.41, 4.87 in low SHBG group; women: OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.14, 2.42 in low 25(OH)D group; OR 6.84, 95% CI 4.31, 10.84 in low SHBG group). However, the combined association of low 25(OH)D and low SHBG was much larger, especially in moderate-severe NAFLD (men: OR 6.57, 95% CI 3.87, 11.18; women: OR 8.16, 95% CI 3.98, 16.73). The associations were independent of age, total testosterone, abdominal obesity, diabetes, and lipid profile. The negative associations of 25(OH)D and SHBG levels with NAFLD are strongest when viewed in combination in men and postmenopausal women. Further studies should determine the cause-effect relationship and investigate the underlying mechanisms of this finding. PMID:26825918

  16. Growth Hormone

    MedlinePlus

    ... the dose of glucose. Growth hormone stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) . ... regular intervals for years afterward to monitor GH production and to detect tumor recurrence. Other blood tests ...

  17. Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... based lubricants include petroleum jelly, baby oil, or mineral oil. Oil-based types should not be used ... caused by low levels of these hormones. Hysterectomy: Removal of the uterus. Menopause: The time in a ...

  18. Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... both combination and estrogen-alone hormone use made mammography less effective for the early detection of breast ... such as a reduction in the use of mammography, may also have contributed to this decline ( 15 ). ...

  19. Proposed methodology for combustion toxicology testing of combined halon replacement agent/jet fuel interaction. Final report, June-September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kibert, C.J.

    1993-04-01

    An international consensus to remove Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds from production and U.S. national policy to implement the resulting protocols has motivated the U.S. Air Force to embark on a program to find a suitable replacement for Halon 1211, currently used to extinguish flight line fires. This research addressed the feasibility of conducting a combustion toxicology (CT) program to assess the toxic products of the combustion interaction of JP-8 and the Group 1 or so-called Near Term candidate replacement agents for Halon 1211: HCFCs -123, -124, and -142b. A laboratory scale experiment benchmarked on large scale testing of a 150 sq ft pool fire was developed on the basis of Froude scaling of the full scale fire to a 15 x 15 cm pan fire. A prototype apparatus was developed and investigation into the use of animal behavior methods as an indicator of human incapacitation was conducted. The result is a new method which may potentially be utilized for future toxicity studies of the combustion interaction of current and future U.S. Air Force fuels with various fire extinguishants. Extinguishing agents, Halon 1211, Halon replacement, Combustion.

  20. In vitro study of the binding between chlorpyrfos and sex hormones using headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography: A new aspect of pesticides and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, K; Tahmasebi, R; Biparva, P; Maleki, R

    2015-08-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system. Organophosphorus insecticides, as chlorpyrifos (CPS), receive an increasing consideration as potential endocrine disrupters. Physiological estrogens, including estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) fluctuate with life stage, suggesting specific roles for them in biological and disease processes. There has been great interest in whether certain organophosphorus pesticides can affect the risk of breast cancer. An understanding of the interaction processes is the key to describe the fate of CPS in biological media. The objectives of this study were to evaluate total, bound, and freely dissolved amount of CPS in the presence of three estrogenic sex hormones (ESHs). In vitro experiments were conducted utilizing a headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The obtained Scatchard plot based on the proposed SPME-HPLC method was employed to determine CPS-ESHs binding constant and the number of binding sites as well as binding percentage of each hormone to CPS. The number of binding sites per studied hormone molecule was 1.10, 1, and 0.81 for E1, E2, and DES, respectively. The obtained results confirmed that CPS bound to one class of binding sites on sex hormones. PMID:25677505

  1. Enhanced Neuroactivation during Verbal Memory Processing in Postmenopausal Women Receiving Short Term Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Persad, Carol C.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Love, Tiffany; Wang, Heng; Tkaczyk, Anne; Smith, Yolanda R.

    2012-01-01

    Capsule Using a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design, we showed that short-term hormone replacement therapy increases brain activation in parietal and prefrontal areas during verbal memory tasks in postmenopausal women. Objective To study the effects of hormone therapy on brain activation patterns during verbal memory in postmenopausal women. Design A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study was performed. Setting A tertiary care university medical center. Participants Ten healthy postmenopausal women (age range 50-60 years) were recruited from the local community. Interventions Women were randomized to the order they received combined hormone therapy, 5 ug ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetate, and placebo. Volunteers received hormone therapy or placebo for 4 weeks, followed by a one month washout period, and then received the other treatment for 4 weeks. An fMRI was performed at the end of each 4 week treatment utilizing a verbal memory task. Main Outcome Measure Brain activation patterns were compared between hormone therapy and placebo. Results Hormone therapy was associated with increased activation in left middle/superior frontal cortex (BA 6,9), medial frontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate (BA 24,32), posterior cingulate (BA 6), and left inferior parietal (BA 40) during memory encoding. All regions were significant at p ≤ 0.05 with correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions Hormone therapy increased neural activation in frontal and parietal areas in postmenopausal women during a verbal memory task. PMID:18692790

  2. Thyroid hormone resistance.

    PubMed

    Olateju, Tolulope O; Vanderpump, Mark P J

    2006-11-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited syndrome of reduced end-organ responsiveness to thyroid hormone. Patients with RTH have elevated serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations and normal or slightly elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. Despite a variable clinical presentation, the common characteristic clinical features are goitre but an absence of the usual symptoms and metabolic consequences of thyroid hormone excess. Patients with RTH can be classified on clinical grounds alone into either generalized resistance (GRTH), pituitary resistance (PRTH) or combined. Mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta gene are responsible for RTH and 122 different mutations have now been identified belonging to 300 families. With the exception of one family found to have complete deletion of the TRbeta gene, all others have been demonstrated to have minor alterations at the DNA level. The differential diagnosis includes a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma and the presence of endogenous antibodies directed against thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Failure to differentiate RTH from primary thyrotoxicosis has resulted in the inappropriate treatment of nearly one-third of patients. Although occasionally desirable, no specific treatment is available for RTH; however, the diagnosis allows appropriate genetic counselling. PMID:17132274

  3. Hormone impostors

    SciTech Connect

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  4. Seven years of follow up of trabecular bone score, bone mineral density, body composition and quality of life in adults with growth hormone deficiency treated with rhGH replacement in a single center

    PubMed Central

    Allo Miguel, Gonzalo; Serraclara Plá, Alicia; Partida Muñoz, Myriam Lorena; Martínez Díaz-Guerra, Guillermo; Hawkins, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is characterized by impaired physical activity, diminished quality of life (QoL), weight and fat mass gain, decreased muscle mass and decreased bone mineral density (BMD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term treatment (7 years) with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on metabolic parameters, body composition (BC), BMD, bone microarchitecture and QoL. Patients and Methods: In this prospective study, BMD and BC were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone microarchitecture was assessed with the trabecular bone score (TBS). The QoL-AGHDA test was used to assess QoL. Results: A total of 18 AGHD patients (mean age, 37.39 ± 12.42) were included. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) showed a significant increase after 7 years (p = 0.03 and p = 0.001, respectively). There was a significant tendency of body fat mass (BFM) (p = 0.028) and lean body mass (LBM) (p = 0.005) to increase during the 7 years of rhGH treatment. There was a significant increase in lumbar spine (LS) BMD (p = 0.01). TBS showed a nonsignificant decrease after 7 years of treatment, with a change of -0.86% ± 1.95. QoL showed a large and significant improvement (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Long-term rhGH treatment in AGHD patients induces a large and sustained improvement in QoL. Metabolic effects are variable with an increase in LBM as well as in BMI and BFM. There is a positive effect on BMD based on the increase in LS BMD, which stabilizes during long-term therapy and is not associated with a similar increase in bone microarchitecture. PMID:27293538

  5. In vitro binding assays using (3)H nisoxetine and (3)H WIN 35,428 reveal selective effects of gonadectomy and hormone replacement in adult male rats on norepinephrine but not dopamine transporter sites in the cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Meyers, B; Kritzer, M F

    2009-03-01

    The prefrontal cortices mediate cognitive functions that critically depend on local dopamine levels. In male rats, many prefrontal tasks where performance is disrupted by changes in dopamine signaling are also impaired by gonadectomy, a manipulation that increases cortical dopamine concentration, prefrontal dopamine axon density and possibly extracellular prefrontal dopamine levels as well. Because these actions could be responsible for the impairing effects of gonadectomy on prefrontal function, the question of how they might arise comes to the fore. Accordingly, the present studies asked whether dopamine levels might be increased via a hormone sensitivity of transporter-mediated dopamine uptake. Specifically, (3)H WIN 35,428 and (3)H nisoxetine, ligands selective for the dopamine (DAT)- and norepinephrine transporter (NET) respectively, were used in in vitro binding assays to ask whether gonadectomy altered transporter affinity (Kd) and/or binding site number (Bmax) in prefrontal cortex, sensorimotor cortex and/or caudate. Assays performed on tissues dissected from sham-operated, gonadectomized and gonadectomized rats supplemented with testosterone propionate or estradiol for 4 or 28 days revealed no significant group differences or obvious trends in Kd or Bmax for DAT binding or in measures of Bmax for NET binding. However, affinity constants for (3)H nisoxetine were found to be significantly higher in sensorimotor and/or prefrontal cortex of rats gonadectomized and gonadectomized and supplemented with estradiol for 4 or 28 days but similar to control in gonadectomized rats given testosterone. Because the NET contributes substantially to extracellular prefrontal dopamine clearance, these androgen-mediated effects could influence prefrontal dopamine levels and might thus be relevant for observed effects of gonadectomy on dopamine-dependent prefrontal behaviors. A hormone sensitivity of the NET could also have bearing on the prefrontal dopamine dysfunction seen in

  6. Maxillary sinus augmentation using recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2/acellular collagen sponge in combination with a mineralized bone replacement graft: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Tarnow, Dennis P; Wallace, Stephen S; Testori, Tiziano; Froum, Stuart J; Motroni, Alessandro; Prasad, Hari S

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the following case reports was to assess whether mineralized bone replacement grafts (eg, xenografts and allografts) could be added to recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2/acellular collagen sponge (rhBMP-2/ACS) in an effective manner that would: (1) reduce the graft shrinkage observed when using rhBMP-2/ACS alone, (2) reduce the volume and dose of rhBMP-2 required, and (3) preserve the osteoinductivity that rhBMP-2/ACS has shown when used alone. The primary outcome measures were histomorphometric analysis of vital bone production and analysis of serial computed tomographic scans to determine changes in bone graft density and stability. Over the 6-month course of this investigation, bone graft densities tended to increase (moreso with the xenograft than the allograft). The increased density in allograft cases was likely the result of both compression of the mineralized bone replacement graft and vital bone formation, seen histologically. Loss of volume was greater with the four-sponge dose than the two-sponge dose because of compression and resorption of the sponges. Vital bone formation in the allograft cases ranged from 36% to 53% but, because of the small sample size, it was not possible to determine any significant difference between the 5.6 mL (four-sponge) dose and the 2.8 mL (two-sponge) dose. Histology revealed robust new woven bone formation with only minimal traces of residual allograft, which appeared to have undergone accelerated remodeling or rhBMP-2-mediated resorption. PMID:20228973

  7. Hormone Health Network

    MedlinePlus

    International Resource Center Online Store Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living ...

  8. Single and Combined use of Human Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) (1-34) on Areal Bone Mineral Density (aBMD) in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis: Evidence Based on 9 RCTs

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiefu; Jing, Zhizhen; Chang, Feng; Li, Lijun; Su, Yunxing

    2014-01-01

    Background Human parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1-34) or teriparatide (TPTD) is an anabolic agent for osteoporosis. This recombinant protein stimulates positive bone formation balance and bone remodeling. However, when concomitantly used with antiresorptive (AR) agents, previous studies reported conflicting results in their potential additive and synergistic effects on bone metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD). This study aimed to integrate previous evidence to assess the effect of TPTD monotherapy and the additive effect of TPTD on AR agents in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Material/Methods This meta-analysis identified 9 RCTs from databases. To assess the therapeutic effect on osteoporosis, the weighted mean differences (WMDs) were used to pool the percentage change of BMD along with the 95% confidence intervals (CIs). BMD of 3 skeletal sites, including lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck were assessed. Results TPTD alone could significantly improve BMD of all 3 skeletal sites compared with placebo, although the effect on the femoral neck was less conclusive. The additive effect of TPTD over hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and denosumab (DEN) agents is evident in all 3 skeletal sites. But TPTD plus Alendronate (ALN) did not demonstrate additive effect in total hip and femoral neck. Conclusions TPTD alone could significantly improve BMD of lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck. BMD outcomes of concomitant use of TPTD and AR agents are site-dependent and vary depending on the specific AR agent used and the timing of AR therapy initiation. PMID:25503108

  9. Hormonal Contraception and Thrombotic Risk: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Richard J.; Michelson, Alan D.; Neufeld, Ellis J.; Gordon, Catherine M.; Laufer, Marc R.; Emans, S. Jean

    2011-01-01

    Heightened publicity about hormonal contraception and thrombosis risk and the publication of new guidelines by the World Health Organization in 2009 and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2010 addressing this complex issue have led to multidisciplinary discussions on the special issues of adolescents cared for at our pediatric hospital. In this review of the literature and new guidelines, we have outlined our approach to the complex patients referred to our center. The relative risk of thrombosis on combined oral contraception is three- to fivefold, whereas the absolute risk for a healthy adolescent on this therapy is only 0.05% per year. This thrombotic risk is affected by estrogen dose, type of progestin, mechanism of delivery, and length of therapy. Oral progestin-only contraceptives and transdermal estradiol used for hormone replacement carry minimal or no thrombotic risk. Transdermal, vaginal, or intrauterine contraceptives and injectable progestins need further study. A personal history of thrombosis, persistent or inherited thrombophilia, and numerous lifestyle choices also influence thrombotic risk. In this summary of one hospital's approach to hormone therapies and thrombosis risk, we review relative-risk data and discuss the application of absolute risk to individual patient counseling. We outline our approach to challenging patients with a history of thrombosis, known thrombophilia, current anticoagulation, or family history of thrombosis or thrombophilia. Our multidisciplinary group has found that knowledge of the guidelines and individualized management plans have been particularly useful for informing discussions about hormonal and nonhormonal options across varied indications. PMID:21199853

  10. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone and prolactin

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, M.K.; Deschepper, C.F.

    1985-05-01

    A combined radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of the anterior pituitary proteins luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) is described and compared with individual RIAs for these hormones. The standard curves and the sample values for LH and PRL were identical when determined in a combined or in an individual RIA. This technique may prove useful to a number of laboratories where it is desirable to determine levels of more than one hormone in limited sample volumes.

  11. Small intestinal morphology in eight-day-old calves fed colostrum for different durations or only milk replacer and treated with long-R3-insulin-like growth factor I and growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Bühler, C; Hammon, H; Rossi, G L; Blum, J W

    1998-03-01

    The effects of feeding different amounts of colostrum or only milk replacer and the effects of Long-R3-IGF-I (administered s.c. or orally; 50 microg/[kg BW x d] for 7 d), and of s.c. injected recombinant bovine GH (rbGH; 1 mg/[kg BW x d] for 7 d) on small intestinal mucosal morphology in newborn calves were studied by histomorphometry. Neonatal calves fed colostrum six times exhibited greater (P < .01) villus circumferences, areas, and heights in total small intestine and especially in the duodenum than calves fed only milk replacer. Furthermore, villus circumferences and areas in total small intestine were greater (P < .05) in calves fed colostrum once than in calves fed no colostrum. Villus size in total small intestine was smaller (P < .05) in rbGH-treated than in control calves; jejunum villus circumferences and heights were especially reduced (P < .05). Crypt depths in ileum were greater (P < .05) in rbGH-treated calves. In conclusion, prolonged colostrum supply significantly enhanced small intestinal villus size in neonatal calves. In contrast, Long-R3-IGF-I had no significant influence on small intestinal morphology, and rbGH in supraphysiological amounts even reduced small intestinal mucosal variables after 1 wk of treatment. The study demonstrated enhanced postnatal development of the gastrointestinal tract by prolonged colostrum feeding, but not by Long-R3-IGF-I or GH. PMID:9535335

  12. Feasibility and outcomes of combined transcatheter aortic valve replacement with other structural heart interventions in a single session: a matched cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Khattab, Ahmed A; Gloekler, Steffen; Sprecher, Beate; Shakir, Samera; Guerios, Ênio; Stortecky, Stefan; O'Sullivan, Crochan J; Nietlispach, Fabian; Moschovitis, Aris; Pilgrim, Thomas; Buellesfeld, Lutz; Wenaweser, Peter; Windecker, Stephan; Meier, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Background Concurrent cardiac diseases are frequent among elderly patients and invite simultaneous treatment to ensure an overall favourable patient outcome. Aim To investigate the feasibility of combined single-session percutaneous cardiac interventions in the era of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Methods This prospective, case–control study included 10 consecutive patients treated with TAVI, left atrial appendage occlusion and percutaneous coronary interventions. Some in addition had patent foramen ovale or atrial septal defect closure in the same session. The patients were matched in a 1:10 manner with TAVI-only cases treated within the same time period at the same institution regarding their baseline factors. The outcome was validated according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC) criteria. Results Procedural time (126±42 vs 83±40 min, p=0.0016), radiation time (34±8 vs 22±12 min, p=0.0001) and contrast dye (397±89 vs 250±105 mL, p<0.0001) were higher in the combined intervention group than in the TAVI-only group. Despite these drawbacks, no difference in the VARC endpoints was evident during the in-hospital period and after 30 days (VARC combined safety endpoint 32% for TAVI only and 20% for combined intervention, p=1.0). Conclusions Transcatheter treatment of combined cardiac diseases is feasible even in a single session in a high-volume centre with experienced operators. PMID:25332781

  13. Replacement of barite by a (Ba,Ra)SO4 solid solution at close-to-equilibrium conditions: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, F.; Curti, E.; Klinkenberg, M.; Rozov, K.; Bosbach, D.

    2015-04-01

    Solid solution formation between RaSO4 and BaSO4 has long been recognized as a process which potentially controls the Ra concentration in the environment. Here, we have systematically studied the replacement of pure barite by a (Ba,Ra)SO4 solid solution in 0.1 M NaCl through batch experiments extending up to 883 days at close-to-equilibrium (CTE) conditions, which are relevant to disposal of nuclear waste in a deep geological repository. Kinetic and thermodynamic models were applied to support the interpretation of the experiments, which were carried out at room temperature and at two distinct solid/liquid ratio (0.5 or 5 g/L). Different stages of recrystallization were observed, based on the rate of removal of Ra from aqueous solution. After a first slow kinetic step, a change in the slope of the aqueous Ra concentration vs. time is observed, suggesting nucleation of a new (Ba,Ra)SO4 phase from supersaturation. If this stage was considered to reflect equilibrium between aqueous and solid solution, one would infer ideality or even negative interaction parameters (a0 ⩽ 0). After this fast nucleation step, in the 0.5 g/L experiments the Ra concentrations in the aqueous solution slowly increase, approaching a concentration close to that required for equilibrium with a regular (Ba,Ra)SO4 solid solution with an interaction parameter a0 = 1.0. Therefore, these data suggest a non-equilibrium Ra entrapment during the nucleation phase of the replacement, followed by slow recrystallization toward true thermodynamic solid solution equilibrium. Moreover, an interaction parameter value of a0 = 1.0 was inferred from our experiments, which is in good agreement with theoretical predictions from atomistic simulations. A key result from this study is that aqueous solution and binary (Ba,Ra)SO4 approach full thermodynamic equilibrium within laboratory time scales (2.5 years). This justifies assuming complete thermodynamic equilibrium for this system in geochemical calculations of

  14. Combined mitral valve replacement associated with the Bentall procedure, diaphragmatic hernia repair and reconstruction of the pectus excavatum in a 26-year-old patient with Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Stępiński, Piotr; Aboul-Hassan, Sleiman Sebastian; Szymańska, Anna; Marczak, Jakub; Cichoń, Romuald

    2016-01-01

    A 26-year-old man with Marfan syndrome was admitted as an emergency patient with ascending aorta aneurysm, severe mitral and aortic regurgitation, diaphragmatic hernia and pectus excavatum. After completion of diagnostics a combined surgical procedure was performed. PMID:27516786

  15. Menopausal hormone therapy and venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is the most effective method of treating vasomotor symptoms and other climacteric symptoms related to estrogen deficiency in peri- and postmenopausal period. In addition to estrogen replacement, women with preserved uterus require the addition of progestagen in order to ensure endometrial safety. One of rare but severe complications of MHT is venous thromboembolism (VTE). The incidence of VTE rises in parallel to women's age and body weight. The condition is also linked to hereditary and acquired risk factors. Oral estrogens increase the risk of venous thromboembolic complications to varying extents, probably depending on their type and dose used. Observational studies have not found an association between an increased risk of VTE and transdermal estrogen treatment regardless of women's age and body mass index (BMI). Micronized progesterone and pregnanes, including dydrogesterone, have no effect on the risk of VTE, whereas norpregnane progestagens cause an additional increase in risk. Among hormonal preparations which are commercially available in Poland, the combination of transdermal estradiol with oral dydrogesterone appears to be the optimum choice, as it does not elevate the risk of VTE (compared to patients not using MHT), and dydrogesterone seems to be the progestagen of choice. PMID:26327865

  16. Celotex (Registered) Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, S; Hafner, R

    2002-10-01

    The AL-R8 is the pit storage container in most widespread use at Pantex. The AL-R8 container family consists of standard 20-in.-diameter steel drums, 30 to 60 in. in height, with insulation inserts made of Celotex{reg_sign}--a fiberboard product made from processed sugar cane. Celotex is an acceptable material for inserts in many radioactive material shipping and storage containers. It is a good shock mitigator/insulator, does a fair job in fire protection (when oxygen is excluded), shielding, and criticality, and is inexpensive and easily available. However, the fiberboard absorbs water in humid environments which, when combined with chemical residues in the fiberboard, forms corrosive compounds that can shorten the life of the container and affect container contents. To protect the contents from this potentially damaging environment, the AL-R8 SI was developed to isolate the contents within a sealed stainless steel vessel inside the AL-R8. Although the SI protected the contents, corrosion studies indicated the SI lid bolts might corrode over time and surveillance showed that areas of the outer drum were still subject to corrosion. To address this potential problem, DOE/Albuquerque sponsored bolt and Celotex replacement studies. The bolt replacement study was assigned to Mason and Hanger's Pantex Facility and this Celotex Replacement Study to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Celotex Replacement Study evaluated options for replacing Celotex with a material that is chemically compatible with the AL-R8 SI container. The evaluation was limited to materials either used previously in nuclear materials shipping and storage containers or materials with known properties in a low-radiation environment. This limitation was set to ensure that the long-term aging effect on the new material is known a priori. Initial material evaluations narrowed the material choices to foam and cork. Although cork performed better than foam in some tests, cork was considered a less

  17. Combined effects of high environmental ammonia, starvation and exercise on hormonal and ion-regulatory response in goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Liew, Hon Jung; Diricx, Marjan; Kumar, Vikas; Darras, Veerle M; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2012-06-15

    Due to eutrophication, high environmental ammonia (HEA) has become a frequent problem in aquatic environments, especially in agricultural or densely populated areas. During certain periods, e.g. winter, feed deprivation may occur simultaneously in natural waters. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may be enforced to swim at a high speed in order to catch prey, avoid predators and so on. Consequently, fish need to cope with all these stressors by altering physiological processes which in turn are controlled by genes expression. Therefore, in the present study, ammonia toxicity was tested in function of nutrient status (fed versus starved) and swimming performance activity (routine versus exhaustive). Goldfish, a relatively tolerant cyprinid, were exposed to HEA (1 mg/L; Flemish water quality guideline for surface water) for a period of 3 h, 12 h, 1 day, 4 days, 10 days, 21 days and 28 days and were either fed (2% body weight) or starved (kept unfed for 7 days prior to sampling). Results showed that the activity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase in the gills was stimulated by HEA and disturbance in ion balance was obvious with increases in plasma [Na⁺], [Cl⁻] and [Ca²⁺] after prolonged exposure. Additionally, osmoregulation and metabolism controlling hormones like cortisol and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) were investigated to understand adaptive responses. The expression kinetics of growth, stress and osmo-regulatory representative genes such as Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), growth hormone receptor (GHR), thyroid hormone receptor β (THRβ), prolactin receptor (PRLR), cortisol receptor (CR) and Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase α(3) were examined. Overall effect of HEA was evident since Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity, plasma cortisol, Na⁺ and Ca²⁺ concentration, expression level of CR and Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase α₃ mRNA in fed and starved fish were increased. On the contrary, transcript level of PRLR was reduced after 4 days of HEA; additionally T3 level and

  18. Prosthesis alignment affects axial rotation motion after total knee replacement: a prospective in vivo study combining computed tomography and fluoroscopic evaluations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical consequences of alignment errors in total knee replacement (TKR) have led to the rigorous evaluation of surgical alignment techniques. Rotational alignment in the transverse plane has proven particularly problematic, with errors due to component malalignment relative to bone anatomic landmarks and an overall mismatch between the femoral and tibial components’ relative positions. Ranges of nominal rotational alignment are not well defined, especially for the tibial component and for relative rotational mismatch, and some studies advocate the use of mobile-bearing TKR to accommodate the resulting small rotation errors. However, the relationships between prosthesis rotational alignment and mobile-bearing polyethylene insert motion are poorly understood. This prospective, in vivo study evaluates whether component malalignment and mismatch affect axial rotation motions during passive knee flexion after TKR. Methods Eighty patients were implanted with mobile-bearing TKR. Rotational alignment of the femoral and tibial components was measured from postoperative CT scans. All TKR were categorized into nominal or outlier groups based on defined norms for surgical rotational alignment relative to bone anatomic landmarks and relative rotational mismatch between the femoral and tibial components. Axial rotation motion of the femoral, tibial and polyethylene bearing components was measured from fluoroscopic images acquired during passive knee flexion. Results Axial rotation motion was generally accomplished in two phases, dominated by polyethylene bearing rotation on the tibial component in early to mid-flexion and then femoral component rotation on the polyethylene articular surface in later flexion. Opposite rotations of the femur-bearing and bearing-baseplate articulations were evident at flexion greater than 80°. Knees with outlier alignment had lower magnitudes of axial rotation and distinct transitions from external to internal rotation during mid

  19. Hip joint replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002975.htm Hip joint replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hip joint replacement is surgery to replace all or part ...

  20. Knee joint replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002974.htm Knee joint replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Knee joint replacement is a surgery to replace a knee ...

