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Sample records for combined thermophilic aerobic

  1. Comprehensive microbial analysis of combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process treating high-strength food wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon; Kim, Mi-Sun; Sommer, Sven G

    2015-04-15

    A combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process was used to treat high-strength food wastewater in this study. During the experimental period, most of solid residue from the mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R1) was separated by centrifugation and introduced into the thermophilic aerobic reactor (R2) for further digestion. Then, thermophilic aerobically-digested sludge was reintroduced into R1 to enhance reactor performance. The combined process was operated with two different Runs: Run I with hydraulic retention time (HRT) = 40 d (corresponding OLR = 3.5 kg COD/m(3) d) and Run II with HRT = 20 d (corresponding OLR = 7 kg COD/m(3)). For a comparison, a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R3) was operated concurrently with same OLRs and HRTs as the combined process. During the overall digestion, all reactors showed high stability without pH control. The combined process demonstrated significantly higher organic matter removal efficiencies (over 90%) of TS, VS and COD and methane production than did R3. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) results indicated that higher populations of both bacteria and archaea were maintained in R1 than in R3. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed relatively high abundance of phylum Actinobacteria in both R1 and R2, and a predominance of phyla Synergistetes and Firmicutes in R3 during Run II. Furthermore, R1 and R2 shared genera (Prevotella, Aminobacterium, Geobacillus and Unclassified Actinobacteria), which suggests synergy between mesophilic anaerobic digestion and thermophilic aerobic digestion. For archaea, in R1 methanogenic archaea shifted from genus Methanosaeta to Methanosarcina, whereas genera Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium and Methanoculleus were predominant in R3. The results demonstrated dynamics of key microbial populations that were highly consistent with an enhanced reactor performance of the combined process. PMID:25689817

  2. ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF AUTOHEATED THERMOPHILIC AEROBIC DIGESTION WITH AIR AERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major disadvantage of aerobic digestion is that it requires long detention times, particularly in colder climates, to insure adequate stabilization. Autoheated thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) offers the potential to decrease the required detention time. ATAD takes advanta...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY - AUTOTHERMAL THERMOPHILIC AEROBIC DIGESTION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes a promising technology — autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion — for meeting the current and proposed U.S. federal requirements for pathogen controJ and land application of municipal wastewater sludge. Autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion, or AT...

  4. Aeration control of thermophilic aerobic digestion using fluorescence monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kee; Oh, Byung-Keun

    2009-01-01

    The thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) process is recognized as an effective method for rapid waste activated sludge (WAS) degradation and the deactivation of pathogenic microorganisms. Yet, high energy costs due to heating and aeration have limited the commercialization of economical TAD processes. Previous research on autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) has already reduced the heating cost. However, only a few studies have focused on reducing the aeration cost. Therefore, this study applied a two-step aeration control strategy to a fill-and-draw mode semicontinuous TAD process. The NADH-dependent fluorescence was monitored throughout the TAD experiment, and the aeration rate shifted according to the fluorescence intensity. As a result, the simple two-step aeration control operation achieved a 20.3% reduction in the total aeration, while maintaining an effective and stable operation. It is also expected that more savings can be achieved with a further reduction of the lower aeration rate or multisegmentation of the aeration rate. PMID:19190414

  5. Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Space Agriculture Task Force; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.

    food production for human thus rely on local Martian resources. A tree growing subsystem will also give an interesting feature to Martian agriculture. In addition to producing excess oxygen, trees’ rigid body will provide structural material, which can be used for habitat construction. The combination of hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting, plant cultivation, and tree growing with utilizing in-situ natural local resources available on Mars can provide important elements which can enable space agriculture on Mars.

  6. Optimum conditions for aerobic thermophilic pretreatment of municipal sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Cheunbarn, T.; Pagilla, K.R.

    1998-07-01

    Lab scale experiments were conducted to determine optimum sludge residence time (SRT) and temperature of aerobic thermophilic pretreatment (ATP) of mixed (thickened waste activated and primary) sludge to achieve maximum pathogen destruction and best process performance. 4L lab scale ATP reactors were operated at SRT of 0.6, 1.0, and 1.5 days, and at temperature of 55, 58, 62 and 65 C. ATP at temperature {ge} 62 C and SRT {ge} 0.6 days reduced the feed sludge fecal coliform density by at least 4-logs from 10{sup 7} MPN/g total solids to < 10{sup 4} MPN/g total solids. Salmonella in the feed sludge was reduced to < 1 MPN/g total solids from 2 to 18 MPN/4 g total solids by ATP at temperature {ge} 55 C and SRT {ge} 0.6 days. ATP was able to increase sludge volatile acids concentration by 100--200% over the feed sludge volatile acid concentration, and reduce the supernatant COD from 20,000--22,000 mg/L in the feed to 13,000--17,000 mg/L in ATP reactor sludge. Volatile solids destruction by ATP was increased from 25% to 40% when SRT was increased from 0.6 days to 1.5 days, and only 5% increase in volatile solids destruction was seen at each SRT of 0.6, 1.0, and 1.5 days when ATP temperature was increased from 55 to 65 C.

  7. Hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacterial ecology for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, T.; Kanazawa, S.; Moriya, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Hashimoto, H.; Yamashita, M.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    A material recycling is one of core issues in engineering for habitation on extraterrestrial bodies such as Mars A new composting system has been developed in Japan which utilizes some thermophilic bacteria to attain higher temperature than normally expected in the ordinary composting system Dead body of rat was found to be eaten up by the thermophilic bacteria under aerated condition and oxidized to carbon dioxide and few other inorganics within two hours Ecology of these composting bacteria is structured on the intensive symbiotic interactions among various species that participate in various reaction networks in a concert Complexity in the composting bacteria might be based on multiple interaction and interdependency among participating species and organisms Species identification and phylogeny of symbiotic bacteria and understanding of their ecology have been made Those bacterial systems are active and durable under temperature high in a range of 80 to 100 r C Biological combustion release heat and temperature goes up when air is fed through the reaction bed Since microbial activity decreases at exceeding temperature and release of heat decreases as well temperature in the reacting bed itself-regulated in the range Even though it should be verified composting bacteria themselves are presumed to be safe for human agricultural plant and animal species Their activity is restricted only to the condition under elevated temperature Their activities depend greatly on their symbiotic partners and extreme environment created by them The

  8. Effect of temperature on solids reductions and on degradation kinetics during thermophilic aerobic digestion of a simulated sludge.

    PubMed

    Toki, C J

    2008-07-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to determine the influence of higher thermophilic temperatures on thermophilic aerobic digestion treatment of a simulated sludge. The efficiency of the process was evaluated in respect of solids removal and degradation rate constants at four thermophilic temperatures. Batch runs were operated at a retention time of one day and temperatures of 65, 70, 72 and 75 degrees C. The results indicated that temperature increase did not impart any significant benefits to the digestion operation in terms of suspended solids and biochemichal oxygen demand reduction. The findings from this research also suggested that the treatment would not appear to benefit from temperatures higher than 65 degrees C, as classically suggested by Van't Hoff-Arrhenius. Therefore, increase of thermophilic temperature in the tested 65-75 degrees C range does not enhance the efficiency of thermophilic, aerobic sludge digestion treatment. PMID:18697516

  9. Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Manned Mars exploration requires recycle of materials to support human life A conceptual design is developed for space agriculture which is driven by the biologically regenerative function Hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology is the core of materials recycling system to process human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and convert them to fertilizer for plants cultivation A photosynthetic reaction of plants will be driven by solar energy Water will be recycled by cultivation of plants and passing it through plant bodies Sub-surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide are the natural resource available on Mars and these resources will be converted to oxygen and foods We envision that the agricultural system will be scaled up by importing materials from Martian environment Excess oxygen will be obtained from growing trees for structural and other components Minor elements including N P K and other traces will be introduced as fertilizers or nutrients into the agricultural materials circulation Nitrogen will be collected from Martian atmosphere We will assess biological fixation of nitrogen using micro-organisms responsible in Earth biosphere Hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacterial ecology is effective to convert waste materials into useful forms to plants This microbial technology has been well established on ground for processing sewage and waste materials For instance the hyper-thermophilic bacterial system is applied to a composting machine in a size of a trash box in home kitchen Since such a home electronics

  10. Why use a thermophilic aerobic membrane reactor for the treatment of industrial wastewater/liquid waste?

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Abbà, Alessandro; Bertanza, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the advantages of thermophilic aerobic membrane reactor (TAMR) for the treatment of high strength wastewaters. The results were obtained from the monitoring of an industrial and a pilot scale plant. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal yield was equal to 78% with an organic loading rate (OLR) up to 8-10 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) despite significant scattering of the influent wastewater composition. Total phosphorus (TP) was removed with a rate of 90%, the most important removal mechanism being chemical precipitation (as hydroxyapatite, especially), which is improved by the continuous aeration that promotes phosphorus crystallization. Moreover, surfactants were removed with efficiency between 93% and 97%. Finally, the experimental work showed that thermophilic processes (TPPs) are complementary with respect to mesophilic treatments. PMID:25704477

  11. Aerobic moving bed biofilm reactor treating thermomechanical pulping whitewater under thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Jahren, Sigrun J; Rintala, Jukka A; Odegaard, Hallvard

    2002-02-01

    The continuously operated laboratory scale Kaldnes moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was used for thermophilic (55 degrees C) aerobic treatment of TMP whitewater. In the MBBR, the biomass is grown on carrier elements that move along with the water in the reactor. Inoculation with mesophilic activated sludge gave 60-65% SCOD removal from the first day onwards. During the 107 days of experiment, the 60-65% SCOD removals were achieved at organic loading rates of 2.5-3.5 kg SCODm(-3) d(-1), the highest loading rates applied during the run and HRT of 13-22h. Carbohydrates, which contributed to 50-60% of the influent SCOD. were removed by 90-95%, while less than 15% of the lignin-like material (30-35% of SCODin) was removed. The sludge yield was 0.23g VSSg SCOD(-1)removed. The results show that the aerobic biofilm process can be successfully operated under thermophilic conditions. PMID:11848344

  12. Aerobic thermophilic treatment of sewage sludge at pilot plant scale. 1. Operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Ponti, C; Sonnleitner, B; Fiechter, A

    1995-01-15

    The aerobic thermophilic treatment process of sewage sludge was studied at different bioreactor scales in a pilot plant installation. Since, for a satisfactory sludge disinfection, the Swiss legislation requires minimal incubation times of all volume elements, the bioreactors were operated in repetitive batch mode (draw and fill). Different retention times and frequencies of the volume changes were applied in order to prove the capability of the particular operation modes in assuring high degradative potential. The main enzymatic activity involved during the aerobic treatment was proteolysis: the RQ values ranged between 0.8 and 0.9 depending on the applied operating conditions. Although not in a linear manner, the efficiency of the microflora decreased as the bioreactor scale increased, when this increase corresponded with a reduction of the specific power input. The sludge oxidation rates can be tuned by some process operating conditions such as the volume change frequency, the changed volume quantities and the retention times. It was possible to improve the microbial degradative efficiency by an increased frequency of the changes, while the mean retention time influenced in particular the ultimate product quality, described as residual organic matter content of the sludge. The microflora present was also satisfactorily active at mean hydraulic retention times of less than 10 h. The organic matter concentration of the inlet sewage sludge plays an important role: it influences the aerobic degradation process positively. PMID:7765808

  13. Treatment of high strength pharmaceutical wastewaters in a Thermophilic Aerobic Membrane Reactor (TAMR).

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, M C; Abbà, A; Bertanza, G

    2014-10-15

    In the present work we studied the thermophilic biological treatability of high strength liquid wastes from a pharmaceutical industry (rich in organic matter - COD: Chemical Oxygen Demand, nutrients and salinity). Different mixtures (with concentrations of COD, phosphorus and chloride up to 57,000 mg L(-1), 2000 mg L(-1) and 9000 mg L(-1), respectively) were tested. The pilot plant used in this work was designed and built with dimensions comparable to a semi-industrial unit. The results are therefore representative for full-scale applications. During four months of experimentation, the pilot plant (TAMR - Thermophilic Aerobic Membrane Reactor) was operated at 49 ± 1 °C and the organic loading rate was 1.5-5.5 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) with a hydraulic retention time of 5-10 days. Main results are the following: a) extremely high COD removal rate (up to 98%); b) very low sludge production (∼0.016 kgVSS produced kgCOD removed(-1)); c) suitability as a pre-treatment to a conventional (e.g. activated sludge) biological treatment (the studied pharmaceutical industrial wastewaters are discharged into the sewer system for final polishing in a centralized municipal wastewater treatment plant) and d) high phosphorus removal (up to 99%). PMID:25000201

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of the Aerobic CO-Oxidizing Thermophile Thermomicrobium roseum

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dongying; Raymond, Jason; Wu, Martin; Chatterji, Sourav; Ren, Qinghu; Graham, Joel E.; Bryant, Donald A.; Robb, Frank; Colman, Albert; Tallon, Luke J.; Badger, Jonathan H.; Madupu, Ramana; Ward, Naomi L.; Eisen, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to enrich the phylogenetic diversity represented in the available sequenced bacterial genomes and as part of an “Assembling the Tree of Life” project, we determined the genome sequence of Thermomicrobium roseum DSM 5159. T. roseum DSM 5159 is a red-pigmented, rod-shaped, Gram-negative extreme thermophile isolated from a hot spring that possesses both an atypical cell wall composition and an unusual cell membrane that is composed entirely of long-chain 1,2-diols. Its genome is composed of two circular DNA elements, one of 2,006,217 bp (referred to as the chromosome) and one of 919,596 bp (referred to as the megaplasmid). Strikingly, though few standard housekeeping genes are found on the megaplasmid, it does encode a complete system for chemotaxis including both chemosensory components and an entire flagellar apparatus. This is the first known example of a complete flagellar system being encoded on a plasmid and suggests a straightforward means for lateral transfer of flagellum-based motility. Phylogenomic analyses support the recent rRNA-based analyses that led to T. roseum being removed from the phylum Thermomicrobia and assigned to the phylum Chloroflexi. Because T. roseum is a deep-branching member of this phylum, analysis of its genome provides insights into the evolution of the Chloroflexi. In addition, even though this species is not photosynthetic, analysis of the genome provides some insight into the origins of photosynthesis in the Chloroflexi. Metabolic pathway reconstructions and experimental studies revealed new aspects of the biology of this species. For example, we present evidence that T. roseum oxidizes CO aerobically, making it the first thermophile known to do so. In addition, we propose that glycosylation of its carotenoids plays a crucial role in the adaptation of the cell membrane to this bacterium's thermophilic lifestyle. Analyses of published metagenomic sequences from two hot springs similar to the one from which this strain

  15. Nitrogen removal characteristics analyzed with gas and microbial community in thermophilic aerobic digestion for piggery waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, J W; Lee, H W; Kim, S W; Lee, S Y; Park, Y K; Han, J H; Choi, S I; Yi, Y S; Yun, Z

    2004-01-01

    In order to characterize the nitrogen conversion characteristics in a thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) system, a laboratory study has been conducted with the analysis of effluent gas and microbial community in the sludge samples. The lab TAD system was operated with HRT of 3 days and 60 degrees C. Based on the nitrogen mass balance, it has been found that about 2/3 of the daily load of nitrogen was converted to the gaseous form of nitrogen whereas cellular transformation and unmetabolized nitrogen accounted for about 1/3. Among the gaseous nitrogen transformation, significant amount of influent nitrogen had been converted to N2 gas (29% of influent N) and N2O (9% of influent N). Ammonia conversion was only 28% of influent N. The detection of N2O gas is a clear indication of the biological nitrogen reduction process in the thermophilic aerobic digester. No conclusive evidence for the existence of aerobic deammonification has been found. The microbial community analysis showed that thermophilic bacteria such as Bacillus thermocloacae, Bacillus sp. and Clostridial groups dominated in this TAD reactor. The diverse microbial community in TAD sludge may play an important role in removing both strong organics and nitrogen from piggery waste. PMID:15137444

  16. Disinhibition of the ammonium nitrogen in autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion for sewage sludge by chemical precipitation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Haiping; Xu, Changwen; Zhu, Nanwen

    2014-10-01

    Magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) precipitation was introduced to remove ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) in autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) in this study by addition of MgCl2 · 6H2O and NaH2PO4 · 2H2O. The results showed that the lowest NH4(+)-N concentration was found in the D2 digester after 2nd day dosing treatment and 38.12% of VS removal efficiency was obtained after 15 days ATAD treatment. Sludge stabilization was achieved in the D2 digester 6 days earlier than the non-dosing digester when 8.7 g/L MgCl2 · 6H2O and 6.7 g/L NaH2PO4 · 2H2O were added into the digester. Furthermore, the highest VS removal efficiency of 40.03% was observed after 21 days digestion in D2 digesters. Therefore, MAP precipitation was an effective method for the ammonium nitrogen disinhibition when 8.7 g/L MgCl2 · 6H2O and 6.7 g/L NaH2PO4 · 2H2O were added into on the 2nd day after the digester startup. PMID:25108267

  17. Comparison of static, in-vessel composting of MSW with thermophilic anaerobic digestion and combinations of the two processes.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lee; Charles, Wipa; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2009-08-01

    The biological stabilisation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) into a form stable enough for land application can be achieved via aerobic or anaerobic treatments. To investigate the rates of degradation (e.g. via electron equivalents removed, or via carbon emitted) of aerobic and anaerobic treatment, OFMSW samples were exposed to computer controlled laboratory-scale aerobic (static in-vessel composting), and anaerobic (thermophilic anaerobic digestion with liquor recycle) treatment individually and in combination. A comparison of the degradation rates, based on electron flow revealed that provided a suitable inoculum was used, anaerobic digestion was the faster of the two waste conversion process. In addition to faster maximum substrate oxidation rates, anaerobic digestion (followed by post-treatment aerobic maturation), when compared to static composting alone, converted a larger fraction of the organics to gaseous end-products (CO2 and CH4), leading to improved end-product stability and maturity, as measured by compost self-heating and root elongation tests, respectively. While not comparable to windrow and other mixed, highly aerated compost systems, our results show that in the thermophilic, in-vessel treatment investigated here, the inclusion of a anaerobic phase, rather than using composting alone, improved hydrolysis rates as well as oxidation rates and product stability. The combination of the two methods, as used in the DiCOM process, was also tested allowing heat generation to thermophilic operating temperature, biogas recovery and a low odour stable end-product within 19 days of operation. PMID:19345576

  18. Evaluation of the Removal of Indicator Bacteria from Domestic Sludge Processed by Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD)

    PubMed Central

    Piterina, Anna V.; Bartlett, John; Pembroke, Tony J.

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of sludge solids in an insulated reactor during Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) processing results in auto-heating, thermal treatment and total solids reduction, however, the ability to eliminate pathogenic organisms has not been analysed under large scale process conditions. We evaluated the ATAD process over a period of one year in a two stage, full scale Irish ATAD plant established in Killarney and treating mixed primary and secondary sludge, by examining the sludge microbiologically at various stages during and following ATAD processing to determine its ability to eliminate indicator organisms. Salmonella spp. (pathogen) and fecal-coliform (indicator) densities were well below the limits used to validate class A biosolids in the final product. Enteric pathogens present at inlet were deactivated during the ATAD process and were not detected in the final product using both traditional microbial culture and molecular phylogenetic techniques. A high DNase activity was detected in the bulk sludge during the thermophilic digestion stage which may be responsible for the rapid turn over of DNA from lysed cells and the removal of mobile DNA. These results offer assurance for the safe use of ATAD sludge as a soil supplement following processing. PMID:20948933

  19. Influence of bulking agents and microbial activator on thermophilic aerobic transformation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Pasda, N; Limtong, P; Oliver, R; Montange, D; Panichsakpatana, S

    2005-10-01

    Bangkok, while improving the wastewater treatment in order to alleviate the river pollution, faces important amounts of sewage sludge. The sewage sludge contains organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus available for plant growth. However, it may contain pathogenic microorganisms. To be used for agricultural purposes, these pathogens should be destroyed, which can be achieved with the thermophilic phase of composting. As the sewage sludge is dense and unable to compost alone (low C/N ratio), it should be mixed with an organic by-product. Two by-products available in large quantities in Thailand (wood chips and rice husk) have been tested for mixture with sewage sludge. As these products are not easy to decompose (presence of silica in rice husk and lignin/tannins in wood chips), the addition of a microbial activator for composting has been tested in controlled conditions (small quantities of organic mixtures, 55 degrees C, moisture maintained at 60-70% of water holding capacity). The monitoring of the decomposition has been made by measuring the carbon dioxide respiration, pH, organic matter and nitrogen contents and the evolution of enzymatic activities. When mixed with sewage sludge, wood chips and rice husk do not show significant differences concerning decomposition after 63 days. The use of an activator within the experimental conditions does not improve the decomposition of organic matter contained in the mixture of sewage sludge and rice husk or wood chips. PMID:16342535

  20. Microbial community structure in a thermophilic aerobic digester used as a sludge pretreatment process for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion and the enhancement of methane production.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Park, Sang Kyu; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-10-01

    An effective two-stage sewage sludge digestion process, consisting of thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) followed by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD), was developed for efficient sludge reduction and methane production. Using TAD as a biological pretreatment, the total volatile suspended solid reduction (VSSR) and methane production rate (MPR) in the MAD reactor were significantly improved. According to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, the results indicated that the dominant bacteria species such as Ureibacillus thermophiles and Bacterium thermus in TAD were major routes for enhancing soluble organic matter. TAD pretreatment using a relatively short SRT of 1 day showed highly increased soluble organic products and positively affected an increment of bacteria populations which performed interrelated microbial metabolisms with methanogenic species in the MAD; consequently, a quantitative real-time PCR indicated greatly increased Methanosarcinales (acetate-utilizing methanogens) in the MAD, resulting in enhanced methane production. PMID:23419990

  1. The emission of volatile compounds during the aerobic and the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting of biowaste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smet, Erik; Van Langenhove, Herman; De Bo, Inge

    Two different biowaste composting techniques were compared with regard to their overall emission of volatile compounds during the active composting period. In the aerobic composting process, the biowaste was aerated during a 12-week period, while the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process consisted of a sequence of a 3-week anaerobic digestion (phase I) and a 2-week aeration period (phase II). While the emission of volatiles during phase I of the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process was measured in a full-scale composting plant, the aerobic stages of both composting techniques were performed in pilot-scale composting bins. Similar groups of volatile compounds were analysed in the biogas and the aerobic composting waste gases, being alcohols, carbonyl compounds, terpenes, esters, sulphur compounds and ethers. Predominance of alcohols (38% wt/wt of the cumulative emission) was observed in the exhaust air of the aerobic composting process, while predominance of terpenes (87%) and ammonia (93%) was observed in phases I and II of the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process, respectively. In the aerobic composting process, 2-propanol, ethanol, acetone, limonene and ethyl acetate made up about 82% of the total volatile organic compounds (VOC)-emission. Next to this, the gas analysis during the aerobic composting process revealed a strong difference in emission profile as a function of time between different groups of volatiles. The total emission of VOC, NH 3 and H 2S during the aerobic composting process was 742 g ton -1 biowaste, while the total emission during phases I and II of the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process was 236 and 44 g ton -1 biowaste, respectively. Taking into consideration the 99% removal efficiency of volatiles upon combustion of the biogas of phase I in the electricity generator, the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process can be considered as an attractive alternative for aerobic biowaste composting because of

  2. Enhancing ethanol production from thermophilic and mesophilic solid digestate using ozone combined with aqueous ammonia pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dianlong; Xi, Jiang; Ai, Ping; Yu, Liang; Zhai, Hong; Yan, Shuiping; Zhang, Yanlin

    2016-05-01

    Pretreatment with ozone combined with aqueous ammonia was used to recover residual organic carbon from recalcitrant solid digestate for ethanol production after anaerobic digestion (AD) of rice straw. Methane yield of AD at mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, and ethanol production of solid digestate were investigated. The results showed that the methane yield at thermophilic temperature was 72.2% higher than that at mesophilic temperature under the same conditions of 24days and 17% solid concentration. And also the ethanol production efficiency of solid digestate after thermophilic process was 24.3% higher than that of solid digestate after mesophilic process. In this study, the optimal conditions for integrated methane and ethanol processes were determined as 55°C, 17% solid concentration and 24days. 58.6% of glucose conversion, 142.8g/kg of methane yield and 65.2g/kg of ethanol yield were achieved, and the highest net energy balance was calculated as 6416kJ/kg. PMID:26868156

  3. Selective simplification and reinforcement of microbial community in autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion to enhancing stabilization process of sewage sludge by conditioning with ferric nitrate.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ningben; Shou, Zongqi; Yuan, Haiping; Lou, Ziyang; Zhu, Nanwen

    2016-03-01

    The effect of ferric nitrate on microbial community and enhancement of stabilization process for sewage sludge was investigated in autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion. The disinhibition of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was obtained with alteration of individual VFA concentration order. Bacterial taxonomic identification by 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing found the dominant phylum Proteobacteria in non-dosing group was converted to phylum Firmicutes in dosing group after ferric nitrate added and simplification of bacteria phylotypes was achieved. The preponderant Tepidiphilus sp. vanished, and Symbiobacterium sp. and Tepidimicrobium sp. were the most advantageous phylotypes with conditioning of ferric nitrate. Consequently, biodegradable substances in dissolved organic matters increased, which contributed to the favorable environment for microbial metabolism and resulted in acceleration of sludge stabilization. Ultimately, higher stabilization level was achieved as ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand to total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) decreased while TCOD reduced as well in dosing group comparing to non-dosing group. PMID:26773954

  4. Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis sp. nov., a novel thermophilic facultative aerobic bacterium with a broad pH optimum from the Geyser valley, Kamchatka.

    PubMed

    Kevbrin, Vadim V; Zengler, Karsten; Lysenko, Anatolii M; Wiegel, Juergen

    2005-10-01

    A facultative aerobic, moderately thermophilic, spore forming bacterium, strain JW/VK-KG4 was isolated from an enrichment culture obtained from the Geyser valley, a geo-thermally heated environment located in the Kamchatka peninsula (Far East region of Russia). The cells were rod shaped, motile, peritrichous flagellated stained Gram positive and had a Gram positive type cell wall. Aerobically, the strain utilized a range of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, trehalose, proteinuous substrates, and pectin as well. Anaerobically, only carbohydrates are utilized. When growing on carbohydrates, the strain required yeast extract and vitamin B(12). Anaerobically, glucose was fermented to lactate as main product and acetate, formate, ethanol as minor products. Aerobically, even in well-aerated cultures (agitated at 500 rpm), glucose oxidation was incomplete and lactate and acetate were found in culture supernatants as by-products. Optimal growth of the isolate was observed at pH(25 C) 6.8-8.5 and 60 degrees C. The doubling times on glucose at optimal growth conditions were 34 min (aerobically) and 40 min (anaerobically). The G+C content was 42.3 mol% as determined by T(m) assay. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated an affiliation of strain JW/VK-KG4 with Anoxybacillus species. Based on its morphology, physiology, phylogenetic relationship and its low DNA-DNA homology with validly published species of Anoxybacillus, it is proposed that strain JW/VK-KG4 represents a new species in the genus Anoxybacillus as A. kamchatkensis sp. nov. The type strain for the novel species is JW/VK-KG4(T) (=DSM 14988, =ATCC BAA-549). The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence is AF510985. PMID:16142505

  5. Effect of process temperature, pH and suspended solids content upon pasteurization of a model agricultural waste during thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Ugwuanyi, J O; Harvey, L M; McNeil, B

    1999-09-01

    Thermophilic aerobic digestion(TAD), or liquid composting, is a versatile new process for the treatment and stabilization of high strength wastes of liquid or, perhaps more importantly, slurry consistency. The pattern of inactivation of various pathogenic and indicator organisms was studied using batch digestions under conditions that may be expected to be found in full-scale TAD processes. Rapid inactivation of test populations occurred within the first 10 min from the start of digestion. The inactivation rate was slightly lower when digestions were conducted below 60 degrees C. In some instances, a 'tail' was apparent, possibly indicating the survival of relatively resistant sub-populations particularly in the case of Serratia marcescens and Enterococcus faecalis, or of clumping or attachment of cells to particulate materials. The effect of pH on the inactivation of the test populations depended on the temperature of digestion, but varied with the test population. At 55 degrees C Escherichia coli was more sensitive to temperature effects at pH 7 than at pH 8, but was more sensitive at pH 8, 60 degrees C. The reverse was the case at 60 degrees C for Ent. faecalis. An increase in the solid content of the digesting waste caused a progressive increase in the protection of test organisms from thermal inactivation. Challenging a TAD process with test strains allows (via estimation of D-values) a quantification of the cidal effects of such processes, with a view to manipulating process variables to enhance such effects. PMID:10540241

  6. Effect of aeration rate and waste load on evolution of volatile fatty acids and waste stabilization during thermophilic aerobic digestion of a model high strength agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Ugwuanyi, J Obeta; Harvey, L M; McNeil, B

    2005-04-01

    Thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) is a relatively new, dynamic and versatile low technology for the economic processing of high strength waste slurries. Waste so treated may be safely disposed of or reused. In this work a model high strength agricultural waste, potato peel, was subjected to TAD to study the effects of oxygen supply at 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 vvm (volume air per volume slurry per minute) under batch conditions at 55 degrees C for 156 h on the process. Process pH was controlled at 7.0 or left unregulated. Effects of waste load, as soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD), on TAD were studied at 4.0, 8.0, 12.0 and 16.0 gl(-1) (soluble COD) at pH 7.0, 0.5 vvm and 55 degrees C. Efficiency of treatment, as degradation of total solids, total suspended solids and soluble solid, as well as soluble COD significantly increased with aeration rate, while acetate production increased as the aeration rate decreased or waste load increased, signifying deterioration in treatment. Negligible acetate, and no other acids were produced at 1.0 vvm. Production of propionate and other acids increased after acetate concentration had started to decrease and, during unregulated reactions coincided with the drop in the pH of the slurry. Acetate production was more closely associated with periods of oxygen limitation than were other acids. Reduction in oxygen availability led to deterioration in treatment efficiency as did increase in waste load. These variables may be manipulated to control treated waste quality. PMID:15588774

  7. Effect of digestion temperature and pH on treatment efficiency and evolution of volatile fatty acids during thermophilic aerobic digestion of model high strength agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Ugwuanyi, J Obeta; Harvey, L M; McNeil, B

    2005-04-01

    Thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) of a model agricultural waste, potato peel slurry, at soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) load equivalent to approximately 8.0 gl(-1), was carried out under batch conditions at 0.5 vvm aeration rate. Digestions were carried out at temperatures of 45, 50, 55, 60 and 65 degrees C (or left unregulated) without pH control to study the effect of digestion temperatures on TAD. The effects of digestion pH on the process were studied at pH 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0 and 9.5 (and in unregulated control) all at 55 degrees C. Except for digestion at 65 degrees C, which was inoculated extraneously using culture of Bacillus strearothermophilus all reactions were carried out using the populations indigenous to the waste. During digestion at different temperatures, the removal of soluble COD increased with temperature to reach a peak at 60 degrees C before declining slightly, removal of soluble solid (SS) followed similar pattern and reached peak at 65 degrees C being the highest temperature studied, while the degradation of TSS and TS (TSS + TS) decreased with an increase in temperature. Digestion at pH 7.0 was more efficient than at other pH values. Acetate was the predominant volatile fatty acid (VFA) in all the reactions and accounted for up to 90% of the total. Digestion at 60 degrees C led to the greatest accumulation of acetate, and this coincided with the period of highest oxygen uptake, and rapid consumption of soluble carbohydrate. Iso-valerate was also produced at all pH values. Digestion at 55 degrees C and also at pH 7.0 led to rapid and efficient processes with least accumulation of VFA and should be of interest in full-scale processes whenever it is practicable to regulate the digestion pH and temperature. The result of digestion at unregulated pH indicates that gradual adaptation may be used to achieve efficient treatment at elevated pH values. This would be of interest in full-scale processes where it is not practicable to tightly

  8. Thermophilic Beta-Glycosidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grogan, Dennis W.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes identification of thermophilic Beta-glycosidase enzyme from isolate of Sulfolobus solfataricus, sulfur-metabolizing archaebacteria growing aerobically and heterotrophically to relatively high cell yields. Enzyme useful in enzymatic conversion of cellulose to D-glucose and important in recycling of biomass. Used for removal of lactose from milk products. Offers promise as model substance for elucidation of basic principles of structural stabilization of proteins.