  1. Patients with Intolerance Reactions to Total Knee Replacement: Combined Assessment of Allergy Diagnostics, Periprosthetic Histology, and Peri-implant Cytokine Expression Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Peter; von der Helm, Christine; Schopf, Christoph; Mazoochian, Farhad; Frommelt, Lars; Gollwitzer, Hans; Schneider, Josef; Flaig, Michael; Krenn, Veit; Thomas, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    We performed a combined approach to identify suspected allergy to knee arthroplasty (TKR): patch test (PT), lymphocyte transformation test (LTT), histopathology (overall grading; T- and B-lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils), and semiquantitative Real-time-PCR-based periprosthetic inflammatory mediator analysis (IFNγ, TNFα, IL1-β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL17, and TGFβ). We analyzed 25 TKR patients with yet unexplained complications like pain, effusion, and reduced range of motion. They consisted of 20 patients with proven metal sensitization (11 with PT reactions; 9 with only LTT reactivity). Control specimens were from 5 complicated TKR patients without metal sensitization, 12 OA patients before arthroplasty, and 8 PT patients without arthroplasty. Lymphocytic infiltrates were seen and fibrotic (Type IV membrane) tissue response was most frequent in the metal sensitive patients, for example, in 81% of the PT positive patients. The latter also had marked periprosthetic IFNγ expression. 8/9 patients with revision surgery using Ti-coated/oxinium based implants reported symptom relief. Our findings demonstrate that combining allergy diagnostics with histopathology and periprosthetic cytokine assessment could allow us to design better diagnostic strategies. PMID:25866822

  2. HT update: spotlight on estradiol/norethindrone acetate combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Colleen L; Murray, Christine A

    2008-01-01

    The goal of postmenopausal hormone therapy is to alleviate the symptoms that are associated with the loss of estrogen. Many formulations of estrogen and progestin are available, depending on the needs and circumstances of each individual woman. For postmenopausal women, the choice of whether or not to begin therapy requires knowledge of the risks and benefits of estrogen and/or progestin replacement. The purpose of this review is to describe the risks and benefits of hormonal therapy, focusing on estradiol/norethindrone acetate combination therapy. PMID:18488874

  3. Fate of hormones and pharmaceuticals during combined anaerobic treatment and nitrogen removal by partial nitritation-anammox in vacuum collected black water.

    PubMed

    de Graaff, M S; Vieno, N M; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Zeeman, G; Temmink, H; Buisman, C J N

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum collected black (toilet) water contains hormones and pharmaceuticals in relatively high concentrations (μg/L to mg/L range) and separate specific treatment has the potential of minimizing their discharge to surface waters. In this study, the fate of estrogens (natural and synthetical hormones) and pharmaceuticals (paracetamol, metoprolol, propranolol, cetirizine, doxycycline, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, carbamazepine, ibuprofen and diclofenac) in the anaerobic treatment of vacuum collected black water followed by nitrogen removal by partial nitritation-anammox was investigated. A new analytical method was developed to detect the presence of several compounds in the complex matrix of concentrated black water. Detected concentrations in black water ranged from 1.1 μg/L for carbamazepine to >1000 μg/L for paracetamol. Anaerobic treatment was only suitable to remove the majority of paracetamol (>90%). Metoprolol was partly removed (67%) during aerobic treatment. Deconjugation could have affected the removal efficiency of ibuprofen as concentrations even increased during anaerobic treatment and only after the anammox treatment 77% of ibuprofen was removed. The presence of persistent micro-pollutants (diclofenac, carbamazepine and cetirizine), which are not susceptible for biodegradation, makes the application of advanced physical and chemical treatment unavoidable. PMID:20832097

  4. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.

    1991-12-01

    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  5. [Hormone therapy through changing times].

    PubMed

    Reuter, Miriam; Fassnacht, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Despite several studies in the last years, only women with menopausal symptoms who desire therapy are treated. There is still no recommendation for menopausale hormone therapy for primary prevention of diseases such as coronary artery disease, osteoporosis or depression. The risk of thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and stroke is elevated especially for elderly women with oral hormone therapy. Benefits may exceed risks in younger, early-menopausal women, for whom hormone therapy may be prescribed more liberally. Systemic hormone therapy is for vasomotor symptoms, local therapy for the genitourinary syndrome of menopause. Choice of formulation depends on the individual risk due to symptoms and favours of the patients. With moderate to high cardiovascular risk profile, a transdermal route of estrogen application - in women with an intact uterus in combination with micronized progesterone - seems to be the best option. PMID:26841174

  6. Oocyte and cumulus cell transcripts from cultured mouse follicles are induced to deviate from normal in vivo conditions by combinations of insulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and human chorionic gonadotropin.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Flor; Romero, Sergio; Smitz, Johan

    2011-09-01

    Gonadotropins and insulin are major regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival in cultured mouse ovarian follicles. Applications of variable doses of insulin in combination with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were studied at the gene expression level in oocytes and cumulus cells. Early preantral follicles grown over 9 days were sequentially exposed to combinations of doses of insulin, FSH, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). From culture Day 1 to 6 (preantral stage), two insulin concentrations (5 ng/ml and 5 μg/ml) were combined with 10 mIU/ml FSH. From Days 6 to 9 (antral stage), the three variable gonadotropin treatments set under each insulin condition were 10 mIU/ml FSH, 25 mIU/ml FSH, and 25 mIU/ml FSH plus 3 mIU/ml hCG. The Gdf9, Bmp15, Fgf8, Dazl, Pou5f1, and Pik3ca mRNA transcripts were quantified in oocytes, and the Amh, Lhcgr, Hsd3b1, Vegfa, and Insig1 mRNA transcripts were quantified in cumulus cells. In vivo controls were unprimed and eCG (equine chorionic gonadotropin)-primed prepubertal female mice. During the preantral stage, none except the Amh transcripts was regulated by insulin. Oocyte transcripts were not affected by the variable gonadotropin treatments on the last culture day but were upregulated in the combination of high insulin plus 25 mIU/ml FSH. Under low insulin conditions, high FSH levels increased levels of Lhcgr and Vegfa expression, and hCG abated this effect. However, under high insulin conditions, hCG upregulated levels of Lhcgr, Vegfa, and Insig1 mRNA. High insulin concentrations upregulated Hsd3b1 transcripts. These results demonstrate that in an in vitro follicle culture, a near physiological insulin background yields oocyte and cumulus cell transcript levels that are more similar to those in vivo. PMID:21565993

  7. [Combined effect of insolation and drinking mineral waters on hormonal and immune status in medium-height mountains.(Experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Polushina, N D; Vasin, V A; Kozhevnikov, S A; Demeshko, N I

    2001-01-01

    80 Wistar male rats were kept for 24 days in moderate altitude conditions of mountain resort Teberda. Before the experiment and after it their blood was examined with enzyme immunoassay for hydrocortisone, T3, T4, TSH, with radioimmunoassay for insulin; glucose levels, dynamics of peripheral blood count, immune status were also measured. It was found that UV radiation has a negative effect on hormonal and immune status of healthy rats in medium-high mountains (hydrocortisone levels fell by 50%, insulin rose 5-6-fold, CIC rose by 24.2%, eosinophils count rose 3-fold, T-cell immunity and lymphocyte phagocyting activity got suppressed, lymphocyte/neutrophil proportion reduced by 35%. Intake of mineral water corrected all the negative effects of insolation but hyperinsulinemia decreased insignificantly. PMID:11530405

  8. Growth hormone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is being suppressed by high blood sugar. ... away. The lab measures the glucose and growth hormone (GH) levels in each sample.

  9. Growth hormone test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003706.htm Growth hormone test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone in ...

  10. Growth hormone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  11. [Hormonal dysnatremia].

    PubMed

    Karaca, P; Desailloud, R

    2013-10-01

    Because of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) disorder on production or function we can observe dysnatremia. In the absence of production by posterior pituitary, central diabetes insipidus (DI) occurs with hypernatremia. There are hereditary autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X- linked forms. When ADH is secreted but there is an alteration on his receptor AVPR2, it is a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in acquired or hereditary form. We can make difference on AVP levels and/or on desmopressine response which is negative in nephrogenic forms. Hyponatremia occurs when there is an excess of ADH production: it is a euvolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia. The most frequent etiology is SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH), a diagnostic of exclusion which is made after eliminating corticotropin deficiency and hypothyroidism. In case of brain injury the differential diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome has to be discussed, because its treatment is perfusion of isotonic saline whereas in SIADH, the treatment consists in administration of hypertonic saline if hyponatremia is acute and/or severe. If not, fluid restriction demeclocycline or vaptans (antagonists of V2 receptors) can be used in some European countries. Four types of SIADH exist; 10 % of cases represent not SIADH but SIAD (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis) due to a constitutive activation of vasopressin receptor that produces water excess. c 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. PMID:24356291

  12. Natural hormone therapy for menopause.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Khalid

    2010-02-01

    Menopausal women are deficient in estrogen, progesterone, and frequently in testosterone and DHEA. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in the United States has generally consisted of one or two agents, typically equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone, with increased risk of heart attack, stroke, dementia, and breast cancer [WHI trials]. Bio-identical hormones [chemically endogenous hormones] have gained popularity and can be mixed according to physician's orders by compounding pharmacists in the United States. However, there is little published information about the use of such hormones. This paper reports a 12 plus months follow up on 189 patients who were administered natural estrogen plus progesterone with or without DHEA or testosterone according to a rationalized protocol described later. Ninety-seven percent of the patients experienced varying degrees of symptom control, whereas three had minimal or questionable benefit. Mental symptoms experienced upon presentation improved in 90% of the patients. Sixty percent of the patients, who had gained weight during menopause, lost an average of 14.8 lbs [SD 11.98 lbs]. Complications described with traditional HRT did not develop in this group of patients. These findings point out a need for larger controlled trials of similar protocols in the management of menopause. PMID:19995152

  13. Growth control of prostatic carcinoma cells in serum-free media: interrelationship of hormone response, cell density, and nutrient media.

    PubMed Central

    Kaighn, M E; Kirk, D; Szalay, M; Lechner, J F

    1981-01-01

    Two established prostatic carcinoma cell lines have been grown in long-term culture in a defined medium (PFMR-4) free of serum, hormones, or growth factors. Growth of both lines in serum-free medium was population dependent. This cell-density requirement could be replaced by mitomycin C-inactivated feeder cells, homologous conditioned medium, or fetal bovine serum, but not by hormones or growth factors. The cells responded to these factors only at high density. The nature of this hormonal response was dependent on the kind of basal nutrient medium used. Growth in PFMR-4 with added insulin was more rapid than that in DME/F12 medium with any combination of hormones or growth factors and was substantially greater than growth in DME/F12 medium with insulin alone. The results demonstrate that whereas these two prostatic carcinoma lines (PC-3 and DU 145) do not require hormones for survival or growth, they do respond to certain hormones under appropriate conditions. These conditions include both the type of basal nutrient medium used and the population density. PMID:7029542

  14. Elbow replacement - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Total elbow arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic elbow replacement - discharge ... You had surgery to replace your elbow joint with artificial joint parts (prosthetics). The surgeon made a cut (incision) in the back of your upper or lower arm and ...

  15. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series To use the sharing features on ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  16. Nicotine replacement therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... If wearing the patch at night causes odd dreams, try sleeping without the patch. People who smoke ... cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy References American Cancer Society. Guide to quitting smoking. Last revised ...

  17. Partial knee replacement

    MedlinePlus

    Most people recover quickly and have much less pain than they did before surgery. People who have a partial knee replacement recover faster than those who have a total knee replacement. Many people are able to walk ...

  18. Retrospective cohort study of the performance of the Pinnacle metal on metal (MoM) total hip replacement: a single-centre investigation in combination with the findings of a national retrieval centre

    PubMed Central

    Langton, David John; Sidaginamale, Raghavendra Prasad; Avery, Peter; Waller, Sue; Tank, Ghanshyabhai; Lord, James; Joyce, Thomas; Cooke, Nick; Logishetty, Raj; Nargol, Antoni Viraf Francis

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine risk factors for revision in patients implanted with a commonly used metal on metal (MoM) hip replacement. Design Retrospective cohort study in combination with a prospective national retrieval study (Northern Retrieval Registry (NRR)). Setting Combined orthopaedic unit in combination with the NRR. Participants All patients implanted with a DePuy Pinnacle MoM hip prostheses by the 2 senior authors were invited to attend for a review which included clinical examination, blood metal ion measurements, radiographs and targeted imaging. Explanted components underwent wear analysis using validated methodology and these results were compared with those obtained from the NRR. Results 489 MoM Pinnacle hips were implanted into 434 patients (243 females and 191 males). Of these, 352 patients attended the MoM recall clinics. 64 patients had died during the study period. For the purposes of survival analysis, non-attendees were assumed to have well-functioning prostheses. The mean follow-up of the cohort as a whole was 89 months. 71 hips were revised. Prosthetic survival for the whole cohort was 83.6% (79.9–87.3) at 9 years. The majority of explanted devices exhibited signs of taper junction failure. Risk factors for revision were bilateral MoM prostheses, smaller Pinnacle liners, and implantation in 2006 and later years. A significant number of devices were found to be manufactured out of their specifications. This was confirmed with analysis of the wider data set from the NRR. Conclusions This device was found to have an unacceptably high revision rate. Bilateral prostheses, those implanted into female patients and devices implanted in later years were found to be at greater risk. A significant number of explanted components were found to be manufactured with bearing diameters outside of the manufacturer's stated tolerances. Our findings highlight the clinical importance of hitherto unrecognised variations in device production. PMID:27130159

  19. Bone loss in thyroid disease: role of low TSH and high thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Abe, Etsuko; Sun, Li; Mechanick, Jeffrey; Iqbal, Jameel; Yamoah, Kosj; Baliram, Ramkumarie; Arabi, Ario; Moonga, Baljit S; Davies, Terry F; Zaidi, Mone

    2007-11-01

    More than 10% of postmenopausal women in the United States receive thyroid hormone replacement therapy and up to 20% of these women are over-replaced inducing subclinical hyperthyroidism. Because hyperthyroidism and post menopausal osteoporosis overlap in women of advancing age, it is urgent to understand the effect of thyroid hormone excess on bone. We can now provide results that not thyroid hormones but also TSH itself has an equally important role to play in bone remodeling. PMID:18083940

  20. Failure analysis of C-5 after total disc replacement with ProDisc-C at 1 and 2 levels and in combination with a fusion cage: finite-element and biomechanical models.

    PubMed

    Completo, António; Nascimento, Abel; Ramos, António; Simões, José

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the failure risk of cervical vertebrae after total disc replacement with a keel-design prosthesis (ProDisc-C), taking into consideration the effects of vertebral body height, multilevel replacement, and the association with an adjacent fusion cage. Although promising clinical results have been reported for the ProDisc-C, some clinical studies have reported vertebral body-splitting fractures at single- and multilevel arthroplasty sites. This implant has central keels to provide solid initial stability, and some authors associate the potential risk of vertebral body failure with the keel design, especially in patients with small vertebral body height or when the implant is used at multiple levels. METHODS The study was performed using a specimen-specific C4-6 cervical-segment finite-element model to assess the compressive strains on the C-5 vertebral body for each cervical segment configuration, and synthetic polyurethane models to experimentally predict the compressive load at failure for 3 vertebral body heights. RESULTS The use of a keeled ProDisc-C prosthesis at multiple levels or in combination with a fusion cage increases by a factor of 2-3 the compressive strains at the C-5 vertebral body relative to single-level arthroplasty. All implanted segment configurations tested demonstrated a continuum of the load at failure and the vertebral body height, but no significant differences were found between the 3 vertebral body heights in each segment configuration. CONCLUSIONS The use of a keeled ProDisc-C prosthesis at 2 adjacent levels or combined with a fusion cage presented the lowest load-at-failure values, 2 times higher on average than the ones occurring during physiological tasks. This fact indicates an identical and limited risk of vertebral body failure for these 2 segment configurations, whereas vertebral body height appears to slightly affect this risk. However, for some tasks that place higher physical

  1. Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone associated with a mutation in the ligand-binding domain of the human thyroid hormone receptor. beta

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, A.; Takeda, K.; Ain, K.; Ceccarelli, P.; Nakai, A.; Seino, S.; Bell, G.I.; Refetoff, S.; DeGroot, L.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The syndrome of generalized resistance to thyroid hormone is characterized by elevated circulating levels of thyroid hormone in the presence of an overall eumetabolic state and failure to respond normally to triiodothyronine. The authors have evaluated a family with inherited generalized resistance to thyroid hormone for abnormalities in the thyroid hormone nuclear receptors. A single guanine {yields} cytosine replacement in the codon for amino acid 340 resulted in a glycine {yields} arginine substitution in the hormone-binding domain of one of two alleles of the patient's thyroid hormone nuclear receptor {beta} gene. In vitro translation products of this mutant human thyroid hormone nuclear receptor {beta} gene did not bind triiodothyronine. Thus, generalized resistance to thyroid hormone can result from expression of an abnormal thyroid hormone nuclear receptor molecule.

  2. Restoration of hormonal action and muscle protein.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Arny A; Wolfe, Robert R

    2007-09-01

    This review focuses on the effects of restoring hormonal levels and/or influence on muscle protein metabolism in the stressed state. We have highlighted our clinical experience in the administration of anabolic and anticatabolic agents in stressed clinical populations, primarily adult and pediatric burn injury, as well as patients undergoing elective hip arthroplasty. Our previous experience entails the administration of anabolic hormones, such as testosterone and its derivatives, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 combined with its binding protein 3, and insulin. Current efforts focus on the administration of anticatabolic agents to reduce the effects of hypercortisolemia. Muscle protein metabolism was determined by stable isotope methodology. Our results indicate that normalization of anabolic hormone concentrations or amelioration of hormonal resistance restores the effects of feeding on skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Anabolic hormone administration results in a more favorable muscle protein balance in severely burned patients. Amelioration of hypercortisolemia in the stressed state leads to an improvement in protein kinetics. To summarize, alterations in hormonal influence that accompany stress states favor the loss of muscle protein. Restoration or normalization of hormonal influence improves muscle protein kinetics and ameliorates the loss of muscle nitrogen. To restore hormonal influence, clinicians should consider reestablishing anabolic stimuli and reducing catabolic stimuli. PMID:17713420

  3. Combination Therapy with Zoledronic Acid and Parathyroid Hormone Improves Bone Architecture and Strength following a Clinically-Relevant Dose of Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for the Local Treatment of Canine Osteosarcoma in Athymic Rats.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Ryan C; Custis, James T; Ehrhart, Nicole P; Ehrhart, E J; Condon, Keith W; Gookin, Sara E; Donahue, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies using definitive-intent stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) for the local treatment of canine osteosarcoma (OSA) have shown canine patients achieving similar median survival times as the current standard of care (amputation and adjuvant chemotherapy). Despite this, there remains an unacceptable high risk of pathologic fracture following radiation treatment. Zoledronic acid (ZA) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are therapeutic candidates for decreasing this fracture risk post-irradiation. Due to differing mechanisms, we hypothesized that the combined treatment with ZA and PTH would significantly improve bone healing more than ZA or PTH treatment alone. Using an orthotopic model of canine osteosarcoma in athymic rats, we evaluated bone healing following clinically-relevant doses of radiation therapy (12 Gy x 3 fractions, 36 Gy total). Groups included 36 Gy SRT only, 36 Gy SRT plus ZA, 36 Gy SRT plus ZA and PTH, 36 Gy SRT plus PTH, and 36 Gy SRT plus localized PTH treatment. Our study showed significant increases in bone volume and increased polar moments of inertia (in the distal femoral metaphysis) 8 weeks after radiation in the combined (ZA/PTH) treatment group as compared to radiation treatment alone. Histomorphometric analysis revealed evidence of active mineralization at the study endpoint as well as successful tumor-cell kill across all treatment groups. This work provides further evidence for the expanding potential indications for ZA and PTH therapy, including post-irradiated bone disease due to osteosarcoma. PMID:27332712

  4. Combination Therapy with Zoledronic Acid and Parathyroid Hormone Improves Bone Architecture and Strength following a Clinically-Relevant Dose of Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for the Local Treatment of Canine Osteosarcoma in Athymic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Ryan C.; Custis, James T.; Ehrhart, Nicole P.; Ehrhart, E. J.; Condon, Keith W.; Gookin, Sara E.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies using definitive-intent stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) for the local treatment of canine osteosarcoma (OSA) have shown canine patients achieving similar median survival times as the current standard of care (amputation and adjuvant chemotherapy). Despite this, there remains an unacceptable high risk of pathologic fracture following radiation treatment. Zoledronic acid (ZA) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are therapeutic candidates for decreasing this fracture risk post-irradiation. Due to differing mechanisms, we hypothesized that the combined treatment with ZA and PTH would significantly improve bone healing more than ZA or PTH treatment alone. Using an orthotopic model of canine osteosarcoma in athymic rats, we evaluated bone healing following clinically-relevant doses of radiation therapy (12 Gy x 3 fractions, 36 Gy total). Groups included 36 Gy SRT only, 36 Gy SRT plus ZA, 36 Gy SRT plus ZA and PTH, 36 Gy SRT plus PTH, and 36 Gy SRT plus localized PTH treatment. Our study showed significant increases in bone volume and increased polar moments of inertia (in the distal femoral metaphysis) 8 weeks after radiation in the combined (ZA/PTH) treatment group as compared to radiation treatment alone. Histomorphometric analysis revealed evidence of active mineralization at the study endpoint as well as successful tumor-cell kill across all treatment groups. This work provides further evidence for the expanding potential indications for ZA and PTH therapy, including post-irradiated bone disease due to osteosarcoma. PMID:27332712

  5. Ion replacement electrorefining

    SciTech Connect

    Willit, J.L.; Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.; Laidler, J.J.

    1994-04-01

    We are developing a two-step electrochemical process for purifying and separating metals called ion replacement electrorefining. In each step, metal cations formed by oxidation at an electrode replace other metal cations that are reduced at another elecmae. Using this approach, we have separated or purified uranium, dysprosium, and lanthanum on a laboratory scale. This paper explains the ion replacement concept and presents results of these demonstration experiments.

  6. Molecular replacement: tricks and treats

    SciTech Connect

    Abergel, Chantal

    2013-11-01

    To be successful, molecular replacement relies on the quality of the model and of the crystallographic data. Some tricks that could be applied to the models or to the crystal to increase the success rate of MR are discussed here. Molecular replacement is the method of choice for X-ray crystallographic structure determination provided that suitable structural homologues are available in the PDB. Presently, there are ∼80 000 structures in the PDB (8074 were deposited in the year 2012 alone), of which ∼70% have been solved by molecular replacement. For successful molecular replacement the model must cover at least 50% of the total structure and the C{sub α} r.m.s.d. between the core model and the structure to be solved must be less than 2 Å. Here, an approach originally implemented in the CaspR server (http://www.igs.cnrs-mrs.fr/Caspr2/index.cgi) based on homology modelling to search for a molecular-replacement solution is discussed. How the use of as much information as possible from different sources can improve the model(s) is briefly described. The combination of structural information with distantly related sequences is crucial to optimize the multiple alignment that will define the boundaries of the core domains. PDB clusters (sequences with ≥30% identical residues) can also provide information on the eventual changes in conformation and will help to explore the relative orientations assumed by protein subdomains. Normal-mode analysis can also help in generating series of conformational models in the search for a molecular-replacement solution. Of course, finding a correct solution is only the first step and the accuracy of the identified solution is as important as the data quality to proceed through refinement. Here, some possible reasons for failure are discussed and solutions are proposed using a set of successful examples.

  7. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of combined insulin-like growth factor I and low dose growth hormone therapy for wasting associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, P D; Pivarnik, J M; Bukar, J G; Muurahainen, N; Berry, P S; Skolnik, P R; Nerad, J L; Kudsk, K A; Jackson, L; Ellis, K J; Gesundheit, N

    1996-08-01

    Loss of body mass, or wasting, is a major cause of morbidity and a contributor to mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. Dietary supplements and appetite adjuvants have had limited effectiveness in treating this condition. GH and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) have been shown to be anabolic in many catabolic conditions, and limited data suggest similar efficacy in HIV wasting. In addition, it appears that GH and IGF-I may have complementary anabolic effects with opposing glucoregulatory effects. We report results from a 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial of combination recombinant human GH (rhGH; Nutropin; 0.34 mg, sc, twice daily) and rhIGF-I (5.0 mg, sc, twice daily) in individuals with HIV wasting and without active opportunistic infection, cancer, or gastrointestinal disease. A total of 142 subjects (140 males and 2 females) were randomized using a 2:1, double blind treatment scheme and assigned to receive either active treatment or placebo injections. Eighty subjects completed the 12-week protocol. Nutritional intake and demographic and clinical characteristics did not differ between the groups at any study time point. At 3 weeks, the treatment group had a significantly larger weight increase (P = 0.0003), but this difference was not observed at any later time point. Similarly, fat-free mass, calculated from skinfold measurements, increased transiently in the treatment group at 6 weeks (P = 0.002). No significant differences in isokinetic muscle strength or endurance testing or in quality of life were observed between the groups. Resting heart rate was significantly higher in the treatment group at each time point post-baseline. GH and IGF-binding protein-3 levels did not change; however, IGF-I levels were higher in the treatment group at 6 and 12 weeks. There were no significant between-group differences in any of the measured biochemical or immunological parameters. rhGH plus rhIGF-I treatment was associated with an

  8. Hormones and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  9. Growth hormone deficiency - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... the same age. The child will have normal intelligence in most cases. In older children, puberty may ... hormones cause the body to make. Tests can measure these growth factors. Accurate growth hormone deficiency testing ...

  10. Hormones and Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Hormones and Hypertension What is hypertension? Hypertension, or chronic (long-term) high blood pressure, is a main cause of ... tobacco, alcohol, and certain medications play a part. Hormones made in the kidneys and in blood vessels ...

  11. ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also known as: Vasopressin; AVP Formal name: Antidiuretic Hormone; Arginine Vasopressin Related tests: Osmolality , BUN , Creatinine , Sodium , ... should know? How is it used? The antidiuretic hormone (ADH) test is used to help detect, diagnose, ...

  12. Menopause and Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  13. Hormonal effects in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001911.htm Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb babies ...

  14. Novel hormone "receptors".

    PubMed

    Nemere, Ilka; Hintze, Korry

    2008-02-01

    Our concepts of hormone receptors have, until recently, been narrowly defined. In the last few years, an increasing number of reports identify novel proteins, such as enzymes, acting as receptors. In this review we cover the novel receptors for the hormones atrial naturetic hormone, enterostatin, hepcidin, thyroid hormones, estradiol, progesterone, and the vitamin D metabolites 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and 24,25(OH)(2)D(3). PMID:17546587

  15. Aging changes in hormone production

    MedlinePlus

    The endocrine system is made up of organs and tissues that produce hormones. Hormones are natural chemicals produced in one ... hormones that control the other structures in the endocrine system. The amount of these regulating hormones stays about ...

  16. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  17. A Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing the Efficacy and Side-Effects of Intravaginal Ring (Nuvaring®) With Combined Oral Hormonal Preparation in Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Vaid, Neelam B.; Narang, Yam; Suneja, Amita; Guleria, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Combined Oral Contraceptive (COC) pills are being used in patients of abnormal uterine bleeding, especially adolescents and reproductive age women considering their need for contraception. It decreases the blood loss due to haemostatic effect of estrogen and also regularizes the cycle. Intravaginal route has been found to be effective and acceptable; Gastrointestinal absorption and hepatic first-pass metabolism is avoided and steady, uniform blood concentration is achieved. Bioavailability of estrogen and progestogen through oral and vaginal route are same. The convenience of once-a-month administration is another major advantage. Materials and Mathods Sixty women fulfilling inclusion criteria were randomised into 2 groups in 1:1 ratio. In one group (n=30), monthly insertion of Nuvaring®) was done for three consecutive months. Nuvaring® releases 15μg ethinyl estradiol and 120 μg etonogesterol daily. The other group (n=30) received COC pill containing 30μg EE and 150 μg levonorgestrel for three consecutive months. Primary outcome measures were change in menstrual cycle pattern and pictorial Blood Loss Assessment chart (PBAC) score. Other Parameters included side effects, change in haemoglobin and weight. Data was analyzed by statistical software SPSS 20. Results Both Nuvaring® and COC were found to significantly decrease blood loss in each cycle. Decrease in PBAC score was more in Nuvaring® group compared to COC, however difference was not significant. Ideal bleed (IB) was frequently higher for Nuvaring® group than COC in all 3 cycles, although no statistically significant difference was observed between groups (p-value=0.286). Late withdrawl, intermenstural spotting was higher in COC group. Compliance was better and women were more satisfied in Nuvaring® group compared to COC group. Minor side effects like headache, mastalgia, nausea and mood changes were seen in both groups, which were not significant. Continuation rate was significantly

  18. Replacement, reduction and refinement.

    PubMed

    Flecknell, Paul

    2002-01-01

    In 1959, William Russell and Rex Burch published "The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique". They proposed that if animals were to be used in experiments, every effort should be made to Replace them with non-sentient alternatives, to Reduce to a minimum the number of animals used, and to Refine experiments which used animals so that they caused the minimum pain and distress. These guiding principles, the "3 Rs" of animal research, were initially given little attention. Gradually, however, they have become established as essential considerations when animals are used in research. They have influenced new legislation aimed at controlling the use of experimental animals, and in the United Kingdom they have become formally incorporated into the Animal (Scientific) Procedures Act. The three principles, of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, have also proven to be an area of common ground for research workers who use animals, and those who oppose their use. Scientists, who accept the need to use animals in some experiments, would also agree that it would be preferable not to use animals. If animals were to be used, as few as possible should be used and they should experience a minimum of pain or distress. Many of those who oppose animal experimentation, would also agree that until animal experimentation is stopped, Russell and Burch's 3Rs provide a means to improve animal welfare. It has also been recognised that adoption of the 3Rs can improve the quality of science. Appropriately designed experiments that minimise variation, provide standardised optimum conditions of animals care and minimise unnecessary stress or pain, often yield better more reliable data. Despite the progress made as a result of attention to these principles, several major problems have been identified. When replacing animals with alternative methods, it has often proven difficult to formally validate the alternative. This has proven a particular problem in regulatory toxicology

  19. Altered pituitary growth hormone (GH) regulation in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: a combined defect of hypothalamic somatostatin and GH-releasing factor.

    PubMed

    Olchovsky, D; Bruno, J F; Wood, T L; Gelato, M C; Leidy, J W; Gilbert, J M; Berelowitz, M

    1990-01-01

    account for the low AP GH content. Hypothalamic GRF content in diabetic rats (1.11 +/- 0.10 ng/hypothalamus) did not differ from that in controls (1.16 +/- 0.17 ng/hypothalamus). GRF mRNA levels, however, were reduced by 80% in diabetic rats compared to controls. Taken together these data support a combined role for decreased hypothalamic GRF and increased SRIF in mediating alterations of GH synthesis and secretion in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. PMID:1967164

  20. Was sind hormone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlson, P.

    1982-01-01

    Historically, the meaning of the term hormone has changed during the last decades. Morphological studies of secreting cells lead Feyrter to the concept of paracrine action of some hormones. While endocrine regulators are blood-borne, paracrine messengers reach their target cells through the diffusion in the intracellular space. Though it is rather difficult to draw a line between true hormones and hormone-like substances, valid definitions for endocrine and paracrine regulatory systems can be given. The term ‘hormonal control’ should be restricted to endocrine systems. For effectors acting by paracrine mechanisms, the term paramone is proposed in this article.

  1. Hypertension induced by pregnancy, oral contraceptives, and postmenopausal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, N M

    1988-11-01

    Hypertension may develop during pregnancy or with the use of OC pills. Although the precise manner by which this rise in blood pressure occurs is unknown, appropriate management of the problem can protect against the consequences. The use of hormonal replacement therapy after menopause is not associated with a rise in blood pressure, and appears to provide significant protection against CHD. PMID:3067841

  2. Hormonal therapies in acne.

    PubMed

    Shaw, James C

    2002-07-01

    Hormones, in particular androgen hormones, are the main cause of acne in men, women, children and adults, in both normal states and endocrine disorders. Therefore, the use of hormonal therapies in acne is rational in concept and gratifying in practice. Although non-hormonal therapies enjoy wide usage and continue to be developed, there is a solid place for hormonal approaches in women with acne, especially adult women with persistent acne. This review covers the physiological basis for hormonal influence in acne, the treatments that are in use today and those that show promise for the future. The main treatments to be discussed are oral contraceptives androgen receptor blockers like spironolactone and flutamide, inhibitors of the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase and topical hormonal treatments. PMID:12083987

  3. Climacteric in untreated isolated growth hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Menilson; Salvatori, Roberto; Oliveira, Carla R.P.; Pereira, Rossana M.C.; Souza, Anita H.O.; Nobrega, Luciana M.A.; Cruz, Edla do A.C.; Menezes, Marcos; Alves, Érica O.; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the time, intensity of symptoms, hormonal profile, and related morbidity of climacteric in women with untreated isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency (IGHD). Design Women belonging to a large Brazilian kindred with IGHD due to a homozygous mutation in the GH-releasing hormone receptor gene were studied. None of them had ever received GH replacement therapy. A two-step protocol was performed. In the first case-control experiment, aimed to determine the age at climacteric, we compared eight women with IGHD and 32 normal women between 37 and 55 years of age. In the second cross-sectional experiment, aimed to determine the severity of climacteric symptoms, seven women with IGHD (aged 47-65 y) were compared with 13 controls (aged 44-65 y). The Kupperman Index scores, serum follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and estradiol levels were determined, and pelvic and mammary ultrasonography, mammography, and colpocytology were performed. Results The number of women with follicle-stimulating hormone above 20 mIU/mL was higher in women with IGHD than controls. Kupperman’s Index was not different between the two groups. Menarche had been delayed and parity was lower in women with IGHD. Hormonal profile was similar, but prolactin was lower in women with IGHD. Uterine volume was smaller in women with IGHD, and endometrial thickness and ovarian volume were similar in the two groups. No difference in breast images or in colpocytology was observed between the two groups. Conclusions Menarche was delayed and the beginning of climacteric is anticipated in untreated lifetime IGHD, but menopausal symptoms and hormonal profile resemble the normal climacteric. PMID:18223507

  4. Estrogen, vascular estrogen receptor and hormone therapy in postmenopausal vascular disease.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Raouf A

    2013-12-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in premenopausal women than men of the same age or postmenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen activates estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle (VSM), which trigger downstream signaling pathways and lead to genomic and non-genomic vascular effects such as vasodilation, decreased VSM contraction and growth and reduced vascular remodeling. However, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS), have shown little vascular benefits and even adverse events with menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), likely due to factors related to the MHT used, ER profile, and RCT design. Some MHT forms, dose, combinations or route of administration may have inadequate vascular effects. Age-related changes in ER amount, distribution, integrity and post-ER signaling could alter the vascular response to MHT. The subject's age, preexisting CVD, and hormone environment could also reduce the effects of MHT. Further evaluation of natural and synthetic estrogens, phytoestrogens, and selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and the design of appropriate MHT combinations, dose, route and 'timing' could improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT and provide alternative therapies in the peri-menopausal period. Targeting ER using specific ER agonists, localized MHT delivery, and activation of specific post-ER signaling pathways could counter age-related changes in ER. Examination of the hormone environment and conditions associated with hormone imbalance such as polycystic ovary syndrome may reveal the causes of abnormal hormone-receptor interactions. Consideration of these factors in new RCTs such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) could enhance the vascular benefits of estrogen in postmenopausal CVD. PMID:24099797

  5. Estrogen, Vascular Estrogen Receptor and Hormone Therapy in Postmenopausal Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Raouf A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in premenopausal women than men of the same age or postmenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen activates estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle (VSM), which trigger downstream signaling pathways and lead to genomic and non-genomic vascular effects such as vasodilation, decreased VSM contraction and growth and reduced vascular remodeling. However, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) and Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS), have shown little vascular benefits and even adverse events with menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), likely due to factors related to the MHT used, ER profile, and RCT design. Some MHT forms, dose, combinations or route of administration may have inadequate vascular effects. Age-related changes in ER amount, distribution, integrity and post-ER signaling could alter the vascular response to MHT. The subject’s age, preexisting CVD, and hormone environment could also reduce the effects of MHT. Further evaluation of natural and synthetic estrogens, phytoestrogens, and selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and the design of appropriate MHT combinations, dose, route and 'timing' could improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT and provide alternative therapies in the peri-menopausal period. Targeting ER using specific ER agonists, localized MHT delivery, and activation of specific post-ER signaling pathways could counter age-related changes in ER. Examination of the hormone environment and conditions associated with hormone imbalance such as polycystic ovary syndrome may reveal the causes of abnormal hormone-receptor interactions. Consideration of these factors in new RCTs such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) could enhance the vascular benefits of estrogen in postmenopausal CVD. PMID:24099797

  6. Hip replacement - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... a hip replacement and need antibiotics before any dental work. When to Call Your Doctor Call your health care provider if you have: A sudden increase in pain Chest pain or shortness of breath Frequent urination ...

  7. Replacing Arizona's Roofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Arizona statewide mandate to spend $500 million to repair or replace roofs in its public school system. Data from the state's evaluation process are provided, including how the state will fund the project. (GR)

  8. Knee joint replacement

    MedlinePlus

    The results of a total knee replacement are often excellent. The operation relieves pain for most people. Most people do not need help walking after they fully recover. Most artificial knee joints last 10 ...

  9. Hip joint replacement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100006.htm Hip joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The hip joint is made up of two major parts: the ...

  10. Replacing a Missing Tooth

    MedlinePlus

    ... majority of patients with clefts will require full orthodontic treatment, especially if the cleft has passed through ... later replacement of the missing lateral incisor. During orthodontic treatment, an artificial tooth may be attached to ...

  11. Knee joint replacement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100088.htm Knee joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... of 4 Overview The knee is a complex joint. It contains the distal end of the femur ( ...

  12. Kidney Replacement Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... their function with either dialysis or a transplant. Dialysis Dialysis, the more common form of kidney-replacement ... the result of diabetes, not of hemodialysis. Peritoneal dialysis Another form of dialysis is called peritoneal dialysis. ...

  13. Artificial Disc Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat this condition, alternatives to disc replacement include fusion, nonoperative care or no treatment. Typically, surgery is ... operative treatment for disc pain has been spinal fusion. This is a surgical procedure in which disc ...

  14. Human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Strobl, J S; Thomas, M J

    1994-03-01

    The study of human growth hormone is a little more than 100 years old. Growth hormone, first identified for its dramatic effect on longitudinal growth, is now known to exert generalized effects on protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Additional roles for growth hormone in human physiology are likely to be discovered in the areas of sleep research and reproduction. Furthermore, there is some indication that growth hormone also may be involved in the regulation of immune function, mental well-being, and the aging process. Recombinant DNA technology has provided an abundant and safe, albeit expensive, supply of human growth hormone for human use, but the pharmacological properties of growth hormone are poor. Most growth hormone-deficient individuals exhibit a secretory defect rather than a primary defect in growth hormone production, however, and advances in our understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of growth hormone secretion have established the basis for the use of drugs to stimulate release of endogenously synthesized growth hormone. This promises to be an important area for future drug development. PMID:8190748

  15. Pituitary regulation of postnatal small intestinal ontogeny in the rat: differential regulation of digestive hydrolase maturation by thyroxine and growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Castillo, R O; Glasscock, G F; Noren, K M; Reisenauer, A M

    1991-09-01

    During the third week of postnatal life, dramatic ontogenic changes occur in the morphology and enzymology of the small intestine of the infant rat, enabling the animal to make the transition from milk to solid food. To investigate the roles of T4 and GH in regulation of these changes, infant rats were hypophysectomized on day 6 of life by the transauricular technique. Hypophysectomy resulted in diminution of somatic and intestinal growth as well as abnormal maturation of the disaccharidases lactase, sucrase, and maltase when measured on day 25. Administration of either T4 or GH to hypophysectomized animals resulted in moderately increased intestinal growth, while complete restoration of small intestinal growth resulted from administration of the combination of both hormones. Although T4, GH, or the combination of hormones reduced lactase activities, T4 alone produced normal maturation of sucrase and maltase. Neither hypophysectomy nor hormone replacement affected aminooligopeptidase. The molecular structure of lactase, analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was not altered to a major degree in hypophysectomized animals or animals that received hormone replacement, but minor alterations were evident in sucrase structure in hypophysectomy. These studies indicate that 1) T4 and GH actively participate in postnatal regulation of small intestinal ontogeny; 2) thyroid hormones act directly on developing intestinal tissues to independently produce the normal maturation of the disaccharidases by mechanisms that are not likely to involve alterations in processing of the enzyme-protein; and 3) maturation of aminooligopeptidase is not regulated by pituitary hormones, in distinct contrast to the disaccharidases. PMID:1874180

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Combined Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT) and Docetaxel Compared with ADT Alone for Metastatic Hormone-Naive Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Botrel, Tobias Engel Ayer; Clark, Otávio; Lima Pompeo, Antônio Carlos; Horta Bretas, Francisco Flávio; Sadi, Marcus Vinicius; Ferreira, Ubirajara; Borges dos Reis, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Prostate cancer is the most common nonskin cancer and second most common cause of cancer mortality in older men in the United States (USA) and Western Europe. Androgen-deprivation therapy alone (ADT) remains the first line of treatment in most cases, for metastatic disease. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCT) that compared the efficacy and adverse events profile of a chemohormonal therapy (ADT ± docetaxel) for metastatic hormone-naive prostate cancer (mHNPC). Methods Several databases were searched, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and CENTRAL. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Data extracted from the studies were combined by using the hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio (RR) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results The final analysis included 3 trials comprising 2,264 patients (mHNPC). Patients who received the chemohormonal therapy had a longer clinical progression-free survival interval (HR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.75; p<0.00001), and no heterogeneity (Chi2 = 0.64; df = 1 [p = 0.42]; I2 = 0%). The biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) also was higher in patients treated with ADT plus docetaxel (HR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.69; p<0.00001), also with no heterogeneity noted (Chi2 = 0.48; df = 2 [p = 0.79]; I2 = 0%). Finally, the combination of ADT with docetaxel showed a superior overall survival (OS) compared with ADT alone (HR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.84; p<0.0001), with moderate heterogeneity (Chi2 = 3.84; df = 2 [p = 0.15]; I2 = 48%). A random-effects model analysis was performed, and the results remained favorable to the use of ADT plus docetaxel (HR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.89; p = 0.002). In the final combined analysis of the high-volume disease patients, the use of the combination therapy also favored an increased overall survival (HR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.83; p = 0.0003). Regarding adverse events and severe toxicity (grade ≥3), the group

  17. Hormonal therapy for acne.

    PubMed

    George, Rosalyn; Clarke, Shari; Thiboutot, Diane

    2008-09-01

    Acne affects more than 40 million people, of which more than half are women older than 25 years of age. These women frequently fail traditional therapy and have high relapse rates even after isotretinoin. Recent advances in research have helped to delineate the important role hormones play in the pathogenesis of acne. Androgens such as dihydrotestosterone and testosterone, the adrenal precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estrogens, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factors may all contribute to the development of acne. Hormonal therapy remains an important part of the arsenal of acne treatments available to the clinician. Women dealing with acne, even those without increased serum androgens, may benefit from hormonal treatments. The mainstays of hormonal therapy include oral contraceptives and antiandrogens such as spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, or flutamide. In this article, we discuss the effects of hormones on the pathogenesis of acne, evaluation of women with suspected endocrine abnormalities, and the myriad of treatment options available. PMID:18786497

  18. Hormones and endometrial carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Areege; Tempest, Nicola; Parkes, Christina; Alnafakh, Rafah; Makrydima, Sofia; Adishesh, Meera; Hapangama, Dharani K

    2016-02-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the commonest gynaecological cancer in the Western World with an alarmingly increasing incidence related to longevity and obesity. Ovarian hormones regulate normal human endometrial cell proliferation, regeneration and function therefore are implicated in endometrial carcinogenesis directly or via influencing other hormones and metabolic pathways. Although the role of unopposed oestrogen in the pathogenesis of EC has received considerable attention, the emerging role of other hormones in this process, such as androgens and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) is less well recognised. This review aims to consolidate the current knowledge of the involvement of the three main endogenous ovarian hormones (oestrogens, progesterone and androgens) as well as the other hormones in endometrial carcinogenesis, to identify important avenues for future research. PMID:26966933

  19. Method and refrigerants for replacing existing refrigerants in centrifugal compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Kopko, W.L.

    1991-12-31

    This patent describes a method for replacing an existing refrigerant in a centrifugal compressor. It comprises selecting a desired impeller Mach number for the centrifugal compressor; selecting a base refrigerant constituent; combining at least one additive refrigerant constituent with the base refrigerant constituent to form a replacement refrigerant having at least one physical or chemical property different from the existing refrigerant and substantially providing the desired impeller Mach number in the centrifugal compressor; and replacing the existing refrigerant with the replacement refrigerant.

  20. Screening of nineteen unrelated families with generalized resistance to thyroid hormone for known point mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene and the detection of a new mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, K; Balzano, S; Sakurai, A; DeGroot, L J; Refetoff, S

    1991-01-01

    Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone (GRTH) is a syndrome characterized by impaired tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormone. Two distinct point mutations in the hormone binding domain of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta have recently been identified in two unrelated families with GRTH. One, Mf, involves a replacement of the normal glycine-345 for arginine in exon 7 and another, Mh, replaces the normal proline-453 for histidine in exon 8. To probe for the presence of the Mf and Mh defect in 19 unrelated families with GRTH, we applied separate polymerase chain reactions using allele-specific oligonucleotide primers containing the normal and each of the two mutant nucleotides at the 3'-position. A total of 24 affected subjects and 13 normal family members were studied. The mode of inheritance was dominant in 13 families, was unknown in 5 families, and was clearly recessive in 1 family in which only the consanguineous subjects were affected. Primers containing the substitutions specific for Mf and Mh amplified exons 7 and 8, respectively, only in affected members of each of the two index families. Primers containing the normal sequences amplified exons 7 and 8 of the TR beta gene in all subjects except affected members of one family. In this family with recessively inherited GRTH, neither exon could be amplified using any combinations of primers and DNA blot revealed absence of all coding exons. These results indicate a major deletion of the TR beta gene, including both DNA and hormone binding domains. Since heterozygous members of this family are not affected, the presence of a single normal allele is sufficient for normal function of the TR beta. These data also support the hypothesis that in the dominant mode of GRTH inheritance the presence of an abnormal TR beta interferes with the function of the normal TR beta. Distinct mutations are probably responsible for GRTH in unrelated families. Images PMID:1991834

  1. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

  2. Advances in bioanalytical techniques to measure steroid hormones in serum.

    PubMed

    French, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Steroid hormones are measured clinically to determine if a patient has a pathological process occurring in the adrenal gland, or other hormone responsive organs. They are very similar in structure making them analytically challenging to measure. Additionally, these hormones have vast concentration differences in human serum adding to the measurement complexity. GC-MS was the gold standard methodology used to measure steroid hormones clinically, followed by radioimmunoassay, but that was replaced by immunoassay due to ease of use. LC-MS/MS has now become a popular alternative owing to simplified sample preparation than for GC-MS and increased specificity and sensitivity over immunoassay. This review will discuss these methodologies and some new developments that could simplify and improve steroid hormone analysis in serum. PMID:27217264

  3. Synthetic meniscus replacement: a review.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, Anne Christiane Theodora; Buma, Pieter; van Tienen, Tony George

    2013-02-01

    The number of meniscus-related operations continues to rise due to the ageing and more active population. Irreparable meniscal lesions generally require (partial) meniscectomy. Although a majority of the patients benefit from pain relief and functional improvement post-meniscectomy, some remain symptomatic. As an alternative to a meniscal allograft, which is only indicated for the severely damaged meniscus, most patients can nowadays be treated by implantation of a synthetic meniscal substitute. Currently three of these implants, two partial and one total replacement, are clinically available and several others are in the stage of preclinical testing. Grossly, two types of meniscal substitutes can be distinguished: porous, resorbable implants that stimulate tissue regeneration and solid, non-resorbable implants that permanently replace the whole meniscus. Although the implantation of a porous meniscus replacement generally seems promising and improves clinical outcome measures to some degree, their superiority to partial meniscectomy still needs to be proven. The evaluation of new prostheses being developed requires a wider focus than has been adopted so far. Upon selection of the appropriate materials, preclinical evaluation of such implants should comprise a combination of (in vitro) biomechanical and (in vivo) biological tests, while up to now the focus has mainly been on biological aspects. Obviously, well-defined randomised controlled trials are necessary to support clinical performance of new implants. Since the use of a meniscus replacement requires an additional costly implant and surgery compared to meniscectomy only, the clinical outcome of new products should be proven to surpass the results of the conventional therapies available. PMID:23100123

  4. Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal, alone or in combination with distiller’s dried grains with solubles in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, grown in a clear-water system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  5. Toxicology of chlorofluorocarbon replacements.

    PubMed Central

    Dekant, W

    1996-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are stable in the atmosphere and may reach the stratosphere. They are cleaved by UV-radiation in the stratosphere to yield chlorine radicals, which are thought to interfere with the catalytic cycle of ozone formation and destruction and deplete stratospheric ozone concentrations. Due to potential adverse health effects of ozone depletion, chlorofluorocarbon replacements with much lower or absent ozone depleting potential are developed. The toxicology of these compounds that represent chlorofluorohydrocarbons (HCFCs) or fluorohydrocarbons (HFCs) has been intensively studied. All compounds investigated (1, 1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane [HCFC-141b], 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane [HFC-134a], pentafluoroethane [HFC-125], 1-chloro- 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane [HCFC-124], and 1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane [HCFC-123]) show only a low potential for skin and eye irritation. Chronic adverse effects on the liver (HCFC-123) and the testes (HCFC-141b and HCFC-134a), including tumor formation, were observed in long-term inhalation studies in rodents using very high concentrations of these CFC replacements. All CFC replacements are, to varying extents, biotransformed in the organism, mainly by cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidation of C-H bonds. The formed acyl halides are hydrolyzed to give excretable carboxylic acids; halogenated aldehydes that are formed may be further oxidized to halogenated carboxylic acids or reduced to halogenated alcohols, which are excretory metabolites in urine from rodents exposed experimentally to CFC replacements. The chronic toxicity of the CFC replacements studied is unlikely to be of relevance for humans exposed during production and application of CFC replacements. PMID:8722112

  6. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... medicines you take. These include: Birth control pills Hormone therapy Testosterone DHEA (a supplement) If you are ...

  7. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing ... helps slow the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. ...

  8. Python import replacement

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-10-01

    SmartImport.py is a Python source-code file that implements a replacement for the standard Python module importer. The code is derived from knee.py, a file in the standard Python diestribution , and adds functionality to improve the performance of Python module imports in massively parallel contexts.

  9. Replacing America's Job Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  10. Growth hormone deficiency: an update.