  9. Effect of aerobic exercise and raloxifene combination therapy on senile osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chengjin; Hou, Haibing; Chen, Yutao; Lv, Kai

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the effects of combined application of raloxifene and aerobic exercise on senile osteoporosis. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 70 elderly patients with osteoporosis, who treated at our hospital between April 2013 and August 2014, were divided into equal-sized observation and control groups. The control group was administered raloxifene, whereas the observation group received raloxifene treatment plus aerobic exercise. [Results] Outpatient outcomes were considered dependent variables. After treatment, the two groups differed significantly in terms of lumbar spine (L2–L4) and proximal femoral bone mineral density. The urine pyridine/creatinine ratio decreased significantly and serum calcitonin level increased significantly in the observation group. These differences were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Raloxifene combined with aerobic exercise therapy significantly improves bone density and promotes bone formation in patients with senile osteoporosis. PMID:27390417

  10. Effect of aerobic exercise and raloxifene combination therapy on senile osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengjin; Hou, Haibing; Chen, Yutao; Lv, Kai

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study assessed the effects of combined application of raloxifene and aerobic exercise on senile osteoporosis. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 70 elderly patients with osteoporosis, who treated at our hospital between April 2013 and August 2014, were divided into equal-sized observation and control groups. The control group was administered raloxifene, whereas the observation group received raloxifene treatment plus aerobic exercise. [Results] Outpatient outcomes were considered dependent variables. After treatment, the two groups differed significantly in terms of lumbar spine (L2-L4) and proximal femoral bone mineral density. The urine pyridine/creatinine ratio decreased significantly and serum calcitonin level increased significantly in the observation group. These differences were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Raloxifene combined with aerobic exercise therapy significantly improves bone density and promotes bone formation in patients with senile osteoporosis. PMID:27390417

  11. Biocatalysis mechanism for p-fluoronitrobenzene degradation in the thermophilic bioelectrocatalysis system: Sequential combination of reduction and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Xueqin; Feng, Huajun; Liang, Yuxiang; Shen, Dongsheng; Long, Yuyang; Zhou, Yuyang; Dai, Qizhou

    2016-09-01

    To verify the potentially synthetic anodic and cathodic biocatalysis mechanism in bioelectrocatalysis systems (BECSs), a single-chamber thermophilic bioelectrocatalysis system (R3) was operated under strictly anaerobic conditions using the biocathode donated dual-chamber (R1) and bioanode donated dual-chamber (R2) BECSs as controls. Direct bioelectrocatalytic oxidation was found to be infeasible while bioelectrocatalytic reduction was the dominant process for p-Fluoronitrobenzene (p-FNB) removal, with p-FNB removal of 0.188 mM d(-1) in R1 and 0.182 mM d(-1) in R3. Cyclic voltammetry experiments confirmed that defluorination in the BECSs was an oxidative metabolic process catalyzed by bioanodes following the reductive reaction, which explained the 0.034 mM d(-1) defluorination in R3, but negligible defluorination in controls. Taken together, these results revealed a sequentially combined reduction and oxidation mechanism in the thermophilic BECS for p-FNB removal. Moreover, the enrichment of Betaproteobacteria and uniquely selected Bacilli in R3 were probably functional populations for p-FNB degradation. PMID:27268793

  12. Combined Aerobic/Strength Training and Energy Expenditure in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Gary R.; Bickel, C. Scott; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William; McCarthy, John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effects of three different frequencies of combined resistance and aerobic training on total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity related energy expenditure (AEE) in a group of older adults. Methods Seventy-two women, 60 – 74 years old, were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1 day/week of aerobic and 1 day/week of resistance (1+1); 2 days/week of aerobic and 2 days/week resistance (2+2); or 3 days/week aerobic and 3 days/week resistance (3+3). Body composition (DXA), feeling of fatigue, depression, and vigor (questionnaire), strength (1RM), serum cytokines (ELISA), maximal oxygen uptake (progressive treadmill test), resting energy expenditure, and TEE were measured before and after 16 weeks of training. Aerobic training consisted of 40 minutes of aerobic exercise at 80% maximum heart rate and resistance training consisted of 2 sets of 10 repetitions for 10 different exercises at 80% of one repetition maximum. Results All groups increased fat free mass, strength and aerobic fitness and decreased fat mass. No changes were observed in cytokines or perceptions of fatigue/depression. No time by group interaction was found for any fitness/body composition variable. TEE and AEE increased with the 2+2 group but not with the other two groups. Non-exercise training AEE (NEAT) increased significantly in the 2+2 group (+200 kcal/day), group 1×1 showed a trend for an increase (+68 kcal/day) and group 3+3 decreased significantly (−150 kcal/day). Conclusion Results indicate that 3+3 training may inhibit NEAT by being too time consuming and does not induce superior training adaptations to 1+1 and 2+2 training. Key words: physical activity, older adults, total energy expenditure, maximum oxygen uptake. PMID:23774582

  13. Influence of Aerobic Training and Combinations of Interventions on Cognition and Neuroplasticity after Stroke.

    PubMed

    Constans, Annabelle; Pin-Barre, Caroline; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Decherchi, Patrick; Laurin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Stroke often aggravated age-related cognitive impairments that strongly affect several aspects of quality of life. However, few studies are, to date, focused on rehabilitation strategies that could improve cognition. Among possible interventions, aerobic training is well known to enhance cardiovascular and motor functions but may also induce beneficial effects on cognitive functions. To assess the effectiveness of aerobic training on cognition, it seems necessary to know whether training promotes the neuroplasticity in brain areas involved in cognitive functions. In the present review, we first explore in both human and animal how aerobic training could improve cognition after stroke by highlighting the neuroplasticity mechanisms. Then, we address the potential effect of combinations between aerobic training with other interventions, including resistance exercises and pharmacological treatments. In addition, we postulate that classic recommendations for aerobic training need to be reconsidered to target both cognition and motor recovery because the current guidelines are only focused on cardiovascular and motor recovery. Finally, methodological limitations of training programs and cognitive function assessment are also developed in this review to clarify their effectiveness in stroke patients. PMID:27445801

  14. Influence of Aerobic Training and Combinations of Interventions on Cognition and Neuroplasticity after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Constans, Annabelle; Pin-barre, Caroline; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Decherchi, Patrick; Laurin, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Stroke often aggravated age-related cognitive impairments that strongly affect several aspects of quality of life. However, few studies are, to date, focused on rehabilitation strategies that could improve cognition. Among possible interventions, aerobic training is well known to enhance cardiovascular and motor functions but may also induce beneficial effects on cognitive functions. To assess the effectiveness of aerobic training on cognition, it seems necessary to know whether training promotes the neuroplasticity in brain areas involved in cognitive functions. In the present review, we first explore in both human and animal how aerobic training could improve cognition after stroke by highlighting the neuroplasticity mechanisms. Then, we address the potential effect of combinations between aerobic training with other interventions, including resistance exercises and pharmacological treatments. In addition, we postulate that classic recommendations for aerobic training need to be reconsidered to target both cognition and motor recovery because the current guidelines are only focused on cardiovascular and motor recovery. Finally, methodological limitations of training programs and cognitive function assessment are also developed in this review to clarify their effectiveness in stroke patients. PMID:27445801

  15. Aerobic composting leachate treatment by the combination of membrane processes.

    PubMed

    Çakmakci, Mehmet; Özyaka, Vahide Seyda

    2013-02-01

    The main product of the conversion process of organic wastes to a useful organic fertilizer, known as compost, has gained an increasing interest in management of organic wastes recently. One of the main problems arising in the composting facilities is the high organic loaded leachate. In this study, a treatability experiment for composting leachate from a full-scale composting facility was carried out with the combination of membrane processes. The parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, Cl⁻ and NH₄⁺ were analysed to evaluate the membrane treatment performances of single and combined membrane systems consisting centrifuge, cartridge filter, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes. The removal efficiencies of all pollutants were observed between 4.4 and 98%. The highest removal efficiencies were observed with the nanofiltration membrane (NF90) having a lower molecular weight cut-off than the others used in this study. It was observed that the effluent of NF90 membrane did not exceed the allowed maximum COD value. PMID:23076267

  16. Effects of combined training vs aerobic training on cognitive functions in COPD: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Giovanna; Iuliano, Enzo; di Cagno, Alessandra; Vardaro, Angela; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Moffa, Stefano; Di Costanzo, Alfonso; De Simone, Giuseppe; Calcagno, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity aerobic training (AT) and high-intensity aerobic training combined with resistance training (ie, combined training [CT]) on cognitive function in patients with COPD. Methods Twenty-eight Caucasian male patients (68.35±9.64 years; mean ± SD) with COPD were recruited and randomized into two groups, AT and CT. Both groups performed physical reconditioning for 4 weeks, with a frequency of five training sessions per week. The CT group completed two daily sessions of 30 minutes: one aerobic session and one strength session, respectively; The AT group performed two 30-minute aerobic endurance exercise sessions on treadmill. Physical and cognitive function tests were performed before and after the training intervention performances. Results Exercise training improved the following cognitive functions: long-term memory, verbal fluency, attentional capacity, apraxia, and reasoning skills (P<0.01). Moreover, the improvements in the CT group were significantly greater than those in the AT group in long-term memory, apraxia, and reasoning skills (P<0.05). Conclusion CT may be a possible strategy to prevent cognitive decline and associated comorbidities in male patients with COPD. PMID:27110107

  17. A combined continuous and interval aerobic training improves metabolic syndrome risk factors in men

    PubMed Central

    Sari-Sarraf, Vahid; Aliasgarzadeh, Akbar; Naderali, Mohammad-Mahdi; Esmaeili, Hamid; Naderali, Ebrahim K

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with metabolic syndrome have significantly higher risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes leading to premature death mortality. Metabolic syndrome has a complex etiology; thus, it may require a combined and multi-targeted aerobic exercise regimen to improve risk factors associated with it. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined continuous and interval aerobic training on patients with metabolic syndrome. Thirty adult male with metabolic syndrome (54±8 years) were randomly divided into two groups: test training group (TTG; n=15) and control group (CG; n=15). Subjects in TTG performed combined continuous and interval aerobic training using a motorized treadmill three times per week for 16 weeks. Subjects in CG were advised to continue with their normal activities of life. Twenty-two men completed the study (eleven men in each group). At the end of the study, in TTG, there were significant (for all, P<0.05) reductions in total body weight (−3.2%), waist circumference (−3.43 cm), blood pressure (up to −12.7 mmHg), and plasma insulin, glucose, and triacylglyceride levels. Moreover, there were significant (for all, P<0.05) increases VO2max (−15.3%) and isometric strength of thigh muscle (28.1%) and high-density lipoprotein in TTG. None of the above indices were changed in CG at the end of 16-week study period. Our study suggests that adoption of a 16-week combined continuous and interval aerobic training regimen in men with metabolic syndrome could significantly reduce cardiovascular risk factors in these patients. PMID:26056487

  18. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-01-01

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns. PMID:26836414

  19. MAP training: combining meditation and aerobic exercise reduces depression and rumination while enhancing synchronized brain activity.

    PubMed

    Alderman, B L; Olson, R L; Brush, C J; Shors, T J

    2016-01-01

    Mental and physical (MAP) training is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training through meditation and physical training through aerobic exercise. The intervention was translated from neuroscientific studies indicating that MAP training increases neurogenesis in the adult brain. Each session consisted of 30 min of focused-attention (FA) meditation and 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Fifty-two participants completed the 8-week intervention, which consisted of two sessions per week. Following the intervention, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD; n=22) reported significantly less depressive symptoms and ruminative thoughts. Typical healthy individuals (n=30) also reported less depressive symptoms at follow-up. Behavioral and event-related potential indices of cognitive control were collected at baseline and follow-up during a modified flanker task. Following MAP training, N2 and P3 component amplitudes increased relative to baseline, especially among individuals with MDD. These data indicate enhanced neural responses during the detection and resolution of conflicting stimuli. Although previous research has supported the individual beneficial effects of aerobic exercise and meditation for depression, these findings indicate that a combination of the two may be particularly effective in increasing cognitive control processes and decreasing ruminative thought patterns. PMID:26836414

  20. Influence of thermophilic aerobic digestion as a sludge pre-treatment and solids retention time of mesophilic anaerobic digestion on the methane production, sludge digestion and microbial communities in a sequential digestion process.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Cho, Hyun Uk; Park, Sang Kyu; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the changes in sludge reduction, methane production and microbial community structures in a process involving two-stage thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) and mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD) under different solid retention times (SRTs) between 10 and 40 days were investigated. The TAD reactor (RTAD) was operated with a 1-day SRT and the MAD reactor (RMAD) was operated at three different SRTs: 39, 19 and 9 days. For a comparison, control MAD (RCONTROL) was operated at three different SRTs of 40, 20 and 10 days. Our results reveal that the sequential TAD-MAD process has about 42% higher methane production rate (MPR) and 15% higher TCOD removal than those of RCONTROL when the SRT decreased from 40 to 20 days. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR results indicate that RMAD maintained a more diverse bacteria and archaea population compared to RCONTROL, due to the application of the biological TAD pre-treatment process. In RTAD, Ureibacillus thermophiles and Bacterium thermus were the major contributors to the increase in soluble organic matter. In contrast, Methanosaeta concilii, a strictly aceticlastic methanogen, showed the highest population during the operation of overall SRTs in RMAD. Interestingly, as the SRT decreased to 20 days, syntrophic VFA oxidizing bacteria, Clostridium ultunense sp., and a hydrogenotrophic methanogen, Methanobacterium beijingense were detected in RMAD and RCONTROL. Meanwhile, the proportion of archaea to total microbe in RMAD and RCONTROL shows highest values of 10.5 and 6.5% at 20-d SRT operation, respectively. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the increased COD removal and methane production at different SRTs in RMAD might be attributed to the increased synergism among microbial species by improving the hydrolysis of the rate limiting step in sludge with the help of the biological TAD pre-treatment. PMID:23871253

  1. Combined effects of aerobic exercise and omega-3 fatty acids in hyperlipidemic persons.

    PubMed

    Warner, J G; Ullrich, I H; Albrink, M J; Yeater, R A

    1989-10-01

    Because both aerobic exercise and fish oil ingestion have been shown to decrease plasma lipids, we examined the effects of combining these modalities in hyperlipidemic subjects. Thirty-four subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups as follows: fish oil and exercise (FE), N = 7, 50 ml of oil daily and 3 d.wk-1 of aerobic exercise; fish oil (F), N = 7, 50 ml of oil daily; corn oil (CN), N = 10, 50 ml of oil daily; and control (C), N = 10. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and at the end of 4, 8, and 12 wk. The FE and F groups showed significantly lower triglycerides with respect to treatment as compared to the CN and C groups. The FE, F, and CN groups exhibited lower total cholesterol values than the control group but were not different from each other. HDL cholesterol was significantly increased after treatment in the FE and F groups as compared to the CN and C groups. Serum apo-B, LDL cholesterol, and LDL protein decreased significantly in the FE group but not the F group from baseline to 12 wk. VO2max increased and percent fat decreased only in the FE group. In conclusion, aerobic exercise improved the effects of fish oil on LDL cholesterol and apo-B and improved fitness and body composition in hyperlipidemic subjects. PMID:2691812

  2. Combined biologic (anaerobic-aerobic) and chemical treatment of starch industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sklyar, Vladimir; Epov, Andrey; Gladchenko, Marina; Danilovich, Dmitrii; Kalyuzhnyi, Sergey

    2003-01-01

    A combined biologic and chemical treatment of high-strength (total chemical oxygen demand [CODtot] up to 20 g/L), strong nitrogenous (total N up to 1 g/L), and phosphoric (total P up to 0.4 g/L) starch industry wastewater was investigated at laboratory-scale level. As a principal step for COD elimination, upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor performance was investigated at 30 degrees C. Under hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of about 1 d, when the organic loading rates were higher than 15 g of COD/(L.d), the CODtot removal varied between 77 and 93%, giving effluents with a COD/N ratio of 4-5:1, approaching the requirements of subsequent denitrification. The activated sludge reactor operating in aerobic-anoxic regime (HRT of about 4 d, duration of aerobic and anoxic phases of 30 min each) was able to remove up to 90% of total nitrogen and up to 64% of COD tot from the anaerobic effluents under 17-20 degrees C. The coagulation experiments with Fe(III) showed that 1.4 mg of resting hardly biodegradable COD and 0.5 mg of phosphate (as P) could be removed from the aerobic effluents by each milligram of iron added. PMID:12794298

  3. Aerobic and Combined Exercise Sessions Reduce Glucose Variability in Type 2 Diabetes: Crossover Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Figueira, Franciele R.; Umpierre, Daniel; Casali, Karina R.; Tetelbom, Pedro S.; Henn, Nicoli T.; Schaan, Beatriz D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of aerobic (AER) or aerobic plus resistance exercise (COMB) sessions on glucose levels and glucose variability in patients with type 2 diabetes. Additionally, we assessed conventional and non-conventional methods to analyze glucose variability derived from multiple measurements performed with continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). Methods Fourteen patients with type 2 diabetes (56±2 years) wore a CGMS during 3 days. Participants randomly performed AER and COMB sessions, both in the morning (24 h after CGMS placement), and at least 7 days apart. Glucose variability was evaluated by glucose standard deviation, glucose variance, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), and glucose coefficient of variation (conventional methods) as well as by spectral and symbolic analysis (non-conventional methods). Results Baseline fasting glycemia was 139±05 mg/dL and HbA1c 7.9±0.7%. Glucose levels decreased immediately after AER and COMB protocols by ∼16%, which was sustained for approximately 3 hours. Comparing the two exercise modalities, responses over a 24-h period after the sessions were similar for glucose levels, glucose variance and glucose coefficient of variation. In the symbolic analysis, increases in 0 V pattern (COMB, 67.0±7.1 vs. 76.0±6.3, P = 0.003) and decreases in 1 V pattern (COMB, 29.1±5.3 vs. 21.5±5.1, P = 0.004) were observed only after the COMB session. Conclusions Both AER and COMB exercise modalities reduce glucose levels similarly for a short period of time. The use of non-conventional analysis indicates reduction of glucose variability after a single session of combined exercises. Trial Registration Aerobic training, aerobic-resistance training and glucose profile (CGMS) in type 2 diabetes (CGMS exercise). ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00887094. PMID:23536769

  4. Thermophilic slurry-phase treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon waste sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldi, F.J.; Bombaugh, K.J.; McFarland, B.

    1995-12-31

    Chemoheterotrophic thermophilic bacteria were used to achieve enhanced hydrocarbon degradation during slurry-phase treatment of oily waste sludges from petroleum refinery operations. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were examined under thermophilic conditions to assess the effects of mode of metabolism on the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The study determined that both aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic bacteria are capable of growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Thermophilic methanogenesis is feasible during the degradation of hydrocarbons when a strict anaerobic condition is achieved in a slurry bioreactor. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria achieved the largest apparent reduction in chemical oxygen demand, freon extractable oil, total and volatile solid,s and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when treating oily waste sludges. The observed shift with time in the molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon material was more pronounced under aerobic metabolic conditions than under strict anaerobic conditions. The changes in the hydrocarbon molecular weight distribution, infrared spectra, and PAH concentrations during slurry-phase treatment indicate that the aerobic thermophilic bioslurry achieved a higher degree of hydrocarbon degradation than the anaerobic thermophilic bioslurry during the same time period.

  5. Sanitising black water by auto-thermal aerobic digestion (ATAD) combined with ammonia treatment.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Annika C; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a two-step process on the concentration of pathogens and indicator microorganisms in black water (0.9-1% total solids) was studied. The treatment combined auto-thermal aerobic digestion (ATAD) and ammonia sanitisation. First, the temperature of the black water was increased through ATAD and when a targeted temperature was reached (33, 41 and 45.5 °C studied), urea was added to a 0.5% concentration (total ammonia nitrogen >2.9 g L⁻¹). Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were reduced to non-detectable levels within 3 days following urea addition at temperatures above 40 °C, whereas when urea was added at 33 °C E. coli was still present after 8 days. By adding urea at temperatures of 40 °C and above, a 5 log10 reduction in Enterococcus spp. and a 3 log10 reduction in Ascaris suum eggs was achieved 1 week after the addition. With combined ATAD and ammonia treatment using 0.5% ww urea added at an aerobic digestion temperature >40 °C, black water was sanitised regarding the pathogens studied in 2 weeks of total treatment time. PMID:26675998

  6. Does Combined Dry Land Strength and Aerobic Training Inhibit Performance of Young Competitive Swimmers?

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Nuno; Marinho, Daniel A.; Reis, Victor M.; van den Tillaar, Roland; Costa, Aldo M.; Silva, António J.; Marques, Mário C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was twofold: (i) to examine the effects of eight weeks of combined dry land strength and aerobic swimming training for increasing upper and lower body strength, power and swimming performance in young competitive swimmers and, (ii) to assess the effects of a detraining period (strength training cessation) on strength and swimming performance. The participants were divided into two groups: an experimental group (eight boys and four girls) and a control group (six boys and five girls). Apart from normal practice sessions (six training units per week of 1 h and 30 min per day), the experimental group underwent eight weeks (two sessions per week) of strength training. The principal strength exercises were the bench press, the leg extension, and two power exercises such as countermovement jump and medicine ball throwing. Immediately following this strength training program, all the swimmers undertook a 6 week detraining period, maintaining the normal swimming program, without any strength training. Swimming (25 m and 50 m performances, and hydrodynamic drag values), and strength (bench press and leg extension) and power (throwing medicine ball and countermovement jump) performances were tested in three moments: (i) before the experimental period, (ii) after eight weeks of combined strength and swimming training, and (iii) after the six weeks of detraining period. Both experimental and control groups were evaluated. A combined strength and aerobic swimming training allow dry land strength developments in young swimmers. The main data can not clearly state that strength training allowed an enhancement in swimming performance, although a tendency to improve sprint performance due to strength training was noticed. The detraining period showed that, although strength parameters remained stable, swimming performance still improved. Key points This study investigated the effect of dry land strength training on sprint performance in young

  7. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    PubMed Central

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has

  8. Anaerobic thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The term "extremophile" was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of "extreme" environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally "hot environments" on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely

  9. Chthonomonas calidirosea gen. nov., sp. nov., an aerobic, pigmented, thermophilic micro-organism of a novel bacterial class, Chthonomonadetes classis nov., of the newly described phylum Armatimonadetes originally designated candidate division OP10.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kevin C-Y; Dunfield, Peter F; Morgan, Xochitl C; Crowe, Michelle A; Houghton, Karen M; Vyssotski, Mikhail; Ryan, Jason L J; Lagutin, Kirill; McDonald, Ian R; Stott, Matthew B

    2011-10-01

    An aerobic, saccharolytic, obligately thermophilic, motile, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain T49(T), was isolated from geothermally heated soil at Hell's Gate, Tikitere, New Zealand. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, T49(T) is the first representative of a new class in the newly described phylum Armatimonadetes, formerly known as candidate division OP10. Cells of strain T49(T) stained Gram-negative and were catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Cells possessed a highly corrugated outer membrane. The major fatty acids were 16 : 0, i17 : 0 and ai17 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 54.6 mol%. Strain T49(T) grew at 50-73 °C with an optimum temperature of 68 °C, and at pH 4.7-5.8 with an optimum growth pH of 5.3. A growth rate of 0.012 h(-1) was observed under optimal temperature and pH conditions. The primary respiratory quinone was MK-8. Optimal growth was achieved in the absence of NaCl, although growth was observed at NaCl concentrations as high as 2 % (w/v). Strain T49(T) was able to utilize mono- and disaccharides such as cellobiose, lactose, mannose and glucose, as well as branched or amorphous polysaccharides such as starch, CM-cellulose, xylan and glycogen, but not highly linear polysaccharides such as crystalline cellulose or cotton. On the basis of its phylogenetic position and phenotypic characteristics, we propose that strain T49(T) represents a novel bacterial genus and species within the new class Chthonomonadetes classis nov. of the phylum Armatimonadetes. The type strain of Chthonomonas calidirosea gen. nov., sp. nov. is T49(T) ( = DSM 23976(T) = ICMP 18418(T)). PMID:21097641

  10. Effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise on body composition, glycaemic and lipid profile and aerobic capacity of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Coll-Risco, Irene; Aparicio, Virginia A; Nebot, Elena; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Martínez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; López-Jurado, María; Porres, Jesús M; Aranda, Pilar

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session on body composition, and glycaemic and lipid profile in obese rats. Sixteen lean Zucker rats and sixteen obese Zucker rats were randomly divided into exercise and sedentary subgroups (4 groups, n = 8). Exercise consisted of interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise in the same training session. The animals trained 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Body composition, lipid and glycaemic profiles and inflammatory markers were assessed. Results showed that fat mass was reduced in both lean and obese rats following the exercise training (effect size (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 1.8 (0.5-3.0)). Plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and fasting glucose were lower in the exercise compared to the sedentary groups (d = 2.0 (0.7-3.2) and 1.8 (0.5-3.0), respectively). Plasma insulin was reduced in exercise compared to sedentary groups (d = 2.1 (0.8-3.4)). Some exercise × phenotype interactions showed that the highest decreases in insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, fasting and postprandial glucose were observed in the obese + exercise group (all, P < 0.01). The findings of this study suggest that interval aerobic training combined with strength exercise would improve body composition, and lipid and glycaemic profiles, especially in obese rats. PMID:26634322

  11. Community dynamics of cellulose-adapted thermophilic bacterial consortia.

    PubMed

    Eichorst, Stephanie A; Varanasi, Patanjali; Stavila, Vatalie; Zemla, Marcin; Auer, Manfred; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W

    2013-09-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is a key process in the global carbon cycle and the industrial conversion of biomass to biofuels. In natural environments, cellulose hydrolysis is predominately performed by microbial communities. However, detailed understanding of bacterial cellulose hydrolysis is primarily confined to a few model isolates. Developing models for cellulose hydrolysis by mixed microbial consortia will complement these isolate studies and may reveal new mechanisms for cellulose deconstruction. Microbial communities were adapted to microcrystalline cellulose under aerobic, thermophilic conditions using green waste compost as the inoculum to study cellulose hydrolysis in a microbial consortium. This adaptation selected for three dominant taxa--the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Thermus. A high-resolution profile of community development during the enrichment demonstrated a community transition from Firmicutes to a novel Bacteroidetes population that clusters in the Chitinophagaceae family. A representative strain of this population, strain NYFB, was successfully isolated, and sequencing of a nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene demonstrated that it was only 86% identical compared with other validated strains in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Strain NYFB grew well on soluble polysaccharide substrates, but grew poorly on insoluble polysaccharide substrates. Similar communities were observed in companion thermophilic enrichments on insoluble wheat arabinoxylan, a hemicellulosic substrate, suggesting a common model for deconstruction of plant polysaccharides. Combining observations of community dynamics and the physiology of strain NYFB, a cooperative successional model for polysaccharide hydrolysis by the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the thermophilic cellulolytic consortia is proposed. PMID:23763762

  12. Treatment of phenolics, aromatic hydrocarbons, and cyanide-bearing wastewater in individual and combined anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naresh K; Philip, Ligy

    2015-01-01

    Studies were conducted on a mixture of pollutants commonly found in coke oven wastewater (CWW) to evaluate the biodegradation of various pollutants under anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic conditions. The removal of the pollutants was monitored during individual bioreactor operation and using a combination of bioreactors operating in anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic sequence. While studying the performance of individual reactors, it was observed that cyanide removal (83.3 %) was predominant in the aerobic bioreactor, while much of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) (69 %) was consumed in the anoxic bioreactor. With the addition of cyanide, the COD removal efficiency was affected in all the bioreactors, and several intermediates were detected. While treating synthetic CWW using the combined bioreactor system, the overall COD removal efficiency was 86.79 % at an OLR of 2.4 g COD/L/day and an HRT of 96 h. The removal efficiency of 3,5-xylenol and cyanide, with inlet concentration of 150 and 10 mg/L, was found to be 91.8 and 93.6 % respectively. It was found that the impact of xylenol on the performance of the bioreactors was less than cyanide toxicity. Molecular analysis using T-RFLP revealed the dominance of strictly aerobic, mesophilic proteobacterium, Bosea minatitlanensis, in the aerobic bioreactor. The anoxic bioreactor was dominant with Rhodococcus pyridinivorans, known for its remarkable aromatic decomposing activity, while an unclassified Myxococcales bacterium was identified as the predominant bacterial species in the anaerobic bioreactor. PMID:25267355

  13. Heart Rate Recovery and Variability Following Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Training in Adults with and without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Persons with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and there is compelling evidence of autonomic dysfunction in these individuals. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether a combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention produces similar results in cardiac autonomic function between…

  14. Combined effects of aerobic exercise and diet on lipids and lipoproteins in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study used the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to determine the combined effects of aerobic exercise and diet on lipids and lipoproteins in overweight and obese adults. Twelve studies representing 859 men and women (443 intervention, 416 control) were included. Using random-effects models...

  15. Fast formation of aerobic granules by combining strong hydraulic selection pressure with overstressed organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2015-09-01

    The combined strong hydraulic selection pressure (HSP) with overstressed organic loading rate (OLR) as a fast granulation strategy was used to enhance aerobic granulation. To investigate the wide applicability of this strategy to different scenarios and its relevant mechanism, different settling times, different inoculums, different exchange ratios, different reactor configurations, and different shear force were used in this study. It was found that clear granules were formed within 24 h and steady state reached within three days when the fast granulation strategy was used in a lab-scale reactor seeded with well settled activated sludge (Reactor 2). However, granules appeared after 2-week operation and reached steady state after one month at the traditional step-wise decreased settling time from 20 to 2 min with OLR of 6 g COD/L·d (Reactor 1). With the fast granulation strategy, granules appeared within 24 h even with bulking sludge as seed to start up Reactor 3, but 6-day lag phase was observed compared with Reactor 2. Both Reactor 2 and Reactor 3 experienced sigmoidal growth curve in terms of biomass accumulation and granule size increase after granulation. In addition, the reproducible results in pilot-scale reactors (Reactor 5 and Reactor 6) with diameter of 20 cm and height/diameter ratio (H/D) of 4 further proved that reactor configuration and fluid flow pattern had no effect on the aerobic granulation when the fast granulation strategy was employed, but biomass accumulation experienced a short lag phase too in Reactor 5 and Reactor 6. Although overstressed OLR was favorable for fast granulation, it also led to the fluffy granules after around two-week operation. However, the stable 6-month operation of Reactor 3 demonstrated that the rapidly formed granules were able to maintain long-term stability by reducing OLR from 12 g COD/L·d to 6 g COD/L·d. A mechanism of fast granulation with the strategy of combined strong HSP and OLR was proposed to explain

  16. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Metabolic syndrome indices[Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference] were measured before and after the program. One-way ANOVA, paired t-test and two-way repeated ANOVA were used with the SPSS program for data analysis. There was a significant difference in triglyceride (p < .001), HDL-C (p = .010) and waist circumference (p = .016). Triglyceride and waist circumference was significantly decreased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group and aquatic exercise group. HDL-C was significantly increased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group. The results indicate that combined exercise was more effective in the improvement of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. PMID:25566424

  17. Treatment of real industrial wastewater using the combined approach of advanced oxidation followed by aerobic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ramteke, Lokeshkumar P; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-05-01

    Fenton oxidation and ultrasound-based pretreatment have been applied to improve the treatment of real industrial wastewater based on the use of biological oxidation. The effect of operating parameters such as Fe(2+) loading, contact time, initial pH, and hydrogen peroxide loading on the extent of chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction and change in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)/COD ratio has been investigated. The optimum operating conditions established for the pretreatment were initial pH of 3.0, Fe(2+) loading of 2.0, and 2.5 g L(-1) for the US/Fenton/stirring and Fenton approach, respectively, and temperature of 25 °C with initial H2O2 loading of 1.5 g L(-1). The use of pretreatment resulted in a significant increase in the BOD5/COD ratio confirming the production of easily digestible intermediates. The effect of the type of sludge in the aerobic biodegradation was also investigated based on the use of primary activated sludge (PAS), modified activated sludge (MAS), and activated sludge (AS). Enhanced removal of the pollutants as well as higher biomass yield was observed for MAS as compared to PAS and AS. The use of US/Fenton/stirring pretreatment under the optimized conditions followed by biological oxidation using MAS resulted in maximum COD removal at 97.9 %. The required hydraulic retention time for the combined oxidation system was also significantly lower as compared to only biological oxidation operation. Kinetic studies revealed that the reduction in the COD followed a first-order kinetic model for advanced oxidation and pseudo first-order model for biodegradation. The study clearly established the utility of the combined technology for the effective treatment of real industrial wastewater. PMID:26846248

  18. WIse-2005: Combined Aerobic and Resistive Exercise May Help Mitigate Bone Loss During 60-D Simulated Microgravity in Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Schneider, S. M.; Trappe, S. M.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Exercise can attenuate bone loss associated with disuse during bed rest (BR), an analog of space flight. Previous studies have examined the efficacy of aerobic or resistive exercise countermeasures, but not in combination. We sought to determine the effect of a combined resistive and aerobic exercise regimen on bone metabolism during BR. After a 20-d ambulatory adaptation to confinement and diet, 16 women participated in a 60-d head-down-tilt BR. Control subjects (CN, n=8) performed no countermeasures. Exercise subjects, (EX, n=8) participated in exercise alternating daily between supine treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure and resistive fly-wheel exercise (6-d wk(sup -1)). In the last week of BR, bone resorption was greater (p less than 79 plus or minus 44%, mean plus or minus SD) and EX groups (64 50%). N-telopeptide also increased (CN: 51 plus or minus 34%; EX: 43 plus or minus 56%). However, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, tended to be higher in EX (26 plus or minus 18%) than in CN (8 plus or minus 33%) groups. The combination of resistive and aerobic exercise does not prevent bone resorption, but may promote formation, potentially mitigating the net bone loss associated with simulated microgravity. This study was supported by CNES, CSA, ESA, NASA, and NASA grant NNJ04HF71G to ARH. MEDES (French Institute for Space Medicine and Physiology) organized the study.

  19. Combined effects of inspired oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide on oxygen transport and aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Crocker, George H; Toth, Balazs; Jones, James H

    2013-09-01

    We hypothesized that breathing hypoxic, hypercapnic, and CO-containing gases together reduces maximal aerobic capacity (Vo2max) as the sum of each gas' individual effect on Vo2max. To test this hypothesis, goats breathed combinations of inspired O2 fraction (FiO2) of 0.06-0.21 and inspired CO2 fraction of 0.00 or 0.05, with and without inspired CO that elevated carboxyhemoglobin fraction (FHbCO) to 0.02-0.45, while running on a treadmill at speeds eliciting Vo2max. Individually, hypoxia and elevated FHbCO decreased fractional Vo2max (FVo2max, fraction of a goat's Vo2max breathing air) in linear, dose-dependent manners; hypercapnia did not change Vo2max. Concomitant hypoxia and elevated FHbCO decreased Vo2max less than the individual gas effects summed, indicating their combined effects on Vo2max are attenuated, fitting the following regression: FVo2max = 4.24 FiO2 + 0.519 FHbCO - 8.22 (FiO2 × FHbCO) + 0.117, (R(2) = 0.965, P < 0.001). The FVo2max correlated highly with total cardiopulmonary O2 delivery, not peripheral diffusing capacity, and with arterial O2 concentration (CaO2), not cardiac output. Hypoxia and elevated FHbCO decreased CaO2 by different mechanisms: hypoxia decreased arterial O2 saturation (SaO2), whereas elevated FHbCO decreased O2 capacitance {concentration of hemoglobin (Hb) available to bind O2 ([Hbavail])}. When breathing hypoxic gas (FiO2 0.12), CaO2 did not change with increasing FHbCO up to 0.30 because higher SaO2 of Hbavail offset decreased [Hbavail] due to the following: 1) hyperventilation with hypoxia and/or elevated FHbCO; 2) increased Hb affinity for O2 due to both Bohr and direct carboxyhemoglobin effects; and 3) the sigmoid relationship between O2 saturation and partial pressure elevating SaO2 more with hypoxia than normoxia. PMID:23813529

  20. Stable-Isotope Analysis of a Combined Nitrification-Denitrification Sustained by Thermophilic Methanotrophs under Low-Oxygen Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pel, R.; Oldenhuis, R.; Brand, W.; Vos, A.; Gottschal, J. C.; Zwart, K. B.

    1997-01-01

    To simulate growth conditions experienced by microbiota at O(inf2)-limited interfaces of organic matter in compost, an experimental system capable of maintaining dual limitations of oxygen and carbon for extended periods, i.e., a pO(inf2)-auxostat, has been used. (sup15)N tracer studies on thermophilic (53(deg)C) decomposition processes occurring in manure-straw aggregates showed the emission of dinitrogen gas from the reactor as a result of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification at low pO(inf2) values (0.1 to 2.0%, vol/vol). The N loss was confirmed by nitrogen budget studies of the system. Depending on the imposed pO(inf2), 0.6 to 1.4 mmol of N/day (i.e., 20 to 40% of input N) was emitted as N(inf2). When the pO(inf2) was raised, the rates of both nitrification and denitrification increased instantaneously, indicating that ammonia oxidation was limited by oxygen. In auxostats permanently running at pO(inf2) >= 2% (vol/vol), the free ammonium pool was almost completely oxidized and was converted to nitrite plus nitrate and N(inf2) gas. Labelling of the auxostat with [(sup13)C]carbonate was conducted to reveal whether nitrification was of autotrophic or heterotrophic origin. Incorporation of (sup13)CO(inf2) into population-specific cellular compounds was evaluated by profiling the saponifiable phospholipid fatty acids (FAs) by using capillary gas chromatography and subsequently analyzing the (sup13)C/(sup12)C ratios of the individual FAs, after their combustion to CO(inf2), by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Apart from the observed label incorporation into FAs originating from a microflora belonging to the genus Methylococcus (type X group), supporting nitrification of a methylotrophic nature, this analysis also corroborated the absence of truly autotrophic nitrifying populations. Nevertheless, the extent to which ammonia oxidation continued to exist in this thermophilic community suggested that a major energy gain could be associated with it. PMID

  1. Combination of oxyanion Gln114 mutation and medium engineering to influence the enantioselectivity of thermophilic lipase from Geobacillus zalihae.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Roswanira Abdul; Basri, Mahiran; Rahman, Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Leow, Thean Chor

    2012-01-01

    The substitution of the oxyanion Q114 with Met and Leu was carried out to investigate the role of Q114 in imparting enantioselectivity on T1 lipase. The mutation improved enantioselectivity in Q114M over the wild-type, while enantioselectivity in Q114L was reduced. The enantioselectivity of the thermophilic lipases, T1, Q114L and Q114M correlated better with log p as compared to the dielectric constant and dipole moment of the solvents. Enzyme activity was good in solvents with log p < 3.5, with the exception of hexane which deviated substantially. Isooctane was found to be the best solvent for the esterification of (R,S)-ibuprofen with oleyl alcohol for lipases Q114M and Q114L, to afford E values of 53.7 and 12.2, respectively. Selectivity of T1 was highest in tetradecane with E value 49.2. Solvents with low log p reduced overall lipase activity and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) completely inhibited the lipases. Ester conversions, however, were still low. Molecular sieves employed as desiccant were found to adversely affect catalysis in the lipase variants, particularly in Q114M. The higher desiccant loading also increased viscosity in the reaction and further reduced the efficiency of the lipase-catalyzed esterifications. PMID:23109876

  2. Removal of organics and nutrients from food wastewater using combined thermophilic two-phase anaerobic digestion and shortcut biological nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fenghao; Lee, Seungho; Kim, Moonil

    2011-10-15

    A process combining pilot-scale two-phase anaerobic digestion and shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR) was developed to treat organics and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from food wastewater. The thermophilic two-phase anaerobic digestion process was investigated without adjusting the pH of the wastewater for the pre-acidification process. The digested food wastewater was treated using the SBNR process without supplemental carbon sources or alkalinity. Under these circumstances, the combined system was able to remove about 99% of COD, 88% of TN, and 97% of TP. However, considerable amounts of nutrients were removed due to chemical precipitation processes between the anaerobic digestion and SBNR. The average TN removal efficiency of the SBNR process was about 74% at very low C/N (TCOD/TN) ratio of 2. The SBNR process removed about 39% of TP from the digested food wastewater. Conclusively, application of the combined system improved organic removal efficiency while producing valuable energy (biogas), removed nitrogen at a low C/N ratio, and conserved additional resources (carbon and alkalinity). PMID:21849203

  3. Protocol for early detection and evaluation of inhibitory wastewater using combined aerobic respirometric and anaerobic batch techniques.

    PubMed

    Koh, Sock-Hoon; Ellis, Timothy G

    2005-01-01

    Faced with the task of treating significant volumes of complex industrial wastewaters, the biological components of municipal wastewater treatment plants are operating under the risk of toxic or inhibitory contaminants from the industrial effluents that may be detrimental to their operation. This might lead to undesirable effluent toxicity and/or result in permit violations. Therefore, there is a need for upset early warning systems that can protect full-scale plants from toxic or inhibitory constituents in the incoming wastewaters. This study focused on the development of a protocol for rapid detection of potentially toxic inhibitory or toxic wastewaters using combined aerobic respirometric and anaerobic batch techniques. Aerobic respirometers equipped with automated data acquisition systems were used as potential early warning devices. The inhibition effect on carbon and nitrogen oxidation was assessed. The degree of inhibition was evaluated as the concentration causing 50% reduction in microbial activity, which was estimated by an inhibition model. Anaerobic toxicity assays were also conducted to evaluate the inhibitory effects of the toxic compounds to anaerobic inocula obtained from a master culture reactor fed with ethanol. The developed protocol for early detection of toxicity was validated using wastewater samples from a biotechnology industry and a food processing industry, and pure chemicals such as furfural and phenol. Varying degrees of sensitivity were observed in the study when different groups of microorganisms, wastewater samples, and chemicals were tested. The comparison of aerobic and anaerobic inhibition suggested the importance of using both aerobic and anaerobic cultures to maximize the necessary sensitivity of the protocol. PMID:16381158

  4. Small sewage treatment system with an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic combined biofilter.

    PubMed

    Park, S M; Jun, H B; Hong, S P; Kwon, J C

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a small sewage treatment system that could improve nitrogen and BOD5 removal efficiency as well as generate less solid using an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic biofiltration system. Wastewater temperature was in the range of 14-25 degrees C, and hydraulic residual times were 12 h for each reactor. The upflow anaerobic digester equipped with anoxic filter was fed with both raw sewage and recycled effluent from the aerobic filter to induce denitrification and solid reduction simultaneously. In the subsequent aerobic filter, residual organic carbon and ammonia might be oxidized and finally nitrate formed. In the anaerobic reactor, about 71% of influent TCOD was removed by sedimentation of the un-filterable COD at the recycle ratio of 300%. Another 20% of influent TCOD was removed in the anoxic filter by denitrification of the recycled nitrate. After 100 days operation, solid reduction and nitrification efficiency were about 30% and 95%, respectively. Overall removal efficiencies of COD and total nitrogen (T-N) were above 94% and 70% at the recycle ratio of 300%, respectively. Total wasted solid from the system after 100 days operation was about 316 g, which was only 44% of the solid generated from a controlled activated sludge system operated at sludge retention time of 8 days. PMID:14753539

  5. Deriving time-variant aerobic respiration in the hyporheic zone by combining continuous EC and O2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieweg, M.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Schmidt, C.

    2013-12-01

    Hyporheic zones (HZ) are typically characterized by steep gradients of dissolved oxygen and nutrients which form a highly reactive biogeochemical zone. Under the complex conditions of natural environments, the existing flow field is difficult to characterize, and temporal changes of the hydrological conditions induce variable flow paths and travel times. We propose a method for using the natural electrical conductivity signal (EC) of the infiltrated stream water as a tracer to reveal transient travel times in the HZ. By combining measured oxygen concentrations with the travel times of infiltrated stream water, this method can also estimate aerobic respiration rates. Our method utilizes optode-based oxygen loggers, and EC, pressure, and temperature loggers for measuring diurnal fluctuations of these vital stream indicators. Streambed adapted probe rods were designed to minimize riverbed and HZ disruption, to facilitate high temporal and spatial precision, and to minimize the impact on streamflow. Time lags between the surface water EC time series and the EC measured in the sediment at 45 cm depth were analyzed by assuming a one dimensional flow path. We used a windowed cross correlation approach with a moving average smoothing filter to obtain a time-resolved advective travel time. The moving average smoothing filter was applied to the input signal to help maximize the correlation coefficient and to indicate potential dispersion. We used the resulting shifts and smooths to model the sediment EC signal. Diverging amplitudes are interpreted as mass loss and determined by adjusting the filter weight for obtaining a recovery rate. The obtained variations in physical transport conditions (advection, dispersion, recovery rate) are then assigned to the oxygen data. Differences between observed and modeled oxygen concentrations in the sediment were attributed to aerobic respiration. Modeled rates of aerobic respiration varied from 2-19 mg/l/d in August/September 2012 (mean

  6. Anaerobic thermophilic culture

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

  7. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27512271

  8. Effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Ko, Kwang-Jun; Baek, Un-Hyo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of 12 weeks combined aerobic and resistance exercise on heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 female patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus selected among the participants of a chronic disease management exercise class at C Region Public Health Center in South Korea. Subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=8; age, 55.97 ± 7.37) or the control group (n=8; age, 57.53 ± 4.63) The exercise group performed aerobic and resistance exercises for 60 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, physical fitness, and heart rate variability were examined. [Results] After 12 weeks of exercise, weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, blood glucose, insulin resistance, glycated hemoglobin level, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased and cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength significantly increased in the exercise group. Although heart rate variability measures showed favorable changes with the exercise program, none were significant. [Conclusion] Although the exercise program did not show notable changes in heart rate variability in patients with Type 2 diabetes within the timeframe of the study, exercise may contribute to the prevention and control of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. PMID:27512271

  9. Role of Mn2+ and compatible solutes in the radiation resistance of thermophilic bacteria and archaea.

    PubMed

    Webb, Kimberly M; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-resistant bacteria have garnered a great deal of attention from scientists seeking to expose the mechanisms underlying their incredible survival abilities. Recent analyses showed that the resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum is dependent upon Mn-antioxidant complexes responsible for the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by radiation. Here we examined the role of the compatible solutes trehalose, mannosylglycerate, and di-myo-inositol phosphate in the radiation resistance of aerobic and anaerobic thermophiles. We found that the IR resistance of the thermophilic bacteria Rubrobacter xylanophilus and Rubrobacter radiotolerans was highly correlated to the accumulation of high intracellular concentration of trehalose in association with Mn, supporting the model of Mn(2+)-dependent ROS scavenging in the aerobes. In contrast, the hyperthermophilic archaea Thermococcus gammatolerans and Pyrococcus furiosus did not contain significant amounts of intracellular Mn, and we found no significant antioxidant activity from mannosylglycerate and di-myo-inositol phosphate in vitro. We therefore propose that the low levels of IR-generated ROS under anaerobic conditions combined with highly constitutively expressed detoxification systems in these anaerobes are key to their radiation resistance and circumvent the need for the accumulation of Mn-antioxidant complexes in the cell. PMID:23209374

  10. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF COMBINED POTATO PROCESSING AND MUNICIPAL WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Demonstration and evaluation of the treatment of combined potato processing waste-water and domestic wastes using various combinations of anaerobic and aerated lagoons. Measured parameters included: BOD, COD, TSS, VSS, nitrogen, phosphorus, volatile acids, total coliform, fecal c...

  11. Combined anaerobic-aerobic treatment of landfill leachates under mesophilic, submesophilic and psychrophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, S; Gladchenko, M; Epov, A

    2003-01-01

    As a first step of treatment of landfill leachates (total COD--1,430-3,810 mg/l, total nitrogen 90-162 mg/l), a performance of laboratory UASB reactors has been investigated under mesophilic (30 degrees C), sub-mesophilic (20 degrees C) and psychrophilic (10 degrees C) conditions. Under hydraulic retention times (HRT) of around 7 h, when the average organic loading rates (OLR) were around 5 g COD/l/day, the total COD removal accounted for 81% (on the average) with the effluent concentrations close to anaerobic biodegradability limit (0.25 g COD/l) for mesophilic and sub-mesophilic regimes. The psychrophilic treatment conducted under the average HRT of 8 h and the average OLR of 4.22 g COD/l/day showed a total COD removal of 47% producing the effluents (0.75 g COD/l) more suitable for subsequent biological nitrogen removal. All three anaerobic regimes used for leachate treatment were quite efficient for elimination of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) by concomitant precipitation in the form of insoluble sulphides inside the sludge bed. The application of aerobic/anoxic biofilter as a sole polishing step for psychrophilic anaerobic effluents was acceptable for elimination of biodegradable COD and nitrogen approaching the current standards for direct discharge of treated wastewater. PMID:14640233

  12. Effects of Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on Exercise Capacity, Muscle Strength and Quality of Life in HIV-Infected Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gomes Neto, Mansueto; Conceição, Cristiano Sena; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Brites, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Many HIV-infected patients demonstrate disability and lower aerobic capacity. The inclusion of resistance training combined with aerobic exercise in a single program is known as combined aerobic and resistance exercise (CARE) and seems to be an effective strategy to improve muscle weakness, as well as aerobic capacity in HIV-infected patients. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effects of CARE in HIV-infected patients. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, CINAHL (from the earliest date available to august 2014) for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of CARE in HIV-infected patients. Weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test. Results Seven studies met the study criteria. CARE resulted in improvement in Peak VO2 WMD (4.48 mL·kg-1·min-1 95% CI: 2.95 to 6.0), muscle strength of the knee extensors WMD (25.06 Kg 95% CI: 10.46 to 39.66) and elbow flexors WMD (4.44 Kg 95% CI: 1.22 to 7.67) compared with no exercise group. The meta-analyses also showed significant improvement in Health status, Energy/Vitality and physical function domains of quality of life for participants in the CARE group compared with no exercise group. A nonsignificant improvement in social function domain of quality of life was found for participants in the CARE group compared with no exercise group. Conclusions Combined aerobic and resistance exercise may improve peak VO2, muscle strength and health status, energy and physical function domains of quality of life and should be considered as a component of care of HIV-infected individuals. PMID:26378794

  13. [Effective nitrogen removal in low C/N wastewater with combined aerobic-low DO biofilm treatment process].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Rong; Ai, Qi-Feng; Xu, Wen-Lu; Wu, Min-Lin

    2011-10-01

    The municipal wastewater in China is characterized by low ratio of carbon to nitrogen, which is the key restrictive factor for effective biological removal of nitrogen. In this study, the aerobic-low DO biofilm process was used for the nitrogen removal of municipal wastewater. By means of adjusting inflow ratios of aerobic section to low-DO section, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and inflow ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N), the performances of nitrification in aerobic biofilm section and denitrification in low-DO section could be improved, the good performance of nitrogen removal was achieved. In order to insure the good effluent quality, especially for ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen indexes, the nitrification and denitrification could be made up in aerobic and low-DO biofilm section respectively due to the coexistence of aerobic and anoxic zone in biofilm. There were 3 stages for the research process. In the first stage, the original C/N, inflow ratios of aerobic section to low-DO section were chosen as 3:1 and 1:1 respectively, then the effects of various HRT (aerobic section + low DO section) values such as (10 + 5) h, (8 + 4) h, (6 + 3) h, (4 + 2) h to nitrogen removal were analyzed. According to the conclusion in the first stage, the original C/N was kept at 3:1, HRT (aerobic section + low DO section) was (10 + 5) h. Then, the effects of various inflow ratios to nitrogen removal were studied in the second stage. In the third stage, when HRT(aerobic section + low DO section) was (10 + 5) h and inflow ratio was 1:1, the original C/N were adjusted from 2:1, 3:1, 5:1 to 10:1. To conclude, the optimal parameters for nitrogen removal in the biofilm system were as follows: original C/N = 5:1, inflow ratio of aerobic to low-DO section = 1:1, HRT of aerobic and low-DO sections were 10 h and 5 h respectively. As a result, COD, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen could be removed from 254 mg/L to 48 mg/L, 37.2 mg/L to 9.3 mg/L and 48.2 mg/L to 14.8 mg

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus subterraneus Strain K, a Hydrocarbon-Oxidizing Thermophilic Bacterium Isolated from a Petroleum Reservoir in Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Poltaraus, Andrey B.; Sokolova, Diyana S.; Grouzdev, Denis S.; Ivanov, Timophey M.; Malakho, Sophia G.; Korshunova, Alena V.; Tourova, Tatiyana P.

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Geobacillus subterraneus strain K, a thermophilic aerobic oil-oxidizing bacterium isolated from production water of the Uzen high-temperature oil field in Kazakhstan, is presented here. The genome is annotated for elucidation of the genomic and phenotypic diversity of thermophilic alkane-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:27491973

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus subterraneus Strain K, a Hydrocarbon-Oxidizing Thermophilic Bacterium Isolated from a Petroleum Reservoir in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Poltaraus, Andrey B; Sokolova, Diyana S; Grouzdev, Denis S; Ivanov, Timophey M; Malakho, Sophia G; Korshunova, Alena V; Tourova, Tatiyana P; Nazina, Tamara N

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Geobacillus subterraneus strain K, a thermophilic aerobic oil-oxidizing bacterium isolated from production water of the Uzen high-temperature oil field in Kazakhstan, is presented here. The genome is annotated for elucidation of the genomic and phenotypic diversity of thermophilic alkane-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:27491973

  16. Can a Single Session of a Community-Based Group Exercise Program Combining Step Aerobics and Bodyweight Resistance Exercise Acutely Reduce Blood Pressure?

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Romeu; Sousa, Nelson; Garrido, Nuno; Cavaco, Braulio; Quaresma, Luís; Reis, Victor Machado

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise on blood pressure in healthy young adult women. Twenty-three healthy young adult women (aged 31.57 ± 7.87 years) participated in two experimental sessions (exercise and control) in a crossover study design. Blood pressure was monitored before, immediately after and at 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. The exercise session consisted of four phases: 1) a warm-up (5 min of dance aerobics); 2) aerobic exercise training (30 min of step aerobics); 3) resistance exercise training (six sets of 12 repetitions of three bodyweight exercises in a circuit mode, 10 min); and 4) a cool-down (5 min of breathing and flexibility exercises); totaling 50 min of duration. Systolic blood pressure after exercise was significantly lower compared to control at the 10th min (−10.83 ± 2.13 vs. −2.6 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009), 20th min (−11.26 ± 2.13 vs. −3.04 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009) and 30th min of recovery (−10.87 ± 2.39 vs. −0.48 ± 2.39 mmHg; p = 0.004). A single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise was effective in inducing significant post-exercise hypotension in healthy young adult women. This type of low-cost exercise interventions may have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and in community health promotion. PMID:25713644

  17. Rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy and meat foods by combination of capture with silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles and thermophilic helicase-dependent isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingxing; Wu, Xiaoli; Gan, Min; Xu, Feng; He, Lihua; Yang, Dong; Xu, Hengyi; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main pathogens in dairy and meat products; therefore, developing a highly sensitive and rapid method for its detection is necessary. In this study, a quantitative detection method for Staph. aureus was developed using silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles and thermophilic helicase-dependent isothermal amplification. First, genomic DNA was extracted from lysed bacteria using silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles and amplified using thermophilic helicase-dependent isothermal amplification. After adding the nucleic-acid dye SYBR Green I to the amplicons, the fluorescence intensity was observed using a UV lamp or recorded using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. This detection system had a detection limit of 5×10(0) cfu/mL in pure culture and milk-powder samples and 5×10(1) cfu/mL in pork samples using a UV light in less than 2h. In addition, a good linear relationship was obtained between fluorescence intensity and bacterial concentrations ranging from 10(2) to 10(4) cfu/mL under optimal conditions. Furthermore, the results from contaminated milk powder and pork samples suggested that the detection system could be used for the quantitative analysis of Staph. aureus and applied potentially to the food industry for the detection of this pathogen. PMID:25547304

  18. Anaerobic thermophilic culture system

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

  19. Substrate-Specific Development of Thermophilic Bacterial Consortia by Using Chemically Pretreated Switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Joshua, Chijioke; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities that deconstruct plant biomass have broad relevance in biofuel production and global carbon cycling. Biomass pretreatments reduce plant biomass recalcitrance for increased efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. We exploited these chemical pretreatments to study how thermophilic bacterial consortia adapt to deconstruct switchgrass (SG) biomass of various compositions. Microbial communities were adapted to untreated, ammonium fiber expansion (AFEX)-pretreated, and ionic-liquid (IL)-pretreated SG under aerobic, thermophilic conditions using green waste compost as the inoculum to study biomass deconstruction by microbial consortia. After microbial cultivation, gravimetric analysis of the residual biomass demonstrated that both AFEX and IL pretreatment enhanced the deconstruction of the SG biomass approximately 2-fold. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) experiments and acetyl bromide-reactive-lignin analysis indicated that polysaccharide hydrolysis was the dominant process occurring during microbial biomass deconstruction, and lignin remaining in the residual biomass was largely unmodified. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene amplicon libraries revealed that although the dominant taxa across these chemical pretreatments were consistently represented by members of the Firmicutes, the Bacteroidetes, and Deinococcus-Thermus, the abundance of selected operational taxonomic units (OTUs) varied, suggesting adaptations to the different substrates. Combining the observations of differences in the community structure and the chemical and physical structure of the biomass, we hypothesize specific roles for individual community members in biomass deconstruction. PMID:25261509

  20. Substrate-Specific Development of Thermophilic Bacterial Consortia by Using Chemically Pretreated Switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Eichorst, Stephanie A; Joshua, Chijioke; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W

    2014-12-01

    Microbial communities that deconstruct plant biomass have broad relevance in biofuel production and global carbon cycling. Biomass pretreatments reduce plant biomass recalcitrance for increased efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. We exploited these chemical pretreatments to study how thermophilic bacterial consortia adapt to deconstruct switchgrass (SG) biomass of various compositions. Microbial communities were adapted to untreated, ammonium fiber expansion (AFEX)-pretreated, and ionic-liquid (IL)-pretreated SG under aerobic, thermophilic conditions using green waste compost as the inoculum to study biomass deconstruction by microbial consortia. After microbial cultivation, gravimetric analysis of the residual biomass demonstrated that both AFEX and IL pretreatment enhanced the deconstruction of the SG biomass approximately 2-fold. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) experiments and acetyl bromide-reactive-lignin analysis indicated that polysaccharide hydrolysis was the dominant process occurring during microbial biomass deconstruction, and lignin remaining in the residual biomass was largely unmodified. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene amplicon libraries revealed that although the dominant taxa across these chemical pretreatments were consistently represented by members of the Firmicutes, the Bacteroidetes, and Deinococcus-Thermus, the abundance of selected operational taxonomic units (OTUs) varied, suggesting adaptations to the different substrates. Combining the observations of differences in the community structure and the chemical and physical structure of the biomass, we hypothesize specific roles for individual community members in biomass deconstruction. PMID:25261509

  1. Effects of Aerobic Step Combined with Resistance Training on Biochemical Bone Markers, Health-Related Physical Fitness and Balance in Working Women.

    PubMed

    Anek, Achariya; Kanungsukasem, Vijit; Bunyaratavej, Narong

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop an aerobic step combined with resistance training exercise program, and to compare the effects of A) aerobic step exercise training (STE), B) resistance aerobic exercise training (RES), C) a combined aerobic step with resistance exercise training (COM) on the health-related fitness, balance, and biochemical bone markers. Sixty participants were working female volunteers at the age of 35-45. They were divided into 4 groups by simple random sampling method. Fifteen of the participants were in the STE group, 14 in the RES group, 15 in the COM group, and 16 in the control group (CON). The STE, RES and COM exercise training programs were designed to yield the same intensity and achieve the same range of heart rate during each stage of the program. During the training, music was used to set the tempo of the workouts. At the 8th week, it was found that resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure significantly-increased only in the STE and COM groups. After 16 weeks, the experiment results showed the significant improvement in the COM and STE groups of exercise training for β-CrossLaps, P1NP NMID Osteocalcin and bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed significantly greater change than the RES group after the training intervention (p < 0.05). It can thus be concluded that the STE and COM training were effective in improving bone formation (PINP/β-CrossLaps x 0.31) but not in the RES group. For balance ability, the COM group showed more significant change than the RES group. Therefore, this is not only a good exercise choice for the working-age people but also it can help reduce the risks of osteoporosis and falling in women in particular. PMID:26529814

  2. Draft Genome of Thermanaerothrix daxensis GNS-1, a Thermophilic Facultative Anaerobe from the Chloroflexi Class Anaerolineae

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Laura A.; Ward, Lewis M.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2015-01-01

    We present the draft genome of Thermanaerothrix daxensis GNS-1, a thermophilic member of the Chloroflexi phylum. This organism was initially characterized as a nonmotile, strictly anaerobic fermenter; however, genome analysis demonstrates that it encodes genes for a flagellum and multiple pathways for aerobic and anaerobic respiration. PMID:26586891

  3. Draft Genome of Thermanaerothrix daxensis GNS-1, a Thermophilic Facultative Anaerobe from the Chloroflexi Class Anaerolineae.

    PubMed

    Pace, Laura A; Hemp, James; Ward, Lewis M; Fischer, Woodward W

    2015-01-01

    We present the draft genome of Thermanaerothrix daxensis GNS-1, a thermophilic member of the Chloroflexi phylum. This organism was initially characterized as a nonmotile, strictly anaerobic fermenter; however, genome analysis demonstrates that it encodes genes for a flagellum and multiple pathways for aerobic and anaerobic respiration. PMID:26586891

  4. Feasibility of a Combined Aerobic and Strength Training Program and Its Effects on Cognitive and Physical Function in Institutionalized Dementia Patients. A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bossers, Willem J. R.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Boersma, Froukje; Hortobágyi, Tibor; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined the feasibility of a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized dementia patients and studied the effects on cognitive and physical function. Methods Thirty-three patients with dementia, recruited from one nursing home, participated in this non-randomized pilot study (25 women; age = 85.2±4.9 years; Mini Mental State Examination = 16.8±4.0). In phase 1 of the study, seventeen patients in the Exercise group (EG) received a combined aerobic and strength training program for six weeks, five times per week, 30 minutes per session, in an individually supervised format and successfully concluded the pre and posttests. In phase 2 of the study, sixteen patients in the Social group (SG) received social visits at the same frequency, duration, and format and successfully concluded the pre and posttests. Results Indices of feasibility showed that the recruitment and adherence rate, respectively were 46.2% and 86.3%. All EG patients completed the exercise program according to protocol without adverse events. After the six-week program, no significant differences on cognitive function tests were found between the EG and SG. There was a moderate effect size in favor for the EG for the Visual Memory Span Forward; a visual attention test. There were significant differences between groups in favor for the EG with moderate to large effects for the physical tests Walking Speed (p = .003), Six-Minute Walk Test (p = .031), and isometric quadriceps strength (p = .012). Conclusions The present pilot study showed that it is feasible to conduct a combined aerobic and strength training program in institutionalized patients with dementia. The selective cognitive visual attention improvements and more robust changes in motor function in favor of EG vs. SG could serve as a basis for large randomized clinical trials. Trial Registration trialregister.nl 1230 PMID:24844772

  5. Performance of mesophilic biohydrogen-producing cultures at thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Medhavi; Gomez-Flores, Maritza; Nasr, Noha; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Hafez, Hisham; Hesham El Naggar, M; Nakhla, George

    2015-09-01

    In this study, batch tests were conducted to investigate the performance of mesophilic anaerobic digester sludge (ADS) at thermophilic conditions and estimate kinetic parameters for co-substrate fermentation. Starch and cellulose were used as mono-substrate and in combination as co-substrates (1:1 mass ratio) to conduct a comparative assessment between mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (60 °C) biohydrogen production. Unacclimatized mesophilic ADS responded well to the temperature change. The highest hydrogen yield of 1.13 mol H2/mol hexose was observed in starch-only batches at thermophilic conditions. The thermophilic cellulose-only yield (0.42 mol H2/mol hexose) was three times the mesophilic yield (0.13 mol H2/mol hexose). Interestingly, co-fermentation of starch-cellulose at mesophilic conditions enhanced the hydrogen yield by 26% with respect to estimated mono-substrate yields, while under thermophilic conditions no enhancement in the overall yield was observed. Interestingly, the estimated overall Monod kinetic parameters showed higher rates at mesophilic than thermophilic conditions. PMID:26101964

  6. Combined steam-ultrasound treatment of 2 seconds achieves significant high aerobic count and Enterobacteriaceae reduction on naturally contaminated food boxes, crates, conveyor belts, and meat knives.

    PubMed

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Larsen, Annette Baltzer; Krebs, Niels

    2015-02-01

    Food contact surfaces require rigorous sanitation procedures for decontamination, although these methods very often fail to efficiently clean and disinfect surfaces that are visibly contaminated with food residues and possible biofilms. In this study, the results of a short treatment (1 to 2 s) of combined steam (95°C) and ultrasound (SonoSteam) of industrial fish and meat transportation boxes and live-chicken transportation crates naturally contaminated with food and fecal residues were investigated. Aerobic counts of 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/24 cm(2) and an Enterobacteriaceae spp. level of 2.0 CFU/24 cm(2) were found on the surfaces prior to the treatment. After 1 s of treatment, the aerobic counts were significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced, and within 2 s, reductions below the detection limit (<10 CFU) were reached. Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit with only 1 s of treatment. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment was also applied on two different types of plastic modular conveyor belts with hinge pins and one type of flat flexible rubber belt, all visibly contaminated with food residues. The aerobic counts of 3.0 to 5.0 CFU/50 cm(2) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit. Industrial meat knives were contaminated with aerobic counts of 6.0 log CFU/5 cm(2) on the handle and 5.2 log CFU/14 cm(2) on the steel. The level of Enterobacteriaceae spp. contamination was approximately 2.5 log CFU on the handle and steel. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment reduced the aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae spp. to levels below the detection limit on both handle and steel. This study shows that the steam-ultrasound treatment may be an effective replacement for disinfection processes and that it can be used for continuous disinfection at fast process lines. However, the treatment may not be able to replace efficient cleaning processes used to remove high

  7. MECHANISMS OF THERMOPHILIC SURVIVAL, DEGRADATION BY THERMOPHILICS AND OPTIMIZATION OF THERMOPHILIC BACTERIA FOR BIODEGRADATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a consortium of thermophilic methanotrophic bacteria from Yellowstone National Park that degrades TCE by the use of methyl monooxygenase. We are going to isolate the thermophiles in patent 5,858,763,determine their mechanisms of surviving extreme temperatures, d...

  8. Transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid by thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Mohammad; Oommen, Sosamma; Al-Awadi, Samira

    2011-01-01

    We performed a series of experiments with Geobacillus stearothermophilus, a thermophile isolated from oil-contaminated soil in the Kuwaiti desert. The organism has a good potential for the transformation of a broad spectrum of organic molecules such as steroids, amino acids, and aromatic hydrocarbons. In the present study, we tested its potential for the transformation of a bile component, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). Five transformed products, namely, cholic acid, methylcholate, methylchenodeoxycholate, 3α-hydroxy-7-oxo-5β-cholanic acid, and 7α-hydroxy-3-oxo-5β-cholanic acid, were the major transformation products catalyzed by G. stearothermophilus. Under aerobic conditions, no evidence of side chain degradation, ring cleavage, or dehydrogenation was found among the metabolites of CDCA. CDCA transformation by a thermophile is reported for the first time. PMID:21838799

  9. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Combined with Aerobic Exercise to Optimize Analgesic Responses in Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mendonca, Mariana E.; Simis, Marcel; Grecco, Luanda C.; Battistella, Linamara R.; Baptista, Abrahão F.; Fregni, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome that is associated with maladaptive plasticity in neural central circuits. One of the neural circuits that are involved in pain in fibromyalgia is the primary motor cortex. We tested a combination intervention that aimed to modulate the motor system: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) and aerobic exercise (AE). In this phase II, sham-controlled randomized clinical trial, 45 subjects were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: tDCS + AE, AE only, and tDCS only. The following outcomes were assessed: intensity of pain, level of anxiety, quality of life, mood, pressure pain threshold, and cortical plasticity, as indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation. There was a significant effect for the group-time interaction for intensity of pain, demonstrating that tDCS/AE was superior to AE [F(13, 364) = 2.25, p = 0.007] and tDCS [F(13, 364) = 2.33, p = 0.0056] alone. Post-hoc adjusted analysis showed a difference between tDCS/AE and tDCS group after the first week of stimulation and after 1 month intervention period (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). Further, after treatment there was a significant difference between groups in anxiety and mood levels. The combination treatment effected the greatest response. The three groups had no differences regarding responses in motor cortex plasticity, as assessed by TMS. The combination of tDCS with aerobic exercise is superior compared with each individual intervention (cohen's d effect sizes > 0.55). The combination intervention had a significant effect on pain, anxiety and mood. Based on the similar effects on cortical plasticity outcomes, the combination intervention might have affected other neural circuits, such as those that control the affective-emotional aspects of pain. Trial registration: (www.ClinicalTrials.gov), identifier NTC02358902. PMID:27014012

  10. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of Lurgi coal gasification wastewater in a UASB reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Li, Huiqiang; Yuan, Min

    2011-02-01

    Lurgi coal gasification wastewater (LCGW) is a refractory wastewater, whose anaerobic treatment has been a severe problem due to its toxicity and poor biodegradability. Using a mesophilic (35±2°C) reactor as a control, thermophilic anaerobic digestion (55±2°C) of LCGW was investigated in a UASB reactor. After 120 days of operation, the removal of COD and total phenols by the thermophilic reactor could reach 50-55% and 50-60% respectively, at an organic loading rate of 2.5 kg COD/(m(3) d) and HRT of 24 h; the corresponding efficiencies were both only 20-30% in the mesophilic reactor. After thermophilic digestion, the wastewater concentrations of the aerobic effluent COD could reach below 200 mg/L compared with around 294 mg/L if mesophilic digestion was done and around 375 mg/L if sole aerobic pretreatment was done. The results suggested that thermophilic anaerobic digestion improved significantly both anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation of LCGW. PMID:21112778

  11. Textile wastewater treatment in a bench-scale anaerobic-biofilm anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactor combined with nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Selene; Piscitelli, Daniela; Mattioli, Davide; Casu, Stefania; Spagni, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the treatability of textile wastewaters in a bench-scale experimental system, comprising an anaerobic biofilter, an anoxic reactor and an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The MBR effluent was thereafter treated by a nanofiltration (NF) membrane. The proposed system was demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of the textile wastewater under the operating conditions applied in the study. The MBR system achieved a good COD (90-95%) removal; due to the presence of the anaerobic biofilter, also effective color removal was obtained (70%). The addition of the NF membrane allowed the further improvement in COD (50-80%), color (70-90%) and salt removal (60-70% as conductivity). In particular the NF treatment allowed the almost complete removal of the residual color and a reduction of the conductivity such as to achieve water quality suitable for reuse. PMID:21992723

  12. The effects of aerobic, resistance, and combination training on insulin sensitivity and secretion in overweight adults from STRRIDE AT/RT: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    AbouAssi, Hiba; Slentz, Cris A; Mikus, Catherine R; Tanner, Charles J; Bateman, Lori A; Willis, Leslie H; Shields, A Tamlyn; Piner, Lucy W; Penry, Lorrie E; Kraus, Erik A; Huffman, Kim M; Bales, Connie W; Houmard, Joseph A; Kraus, William E

    2015-06-15

    Most health organizations recommend a combination of aerobic training (AT) and resistance training (RT), yet few studies have compared their acute (within 24 h of the last exercise bout) and sustained (after 14 days of no exercise training) effects alone and in combination on glucose metabolism. The present study (Studies Targeting Risk Reduction Interventions through Defined Exercise-Aerobic Training and/or Resistance Training) compared the effects of AT, RT, and the combination (AT/RT) on insulin action at both acute and sustained phases. Subjects (N = 196) were 18-70 yr old (mean age = 50 yr), overweight (mean body mass index = 30 kg/m2), sedentary with moderate dyslipidemia, and were randomized into one of three 8-mo exercise groups: 1) RT: 3 days/wk, 8 exercises, 3 sets/exercise, 8-12 repetitions/set; 2) AT: equivalent to ∼19.2 km/wk (12 miles/wk) at 75% peak O2 consumption; 3) AT/RT: the combination of AT and RT. One hundred forty-four subjects completed the intervention. Eighty-eight subjects completed all pre- and postintervention testing visits. Insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, and disposition index were measured via a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test with subsequent minimal model analyses. AT/RT resulted in greater improvements in insulin sensitivity, β-cell function (disposition index), and glucose effectiveness than either AT or RT alone (all P < 0.05). Approximately 52% of the improvement in insulin sensitivity by AT/RT was retained 14 days after the last exercise training bout. Neither AT or RT led to acute or chronic improvement in sensitivity index. In summary, only AT/RT (which required twice as much time as either alone) led to significant acute and sustained benefits in insulin sensitivity PMID:25882384

  13. Combined effects of aerobic exercise and l-arginine ingestion on blood pressure in normotensive postmenopausal women: A crossover study.

    PubMed

    Puga, Guilherme M; de P Novais, Iane; Katsanos, Christos S; Zanesco, Angelina

    2016-04-15

    After menopause the incidence of cardiovascular diseases increases in women. A decrease in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability has been pointed out to play a major role in this phenomenon. Since it is believed that l-arginine administration could improve NO bioavailability, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of acute l-arginine administration associated with aerobic exercise on blood pressure (BP), redox state and inflammatory biomarkers in normotensive postmenopausal women (NPW). Sixteen volunteers (57±6yr) were subjected to four experimental sessions (crossover design): arginine+exercise (A-E); arginine (ARG); exercise+placebo (EXE); control (CON). Each session was initiated with either 9g of l-arginine ingestion (ARG or A-E days), placebo (EXE day), or nothing (CON day). The participants performed 30min of aerobic exercise (A-E and EXE days) or sitting rest (CON and ARG days). Blood samples were collected before each session and 45min after the intervention. Office BP and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) were evaluated. NO/cGMP pathway, redox state and inflammatory biomarkers were measured. Systolic BP decreased during the 24-hour in A-E and EXE sessions. However, diastolic BP reduced only in A-E session. No changes were found in the biomarkers concentrations. In conclusion, the association was effective in lowering diastolic BP in NPW. Additionally, physical exercise alone promoted a long lasting effect on systolic BP measured by ABPM in this population, although this beneficial effect was not associated with changes in the cardio-inflammatory biomarkers. Possibly, other factors such as neural influences could be mediating this effect. PMID:26972606

  14. Thermophilic degradation of cellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, T.; Zeikus, J. G.

    1982-12-01

    The conversion of cellulosic biomass to chemical feedstocks and fuel by microbial fermentation is an important objective of developing biotechnology. Direct fermentation of cellulosic derivatives to ethanol by thermophilic bacteria offers a promising approach to this goal. Fermentations at elevated temperatures lowers the energy demand for cooling and also facilitates the recovery of volatile products. In addition, thermophilic microorganisms possess enzymes with greater stability than those from mesophilic microorganisms. Three anaerobic thermophilic cocultures that ferment cellulosic substrate mainly to ethanol have been described: Clostridium thermocellum/Clostriidium thermohydrosulfuricum, C. thermocellum/Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum, and C. thermocellum/Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus sp. nov. The growth characteristics and metabolic features of these cocultures are reviewed.