    PubMed

    Audí, L; Fernández-Cancio, M; Camats, N; Carrascosa, A

    2013-03-01

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in humans manifests differently according to the individual developmental stage (early after birth, during childhood, at puberty or in adulthood), the cause or mechanism (genetic, acquired or idiopathic), deficiency intensity and whether it is the only pituitary-affected hormone or is combined with that of other pituitary hormones or forms part of a complex syndrome. Growing knowledge of the genetic basis of GH deficiency continues to provide us with useful information to further characterise mutation types and mechanisms for previously described and new candidate genes. Despite these advances, a high proportion of GH deficiencies with no recognisable acquired basis continue to be labelled as idiopathic, although less frequently when they are congenital and/or familial. The clinical and biochemical diagnoses continue to be a conundrum despite efforts to harmonise biochemical assays for GH and IGF-1 analysis, probably because the diagnosis based on the so-called GH secretion stimulation tests will prove to be of limited usefulness for predicting therapy indications. PMID:23435439

  11. Circulating microRNA profiles and the identification of miR-593 and miR-511 which directly target the PROP1 gene in children with combined pituitary hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    HU, YANYAN; WANG, QIAN; WANG, ZENGMIN; WANG, FENGXUE; GUO, XIAOBO; LI, GUIMEI

    2015-01-01

    Since the tissue of children with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) is not readily accessible, a new focus in children with CPHD is the blood-based expression profiling of non-protein coding genes, such as microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs), which regulate gene expression by inhibiting the translation of mRNAs. In this study, to address this, we identified potential miRNA signatures for CPHD by comparing genome-wide miRNA expression profiles in the serum of children with CPHD vs. normal (healthy) controls. Human embryonic kidney 293T cells were transfected with miR-593 or miR-511 oligonucleotides. Potential target gene expression was validated by western blot analysis for proteins and by miR-593 or miR-511 reporter assay using PROP1 gene 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) reporter. The miR-593 and miR-511 levels in the serum of 103 children with CPHD were assessed using the reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method. We found 23 upregulated and 19 down-regulated miRNAs with abnormal expression in children with CPHD compared with the normal controls using miRNA microarray analysis and RT-qPCR. miR-593 and miR-511 targeted the 3′-UTR of the PROP1 gene and attenuated the expression of PROP1. The levels of miR-593 and miR-511 in the serum of children with CPHD were increased compared with those in the control subjects. According to Youden’s index, the sensitivity was 82.54 and 84.86%, and the specificity was 98.15 and 91.36% for miR-593 and miR-511, respectively. The various levels of specific miRNAs, particularly miR-593 and miR-511 whose direct target is the PROP1 gene, may serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for children with CPHD. PMID:25434367

  12. Growth Hormone Promotes Lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Banziger-Tobler, Nadja Erika; Halin, Cornelia; Kajiya, Kentaro; Detmar, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in inflammation and cancer progression, although the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. As determined using comparative transcriptional profiling studies of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells versus blood vascular endothelial cells, growth hormone receptor was expressed at much higher levels in lymphatic endothelial cells than in blood vascular endothelial cells. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Growth hormone induced in vitro proliferation, sprouting, tube formation, and migration of lymphatic endothelial cells, and the mitogenic effect was independent of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 or -3 activation. Growth hormone also inhibited serum starvation-induced lymphatic endothelial cell apoptosis. No major alterations of lymphatic vessels were detected in the normal skin of bovine growth hormone-transgenic mice. However, transgenic delivery of growth hormone accelerated lymphatic vessel ingrowth into the granulation tissue of full-thickness skin wounds, and intradermal delivery of growth hormone resulted in enlargement and enhanced proliferation of cutaneous lymphatic vessels in wild-type mice. These results identify growth hormone as a novel lymphangiogenic factor. PMID:18583315

  13. Thyroid Hormone and Cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Anthony Martin; Ojamaa, Kaie

    2016-01-01

    The heart is a major target of thyroid hormones, with maintenance of euthyroid hormone balance critical for proper function. In particular, chronic low thyroid function can eventually lead to dilated heart failure with impaired coronary blood flow. New evidence also suggests that heart diseases trigger a reduction in cardiac tissue thyroid hormone levels, a condition that may not be detectible using serum hormone assays. Many animal and clinical studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of low thyroid function in heart diseases with worse outcomes from this condition. Animal and human studies have also demonstrated many benefits from thyroid hormone treatment of heart diseases, particularly heart failure. Nonetheless, this potential treatment has not yet translated to patients due to a number of important concerns. The most serious concern involves the potential of accidental overdose leading to increased arrhythmias and sudden death. Several important clinical studies, which actually used excessive doses of thyroid hormone analogs, have played a major role in convincing the medical community that thyroid hormones are simply too dangerous to be considered for treatment in cardiac patients. Nonetheless, this issue has not gone away due primarily to overwhelmingly positive evidence for treatment benefits and a new understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying those benefits. This review will first discuss the clinical evidence for the use of thyroid hormones as a cardioprotective agent and then provide an overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying beneficial changes from thyroid hormone treatment of heart diseases. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1199-1219, 2016. PMID:27347890

  14. ARRANGEMENT FOR REPLACING FILTERS

    DOEpatents

    Blomgren, R.A.; Bohlin, N.J.C.

    1957-08-27

    An improved filtered air exhaust system which may be continually operated during the replacement of the filters without the escape of unfiltered air is described. This is accomplished by hermetically sealing the box like filter containers in a rectangular tunnel with neoprene covered sponge rubber sealing rings coated with a silicone impregnated pneumatic grease. The tunnel through which the filters are pushed is normal to the exhaust air duct. A number of unused filters are in line behind the filters in use, and are moved by a hydraulic ram so that a fresh filter is positioned in the air duct. The used filter is pushed into a waiting receptacle and is suitably disposed. This device permits a rapid and safe replacement of a radiation contaminated filter without interruption to the normal flow of exhaust air.

  15. NARC Rayon Replacement Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Kenneth P.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the search for a replacement product for the aerospace grade rayon formerly used in the reusable solid rocket motor (RSRM). The rayon used in RSRMs is no longer produced by the North American Rayon Corporation (NARC), though NASA has stockpiled rayon to be used until a suitable replacement is found to be used in the RSRM nozzle carbon cloth phenolic (CCP). The primary considerations are performance, process ability, variability, long term availability, and cost. The preference will be given to commercial off-the-shelf products as opposed to those which are custom made. The candidate materials have been tested in previous phases of this selection process, and Enka Textile Rayon has emerged as a possible fabric, though its availability is still in question.

  16. [Differentiated use of steriod hormones in the gynecological practice].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, E; Loch, E G

    1975-11-18

    The selection of appropriate hormonal therapy is briefly discussed. The present broad choice of synthetic estrogens and especially gestagens makes it possible for the clinical practitioner to "tailor" hormone treatment, including oral contraception, to the patient's individual hormone needs, as shown by her history, phenotype, and symptoms. Thus, premenopausal and menopausal women, who often have symptoms of estrogen dominance, should receive gestagens or estrogen-gestagen combinations rather than estrogens alone. The same therapeutic considerations are applicable to hysterectomized women. Psychic and physical well-being depend on hormone equilibrium. PMID:1243507

  17. Renal Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Recent technological improvement has led to the production of safe, versatile and efficient dialysis machines. In addition, emerging evidence may allow better individualization of treatment with tailored prescription depending on the patients' clinical picture (e.g. sepsis, fluid overload, pediatric). The aim of the present review is to give a general overview of current practice in renal replacement therapies for critically ill patients. The main clinical aspects, including dose prescription, modality of dialysis delivery, anticoagulation strategies and timing will be addressed. In addition, some technical issues on physical principles governing blood purification, filters characteristics, and vascular access, will be covered. Finally, a section on current standard nomenclature of renal replacement therapy is devoted to clarify the "Tower of Babel" of critical care nephrology. PMID:26918174

  18. Renal Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years, due to medical and surgical evolution, patients with increasingly severe diseases causing multiorgan dysfunction are frequently admitted to intensive care units. Therapeutic options, when organ failure occurs, are frequently nonspecific and mostly directed towards supporting vital function. In these scenarios, the kidneys are almost always involved and, therefore, renal replacement therapies have become a common routine practice in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Recent technological improvement has led to the production of safe, versatile and efficient dialysis machines. In addition, emerging evidence may allow better individualization of treatment with tailored prescription depending on the patients’ clinical picture (e.g. sepsis, fluid overload, pediatric). The aim of the present review is to give a general overview of current practice in renal replacement therapies for critically ill patients. The main clinical aspects, including dose prescription, modality of dialysis delivery, anticoagulation strategies and timing will be addressed. In addition, some technical issues on physical principles governing blood purification, filters characteristics, and vascular access, will be covered. Finally, a section on current standard nomenclature of renal replacement therapy is devoted to clarify the “Tower of Babel” of critical care nephrology. PMID:26918174

  19. Scientific overview of hormone treatment used for rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Morley, John E

    2013-06-01

    A search for a hormonal fountain of youth has been hotly pursued over the last century, predominately by those who wish to market hormones to a gullible public. There is little or no benefit of hormone replacement in persons who do not have a hormone deficiency. Overall, the present state of the art suggests that the findings have been disappointing. In persons who fail to get adequate sunlight, and therefore have low vitamin D levels, vitamin D replacement appears to have positive effects, including decreasing mortality. Testosterone in hypogonadal males has a number of positive effects such as improving libido and erectile capacity, increasing strength and bone mineral density, and perhaps having a small effect on cognition. These effects need to be balanced against long-term side effects, the evidence for which studies are lacking. There is little evidence to recommend DHEA, pregnenolone, growth hormone, ghrelin, or melatonin to older persons. Overall, exercise, adequate exposure to sunlight, and adequate dietary protein appear to have at least as positive an effect as any of the hormones being used to rejuvenate older persons. PMID:23726254

  20. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  1. [Hormonal treatments for fertility disorders in cattle].

    PubMed

    Gundling, N; Feldmann, M; Hoedemaker, M

    2012-01-01

    In dairy cows, hormonal treatments are commonly implemented for acyclicity, silent heat and endometritis. Before treatment, causes of infertility need to be detected and severe failures in housing, feeding or other diseases must be eliminated. Without sustainable improvement of herd management, the use of intensive hormonal treatments will not improve reproductive performance. The most common cause of anoestrous is silent heat. In cows with a palpable corpus luteum, injection of prostaglandin F2α (PGF) reliably induces oestrous. A satisfactory treatment for acyclicity (ovarian dystrophy, ovarian cysts) does not exist. Combinations of different hormones have greater treatment success than a single use of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) or human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Strategic use of PGF during the early postpartum period cannot be recommended because positive effects on uterus involution and resumption of the oestrous cycle after calving have not been verified. In contrast, application of GnRH combined with PGF in the puerperal phase appeared to have positive effects on fertility of cows with endometritis. The same applies to PGF for cows with chronic endometritis. Cases of endometritis with fetid odour of vaginal mucus or isolation of Trueperella pyogenes should be treated with antibiotics. Treatment before the 27th day post partum is not advisable. In conclusion, hormonal treatments can be used to treat fertility disorders. Nevertheless, in order to enhance the reproductive performance at the herd level, a sustainable improvement of the general conditions (housing, feeding, animal health, management) is a prerequisite. PMID:22911233

  2. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are two types of bioidentical hormone products: • Pharmaceutical products. These products have been approved by the ... made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy (a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a ...

  3. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are two types of bioidentical hormone products: Pharmaceutical products . These products have been approved by the ... made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy(a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a ...

  4. Growth hormone stimulation test

    MedlinePlus

    The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of the body to produce GH. ... killing medicine (antiseptic). The first sample is drawn early in the morning. Medicine is given through the ...

  5. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  6. Autoimmunity against thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Sakata, S

    1994-01-01

    The presence of thyroid hormone autoantibodies (THAA) is a common phenomenon. More than 270 cases have been reported by the end of 1993 involving not only thyroidal but also nonthyroidal disorders. Clinically, THAA in a patient's serum produces variation in thyroid hormone metabolism and, in particular, may interfere with the radioimmunoassay (RIA) results of total or free thyroid hormone measurements, which can cause unusually high or low values of the hormones depending on the B/F separation method used. This in vitro interference can give clinicians confusing information about the patient's thyroid state. As a result, the patient may receive inappropriate treatment from physicians who are unaware of this disorder. The presence of THAA has been reported not only in humans but also in dogs, chickens, and rats. In this review article, clinical features of THAA and the mechanism of autoantibody production are discussed. PMID:7535535

  7. Vaginal bleeding - hormonal

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken just before the period starts Women over age 40 and older may have the option to receive cyclic progestin or cyclic hormone therapy. A health care provider may recommend iron supplements for women with anemia. If you want ...

  8. Protein Hormones and Immunity‡

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Keith W.; Weigent, Douglas A.; Kooijman, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A number of observations and discoveries over the past 20 years support the concept of important physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. The best known pathway for transmission of information from the immune system to the neuroendocrine system is humoral in the form of cytokines, although neural transmission via the afferent vagus is well documented also. In the other direction, efferent signals from the nervous system to the immune system are conveyed by both the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Communication is possible because the nervous and immune systems share a common biochemical language involving shared ligands and receptors, including neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, growth factors, neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. This means that the brain functions as an immune-regulating organ participating in immune responses. A great deal of evidence has accumulated and confirmed that hormones secreted by the neuroendocrine system play an important role in communication and regulation of the cells of the immune system. Among protein hormones, this has been most clearly documented for prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), but significant influences on immunity by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been demonstrated. Here we review evidence obtained during the past 20 years to clearly demonstrate that neuroendocrine protein hormones influence immunity and that immune processes affect the neuroendocrine system. New findings highlight a previously undiscovered route of communication between the immune and endocrine systems that is now known to occur at the cellular level. This communication system is activated when inflammatory processes induced by proinflammatory cytokines antagonize the function of a variety of hormones, which then causes endocrine resistance in both the periphery and brain. Homeostasis during inflammation is achieved by a balance between cytokines and

  9. [The cervix and hormonal contraception].

    PubMed

    Gorins, A

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the histological effects of hormonal contraceptives on the cervix and assesses statistical studies examining the relationship between oral contraceptive (OC) usage and cancerous lesions of the cervix. The cervix acquires a pseudopregnant appearance under the influence of combined OCs. The Malpighian epithelium acquires a richly vascularized stroma characterized by accelerated maturation and the endocervical ectropion may be swollen, frequently with epidermoid metaplasia. Such changes increase with the duration of hormonal contraception and are more pronounced with combined than with sequential OCs. Among pathological changes that may occur are active adenomatous hyperplasia and epithelial abnormalities including dysplasia involving dyscaryotic cells with regular nuclei and no mitotic abnormality. Epithelial anomalies may present various histocytological features and are sometimes difficult to interpret. Epidemiologic study of the cervix is difficult because of the number of parameters to be considered: age at 1st intercourse, frequency of intercourse, number of partners, the formulation of the OC, and the variable duration of use which may have been interrupted by use of another method such as the IUD. Statistical studies have yielded contradictory results, with the earliest reports showing a higher incidence of dysplasia among women using OCs and most later studies showing a possible increased incidence of moderate dysplasia but no increased incidence of carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma. The recent study by Vessey et al. which compared 6838 parous OC users with 3154 parous IUD users over 10 years revealed invasive cancer in 13 women all of whom used OCs, with carcinomas in situ and dysplasias also more frequent in women using OCs. The duration of use was found to be a significant factor. Age and dates of marriage and 1st pregnancy were similar in subjects and controls, but no data were provided on age at 1st intercourse or number of

  10. Dimerization of Human Growth Hormone by Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Brian C.; Mulkerrin, Michael G.; Wells, James A.

    1991-08-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography and sedimentation equilibrium studies demonstrated that zinc ion (Zn2+) induced the dimerization of human growth hormone (hGH). Scatchard analysis of 65Zn2+ binding to hGH showed that two Zn2+ ions associate per dimer of hGH in a cooperative fashion. Cobalt (II) can substitute for Zn2+ in the hormone dimer and gives a visible spectrum characteristic of cobalt coordinated in a tetrahedral fashion by oxygen- and nitrogen-containing ligands. Replacement of potential Zn2+ ligands (His18, His21, and Glu174) in hGH with alanine weakened both Zn2+ binding and hGH dimer formation. The Zn2+-hGH dimer was more stable than monomeric hGH to denaturation in guanidine-HCl. Formation of a Zn2+-hGH dimeric complex may be important for storage of hGH in secretory granules.

  11. Relationship between urinary and serum growth hormone and pubertal status.

    PubMed Central

    Crowne, E C; Wallace, W H; Shalet, S M; Addison, G M; Price, D A

    1992-01-01

    Urinary growth hormone (uGH) excretion and serum growth hormone concentrations have been compared in three groups of children. Group 1 consisted of 21 children who had had cranial irradiation as part of their treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; group 2, 18 normal children; and group 3, 12 boys with constitutional delay in growth and puberty who were in early puberty. Children in groups 1 and 2 each had a 24 hour serum growth hormone profile (sampling every 20 minutes) and concurrent urine collection. The 12 boys in group 3 had a total of 21 profiles (sampling every 15 minutes for 12 hours) and concurrent urine collections. In the prepubertal children (n = 17), in both groups 1 and 2, there was a significant correlation between mean serum growth hormone and total uGHng/g creatinine. There were also significant correlations between total uGHng/g creatinine and both peak serum growth hormone and mean amplitude of the pulses in the growth hormone profile. In the pubertal children (n = 22), in groups 1 and 2, whether combined or in separate groups, there was no significant correlation between total uGHng/g creatinine and mean serum growth hormone, peak serum growth hormone, or mean amplitude of the pulses in the growth hormone profile. In group 3 there were significant correlations between total uGHng/g creatinine and both the mean serum growth hormone and mean amplitude of the pulses in the profile. Therefore uGH estimations appear to correlate well with serum growth hormone profiles in children who are prepubertal or in early puberty, but not in those further advanced in pubertal development. These results may reflect a variation in the renal handling of growth hormone during pubertal development. uGH estimation may be an unreliable screening investigation for growth hormone sufficiency in mid to late puberty. PMID:1739346

  12. Renal Replacement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Villa, Gianluca; Ricci, Zaccaria; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-10-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is a cornerstone in the clinical management of patients with acute kidney injury. Results from different studies agree that early renal support therapy (aimed to support the residual kidney function during early phases of organ dysfunction) may reduce mortality with respect to late RRT (aimed to substitute the complete loss of function during the advanced kidney insufficiency). Although it seems plausible that a timely initiation of RRT may be associated with improved renal and nonrenal outcomes in these patients, there is scarce evidence in literature to exactly identify the most adequate onset timing for RRT. PMID:26410148

  13. Immediate total tooth replacement.

    PubMed

    Garber, D A; Salama, M A; Salama, H

    2001-03-01

    Successful implant placement at the time of extraction has been documented. Implant placement at the time of extraction was initially performed as a two-stage procedure often with barrier membranes and sophisticated second-stage surgical uncoverings. The authors describe the next generation of this technique, including atraumatic tooth removal with simultaneous root form, implant placement, and temporization at one appointment. This technique of "Immediate Total Tooth Replacement" allows for the maintenance of the bony housing and soft-tissue form that existed before extraction, while at the same time establishing a root form anchor in the bone for an esthetic restoration. PMID:11913258

  14. Assessment of the hormonal milieu.

    PubMed

    Hankinson, Susan E; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2011-01-01

    The hormonal milieu has been hypothesized to play a role in a range of human diseases, and therefore has been a topic of much epidemiologic investigation. Hormones of particular interest include: sex steroids; growth hormones; insulin-like growth factors; stress hormones, such as cortisol; and hormones produced by the adipose tissue, termed adipokines. Depending on the hormone, levels may be measured in plasma or serum, urine, saliva, tissue, or by assessing genetic variation in the hormone or hormone metabolizing genes. Sample collection, processing, and storage requirements vary according to the type of sample collected (e.g. blood or urine) and the hormone of interest. Laboratory analysis of hormones is frequently complex, and the technology used to conduct the assays is constantly evolving. For example, direct or indirect radioimmunoassay, bioassay or mass spectrometry can be used to measure sex steroids, each having advantages and disadvantages. Careful attention to laboratory issues, including close collaboration with laboratory colleagues and ongoing quality control assessments, is critical. Whether a single hormone measurement, as is frequently collected in epidemiologic studies, is sufficient to characterize the hormonal environment of interest (e.g. long-term adult hormone exposure) is also an important issue. While the assessment of hormones in epidemiologic studies is complex, these efforts have, and will continue to, add importantly to our knowledge of the role of hormones in human health. PMID:22997864

  15. The immunologic barriers to replacing damaged organs

    PubMed Central

    Cascalho, Marilia; Platt, Jeffrey L.

    2005-01-01

    The recent years have brought breathtaking advances in the biomedical sciences and biomedical engineering. These advances offer the promise that diseases responsible for most disability and early death may soon be addressed by replacing damaged organs with bio-engineered substitutes. Application of these technologies, however, is impeded by the immune response directed against foreign cells and tissues. Here we consider the potentiality and the limitations of these new technologies and how the technologies might be combined to generate novel approaches to organ replacement that overcome immunological barriers to success. PMID:12934939

  16. Adrenal Function Testing Following Hormone Therapy for Infantile Spasms: Case Series and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mytinger, John R.; Bowden, Sasigarn A.

    2015-01-01

    Prednisolone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are “hormone” therapies for infantile spasms. There is limited data on the occurrence of decreased adrenal reserve or signs of clinical adrenal insufficiency after hormone therapy. This is a retrospective medical record review of patients referred to our Infantile Spasms Program. Our standardized infantile spasms management guideline began in September 2012 and initially included a post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function. Medical records were assessed for hormone treatments, adrenal function testing, and signs of adrenal insufficiency. Forty-two patients who received one or both hormone therapies met inclusion criteria. A post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function was done in 14 patients. Of these 14 patients, 2 had an abnormal laboratory assessment of adrenal function, both by adrenal stimulation testing – one after ACTH and one after prednisolone. One patient received hydrocortisone replacement and the other received stress dose hydrocortisone as needed; neither patient developed signs of adrenal insufficiency. Another patient treated with both types of hormone therapy in tandem, who did not have a post-hormone laboratory assessment, developed signs of mild adrenal insufficiency and required replacement hydrocortisone. Our study suggests that adrenal suppression can occur after modern hormone therapy regimens. We found two patients with abnormal adrenal function testing after hormone therapy and another patient with signs adrenal insufficiency. Given the seriousness of adrenal crisis, caregiver education on the signs of adrenal insufficiency is critical. Greater vigilance may be indicated in patients receiving both types of hormone therapy in tandem. Although a routine post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function may not be feasible in all patients, replacement or stress dose hydrocortisone is necessary for all patients with suspected adrenal insufficiency. PMID

  17. Cadmium plating replacements

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  18. Sutureless aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The increasing incidence of aortic stenosis and greater co-morbidities and risk profiles of the contemporary patient population has driven the development of minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) techniques to reduce surgical trauma. Recent technological developments have led to an alternative minimally invasive option which avoids the placement and tying of sutures, known as “sutureless” or rapid deployment aortic valves. Potential advantages for sutureless aortic prostheses include reducing cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) duration, facilitating minimally invasive surgery and complex cardiac interventions, whilst maintaining satisfactory hemodynamic outcomes and low paravalvular leak rates. However, given its recent developments, the majority of evidence regarding sutureless aortic valve replacement (SU-AVR) is limited to observational studies and there is a paucity of adequately-powered randomized studies. Recently, the International Valvular Surgery Study Group (IVSSG) has formulated to conduct the Sutureless Projects, set to be the largest international collaborative group to investigate this technology. This keynote lecture will overview the use, the potential advantages, the caveats, and current evidence of sutureless and rapid deployment aortic valve replacement (AVR). PMID:25870807

  19. Cadmium plating replacements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Mary J.; Groshart, Earl C.

    1995-01-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  20. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  1. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  2. Total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. PMID:24412045

  3. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self‐funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty‐three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  4. Ovarian hormones ameliorate memory impairment, cholinergic deficit, neuronal apoptosis and astrogliosis in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    HU, ZHIYING; YANG, YANG; GAO, KEQIANG; RUDD, JOHN A.; FANG, MARONG

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian hormones, including progesterone (P4) and 17 β-estradiol (E2), have been shown to affect memory functions; however, the underlying mechanism whereby ovarian hormone replacement therapy may decrease the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of P4 and E2 on spatial and learning memory in an ovariectomized rat model of AD. β-amyloid (Aβ) or saline were stereotaxically injected into the hippocampus of the rats and, after 1 day, ovariectomy or sham operations were performed. Subsequently, the rats were treated with P4 alone, E2 alone, or a combination of P4 and E2. Treatment with E2 and/or P4 was shown to improve the learning and memory functions of the rats, as demonstrated by the Morris water maze test. In addition, treatment with E2 and P4 was associated with increased expression levels of choline acetyltransferase and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (5-HT2A), and decreased expression levels of the glial fibrillary acidic protein in the hippocampus of the rats. Furthermore, E2 and P4 treatment significantly attenuated neuronal cell apoptosis, as demonstrated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays; thus suggesting that the ovarian hormones were able to protect against Aβ-induced neuronal cell toxicity. The results of the present study suggested that the neuroprotective effects of P4 and E2 were associated with amelioration of the cholinergic deficit, suppression of apoptotic signals and astrogliosis, and upregulation of 5-HT2A expression levels. Therefore, hormone replacement therapy may be considered an effective strategy for the treatment of patients with cognitive disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26889223

  5. Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite.

    PubMed

    Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve

    2006-07-29

    The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably constitutes another point at which intervention may promote efficient digestion and nutrient uptake. In recent decades, gut hormones have come to occupy a central place in the complex neuroendocrine interactions that underlie the regulation of energy balance. Many gut peptides have been shown to influence energy intake. The most well studied in this regard are cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin and ghrelin. With the exception of ghrelin, these hormones act to increase satiety and decrease food intake. The mechanisms by which gut hormones modify feeding are the subject of ongoing investigation. Local effects such as the inhibition of gastric emptying might contribute to the decrease in energy intake. Activation of mechanoreceptors as a result of gastric distension may inhibit further food intake via neural reflex arcs. Circulating gut hormones have also been shown to act directly on neurons in hypothalamic and brainstem centres of appetite control. The median eminence and area postrema are characterized by a deficiency of the blood-brain barrier. Some investigators argue that this renders neighbouring structures, such as the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the brainstem, susceptible to influence by circulating factors. Extensive reciprocal connections exist between these areas and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and other energy-regulating centres of the

  6. Knee joint replacement prosthesis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A prosthesis is a device designed to replace a missing part of the body, or to make a part of the body work better. The metal prosthetic device in knee joint replacement surgery replaces cartilage and bone which is damaged from disease or aging.