  15. Thermophilic molds: Biology and applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bijender; Poças-Fonseca, Marcio J; Johri, B N; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2016-11-01

    Thermophilic molds thrive in a variety of natural habitats including soils, composts, wood chip piles, nesting materials of birds and other animals, municipal refuse and others, and ubiquitous in their distribution. These molds grow in simple media containing carbon and nitrogen sources and mineral salts. Polyamines are synthesized in these molds and the composition of lipids varies considerably, predominantly containing palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids with low levels of lauric, palmiotoleic and stearic acids. Thermophilic molds are capable of efficiently degrading organic materials by secreting thermostable enzymes, which are useful in the bioremediation of industrial wastes and effluents that are rich in oil, heavy metals, anti-nutritional factors such as phytic acid and polysaccharides. Thermophilic molds synthesize several antimicrobial substances and biotechnologically useful miscellaneous enzymes. The analysis of genomes of thermophilic molds reveals high G:C contents, shorter introns and intergenic regions with lesser repetitive sequences, and further confirms their ability to degrade agro-residues efficiently. Genetic engineering has aided in ameliorating the characteristics of the enzymes of thermophilic molds. This review is aimed at focusing on the biology of thermophilic molds with emphasis on recent developments in the analysis of genomes, genetic engineering and potential applications. PMID:26777293

  16. Characteristics of the soil-like substrates produced with a novel technique combining aerobic fermentation and earthworm treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Wenli; He, Wenting; Li, Leyuan; Liu, Hong

    2012-12-01

    The soil-like substrate (SLS) technique is key for improving the closure of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) by recycling the inedible biomass of higher plants. In this study, a novel SLS technique (NSLST) was proposed: aerobic fermentations at 35 °C for 1 day, then 60 °C for 6 days, finally 30 °C for 3 days, followed by earthworm treatment for 70 days. Comparing with the original SLS technique (OSLST), its process cycle was 13 days shorter, and the dry weight loss rate (81.1%) was improved by 24.77%. The cellulose and lignin degradation rates were 96.6% and 94.6%. The concentrations of available N, P and K in mature SLS were respectively 776.1 mg/L, 348.0 mg/L and 7943.0 mg/L. Low CH4 and NH3 production was observed, but no accumulation. According to the seed germination test, the SLSs were feasible for plant growth. This investigation will provide a preliminary foundation for BLSS design.

  17. A combined upflow anaerobic sludge bed, aerobic, and anoxic fixed-bed reactor system for removing tetramethylammonium hydroxide and nitrogen from light-emitting diode wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han-Lin; Chen, Sheng-Kun; Huang, Yu-Wen; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Chien, Wei-Cheng; Cheng, Sheng-Shung

    2016-06-01

    A laboratory study using a combined upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) and aerobic and anoxic fixed-bed reactor system was undertaken to explore its capability for removing tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and nitrogen from light-emitting diode wastewater. When the organic loading rate was maintained at 0.26-0.65 kg TMAH m(-3 )d(-1), the UASB reactor removed 70-100% of TMAH through methanogenesis. When the [Formula: see text] -N loading rate was maintained at 0.73-1.4 kg [Formula: see text]-N m(-3 )d(-1), the aerobic reactor oxidized 31-59% of [Formula: see text]-N to [Formula: see text]-N through nitritation. When the nitrogen loading rate was maintained at 0.42-0.75 kg N m(-3 )d(-1), the anoxic reactor removed 27-63% of nitrogen through anammox. The performance data of the combined reactor system agreed well with the stoichiometric relationships of methanogenesis, nitritation, and anammox. The batch studies showed that a higher initial TMAH concentration of up to 2520 mg L(-1) gave a higher methanogenic activity of up to 16 mL CH4 g(-1) VSS d(-1). An increase in the initial TMAH concentration of up to 500 mg L(-1) gradually decreased the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria; whereas an increase in the initial TMAH concentration of up to 47 mg L(-1) imposed a marked inhibiting effect on the activity of anammox bacteria. PMID:26583577

  18. Combining eddy-covariance measurements and Penman-Monteith type models to estimate evapotranspiration of flooded and aerobic rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchi, Arianna; Masseroni, Daniele; Gharsallah, Olfa; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    Rice is of great importance both from a food supply point of view, since it represents the main food in the diet of over half the world's population, and from a water resources point of view, since it consumes almost 40% of the water amount used for irrigation. About 90% of global production takes place in Asia, while European production is quantitatively modest (about 3 million tons). However, Italy is the Europe's leading producer, with over half of total production, almost totally concentrated in a large traditional paddy rice area between the Lombardy and Piedmont regions, in the north-western part of the country. In this area, irrigation of rice is traditionally carried out by continuous flooding. The high water requirement of this irrigation regime encourages the introduction of water saving irrigation practices, as flood irrigation after sowing in dry soil and intermittent irrigation (aerobic rice). In the agricultural season 2013 an intense monitoring activity was conducted on three experimental fields located in the Padana plain (northern Italy) and characterized by different irrigation regimes (traditional flood irrigation, flood irrigation after sowing in dry soil, intermittent irrigation), with the aim of comparing the water balance terms for the three irrigation treatments. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the terms, but, unlike others water balance components, its field monitoring requires expensive instrumentation. This work explores the possibility of using only one eddy covariance system and Penman-Monteith (PM) type models for the determination of ET fluxes for the three irrigation regimes. An eddy covariance station was installed on the levee between the traditional flooded and the aerobic rice fields, to contemporaneously monitor the ET fluxes from this two treatments as a function of the wind direction. A detailed footprint analysis was conducted - through the application of three different analytical models - to determine the position

  19. Concurrent Training in Prepubescent Children: The Effects of 8 Weeks of Strength and Aerobic Training on Explosive Strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana R; Marta, Carlos C; Neiva, Henrique P; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2016-07-01

    Alves, AR, Marta, CC, Neiva, HP, Izquierdo, M, and Marques, MC. Concurrent training in prepubescent children: the effects of 8 weeks of strength and aerobic training on explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2019-2032, 2016-The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week training periods of strength training alone (GS), combined strength and aerobic training in the same session (GCOM1), or in 2 different sessions (GCOM2) on explosive strength and maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) in prepubescent children. Of note, 168 healthy children, aged 10-11 years (10.9 ± 0.5), were randomly selected and assigned to 3 training groups to train twice a week for 8 weeks: GS (n = 41), GCOM1 (n = 45), GCOM2 (n = 38) groups, and a control group (GC) (n = 44; no training program). The GC maintained the baseline level, and trained-induced differences were found in the experimental groups. Differences were observed in the 1 and 3-kg medicine ball throws (GS: +5.8 and +8.1%, respectively; GCOM1: +5.7 and +8.7%, respectively; GCOM2: +6.2 and +8%, respectively, p < 0.001) and in the countermovement jump height and in the standing long jump length (GS: +5.1 and +5.2%, respectively; GCOM1: +4.2 and +7%, respectively; GCOM2: +10.2 and +6.4%, respectively, p < 0.001). In addition, the training period induced gains in the 20-m time (GS: +2.1%; GCOM1: +2.1%; GCOM2: +2.3%, p < 0.001). It was shown that the experimental groups (GCOM1, GCOM2, and GS) increased V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, muscular strength, and explosive strength from pretraining to posttraining. The higher gains were observed for concurrent training when it was performed in different sessions. These results suggest that concurrent training in 2 different sessions seems to be an effective and useful method for training-induced explosive strength and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in prepubescent children. This could be considered as an alternative way to

  20. Were the original eubacteria thermophiles?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achenbach-Richter, L.; Gupta, R.; Stetter, K. O.; Woese, C. R.; Johnson, P. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    Thermotoga maritima is one of the more unusual eubacteria: It is highly thermophilic, growing at temperatures higher than any other eubacterium; its cell wall appears to have a unique structure and its lipids a unique composition; and the organism is surrounded by a loose-fitting sheath of unknown function. Its phenotypic uniqueness is matched by its phylogenetic position; Thermotoga maritima represents the deepest known branching in the eubacterial line of descent, as measured by ribosomal RNA sequence comparisons. T. maritima also represents the most slowly evolving of eubacterial lineages. The fact that the two deepest branchings in the eubacterial line of descent (the other, the green non-sulfur bacteria and relatives, i.e. Chloroflexus, Thermomicrobium, etc.) are both basically thermophilic and slowly evolving, strongly suggests that all eubacteria have ultimately arisen from a thermophilic ancestor.

  1. Enhancing of Women Functional Status with Metabolic Syndrome by Cardioprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Combined Aerobic and Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Alsamir Tibana, Ramires; da Cunha Nascimento, Dahan; Frade de Sousa, Nuno Manuel; de Souza, Vinicius Carolino; Durigan, João; Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; de Toledo Nóbrega, Otávio; de Almeida, Jeeser Alves; Navalta, James Wilfred; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Prestes, Jonato

    2014-01-01

    These data describe the effects of combined aerobic plus resistance training (CT) with regards to risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS), quality of life, functional capacity, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in women with MetS. In this context, thirteen women (35.4±6.2 yr) completed 10 weeks of CT consisting of three weekly sessions of ∼60 min aerobic training (treadmill at 65–70% of reserve heart rate, 30 min) and resistance training (3 sets of 8–12 repetitions maximum for main muscle groups). Dependent variables were maximum chest press strength; isometric hand-grip strength; 30 s chair stand test; six minute walk test; body mass; body mass index; body adiposity index; waist circumference; systolic (SBP), diastolic and mean blood pressure (MBP); blood glucose; HDL-C; triglycerides; interleukins (IL) 6, 10 and 12, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and serum nitric oxide metabolite (NOx); quality of life (SF-36) and Z-Score of MetS. There was an improvement in muscle strength on chest press (p = 0.009), isometric hand-grip strength (p = 0.03) and 30 s chair stand (p = 0.007). There was a decrease in SBP (p = 0.049), MBP (p = 0.041), Z-Score of MetS (p = 0.046), OPG (0.42±0.26 to 0.38±0.19 ng/mL, p<0.05) and NOx (13.3±2.3 µmol/L to 9.1±2.3 µmol/L; p<0.0005). IL-10 displayed an increase (13.6±7.5 to 17.2±12.3 pg/mL, p<0.05) after 10 weeks of training. Combined training also increased the perception of physical capacity (p = 0.011). This study endorses CT as an efficient tool to improve blood pressure, functional capacity, quality of life and reduce blood markers of inflammation, which has a clinical relevance in the prevention and treatment of MetS. Trial Registration Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBec) - RBR-6gdyvz - http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/?q=RBR-6gdyvz PMID:25379699

  2. Treatment of gaseous alpha-pinene by a combined system containing photo oxidation and aerobic biotrickling filtration.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhuo-Wei; Zhang, Li-Li; Chen, Jian-Meng; Yu, Jian-Ming; Gao, Zeng-Liang; Jiang, Yi-Feng

    2011-09-15

    Biofiltration of hydrophobic and/or recalcitrant volatile pollutants is intrinsically limited. In the present study, a combined ultraviolet-biotrickling filter (UV-BTF) was developed to improve the removal of these compounds, and a single BTF as the control was operated under the same conditions. The experimental results showed that the UV-BTF provided higher removal efficiencies than the single BTF at an inlet concentration range of 600-1500 mg m(-3) under shorter residence times. The maximum elimination capacities (ECs) obtained were 94.2 mg m(-3)h(-1) and 44 mg m(-3)h(-1) in the combined UV-BTF and single BTF, respectively. The mass ratio of carbon dioxide produced to α-pinene removed in the UV-BTF was approximately 2.74, which was much higher than that of the single BTF (1.99). Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis indicated that there was more complicated microbial community in the UV-BTF than that in the single BTF. In addition, we investigated the effect of starvation or stagnation on re-acclimation and removal performance from an engineering standpoint. The results showed that the combined UV-BTF could deal with fluctuating conditions or periods without any flow (air or liquid) supply much better than the single BTF. PMID:21803492

  3. Microbial community analysis in a combined anaerobic and aerobic digestion system for treatment of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lili; Yu, Yanling; Zhu, Zebing; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Haiman; Ambuchi, John J; Feng, Yujie

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the microbial diversity established in a combined system composed of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater. Excellent wastewater treatment performance was obtained in the combined system, which showed a high chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 95.8% and completely eliminated most complex organics revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed differences in the microbial community structures of the three reactors. Further identification of the microbial populations suggested that the presence of Lactobacillus and Prevotella in CSTR played an active role in the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The most diverse microorganisms with analogous distribution patterns of different layers were observed in the EGSB reactor, and bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Synergistetes, and Thermotogae were associated with production of acetate and carbon dioxide/hydrogen, while all acetoclastic methanogens identified belonged to Methanosaetaceae. Overall, microorganisms associated with the ability to degrade cellulose, hemicellulose, and other biomass-derived organic carbons were observed in the combined system. The results presented herein will facilitate the development of an improved cellulosic ethanol production wastewater treatment system. PMID:26160121

  4. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Zeldes, Benjamin M.; Keller, Matthew W.; Loder, Andrew J.; Straub, Christopher T.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye toward potential technological advantages for high

  5. Perchlorate and chlorate reduction by the Crenarchaeon Aeropyrum pernix and two thermophilic Firmicutes.

    PubMed

    Liebensteiner, Martin G; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Nijsse, Bart; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Tsesmetzis, Nicolas; Stams, Alfons J M; Lomans, Bart P

    2015-12-01

    This study reports the ability of one hyperthermophilic and two thermophilic microorganisms to grow anaerobically by the reduction of chlorate and perchlorate. Physiological, genomic and proteome analyses suggest that the Crenarchaeon Aeropyrum pernix reduces perchlorate with a periplasmic enzyme related to nitrate reductases, but that it lacks a functional chlorite-disproportionating enzyme (Cld) to complete the pathway. Aeropyrum pernix, previously described as a strictly aerobic microorganism, seems to rely on the chemical reactivity of reduced sulfur compounds with chlorite, a mechanism previously reported for perchlorate-reducing Archaeoglobus fulgidus. The chemical oxidation of thiosulfate (in excessive amounts present in the medium) and the reduction of chlorite result in the release of sulfate and chloride, which are the products of a biotic-abiotic perchlorate reduction pathway in Ae. pernix. The apparent absence of Cld in two other perchlorate-reducing microorganisms, Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans and Moorella glycerini strain NMP, and their dependence on sulfide for perchlorate reduction is consistent with the observations made on Ar. fulgidus. Our findings suggest that microbial perchlorate reduction at high temperature differs notably from the physiology of perchlorate- and chlorate-reducing mesophiles and that it is characterized by the lack of a chlorite dismutase and is enabled by a combination of biotic and abiotic reactions. PMID:26332065

  6. Combined omega-3 fatty acids, aerobic exercise and cognitive stimulation prevents decline in gray matter volume of the frontal, parietal and cingulate cortex in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Köbe, Theresa; Witte, A Veronica; Schnelle, Ariane; Lesemann, Anne; Fabian, Sonja; Tesky, Valentina A; Pantel, Johannes; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies in older adults suggested beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation, aerobic exercise, or cognitive stimulation on brain structure and function. However, combined effects of these interventions in patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are unknown. Using a randomized interventional design, we evaluated the effect of combined omega-3 FA supplementation, aerobic exercise and cognitive stimulation (target intervention) versus omega-3 FA supplementation and non-aerobic exercise (control intervention) on cognitive function and gray matter volume in patients with MCI. Moreover, we analyzed potential vascular, metabolic or inflammatory mechanisms underlying these effects. Twenty-two MCI patients (8 females; 60-80years) successfully completed six months of omega-3 FA intake, aerobic cycling training and cognitive stimulation (n=13) or omega-3 FA intake and non-aerobic stretching and toning (n=9). Before and after the interventions, cognitive performance, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain at 3T (n=20), intima-media thickness of the internal carotid artery and serum markers of glucose control, lipid and B-vitamin metabolism, and inflammation were assessed. Intervention-related changes in gray matter volume of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related brain regions, i.e., frontal, parietal, temporal and cingulate cortex were examined using voxel-based morphometry of high resolution T1-weighted images. After the intervention period, significant differences emerged in brain structure between groups: Gray matter volume decreased in the frontal, parietal and cingulate cortex of patients in the control intervention, while gray matter volume in these areas was preserved or even increased after the target intervention. Decreases in homocysteine levels in the target intervention group were associated with increases in gray matter volume in the middle frontal cortex (p=0.010). No significant differences in cognitive performance or

  7. Pyrite oxidation by thermophilic archaebacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, L.; Olsson, G.; Holst, O.; Karlsson, H.T. )

    1990-03-01

    Three species of thermophilic archaebacteria of the genera Sulfolobus (Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and S. solfataricus) and Acidianus (Acidianus brierleyi) were tested for their ability to oxidize pyrite and to grow autotropbically on pyrite, to explore their potential for use in coal desulfurization. Only A. brierleyi was able to oxidize and grow autotrophically on pyrite. Jarosite was formed during the pyrite oxidation, resulting in the precipitation of sulfate and iron. The medium composition affected the extent of jarosite formation.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus Strain 8m3, a Thermophilic Hydrocarbon-Oxidizing Bacterium Isolated from the Dagang Oil Field (China)

    PubMed Central

    Poltaraus, Andrey B.; Sokolova, Diyana S.; Grouzdev, Denis S.; Ivanov, Timophey M.; Malakho, Sophia G.; Korshunova, Alena V.; Rozanov, Aleksey S.; Tourova, Tatiyana P.

    2016-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Aeribacillus pallidus strain 8m3, a thermophilic aerobic oil-oxidizing bacterium isolated from production water from the Dagang high-temperature oil field, China, is presented here. The genome is annotated to provide insights into the genomic and phenotypic diversity of the genus Aeribacillus. PMID:27284131

  9. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of industrial orange waste.

    PubMed

    Kaparaju, P L N; Rintala, J A

    2006-06-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of industrial orange waste (pulp and peel) with subsequent aerobic post-treatment of the digestate was evaluated. Methane production potential was first determined in batch assays and the effects of operational parameters such as hydraulic retention times (HRT) and organic loading rates (OLR) on process performance were studied through semi-continuous digestion. In batch assays, methane production potential of about 0.49 m(3) kg(-1) volatile solids (VS)(added waste) was achieved. In semi-continuous digestion, loading at 2.8 kgVS m(-3) d(-1) (2.9 kg total solids (TS) m(-3) d(-1)) and HRT of 26 d produced specific methane yields of 0.6 m(3) kg(-1) VS (added waste) (0.63 m(3) kg(-1) VS(added waste)). Operating at a higher OLR of 4.2 kgVS m(-3) d(-1) (4.4 kg TS m(-3) d(-1)) and 40 d HRT produced 0.5 m(3) of methane kg(-1) VS (added waste) (0.63-0.52 m(3) kg(-1) TS (added waste). Up to 70% of TS of industrial orange waste (11.6% TS) was methanised. Further increase in OLR to 5.6 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) (5.9 kg TS m(-3) d(-1); HRT of 20 d) resulted in an unstable and non-functional digester process shown directly through complete cessation of methanogenesis, drop in methane content, reduced pH and increase in volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, especially acetate and soluble chemical oxygen demand. A pH adjustment (from an initial 3.2 to ca. 8) for the low pH orange waste was necessary and was found to be a crucial factor for stable digester operation as the process showed a tendency to be inhibited due to accumulation of VFAs and decrease in digester pH. Aerobic post-treatment of digestate resulted in removal of ammonia and VFAs. PMID:16865918

  10. Temporal variation of microbial population in a thermophilic biofilter for SO₂ removal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingying; Li, Lin; Liu, Junxin

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a biofilter relies on the activity of microorganisms during the gas contaminant treatment process. In this study, SO2 was treated using a laboratory-scale biofilter packed with polyurethane foam cubes (PUFC), on which thermophilic desulfurization bacteria were attached. The thermophilic biofilter effectively reduced SO2 within 10months of operation time, with a maximum elimination capacity of 48.29 g/m(3)/hr. Temporal shifts in the microbial population in the thermophilic biofilter were determined through polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence analysis. The substrate species and environmental conditions in the biofilter influenced the microbial population. Oxygen distribution in the PUFC was analyzed using a microelectrode. When the water-containing rate in PUFC was over 98%, the oxygen distribution presented aerobic-anoxic-aerobic states along the test route on the PUFC. The appearance of sulfate-reducing bacteria was caused by the anaerobic conditions and sulfate formation after 4months of operation. PMID:26899638

  11. [The phylogenetic diversity of aerobic organotrophic bacteria from the Dagan high-temperature oil field].

    PubMed

    Nazina, T N; Sokolova, D Sh; Shestakova, N M; Grigor'ian, A A; Mikhaĭlova, E M; Babich, T L; Lysenko, A M; Turova, T P; Poltaraus, A B; Feng, Tsin'syan; Ni, Fangtian; Beliaev, S S

    2005-01-01

    The distribution and species diversity of aerobic organotrophic bacteria in the Dagan high-temperature oil field (China), which is exploited via flooding, have been studied. Twenty-two strains of the most characteristic thermophilic and mesophilic aerobic organotrophic bacteria have been isolated from the oil stratum. It has been found that, in a laboratory, the mesophilic and thermophilic isolates grow in the temperature, pH, and salinity ranges characteristic of the injection well near-bottom zones or of the oil stratum, respectively, and assimilate a wide range of hydrocarbons, fatty acids, lower alcohols, and crude oil, thus exhibiting adaptation to the environment. Using comparative phylogenetic 16S rRNA analysis, the taxonomic affiliation of the isolates has been established. The aerobic microbial community includes gram-positive bacteria with a high and low G+C content of DNA, and gamma and beta subclasses of Proteobacteria. The thermophilic bacteria belong to the genera Geobacillus and Thermoactinomyces, and the mesophilic strains belong to the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, Cellulomonas, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter. The microbial community of the oil stratum is dominated by known species of the genus Geobacillus (G. subterraneus, G. stearothermophilus, and G. thermoglucosidasius) and a novel species "Geobacillus jurassicus." A number of novel thermophilic oil-oxidizing bacilli have been isolated. PMID:16119855

  12. Selection and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR Expression Studies in a Thermophilic Bacterium Grown under Different Culture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cusick, Kathleen D.; Fitzgerald, Lisa A.; Cockrell, Allison L.; Biffinger, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    The phylum Deinococcus-Thermus is a deeply-branching lineage of bacteria widely recognized as one of the most extremophilic. Members of the Thermus genus are of major interest due to both their bioremediation and biotechnology potentials. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with these key metabolic pathways remain unknown. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a high-throughput means of studying the expression of a large suite of genes over time and under different conditions. The selection of a stably-expressed reference gene is critical when using relative quantification methods, as target gene expression is normalized to expression of the reference gene. However, little information exists as to reference gene selection in extremophiles. This study evaluated 11 candidate reference genes for use with the thermophile Thermus scotoductus when grown under different culture conditions. Based on the combined stability values from BestKeeper and NormFinder software packages, the following are the most appropriate reference genes when comparing: (1) aerobic and anaerobic growth: TSC_c19900, polA2, gyrA, gyrB; (2) anaerobic growth with varied electron acceptors: TSC_c19900, infA, pfk, gyrA, gyrB; (3) aerobic growth with different heating methods: gyrA, gap, gyrB; (4) all conditions mentioned above: gap, gyrA, gyrB. The commonly-employed rpoC does not serve as a reliable reference gene in thermophiles, due to its expression instability across all culture conditions tested here. As extremophiles exhibit a tendency for polyploidy, absolute quantification was employed to determine the ratio of transcript to gene copy number in a subset of the genes. A strong negative correlation was found to exist between ratio and threshold cycle (CT) values, demonstrating that CT changes reflect transcript copy number, and not gene copy number, fluctuations. Even with the potential for polyploidy in extremophiles, the results obtained via absolute quantification

  13. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  14. Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST

  15. Finding extraterrestrial sites for thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Naylor, T

    2004-04-01

    Virtually our entire knowledge of the universe comes from two sorts of measurement of the electromagnetic radiation from the stars and galaxies within it; either their flux through relatively wide bandpasses (photometry), or measurements of the shape and wavelength of relatively narrow lines via spectroscopy. These techniques are now being used to discover planets outside our solar system, and perhaps in the next 10 years will begin to characterize them. If a serious search is to be made for extraterrestrial thermophiles, we need predictions for the effects of thermophiles on their host planets that are observable with these techniques. In this paper I shall outline what sorts of observation are likely to be used in the next 15 years for extra-solar planet work. All of the journal articles quoted here can be found through http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html, and often also accessed as preprints at http://uk.arxiv.org/form/astro%20ph?MULTI=form%20+/-%20interface. PMID:15046563

  16. Isolation of full-length RNA from a thermophilic cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Luo, X Z; Stevens, S E

    1997-11-01

    Isolation of full-length mRNA without degradation is critical in the study of in vivo gene regulation and transcription, cDNA synthesis and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. It is particularly difficult to isolate full-length mRNA from thermophiles, which have higher turnover rates of mRNA degradation. Mastigocladus laminosus is a thermophilic heterocystous cyanobacterium. The assay of M. laminosus cell lysates showed that RNase activity was high and was resistant to the conventional guanidine thiocyanate and 2-mercaptoethanol denaturation methods. The mRNA isolated by several conventional methods was completely degraded. A method was developed to purify full-length mRNA by a combination of fast cooling, vanadyl-ribonucleoside-complex inhibition, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol extraction, lithium chloride precipitation and the lysing of cells with the French Press. This method produced high-quality, full-length mRNA in high yield. Purified mRNA was suitable for Northern blotting, cDNA synthesis and RT-PCR. This method could be applicable to other thermophiles in which the RNase activity is high and/or is resistant to guanidine thiocyanate. PMID:9383558

  17. Probing the Folding-Unfolding Transition of a Thermophilic Protein, MTH1880

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Youngjin; Han, Jeongmin; Yun, Ji-Hye; Chang, Iksoo; Lee, Weontae

    2016-01-01

    The folding mechanism of typical proteins has been studied widely, while our understanding of the origin of the high stability of thermophilic proteins is still elusive. Of particular interest is how an atypical thermophilic protein with a novel fold maintains its structure and stability under extreme conditions. Folding-unfolding transitions of MTH1880, a thermophilic protein from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, induced by heat, urea, and GdnHCl, were investigated using spectroscopic techniques including circular dichorism, fluorescence, NMR combined with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our results suggest that MTH1880 undergoes a two-state N to D transition and it is extremely stable against temperature and denaturants. The reversibility of refolding was confirmed by spectroscopic methods and size exclusion chromatography. We found that the hyper-stability of the thermophilic MTH1880 protein originates from an extensive network of both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions coordinated by the central β-sheet. Spectroscopic measurements, in combination with computational simulations, have helped to clarify the thermodynamic and structural basis for hyper-stability of the novel thermophilic protein MTH1880. PMID:26766214

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacillus borstelensis cifa_chp40, a Thermophilic Strain Having Biotechnological Importance

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Swetaleena; Padhi, Soumesh Kumar; Sen, Rinil; Maji, Ushajyoti; Samanta, Mrinal; Mohanty, Sriprakash; Maiti, Nikhil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Brevibacillus borstelensis cifa_chp40 is a thermophilic, strictly aerobic gram positive motile bacteria isolated from the alkaline hot water spring located in the Eastern Ghats zone of India. It could grow in a wide range of temperature and degrade low-density polythene at 37°C. The strain cifa_chp40 produces essential enzymes like protease, lipase, esterase and amidase at 50°C. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. borstelensis cifa_chp40 which will provide further insight into the metabolic capabilities, function and evolution of this important organism. PMID:26958091

  19. Elimination and fate of selected micro-organic pollutants in a full-scale anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic process combined with membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenchao; Wu, Chunying; Xiao, Kang; Huang, Xia; Zhou, Haidong; Tsuno, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2010-12-01

    The occurrence and elimination of 19 micro-organic pollutants including endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in a full-scale anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic-membrane bioreactor process was investigated. The investigated process achieved over 70% removal of the target EDCs and 50%-100% removal of most of the PPCPs, with influent concentration ranging from ng/L to μg/L. Three PPCPs, carbamazepine, diclofenac and sulpiride were not well removed, with the removal efficiency below 20%. A rough mass balance suggests that the targets were eliminated through sludge-adsorption and/or biodegradation, the former of which was particularly significant for the removal of hydrophobic compounds. The two-phase fate model was employed to describe the kinetics of sludge-adsorption and biodegradation. It was found that the fast sludge adsorption (indicated by mass-transfer rates greater than 10 for most compounds) is responsible for the rapid decline of the aqueous concentration of the targets in the first compartment of the treatment process (i.e. in the anaerobic tank). In contrast, the slow biodegradation proved to be the rate-determining step for the entire degradation process, and the rates are generally positively related to the dissolved oxygen level. On the other hand, this study showed that the removal rates of most targets can reach a quasi-plateau in 5 h under aerobic conditions, indicating that hydraulic retention time of ca. 5 h in aerobic tanks should be sufficient for the elimination of most targets. PMID:20723962

  20. Consolidated bioprocessing method using thermophilic microorganisms

    DOEpatents

    Mielenz, Jonathan Richard

    2016-02-02

    The present invention is directed to a method of converting biomass to biofuel, and particularly to a consolidated bioprocessing method using a co-culture of thermophilic and extremely thermophilic microorganisms which collectively can ferment the hexose and pentose sugars produced by degradation of cellulose and hemicelluloses at high substrate conversion rates. A culture medium therefor is also provided as well as use of the methods to produce and recover cellulosic ethanol.

  1. Variations of culturable thermophilic microbe numbers and bacterial communities during the thermophilic phase of composting.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Li, Linzhi; Huang, Rong; Sun, Yifei; Mei, Xinlan; Shen, Biao; Shen, Qirong

    2014-06-01

    Composting is a process of stabilizing organic wastes through the degradation of biodegradable components by microbial communities under controlled conditions. In the present study, genera and species diversities, amylohydrolysis, protein and cellulose degradation abilities of culturable bacteria in the thermophilic phase of composting of cattle manure with plant ash and rice bran were investigated. The number of culturable thermophilic bacteria and actinomyces decreased with the increasing temperature. At the initiation and end of the thermophilic phase, genera and specie diversities and number of bacteria possessing degradation abilities were higher than during the middle phase. During the thermophilic composting phase, Bacillus, Geobacillus and Ureibacillus were the dominant genera, and Geobacillus thermodenitrificans was the dominant species. In later thermophilic phases, Geobacillus toebii and Ureibacillus terrenus were dominant. Bacillus, at the initiation, and Ureibacillus and Geobacillus, at the later phase, contributed the multiple degradation abilities. These data will facilitate the control of composting in the future. PMID:24415499

  2. Thermophilic Fungi: Their Physiology and Enzymes†

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Ramesh; Bharadwaj, Girish; Bhat, Mahalingeshwara K.

    2000-01-01

    Thermophilic fungi are a small assemblage in mycota that have a minimum temperature of growth at or above 20°C and a maximum temperature of growth extending up to 60 to 62°C. As the only representatives of eukaryotic organisms that can grow at temperatures above 45°C, the thermophilic fungi are valuable experimental systems for investigations of mechanisms that allow growth at moderately high temperature yet limit their growth beyond 60 to 62°C. Although widespread in terrestrial habitats, they have remained underexplored compared to thermophilic species of eubacteria and archaea. However, thermophilic fungi are potential sources of enzymes with scientific and commercial interests. This review, for the first time, compiles information on the physiology and enzymes of thermophilic fungi. Thermophilic fungi can be grown in minimal media with metabolic rates and growth yields comparable to those of mesophilic fungi. Studies of their growth kinetics, respiration, mixed-substrate utilization, nutrient uptake, and protein breakdown rate have provided some basic information not only on thermophilic fungi but also on filamentous fungi in general. Some species have the ability to grow at ambient temperatures if cultures are initiated with germinated spores or mycelial inoculum or if a nutritionally rich medium is used. Thermophilic fungi have a powerful ability to degrade polysaccharide constituents of biomass. The properties of their enzymes show differences not only among species but also among strains of the same species. Their extracellular enzymes display temperature optima for activity that are close to or above the optimum temperature for the growth of organism and, in general, are more heat stable than those of the mesophilic fungi. Some extracellular enzymes from thermophilic fungi are being produced commercially, and a few others have commercial prospects. Genes of thermophilic fungi encoding lipase, protease, xylanase, and cellulase have been cloned and

  3. Roles of Thermophiles and Fungi in Bitumen Degradation in Mostly Cold Oil Sands Outcrops.

    PubMed

    Wong, Man-Ling; An, Dongshan; Caffrey, Sean M; Soh, Jung; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Oldenburg, Thomas B P; Larter, Steve R; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-10-01

    Oil sands are surface exposed in river valley outcrops in northeastern Alberta, where flat slabs (tablets) of weathered, bitumen-saturated sandstone can be retrieved from outcrop cliffs or from riverbeds. Although the average yearly surface temperature of this region is low (0.7°C), we found that the temperatures of the exposed surfaces of outcrop cliffs reached 55 to 60°C on sunny summer days, with daily maxima being 27 to 31°C. Analysis of the cooccurrence of taxa derived from pyrosequencing of 16S/18S rRNA genes indicated that an aerobic microbial network of fungi and hydrocarbon-, methane-, or acetate-oxidizing heterotrophic bacteria was present in all cliff tablets. Metagenomic analyses indicated an elevated presence of fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in these samples. This network was distinct from the heterotrophic community found in riverbeds, which included fewer fungi. A subset of cliff tablets had a network of anaerobic and/or thermophilic taxa, including methanogens, Firmicutes, and Thermotogae, in the center. Long-term aerobic incubation of outcrop samples at 55°C gave a thermophilic microbial community. Analysis of residual bitumen with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer indicated that aerobic degradation proceeded at 55°C but not at 4°C. Little anaerobic degradation was observed. These results indicate that bitumen degradation on outcrop surfaces is a largely aerobic process with a minor anaerobic contribution and is catalyzed by a consortium of bacteria and fungi. Bitumen degradation is stimulated by periodic high temperatures on outcrop cliffs, which cause significant decreases in bitumen viscosity. PMID:26209669

  4. Roles of Thermophiles and Fungi in Bitumen Degradation in Mostly Cold Oil Sands Outcrops

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Man-Ling; An, Dongshan; Caffrey, Sean M.; Soh, Jung; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W.; Oldenburg, Thomas B. P.; Larter, Steve R.

    2015-01-01

    Oil sands are surface exposed in river valley outcrops in northeastern Alberta, where flat slabs (tablets) of weathered, bitumen-saturated sandstone can be retrieved from outcrop cliffs or from riverbeds. Although the average yearly surface temperature of this region is low (0.7°C), we found that the temperatures of the exposed surfaces of outcrop cliffs reached 55 to 60°C on sunny summer days, with daily maxima being 27 to 31°C. Analysis of the cooccurrence of taxa derived from pyrosequencing of 16S/18S rRNA genes indicated that an aerobic microbial network of fungi and hydrocarbon-, methane-, or acetate-oxidizing heterotrophic bacteria was present in all cliff tablets. Metagenomic analyses indicated an elevated presence of fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in these samples. This network was distinct from the heterotrophic community found in riverbeds, which included fewer fungi. A subset of cliff tablets had a network of anaerobic and/or thermophilic taxa, including methanogens, Firmicutes, and Thermotogae, in the center. Long-term aerobic incubation of outcrop samples at 55°C gave a thermophilic microbial community. Analysis of residual bitumen with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer indicated that aerobic degradation proceeded at 55°C but not at 4°C. Little anaerobic degradation was observed. These results indicate that bitumen degradation on outcrop surfaces is a largely aerobic process with a minor anaerobic contribution and is catalyzed by a consortium of bacteria and fungi. Bitumen degradation is stimulated by periodic high temperatures on outcrop cliffs, which cause significant decreases in bitumen viscosity. PMID:26209669

  5. Management of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Tempera, Gianna; Furneri, Pio Maria

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis is a new nonclassifiable pathology that is neither specific vaginitis nor bacterial vaginosis. The diversity of this microbiological peculiarity could also explain several therapeutic failures when patients were treated for infections identified as bacterial vaginosis. The diagnosis 'aerobic vaginitis' is essentially based on microscopic examinations using a phase-contrast microscope (at ×400 magnification). The therapeutic choice for 'aerobic vaginitis' should take into consideration an antibiotic characterized by an intrinsic activity against the majority of bacteria of fecal origin, bactericidal effect and poor/absent interference with the vaginal microbiota. Regarding the therapy for aerobic vaginitis when antimicrobial agents are prescribed, not only the antimicrobial spectrum but also the presumed ecological disturbance on the anaerobic and aerobic vaginal and rectal microbiota should be taken into a consideration. Because of their very low impact on the vaginal microbiota, kanamycin or quinolones are to be considered a good choice for therapy. PMID:21051843

  6. Reduction of Soluble Iron and Reductive Dissolution of Ferric Iron-Containing Minerals by Moderately Thermophilic Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Toni A. M.; Johnson, D. Barrie

    1998-01-01

    Five moderately thermophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria, including representative strains of the three classified species (Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans, Sulfobacillus acidophilus, and Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans), were shown to be capable of reducing ferric iron to ferrous iron when they were grown under oxygen limitation conditions. Iron reduction was most readily observed when the isolates were grown as mixotrophs or heterotrophs with glycerol as an electron donor; in addition, some strains were able to couple the oxidation of tetrathionate to the reduction of ferric iron. Cycling of iron between the ferrous and ferric states was observed during batch culture growth in unshaken flasks incubated under aerobic conditions, although the patterns of oxidoreduction of iron varied in different species of iron-oxidizing moderate thermophiles and in strains of a single species (S. acidophilus). All three bacterial species were able to grow anaerobically with ferric iron as a sole electron acceptor; the growth yields correlated with the amount of ferric iron reduced when the isolates were grown in the absence of oxygen. One of the moderate thermophiles (identified as a strain of S. acidophilus) was able to bring about the reductive dissolution of three ferric iron-containing minerals (ferric hydroxide, jarosite, and goethite) when it was grown under restricted aeration conditions with glycerol as a carbon and energy source. The significance of iron reduction by moderately thermophilic iron oxidizers in both environmental and applied contexts is discussed. PMID:9603832

  7. Hemicellulases from anaerobic thermophiles. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegel, J.

    1994-05-01

    The longterm goal of this research effort is to obtain an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium that efficiently converts various hemicellulose-containing biomass to ethanol over a broad pH range. The strategy is to modify the outfit and regulation of the rate-limiting xylanases, glycosidases and xylan esterases in the ethanologenic, anaerobic thermophile Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, which grows between pH 4.5 and 9.5. Although it utilizes xylans, the xylanase, acetyl(xylan) esterase and O-methylglucuronidase activities in T. ethanolicus are barely measurable and regarded as the rate limiting steps in its xylan utilization. Thus, and also due to the presently limited knowledge of hemicellulases in anaerobic thermophiles, we characterize the hemicellulolytic enzymes from this and other anaerobic thermophiles as enzyme donors. Beside the active xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus, exhibiting the two different activities, we characterized 2 xylosidases, two acetyl(xylan) esterases, and an O-methylglucuronidase from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. We will continue with the characterization of xylanases from novel isolated slightly acidophilic, neutrophilic and slightly alkalophilic thermophiles. We have cloned, subcloned and partially sequenced the 165,000 Da (2 x 85,000) xylosidase/arabinosidase from T. ethanolicus and started with the cloning of the esterases from Thermoanaerobacterium spec. Consequently, we will develop a shuttle vector and continue to apply electroporation of autoplasts as a method for cloning into T. ethanolicus.

  8. Effect of seeding during thermophilic composting of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Nakasaki, K.; Sasaki, M.; Shoda, M.; Kubota, H.

    1985-03-01

    The effect of seeding on the thermophilic composting of sewage sludge was examined by measuring the changes in CO/sub 2/ evolution rates and microbial numbers. Although the succession of thermophilic bacteria and thermophilic actinomycetes clearly reflected the effect of seeding, no clear difference was observed in the overall rate of composting or quality of the composted product. 7 references.

  9. Medium-/Long-Term Effects of a Specific Exercise Protocol Combined with Patient Education on Spine Mobility, Chronic Fatigue, Pain, Aerobic Fitness and Level of Disability in Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Giannotti, Erika; Koutsikos, Konstantinos; Pigatto, Maurizia; Rampudda, Maria Elisa; Doria, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To propose a rehabilitation protocol able to produce immediate and long-term beneficial effects on level of disability and overall performance in ADLs. Materials and Methods. Forty-one FM patients were randomized to an exercise and educational-behavioral programme group (experimental group, EG = 21) or to a control group (CG = 20). Each subject was evaluated before, at the end (T1), and after 6 months (T6) from the conclusion of the rehabilitation treatment using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the visual analogue scale (VAS), the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), the fatigue severity scale (FSS), the 6-minute walking test (6MWT), tender points count (TPC), and spinal active range of motion. The exercise protocol included 20 sessions consisting in self-awareness, stretching, strengthening, spine flexibility, and aerobic exercises, which patients were subsequently educated to perform at home. Results. The two groups were comparable at baseline. At T1, the EG showed a positive trend in FIQ, VAS, HAQ, and FSS scales and significant improvement in 6MWT and in most spinal active range of motion measurements (P between 0.001 and 0.04). The positive results were maintained at the follow-up. Conclusion. The proposed programme was well tolerated and produced immediate and medium-term beneficial effects improving function and strain endurance. This trial is registered with DRKS00005071 on DRKS. PMID:24616894

  10. Bioprospecting thermophiles for cellulase production: a review

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Somen; Chaudhary, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Most of the potential bioprospecting is currently related to the study of the extremophiles and their potential use in industrial processes. Recently microbial cellulases find applications in various industries and constitute a major group of industrial enzymes. Considerable amount of work has been done on microbial cellulases, especially with resurgence of interest in biomass ethanol production employing cellulases and use of cellulases in textile and paper industry. Most efficient method of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis is through enzymatic saccharification using cellulases. Significant information has also been gained about the physiology of thermophilic cellulases producers and process development for enzyme production and biomass saccharification. The review discusses the current knowledge on cellulase producing thermophilic microorganisms, their physiological adaptations and control of cellulase gene expression. It discusses the industrial applications of thermophilic cellulases, their cost of production and challenges in cellulase research especially in the area of improving process economics of enzyme production. PMID:24031898

  11. Dispersal of thermophilic Desulfotomaculum endospores into Baltic Sea sediments over thousands of years

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Júlia Rosa; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Hubert, Casey R J; Finster, Kai; Loy, Alexander; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of microbial biogeography result from a combination of dispersal, speciation and extinction, yet individual contributions exerted by each of these mechanisms are difficult to isolate and distinguish. The influx of endospores of thermophilic microorganisms to cold marine sediments offers a natural model for investigating passive dispersal in the ocean. We investigated the activity, diversity and abundance of thermophilic endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in Aarhus Bay by incubating pasteurized sediment between 28 and 85 °C, and by subsequent molecular diversity analyses of 16S rRNA and of the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes within the endospore-forming SRB genus Desulfotomaculum. The thermophilic Desulfotomaculum community in Aarhus Bay sediments consisted of at least 23 species-level 16S rRNA sequence phylotypes. In two cases, pairs of identical 16S rRNA and dsrAB sequences in Arctic surface sediment 3000 km away showed that the same phylotypes are present in both locations. Radiotracer-enhanced most probable number analysis revealed that the abundance of endospores of thermophilic SRB in Aarhus Bay sediment was ca. 104 per cm3 at the surface and decreased exponentially to 100 per cm3 at 6.5 m depth, corresponding to 4500 years of sediment age. Thus, a half-life of ca. 300 years was estimated for the thermophilic SRB endospores deposited in Aarhus Bay sediments. These endospores were similarly detected in the overlying water column, indicative of passive dispersal in water masses preceding sedimentation. The sources of these thermophiles remain enigmatic, but at least one source may be common to both Aarhus Bay and Arctic sediments. PMID:22832348

  12. [Pilot study of thermal treatment/thermophilic anaerobic digestion process treating waste activated sludge of high solid content].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Guang-qi; Cao, Zhi-ping; Li, Zhong-hua; Hu, Yu-ying; Wang, Kai-jun; Zu, Jian-e

    2014-09-01

    A pilot-scale experiment about the process of "thermal pretreatment at 70°C/thermophilic anaerobic digestion" of waste activated sludge of high solid content (8% -9% ) was conducted. The process employed thermal treatment of 3 days to accelerate the hydrolysis and thermophilic digestion to enhance anaerobic reaction. Thus it was good at organic removal and stabilization. When the solid retention time (SRT) was longer than 20 days, the VSS removal rate was greater than 42. 22% and it was linearly correlated to the SRT of the aerobic digestion with the R2 of 0. 915 3. It was suggested that SRT of anaerobic digestion was 25 days in practice. VSS removal rate and biogas production rate of the pilot experiment were similar to those of the run-well traditional full-scale sludge anaerobic digestion plants (solid content 3% -5% ) and the plant of high solid content using German technique. PMID:25518666

  13. Impact of combined resistance and aerobic exercise training on branched-chain amino acid turnover, glycine metabolism and insulin sensitivity in overweight humans

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Erin L.; Piner, Lucy W.; Huffman, Kim M.; Slentz, Cris A.; Elliot-Penry, Lorraine; AbouAssi, Hiba; White, Phillip J.; Bain, James R.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Stevens, Robert D.; Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Bales, Connie W.; Volpi, Elena; Brosnan, M. Julia; Trimmer, Jeff K.; Rolph, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypotheses Obesity is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity (IS) and elevated plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between BCAA metabolism and IS in overweight (OW) individuals during exercise intervention. Methods Whole-body leucine turnover, IS by hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp, and circulating and skeletal muscle amino acids, branched-chain α-keto acids and acylcarnitines were measured in ten healthy controls (Control) and nine OW, untrained, insulin-resistant individuals (OW-Untrained). OW-Untrained then underwent a 6 month aerobic and resistance exercise programme and repeated testing (OW-Trained). Results IS was higher in Control vs OW-Untrained and increased significantly following exercise. IS was lower in OW-Trained vs Control expressed relative to body mass, but was not different from Control when normalised to fat-free mass (FFM). Plasma BCAAs and leucine turnover (relative to FFM) were higher in OW-Untrained vs Control, but did not change on average with exercise. Despite this, within individuals, the decrease in molar sum of circulating BCAAs was the best metabolic predictor of improvement in IS. Circulating glycine levels were higher in Control and OW-Trained vs OW-Untrained, and urinary metabolic profiling suggests that exercise induces more efficient elimination of excess acyl groups derived from BCAA and aromatic amino acid (AA) metabolism via formation of urinary glycine adducts. Conclusions/interpretation A mechanism involving more efficient elimination of excess acyl groups derived from BCAA and aromatic AA metabolism via glycine conjugation in the liver, rather than increased BCAA disposal through oxidation and turnover, may mediate interactions between exercise, BCAA metabolism and IS. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01786941 PMID:26254576

  14. Teaching Aerobic Lifestyles: New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrick, G. Ken; Iammarino, Nicholas K.

    1982-01-01

    New approaches to teaching aerobic life-styles in secondary schools are suggested, focusing on three components: (1) the psychological benefits of aerobic activity; (2) alternative aerobic programs at nonschool locations; and (3) the development of an aerobics curriculum to help maintain an active life-style after graduation. (JN)

  15. Aerobic Conditioning Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Neil R.

    1980-01-01

    An aerobic exercise class that focuses on the conditioning of the cardiovascular and muscular systems is presented. Students complete data cards on heart rate, pulse, and exercises to be completed during the forty minute course. (CJ)

  16. [Research advances in aerobic denitrifiers].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Cai, Zu-cong; Zhong, Wen-hui; Wang, Guo-xiang

    2007-11-01

    This paper reviewed the varieties and characteristics of aerobic denitrifiers, their action mechanisms, and the factors affecting aerobic denitrification. Aerobic denitrifiers mainly include Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Paracoccus and Bacillus, which are either aerobic or facultative aerobic, and heterotrophic. They can denitrify under aerobic conditions, with the main product being N2O. They can also convert NH4+ -N to gas product. The nitrate reductase which catalyzes the denitrification is periplasmic nitrate reductase rather than membrane-bound nitrate reductase. Dissolved oxygen concentration and C/N ratio are the main factors affecting aerobic denitrification. The main methods for screening aerobic denitrifiers, such as intermittent aeration and selected culture, were also introduced. The research advances in the application of aerobic denitrifiers in aquaculture, waste water processing, and bio-degradation of organic pollutants, as well as the contributions of aerobic denitrifiers to soil nitrogen emission were summarized. PMID:18260473

  17. A thermophilic microbial fuel cell design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, Sarah M.; Vuoriranta, Pertti; Tuovinen, Olli H.

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are reactors able to generate electricity by capturing electrons from the anaerobic respiratory processes of microorganisms. While the majority of MFCs have been tested at ambient or mesophilic temperatures, thermophilic systems warrant evaluation because of the potential for increased microbial activity rates on the anode. MFC studies at elevated temperatures have been scattered, using designs that are already established, specifically air-cathode single chambers and two-chamber designs. This study was prompted by our previous attempts that showed an increased amount of evaporation in thermophilic MFCs, adding unnecessary technical difficulties and causing excessive maintenance. In this paper, we describe a thermophilic MFC design that prevents evaporation. The design was tested at 57 °C with an anaerobic, thermophilic consortium that respired with glucose to generate a power density of 375 mW m -2 after 590 h. Polarization and voltage data showed that the design works in the batch mode but the design allows for adoption to continuous operation.

  18. Are thermophilic microorganisms active in cold environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockell, Charles S.; Cousins, Claire; Wilkinson, Paul T.; Olsson-Francis, Karen; Rozitis, Ben

    2015-07-01

    The mean air temperature of the Icelandic interior is below 10 °C. However, we have previously observed 16S rDNA sequences associated with thermophilic lineages in Icelandic basalts. Measurements of the temperatures of igneous rocks in Iceland showed that solar insolation of these low albedo substrates achieved a peak surface temperature of 44.5 °C. We isolated seven thermophilic Geobacillus species from basalt with optimal growth temperatures of ~65 °C. The minimum growth temperature of these organisms was ~36 °C, suggesting that they could be active in the rock environment. Basalt dissolution rates at 40 °C were increased in the presence of one of the isolates compared to abiotic controls, showing its potential to be involved in active biogeochemistry at environmental temperatures. These data raise the possibility of transient active thermophilic growth in macroclimatically cold rocky environments, implying that the biogeographical distribution of active thermophiles might be greater than previously understood. These data show that temperatures measured or predicted over large scales on a planet are not in themselves adequate to assess niches available to extremophiles at micron scales.

  19. Systematic Underutilization of Glutamine In Thermophile Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Shoudan; Weber, Arthur; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rapid racemization above 100 C of L-amino acids to Domino acids, as well as deamidation, is probably a hazard for high temperature life. For example, the half-life of some asparaginyl peptides can be as short as 10 minutes at 100 C. High temperature organisms could protect themselves by reducing usage of amino acids that are easily racemized/deamidazed, by having a rapid rate of protein turnover which requires energy, or by adapting special cis-peptide conformations. We have searched eight completely sequenced thermophile genomes, and compare them to mesophile genomes, in order to identify underutilized amino acids. To our surprise, asparagine, the most unstable amino acid to deamidation, is used at about the same level in thermophile proteins in comparison to mesophiles whereas it is the second most unstable amino acid, glutamine, that is underutilized in all of eight thermophile species. Glutamines are present at 2% level in a typical thermophile protein, instead of 4% in mesophile. We argue that it is easier to protect asparagines from deamidation by cis-peptide conformations. We discuss statistical as well as structural evidence in support of our conclusions.

  20. Conformational Preferences Underlying Reduced Activity of a Thermophilic Ribonuclease H

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, Kate A.; Trbovic, Nikola; Butterwick, Joel A.; Abel, Robert; Friesner, Richard A.; Palmer, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    The conformational basis for reduced activity of the thermophilic ribonuclease HI enzyme from Thermus thermophilus, compared to its mesophilic homolog from Escherichia coli, is elucidated using a combination of NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Explicit-solvent all-atom MD simulations of the two wild-type proteins and an E. coli mutant in which a glycine residue is inserted after position 80 to mimic the T. thermophilus protein reproduce the differences in conformational dynamics determined from 15N spin-relaxation NMR spectroscopy of three loop regions that surround the active site and contain functionally important residues: the glycine-rich region, the handle region, and the β5/αE loop. Examination of the MD trajectories indicates that the thermophilic protein samples conformations productive for substrate binding and activity less frequently than the mesophilic enzyme, although these differences may manifest as either increased or decreased relative flexibility of the different regions. Additional MD simulations indicate that mutations increasing activity of the T. thermophilus enzyme at mesophilic temperatures do so by reconfiguring the local environments of the mutated sites to more closely resemble active conformations. Taken together, the results show that both locally increased and decreased flexibility contribute to an overall reduction in activity of T. thermophilus ribonuclease H compared to its mesophilic E. coli homolog. PMID:25550198

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TOC removal from slaughterhouse wastewater using combined anaerobic-aerobic and UV/H2O2 processes.

    PubMed

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab; Quiñones-Bolaños, Edgar

    2014-02-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the operating costs of treating slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) using combined biological and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). This study compares the performance and the treatment capability of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), an aerated completely mixed activated sludge reactor (AS), and a UV/H2O2 process, as well as their combination for the removal of the total organic carbon (TOC). Overall efficiencies are found to be up to 75.22, 89.47, 94.53, 96.10, 96.36, and 99.98% for the UV/H2O2, ABR, AS, combined AS-ABR, combined ABR-AS, and combined ABR-AS-UV/H2O2 processes, respectively. Due to the consumption of electrical energy and reagents, operating costs are calculated at optimal conditions of each process. A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is performed at optimal conditions for the SWW treatment by optimizing the total electricity cost, H2O2 consumption, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The combined ABR-AS-UV/H2O2 processes have an optimal TOC removal of 92.46% at an HRT of 41 h, a cost of $1.25/kg of TOC removed, and $11.60/m(3) of treated SWW. This process reaches a maximum TOC removal of 99% in 76.5 h with an estimated cost of $2.19/kg TOC removal and $21.65/m(3) treated SWW, equivalent to $6.79/m(3) day. PMID:24486468

  2. Endospores of thermophilic bacteria as tracers of microbial dispersal by ocean currents.

    PubMed

    Müller, Albert Leopold; de Rezende, Júlia Rosa; Hubert, Casey R J; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Berry, David; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Loy, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    Microbial biogeography is influenced by the combined effects of passive dispersal and environmental selection, but the contribution of either factor can be difficult to discern. As thermophilic bacteria cannot grow in the cold seabed, their inactive spores are not subject to environmental selection. We therefore conducted a global experimental survey using thermophilic endospores that are passively deposited by sedimentation to the cold seafloor as tracers to study the effect of dispersal by ocean currents on the biogeography of marine microorganisms. Our analysis of 81 different marine sediments from around the world identified 146 species-level 16S rRNA phylotypes of endospore-forming, thermophilic Firmicutes. Phylotypes showed various patterns of spatial distribution in the world oceans and were dispersal-limited to different degrees. Co-occurrence of several phylotypes in locations separated by great distances (west of Svalbard, the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of California) demonstrated a widespread but not ubiquitous distribution. In contrast, Arctic regions with water masses that are relatively isolated from global ocean circulation (Baffin Bay and east of Svalbard) were characterized by low phylotype richness and different compositions of phylotypes. The observed distribution pattern of thermophilic endospores in marine sediments suggests that the impact of passive dispersal on marine microbial biogeography is controlled by the connectivity of local water masses to ocean circulation. PMID:24351936

  3. Characterization of thermophilic fungal community associated with pile fermentation of Pu-erh tea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Ruijuan; Fang, Wenjun; Yan, Liang; Lu, Jun; Sheng, Jun; Lv, Jie

    2016-06-16

    This study aimed to characterize the thermophilic fungi in pile-fermentation process of Pu-erh tea. Physicochemical analyses showed that the high temperature and low pH provided optimal conditions for propagation of fungi. A number of fungi, including Blastobotrys adeninivorans, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Rasamsonia emersonii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Rasamsonia byssochlamydoides, Rasamsonia cylindrospora, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus niger, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium graminearum were isolated as thermophilic fungi under combination of high temperature and acid culture conditions from Pu-erh tea pile-fermentation. The fungal communities were analyzed by PCR-DGGE. Results revealed that those fungi are closely related to Debaryomyces hansenii, Cladosporium cladosporioides, A. tubingensis, R. emersonii, R. pusillus, A. fumigatus and A. niger, and the last four presented as dominant species in the pile process. These four preponderant thermophilic fungi reached the order of magnitude of 10(7), 10(7), 10(7) and 10(6)copies/g dry tea, respectively, measured by real-time quantitative PCR (q-PCR). The results indicate that the thermophilic fungi play an important role in Pu-erh tea pile fermentation. PMID:27046629

  4. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  5. Cellulases from Thermophilic Fungi: Recent Insights and Biotechnological Potential

    PubMed Central

    Li, Duo-Chuan; Li, An-Na; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C.

    2011-01-01

    Thermophilic fungal cellulases are promising enzymes in protein engineering efforts aimed at optimizing industrial processes, such as biomass degradation and biofuel production. The cloning and expression in recent years of new cellulase genes from thermophilic fungi have led to a better understanding of cellulose degradation in these species. Moreover, crystal structures of thermophilic fungal cellulases are now available, providing insights into their function and stability. The present paper is focused on recent progress in cloning, expression, regulation, and structure of thermophilic fungal cellulases and the current research efforts to improve their properties for better use in biotechnological applications. PMID:22145076

  6. [Progress in the thermophilic and alkalophilic xylanases].

    PubMed

    Bai, Wenqin; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2014-06-01

    Xylanase is the key enzyme to degrade xylan that is a major component of hemicellulose. The enzyme has potential industrial applications in the food, feed, paper and flax degumming industries. The use of xylanases becomes more and more important in the paper industry for bleaching purposes. Xylanases used in the pulp bleaching process should be stable and active at high temperature and alkaline pH. Thermophilic and alkalophilic xylanases could be obtained by screening the wild type xylanases or engineering the mesophilic and neutral enzymes. In this paper, we reviewed recent progress of screening of the thermophilic and alkalophilic xylanases, molecular mechanism of thermal and alkaline adaptation and molecular engineering. Future research prospective was also discussed. PMID:25212001

  7. Evaluation of the detoxication efficiencies for acrylonitrile wastewater treated by a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process: Acute toxicity and zebrafish embryo toxicity.

    PubMed

    Na, Chunhong; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Minjie; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yaobin

    2016-07-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) wastewater generated during ACN production has been reported to be toxic to many aquatic organisms. However, few studies have evaluated toxicity removal of ACN wastewater during and after the treatment process. In this study, the detoxication ability of an ACN wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated using Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and zebrafish embryo. This ACN WWTP has a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process upgraded from the traditional anaerobic oxic (A/O) process. Moreover, the potential toxicants of the ACN wastewaters were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The raw ACN wastewater showed high acute and embryo toxicity. 3-Cyanopyridine, succinonitrile and a series of nitriles were detected as the toxic contributors of ACN wastewater. The A/O process was effective for the acute and embryo toxicity removal, as well as the organic toxicants. However, the A/O effluent still showed acute and embryo toxicity which was attributed by the undegraded and the newly generated toxicants during the A/O process. The residual acute and embryo toxicity as well as the organic toxicants in the A/O effluent were further reduced after going through the downstream ABFT process system. The final effluent displayed no significant acute and embryo toxicity, and less organic toxicants were detected in the final effluent. The upgrade of this ACN WWTP results in the improved removal efficiencies for acute and embryo toxicity, as well as the organic toxicants. PMID:27037768

  8. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the α-1, α-3, and α-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

  9. Aerobic Dance in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiles, Barbara Ann; Moore, Suzanne

    1981-01-01

    Aerobic dance offers a challenging workout in a social atmosphere. Though some physical education instructors tend to exclude dance units from the curriculum, most could teach aerobic dance if they had a basic knowledge of aerobic routines. The outline for a unit to be used in the class is presented. (JN)

  10. Managing for Improved Aerobic Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic deterioration or spoilage of silage is the result of aerobic microorganisms metabolizing components of the silage using oxygen. In the almost 40 years over which these silage conferences have been held, we have come to recognize the typical pattern of aerobic microbial development by which s...

  11. Preservation of microbial communities enriched on lignocellulose under thermophilic and high-solid conditions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yu, Chaowei; Reddy, Amitha P.; Simmons, Christopher W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.

    2015-12-02

    Microbial communities enriched from diverse environments have shown considerable promise for the targeted discovery of microorganisms and enzymes for bioconversion of lignocellulose to liquid fuels. While preservation of microbial communities is important for commercialization and research, few studies have examined storage conditions ideal for preservation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of preservation method on composition of microbial communities enriched on switchgrass before and after storage. The enrichments were completed in a high-solid and aerobic environment at 55 °C. Community composition was examined for each enrichment to determine when a stable community was achieved. Preservation methodsmore » included cryopreservation with the cryoprotective agents DMSO and glycerol, and cryopreservation without cryoprotective agents. Revived communities were examined for their ability to decompose switchgrass under high-solid and thermophilic conditions. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from enrichment samples showed that the majority of the shift in composition of the switchgrass-degrading community occurred during the initial three 2-week enrichments. Shifts in community structure upon storage occurred in all cryopreserved samples. Storage in liquid nitrogen in the absence of cryoprotectant resulted in variable preservation of dominant microorganisms in enriched samples. Cryopreservation with either DMSO or glycerol provided consistent and equivalent preservation of dominant organisms. In conclusion, a stable switchgrass-degrading microbial community was achieved after three 2-week enrichments. Dominant microorganisms were preserved equally well with DMSO and glycerol. DMSO-preserved communities required more incubation time upon revival to achieve pre-storage activity levels during high-solid thermophilic cultivation on switchgrass. Despite shifts in the community with storage, the samples were active upon revival

  12. Preservation of microbial communities enriched on lignocellulose under thermophilic and high-solid conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Chaowei; Reddy, Amitha P.; Simmons, Christopher W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.

    2015-12-02

    Microbial communities enriched from diverse environments have shown considerable promise for the targeted discovery of microorganisms and enzymes for bioconversion of lignocellulose to liquid fuels. While preservation of microbial communities is important for commercialization and research, few studies have examined storage conditions ideal for preservation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of preservation method on composition of microbial communities enriched on switchgrass before and after storage. The enrichments were completed in a high-solid and aerobic environment at 55 °C. Community composition was examined for each enrichment to determine when a stable community was achieved. Preservation methods included cryopreservation with the cryoprotective agents DMSO and glycerol, and cryopreservation without cryoprotective agents. Revived communities were examined for their ability to decompose switchgrass under high-solid and thermophilic conditions. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from enrichment samples showed that the majority of the shift in composition of the switchgrass-degrading community occurred during the initial three 2-week enrichments. Shifts in community structure upon storage occurred in all cryopreserved samples. Storage in liquid nitrogen in the absence of cryoprotectant resulted in variable preservation of dominant microorganisms in enriched samples. Cryopreservation with either DMSO or glycerol provided consistent and equivalent preservation of dominant organisms. In conclusion, a stable switchgrass-degrading microbial community was achieved after three 2-week enrichments. Dominant microorganisms were preserved equally well with DMSO and glycerol. DMSO-preserved communities required more incubation time upon revival to achieve pre-storage activity levels during high-solid thermophilic cultivation on switchgrass. Despite shifts in the community with storage, the samples were active upon revival under

  13. Thermophilic biohydrogen production: how far are we?

    PubMed

    Pawar, Sudhanshu S; van Niel, Ed W J

    2013-09-01

    Apart from being applied as an energy carrier, hydrogen is in increasing demand as a commodity. Currently, the majority of hydrogen (H2) is produced from fossil fuels, but from an environmental perspective, sustainable H2 production should be considered. One of the possible ways of hydrogen production is through fermentation, in particular, at elevated temperature, i.e. thermophilic biohydrogen production. This short review recapitulates the current status in thermophilic biohydrogen production through fermentation of commercially viable substrates produced from readily available renewable resources, such as agricultural residues. The route to commercially viable biohydrogen production is a multidisciplinary enterprise. Microbiological studies have pointed out certain desirable physiological characteristics in H2-producing microorganisms. More process-oriented research has identified best applicable reactor types and cultivation conditions. Techno-economic and life cycle analyses have identified key process bottlenecks with respect to economic feasibility and its environmental impact. The review has further identified current limitations and gaps in the knowledge, and also deliberates directions for future research and development of thermophilic biohydrogen production. PMID:23948723

  14. Thermophilic fungi in an aridland ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Powell, Amy J; Parchert, Kylea J; Bustamante, Joslyn M; Ricken, J Bryce; Hutchinson, Miriam I; Natvig, Donald O

    2012-01-01

    We report a comprehensive multi-year study of thermophilic fungi at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico. Recovery of thermophilic fungi from soils showed seasonal fluctuations, with greater abundance correlating with spring and summer precipitation peaks. In addition to grassland soils, we obtained and characterized isolates from grassland and riparian litter, herbivore dung and biological soil crusts. All strains belonged to either the Eurotiales or Sordariales (Chaetomiaceae). No particular substrate or microhabitat associations were detected. Molecular typing of strains revealed substantial phylogenetic diversity, eight ad hoc phylogroups across the two orders were identified and genetic diversity was present within each phylogroup. Growth tests over a range of temperatures showed substantial variation in maximum growth rates among strains and across phylogroups but consistency within phylogroups. Results demonstrated that 45-50 C represents the optimal temperature for growth of most isolates, with a dramatic decline at 60 C. Most strains grew at 60 C, albeit slowly, whereas none grew at 65 C, providing empirical confirmation that 60 C presents an evolutionary threshold for fungal growth. Our results support the hypothesis that fungal thermophily is an adaptation to transient seasonal and diurnal high temperatures, rather than simply an adaptation to specialized high-temperature environments. We note that the diversity observed among strains and the frequently confused taxonomy within these groups highlight the need for comprehensive biosystematic revision of thermophilic taxa in both orders. PMID:22505432

  15. Light aerobic physical exercise in combination with leucine and/or glutamine-rich diet can improve the body composition and muscle protein metabolism in young tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Salomão, Emilianne Miguel; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2012-12-01

    Nutritional supplementation with some amino acids may influence host's responses and also certain mechanism involved in tumor progression. It is known that exercise influences body weight and muscle composition. Previous findings from our group have shown that leucine has beneficial effects on protein composition in cachectic rat model as the Walker 256 tumor. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of light exercise and leucine and/or glutamine-rich diet in body composition and skeletal muscle protein synthesis and degradation in young tumor-bearing rats. Walker tumor-bearing rats were subjected to light aerobic exercise (swimming 30 min/day) and fed a leucine-rich (3%) and/or glutamine-rich (4%) diet for 10 days and compared to healthy young rats. The carcasses were analyzed as total water and fat body content and lean body mass. The gastrocnemious muscles were isolated and used for determination of total protein synthesis and degradation. The chemical body composition changed with tumor growth, increasing body water and reducing body fat content and total body nitrogen. After tumor growth, the muscle protein metabolism was impaired, showing that the muscle protein synthesis was also reduced and the protein degradation process was increased in the gastrocnemius muscle of exercised rats. Although short-term exercise (10 days) alone did not produce beneficial effects that would reduce tumor damage, host protein metabolism was improved when exercise was combined with a leucine-rich diet. Only total carcass nitrogen and protein were recovered by a glutamine-rich diet. Exercise, in combination with an amino acid-rich diet, in particular, leucine, had effects beyond reducing tumoral weight such as improving protein turnover and carcass nitrogen content in the tumor-bearing host. PMID:22460363

  16. Acid-Tolerant Moderately Thermophilic Methanotrophs of the Class Gammaproteobacteria Isolated From Tropical Topsoil with Methane Seeps

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Tajul; Torsvik, Vigdis; Larsen, Øivind; Bodrossy, Levente; Øvreås, Lise; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial tropical methane seep habitats are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methane oxidizing bacteria play a key role in these ecosystems as they reduce methane emissions to the atmosphere. Here, we describe the isolation and initial characterization of two novel moderately thermophilic and acid-tolerant obligate methanotrophs, assigned BFH1 and BFH2 recovered from a tropical methane seep topsoil habitat. The new isolates were strictly aerobic, non-motile, coccus-shaped and utilized methane and methanol as sole carbon and energy source. Isolates grew at pH range 4.2–7.5 (optimal 5.5–6.0) and at a temperature range of 30–60°C (optimal 51–55°C). 16S rRNA gene phylogeny placed them in a well-separated branch forming a cluster together with the genus Methylocaldum as the closest relatives (93.1–94.1% sequence similarity). The genes pmoA, mxaF, and cbbL were detected, but mmoX was absent. Strains BFH1 and BFH2 are, to our knowledge, the first isolated acid-tolerant moderately thermophilic methane oxidizers of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Each strain probably denotes a novel species and they most likely represent a novel genus within the family Methylococcaceae of type I methanotrophs. Furthermore, the isolates increase our knowledge of acid-tolerant aerobic methanotrophs and signify a previously unrecognized biological methane sink in tropical ecosystems. PMID:27379029

  17. Acid-Tolerant Moderately Thermophilic Methanotrophs of the Class Gammaproteobacteria Isolated From Tropical Topsoil with Methane Seeps.

    PubMed

    Islam, Tajul; Torsvik, Vigdis; Larsen, Øivind; Bodrossy, Levente; Øvreås, Lise; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    2016-01-01

    Terrestrial tropical methane seep habitats are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methane oxidizing bacteria play a key role in these ecosystems as they reduce methane emissions to the atmosphere. Here, we describe the isolation and initial characterization of two novel moderately thermophilic and acid-tolerant obligate methanotrophs, assigned BFH1 and BFH2 recovered from a tropical methane seep topsoil habitat. The new isolates were strictly aerobic, non-motile, coccus-shaped and utilized methane and methanol as sole carbon and energy source. Isolates grew at pH range 4.2-7.5 (optimal 5.5-6.0) and at a temperature range of 30-60°C (optimal 51-55°C). 16S rRNA gene phylogeny placed them in a well-separated branch forming a cluster together with the genus Methylocaldum as the closest relatives (93.1-94.1% sequence similarity). The genes pmoA, mxaF, and cbbL were detected, but mmoX was absent. Strains BFH1 and BFH2 are, to our knowledge, the first isolated acid-tolerant moderately thermophilic methane oxidizers of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Each strain probably denotes a novel species and they most likely represent a novel genus within the family Methylococcaceae of type I methanotrophs. Furthermore, the isolates increase our knowledge of acid-tolerant aerobic methanotrophs and signify a previously unrecognized biological methane sink in tropical ecosystems. PMID:27379029

  18. Silicification of Thermophilic Biofilms: Do Aquificales Affect the Mineralisation Process?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konhauser, K.; Lalonde, S.; Aguiar, P.; Reysenbach, A.