  7. Should dermatologists prescribe hormonal contraceptives for acne?

    PubMed

    Harper, Julie C

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT One of the primary factors contributing to the development of acne vulgaris is excess sebum. Sebaceous glands and sebum excretion are regulated, at least in part, by androgen hormones. Acne treatments that block this androgen effect include spironolactone and combination oral contraceptives (COC). Three COC are now FDA approved to treat moderate acne. Dermatologists must become experts at prescribing these hormonal contraceptives. Likewise, it is vital to be aware of contraindications to hormonal contraceptive therapy. Proper patient selection relies on an appropriate medical history and an assessment of blood pressure. A pelvic exam and/or Papanicolaou smear are not required prior to initiating therapy with a COC. It is important to counsel patients about potential adverse effects of COC pills and to establish appropriate expectations concerning acne improvement. PMID:19845722

  8. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions. PMID:26374891

  9. [Hormones and hair growth].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair. PMID:20502852

  10. Ovarian steroid hormone-regulated uterine remodeling occurs independently of macrophages in mice.

    PubMed

    Care, Alison S; Ingman, Wendy V; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M; Jasper, Melinda J; Robertson, Sarah A

    2014-09-01

    Macrophages are abundant in the uterine stroma and are intimately juxtaposed with other cell lineages comprising the uterine epithelial and stromal compartments. We postulated that macrophages may participate in mediating or amplifying the effects of ovarian steroid hormones to facilitate the uterine remodeling that is a characteristic feature of every estrus cycle and is essential for pregnancy. Using the Cd11b-Dtr transgenic mouse model with an ovariectomy and hormone replacement strategy, we depleted macrophages to determine their role in hormone-driven proliferation of uterine epithelial and stromal cells and uterine vascular development. Following diphtheria toxin (DT) administration, approximately 85% of EMR1-positive (EMR1⁺) macrophages, as well as 70% of CD11C⁺ dendritic cells, were depleted from Cd11b-Dtr mice. There was no change in bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into epithelial cells induced to proliferate by administration of 17beta-estradiol (E2) to ovariectomized mice or into stromal cells induced to proliferate in response to E2 and progesterone (P4), and the resulting sizes and structures of the luminal epithelial and stromal cell compartments were not altered compared with those of leukocyte replete controls. Depletion of CD11B⁺ myeloid cells failed to alter the density or pattern of distribution of uterine blood vessels, as identified by staining PECAM1-positive endothelial cells in the uterine stroma of E2- or E2 combined with P4 (E2P4)-treated ovariectomized mice. These experiments support the interpretation that macrophages are dispensable to regulation of proliferative events induced by steroid hormones in the cycling and early pregnant mouse uterus to establish the epithelial, stromal, and vascular architecture which is critical for normal reproductive competence. PMID:25061095

  11. Replacement of charcoal sorbent in the VOST

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.D.; Fuerst, R.G.; Foster, A.L.; Bursey, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    EPA Method 0030, the Volatile Organic Sampling Train (VOST), for sampling volatile organics from stationary sources, specifies the use of petroleum-base charcoal in the second sorbent tube. Charcoal has proven to be a marginal performer as a sampling sorbent, partly due to inconsistency in analyte recovery. In addition, commercial availability of petroleum charcoal for VOST tubes has been variable. Lack of data on comparability and variability of charcoals for VOST application has created uncertainty when other charcoals are substituted. Five potential sorbent replacements for charcoal in Method 0030 were evaluated along with a reference charcoal. Two of the sorbents tested, Ambersorb XE-340 and Tenax GR, did not perform well enough to qualify as replacements. Three candidates, Anasorb 747, Carbosieve S-III and Kureha Beaded Activated Charcoal, performed adequately, and produced statistically equivalent results. Anasorb 747 appears to be an acceptable replacement for petroleum charcoal, based on a combination of performance, availability, and cost.

  12. NRL attacks halon replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Baturin, D.

    1994-07-01

    In November 1992, as a result of the International Montreal Protocol Treaty and its addenda, it was announced that worldwide production of halons would halt by January 1994. Research has shown that halons, with the component bromine, would likely be more damaging to the ozone layer than chlorofluorocarbons. Today, while other researchers are looking at ways to limit the use of or to recycle halogenated fire suppressants, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is conducting active programs aimed at developing replacement agents. The program includes laboratory-scale screening of candidate agents, intermediate-scale chamber tests, and full-scale shipboard discharge fire tests. A substantial research effort is underway on the measurement of the effectiveness of alternate, nonhalogen-containing suppressants; the elucidation of the chemical and physical mechanisms by which they suppress fires; and the development of theory and models on the relationship of chemical structures to suppressive behavior.

  13. Aerocoat 7 Replacement Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center has used Aerocoat 7 (AR-7) to protect stainless-steel flex hoses at Launch Complex (LC-39) and hydraulic lines of the Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP) because it provides excellent corrosion protection in low-temperature applications. The Sovereign Company produced AR-7 exclusively for NASA but discontinued production because the coating released high levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and had a significant environmental impact. The purpose of this project was to select and evaluate potential replacement coatings for AR-7 that would be more environmentally sound. The physical and mechanical properties of commercially available coatings were investigated through the Internet. The ideal coating would be fluid enough to penetrate the outer mesh of a stainless-steel flex hose and coat the inner hose, and flexible enough to withstand the movement of the hose, as well as the expansion and contraction of its metal caused by changes in temperature.

  14. Antenna grout replacement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclung, C. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An epoxy grout suitable for use in mounting and positioning bearing runner plates used in hydrostatic bearing assemblies for rotatably mounting large radio telescope structures to stationary support pedestals is described. The epoxy grout may be used in original mountings or may be used as part of a replacement system for repairing cavities in existing grout resulting from grout deterioration. The epoxy grout has a relatively short work life and cure time even in the presence of hydraulic oil. The epoxy grout cures without shrinking or sagging to form a grout which is sufficiently strong and durable to provide a grout especially well suited for use under the high pressure loading and close tolerance requirements of large hydrostatic bearing assemblies.

  15. Short stem shoulder replacement

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Simon N.; Coghlan, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: It is agreed that it is important to anatomically reproduce the proximal humeral anatomy when performing a prosthetic shoulder replacement. This can be difficult with a long stemmed prosthesis, in particular if there is little relationship of the metaphysis to the humeral shaft. The ‘short stem’ prosthesis can deal with this problem. Aims: A prospective study assessed the results of total shoulder arthroplasty using a short stem humeral prosthesis, a ceramic humeral head, and a pegged cemented polyethylene glenoid. Materials and methods: Patients with primary shoulder osteoarthritis were recruited into this prospective trial and pre-operatively had the ASES, Constant, SPADI, and DASH scores recorded. The patients were clinically reviewed at the two weeks, eight weeks, one year, and two year mark with completion of a data form. Radiological evaluation was at the eight week, one year and two year follow-up. At the one and two year follow-up the satisfaction rating, the range of passive and active motion, Constant, ASES, SPADI, DASH and pain results were recorded and analysed with SPPS 20. Results: During the study period 97 short stem, ceramic head total shoulder replacements were carried out. At the time of follow-up 12 were two years from operation and 38 one year from operation. Active elevation was overall mean 160 degrees. Constant scores were 76 at 1 year, and 86 at 2 years, ASES 88 and 93, and satisfaction 96% and 98% respectively at one and 2 year follow up. There were no problems during insertion of the humeral prosthesis, or any radiolucent lines or movement of the prosthesis on later radiographs. Conclusion: The short stem prosthesis had no complications, and on follow up radiographs good bone fixation. These fairly short term clinical results were overall good. PMID:25258497

  16. Thyroid hormones regulate levels of thyrotropin-releasing-hormone mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Koller, K.J.; Wolff, R.S.; Warden, M.K.; Zoeller, R.T.

    1987-10-01

    Cellular levels of messenger RNA encoding thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) were measured in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the reticular nucleus of the thalamus in male rats after chemical thyroidectomy and thyroid hormone, replacement. TRH mRNA levels were measured by quantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry using a /sup 35/S-labeled synthetic 48-base oligodeoxynucleotide probe and quantitative autoradiography. Chemical thyroidectomy, produced by the administration of 6-(n-propyl)-2-thiouracil (PrSur), reduced plasma thyroxine below detection limits and significantly increased TRH mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus. Treatments with exogenous L-triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) reduced TRH mRNA to the same level in both hypothyroid and euthyroid animals. Neither PrSur treatment nor T/sub 3/ replacement influenced TRH mRNA levels in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus. Blot hybridization analysis of electrophoretically fractionated total RNA from pituitaries of these animals indicated that thyrotropin-..beta.. mRNA levels were elevated after thyroidectomy and reduced by T/sub 3/ treatment, showing that the pituitary-thyroid axis was indeed stimulated by PrSur treatment. These results suggest that thyroid hormones are involved, either directly or indirectly, in regulating the biosynthesis of TRH in the thyrotropic center of the hypothalamus.

  17. Is dehydroepiandrosterone a hormone?

    PubMed

    Labrie, F; Luu-The, V; Bélanger, A; Lin, S-X; Simard, J; Pelletier, G; Labrie, C

    2005-11-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is not a hormone but it is a very important prohormone secreted in large amounts by the adrenals in humans and other primates, but not in lower species. It is secreted in larger quantities than cortisol and is present in the blood at concentrations only second to cholesterol. All the enzymes required to transform DHEA into androgens and/or estrogens are expressed in a cell-specific manner in a large series of peripheral target tissues, thus permitting all androgen-sensitive and estrogen-sensitive tissues to make locally and control the intracellular levels of sex steroids according to local needs. This new field of endocrinology has been called intracrinology. In women, after menopause, all estrogens and almost all androgens are made locally in peripheral tissues from DHEA which indirectly exerts effects, among others, on bone formation, adiposity, muscle, insulin and glucose metabolism, skin, libido and well-being. In men, where the secretion of androgens by the testicles continues for life, the contribution of DHEA to androgens has been best evaluated in the prostate where about 50% of androgens are made locally from DHEA. Such knowledge has led to the development of combined androgen blockade (CAB), a treatment which adds a pure anti-androgen to medical (GnRH agonist) or surgical castration in order to block the access of the androgens made locally to the androgen receptor. In fact, CAB has been the first treatment demonstrated to prolong life in advanced prostate cancer while recent data indicate that it can permit long-term control and probably cure in at least 90% of cases of localized prostate cancer. The new field of intracrinology or local formation of sex steroids from DHEA in target tissues has permitted major advances in the treatment of the two most frequent cancers, namely breast and prostate cancer, while its potential use as a physiological HRT could well provide a physiological balance of androgens and estrogens, thus

  18. Regulation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion by hypothalamic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Donoso, A O; Seltzer, A M; Navarro, C E; Cabrera, R J; López, F J; Negro-Vilar, A

    1994-04-01

    1. The present review discusses the proposed roles of the amino acids glutamate and GABA in the central regulation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and in luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. 2. Descriptions of the mechanisms of action of these neurotransmitters have focused on two diencephalic areas, namely, the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area where the cell bodies of LHRH neurons are located, and the medial basal hypothalamus which contains the nerve endings of the LHRH system. Increasing endogenous GABA concentration by drugs, GABA agonists, or blockade of glutamatergic neurotransmission by selective antagonists in rats and non-human primates prevents ovulation and pulsatile LH release, and blunts the LH surges induced by estrogen or an estrogen-progesterone combination. In contrast, glutamate and different glutamate agonists such as NMDA, AMPA and kainate, can increase LHRH/LH secretion. 3. The simultaneous enhancement of glutamatergic activity and a decrease of GABAergic tone may positively influence the maturation of the pituitary-gonadal system in rats and non-human primates. Administration of glutamate receptor agonists has been shown to significantly advance the onset of puberty. Conversely, glutamate antagonists or increased endogenous GABA levels may delay the onset of puberty. The physiological regulation of LHRH/LH secretion may thus involve a GABA-glutamate interaction and a cooperative action of the various types of ionotropic glutamate receptors. 4. The inhibitory actions of GABA on LH release and ovulation may be exerted at the level of afferent nerve terminals that regulate LHRH secretion. A likely candidate is noradrenaline, as suggested by the synaptic connections between noradrenergic nerve terminals and GABAergic interneurons in the preoptic area. Recent experiments have provided complementary evidence for the physiological balance between inhibitory and excitatory transmission resulting in modulation of the action of

  19. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer On This Page What are hormones? How do ... sensitive breast cancer: Adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer : Research has shown that women treated for early- ...

  20. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  1. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Loss of Fertility Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When ...

  2. Aging changes in hormone production

    MedlinePlus

    ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ... produce the same amount at a slower rate. AGING CHANGES The hypothalamus is located in the brain. ...

  3. Effects of growth hormone and low dose estrogen on bone growth and turnover in long bones of hypophysectomized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidder, L. S.; Schmidt, I. U.; Evans, G. L.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    Pituitary hormones are recognized as critical to longitudinal growth, but their role in the radial growth of bone and in maintaining cancellous bone balance are less clear. This investigation examines the histomorphometric effects of hypophysectomy (Hx) and ovariectomy (OVX) and the subsequent replacement of growth hormone (GH) and estrogen (E), in order to determine the effects and possible interactions between these two hormones on cortical and cancellous bone growth and turnover. The replacement of estrogen is of interest since Hx results in both pituitary and gonadal hormone insufficiencies, with the latter being caused by the Hx-associated reduction in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). All hypophysectomized animals received daily supplements of hydrocortisone (500 microg/kg) and L-thyroxine (10 microg/kg), whereas intact animals received daily saline injections. One week following surgery, hypophysectomized animals received either daily injections of low-dose 17 beta-estradiol (4.8 microg/kg s.c.), 3 X/d recombinant human GH (2 U/kg s.c.), both, or saline for a period of two weeks. Flurochromes were administered at weekly intervals to label bone matrix undergoing mineralization. Whereas Hx resulted in reductions in body weight, uterine weight, and tibial length, OVX significantly increased body weight and tibial length, while reducing uterine weight. The combination of OVX and Hx resulted in values similar to Hx alone. Treatment with GH normalized body weight and bone length, while not affecting uterine weight in hypophysectomized animals. Estrogen increased uterine weight, while not impacting longitudinal bone growth and reduced body weight. Hypophysectomy diminished tibial cortical bone area through reductions in both mineral appositional rate (MAR) and bone formation rate (BFR). While E had no effect, GH increased both MAR and BFR, though not to sham-operated (control) levels. Hypophysectomy reduced proximal tibial trabecular number and cancellous bone

  4. Reuse, replace, recycle

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, Michael A.; Thorner, Jeremy W.

    2015-01-01

    Septins are guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that form hetero-oligomeric complexes, which assemble into filaments and higher-order structures at sites of cell division and morphogenesis in eukaryotes. Dynamic changes in the organization of septin-containing structures occur concomitantly with progression through the mitotic cell cycle and during cell differentiation. Septins also undergo stage-specific post-translational modifications, which have been implicated in regulating their dynamics, in some cases via purported effects on septin turnover. In our recent study, the fate of two of the five septins expressed in mitotic cells of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was tracked using two complementary fluorescence-based methods for pulse-chase analysis. During mitotic growth, previously-made molecules of both septins (Cdc10 and Cdc12) persisted through multiple successive divisions and were incorporated equivalently with newly synthesized molecules into hetero-oligomers and higher-order structures. Similarly, in cells undergoing meiosis and the developmental program of sporulation, pre-existing copies of Cdc10 were incorporated into new structures. In marked contrast, Cdc12 was irreversibly excluded from septin complexes and replaced by another septin, Spr3. Here, we discuss the broader implications of these results and related findings with regard to how septin dynamics is coordinated with the mitotic cell cycle and in the yeast life cycle, and how these observations may relate to control of the dynamics of other complex multi-subunit assemblies. PMID:19164941

  5. Gallbladder adenocarcinoma and paraneoplastic parathyroid hormone mediated hypercalcemia

    PubMed Central

    Yogarajah, Meera; Sivasambu, Bhradeev; Shiferaw-Deribe, Zewge

    2016-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone mediated hypercalcemia is not always exclusively primary hyperparathyroidism and rarely could be due to ectopic parathyroid hormone secretion from tumor cells. We present a case of 86-year-old female with metastatic gall bladder adenocarcinoma diagnosed eight months back who presented with generalized fatigue and poor oral intake and was found to be hypercalcemic with elevated parathyroid hormone levels. Imaging with technetium 99 m sestamibi scintigraphy with dual phase, subtraction thyroid scan (dual isotope scintigraphy), magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography did not demonstrate any parathyroid lesion in normal or ectopic sites. We believe that the tumor cells were the source of ectopic parathyroid hormone secretion as we had excluded all the other possibilities with extensive combined imaging thereby increasing the sensitivity of our testing. We report the first case of metastatic gall bladder adenocarcinoma with paraneoplastic ectopic parathyroid hormone secretion. PMID:27081650

  6. Gallbladder adenocarcinoma and paraneoplastic parathyroid hormone mediated hypercalcemia.

    PubMed

    Yogarajah, Meera; Sivasambu, Bhradeev; Shiferaw-Deribe, Zewge

    2016-04-10

    Parathyroid hormone mediated hypercalcemia is not always exclusively primary hyperparathyroidism and rarely could be due to ectopic parathyroid hormone secretion from tumor cells. We present a case of 86-year-old female with metastatic gall bladder adenocarcinoma diagnosed eight months back who presented with generalized fatigue and poor oral intake and was found to be hypercalcemic with elevated parathyroid hormone levels. Imaging with technetium 99 m sestamibi scintigraphy with dual phase, subtraction thyroid scan (dual isotope scintigraphy), magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography did not demonstrate any parathyroid lesion in normal or ectopic sites. We believe that the tumor cells were the source of ectopic parathyroid hormone secretion as we had excluded all the other possibilities with extensive combined imaging thereby increasing the sensitivity of our testing. We report the first case of metastatic gall bladder adenocarcinoma with paraneoplastic ectopic parathyroid hormone secretion. PMID:27081650

  7. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  8. [Hormonal contraception in autoimmpne diseases].

    PubMed

    Matyszkiewicz, Anna; Jach, Robert; Rajtar-Ciosek, Agnieszka; Basta, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The onset and the course of autoimmune diseases is influenced among other factors by the sex hormones. Hormonal contraception might affect the course of the autoimmune disease. The paper summarises the manner of save application of hormonal contraception in patients with autoimmune disease. PMID:27526427

  9. Reproductive hormones in the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low detections of reproductive hormones, at the part per trillion concentrations, are frequently measured in surface and subsurface waters. These exogenous hormones are a concern because they can bind strongly to hormone receptors in animals and induce an endocrine response or disruption. Human heal...

  10. Bioidentical Hormones for Menopausal Hormone Therapy: Variation on a Theme

    PubMed Central

    Bythrow, Jenna

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Progesterone creams and natural or bioidentical compounded estrogen preparations are being promoted to consumers as safe alternatives to conventional menopausal hormone therapy and as health-promoting tonics. No reliable data support these claims. SAFETY Natural hormones, including estradiol, estriol, estrone, and progesterone, can be expected to have the same adverse event profile as conventional menopausal hormone regimens. SALIVARY HORMONE TESTS Salivary tests may be used to persuade asymptomatic consumers to use hormones (or symptomatic patients to use higher doses than those needed to mitigate symptoms), a practice that can be expected to result in adverse events. PMID:17549577

  11. Effects of retinoic acid on growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene expression and growth hormone secretion in rat anterior pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Maliza, Rita; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Azuma, Morio; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2016-06-30

    Retinoic acid (RA) is an important signaling molecule in embryonic development and adult tissue. The actions of RA are mediated by the nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), which regulate gene expression. RAR and RXR are widely expressed in the anterior pituitary gland. RA was reported to stimulate growth hormone (GH) gene expression in the anterior pituitary cells. However, current evidence is unclear on the role of RA in gene expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (Ghrh-r), growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghs-r) and somatostatin receptors (Sst-rs). Using isolated anterior pituitary cells of rats, we examined the effects of RA on gene expression of these receptors and GH release. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA; 10(-6) M) for 24 h increased gene expression levels of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r; however, expressions of Sst-r2 and Sst-r5 were unchanged. Combination treatment with the RAR-agonist Am80 and RXR-agonist PA024 mimicked the effects of ATRA on Ghrh-r and Ghs-r gene expressions. Exposure of isolated pituitary cells to ATRA had no effect on basal GH release. In contrast, ATRA increased growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)- and ghrelin-stimulated GH release from cultured anterior pituitary cells. Our results suggest that expressions of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r are regulated by RA through the RAR-RXR receptor complex and that RA enhances the effects of GHRH and ghrelin on GH release from the anterior pituitary gland. PMID:27052215

  12. [Mental changes in women due to the use of hormonal contraception].

    PubMed

    Ottová, B; Weiss, P

    2015-10-01

    The study investigates physical, mental and sexual changes in women at the beginning of use or after discontinuation of a combined hormonal contraception. Thirty women were interviewed at least 3 months and at most 2 years after the start of use or discontinuation of combined hormonal contraception. Semi-structured interviews were supplemented by 16-symptom rating scale on which women assessed the results of an imaginary study of side effects of hormonal contraception. Both methods identically demonstrated pronounced effect of combined hormonal contraception on decline in sexual desire and painful menstruation. No clear difference was found in psychical symptoms, although qualitative analysis indicated possible changes. PMID:26606121

  13. Antenna Controller Replacement Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Roger Y.; Morgan, Scott C.; Strain, Martha M.; Rockwell, Stephen T.; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Tehrani, Barzia J.; Kwok, Jaclyn H.; Tuazon-Wong, Michelle; Valtier, Henry; Nalbandi, Reza; Wert, Michael; Leung, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The Antenna Controller Replacement (ACR) software accurately points and monitors the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-m and 34-m high-efficiency (HEF) ground-based antennas that are used to track primarily spacecraft and, periodically, celestial targets. To track a spacecraft, or other targets, the antenna must be accurately pointed at the spacecraft, which can be very far away with very weak signals. ACR s conical scanning capability collects the signal in a circular pattern around the target, calculates the location of the strongest signal, and adjusts the antenna pointing to point directly at the spacecraft. A real-time, closed-loop servo control algorithm performed every 0.02 second allows accurate positioning of the antenna in order to track these distant spacecraft. Additionally, this advanced servo control algorithm provides better antenna pointing performance in windy conditions. The ACR software provides high-level commands that provide a very easy user interface for the DSN operator. The operator only needs to enter two commands to start the antenna and subreflector, and Master Equatorial tracking. The most accurate antenna pointing is accomplished by aligning the antenna to the Master Equatorial, which because of its small size and sheltered location, has the most stable pointing. The antenna has hundreds of digital and analog monitor points. The ACR software provides compact displays to summarize the status of the antenna, subreflector, and the Master Equatorial. The ACR software has two major functions. First, it performs all of the steps required to accurately point the antenna (and subreflector and Master Equatorial) at the spacecraft (or celestial target). This involves controlling the antenna/ subreflector/Master-Equatorial hardware, initiating and monitoring the correct sequence of operations, calculating the position of the spacecraft relative to the antenna, executing the real-time servo control algorithm to maintain the correct position, and

  14. Interactions between preparations containing female sex hormones and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Jawna, Katarzyna; Grajeta, Halina; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of premenopausal women use contraception whereas postmenopausal women use hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This long-term hormone therapy poses a high risk of interactions with dietary supplements. Taking estrogens at the same time as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), biologically-active compounds of glycine soja, Ginkgo biloba or Pimpinella anisum, may distort the final effect of the hormone agent. On the other hand, estrogen therapy coupled with melatonin or retinol supplementation may lead to an increased level of dietary supplements in the serum as studies have proved a concomitant beneficial effect of HRT and vitamin E supplementation on lipid profiles. In turn, taking preparations containing St John's wort during hormone therapy may lead to a reduction in hormone concentrations in serum and debilitation of the pharmacological effect. It results from the inductive effect of the biologically-active compounds of St John's wort on the metabolism of hormones as a result of the enhanced activity of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4. PMID:25166453

  15. Influence of Ovarian Hormones on Cortical Spreading Depression and Its Suppression by L-kynurenine in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Chauvel, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is sexually dimorphic and associated in 20–30% of patients with an aura most likely caused by cortical spreading depression (CSD). We have previously shown that systemic L-kynurenine (L-KYN), the precursor of kynurenic acid, suppresses CSD and that this effect depends on the stage of the estrous cycle in female rats. The objectives here are to determine the influence of ovarian hormones on KCl-induced CSD and its suppression after L-KYN by directly modulating estradiol or progesterone levels in ovariectomized rats. Adult female rats were ovariectomized and subcutaneously implanted with silastic capsules filled with progesterone or 17β-estradiol mixed with cholesterol, with cholesterol only or left empty. Two weeks after the ovariectomy/capsule implantation, the animals received an i.p. injection of L-KYN (300 mg/kg) or NaCl as control. Thirty minutes later CSDs were elicited by applying KCl over the occipital cortex and recorded by DC electrocorticogram for 1 hour. The results show that both estradiol and progesterone increase CSD frequency after ovariectomy. The suppressive effect of L-KYN on CSD frequency, previously reported in normal cycling females, is not found anymore after ovariectomy, but reappears after progesterone replacement therapy. Taken together, these results emphasize the complex role of sex hormones on cortical excitability. The CSD increase by estradiol and, more surprisingly, progesterone may explain why clinically migraine with aura appears or worsens during pregnancy or with combined hormonal treatments. PMID:24340013

  16. Vascular Effects of Estrogenic Menopausal Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Reslan, Ossama M.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more common in men and postmenopausal women (Post-MW) than premenopausal women (Pre-MW). Despite recent advances in preventive measures, the incidence of CVD in women has shown a rise that matched the increase in the Post-MW population. The increased incidence of CVD in Post-MW has been related to the decline in estrogen levels, and hence suggested vascular benefits of endogenous estrogen. Experimental studies have identified estrogen receptor ERα, ERβ and a novel estrogen binding membrane protein GPR30 (GPER) in blood vessels of humans and experimental animals. The interaction of estrogen with vascular ERs mediates both genomic and non-genomic effects. Estrogen promotes endothelium-dependent relaxation by increasing nitric oxide, prostacyclin, and hyperpolarizing factor. Estrogen also inhibits the mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contraction including [Ca2+]i, protein kinase C and Rho-kinase. Additional effects of estrogen on the vascular cytoskeleton, extracellular matrix, lipid profile and the vascular inflammatory response have been reported. In addition to the experimental evidence in animal models and vascular cells, initial observational studies in women using menopausal hormonal therapy (MHT) have suggested that estrogen may protect against CVD. However, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) such as the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) and the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), which examined the effects of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) in older women with established CVD (HERS) or without overt CVD (WHI), failed to demonstrate protective vascular effects of estrogen treatment. Despite the initial set-back from the results of MHT RCTs, growing evidence now supports the ‘timing hypothesis’, which suggests that MHT could increase the risk of CVD if started late after menopause, but may produce beneficial cardiovascular effects in younger women during the perimenopausal period. The choice of

  17. Paradoxical surge of corticotropin after glucocorticoid replacement in central adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Koh; Doden, Tadashi; Tanaka, Masaaki; Funase, Yoshiko; Yamauchi, Keishi; Furukawa, Tomoko; Oguchi, Kazuhiro; Koyama, Toru; Aizawa, Toru

    2012-01-01

    A 78-yr-old man was admitted in emergency with fatigue, anorexia, vomiting, hypothermia (35.1 °C on a hot August day), hypotension (89/56 mmHg) and hyponatraemia (126 mEq/l). Plasma corticotropin and cortisol were severely depressed: 0.84 pmol/L and 33.1 nmol/L respectively (reference range, 1.5-13.9 pmol/L and 110-505 nmol/L, respectively). Thyroid stimulating hormone was low-normal and free-triiodothyronine and free-thyroxine were subnormal. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed swelling of the pituitary gland and the stalk. The patient recovered after glucocorticoid replacement (200 mg/day intravenous hydrocortisone on Day 1 followed by tapering). Central diabetes insipidus which had become apparent had been treated with 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin. A surge of corticotropin and cortisol, 19.4 pmol/L and 712.1 nmol/L respectively, was found on Day 5 when luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and testosterone were subnormal and prolactin was slightly elevated. Subsequently, corticotropin and cortisol levels normalized together with normalization of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, anti-diuretic hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, testosterone and thyroid hormone levels. Shrinkage of the pituitary gland occurred after one month. Serum immunoglobulin G4 was elevated (3.21 and 6.02 g/l at 1- and 3-month follow-ups respectively). In conclusion, a paradoxical surge of corticotropin after glucocorticoid replacement was observed in a patient with central adrenal insufficiency due to immunoglobulin G4-related hypophysitis. Surge of ACTH in central adrenal insufficiency after glucocorticoid replacement has rarely been reported, and this is the second such case report. PMID:22592190

  18. Thyroid Hormone and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid hormone is one of the most potent stimulators of growth and metabolic rate, the potential to use thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology has never been subject to rigorous investigation. A number of investigators have demonstrated intriguing therapeutic potential for topical thyroid hormone. Topical T3 has accelerated wound healing and hair growth in rodents. Topical T4 has been used to treat xerosis in humans. It is clear that the use of thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology may be of large consequence and merits further study. This is a review of the literature regarding thyroid hormone action on skin along with skin manifestations of thyroid disease. The paper is intended to provide a context for recent findings of direct thyroid hormone action on cutaneous cells in vitro and in vivo which may portend the use of thyroid hormone to promote wound healing. PMID:23577275

  19. Is hormonal treatment still an option in acne today?

    PubMed

    Bettoli, V; Zauli, S; Virgili, A

    2015-07-01

    Hormonal treatment is indicated in cases of papulopustular, nodular and conglobate acne in females with identified hyperandrogenism, in adult women who have monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are unsuccessful or inappropriate. This review summarizes the latest information on hormonal therapies including: combined oral contraceptives; anti-androgens, such as cyproterone acetate, spironolactone and flutamide; low-dose glucocorticoids and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. It also shares the authors' recommendations for treatment based on the studies discussed here, and personal experience. PMID:25627824

  20. Molecular mechanisms of regulation of growth hormone gene expression in cultured rat pituitary cells by thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Yaffe, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    In cultured GC cells, a rat pituitary tumor cell line, growth hormone (GH) is induced in a synergistic fashion by physiologic concentrations of thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones. Abundant evidence indicates that these hormones mediate this response via their specific receptors. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the mechanisms by which these hormones affect GH production. When poly (A){sup +} RNA was isolated from cells grown both with and without hormones and translated in a cell-free wheat germ system, the preGH translation products were shown to be proportional to immunoassayable GH production under all combinations of hormonal milieux, indicating that changes in GH production is modulated at a pretranslational level. A cDNA library was constructed from poly (A){sup +}RNA and one clone containing GH cDNA sequences was isolated. This was used to confirm the above results by Northern dot blot analysis. This probe was also used to assess hormonal effects on GH mRNA half-life and synthetic rates as well as GH gene transcription rates in isolated nuclei. Using a pulse-chase protocol in which cellular RNA was labeled in vivo with ({sup 3}H)uridine, and quantitating ({sup 3}H)GHmRNA directly by hybridization to GH cDNA bound to nitrocellulose filters, GHmRNA was found to have a half-life of approximately 50 hours, and was not significantly altered by the presence of inducing hormones.