    2003-12-01

    In geothermal environments, biomineralisation is an inevitable consequence of microbes growing in solute-rich waters. The process of silicification is of particular interest due to (1) apparent discrepancies between natural and laboratory silicification rates and (2) siliceous microfossils currently serve as the earliest physical evidence for life on Earth. Although mesophilic microbe-silica interactions have been studied in great detail, there is a paucity of information on the role that thermophiles play in the silicification process, i.e., does their metabolism in any way facilitate silicification and do their cellular remains fossilise? To help resolve some of these uncertainties, a thermophilic, biofilm-forming member of the Aquificales order, Sulfurihydrogenobium azorense, was grown in the presence of various concentrations of silica, ranging from undersaturated to those extremely supersaturated with respect to amorphous silica. Since the chemolithoautotrophic Aquificales use of a wide range and combination of electron donors and acceptors, the bacteria cultured were grown in the presence of H2 with O2, S and Fe(III) as terminal electron acceptors. This study focused on the rates of pH-induced silica polymerisation during a 48 hour interval, when the soluble silica phase was at its most reactive stage, and when the greatest amount of silica immobilisation was likely to occur. S. azorense was found to have no detectable effect on the polymerisation rate of silica under any condition tested, nor did it cause silica to precipitate in undersaturated conditions. In addition, transmission electron microscopy showed that although silica did indeed precipitate from solution, there was no obvious association between solid-phase silica and the cells walls. This suggests that under high silica levels there is such a strong chemical driving force for silica polymerisation, homogeneous nucleation, and ultimately silica precipitation that there is no obvious need for

  19. The hemicellulases from the ethanologenic thermophile, Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus and similar anaerobic thermophiles. Annual technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegel, J.

    1995-07-01

    A Xylanase was fractionated from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, an ethanologenic thermophile, and the preparation so obtained was used to determined enzymatic parameters such as pH profile of enzyme activity. The ability of various mono- and di-saccharides as well as temperature variations to induce this enzyme activity were studied.

  20. Thermophiles in the genomic era: Biodiversity, science, and applications.

    PubMed

    Urbieta, M Sofía; Donati, Edgardo R; Chan, Kok-Gan; Shahar, Saleha; Sin, Lee Li; Goh, Kian Mau

    2015-11-01

    Thermophiles and hyperthermophiles are present in various regions of the Earth, including volcanic environments, hot springs, mud pots, fumaroles, geysers, coastal thermal springs, and even deep-sea hydrothermal vents. They are also found in man-made environments, such as heated compost facilities, reactors, and spray dryers. Thermophiles, hyperthermophiles, and their bioproducts facilitate various industrial, agricultural, and medicinal applications and offer potential solutions to environmental damages and the demand for biofuels. Intensified efforts to sequence the entire genome of hyperthermophiles and thermophiles are increasing rapidly, as evidenced by the fact that over 120 complete genome sequences of the hyperthermophiles Aquificae, Thermotogae, Crenarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota are now available. In this review, we summarise the major current applications of thermophiles and thermozymes. In addition, emphasis is placed on recent progress in understanding the biodiversity, genomes, transcriptomes, metagenomes, and single-cell sequencing of thermophiles in the genomic era. PMID:25911946

  1. Thermophilic fermentation of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol by a novel Geobacillus strain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are two important biorefinery platform chemicals. They are currently fermented below 40°C using mesophilic strains, but the processes often suffer from bacterial contamination. Results This work reports the isolation and identification of a novel aerobic Geobacillus strain XT15 capable of producing both of these chemicals under elevated temperatures, thus reducing the risk of bacterial contamination. The optimum growth temperature was found to be between 45 and 55°C and the medium initial pH to be 8.0. In addition to glucose, galactose, mannitol, arabionose, and xylose were all acceptable substrates, enabling the potential use of cellulosic biomass as the feedstock. XT15 preferred organic nitrogen sources including corn steep liquor powder, a cheap by-product from corn wet-milling. At 55°C, 7.7 g/L of acetoin and 14.5 g/L of 2,3-butanediol could be obtained using corn steep liquor powder as a nitrogen source. Thirteen volatile products from the cultivation broth of XT15 were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and their derivatives including a novel metabolite 2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylheptan-4-one, accounted for a total of about 96% of all the volatile products. In contrast, organic acids and other products were minor by-products. α-Acetolactate decarboxylase and acetoin:2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol oxidoreductase in XT15, the two key enzymes in acetoin metabolic pathway, were found to be both moderately thermophilic with the identical optimum temperature of 45°C. Conclusions Geobacillus sp. XT15 is the first naturally occurring thermophile excreting acetoin and/or 2,3-butanediol. This work has demonstrated the attractive prospect of developing it as an industrial strain in the thermophilic fermentation of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol with improved anti-contamination performance. The novel metabolites and enzymes identified in XT15 also indicated its strong promise as a precious

  2. Phenotypic characterization of food waste degrading Bacillus strains isolated from aerobic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Teresa Saraiva Lopes da; Espírito Santo, Fátima; Pereira, Pablo Tavares; Roseiro, José Carlos Pereira

    2006-01-01

    A phenotypic characterization of seventeen Bacillus strains isolated from aerobic thermophilic bioreactors of a food waste processing company was carried out, using fatty acid and enzymatic activity profiles. It was observed that each species possessed a typical fatty acid and enzymatic production profile. Bacillus licheniformis strains exhibited the most significant enzyme production. Numerical analyses (principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses) revealed that Bacillus licheniformis strains were homogeneous regarding their fatty acid profiles whilst B. subtilis and Bacillus pumilus strains showed some phenotypic differences. However, enzymatic activities numerical analyses indicated that these three Bacillus species were more homogeneous regarding this phenotypic characteristic. PMID:16463317

  3. Single-step ethanol production from lignocellulose using novel extremely thermophilic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol using thermophilic bacteria provides a promising solution for efficient lignocellulose conversion without the need for additional cellulolytic enzymes. Most studies on the thermophilic CBP concentrate on co-cultivation of the thermophilic cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum with non-cellulolytic thermophilic anaerobes at temperatures of 55°C-60°C. Results We have specifically screened for cellulolytic bacteria growing at temperatures >70°C to enable direct conversion of lignocellulosic materials into ethanol. Seven new strains of extremely thermophilic anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor and eight new strains of extremely thermophilic xylanolytic/saccharolytic bacteria of the genus Thermoanaerobacter isolated from environmental samples exhibited fast growth at 72°C, extensive lignocellulose degradation and high yield ethanol production on cellulose and pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. Monocultures of Caldicellulosiruptor strains degraded up to 89-97% of the cellulose and hemicellulose polymers in pretreated biomass and produced up to 72 mM ethanol on cellulose without addition of exogenous enzymes. In dual co-cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor strains with Thermoanaerobacter strains the ethanol concentrations rose 2- to 8.2-fold compared to cellulolytic monocultures. A co-culture of Caldicellulosiruptor DIB 087C and Thermoanaerobacter DIB 097X was particularly effective in the conversion of cellulose to ethanol, ethanol comprising 34.8 mol% of the total organic products. In contrast, a co-culture of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus DSM 8903 and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii subsp. mathranii DSM 11426 produced only low amounts of ethanol. Conclusions The newly discovered Caldicellulosiruptor sp. strain DIB 004C was capable of producing unexpectedly large amounts of ethanol from lignocellulose in fermentors. The established co

  4. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of high strength wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegant, W.M.; Claassen, J.A.; Lettinga, G.

    1985-09-01

    Investigations on the thermophilic anaerobic treatment of high-strength wastewaters (14-65 kg COD/mT) are presented. Vinasse, the wastewater of alcohol distilleries, was used as an example of such wastewaters. Semicontinuously fed digestion experiments at high retention times revealed that the effluent quality of digestion at 55C is comparable with that at 30C at similar loading rates. The amount of methane formed per kilogram of vinasse drops almost linearly with increasing vinasse concentrations. The treatment of vinasse was also investigated using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors.

  5. Population Changes in Enteric Bacteria and Other Microorganisms During Aerobic Thermophilic Windrow Composting1

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jacob; Chase, Theodore; Macmillan, James D.

    1973-01-01

    Composting of wastes from swine feeding operations was studied. The effects of the frequency of turning the wastes and addition of straw to improve the physical structure were studied to determine the most effective technique to rapidly increase the temperature and, consequently, destroy coliforms and Salmonella. Four different treatments were studied; the results showed that, with addition of 5% (wt/wt) straw and mechanical turning of the compost 20 times per week, the temperature reached 60 C within 3 days and enteric bacteria were destroyed within 14 days. Images PMID:4203338

  6. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John C; McComb, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention includes a system of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  7. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  8. Thermophilic fungi in the new age of fungal taxonomy.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Tássio Brito; Gomes, Eleni; Rodrigues, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Thermophilic fungi are of wide interest due to their potential to produce heat-tolerant enzymes for biotechnological processes. However, the taxonomy of such organisms remains obscure, especially given new developments in the nomenclature of fungi. Here, we examine the taxonomy of the thermophilic fungi most commonly used in industry in light of the recent taxonomic changes following the adoption of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants and also based on the movement One Fungus = One Name. Despite the widespread use of these fungi in applied research, several thermotolerant fungi still remain classified as thermophiles. Furthermore, we found that while some thermophilic fungi have had their genomes sequenced, many taxa still do not have barcode sequences of reference strains available in public databases. This lack of basic information is a limiting factor for the species identification of thermophilic fungi and for metagenomic studies in this field. Based on next-generation sequencing, such studies generate large amounts of data, which may reveal new species of thermophilic fungi in different substrates (composting systems, geothermal areas, piles of plant material). As discussed in this study, there are intrinsic problems associated with this method, considering the actual state of the taxonomy of thermophilic fungi. To overcome such difficulties, the taxonomic classification of this group should move towards standardizing the commonly used species names in industry and to assess the possibility of including new systems for describing species based on environmental sequences. PMID:25399310

  9. Diversity of Thermophilic Microorganisms within Hawaiian Fumaroles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, C. A.; Anderson, S.; Anderson, C.

    2007-12-01

    Fumaroles provide heat and moisture characteristic of an environment suitable for thermophilic microorganisms. On the Island of Hawaii, fumaroles are scattered across the southeastern portion of the island as a result of the volcanic activity from Kilauea Crater and Pu'u' O'o vent. We used metagenomics to detect 16S rDNA from archaeal and bacterial thermophilic microorganisms indicating their presence in Hawaiian fumaroles. The fumaroles sampled exist along elevation and precipitation gradients; varying from sea level to 4,012ft and annual rainfall from less than 20in to greater than 80in. To determine the effects of environmental gradients (including temperature, pH, elevation, and precipitation) on microbial diversity within and among fumaroles, we obtained 22 samples from 7 fumaroles over a three-day period in February of 2007. Temperature variations within individual fumaroles vary from 2.3oC to 35oC and the pH variances that range from 0.4 to 2.0. Temperatures of the different fumaroles range from 29.9oC to greater than 105oC, with pH values that vary from 2.55 to 6.93. Further data on the microbial diversity within fumaroles and among fumaroles will be determined once the sequencing of the microbial 16S rDNA regions is completed. We are currently assembling and sequencing clone libraries of bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA fragments from fumaroles.

  10. Cellulosomics of the cellulolytic thermophile Clostridium clariflavum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium clariflavum is an anaerobic, thermophilic, Gram-positive bacterium, capable of growth on crystalline cellulose as a single carbon source. The genome of C. clariflavum has been sequenced to completion, and numerous cellulosomal genes were identified, including putative scaffoldin and enzyme subunits. Results Bioinformatic analysis of the C. clariflavum genome revealed 49 cohesin modules distributed on 13 different scaffoldins and 79 dockerin-containing proteins, suggesting an abundance of putative cellulosome assemblies. The 13-scaffoldin system of C. clariflavum is highly reminiscent of the proposed cellulosome system of Acetivibrio cellulolyticus. Analysis of the C. clariflavum type I dockerin sequences indicated a very high level of conservation, wherein the putative recognition residues are remarkably similar to those of A. cellulolyticus. The numerous interactions among the cellulosomal components were elucidated using a standardized affinity ELISA-based fusion-protein system. The results revealed a rather simplistic recognition pattern of cohesin-dockerin interaction, whereby the type I and type II cohesins generally recognized the dockerins of the same type. The anticipated exception to this rule was the type I dockerin of the ScaB adaptor scaffoldin which bound selectively to the type I cohesins of ScaC and ScaJ. Conclusions The findings reveal an intricate picture of predicted cellulosome assemblies in C. clariflavum. The network of cohesin-dockerin pairs provides a thermophilic alternative to those of C. thermocellum and a basis for subsequent utilization of the C. clariflavum cellulosomal system for biotechnological application. PMID:26413154

  11. Sequential anaerobic/aerobic biotreatment of bark leachate.

    PubMed

    Frigon, J C; Cimpoia, R; Guiot, S R

    2003-01-01

    Bark leachate is generated from sawmill operations such as log storage sites and contains polymeric tannins, carbohydrates, organic acids, phenolic and resin compounds. The present study was aimed at assessing the performance of a sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment, for both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol removal, under various combinations of operational conditions, in the continuous mode. After anaerobic treatment in a five litres upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, the leachate was directed into two parallel aerobic reactors, either an activated sludge unit or a fixed film submerged filter (packed with polyethylene Flexirings), both of a volume of one litre and oxygenated by air diffusion. For a leachate of 22 gCOD/l, an overall COD removal of 96-98% was achieved at an hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 4 days for the anaerobic reactor and one day for either aerobic systems. The phenol concentration generally increased after anaerobic treatment but was below the detection limit (50 ppb) after aerobic polishing. Radiorespirometric microcosms with 14C-labelled phenol confirmed that phenol was mineralized in the aerobic reactors. The performances of both aerobic systems were similar for COD and phenol removal. Thus, a sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment was able to effectively address the contamination of a bark leachate discharge, including phenols. PMID:14640219

  12. A novel thermophilic methane-oxidizing bacteria from thermal springs of Uzon volcano caldera, Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorianchikova, E.; Kizilova, A.; Kravchenko, I.; Galchenko, V.

    2012-04-01

    Methane is a radiatively active trace gas, contributing significantly to the greenhouse effect. It is 26 times more efficient in absorbing and re-emitting infrared radiation than carbon dioxide. Methanotrophs play an essential role in the global carbon cycle by oxidizing 50-75% of the biologically produced methane in situ, before it reaches the atmosphere. Methane-oxidizing bacteria are isolated from the various ecosystems and described at present. Their biology, processes of methane oxidation in fresh-water, marsh, soil and marine habitats are investigated quite well. Processes of methane oxidation in places with extreme physical and chemical conditions (high or low , salinity and temperature values) are studied in much smaller degree. Such ecosystems occupy a considerable part of the Earth's surface. The existence of aerobic methanotrophs inhabiting extreme environments has been verified so far by cultivation experiments and direct detection of methane monooxygenase genes specific to almost all aerobic methanotrophs. Thermophilic and thermotolerant methanotrophs have been isolated from such extreme environments and consist of the gammaproteobacterial (type I) genera Methylothermus, Methylocaldum, Methylococcus and the verrucomicrobial genus Methylacidiphilum. Uzon volcano caldera is a unique area, where volcanic processes still happen today. Hydrothermal springs of the area are extreme ecosystems which microbial communities represent considerable scientific interest of fundamental and applied character. A thermophilic aerobic methane-oxidising bacterium was isolated from a sediment sample from a hot spring (56.1; 5.3) of Uzon caldera. Strain S21 was isolated using mineral low salt medium. The headspace gas was composed of CH4, Ar, CO2, and O2 (40:40:15:5). The temperature of cultivation was 50, pH 5.5. Cells of strain S21 in exponential and early-stationary phase were coccoid bacilli, about 1 μm in diameter, and motile with a single polar flagellum. PCR and

  13. Extreme Thermophiles: Moving beyond single-enzyme biocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Frock, Andrew D.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been sources of thermostable and thermoactive enzymes for over 30 years. However, information and insights gained from genome sequences, in conjunction with new tools for molecular genetics, have opened up exciting new possibilities for biotechnological opportunities based on extreme thermophiles that go beyond single-step biotransformations. Although the pace for discovering novel microorganisms has slowed over the past two decades, genome sequence data have provided clues to novel biomolecules and metabolic pathways, which can be mined for a range of new applications. Furthermore, recent advances in molecular genetics for extreme thermophiles have made metabolic engineering for high temperature applications a reality. PMID:23413412

  14. Thermophilic fermentation of hydrolysates: the effect of inhibitors on growth of thermophilic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Thomasser, Christiane; Danner, Herbert; Neureiter, Markus; Saidi, Bamusi; Braun, Rudolf

    2002-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has great potential as a cheap feedstock in biological processes to produce biofuels or chemicals; however, dilute acid pretreatment at high temperatures produces undesirable compounds. Toxicity tests were done with inhibitors in standard media, to predict the growth-limiting effects on thermophilic strains. The 22 inhibitors included furfural, levulinic acid, acetic acid, and cinnamaldehyde. Neutralizing reagents and additional treatment steps have been tested. PMID:12018300

  15. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1997-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information on aerobic exercise (specifically running) and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtained by participating in fitness programs. Recommends collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers and gives a preliminary discussion of aerobic running and its…

  16. Aerobic Fitness and School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1992-01-01

    Provides school counselors with information regarding aerobic exercise (specifically running), and the psychological, behavioral, and physical benefits children obtain by participating in fitness programs. Presents methods of collaboration between school counselors and physical education teachers. Offers preliminary discussion of aerobic running…

  17. Exercise, Animal Aerobics, and Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Describes an aerobic activity set to music for children that mimics animal movements. Example exercises include walking like a penguin or jumping like a cricket. Stresses basic aerobic principles and designing the program at the level of children's motor skills. Benefits include reaching people who normally don't visit nature centers, and bridging…

  18. Uncultivated thermophiles: current status and spotlight on 'Aigarchaeota'.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Brian P; Murugapiran, Senthil K; Alba, Timothy W; Levy, Asaf; Dodsworth, Jeremy A; Goertz, Gisele B; Ivanova, Natalia; Woyke, Tanja

    2015-06-01

    Meta-analysis of cultivation-independent sequence data shows that geothermal systems host an abundance of novel organisms, representing a vast unexplored phylogenetic and functional diversity among yet-uncultivated thermophiles. A number of thermophiles have recently been interrogated using metagenomic and/or single-cell genomic approaches, including members of taxonomic groups that inhabit both thermal and non-thermal environments, such as 'Acetothermia' (OP1) and 'Atribacteria' (OP9/JS1), as well as the exclusively thermophilic lineages 'Korarchaeota', 'Calescamantes' (EM19), 'Fervidibacteria' (OctSpA1-106), and 'Aigarchaeota' (HWCG-I). The 'Aigarchaeota', a sister lineage to the Thaumarchaeota, likely includes both hyperthermophiles and moderate thermophiles. They inhabit terrestrial, marine, and subsurface thermal environments and comprise at least nine genus-level lineages, several of which are globally distributed. PMID:26113243

  19. Global Association between Thermophilicity and Vancomycin Susceptibility in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Chayan; Alam, Masrure; Mandal, Subhrangshu; Haldar, Prabir K.; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi; Mukherjee, Trinetra; Roy, Rimi; Rameez, Moidu J.; Misra, Anup K.; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Nanda, Ashish K.; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra K.; Ghosh, Wriddhiman

    2016-01-01

    Exploration of the aquatic microbiota of several circum-neutral (6.0–8.5 pH) mid-temperature (55–85°C) springs revealed rich diversities of phylogenetic relatives of mesophilic bacteria, which surpassed the diversity of the truly-thermophilic taxa. To gain insight into the potentially-thermophilic adaptations of the phylogenetic relatives of Gram-negative mesophilic bacteria detected in culture-independent investigations we attempted pure-culture isolation by supplementing the enrichment media with 50 μg ml−1 vancomycin. Surprisingly, this Gram-positive-specific antibiotic eliminated the entire culturable-diversity of chemoorganotrophic and sulfur-chemolithotrophic bacteria present in the tested hot water inocula. Moreover, it also killed all the Gram-negative hot-spring isolates that were obtained in vancomycin-free media. Concurrent literature search for the description of Gram-negative thermophilic bacteria revealed that at least 16 of them were reportedly vancomycin-susceptible. While these data suggested that vancomycin-susceptibility could be a global trait of thermophilic bacteria (irrespective of their taxonomy, biogeography and Gram-character), MALDI Mass Spectroscopy of the peptidoglycans of a few Gram-negative thermophilic bacteria revealed that tandem alanines were present in the fourth and fifth positions of their muropeptide precursors (MPPs). Subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed a close affinity between the D-alanine-D-alanine ligases (Ddl) of taxonomically-diverse Gram-negative thermophiles and the thermostable Ddl protein of Thermotoga maritima, which is well-known for its high specificity for alanine over other amino acids. The Ddl tree further illustrated a divergence between the homologs of Gram-negative thermophiles and mesophiles, which broadly coincided with vancomycin-susceptibility and vancomycin-resistance respectively. It was thus hypothesized that thermophilic Ddls have been evolutionarily selected to favor a D

  20. Global Association between Thermophilicity and Vancomycin Susceptibility in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Roy, Chayan; Alam, Masrure; Mandal, Subhrangshu; Haldar, Prabir K; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi; Mukherjee, Trinetra; Roy, Rimi; Rameez, Moidu J; Misra, Anup K; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Nanda, Ashish K; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra K; Ghosh, Wriddhiman

    2016-01-01

    Exploration of the aquatic microbiota of several circum-neutral (6.0-8.5 pH) mid-temperature (55-85°C) springs revealed rich diversities of phylogenetic relatives of mesophilic bacteria, which surpassed the diversity of the truly-thermophilic taxa. To gain insight into the potentially-thermophilic adaptations of the phylogenetic relatives of Gram-negative mesophilic bacteria detected in culture-independent investigations we attempted pure-culture isolation by supplementing the enrichment media with 50 μg ml(-1) vancomycin. Surprisingly, this Gram-positive-specific antibiotic eliminated the entire culturable-diversity of chemoorganotrophic and sulfur-chemolithotrophic bacteria present in the tested hot water inocula. Moreover, it also killed all the Gram-negative hot-spring isolates that were obtained in vancomycin-free media. Concurrent literature search for the description of Gram-negative thermophilic bacteria revealed that at least 16 of them were reportedly vancomycin-susceptible. While these data suggested that vancomycin-susceptibility could be a global trait of thermophilic bacteria (irrespective of their taxonomy, biogeography and Gram-character), MALDI Mass Spectroscopy of the peptidoglycans of a few Gram-negative thermophilic bacteria revealed that tandem alanines were present in the fourth and fifth positions of their muropeptide precursors (MPPs). Subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed a close affinity between the D-alanine-D-alanine ligases (Ddl) of taxonomically-diverse Gram-negative thermophiles and the thermostable Ddl protein of Thermotoga maritima, which is well-known for its high specificity for alanine over other amino acids. The Ddl tree further illustrated a divergence between the homologs of Gram-negative thermophiles and mesophiles, which broadly coincided with vancomycin-susceptibility and vancomycin-resistance respectively. It was thus hypothesized that thermophilic Ddls have been evolutionarily selected to favor a D-ala-D-ala bonding

  1. Deep-Subterranean Microbial Habitats in the Hishikari Epithermal Gold Mine: Active Thermophilic Microbial Communities and Endolithic Ancient Microbial Relicts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, H.; Takai, K.; Inagaki, F.; Horikoshi, K.

    2001-12-01

    Deep subterranean microbial community structures in an epithermal gold-silver deposit, Hishikari gold mine, southern part of Kyusyu Japan, were evaluated through the combined use of enrichment culture methods and culture-independent molecular surveys. The geologic setting of the Hishikari deposit is composed of three lithologies; basement oceanic sediments of the Cretaceous Shimanto Supergroup, Quaternary andesites, and auriferous quartz vein. We studied the drilled core rock of these, and the geothermal hot waters from the basement aquifers collected by means of the dewatering system located at the deepest level in the mining sites. Culture-independent molecular phylogenetic analyses of PCR-amplified ribosomal DNA (rDNA) recovered from drilled cores suggested that the deep-sea oceanic microbial communities were present as ancient indigenous relicts confined in the Shimanto basement. On the other hand, genetic signals of active thermophilic microbial communities, mainly consisting of thermophilic hydrogen-oxidizer within Aquificales, thermophilic methanotroph within g-Proteobacteria and yet-uncultivated bacterium OPB37 within b-Proteobacteria, were detected with these of oceanic relicts from the subterranean geothermal hot aquifers (temp. 70-100ºC). Successful cultivation and FISH analyses strongly supported that these thermophilic lithotrophic microorganisms could be exactly active and they grew using geochemically produced hydrogen and methane gasses as nutrients. Based on these results, the deep-subsurface biosphere occurring in the Hishikari epithermal gold mine was delineated as endolithic ancient microbial relicts and modern habitats raising active lithotrophic thermophiles associated with the geological and geochemical features of the epithermal gold deposit.

  2. Hydrolysis and acidification of dewatered sludge under mesophilic, thermophilic and extreme thermophilic conditions: effect of pH.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Dong, Bin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of pH (uncontrolled, 8.0, 10.0 and 12.0) and temperature (mesophilic, thermophilic and extreme thermophilic) on hydrolysis and acidification of dewatered sludge in 7-day batch fermentation experiment. Solublization of COD, protein and carbohydrates as well as concentration and composition of VFAs were investigated. Sludge hydrolysis was enhanced with higher pH and temperature. The maximum SCOD, soluble protein and carbohydrates was observed at pH 12.0 at extreme thermophilic condition. The maximum VFAs yield was obtained at thermophilic and was 2.15 times that at mesophilic condition, but it took more time to reach the maximum. The VFAs consisted of acetic, propionic, iso-butyric, n-butyric, iso-valeric, and n-valeric acids, and acetic acid was the prevalent product in most cases except for uncontrolled pH and pH 8.0 at mesophilic condition. The methane production was as follows: pH 8.0>pH 10.0>uncontrolled (0.015)>pH 12.0; mesophilic>thermophilic>extreme thermophilic. PMID:24077155

  3. Multiple roads lead to Rome: combined high-intensity aerobic and strength training vs. gross motor activities leads to equivalent improvement in executive functions in a cohort of healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Nicolas; Bherer, Louis; Nadeau, Sylvie; Lauzière, Séléna; Lehr, Lora; Bobeuf, Florian; Lussier, Maxime; Kergoat, Marie Jeanne; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Bosquet, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The effects of physical activity on cognition in older adults have been extensively investigated in the last decade. Different interventions such as aerobic, strength, and gross motor training programs have resulted in improvements in cognitive functions. However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between physical activity and cognition are still poorly understood. Recently, it was shown that acute bouts of exercise resulted in reduced executive control at higher relative exercise intensities. Considering that aging is characterized by a reduction in potential energy ([Formula: see text] max - energy cost of walking), which leads to higher relative walking intensity for the same absolute speed, it could be argued that any intervention aimed at reducing the relative intensity of the locomotive task would improve executive control while walking. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a short-term (8 weeks) high-intensity strength and aerobic training program on executive functions (single and dual task) in a cohort of healthy older adults. Fifty-one participants were included and 47 (age, 70.7 ± 5.6) completed the study which compared the effects of three interventions: lower body strength + aerobic training (LBS-A), upper body strength + aerobic training (UBS-A), and gross motor activities (GMA). Training sessions were held 3 times every week. Both physical fitness (aerobic, neuromuscular, and body composition) and cognitive functions (RNG) during a dual task were assessed before and after the intervention. Even though the LBS-A and UBS-A interventions increased potential energy to a higher level (Effect size: LBS-A-moderate, UBS-A-small, GMA-trivial), all groups showed equivalent improvement in cognitive function, with inhibition being more sensitive to the intervention. These findings suggest that different exercise programs targeting physical fitness and/or gross motor skills may lead to equivalent improvement in

  4. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    SciTech Connect

    Basen, M; Schut, GJ; Nguyen, DM; Lipscomb, GL; Benn, RA; Prybol, CJ; Vaccaro, BJ; Poole, FL; Kelly, RM; Adams, MWW

    2014-12-09

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 degrees C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways.

  5. Carbohydrate Transport by the Anaerobic Thermophile Clostridium thermocellum LQRI

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, H. J.; Caldwell, F. C.; Dawson, K. A.

    1995-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium which degrades cellulose and ferments the resulting glucose, cellobiose, and cellodextrins predominantly to ethanol. However, relatively little information was available on carbohydrate uptake by this bacterium. Washed cells internalized intact oligomers as large as cellopentaose. Since cellobiose and cellodextrin phosphorylase activities were detected in the cytosol and were not associated with cell membranes, phosphorylation of carbohydrates occurred intracellularly. Kinetic studies indicated that cellobiose and larger cellodextrins were taken up by a common uptake system while glucose entered via a separate mechanism. When cells were treated with metabolic inhibitors including iodoacetate and arsenate, the uptake of radiolabeled glucose or cellobiose was reduced by as much as 90%, and this reduction was associated with a 95% decline in intracellular ATP content. A combination of the ionophores nigericin and valinomycin abolished the proton-motive force but only slightly decreased transport and ATP. These results suggested that the two modes of carbohydrate transport in C. thermocellum were ATP dependent. This work is the first demonstration of cellodextrin transport by a cellulolytic bacterium. PMID:16535164

  6. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    PubMed Central

    Basen, Mirko; Schut, Gerrit J.; Nguyen, Diep M.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Benn, Robert A.; Prybol, Cameron J.; Vaccaro, Brian J.; Poole, Farris L.; Kelly, Robert M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 °C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways. PMID:25368184

  7. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yuancai; Chen, Yuancai; Song, Wenzhe; Hu, Yongyou

    2014-09-15

    Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1-0.2 mgL(-1)) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH4/hg VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO2/hg VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic condition and PCP on microbial community. Furthermore, nucleotide sequencing indicated that the main microorganisms for PCP degradation might be related to Actinobacterium and Sphingomonas. These results provided insights into situ bioremediation of environments contaminated by PCP and had practical implications for the strategies of PCP degradation. PMID:25151236

  8. Aerobic Requirements for Moving Handweights through Various Ranges of Motion While Walking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auble, Thomas E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of the aerobic metabolic requirements of normal walking with and without 1-, 2-, and 3-pound handweights among nine adult males indicated that walking while moving handweights through large ranges of motion provides a combined upper and lower body aerobic stimulus that is sufficient for endurance training for persons with poor to…

  9. Use of PCR-DGGE Based Molecular Methods to Analyse Microbial Community Diversity and Stability during the Thermophilic Stages of an ATAD Wastewater Sludge Treatment Process as an Aid to Performance Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Piterina, Anna V.; Pembroke, J. Tony

    2013-01-01

    PCR and PCR-DGGE techniques have been evaluated to monitor biodiversity indexes within an ATAD (autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion) system treating domestic sludge for land spread, by examining microbial dynamics in response to elevated temperatures during treatment. The ATAD process utilises a thermophilic population to generate heat and operates at elevated pH due to degradation of sludge solids, thus allowing pasteurisation and stabilisation of the sludge. Genera-specific PCR revealed that Archaea, Eukarya and Fungi decline when the temperature reaches 59°C, while the bacterial lineage constitutes the dominant group at this stage. The bacterial community at the thermophilic stage, its similarity index to the feed material, and the species richness present were evaluated by PCR-DGGE. Parameters such as choice of molecular target (16S rDNA or rpoB genes), and electrophoresis condition, were optimised to maximise the resolution of the method for ATAD. Dynamic analysis of microbial communities was best observed utilising PCR-DGGE analysis of the V6-V8 region of 16S rDNA, while rpoB gene profiles were less informative. Unique thermophilic communities were shown to quickly adapt to process changes, and shown to be quite stable during the process. Such techniques may be used as a monitoring technique for process health and efficiency. PMID:25937969

  10. Physiological plasticity of the thermophilic ammonia oxidizing archaeon Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii in response to a changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, T.; Johnson, A.; Gelsinger, D.; de la Torre, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Our understanding of nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in high temperature environments underwent a dramatic revision with the discovery of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA). The importance of AOA to the global nitrogen cycle came to light when recent studies of marine AOA demonstrated the dominance of these organisms in the ocean microbiome and their role as producers of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Understanding how AOA respond to fluctuating environments is crucial to fully comprehending their contribution to global biogeochemical cycling and climate change. In this study we use the thermophilic AOA Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii strain HL72 to explore the physiological plasticity of energy metabolism in these organisms. Previous studies have shown that HL72 grows autotrophically by aerobically oxidizing ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2-). Unlike studies of marine AOA, we find that HL72 can grow over a wide ammonia concentration range (0.25 - 10 mM NH4Cl) with comparable generation times when in the presence of 0.25 to 4 mM NH4Cl. However, preliminary data indicate that amoA, the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase (AMO), is upregulated at low ammonia concentrations (<50 μM) compared to growth at 1 mM. Although the ammonia oxidation pathway has not been fully elucidated, we have shown that nitric oxide (NO) appears to be a key intermediate: exponentially growing HL72 produces significant NO and the removal of NO using a scavenger reversibly inhibits growth. In addition to AMO, the HL72 genome also contains sequences for a urease encoded by subunits ureABC and an active urea transporter. Urea ((NH2)2CO) is an organic compound ubiquitous to aquatic and soil habitats that, when hydrolyzed, forms NH3 and CO2. We examined urea as an alternate source of ammonia for the ammonia oxidation pathway. HL72 grows over a wide range of urea concentrations (0.25 - 10 mM) at rates comparable to growth on ammonia. In a substrate competition experiment HL72 preferentially

  11. Conductive iron oxides accelerate thermophilic methanogenesis from acetate and propionate.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Chihaya; Kato, Souichiro; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic digester is one of the attractive technologies for treatment of organic wastes and wastewater, while continuous development and improvements on their stable operation with efficient organic removal are required. Particles of conductive iron oxides (e.g., magnetite) are known to facilitate microbial interspecies electron transfer (termed as electric syntrophy). Electric syntrophy has been reported to enhance methanogenic degradation of organic acids by mesophilic communities in soil and anaerobic digester. Here we investigated the effects of supplementation of conductive iron oxides (magnetite) on thermophilic methanogenic microbial communities derived from a thermophilic anaerobic digester. Supplementation of magnetite accelerated methanogenesis from acetate and propionate under thermophilic conditions, while supplementation of ferrihydrite also accelerated methanogenesis from propionate. Microbial community analysis revealed that supplementation of magnetite drastically changed bacterial populations in the methanogenic acetate-degrading cultures, in which Tepidoanaerobacter sp. and Coprothermobacter sp. dominated. These results suggest that supplementation of magnetite induce electric syntrophy between organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and methanogenic archaea and accelerate methanogenesis even under thermophilic conditions. Findings from this study would provide a possibility for the achievement of stably operating thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems with high efficiency for removal of organics and generation of CH4. PMID:25488041

  12. An immunological assay for detection and enumeration of thermophilic biomining microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Amaro, A M; Hallberg, K B; Lindström, E B; Jerez, C A

    1994-09-01

    A specific, fast, and sensitive nonradioactive immunobinding assay for the detection and enumeration of the moderate thermophile Thiobacillus caldus and the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was developed. It employs enhanced chemiluminescence or peroxidase-conjugated immunoglobulins in a dot or slot blotting system and is very convenient for monitoring thermophilic bioleaching microorganisms in effluents from industrial bioleaching processes. PMID:16349398

  13. Microbial influenced corrosion by thermophilic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lata, Suman; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, Ajay K.

    2012-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) on stainless steels due to thermophilic bacteria Desulfotomaculum nigrificans. The objective of the study was to measure the extent of corrosion and correlate it with the growth of the biofilm by monitoring the composition of its extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The toxic effect of heavy metals on MIC was also observed. For this purpose, stainless steels 304L, 316L and 2205 were subjected to electrochemical polarization and immersion tests in the modified Baar's media, control and inoculated, in anaerobic conditions at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to identify the chemicals present in/outside the pit. The results show maximum corrosive conditions when bacterial activity is highest, which in turn minimizes the amount of carbohydrate and protein along with the increase in the fraction of uronic acid in carbohydrate in EPS of the biofilm. However, although bacterial activity and corrosion rate decreases, the amount of biofilm components continue to increase. It is also observed that the toxicity of metals ions affect the bacterial activity and EPS production. It was observed that Desulfotomaculum sp. has the ability to biodegrade its own EPS.