  1. Using your shoulder after replacement surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Joint replacement surgery - using your shoulder; Shoulder replacement surgery - after ... You have had shoulder replacement surgery to replace the bones of your shoulder joint with artificial parts. The parts include a stem made ...

  2. Hormonal control of implantation.

    PubMed

    Sandra, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    In mammals, implantation represents a key step of pregnancy and its progression conditions not only the success of pregnancy but health of the offspring. Implantation requires a complex and specific uterine tissue, the endometrium, whose biological functions are tightly regulated by numerous signals, including steroids and polypeptide hormones. Endometrial tissue is endowed with dynamic properties that associate its ability to control the developmental trajectory of the embryo (driver property) and its ability to react to embryos displaying distinct capacities to develop to term (sensor property). Since dynamical properties of the endometrium can be affected by pre- and post-conceptional environment, determining how maternal hormonal signals and their biological actions are affected by environmental factors (e.g. nutrition, stress, infections) is mandatory to reduce or even to prevent their detrimental effects on endometrial physiology in order to preserve the optimal functionality of this tissue. PMID:27172870

  3. Hormones in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pratap; Magon, Navneet

    2012-01-01

    The endocrinology of human pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes that result from physiological alterations at the boundary between mother and fetus. Progesterone and oestrogen have a great role along with other hormones. The controversies of use of progestogen and others are discussed in this chapter. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the secretion of Th2 and reduces the secretion of Th1 cytokines which maintains pregnancy. Supportive care in early pregnancy is associated with a significant beneficial effect on pregnancy outcome. Prophylactic hormonal supplementation can be recommended for all assisted reproduction techniques cycles. Preterm labor can be prevented by the use of progestogen. The route of administration plays an important role in the drug's safety and efficacy profile in different trimesters of pregnancy. Thyroid disorders have a great impact on pregnancy outcome and needs to be monitored and treated accordingly. Method of locating review: Pubmed, scopus PMID:23661874

  4. The wound hormone jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Abraham J.K.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant tissues are highly vulnerable to injury by herbivores, pathogens, mechanical stress, and other environmental insults. Optimal plant fitness in the face of these threats relies on complex signal transduction networks that link damage-associated signals to appropriate changes in metabolism, growth, and development. Many of these wound-induced adaptive responses are triggered by de novo synthesis of the plant hormone jasmonate (JA). Recent studies provide evidence that JA mediates systemic wound responses through distinct cell autonomous and nonautonomous pathways. In both pathways, bioactive JAs are recognized by an F-box protein-based receptor system that couples hormone binding to ubiquitin-dependent degradation of transcriptional repressor proteins. These results provide a new framework for understanding how plants recognize and respond to tissue injury. PMID:19695649

  5. On total disc replacement.

    PubMed

    Berg, Svante

    2011-02-01

    Low back pain consumes a large part of the community's resources dedicated to health care and sick leave. Back disorders also negatively affect the individual leading to pain suffering, decreased quality-of-life and disability. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) due to degenerative disc disease (DDD) is today often treated with fusion when conservative treatment has failed and symptoms are severe. This treatment is as successful as arthroplasty is for hip arthritis in restoring the patient's quality of life and reducing disability. Even so, there are some problems with this treatment, one of these being recurrent CLBP from an adjacent segment (ASD) after primarily successful surgery. This has led to the development of alternative surgical treatments and devices that maintain or restore mobility, in order to reduce the risk for ASD. Of these new devices, the most frequently used are the disc prostheses used in Total Disc Replacement (TDR). This thesis is based on four studies comparing total disc replacement with posterior fusion. The studies are all based on a material of 152 patients with DDD in one or two segments, aged 20-55 years that were randomly treated with either posterior fusion or TDR. The first study concerned clinical outcome and complications. Follow-up was 100% at both one and two years. It revealed that both treatment groups had a clear benefit from treatment and that patients with TDR were better in almost all outcome scores at one-year follow-up. Fusion patients continued to improve during the second year. At two-year follow-up there was a remaining difference in favour of TDR for back pain. 73% in the TDR group and 63% in the fusion group were much better or totally pain-free (n.s.), while twice as many patients in the TDR group were totally pain free (30%) compared to the fusion group (15%). Time of surgery and total time in hospital were shorter in the TDR group. There was no difference in complications and reoperations, except that seventeen of the

  6. Replacement Cost of Domestic Crude

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-12-01

    The DEEPWATER model forecasts the replacement cost of domestic crude oil for 13 offshore regions in the lower 48 states. The replacement cost of domestic crude oil is the constant or levelized selling price that will recover the full expense of exploration, development, and productions with a reasonable return on capital.

  7. Biomaterials in total joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Katti, Kalpana S

    2004-12-10

    The current state of materials systems used in total hip replacement is presented in this paper. An overview of the various material systems used in total hip replacement reported in literature is presented in this paper. Metals, polymers, ceramics and composites are used in the design of the different components of hip replacement implants. The merits and demerits of these material systems are evaluated in the context of mechanical properties most suitable for total joint replacement such as a hip implant. Current research on advanced polymeric nanocomposites and biomimetic composites as novel materials systems for bone replacement is also discussed. This paper examines the current research in the materials science and the critical issues and challenges in these materials systems that require further research before application in biomedical industry. PMID:15556342

  8. Thyroid hormone effect in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Miler, Eliana A; Ríos de Molina, María Del Carmen; Domínguez, Gabriela; Guerra, Liliana N

    2008-01-01

    We have already demonstrated that a combined treatment of methimazole and an antioxidant mixture improved the condition of hyperthyroid patients both biochemically and clinically. Elevated thyroid hormone levels might trigger signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism through the increase of free radicals. To study the direct effect of thyroid hormone on cellular markers of oxidative stress, we carried out in vitro assays in which 0.1-20.0 nM T3 (6.5-1300.0 ng/dl) doses were added to culture media of the human hepatocyte cell line Hep G2 for 1-24 h. T3 increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and intracellular oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels; SOD activity was also higher with hormone treatment, whereas catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities showed no variation at different T3 doses and during all experimental times. When ascorbic acid was added to the culture, the MDA level decreased and SOD activity was increased. With higher doses of T3 (e.g. 200 nM), cell death occurred (69% of apoptotic cells). The increase in SOD activity was not enough to overcome the effect of T3 since MDA and GSSG remained high during a 24-h experiment. We showed a beneficial effect of ascorbic acid when cells were exposed to a T3 dose of 20 nM, a higher level of hormone than that achieved in hyperthyroidism. PMID:18647489

  9. SEX DIFFERENCES AND REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE INFLUENCES ON HUMAN ODOR PERCEPTION

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Richard L.; Cameron, E. Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether men and women differ in their ability to smell has been the topic of scientific investigation for over a hundred years. Although conflicting findings abound, most studies suggest that, for at least some odorants, women outperform men on tests of odor detection, identification, discrimination, and memory. Most functional imaging and electrophysiological studies similarly imply that, when sex differences are present, they favor women. In this review we examine what is known about sex-related alterations in human smell function, including influences of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, gonadectomy, and hormone replacement therapy on a range of olfactory measures. We conclude that the relationship between reproductive hormones and human olfactory function is complex and that simple associations between circulating levels of gonadal hormones and measures of olfactory function are rarely present. PMID:19272398

  10. Neonatal detection of generalized resistance to thyroid hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.E.; Balzano, S.; Scherberg, N.H.; Refetoff, S. )

    1990-11-07

    Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone (GRTH) is an inherited disease that is usually suspected when elevated serum thyroid hormone levels are associated with nonsuppressed thyrotropin. Often these test results are obtained because of short stature, decreased intelligence, and/or hyperactivity with learning disability noted in childhood and adolescence, or because of goiter in adulthood. The authors detected GRTH at birth by analysis of blood obtained during routine neonatal screening. The proposita, born to a mother with GRTH, had a thyrotropin level of 26 mU/L and a corresponding thyroxine concentration of 656 nmol/L. Administration of thyroid hormone in doses eightfold to 10-fold above replacement levels were required to reduce serum thyrotropin to normal levels without induction of hypermetabolism. This case, and the retrospective finding of high thyroxine levels in five newborns subsequently diagnosed as having GRTH, suggest that measurement of thyroxine at birth, in conjunction with thyrotropin, could allow the early detection of GRTH.

  11. [News options and preparations in growth hormone therapy].

    PubMed

    Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H; Meneguz-Moreno, Rafael A; Nascimento-Junior, Adão C

    2008-07-01

    In the last twenty years, recombinant human Growth hormone (hrGH) has been available for the treatment of Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) in children and more recently in adults. However, the necessity of daily injections compromises the patient's compliance. Attempts to improve this compliance includes the use of pens and needle free devices, once the infusion pumps, not always physiologic, are of restricted use. When growth is the purpose of treatment, daily subcutaneous hrGH is still the most indicated. Nevertheless the expansion of GH replacement to new uses and especially in adults will need new preparations. Nowadays, the oral secretagogues have not proved efficacy to be used in clinical practice and the slow- release preparations of GH and GH releasing hormone that could improve the patient's compliance will need to be studied considering long term efficacy and safety. PMID:18797599

  12. Ovariectomy and 17β-estradiol replacement in rats and mice: a visual demonstration.

    PubMed

    Ström, Jakob O; Theodorsson, Annette; Ingberg, Edvin; Isaksson, Ida-Maria; Theodorsson, Elvar

    2012-01-01

    Estrogens are a family of female sexual hormones with an exceptionally wide spectrum of effects. When rats and mice are used in estrogen research they are commonly ovariectomized in order to ablate the rapidly cycling hormone production, replacing the 17β-estradiol exogenously. There is, however, lack of consensus regarding how the hormone should be administered to obtain physiological serum concentrations. This is crucial since the 17β-estradiol level/administration method profoundly influences the experimental results. We have in a series of studies characterized the different modes of 17β-estradiol administration, finding that subcutaneous silastic capsules and per-oral nut-cream Nutella are superior to commercially available slow-release pellets (produced by the company Innovative Research of America) and daily injections in terms of producing physiological serum concentrations of 17β-estradiol. Amongst the advantages of the nut-cream method, that previously has been used for buprenorphine administration, is that when used for estrogen administration it resembles peroral hormone replacement therapy and is non-invasive. The subcutaneous silastic capsules are convenient and produce the most stable serum concentrations. This video article contains step-by-step demonstrations of ovariectomy and 17β-estradiol hormone replacement by silastic capsules and peroral Nutella in rats and mice, followed by a discussion of important aspects of the administration procedures. PMID:22710371

  13. Ovariectomy and 17β-estradiol Replacement in Rats and Mice: A Visual Demonstration

    PubMed Central

    Ström, Jakob O.; Theodorsson, Annette; Ingberg, Edvin; Isaksson, Ida-Maria; Theodorsson, Elvar

    2012-01-01

    Estrogens are a family of female sexual hormones with an exceptionally wide spectrum of effects. When rats and mice are used in estrogen research they are commonly ovariectomized in order to ablate the rapidly cycling hormone production, replacing the 17β-estradiol exogenously. There is, however, lack of consensus regarding how the hormone should be administered to obtain physiological serum concentrations. This is crucial since the 17β-estradiol level/administration method profoundly influences the experimental results1-3. We have in a series of studies characterized the different modes of 17β-estradiol administration, finding that subcutaneous silastic capsules and per-oral nut-cream Nutella are superior to commercially available slow-release pellets (produced by the company Innovative Research of America) and daily injections in terms of producing physiological serum concentrations of 17β-estradiol4-6. Amongst the advantages of the nut-cream method, that previously has been used for buprenorphine administration7, is that when used for estrogen administration it resembles peroral hormone replacement therapy and is non-invasive. The subcutaneous silastic capsules are convenient and produce the most stable serum concentrations. This video article contains step-by-step demonstrations of ovariectomy and 17β-estradiol hormone replacement by silastic capsules and peroral Nutella in rats and mice, followed by a discussion of important aspects of the administration procedures. PMID:22710371

  14. Acceleration of puberty during growth hormone therapy in a child with septo-optic dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Catlı, Gönül; Altıncık, Ayça; Anık, Ahmet; Demir, Korcan; Güleryüz, Handan; Abacı, Ayhan; Böber, Ece

    2014-01-01

    Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a heterogeneous disorder of the central nervous system characterized by various endocrinological and neurological findings. It is a complex disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Herein, we report the case of a 5.5-year-old girl who presented with short stature and strabismus. Ophthalmological examination revealed bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia. Ectopic posterior pituitary and bilateral optic hypoplasia were detected on brain magnetic resonance imaging. The presence of bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia and hypopituitarism led to the diagnosis of SOD. An abated growth hormone (GH) response was found in the GH stimulation test and GH replacement therapy was initiated. At the end of the first year of clinical follow-up, secondary hypothyroidism was detected and L-thyroxine was added to the treatment. At the age of 8.25 years, thelarche was noted and 6 months later, the patient presented with menarche. At this time, the bone age was 12 years and the basal luteinizing hormone level was 7 mIU/mL. These findings indicated acceleration in the process of pubertal development. We report this case (i) to emphasize the need to investigate hypopituitarism in cases with bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia and (ii) to draw attention to the fact that during the follow-up of SOD cases receiving GH therapy, inappropriate acceleration of growth velocity and rapid improvement in bone age may be predictive of central precocious puberty development. PMID:24932606

  15. Combined microwave-assisted extraction and continuous solid-phase extraction prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and hormones in soils, sediments and sludge.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, Abdelmonaim; Ballesteros, Evaristo

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports a sensitive analytical method based on microwave-assisted extraction and continuous solid-phase extraction (SPE), followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), for the simultaneous determination of residues of 18 pharmaceuticals (analgesics, antibacterials, anti-epileptics, β-blockers, lipid regulators and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories), one personal care product and 3 hormones in soils, sediments and sludge. The analytes are extracted with 3:2 methanol/water under the action of microwave energy and the resulting extract is passed through a SPE column to clean up the sample matrix and preconcentrate the analytes. Then, the analytes, trapped on Oasis-HLB sorbent, are eluted with ethyl acetate, silylated and determined by GC-MS. The proposed method provides a linear response over the concentration range 2.5-20,000 ng/kg with correlation coefficients higher than 0.994 in all cases. Also, it features low limits of detection (0.8-5.1 ng/kg), good precision (within- and between-day relative standard deviation less than 7%) and recoveries ranging from 91 to 101%. The method was successfully applied to agricultural soils, river and pond sediments, and sewage sludge. All samples contained some target analyte and sludge contained most -some at considerably high concentrations. PMID:22285085

  16. Hormonal treatment and flight feather molt in immature Sandhill Cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Molt, the production of a new generation of feathers, is a poorly understood physiological phenomenon in nondomestic birds. Often in large birds like geese, flight is restricted by clipping the primary remiges on 1 wing and flight is restored after the molt when the primaries are replaced. A similar technique would be desirable for use with cranes conditioned for release to the native habitat. However, immature sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) did not appear to replace their primaries annually; therefore, we studied their flight feather molt (from 4 months to 3.5 years of age) and attempted to influence molting. Under natural conditions tail feathers (rectrices) were replaced annually and all secondaries replaced in 2.5-year-old birds. However, replacement of primaries in immature sandhill cranes appears to be a gradual process beginning the 2nd year; about 33% of the original primaries (present at 10 months of age) persisted in the 3.5-year-oId birds. Pulling out the primaries of immature sandhill cranes induces the growth of new primaries, as is true of many other birds. However, the new primaries were incapable of supporting flight, fell out repeatedly, and those that remained were often deformed. Pulling the primaries, under the influence of tranquilizers and anesthetics to relax the feather papillae, also did not induce normal growth of the replacement primaries. Progesterone (including excessively high doses), thyroxine, and follicle stimulating hormone, although effective in inducing feather replacement in domestic poultry, had no effect on crane molt.

  17. Linker histones in hormonal gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Vicent, G P; Wright, R H G; Beato, M

    2016-03-01

    In the present review, we summarize advances in our knowledge on the role of the histone H1 family of proteins in breast cancer cells, focusing on their response to progestins. Histone H1 plays a dual role in gene regulation by hormones, both as a structural component of chromatin and as a dynamic modulator of transcription. It contributes to hormonal regulation of the MMTV promoter by stabilizing a homogeneous nucleosome positioning, which reduces basal transcription whereas at the same time promoting progesterone receptor binding and nucleosome remodeling. These combined effects enhance hormone dependent gene transcription, which eventually requires H1 phosphorylation and displacement. Various isoforms of histone H1 have specific functions in differentiated breast cancer cells and compact nucleosomal arrays to different extents in vitro. Genome-wide studies show that histone H1 has a key role in chromatin dynamics of hormone regulated genes. A complex sequence of enzymatic events, including phosphorylation by CDK2, PARylation by PARP1 and the ATP-dependent activity of NURF, are required for H1 displacement and gene de-repression, as a prerequisite for further nucleosome remodeling. Similarly, during hormone-dependent gene repression a dedicated enzymatic mechanism controls H1 deposition at promoters by a complex containing HP1γ, LSD1 and BRG1, the ATPase of the BAF complex. Thus, a broader vision of the histone code should include histone H1, as the linker histone variants actively participate in the regulation of the chromatin structure. How modifications of the core histones tails affect H1 modifications and vice versa is one of the many questions that remains to be addressed to provide a more comprehensive view of the histone cross-talk mechanisms. PMID:26518266

  18. Bioidentical thyroid replacement therapy in practice: Delivering a physiologic T4:T3 ratio for improved patient outcomes with the Listecki-Snyder protocol.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Scott; Listecki, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Effective thyroid replacement therapy may be elusive to some patients, and compounding pharmacists have an opportunity to deliver more effective therapy. Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 12th edition states that the body usually secretes T4:T3 in an 11:1 ratio but cautions against pursuing combined thyroid replacement due to the short halflife of T3 that necessitates multiple daily dosing; no commercial availability and lack of benefit were shown in trials. Commercial combinations of T4/T3 such as Armour Thyroid and Nature-Throid have a 4.22:1 T4:T3 ratio. Applying the same concept as bioidentical hormone replacement therapy, compounding pharmacists can deliver an 11:1 ratio using a commercial T4 product and taking into account oral bioavailability of each entity. The short half-life of T3 can be remedied by taking the patient's daily T3 dose and dividing it into two slow-release capsules to be dosed every 12 hours. PMID:23072197

  19. Naloxone does not Affect the Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone-Induced Inhibition of Luteinizing Hormone Secretion in Sheep.

    PubMed

    Naylor, A M; Porter, D W; Lincoln, D W

    1989-06-01

    Abstract Injection of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (21 pmol) into the third cerebral ventricle of long-term ovariectomized ewes caused a marked inhibition of luteinizing hormone secretion. Mean luteinizing hormone levels and luteinizing hormone pulse frequency were reduced significantly when compared with the control responses to saline (50 mul). A notable characteristic of the response was the delayed and sustained nature of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-induced inhibition. In the presence of the opioid antagonist naloxone (4 +/- 25 mg iv), the central administration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone still produced a marked inhibition of luteinizing hormone secretion. Again, mean luteinizing hormone levels and luteinizing hormone pulse frequency were reduced significantly. When naloxone was injected iv, there was a significant rise in mean luteinizing hormone levels as a consequence of an increase in pulse frequency (in four out of five ewes) and a significant increase in luteinizing hormone pulse amplitude. In conclusion, these data suggest that central opioid pathways sensitive to blockade by naloxone are not involved in the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-induced inhibition of luteinizing hormone release. Furthermore, in the long-term ovariectomized ewe, endogenous opioid peptides exert a tonic inhibitory influence on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone/luteinizing hormone secretion. PMID:19210459

  20. Hormonal contraception and lactation.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, J J

    1996-12-01

    Hormonal contraceptive measures can be used immediately postpartum if the patient so desires. Progestin-only contraceptives are preferable to estrogen-containing methods if initiated during the first six months after delivery. Progestin only contraceptives do not appear to affect milk volume, composition, or to cause deleterious effects in the infant. Ideally for women who desire a form of contraception in addition to lactation-induced amenorrhea, progestin-only methods should be started at six weeks postpartum if the woman is fully breastfeeding. Since contraception protection is provided by lactation amenorrhea, the six week delay will decrease infant exposure to exogenous hormones and decrease the incidence of irregular postpartum bleeding. Milk volume may decrease with the use of estrogen; however, no detrimental effects have been shown on infant growth or development. For women who are planning to gradually wean their infant, use of COCs may provide an easier transition to bottle-feeding. COCs should be used with caution by women who are not able to obtain supplemental milk. A decrease in milk volume can lead to earlier discontinuation of the hormonal contraceptive in an attempt to increase milk quantity. Supplementation is often needed, and then the woman ovulates again, possibly resulting in an unintended pregnancy. Many women are motivated immediately postpartum to accept contraception. For other women, lack of access to health care may provide barriers in obtaining adequate contraception later. In either case, there are adequate data to show no detriments of starting progestin-only contraceptives within days of delivery. Therefore, the best method for the patient should be employed to ensure adequate contraception while preserving optimal lactation. PMID:9025449

  1. The growth hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Waters, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Once thought to be present only in liver, muscle and adipose tissue, the GH receptor is now known to be ubiquitously distributed, in accord with the many pleiotropic actions of GH. These include the regulation of metabolism, postnatal growth, cognition, immune, cardiac and renal systems and gut function. GH exerts these actions primarily through alterations in gene expression, initiated by activation of its membrane receptor and the resultant activation of the associated JAK2 (Janus kinase 2) and Src family kinases. Receptor activation involves hormone initiated movements within a receptor homodimer, rather than simple receptor dimerization. We have shown that binding of the hormone realigns the orientation of the two receptors both by relative rotation and by closer apposition just above the cell membrane. This is a consequence of the asymmetric placement of the binding sites on the hormone. Binding results in a conversion of parallel receptor transmembrane domains into a rotated crossover orientation, which produces separation of the lower part of the transmembrane helices. Because the JAK2 is bound to the Box1 motif proximal to the inner membrane, receptor activation results in separation of the two associated JAK2s, and in particular the removal of the inhibitory pseudokinase domain from the kinase domain of the other JAK2 (and vice versa). This brings the two kinase domains into position for trans-activation and initiates tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor cytoplasmic domain and other substrates such as STAT5, the key transcription factor mediating most genomic actions of GH. There are a limited number of genomic actions initiated by the Src kinase family member which also associates with the upper cytoplasmic domain of the receptor, including important immune regulatory actions to dampen exuberant innate immune activation of cells involved in transplant rejection. These findings offer insights for developing specific receptor antagonists which may be

  2. Deficiency of female sex hormones augments PGE2 and CGRP levels within midbrain periaqueductal gray.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Zhao, Jiuhan; Wang, Jian; Li, Jingqing; Yu, Shengyuan; Guo, Xinjin

    2014-11-15

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a substantial component of the descending modulatory network to control on nociceptive transmission and autonomic functions. Also, accumulated evidence has suggested that the PAG plays a crucial role in regulating migraine headache, a neurovascular disorder. The purpose of this study was to employ ELISA methods to examine the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) in the PAG of rats who received ovariectomy and subsequent hormone replacement with 17β-estradiol, progesterone, or the combination of 17β-estradiol and progesterone. In addition, using Western blot analysis we examined expression of subtypes of PGE2 receptor in the PAG of rats with different conditions of female sex hormones. Results of our study demonstrated that lack of female sex hormones significantly increased the levels of PGE2 and CGRP in the dorsolateral PAG (P < 0.05) as well as expression of PGE2 EP3 receptors (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a liner relationship was observed between PGE2 and CGRP in the PAG (r = 092, P < 0.01). Also, inhibiting EP3 receptors by chronic administration of L-798106 (EP3 antagonist) into the lateral ventricles significantly attenuated expression of CGRP in the PAG of ovariectomized animals (P < 0.05 vs. vehicle control). Overall, our findings for the first time show that (1) circulating 17β-estradiol and/or progesterone influences the levels of PGE2 and CGRP in the PAG; (2) a lower level of 17β-estradiol and/or progesterone augments PGE2 and its EP3 receptor; and (3) PGE2 plays a role in regulating expression of CGRP in the PAG. PMID:25175853

  3. Interrelationship between alcohol intake and endogenous sex-steroid hormones on diabetes risk in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Rohwer, Rachelle D.; Liu, Simin; You, Nai-Chieh; Buring, Julie E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Song, Yiqing

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined whether circulating concentrations of sex hormones, including estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), were associated with alcohol intake or mediated the alcohol-type 2 diabetes (T2D) association. Methods Among women not using hormone replacement therapy and free of baseline cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes in the Women’s Health Study, 359 incident cases of T2D and 359 matched controls were chosen during 10 years of follow-up. Results Frequent alcohol intake (≥1 drink/day) was positively and significantly associated with higher plasma estradiol concentrations in an age-adjusted model (β=0.14, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.26), as compared with rarely/never alcohol intake. After adjusting for additional known covariates, this alcohol-estradiol association remained significant (β=0.19, 95% CI, 0.07, 0.30). Testosterone (β=0.13, 95% CI, −0.05, 0.31), SHBG (β=0.07, 95% CI, −0.07, 0.20), and DHEAS (β=0.14, 95% CI, −0.04, 0.31) showed positive associations without statistical significance. Estradiol alone or in combination with SHBG appeared to influence the observed protective association between frequent alcohol consumption and T2D risk, with a 12–21% reduction in OR in the multivariate-adjusted models. Conclusions Our cross-sectional analysis showed positive associations between alcohol intake and endogenous estradiol concentrations. Our prospective data suggested that baseline concentrations of estradiol, with or without SHBG, might influence the alcohol-T2D association in postmenopausal women. PMID:25759186

  4. Fracture After Total Hip Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... er Total Hip Replacement cont. • Dislocation • Limb length inequality • Poor fracture healing • Repeat fracture • Lack of in- ... Surgeons (AAOS). To learn more about your orthopaedic health, please visit orthoinfo.org. Page ( 5 ) AAOS does ...