  14. Protease Production by Different Thermophilic Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchione, Mariana M.; Merheb, Carolina W.; Gomes, Eleni; da Silva, Roberto

    A comparative study was carried out to evaluate protease production in solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) by nine different thermophilic fungi — Thermoascus aurantiacus Miehe, Thermomyces lanuginosus, T. lanuginosus TO.03, Aspergillus flavus 1.2, Aspergillus sp. 13.33, Aspergillus sp. 13.34, Aspergillus sp. 13.35, Rhizomucor pusillus 13.36 and Rhizomucor sp. 13.37 — using substrates containing proteins to induce enzyme secretion. Soybean extract (soybean milk), soybean flour, milk powder, rice, and wheat bran were tested. The most satisfactory results were obtained when using wheat bran in SSF. The fungi that stood out in SSF were T. lanuginosus, T. lanuginosus TO.03, Aspergillus sp. 13.34, Aspergillus sp. 13.35, and Rhizomucor sp. 13.37, and those in SmF were T. aurantiacus, T. lanuginosus TO.03, and 13.37. In both fermentation systems, A. flavus 1.2 and R. pusillus 13.36 presented the lowest levels of proteolytic activity.

  15. Phylogeography of the thermophilic cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Scott R; Castenholz, Richard W; Pedersen, Deana

    2007-08-01

    We have taken a phylogeographic approach to investigate the demographic and evolutionary processes that have shaped the geographic patterns of genetic diversity for a sample of isolates of the cosmopolitan thermophilic cyanobacterial Mastigocladus laminosus morphotype collected from throughout most of its range. Although M. laminosus is found in thermal areas throughout the world, our observation that populations are typically genetically differentiated on local geographic scales suggests the existence of dispersal barriers, a conclusion corroborated by evidence for genetic isolation by distance. Genealogies inferred using nitrogen metabolism gene sequence data suggest that a significant amount of the extant global diversity of M. laminosus can be traced back to a common ancestor associated with the western North American hot spot currently located below Yellowstone National Park. Estimated intragenic recombination rates are comparable to those of pathogenic bacteria known for their capacity to exchange DNA, indicating that genetic exchange has played an important role in generating novel variation during M. laminosus diversification. Selection has constrained protein changes at loci involved in the assimilation of both dinitrogen and nitrate, suggesting the historic use of both nitrogen sources in this heterocystous cyanobacterium. Lineage-specific differences in thermal performance were also observed. PMID:17557856

  16. Experimental evidence for the thermophilicity of ancestral life

    PubMed Central

    Akanuma, Satoshi; Nakajima, Yoshiki; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Kimura, Mitsuo; Nemoto, Naoki; Mase, Tomoko; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Tanokura, Masaru; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical studies have focused on the environmental temperature of the universal common ancestor of life with conflicting conclusions. Here we provide experimental support for the existence of a thermophilic universal common ancestor. We present the thermal stabilities and catalytic efficiencies of nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDK), designed using the information contained in predictive phylogenetic trees, that seem to represent the last common ancestors of Archaea and of Bacteria. These enzymes display extreme thermal stabilities, suggesting thermophilic ancestries for Archaea and Bacteria. The results are robust to the uncertainties associated with the sequence predictions and to the tree topologies used to infer the ancestral sequences. Moreover, mutagenesis experiments suggest that the universal ancestor also possessed a very thermostable NDK. Because, as we show, the stability of an NDK is directly related to the environmental temperature of its host organism, our results indicate that the last common ancestor of extant life was a thermophile that flourished at a very high temperature. PMID:23776221

  17. Relative importance of aerobic versus resistance training for healthy aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review will focus on the importance of aerobic and resistance modes of physical activity for healthy aging as supported by findings in 2007. In line with public health recommendations, several studies in 2007 employed an exercise paradigm that combined both modes of physical activity. While a...

  18. Removal of fecal coliforms by thermophilic anaerobic digestion processes.

    PubMed

    De León, C; Jenkins, D

    2002-01-01

    Recent U.S. EPA regulations (40 CFR Section 503) specify maximum concentrations of pathogens and metals for Class A wastewater treatment plant sludges. The most common sludge process is mesophilic (35 degrees C) digestion which stabilizes the solids, produces a combustible gas but does not create an effluent that meets the 503 Class A pathogen requirements. This investigation was conducted to determine whether anaerobic digestion processes incorporating a thermophilic stage could achieve 503 Class A pathogen levels. The research reported here was a bench-scale screening study meant to identify the most promising process alternatives for further investigation. Fecal Coliform (FC) concentrations were used to assess disinfection efficiency. Digesters were 30 L capacity fed semi-continuously in draw-fill mode. Digester startup was rapid to produce true thermophiles. Temperature staging and pH were assessed in 3 sets of experiments: Set 1 were one stage ("acid phase"), Set 2 were one stage ("acid + methane phases") and Set 3 were two stage ("acid phase" then "methanogenic phase"). Feed was a 1:1 mixture of Thickened Waste Activated Sludge and Primary Sludge. The following anaerobic digestion configurations and operating parameters allowed the production of digested sludge with a mean FC concentration statistically less than 10(3) (the regulatory value for Class A sludge): thermophilic single stage acid phase at 52 and 62 degrees C; thermophilic single stage acid + methane phase at 48 degrees C, 52 degrees C and 62 degrees C; two-stage mesophilic acid phase followed by mesophilic methane phase; two stage mesophilic acid phase followed by thermophilic methane phase at 48 degrees C, 52 degrees C and 62 degrees C. If the maximum digested FC concentration must be below 10(3) MPN/g TS then the following digester configurations and operating conditions will be compliant: two stage mesophilic acid phase followed by thermophilic methane phase at 52 degrees C and 62 degrees C

  19. Cellulase production by a thermophilic clostridium species.

    PubMed

    Lee, B H; Blackburn, T H

    1975-09-01

    Strain M7, a thermophilic, anaerobic, terminally sporing bacterium (0.6 by 4.0 mum) was isolated from manure. It degraded filter paper in 1 to 2 days at 60 C in a minimal cellulose medium but was stimulated by yeast extract. It fermented a wide variety of sugars but produced cellulase only in cellulose or carboxymethyl-cellulose media. Cellulase synthesis not only was probably repressed by 0.4% glucose and 0.3% cellobiose, but also cellulase activity appeared to be inhibited by these sugars at these concentrations. Both C(1) cellulase (degrades native cellulose) and C(x) cellulase (beta-1,4-glucanase) activities in strain M7 cultures were assayed by measuring the liberation of reducing sugars with dinitrosalicylic acid. Both activities had optima at pH 6.5 and 67 C. One milliliter of a 48-h culture of strain M7 hydrolyzed 0.044-meq of glucose per min from cotton fibers. The cellulase(s) from strain M7 was extracellular, produced during exponential growth, but was not free in the growth medium until approximately 30% of the cellulose was hydrolyzed. Glucose and cellobiose were the major soluble products liberated from cellulose by the cellulase. ZnCl(2) precipitation appeared initially to be a good method for the concentration of cellulase activity, but subsequent purification was not successful. Isoelectric focusing indicated the presence of four C(x) cellulases (pI 4.5, 6.3, 6.8, and 8.7). The rapid production and high activity of cellulases from this organism strongly support the basic premise that increased hydrolysis of native cellulose is possible at elevated temperature. PMID:16350033

  20. THERMOPHILE ENDOSPORES HAVE RESPONSIVE EXOSPORIUM FOR ATTACHMENT

    SciTech Connect

    PANESSA-WARREN,B.; TORTORA,G.T.; WARREN,J.; SABATINI,R.

    1999-08-01

    Recently studies examining the colonization of Clostridial pathogens on agar and human tissue culture cells, demonstrated that (C. sporogenes ATCC 3584, C. difficile ATCC 43594 [patient isolate], C. difficile ATCC 9689 [non-clinical], C. clostridioforme [patient isolate]) bacterial spores (endospores) of the genus Clostridia have an outer membrane that becomes responsive at activation and exhibits extensions of the exosporial membrane that facilitate and maintain spore attachment to a nutritive substrate during germination and initial outgrowth of the newly developed bacterial cell. Therefore this attachment phenomenon plays an important role in insuring bacterial colonization of a surface and the initial stages of the infective process. To see if other non-clinical members of this genus also have this ability to attach to a substrate or food-source during spore germination, and how this attachment process in environmental thermophiles compares to the clinical paradigm (in relation to time sequence, exosporial membrane structure, type of attachment structures, composition of the membrane etc...), sediment samples were collected in sterile transport containers at 4 geothermal sites at Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Because spore forming bacteria will produce spores when conditions are unfavorable for growth, the samples were sealed and stored at 4 C. After 8 months the samples were screened for the presence of spores by light microscope examination using malachite green/safranin, and traditional endospores were identified in significant quantities from the Terrace Spring site (a 46 C lake with bacterial mats and a rapidly moving run-off channel leading to a traditional hot spring). The highest spore population was found in the top sediment and benthic water of the run-off channel, pH 8.1.

  1. Toxicity of Select Organic Acids to the Slightly Thermophilic Acidophile Acidithiobaccillus Caldus

    SciTech Connect

    John E Aston; William A Apel; Brady D Lee; Brent M Peyton

    2009-02-01

    Acidithiobacillus caldus is a thermophilic acidophile found in commercial biomining, acid mine drainage systems, and natural environments. Previous work has characterized A. caldus as a chemolithotrophic autotroph capable of utilizing reduced sulfur compounds under aerobic conditions. Organic acids are especially toxic to chemolithotrophs in low-pH environments, where they diffuse more readily into the cell and deprotonate within the cytoplasm. In the present study, the toxic effects of oxaloacetate, pyruvate, 2-ketoglutarate, acetate, malate, succinate, and fumarate on A. caldus strain BC13 were examined under batch conditions. All tested organic acids exhibited some inhibitory effect. Oxaloacetate was observed to inhibit growth completely at a concentration of 250 µM, whereas other organic acids were completely inhibitory at concentrations of between 1,000 and 5,000 µM. In these experiments, the measured concentrations of organic acids decreased with time, indicating uptake or assimilation by the cells. Phospholipid fatty acid analyses indicated an effect of organic acids on the cellular envelope. Notable differences included an increase in cyclic fatty acids in the presence of organic acids, indicating possible instability of the cellular envelope. This was supported by field emission scanning-electron micrographs showing blebbing and sluffing in cells grown in the presence of organic acids.

  2. Toxicity of select organic acids to the slightly thermophilic acidophile Acidithiobacillus caldus.

    PubMed

    Aston, John E; Apel, William A; Lee, Brady D; Peyton, Brent M

    2009-02-01

    Acidithiobacillus caldus is a thermophilic acidophile found in commercial biomining, acid mine drainage systems, and natural environments. Previous work has characterized A. caldus as a chemolithotrophic autotroph capable of utilizing reduced sulfur compounds under aerobic conditions. Organic acids are especially toxic to chemolithotrophs in low-pH environments, where they diffuse more readily into the cell and deprotonate within the cytoplasm. In the present study, the toxic effects of oxaloacetate, pyruvate, 2-ketoglutarate, acetate, malate, succinate, and fumarate on A. caldus strain BC13 were examined under batch conditions. All tested organic acids exhibited some inhibitory effect. Oxaloacetate was observed to inhibit growth completely at a concentration of 250 microM, whereas other organic acids were completely inhibitory at concentrations of between 1,000 and 5,000 microM. In these experiments, the measured concentrations of organic acids decreased with time, indicating uptake or assimilation by the cells. Phospholipid fatty acid analyses indicated an effect of organic acids on the cellular envelope. Notable differences included an increase in cyclic fatty acids in the presence of organic acids, indicating possible instability of the cellular envelope. This was supported by field emission scanning-electron micrographs showing blebbing and sluffing in cells grown in the presence of organic acids. PMID:18803441

  3. Monitoring transitory profiles of leachate humic substances in landfill aeration reactors in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Tong, Huanhuan; Yin, Ke; Ge, Liya; Giannis, Apostolos; Chuan, Valerie W L; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-04-28

    The presence of humic substances (HS) in landfill leachate is of great interest because of their structural stability and potential toxicity. This study examined the effects of temperature and waste age on the transformation of HS during in situ aeration of bioreactor landfills. By establishing aerobic conditions, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) rapidly accumulated in the bioreactor leachate. Fractional analysis showed that the elevated concentration of humic acids (HAs) was primarily responsible for the increment of leachate strength. Further structural characterization indicated that the molecular weight (MW) and aromacity of HS were enhanced by aeration in conjunction with thermophilic temperature. Interestingly, elevation of HAs concentration was not observed in the aeration reactor with a prolonged waste age, as the mobility of HAs was lowered by the high MW derived from extended waste age. Based on these results, aeration may be more favorable in aged landfills, since dissolution of HAs could be minimized by the evolution to larger MW compared to young landfills. Moreover, increased operation temperature during aeration likely offers benefits for the rapid maturation of HS. PMID:25682368

  4. Melghiribacillus thermohalophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel filamentous, endospore-forming, thermophilic and halophilic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Addou, Nariman Ammara; Schumann, Peter; Spröer, Cathrin; Ben Hania, Wajdi; Hacene, Hocine; Fauque, Guy; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    A novel filamentous, endospore-forming, thermophilic and moderately halophilic bacterium designated strain Nari2A(T) was isolated from soil collected from an Algerian salt lake, Chott Melghir. The novel isolate was Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, catalase-negative and oxidase-positive. Optimum growth occurred at 50-55 °C, 7-10% (w/v) NaCl and pH 7-8. The strain exhibited 95.4, 95.4 and 95.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Thalassobacillus devorans G19.1(T), Sediminibacillus halophilus EN8d(T) and Virgibacillus kekensis YIM-kkny16(T), respectively. The major menaquinone was MK-7. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, three unknown phosphoglycolipids and two unknown phospholipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(17 : 0). The DNA G+C content was 41.9 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain Nari2A(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Bacillaceae , order Bacillales , for which the name Melghiribacillus thermohalophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Melghiribacillus thermohalophilus is Nari2A(T) ( = DSM 25894(T) = CCUG 62543(T)). PMID:25604343

  5. Distribution of Thermophilic Marine Sulfate Reducers in North Sea Oil Field Waters and Oil Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, R. K.; Beeder, J.; Thorstenson, T.; Torsvik, T.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of thermophilic marine sulfate reducers in produced oil reservoir waters from the Gullfaks oil field in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea was investigated by using enrichment cultures and genus-specific fluorescent antibodies produced against the genera Archaeoglobus, Desulfotomaculum, and Thermodesulforhabdus. The thermophilic marine sulfate reducers in this environment could mainly be classified as species belonging to the genera Archaeoglobus and Thermodesulforhabdus. In addition, some unidentified sulfate reducers were present. Culturable thermophilic Desulfotomaculum strains were not detected. Specific strains of thermophilic sulfate reducers inhabited different parts of the oil reservoir. No correlation between the duration of seawater injection and the numbers of thermophilic sulfate reducers in the produced waters was observed. Neither was there any correlation between the concentration of hydrogen sulfide and the numbers of thermophilic sulfate reducers. The results indicate that thermophilic and hyperthermophilic sulfate reducers are indigenous to North Sea oil field reservoirs and that they belong to a deep subterranean biosphere. PMID:16535321

  6. [Biodegradation of organic pollutants by thermophiles and their applications: a review].

    PubMed

    Cui, Jing-Lan; Chen, Chen; Qin, Zhi-Hui; Yu, Chun-Na; Shen, Hui; Shen, Chao-Feng; Chen, Ying-Xu

    2012-11-01

    Persistent organic pollutants have increasingly become a critical environmental concern, while thermophiles have the high potential of degrading various kinds of environmental organic pollutants. At high temperatures, thermophiles have higher metabolic activity, and the competition by mesophiles is reduced, meanwhile, the solubility and bioavailability of some persistent organic pollutants are greatly increased, and thus, the degradation of the pollutants by thermophiles is more rapid and complete. Therefore, thermophils are of great significance for the bio-treatment of organic wastewater and the bioremediation of organic pollutants-contaminated sites. This paper introduced the research progress on the degradation of organic pollutants by thermophiles in terms of the characteristics of thermophiles in degrading organic pollutants, the effects of temperature on the degradation, the degradation pathways, the degradation enzymes, their coding genes, and practical engineering applications. The future research directions including the degradation mechanisms of thermophiles, their resources reserve, related technology strategies and their applications were also prospected. PMID:23431811

  7. Particle-Scale Modeling of Methane Emission during Pig Manure/Wheat Straw Aerobic Composting.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jinyi; Huang, Guangqun; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Jianfei; Han, Lujia

    2016-04-19

    Inefficient aerobic composting techniques significantly contribute to the atmospheric methane (CH4) levels. Macro-scale models assuming completely aerobic conditions cannot be used to analyze CH4 generation in strictly anaerobic environments. This study presents a particle-scale model for aerobic pig manure/wheat straw composting that incorporates CH4 generation and oxidation kinetics. Parameter estimation revealed that pig manure is characterized by high CH4 yield coefficient (0.6414 mol CH4 mol(-1) Cman) and maximum CH4 oxidation rate (0.0205 mol CH4 kg(-1) VSaero h(-1)). The model accurately predicted CH4 emissions (R(2) = 0.94, RMSE = 2888 ppmv, peak time deviation = 0 h), particularly in the self-heating and cooling phases. During mesophilic and thermophilic stages, a rapid increase of CH4 generation (0.0130 mol CH4 kg(-1) VS h(-1)) and methanotroph inactivation were simulated, implying that additional measures should be performed during these phases to mitigate CH4 emissions. Furthermore, CH4 oxidation efficiency was related to oxygen permeation through the composting particles. Reducing the ambient temperature and extending the aeration duration can decrease CH4 emission, but the threshold temperature is required to trigger the self-heating phase. These findings provide insights into CH4 emission during composting and may inform responsible strategies to counteract climate change. PMID:27045933

  8. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  9. Reducing waste contamination from animal-processing plants by anaerobic thermophilic fermentation and by flesh fly digestion.

    PubMed

    Marchaim, U; Gelman, A; Braverman, Y

    2003-01-01

    There is currently no market in Israel for the large amounts of waste from fish- and poultry-processing plants. Therefore, this waste is incinerated, as part of the measures to prevent the spread of pathogens. Anaerobic methanogenic thermophilic fermentation (AMTF) of wastes from the cattle-slaughtering industry was examined previously, as an effective system to treat pathogenic bacteria, and in this article, we discuss a combined method of digestion by thermophilic anaerobic bacteria and by flesh flies, as a means of waste treatment. The AMTF process was applied to the wastes on a laboratory scale, and digestion by rearing of flesh fly (Phaenicia sericata) and housefly (Musca domestica) larvae on the untreated raw material was done on a small scale and showed remarkable weight conversion to larvae. The yield from degradation of poultry waste by flesh fly was 22.47% (SD = 3.89) and that from fish waste degradation was 35.34% (SD = 12.42), which is significantly higher than that from rearing houseflies on a regular rearing medium. Bacterial contents before and after thermophilic anaerobic digestion, as well as the changes in the chemical composition of the components during the rearing of larvae, were also examined. PMID:12794287

  10. "Aerobic" Writing: A Writing Practice Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Sally Chandler

    "Aerobic writing" is a writing center strategy designed to keep students in writing "shape." Like aerobic exercise, aerobic writing is sustained for a certain length of time and done on a regular basis at prescribed time intervals. The program requires students to write at least two times a week for approximately an hour each time. Students write,…

  11. Arthritis and Aerobic Exercise: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Robert W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Arthritic patients who regularly do aerobic exercise make significant gains in aerobic and functional status, and in subjective areas like pain tolerance and mood. Still, they are often advised to curtail physical activity. Guidelines are presented for physicians prescribing aerobic exercise. An exercise tolerance test is recommended. (SM)

  12. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

  13. (Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report)

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

  14. Bacteriostatic activities of monoacyl sugar alcohols against thermophilic sporeformers.

    PubMed

    Piao, Junkui; Kawahara-Aoyama, Yumiko; Inoue, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

    2006-01-01

    The bacteriostatic activities of monoacyl sugar alcohols with different acyl chains and hydrophilic heads were examined against some thermophilic sporeformers. Monomyristoyl erythritol and xylitol efficaciously suppressed their spore development. The number and orientation of the hydroxyl groups also played important roles in this activity, and monomyristoyl xylitol exhibited the highest activity among the monomyristoyl sugar alcohols. PMID:16428845

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of anaerobic thermophilic bacteria: aid for their reclassification.

    PubMed Central

    Rainey, F A; Ward, N L; Morgan, H W; Toalster, R; Stackebrandt, E

    1993-01-01

    Small subunit rDNA sequences were determined for 20 species of the genera Acetogenium, Clostridium, Thermoanaerobacter, Thermoanaerobacterium, Thermoanaerobium, and Thermobacteroides, 3 non-validly described species, and 5 isolates of anaerobic thermophilic bacteria, providing a basis for a phylogenetic analysis of these organisms. Several species contain a version of the molecule significantly longer than that of Escherichia coli because of the presence of inserts. On the basis of normal evolutionary distances, the phylogenetic tree indicates that all bacteria investigated in this study with a maximum growth temperature above 65 degrees C form a supercluster within the subphylum of gram-positive bacteria that also contains Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum and Clostridium thermoaceticum, which have been previously sequenced. This supercluster appears to be equivalent in its phylogenetic depth to the supercluster of mesophilic clostridia and their nonspore-forming relatives. Several phylogenetically and phenotypically coherent clusters that are defined by sets of signature nucleotides emerge within the supercluster of thermophiles. Clostridium thermobutyricum and Clostridium thermopalmarium are members of Clostridium group I. A phylogenetic tree derived from transversion distances demonstrated the artificial clustering of some organisms with high rDNA G+C moles percent, i.e., Clostridium fervidus and the thermophilic, cellulolytic members of the genus Clostridium. The results of this study can be used as an aid for future taxonomic restructuring of anaerobic sporogenous and asporogenous thermophillic, gram-positive bacteria. PMID:7687600

  16. Evaluation of thermophilic anaerobic digestion processes for full-scale Class A biosolids disinfection at Hyperion Treatment Plant.

    PubMed

    Iranpour, R; Cox, H H J

    2007-05-01

    This paper describes 5 phases of full-scale testing at the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Treatment Plant (HTP) for producing Class A biosolids (U.S. EPA Part 503 Biosolids Rule) by thermophilic anaerobic digestion. Phases I and II were tests with a two-stage continuous-batch process in a thermophilic battery of six digesters and a designated post-digestion train that was isolated from mesophilic operations. These tests demonstrated that digester outflow biosolids met the Class A limits for fecal coliforms and Salmonella sp. However, fecal coliform densities sharply increased during post-digestion. The recurrence was possibly related to a combination of a large drop of the biosolids temperature after the dewatering centrifuges and contamination of thermophilically digested biosolids from mesophilic operations. Phase III was conducted after insulation and electrical heat-tracing of the post-digestion train to maintain a biosolids temperature throughout post-digestion at about the same level as in the digester outflow. Biosolids monitoring at the last points of plant control (silos at Truck Loading Facility and farm for land application) indicated that fecal coliform recurrence was prevented. After completing the conversion of HTP to thermophilic operation, certification tests of Phases IV and V demonstrated Class A compliance of a two-stage continuous-batch process under Alternatives 1 and 3 of the Part 503 Biosolids Rule, respectively. HTP received the permit for Class A (indeed exceptional quality) biosolids land application in Kern County, California, in December 2002 under Alternative 3. Since 2003, HTP has consistently complied with the federal and local standards for Class A biosolids, indicating that Class A limits can be met under conditions less stringent than defined by the Alternative 1 time-temperature requirement for batch treatment. PMID:17054113

  17. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning.

    PubMed

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity-induced plasticity with specific cognitive training-induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity. PMID:27146330

  18. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    PubMed Central

    Perini, Renza; Bortoletto, Marta; Capogrosso, Michela; Fertonani, Anna; Miniussi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cortex, and the second was a simple thumb abduction motor task that relies on the primary motor cortex. Forty-four and forty volunteers participated in the first and second experiments, respectively. We found that a single bout of aerobic exercise can significantly facilitate learning mechanisms within visual and motor domains and that these positive effects can persist for at least 30 minutes following exercise. This finding suggests that physical activity, at least of moderate intensity, might promote brain plasticity. By combining physical activity–induced plasticity with specific cognitive training–induced plasticity, we favour a gradual up-regulation of a functional network due to a steady increase in synaptic strength, promoting associative Hebbian-like plasticity. PMID:27146330

  19. The effects of cadence, impact, and step on physiological responses to aerobic dance exercise.

    PubMed

    Darby, L A; Browder, K D; Reeves, B D

    1995-09-01

    The physiological responses to aerobic dance exercise of varied impact (high, low), step (less arm movement vs. more arm movement), and cadence (124 vs. 138 beats.min-1) were investigated. Experienced, female aerobic dancers (N = 16) performed activities that combined the levels of impact and step for 3 trials of 8-min each. Dependent variables included heart rate, percentage of maximal heart rate, oxygen consumption, percentage of maximal oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio. Repeated measures analyses of variance indicated a significant Impact x Step interaction whereby oxygen consumption was greater for the high impact-less arm movement activity (jog), while the low impact-more arm movement activity (power jack) was greater for heart rate. The interaction of aerobic dance characteristics (e.g., impact, arm movement) that may alter physiological responses to aerobic dance exercise should be identified in future aerobic dance routines and studies. PMID:7481084

  20. Thermophilic hydrogen production from sludge pretreated by thermophilic bacteria: analysis of the advantages of microbial community and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zheng, He-Shan; Guo, Wan-Qian; Yang, Shan-Shan; Feng, Xiao-Chi; Du, Juan-Shan; Zhou, Xian-Jiao; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the effects of thermophilic bacteria pretreatment and elevated fermentation temperature on hydrogen production from sludge were examined. The highest hydrogen yield of 19.9mlH2g(-1) VSS was achieved at 55°C by using pretreated sludge, which was 48.6% higher than raw sludge without pretreatment, and 28.39% higher than when fermented at 35°C. To explore the internal factors of this superior hydrogen production performance, the microbial community and the metabolism analysis were performed by using high-throughput sequencing and excitation-emission matrix. The pretreated sludge showed better utilization of dissolved organic matter and less inhibition of metabolism, especially at thermophilic condition. The 454 sequencing data indicated that microbial abundance was distinctly reduced and extremely high proportion of hydrogen-producing bacteria was found in the thermophilic community (Thermoanaerobacterium accounted for 93.75%). Thus, the pretreated sludge and thermophilic condition showed significant advantages in the hydrogen production using waste sludge as substrate. PMID:25260350

  1. Analysis of Metabolic Pathways and Fluxes in a Newly Discovered Thermophilic and Ethanol-Tolerant Geobacillus Strain

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yinjie J.; Sapra, Rajat; Joyner, Dominique; Hazen, Terry C.; Myers, Samuel; Reichmuth, David; Blanch, Harvey; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-01-20

    A recently discovered thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius M10EXG, ferments a range of C5 (e.g., xylose) and C6 sugars (e.g., glucose) and istolerant to high ethanol concentrations (10percent, v/v). We have investigated the central metabolism of this bacterium using both in vitro enzyme assays and 13C-based flux analysis to provide insights into the physiological properties of this extremophile and explore its metabolism for bio-ethanol or other bioprocess applications. Our findings show that glucose metabolism in G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG proceeds via glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the TCA cycle; the Entner?Doudoroff pathway and transhydrogenase activity were not detected. Anaplerotic reactions (including the glyoxylate shunt, pyruvate carboxylase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) were active, but fluxes through those pathways could not be accuratelydetermined using amino acid labeling. When growth conditions were switched from aerobic to micro-aerobic conditions, fluxes (based on a normalized glucose uptake rate of 100 units (g DCW)-1 h-1) through the TCA cycle and oxidative pentose phosphate pathway were reduced from 64+-3 to 25+-2 and from 30+-2 to 19+-2, respectively. The carbon flux under micro-aerobic growth was directed formate. Under fully anerobic conditions, G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG used a mixed acid fermentation process and exhibited a maximum ethanol yield of 0.38+-0.07 mol mol-1 glucose. In silico flux balance modeling demonstrates that lactate and acetate production from G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG reduces the maximum ethanol yieldby approximately threefold, thus indicating that both pathways should be modified to maximize ethanol production.

  2. Nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure with biochar prepared at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang; Zhang, Guangjie; Li, Zhonghong; Wang, Li; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the corn stalk charred biomass (CB) prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures as additives on nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure were investigated. The results showed that the addition of CB carbonized at different temperatures to pig manure compost significantly influenced the compost temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter degradation, total nitrogen, [Formula: see text] and NH3 variations during composting. Compared with control and adding CB charred at lower temperature treatments, the addition of CB prepared over 700°C resulted in higher pH (over 9.2) and NH3 emission and lower potherb mustard seed germination index value during the thermophilic phase. Peak temperatures of composts appeared at 7 days for control and 11 days for CB added treatments. During 90 days composting, the organic matter degradation could be increased over 14.8-29.6% after adding of CB in the compost mixture. The introduction of CB in pig manure could prolong the thermophilic phase, inhibit moisture reduce, facilitate the organic matter decomposition, reduce diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Zn and Cu contents in pig manure composts and increase ryegrass growth. The study indicated that the corn stalk CB prepared around 500°C was a suitable additive in pig manure composting. PMID:25209736

  3. Inhibition of mitomycin C's aerobic toxicity by the seleno-organic antioxidant PZ-51.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, D L; Pritsos, C A

    1991-01-01

    Mitomycin C (MMC) is a bioreductive alkylating agent that is capable of generating oxygen radicals. Porfiromycin (PM) is an analog to MMC that generates oxygen radicals at a significantly lower level than the parent compound. Under aerobic conditions, the toxicity of MMC to EMT6 cells is 2.5-fold that of PM, whereas hypoxically the two are equitoxic. In the present studies, the protective effect of PZ-51 in combination with NAC was assessed against the dose-dependent toxicity of either MMC or PM under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions. Aerobically, the PZ-51 and NAC combination inhibited the toxicity of MMC at concentrations of between 0.25 and 2 microM but had no effect on PM toxicity. Under hypoxic conditions, the PZ-51 and NAC combination had no effect on either MMC or PM toxicity. These findings support a role for oxygen radical generation in the aerobic toxicity of MMC at clinically relevant doses. PMID:1906786

  4. Aerobic biodegradation kinetics of solid organic wastes on earth and for applications in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Perez, Javier Christian

    Aerobic biodegradation plays an important role in recycling organic matter and nutrients on earth. It is also a candidate technology for waste processing and resource recovery in Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, such as a proposed planetary base on Mars. Important questions are how long should wastes be treated, and what is the quality (stability/maturity) of the product. To address these questions two aerobic composting systems were evaluated. One treated (252 days) horse manure and cranberry fruit in duplicate open windrows (HCC) as a reference earth application. The other was a pilot-scale (330 L) enclosed, in-vessel system treating (162 days) inedible biomass collected from plant growth systems at NASA, amended with food and human wastes simulant for potential space application (ALSC). Samples were taken from both systems over time and product quality assessed with a range of physical, chemical, biological, toxicological, respirometry and plant growth analyses that were developed and standardized. Because plant growth analyses take so long, a hypothesis was that some parameters could be used to predict compost quality and suitability for growing plants. Maximum temperatures in the thermophilic range were maintained for both systems (HCC > 60°C for >129 days, ALSC > 55°C for >40 days. Fecal streptococci were reduced by 4.8 log-units for HCC and 7.8 for ALSC. Volume/mass reductions achieved were 63%/62% for HCC and 79%/67% for ALSC. Phytotoxicity tests performed on aqueous extracts to recover plant nutrients found decreasing sensitivity: arabidopsis > lettuce > tomato > wheat > cucumber, corresponding with seed size and food reserve capacity. The germination index (GI) of HCC increased over composting time indicating decreasing phytotoxicity. However, GIs for ALSC leachate decreased or fluctuated over composting time. Selected samples of HCC at 31, 157 and 252 days alone and combined with promix (1:1), and of ALSC at 7, 14, 21, 28, 40 and 84 days, or fresh

  5. Anaerobic-aerobic sequencing bioreactors improve energy efficiency for treatment of personal care product industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, S Z; Bereslawski, J L; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

    2013-07-01

    Personal care product (PCP) industry liquid wastes contain shampoo residues, which are usually treated by aerobic activated sludge (AS). Unfortunately, AS is expensive for PCP wastes because of high aeration and energy demands, whereas potentially energy-positive anaerobic designs cannot meet effluent targets. Therefore, combined anaerobic-aerobic systems may be the best solution. Seven treatment systems were assessed in terms of energy and treatment performance for shampoo wastes, including one aerobic, three anaerobic (HUASB, AHR and AnCSTR) and three anaerobic-aerobic reactor designs. COD removals were highest in the HUASB-aerobic (87.9 ± 0.4%) and AHR-aerobic (86.8±0.5%) systems, which used 69.2% and 62.5% less energy than aerobic AS. However, actual methane production rates were low relative to theoretical in the UASB and AHR units (∼10% methane/COD removed) compared with the AnCSTR unit (∼70%). Anaerobic-aerobic sequence reactors show promise for treating shampoo wastes, but optimal designs depend upon whether methane production or COD removal is most important to operations. PMID:23639409

  6. Pathogen inactivation in liquid dairy manure during anaerobic and aerobic digestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S.; Pandey, P.; Castillo, A. R.; Vaddella, V. K.

    2014-12-01

    Controlling manure-borne pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are crucial for protecting surface and ground water as well as mitigating risks to human health. In California dairy farms, flushing of dairy manure (mainly animal feces and urine) from freestall barns and subsequent liquid-solid manure separation is a common practice for handling animal waste. The liquid manure fraction is generally pumped into the settling ponds and it goes into aerobic and/or anaerobic lagoons for extended period of time. Considering the importance of controlling pathogens in animal waste, the objective of the study was to understand the effects of anaerobic and aerobic digestions on the survival of three human pathogens in animal waste. The pathogen inactivation was assessed at four temperatures (30, 35, 42, and 50 °C), and the relationships between temperature and pathogen decay were estimated. Results showed a steady decrease of E. coli levels in aerobic and anaerobic digestion processes over the time; however, the decay rates varied with pathogens. The effect of temperature on Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes survival was different than the E. coli survival. In thermophilic temperatures (42 and 50 °C), decay rate was considerable greater compared to the mesophilic temperatures (30 and 35°C). The E. coli log reductions at 50 °C were 2.1 in both aerobic and anaerobic digestions after 13 days of incubation. The Salmonella spp. log reductions at 50 °C were 5.5 in aerobic digestion, and 5.9 in anaerobic digestion. The Listeria monocytogenes log reductions at 50 °C were 5.0 in aerobic digestion, and 5.6 in anaerobic digestion. The log reduction of E. coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogens at 30 °C in aerobic environment were 0.1, 4.7, and 5.6, respectively. In anaerobic environment, the corresponding reductions were 0.4, 4.3, and 5.6, respectively. We anticipate that the outcomes of the study will help improving the

  7. Effect of aerobic training and aerobic and resistance training on the inflammatory status of hypertensive older adults.