  5. When to Replace a Prosthesis

    MedlinePlus

    Donate Fundraise Connect Contact Us Materiales en español Amputee Coalition Navigation HOME WHO WE ARE About Us ... Advisory Committee Connect With Us! STORE CALENDAR SEARCH Amputee Coalition > Limb Loss Resource Center > When to Replace ...

  6. Thyroid Hormone, Cancer, and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Chin, Yu-Tan; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Lai, Husan-Yu; Wang-Peng, Jacqueline; Liu, Leory F; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Davis, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in regulating normal metabolism, development, and growth. They also stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Their metabolic and developmental effects and growth effects in normal tissues are mediated primarily by nuclear hormone receptors. A cell surface receptor for the hormone on integrin [alpha]vβ3 is the initiation site for effects on tumor cells. Clinical hypothyroidism may retard cancer growth, and hyperthyroidism was recently linked to the prevalence of certain cancers. Local levels of thyroid hormones are controlled through activation and deactivation of iodothyronine deiodinases in different organs. The relative activities of different deiodinases that exist in tissues or organs also affect the progression and development of specific types of cancers. In this review, the effects of thyroid hormone on signaling pathways in breast, brain, liver, thyroid, and colon cancers are discussed. The importance of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and of the hormone receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin [alpha]vβ3 as potential cancer risk factors and therapeutic targets are addressed. We analyze the intracellular signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormones in cancer progression in hyperthyroidism or at physiological concentrations in the euthyroid state. Determining how to utilize the deaminated thyroid hormone analog (tetrac), and its nanoparticulate derivative to reduce risks of cancer progression, enhance therapeutic outcomes, and prevent cancer recurrence is also deliberated. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1221-1237, 2016. PMID:27347891

  7. Prioritization Methodology for Chemical Replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruit, W.; Schutzenhofer, S.; Goldberg, B.; Everhart, K.

    1993-01-01

    This project serves to define an appropriate methodology for effective prioritization of efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semiquantitative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). This methodology aims to weigh the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives. The results are being implemented as a guideline for consideration for current NASA propulsion systems.

  8. Wafer Replacement Cluster Tool (Presentation);

    SciTech Connect

    Branz, H. M.

    2008-04-01

    This presentation on wafer replacement cluster tool discusses: (1) Platform for advanced R and D toward SAI 2015 cost goal--crystal silicon PV at area costs closer to amorphous Si PV, it's 15% efficiency, inexpensive substrate, and moderate temperature processing (<800 C); (2) Why silicon?--industrial and knowledge base, abundant and environmentally benign, market acceptance, and good efficiency; and (3) Why replace wafers?--expensive, high embedded energy content, and uses 50-100 times more silicon than needed.

  9. Influence of thyroid hormones on maturation of rat cerebellar astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Jimena; Bernal, Juan; Morte, Beatriz

    2007-05-01

    Thyroid hormone influences brain maturation through interaction with nuclear receptors and regulation of gene expression. Their role on astrocyte maturation remains unclear. We have analyzed the role of thyroid hormone in rat cerebellar astrocyte maturation by comparing the sequential patterns of intermediate filament expression in normal and hypothyroid animals. During normal development astroglial cells sequentially express nestin, vimentin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Differentiated astrocytes appeared in the superior medullary vellum by postnatal day 2 and reached the white mater and internal granular layer by postnatal day 4. Intermediate filament marker expression was transiently lost from postnatal days 6 to 8 in anterior lobes, without an increased apoptosis. Vimentin expression was replaced by glial fibrillary acidic protein between postnatal days 10 and 32. The differentiated astrocytes were evenly distributed throughout the cerebellar slices, including the internal granular layer. Differences between normal and hypothyroid rats were observed starting from postnatal day 4, with lack of differentiated astrocytes in the internal granular layer. The transient decrease of astrocyte markers immunoreactivity in the anterior lobe did not take place in hypothyroid rats. The vimentin-glial fibrillary acidic protein transition was delayed and most differentiated astrocytes remained confined to the white matter. The results indicate that thyroid hormone deficiency induces a delay and a partial arrest of astrocyte differentiation. Astrocytes express thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta subtypes suggesting that astrocytes are direct target cells of thyroid hormones. PMID:17408906

  10. Chimney renovation versus chimney replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Porthouse, R.A.

    1999-11-01

    Chimneys are an integral part of a fossil fueled generating station and perhaps one of the most commonly neglected and misunderstood structures at the plant. Structural damage caused by wind, earthquake, corrosive operating conditions, inadequate design, ever changing operating conditions, or years of neglect can render the structure unsafe and result in the need to perform major renovations or replace the entire chimney. The decision to renovate or replace an existing chimney is complex and should consider the following factors: (1) Age and condition of shell; (2) Type and condition of lining; (3) New operating conditions; (4) Cost of renovation vs replacement; (5) Unit outage time required; and (6) Cost for replacement power during outage. Information needed to make an informed decision regarding renovation or replacement, which most often involves several million dollars, can be best obtained from experienced chimney contractors and engineering specialists. This paper addresses four projects that utilized unique renovation techniques in lieu of partial or complete replacement of the structure.

  11. Changes in PSA Kinetics Predict Metastasis-Free Survival in Men with PSA-Recurrent Prostate Cancer Treated with Non-Hormonal Agents: Combined Analysis of 4 Phase II Trials

    PubMed Central

    Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.; Zahurak, Marianna L.; Lin, Jianqing; Keizman, Daniel; Carducci, Michael A.; Eisenberger, Mario A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Several phase II trials in men with non-castrate PSA-recurrent prostate cancer have assessed the impact of novel non-hormonal agents on PSA kinetics. However, it is unknown whether changes in PSA kinetics influence metastasis-free survival (MFS). Methods We performed a retrospective post hoc analysis of 146 men treated in four phase II trials examining the investigational agents marimastat (a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor; n=39), imatinib (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor; n=25), ATN-224 (a copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase inhibitor; n=22), and lenalidomide (an antiangiogenic/immunomodulatory drug; n=60). We investigated factors influencing MFS, including within-subject changes in PSA kinetics (PSA slope, doubling time, and velocity) before and after treatment initiation. Results After a median follow-up of 16.8 months, 70 patients (47.9%) developed metastases. In multivariable Cox regression models, factors that were independently predictive of MFS after adjusting for age and other clinical prognostic variables were baseline PSA doubling time (PSADT) (P=.05), baseline PSA slope (P=.01), on-study change in PSADT (P=.02), and on-study change in PSA slope (P=.03). In a landmark Kaplan-Meier analysis, median MFS was 63.5 months (95% CI 34.6–not reached) and 28.9 months (95% CI 13.5–68.0) for men with or without any decrease in PSA slope by 6 months after treatment, respectively. Conclusions This hypothesis-generating analysis suggests that within-subject changes in PSADT and PSA slope after initiation of experimental therapy may correlate with MFS in men with biochemically-recurrent prostate cancer. If validated in prospective trials, changes in PSA kinetics may represent a reasonable intermediate endpoint for screening new agents in these patients. PMID:21960118

  12. Pneumosinus dilatans multiplex associated with hormonal imbalance.

    PubMed

    Ushas, P; Ravi, V; Painatt, Jaeson Mohanan; Nair, Preeti P

    2013-01-01

    Pneumosinus dilatans describes an abnormal dilation of one or more paranasal sinuses without radiological evidence of localised bone destruction, hyperostosis or mucous membrane thickening. Dilation of mastoid air cells also occurs rarely along with involvement of paranasal sinuses. This rare combination of unknown aetiology was reported in two cases in the literature and termed 'Pneumosinus Dilatans Multiplex' (PSDM). It is usually asymptomatic, and is detected incidentally on plain radiography, CT or MRI. If left untreated, it can further erode the bone leading to complications such as facial asymmetry, neurological disorders and pathological fractures. The aetiology of the condition remains obscure. Various hypotheses proposed are the presence of gas-forming microorganisms, spontaneous drainage of a mucocele, the presence of a one-way valve, dysregulation of hormonal levels leading to a disturbance of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity. This paper describes a case of PSDM possibly secondary to hormonal disturbance. PMID:23978497

  13. [Hormonal therapy of advanced or relapsed ovarian granulosa cell tumor].

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Bai, P

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian granulosa cell tumor is a rare gynecologic malignancy with hormonal activity. Surgical excision is the standard treatment for this disease. Most patients present excellent short term prognosis, however, late relapse often occurs, even after many years. Viable treatments of advanced or relapsed granulosa cell tumor are still limited, and the optimal therapy method has not been established. Compared with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, hormonal therapy is a well-tolerated treatment which can be administrated over a long period of time without serious side effects, and the combined application of hormones may achieve a better outcome. Therefore, hormonal therapy has been suggested as a potential treatment option for patients with advanced or relapsed granulosa cell tumor, and to extend the tumor-free interval and attenuate the disease progression. Future researches should be focused on the identification of the hormonal therapy which may provide the greatest clinical benefit, comparing and analyzing the effects of different combined therapeutic regimens of hormone drugs, and on the synthesis of drugs highly activating estrogen receptor β expressed in the granulosa cell tumor cells. PMID:27531259

  14. Estrogen mediation of hormone responses to exercise.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Robert R; Francois, Michelle; Castracane, V Daniel

    2012-10-01

    The roles of estrogens extend from the regulation of reproduction to other functions involved in control of metabolism, fluid balance, as well as gastrointestinal, lung, and brain function, with a strong effect on other hormones that subsequently alter the physiology of multiple tissues. As such, alteration of endogenous estrogens across the menstrual cycle, or from oral contraception and estrogen replacement therapy, can affect these tissues. Due to the important effects that estrogens have on different tissues, there are many investigations concerning the effects of a human estrogenic environment on endocrine responses to exercise. The following review will describe the consequences of varying estrogen levels on pituitary, adrenal, gonadal, and endocrine function, followed by discussion of the outcomes of different estrogen levels on endocrine tissues in response to exercise, problems encountered for interpretation of findings, and recommended direction for future research. PMID:22512823

  15. Profiling and Hormonal Therapy for Acne in Women

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sangita; Chaudhuri, Soumik; Jain, Vijay Kumar; Aggarwal, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common condition treated by physicians worldwide. Though most acne patients remit spontaneously, for the ones that do not or are unresponsive to conventional therapy or have obvious cutaneous signs of hyperandrogenism, hormonal therapy is the next option in the therapeutic ladder. It is not strictly indicated for only those patients who have cutaneous or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism, but can be used even without any evidence of hyperandrogenism, for therapy-resistant acne. It can be prescribed as monotherapy, but when used in combination with other conventional therapies, it may prove to be more beneficial. Hormonal evaluation is a prerequisite for hormonal therapy, to identify the cause behind hyperandrogenism, which may be ovarian or adrenal. This article reviews guidelines for patient selection and the various available hormonal therapeutic options, their side-effect profile, indications and contraindications, and various other practical aspects, to encourage dermatologists to become comfortable prescribing them. PMID:24700926

  16. Extending molecular-replacement solutions with SHELXE

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, Andrea; Sheldrick, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Although the program SHELXE was originally intended for the experimental phasing of macromolecules, it can also prove useful for expanding a small protein fragment to an almost complete polyalanine trace of the structure, given a favourable combination of native data resolution (better than about 2.1 Å) and solvent content. A correlation coefficient (CC) of more than 25% between the native structure factors and those calculated from the polyalanine trace appears to be a reliable indicator of success and has already been exploited in a number of pipelines. Here, a more detailed account of this usage of SHELXE for molecular-replacement solutions is given. PMID:24189237

  17. [The effect of combined therapy with a salt solution of Poltava bischofite on the clinical status, adaptive hormone level and blood rheology in patients with ischemic heart disease and chronic inflammatory diseases of the liver and gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Trybrat, T A

    1999-03-01

    Efficiency has been studied of a combined treatment involving the use of mineral baths with the brine of bischofite Poltavsky. Bischofite is a natural efficacious preparation, low-cost, it is easily obtainable. The Poltava lands abound in bischofite deposits. PMID:10424063

  18. Growth hormone deficiency and cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Devesa, Jesús; Casteleiro, Nerea; Rodicio, Cristina; López, Natalia; Reimunde, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a catastrophic acquired disease, occurring during development of the fetal or infant brain. It mainly affects the motor control centres of the developing brain, but can also affect cognitive functions, and is usually accompanied by a cohort of symptoms including lack of communication, epilepsy, and alterations in behavior. Most children with cerebral palsy exhibit a short stature, progressively declining from birth to puberty. We tested here whether this lack of normal growth might be due to an impaired or deficient growth hormone (GH) secretion. Our study sample comprised 46 CP children, of which 28 were male and 18 were female, aged between 3 and 11 years. Data obtained show that 70% of these children lack normal GH secretion. We conclude that GH replacement therapy should be implemented early for CP children, not only to allow them to achieve a normal height, but also because of the known neurotrophic effects of the hormone, perhaps allowing for the correction of some of the common disabilities experienced by CP children. PMID:20856687

  19. Hormonal control of inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Farsky, Sandra P.

    1993-01-01

    Almost any stage of inflammatory and immunological responses is affected by hormone actions. This provides the basis for the suggestion that hormones act as modulators of the host reaction against trauma and infection. Specific hormone receptors are detected in the reactive structures in inflamed areas and binding of hormone molecules to such receptors results in the generation of signals that influence cell functions relevant for the development of inflammatory responses. Diversity of hormonal functions accounts for recognized pro- and anti-inflammatory effects exerted by these substances. Most hormone systems are capable of influencing inflammatory events. Insulin and glucocorticoids, however, exert direct regulatory effects at concentrations usually found in plasma. Insulin is endowed with facilitatory actions on vascular reactivity to inflammatory mediators and inflammatory cell functions. Increased concentrations of circulating glucocorticoids at the early stages of inflammation results in downregulation of inflammatory responses. Oestrogens markedly reduce the response to injury in a variety of experimental models. Glucagon and thyroid hormones exert indirect anti-inflammatory effects mediated by the activity of the adrenal cortex. Accordingly, inflammation is not only merely a local response, but a hormone-controlled process. PMID:18475521

  20. Homeostasis, thymic hormones and aging.

    PubMed

    Goya, R G; Bolognani, F

    1999-01-01

    The thymic-pituitary axis constitutes a bidirectional circuit where the ascending feedback loop is effected by thymic factors of epithelial origin. The aim of the present article is, first, to introduce the idea of an immune-neuroendocrine homeostatic network in higher animals. Next, the relevance of the thymus in this network and the possible role of this gland in the neuroendocrine imbalances associated with aging are discussed. A number of studies are next reviewed which show that the endocrine thymus produces several bioactive molecules, generally called thymic hormones, which in addition to possessing immunoregulatory properties are also active on nervous and endocrine circuits. In particular, the reported activities of thymosin fraction five, thymosin alpha 1 and thymosin beta 4 on beta-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, glucocorticoids, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion in different animal and cell models are reviewed. The known hypophysiotropic actions of other thymic hormones like thymulin, homeostatic thymus hormone and thymus factor are also summarized, and the impact of aging on pituitary responsiveness to thymic hormones is discussed. As a conclusion, it is proposed that in addition to its central role in the regulation of the immune function, the thymus gland may extend its influence to nonimmunologic components of the body, including the neuroendocrine system. The early onset of thymus involution might, therefore, act as a triggering event which would initiate the gradual decline in homeostatic potential that characterizes the aging process. PMID:10202264

  1. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruit, Wendy; Goldberg, Ben; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Since United States of America federal legislation has required ozone depleting chemicals (class 1 & 2) to be banned from production, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and industry have been required to find other chemicals and methods to replace these target chemicals. This project was initiated as a development of a prioritization methodology suitable for assessing and ranking existing processes for replacement 'urgency.' The methodology was produced in the form of a workbook (NASA Technical Paper 3421). The final workbook contains two tools, one for evaluation and one for prioritization. The two tools are interconnected in that they were developed from one central theme - chemical replacement due to imposed laws and regulations. This workbook provides matrices, detailed explanations of how to use them, and a detailed methodology for prioritization of replacement technology. The main objective is to provide a GUIDELINE to help direct the research for replacement technology. The approach for prioritization called for a system which would result in a numerical rating for the chemicals and processes being assessed. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) technique was used in order to determine numerical values which would correspond to the concerns raised and their respective importance to the process. This workbook defines the approach and the application of the QFD matrix. This technique: (1) provides a standard database for technology that can be easily reviewed, and (2) provides a standard format for information when requesting resources for further research for chemical replacement technology. Originally, this workbook was to be used for Class 1 and Class 2 chemicals, but it was specifically designed to be flexible enough to be used for any chemical used in a process (if the chemical and/or process needs to be replaced). The methodology consists of comparison matrices (and the smaller comparison components) which allow replacement technology

  2. Homologous gene replacement in Physarum

    SciTech Connect

    Burland, T.G.; Pallotta, D.

    1995-01-01

    The protist Physarum polycephalum is useful for analysis of several aspects of cellular and developmental biology. To expand the opportunities for experimental analysis of this organism, we have developed a method for gene replacement. We transformed Physarum amoebae with plasmid DNA carrying a mutant allele, ardD{Delta}1, of the ardD actin gene; ardD{Delta}1 mutates the critical carboxy-terminal region of the gene product. Because ardD is not expressed in the amoeba, replacement of ardD{sup +} with ardD{Delta}1 should not be lethal for this cell type. Transformants were obtained only when linear plasmid DNA was used. Most transformants carried one copy of ardD{Delta}1 in addition to ardD{sup +}, but in two (5%), ardD{sup +} was replaced by a single copy of ardD{Delta}1. This is the first example of homologous gene replacement in Physarum. ardD{Delta}1 was stably maintained in the genome through growth, development and meiosis. We found no effect of ardD{Delta}l on viability, growth, or development of any of the various cell types of Physarum. Thus, the carboxy-terminal region of the ardD product appears not to perform a unique essential role in growth or development. Nevertheless, this method for homologous gene replacement can be applied to analyze the function of any cloned gene. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Optimization of station battery replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jancauskas, J. R.; Shook, D. A.

    1994-08-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability to quickly analyze proposed modifications and respond to internal and external audits.

  4. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions isolated growth hormone deficiency isolated growth hormone deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Isolated growth hormone deficiency is a condition caused by a severe ...

  6. Hormonal changes during menopause.

    PubMed

    Al-Azzawi, Farook; Palacios, Santiago

    2009-06-20

    Ovarian senescence occurs gradually during the fourth and fifth decades of life, leading to menopause at an average age of about 51 years. This senescence results in a changing hormonal milieu, with decreases in the levels of estrogens and androgens. Similar changes may be induced by surgical menopause (bilateral oophorectomy) or ovarian failure resulting from cancer treatment. The declining levels of estrogens and androgens affect many tissues of the body and can produce a variety of signs and symptoms, including vasomotor symptoms, decreased bone density, changes in mood and energy, loss of pubic hair and changes in the genital tissues, and effects on sexual function. Accurate measurement of testosterone levels in postmenopausal women requires methods that are validated in the lower ranges of testosterone level observed in this population. PMID:19372016

  7. Cobra Probes Containing Replaceable Thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John; Redding, Adam

    2007-01-01

    A modification of the basic design of cobra probes provides for relatively easy replacement of broken thermocouples. Cobra probes are standard tube-type pressure probes that may also contain thermocouples and that are routinely used in wind tunnels and aeronautical hardware. They are so named because in side views, they resemble a cobra poised to attack. Heretofore, there has been no easy way to replace a broken thermocouple in a cobra probe: instead, it has been necessary to break the probe apart and then rebuild it, typically at a cost between $2,000 and $4,000 (2004 prices). The modified design makes it possible to replace the thermocouple, in minimal time and at relatively low cost, by inserting new thermocouple wire in a tube.

  8. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  9. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Ben; Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    This methodology serves to define a system for effective prioritization of efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semi quantitative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). QFD is a conceptual map that provides a method of transforming customer wants and needs into quantitative engineering terms. This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives.

  10. The current state of male hormonal contraception.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jing H; Page, Stephanie T

    2016-07-01

    World population continues to grow at an unprecedented rate, doubling in a mere 50years to surpass the 7-billion milestone in 2011. This steep population growth exerts enormous pressure on the global environment. Despite the availability of numerous contraceptive choices for women, approximately half of all pregnancies are unintended and at least half of those are unwanted. Such statistics suggest that there is still a gap in contraceptive options for couples, particularly effective reversible contraceptives for men, who have few contraceptive choices. Male hormonal contraception has been an active area of research for almost 50years. The fundamental concept involves the use of exogenous hormones to suppress endogenous production of gonadotropins, testosterone, and downstream spermatogenesis. Testosterone-alone regimens are effective in many men but high dosing requirements and sub-optimal gonadotropin suppression in 10-30% of men limit their use. A number of novel combinations of testosterone and progestins have been shown to be more efficacious but still require further refinement in delivery systems and a clearer understanding of the potential short- and long-term side effects. Recently, synthetic androgens with both androgenic and progestogenic activity have been developed. These agents have the potential to be single-agent male hormonal contraceptives. Early studies of these compounds are encouraging and there is reason for optimism that these may provide safe, reversible, and reliable contraception for men in the near future. PMID:27016468

  11. Hormonal contraception and platelet function.

    PubMed

    Saleh, A A; Ginsburg, K A; Duchon, T A; Dorey, L G; Hirata, J; Alshameeri, R S; Dombrowski, M P; Mammen, E F

    1995-05-15

    73 healthy women (29 controls, 25 using OCs, and 19 using Norplant) were selected from the clinic population at North Oakland Medical Center for inclusion in this study after obtaining informed consent. Age, race, height, weight, blood pressure, and cigarette smoking were recorded for each subject. 12 patients were on monophasic OCs while 13 were on triphasic preparations. Both hormonal contraceptive groups had used their particular contraceptive for at least 3 months prior to blood drawing. Platelet tests were performed within 2 hours of sample collection: platelet counts (PLC) and mean platelet volume (MPV) were determined on an Automated Platelet Counter (Baker 810 Platelet Analyzer). Whole blood aggregation was performed on a platelet aggregometer (Chrono-Log, Model 550) using both ADP (ADP, 5 mM) and collagen (COLL, 2 mcg/ml) as inducing agents. Demographic differences were not significant (p 0.05) among the 3 treatment groups, whose average age was 25.3-25.8 years old. Furthermore, no significant differences (p 0.05) in platelet function were detected among controls or subjects receiving either oral contraceptives or Norplant, compared to control patients. The mean platelet counts (X 10/9/L) were 223 for OC users, 231 for Norplant users, and 232 for controls. The respective platelet aggregation (ADP, ohms) values were 12.5, 18.0, and 19.2 as well as (COLL, ohms) 35.6, 40.7, and 39.0. These results demonstrated that there is no evidence for altered platelet function, with the testing methods employed, in women using either Norplant or combination low dose oral contraceptives. To date, several studies have examined this issue, with contradictory reports about the effects of hormonal contraceptives in platelet function. After controlling for differences between various steroid preparations and other such confounding variables, some of these conflicting conclusions could be the result of a lack of uniformity among the methods used to evaluate platelet aggregation

  12. Justified and unjustified use of growth hormone

    PubMed Central

    van der Lely, A J

    2004-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy for children and adults with proven GH deficiency due to a pituitary disorder has become an accepted therapy with proven efficacy. GH is increasingly suggested, however, as a potential treatment for frailty, osteoporosis, morbid obesity, cardiac failure, and various catabolic conditions. However, the available placebo controlled studies have not reported many significant beneficial effects, and it might even be dangerous to use excessive GH dosages in conditions in which the body has just decided to decrease GH actions. GH can indeed induce changes in body composition that are considered to be advantageous to GH deficient and non-GH deficient subjects. In contrast to GH replacement therapy in GH deficient subjects, however, excessive GH action due to GH misuse seems to be ineffective in improving muscle power. Moreover, there are no available study data to indicate that the use of GH for non-GH deficient subjects should be advocated, especially as animal data suggest that lower GH levels are positively correlated with longevity. PMID:15466991

  13. The combined effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and the phytoestrogen genistein on steroid hormone secretion, AhR and ERβ expression and the incidence of apoptosis in granulosa cells of medium porcine follicles.

    PubMed

    Piasecka-Srader, Joanna; Sadowska, Agnieszka; Nynca, Anna; Orlowska, Karina; Jablonska, Monika; Jablonska, Olga; Petroff, Brian K; Ciereszko, Renata E

    2016-02-20

    Low doses of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) used in combination may act in a manner different from that of individual compounds. The objective of the study was to examine in vitro effects of low doses of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; 100 pM) and genistein (500 nM) on: 1) progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) secretion (48 h); 2) dynamic changes in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mRNA and protein expression (1, 3, 6, 24 and 48 h); 3) dynamic changes in estrogen receptor β (ERβ) mRNA and protein expression (1, 3, 6, 24 and 48 h); and 4) induction of apoptosis in porcine granulosa cells derived from medium follicles (3, 6 and 24 h). TCDD had no effect on P4 or E2 production, but potentiated the inhibitory effect of genistein on P4 production. In contrast to the individual treatments which did not produce any effects, TCDD and genistein administered together decreased ERβ and AhR protein expression in granulosa cells. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of TCDD on AhR mRNA expression was abolished by genistein. The treatments did not induce apoptosis in the cells. In summary, combined effects of low concentrations of TCDD and genistein on follicular function of pigs differed from that of individual compounds. The results presented in the current paper clearly indicate that effects exerted by low doses of EDCs applied in combination must be taken into consideration when studying potential risk effects of EDCs on biological processes. PMID:26568065

  14. HER-2, p53, p21 and hormonal receptors proteins expression as predictive factors of response and prognosis in locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant docetaxel plus epirubicin combination

    PubMed Central

    Tiezzi, Daniel G; Andrade, Jurandyr M; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo; Zola, Fábio E; Marana, Heitor RC; Tiezzi, Marcelo G

    2007-01-01

    Background Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been considered the standard care in locally advanced breast cancer. However, about 20% of the patients do not benefit from this clinical treatment and, predictive factors of response were not defined yet. This study was designed to evaluate the importance of biological markers to predict response and prognosis in stage II and III breast cancer patients treated with taxane and anthracycline combination as neoadjuvant setting. Methods Sixty patients received preoperative docetaxel (75 mg/m2) in combination with epirubicin (50 mg/m2) in i.v. infusion in D1 every 3 weeks after incisional biopsy. They received adjuvant chemotherapy with CMF or FEC, attaining axillary status following definitive breast surgery. Clinical and pathologic response rates were measured after preoperative therapy. We evaluated the response rate to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the prognostic significance of clinicopathological and immunohistochemical parameters (ER, PR, p51, p21 and HER-2 protein expression). The median patient age was 50.5 years with a median follow up time 48 months after the time of diagnosis. Results Preoperative treatment achieved clinical response in 76.6% of patients and complete pathologic response in 5%. The clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical parameters were not able to predict response to therapy and, only HER2 protein overexpression was associated with a decrease in disease free and overall survival (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.003) as shown by multivariate analysis. Conclusion Immunohistochemical phenotypes were not able to predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Clinical response is inversely correlated with a risk of death in patients submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and HER2 overexpression is the major prognostic factor in stage II and III breast cancer patients treated with a neoadjuvant docetaxel and epirubicin combination. PMID:17324279

  15. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in human and bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Amarant, T; Fridkin, M; Koch, Y

    1982-10-01

    Two hypothalamic peptide hormones, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), have been isolated from human milk and bovine colostrum. Acidified methanolic extracts, prepared from human milk, bovine colostrum and rat hypothalami, as well as synthetic LHRH and TRH markers were subjected to high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The eluates were tested for the presence of LHRH and TRH by specific radioimmunoassays. It was found that milk extracts contain significant amounts of LHRH (3.9 - 11.8 ng/ml) and TRH (0.16 - 0.34 ng/ml), which comigrate with the corresponding marker hormones and with those of hypothalamic origin. The HPLC-purified LHRH from both human and bovine milk was bioactive in a dose-response manner similar to synthetic LHRH. PMID:6816590

  16. Thyroxine alone or thyroxine plus triiodothyronine replacement therapy for hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Xie, Jiawei; Huang, Xia; Wang, Guoming; Wang, Yangang; Wang, Xufu; Zuo, Shuyao

    2009-08-01

    ; general well-being in items of the Thyroid Symptom Questionnaire (WMD: -1.90; 95% CI: -2.48 to -1.32); better performance in the Letter Number Sequencing-working memory test in items of cognitive performance scores (WMD: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.08-2.13), significant treatment effect for blurred vision, aches, and pain (WMD: -4.66, -0.80; 95% CI: -5.339 to -4.00, -1.34 to -0.26, respectively). However, T4 plus T3 replacement improved cognitive performance (WMD: -0.49; 95% CI: -0.90 to -0.08). No significant statistical differences were found in biochemical variables, mood states clinical variables, adverse effects, and drop-out. In subgroup analysis, two included studies examined the relationship between mental improvement and causes of hypothyroidism, autoimmune, and nonautoimmune hypothyroidism, respectively. T4 alone suggested significantly higher total T4 (autoimmune and nonautoimmune thyroid, WMD: 4.5, 3.7; 95% CI: 2.24-6.76, 1.66-5.74, respectively), and significantly decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone (WMD: -0.05; 95% CI: -0.09 to -0.01). Statistically significant improvement occurred in pairs correctly recalled in the Digit Symbol Test for T4 plus T3 replacement (WMD: -1.60; 95% CI: -2.97 to -0.23) for nonautoimmune thyroid. In conclusion, on the basis of data from recent studies, we conclude that combined T4 and T3 treatment does not improve well-being, cognitive function, or quality of life compared with T4 alone. T4 alone may be beneficial in improving psychological or physical well-being. According to the current evidence, T4 alone replacement may remain the drug of choice for hypothyroid patients. PMID:19491714

  17. Transient neonatal hyperthyrotrophinaemia: a serum abnormality due to transplacentally acquired antibody to thyroid stimulating hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, J H; John, R; Ginsberg, J; Hughes, I A; Shewring, G; Smith, B R; Woodhead, J S; Hall, R

    1983-01-01

    In a screening programme for neonatal hypothyroidism an otherwise healthy female infant was found to have a high concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone in a filter paper blood spot and in serum. A high concentration was also found in the maternal serum. Mother and baby were both biochemically euthyroid with normal serum thyroxine concentrations. The apparently high concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone in the mother was due to the presence of an IgG antibody that bound to human but not bovine thyroid stimulating hormone. Maternal serum inhibited the action of human thyroid stimulating hormone in an in vitro bioassay for the hormone. It is suggested that the baby acquired the antibody transplacentally, especially as the concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone subsequently fell. It is concluded that maternal serum should be assayed for thyroid stimulating hormone when a neonate is found to have a high concentration of the hormone and a normal concentration of thyroxine to establish the incidence of this finding and to avoid inappropriate replacement treatment. PMID:6402161

  18. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levothyroxine or a combination of levothyroxine plus L-triiodothyronine.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Botella-Carretero, José I; Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    At present, the drug of choice for the treatment of hypothyroidism is levothyroxine sodium, even though the thyroid gland secretes both thyroxine and 3',3,5-triiodothyronine; the latter is the more active of the two at the cellular level because of its higher affinity for the nuclear thyroid hormone receptors. To date, combined levothyroxine plus liothyronine treatment for hypothyroidism has been evaluated in 15 clinical trials in humans. In two studies, combined therapy seemed to have beneficial effects on mood, quality of life, and psychometric performance of patients, compared with levothyroxine alone; in some of these studies, the patients preferred levothyroxine plus liothyronine combinations. This preference should be balanced against the possibility of adverse events resulting from the addition of liothyronine to levothyroxine. Until clear advantages of levothyroxine plus liothyronine are demonstrated, the administration of levothyroxine alone should remain the treatment of choice for replacement therapy of hypothyroidism. PMID:25617173

  19. Replaceable Sleeve Protects Welder Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W. L.; Simpson, C., E.

    1983-01-01

    New replaceable carbon insert for deflection coil in electron-beam welder promises to decrease maintenance costs. Inserts made from materials other than carbon (not yet tried) are less expensive, thus reducing costs even further. With carbon insert, deflection coils last longer and are easier to maintain.

  20. Developing High Quality Replacement Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional approaches for postweaning development of replacement heifers used during the last several decades have primarily focused on feeding heifers to achieve or exceed an appropriate target weight, and thereby maximize heifer pregnancy rates. However, substantial changes in cattle genetics and...

  1. Will peanut hulls replace oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    A low-cost, fast-curing wood adhesive has been recently developed by the University of Georgia, in which up to 80% of the petroleum ingredients can be replaced with a substance extracted from peanut hulls. An outline of the process is given.

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, S S; Brody, K H

    2001-07-01

    Addison's disease is a rare endocrine disorder which can be life-threatening. It can also interfere with the normal development of adrenarche, resulting in the absence of pubic and axillary hair growth. We report a case of satisfactory restoration of adrenarche through DHEA administered in conjunction with the standard glucocortisone and fluorocortisone replacement. PMID:11435018

  3. Testing of Replacement Bag Material

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    Recently, the FB-Line bagout material was changed to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible.The results of the strength tests and the outgassing measurements and calculations demonstrate that the proposed replacement nylon bag materials (HRMP and orange anti-static material) are acceptable substitutes for LDPE and the original nylon with respect to mechanical properties.

  4. Transient lymphocytic panhypophysitis associated with SIADH leading to diabetes insipidus after glucocorticoid replacement.

    PubMed

    Iida, Mihoko; Takamoto, Satoru; Masuo, Masatoshi; Makita, Kozo; Saito, Toshikazu

    2003-10-01

    A 52-year-old man presented with vomiting, general fatigue and hyponatremia. His symptoms and signs were consistent with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Endocrine studies revealed hypopituitarism and administration of hydrocortisone resulted in a marked polyuria. The patient was diagnosed as masked diabetes insipidus. The lymphocytic hypophysitis was also diagnosed on the basis of MRI findings and anti-pituitary antibody. Six months later, these abnormalities disappeared. Diabetes insipidus may exist in a case of hyponatremia due to contrastive SIADH. Such patients may recover spontaneously and careful follow-up is required, avoiding a long-term treatment by monotonous continuation of hormonal replacement. PMID:14606714

  5. The influence of hormone therapies on colon and rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Lidegaard, Øjvind; Keiding, Niels; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Kjær, Susanne Krüger

    2016-05-01

    Exogenous sex hormones seem to play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Little is known about the influence of different types or durations of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) on colorectal cancer risk. A nationwide cohort of women 50-79 years old without previous cancer (n = 1,006,219) were followed 1995-2009. Information on HT exposures was from the National Prescription Register and updated daily, while information on colon (n = 8377) and rectal cancers (n = 4742) were from the National Cancer Registry. Potential confounders were obtained from other national registers. Poisson regression analyses with 5-year age bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. Use of estrogen-only therapy and combined therapy were associated with decreased risks of colon cancer (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.77, 95 % confidence interval 0.68-0.86 and 0.88, 0.80-0.96) and rectal cancer (0.83, 0.72-0.96 and 0.89, 0.80-1.00), compared to never users. Transdermal estrogen-only therapy implied more protection than oral administration, while no significant influence was found of regimen, progestin type, nor of tibolone. The benefit of HT was stronger for long-term hormone users; and hormone users were at lower risk of advanced stage of colorectal cancer, which seems supportive for a causal association between hormone therapy and colorectal cancer. PMID:26758900

  6. Effect of steroid replacement on thyroid function and thyroid autoimmunity in Addison's disease with primary hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Selviambigapathy, Jayakumar; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Nagarajan, K.; Vivekanandan, Muthupillai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Steroid replacement without thyroxine supplementation normalizes thyroid function test (TFT) in some but not all Addison's disease patients with primary hypothyroidism. Both autoimmune and nonautoimmune mechanisms contribute to this improvement in TFT. However, the documentation of the change in thyroid autoimmunity after cortisol replacement is very limited in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of steroid replacement on TFT and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO-Ab) titer in Addison's disease with primary hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted in a tertiary care center in South India. Six Addison's disease patients with primary hypothyroidism, who were only on steroid replacement, were included in the study. Low serum cortisol (<83 nmol/L) with high plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (>22 pmol/L) and/or hyperpigmentation of skin/mucous membranes was considered as the diagnostic criteria for Addison's disease. Primary hypothyroidism (both overt and subclinical) was defined as high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with/without low free thyroxine (fT4). TFT and anti-TPO-Ab were performed before and after steroid replacement in all of them. Results: Poststeroid replacement, there was a normalization of TSH in all but one subjects. In overt hypothyroidism patients, fT4 also normalized. The improvement in TFT was not associated with decreasing titer of the anti-TPO-Ab in all six patients. However, there was a significant difference in TSH after steroid replacement compared to the baseline status. Conclusions: The concept of normalization of primary hypothyroidism with cortisol replacement in patients with Addison's disease should be recognized to avoid iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis caused by thyroxine replacement. Both autoimmune and nonautoimmune mechanisms contribute to these alterations. PMID:27042409

  7. Off-label use of hormones as an antiaging strategy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Samaras, Nikolaos; Papadopoulou, Maria-Aikaterini; Samaras, Dimitrios; Ongaro, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Given demographic evolution of the population in modern societies, one of the most important health care needs is successful aging with less frailty and dependency. During the last 20 years, a multitude of anti-aging practices have appeared worldwide, aiming at retarding or even stopping and reversing the effects of aging on the human body. One of the cornerstones of anti-aging is hormone replacement. At present, women live one third of their lives in a state of sex-hormone deficiency. Men are also subject to age-related testosterone decline, but andropause remains frequently under-diagnosed and under-treated. Due to the decline of hormone production from gonads in both sexes, the importance of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in steroid hormone production increases with age. However, DHEA levels also decrease with age. Also, growth hormone age-associated decrease may be so important that insulin growth factor-1 levels found in elderly individuals are sometimes as low as those encountered in adult patients with established deficiency. Skin aging as well as decreases in lean body mass, bone mineral density, sexual desire and erectile function, intellectual activity and mood have all been related to this decrease of hormone production with age. Great disparities exist between recommendations from scientific societies and actual use of hormone supplements in aging and elderly patients. In this article, we review actual data on the effects of age related hormone decline on the aging process and age-related diseases such as sarcopenia and falls, osteoporosis, cognitive decline, mood disorders, cardiovascular health and sexual activity. We also provide information on the efficiency and safety of hormone replacement protocols in aging patients. Finally, we argue on future perspectives of such protocols as part of everyday practice. PMID:25092967

  8. [Combined modality therapy for a patient with primary adrenal lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Teppei; Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Jomen, Wataru; Yoshida, Masahiro; Yamada, Michiko; Sato, Masanori; Abe, Tomoyuki; Sakurai, Tamaki; Fujii, Shigeyuki; Maeda, Masahiro; Fujita, Miri; Nagashima, Kazuo; Nojiri, Shuichi; Arihara, Yohei; Kato, Junji

    2014-04-01

    A 71-year-old man with malaise, anorexia, and weight loss was referred to our hospital from a clinic. Abdominal computed tomography(CT)revealed bilateral adrenal masses. An ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the adrenal grand indicated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH)test revealed primary adrenal failure. Rituximab-cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisolone(common name, R-CHOP)therapy accompanied by intrathecal treatment was initiated along with steroid replacement therapy. After the fourth courses, a CT scan showed a reduction of the adrenal masses, and there was no[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG)uptake in the adrenal masses. The patient has remained in metabolic complete remission. Subsequently, both adrenal lymphomas were irradiated. The patient has been disease-free for 6 months after the diagnosis of primary adrenal lymphoma. The combined modality of chemoradiation therapy plus intrathecal treatment could be effective for primary adrenal lymphoma with a poor prognosis. PMID:24743371

  9. Multiple genetic factors in the heterogeneity of thyroid hormone resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.E.; Refetoff, S. ); Marcocci, C.; Bruno-Bossio, G. )

    1993-01-01

    Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone (GRTH), a syndrome of inherited tissue hyposensitivity to thyroid hormone, is linked to thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mutations. A typical feature of GRTH is variable severity of organ involvement among families that, surprisingly, does not correlate with the degree of T[sub 3]-binding impairment of the corresponding in vitro synthesized mutant TRs. Furthermore, variations in the clinical severity among family members harboring identical TR[beta] mutations have been reported. The authors compared serum levels of thyroid hormones that maintained a normal TSH in members of a large family with GRTH divided in three groups: Group A, 8 affected subjects with a mutation replacing arginine-320 with a histidine in the T[sub 3]-binding domain of TR[beta]; Group B, 11 first degree relatives (sibs and children of affected subjects) with no TR[beta] mutation; Group C, 16 controls related by marriage. TSH values were not different among the three groups. As expected, total and free T[sub 4] and T[sub 3], and rT[sub 3] levels were significantly higher in Group A vs Groups B and C. However, with the exception of T[sub 3], the same tests were also significantly higher in Group B vs Group C. The latter differences are not due to thyroid hormone transport in serum since TBG concentrations were not different. It is postulated that genetic variability of factors that contribute to the action of thyroid hormone modulate the phenotype of GRTH associated with TR[beta] mutations. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Lipid Profiling and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals a Functional Interplay between Estradiol and Growth Hormone in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Santana-Farré, Ruymán; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; García, Irma; Guerra, Borja; Mateo-Díaz, Carlos; Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos; Flores-Morales, Amilcar; Díaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) may interfere with endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions in liver in both females and males. Indirect mechanisms play a crucial role because of the E2 influence on the pituitary GH secretion and the GHR-JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathway in the target tissues. E2, through its interaction with the estrogen receptor, exerts direct effects on liver. Hypothyroidism also affects endocrine and metabolic functions of the liver, rendering a metabolic phenotype with features that mimic deficiencies in E2 or GH. In this work, we combined the lipid and transcriptomic analysis to obtain comprehensive information on the molecular mechanisms of E2 effects, alone and in combination with GH, to regulate liver functions in males. We used the adult hypothyroid-orchidectomized rat model to minimize the influence of internal hormones on E2 treatment and to explore its role in male-differentiated functions. E2 influenced genes involved in metabolism of lipids and endo-xenobiotics, and the GH-regulated endocrine, metabolic, immune, and male-specific responses. E2 induced a female-pattern of gene expression and inhibited GH-regulated STAT5b targeted genes. E2 did not prevent the inhibitory effects of GH on urea and amino acid metabolism-related genes. The combination of E2 and GH decreased transcriptional immune responses. E2 decreased the hepatic content of saturated fatty acids and induced a transcriptional program that seems to be mediated by the activation of PPARα. In contrast, GH inhibited fatty acid oxidation. Both E2 and GH replacements reduced hepatic CHO levels and increased the formation of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerols. Notably, the hepatic lipid profiles were endowed with singular fingerprints that may be used to segregate the effects of different hormonal replacements. In summary, we provide in vivo evidence that E2 has a significant impact on lipid content and transcriptome in male liver and that E2 exerts a marked influence on

  11. Growth hormone (GH)–releasing hormone and GH secretagogues in normal aging: Fountain of Youth or Pool of Tantalus?

    PubMed Central

    Hersch, Elizabeth C; Merriam, George R

    2008-01-01

    Although growth hormone (GH) is primarily associated with linear growth in childhood, it continues to have important metabolic functions in adult life. Adult GH deficiency (AGHD) is a distinct clinical entity, and GH replacement in AGHD can improve body composition, strength, aerobic capacity, and mood, and may reduce vascular disease risk. While there are some hormone-related side effects, the balance of benefits and risks is generally favorable, and several countries have approved GH for clinical use in AGHD. GH secretion declines progressively and markedly with aging, and many age-related changes resemble those of partial AGHD. This suggests that replacing GH, or stimulating GH with GH-releasing hormone or a GH secretagogue could confer benefits in normal aging similar to those observed in AGHD – in particular, could reduce the loss of muscle mass, strength, and exercise capacity leading to frailty, thereby prolonging the ability to live independently. However, while most GH studies have shown body composition effects similar to those in AGHD, functional changes have been much less inconsistent, and older adults are more sensitive to GH side effects. Preliminary reports of improved cognition are encouraging, but the overall balance of benefits and risks of GH supplementation in normal aging remains uncertain. PMID:18488883

  12. Intramuscular sex steroid hormones are associated with skeletal muscle strength and power in women with different hormonal status

    PubMed Central

    Pöllänen, Eija; Kangas, Reeta; Horttanainen, Mia; Niskala, Paula; Kaprio, Jaakko; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Mouly, Vincent; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen (E2)-responsive peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle, may suffer from hormone deficiency after menopause potentially contributing to the aging of muscle. However, recently E2 was shown to be synthesized by muscle and its systemic and intramuscular hormone levels are unequal. The objective of the study was to examine the association between intramuscular steroid hormones and muscle characteristics in premenopausal women (n = 8) and in postmenopausal monozygotic twin sister pairs (n = 16 co-twins from eight pairs) discordant for the use of E2-based hormone replacement. Isometric skeletal muscle strength was assessed by measuring knee extension strength. Explosive lower body muscle power was assessed as vertical jump height. Due to sequential nature of enzymatic conversion of biologically inactive dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to testosterone (T) and subsequently to E2 or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), separate linear regression models were used to estimate the association of each hormone with muscle characteristics. Intramuscular E2, T, DHT, and DHEA proved to be significant, independent predictors of strength and power explaining 59–64% of the variation in knee extension strength and 80–83% of the variation of vertical jumping height in women (P < 0.005 for all models). The models were adjusted for age, systemic E2, and total body fat mass. The statistics used took into account the lack of statistical independence of twin sisters. Furthermore, muscle cells were shown to take up and actively synthesize hormones. Present study suggests intramuscular sex steroids to associate with strength and power regulation in female muscle providing novel insight to the field of muscle aging. PMID:25645687

  13. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dwelling, replacement. 700.53 Section 700.53 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.53 Dwelling, replacement. The term replacement dwelling means a dwelling selected by the head of a household as a replacement dwelling that meets the criteria of...

  14. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dwelling, replacement. 700.53 Section 700.53 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.53 Dwelling, replacement. The term replacement dwelling means a dwelling selected by the head of a household as a replacement dwelling that meets the criteria of...

  15. Pituitary self-priming actions of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Kinetics of estradiol's potentiating effects on gonadotropin-releasing hormone-facilitated luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone release in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, J D; Evans, W S; Rogol, A D; Kolp, L; Thorner, M O; Stumpf, P

    1986-06-01

    We examined the kinetically distinct characteristics of estradiol's effects upon pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release in response to pulses of exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in healthy postmenopausal individuals. The putative self-priming actions of GnRH on LH and FSH release were tested by intravenous injections of equal paired doses of GnRH (10 micrograms) before and after 1, 5, 10, and 30 d of pure estradiol-17 beta delivery via an intravaginal silastic ring. Self-priming actions of GnRH, as defined by heightened gonadotropin release in response to the second pulse of GnRH compared with the first, were completely absent in the hypoestrogenemic state. However, estradiol administration unmasked GnRH self-priming in a time-dependent fashion, with maximal expression after 5 and 10 d of steroid replacement, followed by attenuation by 30 d. Since estradiol's modulation of GnRH action was expressed differentially on LH and FSH release, we suggest that such facilitation of GnRH-stimulated pituitary LH and FSH release may provide an additional mechanism for dissociated secretion of gonadotropic hormones in health or disease. PMID:3086382

  16. Network Identification of Hormonal Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Vis, Daniel J.; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Hoefsloot, Huub C. J.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Greef, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment. PMID:24852517

  17. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... agonists , which are sometimes called LHRH analogs, are synthetic proteins that are structurally similar to LHRH and ... gland to stop producing luteinizing hormone, which prevents testosterone from being produced. Treatment with an LHRH agonist ...

  18. Growth hormone stimulation test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... test is performed by administering the amino acid arginine in a vein to raise hGH levels. The ... to secrete growth hormone in response to the arginine. Lack of hGH can cause growth retardation in ...

  19. Thyroid Hormone and Vascular Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ichiki, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism affect the cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism is known to be associated with enhanced atherosclerosis and ischemic heart diseases. The accelerated atherosclerosis in the hypothyroid state has been traditionally ascribed to atherogenic lipid profile, diastolic hypertension, and impaired endothelial function. However, recent studies indicate that thyroid hormone has direct anti-atherosclerotic effects, such as production of nitric oxide and suppression of smooth muscle cell proliferation. These data suggest that thyroid hormone inhibits atherogenesis through direct effects on the vasculature as well as modification of risk factors for atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the basic and clinical studies on the role of thyroid hormone in vascular remodeling. The possible application of thyroid hormone mimetics to the therapy of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis is also discussed. PMID:26558400

  20. Phase I/II dose-escalation study of PI3K inhibitors pilaralisib or voxtalisib in combination with letrozole in patients with hormone-receptor-positive and HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer refractory to a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Kimberly; Burris, Howard; Gomez, Patricia; Lynn Henry, N; Isakoff, Steven; Campana, Frank; Gao, Lei; Jiang, Jason; Macé, Sandrine; Tolaney, Sara M

    2015-11-01

    This phase I/II dose-escalation study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of pilaralisib (SAR245408), a pan-class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, or voxtalisib (SAR245409), a PI3K and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, in combination with letrozole in hormone-receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative, non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor-refractory, recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. Maximum tolerated doses (MTDs) were determined using a 3 + 3 design in phase I. Efficacy was evaluated at the MTDs in phase II. Twenty-one patients were enrolled in phase I; MTDs were determined to be pilaralisib tablets 400 mg once daily (QD) or voxtalisib capsules 50 mg twice daily in combination with letrozole tablets 2.5 mg QD. Fifty-one patients were enrolled in phase II; one patient had a partial response in the pilaralisib arm. Rates of progression-free survival at 6 months were 17 and 8 % in the pilaralisib and voxtalisib arms, respectively. The most frequently reported treatment-related grade ≥ 3 adverse events were aspartate aminotransferase increased (5 %) and rash (5 %) in the pilaralisib arm, and alanine aminotransferase increased (11 %) and rash (9 %) in the voxtalisib arm. Pilaralisib and voxtalisib did not interact pharmacokinetically with letrozole. Pilaralisib had a greater pharmacodynamic impact than voxtalisib, as demonstrated by its impact on glucose homeostasis. There was no association between molecular alterations in the PI3K pathway and efficacy. In summary, pilaralisib or voxtalisib, in combination with letrozole, was associated with an acceptable safety profile and limited efficacy in endocrine therapy-resistant HR+ , HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26497877