    PubMed

    Lima, Leandra G; Bonardi, José M T; Campos, Giulliard O; Bertani, Rodrigo F; Scher, Luria M L; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Moriguti, Júlio C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2015-08-01

    There is a relationship between high levels of inflammatory markers and low adhesion to the practice of physical activity in the older population. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of two types of exercise programs, i.e., aerobic training and aerobic plus resistance training on the plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) of elderly hypertensive subjects. Hypertensive older volunteers in use of antihypertensive drugs were randomized to three groups: aerobic group (AG), resistance and aerobic group (RAG) and control group (CG). Training lasted 10 weeks, with sessions held three times a week. Blood samples were collected before training and 24 h after completion of the 30 sessions for the determination of serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Body mass index was obtained before and after 10 weeks. After intervention, BMI values were lower in AG and RAG compared to CG (p < 0.001), IL-6 was reduced in AG compared to CG (p = 0.04), and TNF-α levels were lower only in RAG compared to CG (p = 0.01). Concluding, both types of training were effective in reducing BMI values in hypertensive older subjects. Aerobic exercise produced the reduction of plasma IL-6 levels. However, the combination of aerobic and resistance exercise, which would be more indicated for the prevention of loss of functionality with aging, showed lower TNF-α mediator after training than control group and a greater fall of TNF-α levels associated to higher BMI reduction. PMID:25567682

  8. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Torsvik, T.; Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  9. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. The importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications is discussed. PMID:25436035

  10. WWOX loss activates aerobic glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Remaileh, Muhannad; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Aqeilan, Rami I

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells undergo reprogramming of glucose metabolism to limit energy production to glycolysis—a state known as “aerobic glycolysis.” Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1α) is a transcription factor that regulates many genes responsible for this switch. As discussed here, new data suggest that the tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) modulates HIF1α, thereby regulating this metabolic state. PMID:27308416

  11. Use of an intelligent control system To evaluate multiparametric effects on iron oxidation by thermophilic bacteria

    PubMed

    Stoner; Miller; Fife; Larsen; Tolle; Johnson

    1998-11-01

    A learning-based intelligent control system, the BioExpert, was developed and applied to the evaluation of multiparametric effects on iron oxidation by enrichment cultures of moderately thermophilic, acidophilic mining bacteria. The control system acquired and analyzed the data and then selected and maintained the sets of conditions that were evaluated. Through multiple iterations, the BioExpert selected sets of conditions that resulted in improved iron oxidation rates. The results obtained with the BioExpert suggested that temperature and pH were coupled, or interactive, parameters. Elevated temperatures (51.5 degreesC) in combination with a moderately high pH (pH 1.84) impaired the growth of and iron oxidation by the enrichment culture. Moderate-to-high oxidation rates were achieved with a relatively high pH in combination with a relatively low temperature or, conversely, with a relatively low pH in combination with a relatively high temperature. The interactive effect of pH and temperature was not apparent from the results obtained in an experiment in which temperature was the only parameter that was varied. When the BioExpert was applied to a mixed culture containing mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, the computer "learned" that pH 1.8, 45 degreesC, and an inlet iron concentration from 30 to 35 mM were most favorable for iron oxidation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the learning-based intelligent control system BioExpert was an effective experimental tool that can be used to examine multiparametric effects on the growth and metabolic activity of mining bacteria. PMID:9797322

  12. Use of an Intelligent Control System To Evaluate Multiparametric Effects on Iron Oxidation by Thermophilic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Daphne L.; Miller, Karen S.; Fife, Dee Jay; Larsen, Eric D.; Tolle, Charles R.; Johnson, John A.

    1998-01-01

    A learning-based intelligent control system, the BioExpert, was developed and applied to the evaluation of multiparametric effects on iron oxidation by enrichment cultures of moderately thermophilic, acidophilic mining bacteria. The control system acquired and analyzed the data and then selected and maintained the sets of conditions that were evaluated. Through multiple iterations, the BioExpert selected sets of conditions that resulted in improved iron oxidation rates. The results obtained with the BioExpert suggested that temperature and pH were coupled, or interactive, parameters. Elevated temperatures (51.5°C) in combination with a moderately high pH (pH 1.84) impaired the growth of and iron oxidation by the enrichment culture. Moderate-to-high oxidation rates were achieved with a relatively high pH in combination with a relatively low temperature or, conversely, with a relatively low pH in combination with a relatively high temperature. The interactive effect of pH and temperature was not apparent from the results obtained in an experiment in which temperature was the only parameter that was varied. When the BioExpert was applied to a mixed culture containing mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, the computer “learned” that pH 1.8, 45°C, and an inlet iron concentration from 30 to 35 mM were most favorable for iron oxidation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the learning-based intelligent control system BioExpert was an effective experimental tool that can be used to examine multiparametric effects on the growth and metabolic activity of mining bacteria. PMID:9797322

  13. Methods to determine aerobic endurance.

    PubMed

    Bosquet, Laurent; Léger, Luc; Legros, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Physiological testing of elite athletes requires the correct identification and assessment of sports-specific underlying factors. It is now recognised that performance in long-distance events is determined by maximal oxygen uptake (V(2 max)), energy cost of exercise and the maximal fractional utilisation of V(2 max) in any realised performance or as a corollary a set percentage of V(2 max) that could be endured as long as possible. This later ability is defined as endurance, and more precisely aerobic endurance, since V(2 max) sets the upper limit of aerobic pathway. It should be distinguished from endurance ability or endurance performance, which are synonymous with performance in long-distance events. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess aerobic endurance. They are numerous and can be classified into two categories, namely direct and indirect methods. Direct methods bring together all indices that allow either a complete or a partial representation of the power-duration relationship, while indirect methods revolve around the determination of the so-called anaerobic threshold (AT). With regard to direct methods, performance in a series of tests provides a more complete and presumably more valid description of the power-duration relationship than performance in a single test, even if both approaches are well correlated with each other. However, the question remains open to determine which systems model should be employed among the several available in the literature, and how to use them in the prescription of training intensities. As for indirect methods, there is quantitative accumulation of data supporting the utilisation of the AT to assess aerobic endurance and to prescribe training intensities. However, it appears that: there is no unique intensity corresponding to the AT, since criteria available in the literature provide inconsistent results; and the non-invasive determination of the AT using ventilatory and heart rate

  14. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

  15. Bioleaching of multiple metals from contaminated sediment by moderate thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Gan, Min; Jie, Shiqi; Li, Mingming; Zhu, Jianyu; Liu, Xinxing

    2015-08-15

    A moderately thermophilic consortium was applied in bioleaching multiple metals from contaminated sediment. The consortium got higher acidification and metals soubilization efficiency than that of the pure strains. The synergistic effect of the thermophilic consortium accelerated substrates utilization. The utilization of substrate started with sulfur in the early stage, and then the pH declined, giving rise to making use of the pyrite. Community dynamic showed that A. caldus was the predominant bacteria during the whole bioleaching process while the abundance of S. thermotolerans increased together with pyrite utilization. Solubilization efficiency of Zn, Cu, Mn and Cd reached 98%, 94%, 95%, and 89% respectively, while As, Hg, Pb was only 45%, 34%, 22%. Logistic model was used to simulate the bioleaching process, whose fitting degree was higher than 90%. Correlation analysis revealed that metal leaching was mainly an acid solubilization process. Fraction analysis revealed that metals decreased in mobility and bioavailability. PMID:26140749

  16. Proteomic analysis of acetylation in thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Woo; Kim, Dooil; Lee, Yong-Jik; Kim, Jung-Ae; Choi, Ji Young; Kang, Sunghyun; Pan, Jae-Gu

    2013-08-01

    Recent analysis of prokaryotic N(ε)-lysine-acetylated proteins highlights the posttranslational regulation of a broad spectrum of cellular proteins. However, the exact role of acetylation remains unclear due to a lack of acetylated proteome data in prokaryotes. Here, we present the N(ε)-lysine-acetylated proteome of gram-positive thermophilic Geobacillus kaustophilus. Affinity enrichment using acetyl-lysine-specific antibodies followed by LC-MS/MS analysis revealed 253 acetylated peptides representing 114 proteins. These acetylated proteins include not only common orthologs from mesophilic Bacillus counterparts, but also unique G. kaustophilus proteins, indicating that lysine acetylation is pronounced in thermophilic bacteria. These data complement current knowledge of the bacterial acetylproteome and provide an expanded platform for better understanding of the function of acetylation in cellular metabolism. PMID:23696451

  17. Characterization of aerobic spore-forming bacteria associated with industrial dairy processing environments and product spoilage.

    PubMed

    Lücking, Genia; Stoeckel, Marina; Atamer, Zeynep; Hinrichs, Jörg; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2013-09-01

    Due to changes in the design of industrial food processing and increasing international trade, highly thermoresistant spore-forming bacteria are an emerging problem in food production. Minimally processed foods and products with extended shelf life, such as milk products, are at special risk for contamination and subsequent product damages, but information about origin and food quality related properties of highly heat-resistant spore-formers is still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the biodiversity, heat resistance, and food quality and safety affecting characteristics of aerobic spore-formers in the dairy sector. Thus, a comprehensive panel of strains (n=467), which originated from dairy processing environments, raw materials and processed foods, was compiled. The set included isolates associated with recent food spoilage cases and product damages as well as isolates not linked to product spoilage. Identification of the isolates by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular methods revealed a large biodiversity of spore-formers, especially among the spoilage associated isolates. These could be assigned to 43 species, representing 11 genera, with Bacillus cereus s.l. and Bacillus licheniformis being predominant. A screening for isolates forming thermoresistant spores (TRS, surviving 100°C, 20 min) showed that about one third of the tested spore-formers was heat-resistant, with Bacillus subtilis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus being the prevalent species. Strains producing highly thermoresistant spores (HTRS, surviving 125°C, 30 min) were found among mesophilic as well as among thermophilic species. B. subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were dominating the group of mesophilic HTRS, while Bacillus smithii and Geobacillus pallidus were dominating the group of thermophilic HTRS. Analysis of spoilage-related enzymes of the TRS isolates showed that mesophilic strains, belonging to the B. subtilis and B. cereus

  18. Application of thermophilic enzymes and water jet system to cassava pulp.

    PubMed

    Chaikaew, Siriporn; Maeno, Yuka; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Ogura, Kota; Sugino, Gaku; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-12-01

    Co-production of fermentable sugars and nanofibrillated cellulose from cassava pulp was achieved by the combination of thermophilic enzymes (endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, and α-amylase) and a new atomization system (Star Burst System; SBS), which employs opposing water jets. The SBS represents a key technology for providing cellulose nanofibers and improving the enzymatic saccharification of cassava pulp. Depending on the enzymes used, the production of glucose from cassava pulp treated with the SBS was 1.2- to 2.5-fold higher than that from pulp not treated with the SBS. Nanofibrillated cellulose with the gel-like property in suspension was produced (yield was over 90%) by α-amylase treatment, which completely released trapped starch granules from the fibrous cell wall structure of cassava pulp pretreated with the SBS. The SBS provides an environmentally low-impact pretreatment system for processing biomass material into value-added products. PMID:23073093

  19. Performance optimization and validation of ADM1 simulations under anaerobic thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Atallah, Nabil M; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Ghanimeh, Sophia; Saikaly, Pascal; Abou-Najm, Majdi

    2014-12-01

    In this study, two experimental sets of data each involving two thermophilic anaerobic digesters treating food waste, were simulated using the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). A sensitivity analysis was conducted, using both data sets of one digester, for parameter optimization based on five measured performance indicators: methane generation, pH, acetate, total COD, ammonia, and an equally weighted combination of the five indicators. The simulation results revealed that while optimization with respect to methane alone, a commonly adopted approach, succeeded in simulating methane experimental results, it predicted other intermediary outputs less accurately. On the other hand, the multi-objective optimization has the advantage of providing better results than methane optimization despite not capturing the intermediary output. The results from the parameter optimization were validated upon their independent application on the data sets of the second digester. PMID:25463805

  20. Potential and utilization of thermophiles and thermostable enzymes in biorefining

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Pernilla; Mamo, Gashaw; Karlsson, Eva Nordberg

    2007-01-01

    In today's world, there is an increasing trend towards the use of renewable, cheap and readily available biomass in the production of a wide variety of fine and bulk chemicals in different biorefineries. Biorefineries utilize the activities of microbial cells and their enzymes to convert biomass into target products. Many of these processes require enzymes which are operationally stable at high temperature thus allowing e.g. easy mixing, better substrate solubility, high mass transfer rate, and lowered risk of contamination. Thermophiles have often been proposed as sources of industrially relevant thermostable enzymes. Here we discuss existing and potential applications of thermophiles and thermostable enzymes with focus on conversion of carbohydrate containing raw materials. Their importance in biorefineries is explained using examples of lignocellulose and starch conversions to desired products. Strategies that enhance thermostablity of enzymes both in vivo and in vitro are also assessed. Moreover, this review deals with efforts made on developing vectors for expressing recombinant enzymes in thermophilic hosts. PMID:17359551

  1. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  2. Thermus caliditerrae sp. nov., a novel thermophilic species isolated from a geothermal area.

    PubMed

    Ming, Hong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Li, Shuai; Nie, Guo-Xing; Yu, Tian-Tian; Zhou, En-Min; Liu, Lan; Dong, Lei; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-02-01

    Two thermophilic bacterial strains, designated YIM 77925(T) and YIM 77777, were isolated from two hot springs, one in the Hydrothermal Explosion (Shuirebaozhaqu) area and Frog Mouth Spring in Tengchong county, Yunnan province, south-western China. The taxonomic positions of the two isolates were investigated by a polyphasic approach. Cells of the two strains were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic and rod-shaped. They were able to grow at 50-70 °C, pH 6.0-8.0 and with a NaCl tolerance up to 0.5% (w/v). Colonies are circular, convex, non-transparent and produce yellow pigment. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences comparison clearly demonstrated that strains YIM 77925(T) and YIM 77777 represent members of the genus Thermus, and they also detected low-level similarities of 16S rRNA gene sequences (below 97%) compared with all other species in this genus. Their predominant menaquinone was MK-8. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 77925(T) and YIM 77777 were 65.6 mol% and 67.2 mol%, respectively. Based on the results of physiological and biochemical tests and phylogenetic analyses, strains YIM 77925(T) and YIM 77777 could not be classified as representing any species of the genus Thermus with a validly published name. Thus the two strains are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Thermus, for which the name Thermus caliditerrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 77925(T) ( = DSM 25901(T) = CCTCC 2012061(T)). PMID:24158953

  3. Meiothermus roseus sp. nov., a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a geothermal area.

    PubMed

    Ming, Hong; Duan, Yan-Yan; Guo, Qian-Qian; Yin, Yi-Rui; Zhou, En-Min; Liu, Lan; Li, Shuai; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Two closely related thermophilic bacterial strains, designated YIM 71031(T) and YIM 71039, were isolated from a hot spring in Tengchong county, Yunnan province, south-western China. The novel isolates were observed to be Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and yellow-pigmented bacteria. The strains were found to be able to grow at 37-65 °C, pH 6.0-9.0 and with a NaCl tolerance up to 1.0 % (w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed these two isolates in the genus Meiothermus. They were found to be closely related to Meiothermus timidus DSM 17022(T) (98.6 % similarity), and formed a cluster with this species. The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-8 and the major fatty acids (>10 %) as anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C16:0 and C16:0. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 71031(T) and YIM 71039 were determined to be 64.0 and 65.4 mol%, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridizations showed low values between strains YIM 71031(T) and YIM 71039 and their closely related neighbour M. timidus DSM 17022(T). Morphological phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic results suggest that strains YIM 71031(T) and YIM 71039 are representatives of a new species within the genus Meiothermus, for which the name Meiothermus roseus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 71031(T) (=KCTC 42495(T) =NBRC 110900(T)). PMID:26219565

  4. Alternative pathways for phosphonate metabolism in thermophilic cyanobacteria from microbial mats

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Garcia, Maria R; Davison, Michelle; Blain-Hartnung, Matthew; Grossman, Arthur R; Bhaya, Devaki

    2011-01-01

    Synechococcus sp. represents an ecologically diverse group of cyanobacteria found in numerous environments, including hot-spring microbial mats, where they are spatially distributed along thermal, light and oxygen gradients. These thermophiles engage in photosynthesis and aerobic respiration during the day, but switch to fermentative metabolism and nitrogen fixation at night. The genome of Synechococcus OS-B′, isolated from Octopus Spring (Yellowstone National Park) contains a phn gene cluster encoding a phosphonate (Phn) transporter and a C–P lyase. A closely related isolate, Synechococcus OS-A, lacks this cluster, but contains genes encoding putative phosphonatases (Phnases) that appear to be active only in the presence of the Phn substrate. Both isolates grow well on several different Phns as a sole phosphorus (P) source. Interestingly, Synechococcus OS-B′ can use the organic carbon backbones of Phns for heterotrophic growth in the dark, whereas in the light this strain releases organic carbon from Phn as ethane or methane (depending on the specific Phn available); Synechococcus OS-A has neither of these capabilities. These differences in metabolic strategies for assimilating the P and C of Phn by two closely related Synechococcus spp. are suggestive of niche-specific constraints in the evolution of nutrient assimilation pathways and syntrophic relationships among the microbial populations of the hot-spring mats. Thus, it is critical to evaluate levels of various P sources, including Phn, in thermally active habitats and the potential importance of these compounds in the biogeochemical cycling of P and C (some Phn compounds also contain N) in diverse terrestrial environments. PMID:20631809

  5. Chelatococcus thermostellatus sp. nov., a new thermophile for bioplastic synthesis: comparative phylogenetic and physiological study.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohammad H A; Lebbe, Liesbeth; Willems, Anne; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    The poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), PHB, accumulating thermophilic strain MW9(T), isolated from an aerobic organic waste treatment plant, was characterized by detailed physiological and phylogenetic studies. The strain is a Gram-stain-negative, rod shaped, non-spore forming member of Alphaproteobacteria. It shows optimum growth at 50 °C. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the strain together with five very similar isolates, was affiliated to the genus Chelatococcus (Ibrahim et al. in J Appl Microbiol 109:1579-1590, 2010). Rep-PCR genomic fingerprints and partial dnaK gene sequence also revealed that these isolates are very similar, but differ from other Chelatococcus type strains. The major fatty acids were similar to those of other strains of the genus Chelatococcus. DNA-DNA hybridization of strain MW9(T) with Chelatococcus species type strains revealed 11.0-47.7 % relatedness. G+C content of DNA was 67.1 mol%, which is comparable with the other strains of Chelatococcus species. The physiological and phenotypic characteristics of the new strain MW9(T) are sufficient to differentiate it from previously described species in the genus Chelatococcus. Strain MW9(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Chelatococcus, for which the name Chelatococcus thermostellatus is proposed. The type strain is MW9(T) (=LMG 27009(T) = DSM 28244(T)). Compared to known Chelatococcus strains, strain MW9(T) could be a potent candidate for bioplastic production at elevated temperature. PMID:27277080

  6. Thermus aquaticus gen. n. and sp. n., a Nonsporulating Extreme Thermophile

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Thomas D.; Freeze, Hudson

    1969-01-01

    The isolation of a new thermophilic bacterium, Thermus aquaticus gen. n. and sp. n., is described. Successful enrichment requires incubation at 70 to 75 C, and the use of nutrient media relatively dilute with respect to the organic components. Strains of T. aquaticus have been isolated from a variety of thermal springs in Yellowstone National Park and from a thermal spring in California. The organism has also been isolated from man-made thermal habitats, such as hot tap water, in geographical locations quite distant from thermal springs. Isolates of T. aquaticus are gram-negative nonsporulating nonmotile rods which frequently form long filaments at supraoptimal temperatures or in the stationary phase. All isolates form a yellow cellular pigment, probably a carotenoid. A characteristic structure formed by all isolates is a large sphere, considerably larger than a spheroplast. These large spheres, as well as lysozyme-induced spheroplasts, are resistant to osmotic lysis. Deoxyribonucleic acid base compositions of four strains were determined by CsCl density gradient ultracentrifugation and found to be between 65.4 and 67.4 moles per cent guanine plus cytosine. The growth of all isolates tested is inhibited by fairly low concentrations of cycloserine, streptomycin, penicillin, novobiocin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol. Nutritional studies on one strain showed that it did not require vitamins or amino acids, although growth was considerably faster in enriched than in synthetic medium. Several sugars and organic acids served as carbon sources, and either NH4+ or glutamate could serve as nitrogen source. The organism is an obligate aerobe and has a pH optimum of 7.5 to 7.8. The optimum temperature for growth is 70 C, the maximum 79 C, and the minimum about 40 C. The generation time at the optimum is about 50 min. The possible relationships of this new genus to the myxobacteria, flexibacteria, and flavobacteria are discussed. Images PMID:5781580

  7. Alternative pathways for phosphonate metabolism in thermophilic cyanobacteria from microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Garcia, Maria R; Davison, Michelle; Blain-Hartnung, Matthew; Grossman, Arthur R; Bhaya, Devaki

    2011-01-01

    Synechococcus sp. represents an ecologically diverse group of cyanobacteria found in numerous environments, including hot-spring microbial mats, where they are spatially distributed along thermal, light and oxygen gradients. These thermophiles engage in photosynthesis and aerobic respiration during the day, but switch to fermentative metabolism and nitrogen fixation at night. The genome of Synechococcus OS-B', isolated from Octopus Spring (Yellowstone National Park) contains a phn gene cluster encoding a phosphonate (Phn) transporter and a C-P lyase. A closely related isolate, Synechococcus OS-A, lacks this cluster, but contains genes encoding putative phosphonatases (Phnases) that appear to be active only in the presence of the Phn substrate. Both isolates grow well on several different Phns as a sole phosphorus (P) source. Interestingly, Synechococcus OS-B' can use the organic carbon backbones of Phns for heterotrophic growth in the dark, whereas in the light this strain releases organic carbon from Phn as ethane or methane (depending on the specific Phn available); Synechococcus OS-A has neither of these capabilities. These differences in metabolic strategies for assimilating the P and C of Phn by two closely related Synechococcus spp. are suggestive of niche-specific constraints in the evolution of nutrient assimilation pathways and syntrophic relationships among the microbial populations of the hot-spring mats. Thus, it is critical to evaluate levels of various P sources, including Phn, in thermally active habitats and the potential importance of these compounds in the biogeochemical cycling of P and C (some Phn compounds also contain N) in diverse terrestrial environments. PMID:20631809

  8. Ruegeria intermedia sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic bacterium isolated from a coastal hot spring.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, P; Arun, A B; Rekha, P D; Busse, H-J; Young, C-C; Glaeser, S P

    2013-07-01

    A cream-coloured, Gram-negative, aerobic, non-motile moderately thermophilic, rod-to-irregular-shaped bacterium, CC-GIMAT-2(T), was isolated from a coastal hot spring of Green Island (Lutao), located off Taituang, Taiwan, on marine agar 2216. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and subsequent comparisons showed that it was placed into the genus Ruegeria with 97.4 % similarity to Ruegeria lacuscaerulensis ITI-1157(T), and a lower sequence similarity to all other species of the genus Ruegeria. Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees indicated that strain CC-GIMAT-2(T) clustered within the genus Ruegeria. Robust tree topology for the genus Ruegeria including the new strain was only obtained by including all Rhodobacteraceae type strains but not if the analysis was limited to few selected taxa. The quinone system contained exclusively ubiquinone Q-10 and the fatty acid profile consisted mainly of C18 : 1ω7c, 11-methyl C18 : 1ω7c and C12 : 0 3-OH. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified aminolipid. Other lipids were detected in moderate to minor amounts. The characteristic feature of the polyamine pattern was the predominant triamine spermidine. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and of the chemotaxonomic and physiological data, strain CC-GIMAT-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Ruegeria, for which the name Ruegeria intermedia sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-GIMAT-2(T) ( = CCUG 59209(T) = LMG 25539(T) = CCM 7758(T)). PMID:23243093

  9. Hemicellulases from the ethanologenic thermophile, Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus and related anaerobic thermophiles. Final report, September 1992--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegel, J.

    1998-09-01

    The short term goals of this application were to characterize hemicellulases from anaerobic thermophiles on the biochemical and molecular level to extend the presently limited knowledge of hemicellulases in anaerobic thermophilic bacteria. This objective includes the following tasks: (1) Traditional purification and biochemical/biophysical characterization of xylanases from the newly isolated, slightly alkalitolerant strain NDF190, and the slightly acid-tolerant strain YS485, both with high xylanolytic activities, and of the 4-O-methyl glucuronidase and arabinosidase from strain NDF190 and the acetyl (xylan) esterase from T. ethanolicus. This also includes determining the N-terminal sequences and obtaining gene probes. (2) Elucidation of the regulation of hemicellulolytic enzymes in anaerobic thermophiles. (3) To clone into E. coli and identify the multiplicity of the enzymes involved in hemicellulose degradation by T. ethanolicus and other suitable organisms. (4) To purify and characterize the recombinant enzymes with the goal of identifying the best enzymes for cloning into the ethanologenic T. ethanolicus to obtain an optimized hemicellulose utilization by this bacterium.

  10. Hemicellulases from the ethanologenic thermophile Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus and related anaerobic thermophiles. Final report, September 1992--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegel, J.

    1998-05-01

    The SHORT TERM GOALS of this application were to characterize hemicellulases from anaerobic thermophiles on the biochemical and molecular level to extend the presently limited knowledge of hemicellulases in anaerobic thermophilic bacteria. This objective includes the following TASKS: (1) Traditional purification and biochemical/biophysical characterization of xylanases from the newly isolated, slightly alkalitolerant strain NDF190, and the slightly acid-tolerant strain YS485, both with high xylanolytic activities, and of the 4-0-methyl glucuronidase and arabinosidase from strain NDF190 and the acetyl (xylan) esterase from T. ethanolicus. This also includes determining the N-terminal sequences and obtaining gene probes. (2) Elucidation of the regulation of hemicellulolytic enzymes in anaerobic thermophiles. (3) To clone into E. coli and identify the multiplicity of the enzymes involved in hemicellulose degradation by T. ethanolicus and other suitable organisms. (4) To purify and characterize the recombinant enzymes with the goal of identifying the best enzymes for cloning into the ethanologenic T. ethanolicus to obtain an optimized hemicellulose utilization by this bacterium (one of our long term goals).

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Thermophile Clostridium clariflavum Strain 4-2a.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Elise A; Rowe, Kenneth T; Guseva, Anna; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James K; Chen, Amy; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor M; Palaniappan, Krishna; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Liolios, Konstantinos; Nordberg, Henrik P; Cantor, Michael N; Hua, Susan X; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Lynd, Lee R; Izquierdo, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium clariflavum strain 4-2a, a novel strain isolated from a thermophilic biocompost pile, has demonstrated an extensive capability to utilize both cellulose and hemicellulose under thermophilic anaerobic conditions. Here, we report the draft genome of this strain. PMID:26205857

  12. Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

  13. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  14. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  15. Aerobic Dancing--A Rhythmic Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Jacki

    Fitness programs now and in the future must offer built-in cardiovascular conditioning, variety, novelty, and change to meet the physical, mental, and emotional needs of our society. Aerobic dancing (dancing designed to train and strengthen the heart, lungs, and vascular system) is one of the first indoor group Aerobic exercise programs designed…

  16. Response surface optimization of substrates for thermophilic anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge and food waste.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Shin, Hang-Sik; Han, Sun-Kee; Oh, Sae-Eun

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of food waste constituents on thermophilic (55 degrees C) anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge and food waste by using statistical techniques based on biochemical methane potential tests. Various combinations of grain, vegetable, and meat as cosubstrate were tested, and then the data of methane potential (MP), methane production rate (MPR), and first-order kinetic constant of hydrolysis (kH) were collected for further analyses. Response surface methodology by the Box-Behnken design can verify the effects and their interactions of three variables on responses efficiently. MP was mainly affected by grain, whereas MPR and kH were affected by both vegetable and meat. Estimated polynomial regression models can properly explain the variability of experimental data with a high-adjusted R2 of 0.727, 0.836, and 0.915, respectively. By applying a series of optimization techniques, it was possible to find the proper criteria of cosubstrate. The optimal cosubstrate region was suggested based on overlay contours of overall mean responses. With the desirability contour plots, it was found that optimal conditions of cosubstrate for the maximum MPR (56.6 mL of CH4/g of chemical oxygen demand [COD]/day) were 0.71 g of COD/L of grain, 0.18 g of COD/L of vegetable, and 0.38 g of COD/L of meat by the simultaneous consideration of MP, MPR, and kH. Within the range of each factor examined, the corresponding optimal ratio of sewage sludge to cosubstrate was 71:29 as the COD basis. Elaborate discussions could yield practical operational strategies for the enhanced thermophilic anaerobic codigestion of sewage sludge and food waste. PMID:17385597

  17. Comparative genomic analysis of the thermophilic biomass-degrading fungi Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris

    SciTech Connect

    Berka, Randy M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Grimwood, Jane; Reid, Ian; Ishmael, Nadeeza; John, Tricia; Darmond, Corinne; Moisan, Marie-Claude; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Lombard, Vincent; Natvig, Donald O.; Lindquist, Erika; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lucas, Susan; Harris, Paul; Powlowski, Justin; Bellemare, Annie; Taylor, David; Butler, Gregory; de Vries, Ronald P.; Allijn, Iris E.; van den Brink, Joost; Ushinsky, Sophia; Storms, Reginald; Powell, Amy J.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Baker, Scott. E.; Magnuson, Jon; LaBoissiere, Sylvie; Clutterbuck, A. John; Martinez, Diego; Wogulis, Mark; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael W.; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-05-16

    Thermostable enzymes and thermophilic cell factories may afford economic advantages in the production of many chemicals and biomass-based fuels. Here we describe and compare the genomes of two thermophilic fungi, Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris. To our knowledge, these genomes are the first described for thermophilic eukaryotes and the first complete telomere-to-telomere genomes for filamentous fungi. Genome analyses and experimental data suggest that both thermophiles are capable of hydrolyzing all major polysaccharides found in biomass. Examination of transcriptome data and secreted proteins suggests that the two fungi use shared approaches in the hydrolysis of cellulose and xylan but distinct mechanisms in pectin degradation. Characterization of the biomass-hydrolyzing activity of recombinant enzymes suggests that these organisms are highly efficient in biomass decomposition at both moderate and high temperatures. Furthermore, we present evidence suggesting that aside from representing a potential reservoir of thermostable enzymes, thermophilic fungi are amenable to manipulation using classical and molecular genetics.

  18. Comparative genomic analysis of the thermophilic biomass-degrading fungi Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris.

    PubMed

    Berka, Randy M; Grigoriev, Igor V; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Grimwood, Jane; Reid, Ian; Ishmael, Nadeeza; John, Tricia; Darmond, Corinne; Moisan, Marie-Claude; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Lombard, Vincent; Natvig, Donald O; Lindquist, Erika; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lucas, Susan; Harris, Paul; Powlowski, Justin; Bellemare, Annie; Taylor, David; Butler, Gregory; de Vries, Ronald P; Allijn, Iris E; van den Brink, Joost; Ushinsky, Sophia; Storms, Reginald; Powell, Amy J; Paulsen, Ian T; Elbourne, Liam D H; Baker, Scott E; Magnuson, Jon; Laboissiere, Sylvie; Clutterbuck, A John; Martinez, Diego; Wogulis, Mark; de Leon, Alfredo Lopez; Rey, Michael W; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-10-01

    Thermostable enzymes and thermophilic cell factories may afford economic advantages in the production of many chemicals and biomass-based fuels. Here we describe and compare the genomes of two thermophilic fungi, Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris. To our knowledge, these genomes are the first described for thermophilic eukaryotes and the first complete telomere-to-telomere genomes for filamentous fungi. Genome analyses and experimental data suggest that both thermophiles are capable of hydrolyzing all major polysaccharides found in biomass. Examination of transcriptome data and secreted proteins suggests that the two fungi use shared approaches in the hydrolysis of cellulose and xylan but distinct mechanisms in pectin degradation. Characterization of the biomass-hydrolyzing activity of recombinant enzymes suggests that these organisms are highly efficient in biomass decomposition at both moderate and high temperatures. Furthermore, we present evidence suggesting that aside from representing a potential reservoir of thermostable enzymes, thermophilic fungi are amenable to manipulation using classical and molecular genetics. PMID:21964414

  19. Comparative genomic analysis of the thermophilic biomass-degrading fungi Myceliophthora thermophila and thielavia terrestris

    SciTech Connect

    Berka, Randy; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Otillar, Robert P.; Salamov, Asaf; Grimwood, Jane; Reid, Ian; Ishmael, Nadeeza; john, tricia; Darmond, Corinne; Moisan, Marie-Claude; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Lombard, Vincent; Natvig, Donald O.; Lindquist, Erika; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lucas, Susan; Harris, Paul; Powlowski, Justin; Bellemare, Annie; Taylor, David; Butler, Gregory; de Vries, Ronald P.; Allijn, Iris E.; van den Brink, Joost; Ushinsky, Sophia; Storms, Reginald; Powell, Amy J.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Baker, Scott E.; Magnuson, Jon K.; LaBoissiere, Sylvie; Martinez, Diego; Wogulis, Mark; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael; Tsang, Adrian

    2011-10-02

    Thermostable enzymes and thermophilic cell factories may afford economic advantages in the production of many chemicals and biomass-based fuels. Here we describe and compare the genomes of two thermophilic fungi, Myceliophthora thermophila and Thielavia terrestris. To our knowledge, these genomes are the first described for thermophilic eukaryotes and the first complete telomere-to-telomere genomes for filamentous fungi. Genome analyses and experimental data suggest that both thermophiles are capable of hydrolyzing all major polysaccharides found in biomass. Examination of transcriptome data and secreted proteins suggests that the two fungi use shared approaches in the hydrolysis of cellulose and xylan but distinct mechanisms in pectin degradation. Characterization of the biomass-hydrolyzing activity of recombinant enzymes suggests that these organisms are highly efficient in biomass decomposition at both moderate and high temperatures. Furthermore, we present evidence suggesting that aside from representing a potential reservoir of thermostable enzymes, thermophilic fungi are amenable to manipulation using classical and molecular genetics.

  20. Rapid start-up of thermophilic anaerobic digestion with the turf fraction of MSW as inoculum.

    PubMed

    Suwannoppadol, Suwat; Ho, Goen; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2011-09-01

    This study aims to determine suitable start-up conditions and inoculum sources for thermophilic anaerobic digestion. Within days of incubation MSW at 55°C, methane was produced at a high rate. In an attempt to narrow down which components of typical MSW contained the thermophilic methanogens, vacuum cleaner dust, banana peel, kitchen waste, and garden waste were tested as inoculum for thermophilic methanogenesis with acetate as the substrate. Results singled out grass turf as the key source of thermophilic acetate degrading methanogenic consortia. Within 4 days of anaerobic incubation (55°C), anaerobically incubated grass turf samples produced methane accompanied by acetate degradation enabling successful start-up of thermophilic anaerobic digestion. Other essential start-up conditions are specified. Stirring of the culture was not conducive for successful start-up as it resulted specifically in propionate accumulation. PMID:21723117

  1. Effect of Several Environmental Conditions on the “Thermal Death Rate” of Endospores of Aerobic, Thermophilic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yokoya, Fumio; York, George K.

    1965-01-01

    The composition of the recovery medium affected the apparent heat resistance of Bacillus stearothermophilus when the pH of the medium was 7.0 but not when the pH was 6.5. The rate of thermal death at 110 C was exponential. Deviations from exponential rates of thermal death during the initial phases of heating at 96 C were observed with endospores of B. coagulans under different conditions of sporulation. Additionally, the apparent heat resistance was influenced by the composition of the media used for sporulation and recovery and by the composition of the suspending menstruum. The presence of 0.001 m sorbic acid in the suspending menstruum at pH 7.0 and the temperature of incubation of the cultures after heating did not affect the apparent heat resistance of B. coagulans. Several explanations are discussed for the observed deviations from exponential thermal death rates and the effect of the environment on the apparent heat resistance of B. coagulans. PMID:5866047

  2. Reduced temperature hydrolysis at 134 °C before thermophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge at increasing organic load.

    PubMed

    Gianico, A; Braguglia, C M; Cesarini, R; Mininni, G

    2013-09-01

    The performance of thermophilic digestion of waste activated sludge, either untreated or thermal pretreated, was evaluated through semi-continuous tests carried out at organic loading rates in the range of 1-3.7 kg VS/m(3)d. Although the thermal pretreatment at T=134 °C proved to be effective in solubilizing organic matter, no significant gain in organics degradation was observed. However, the digestion of pretreated sludge showed significant soluble COD removal (more than 55%) whereas no removal occurred in control reactors. The lower the initial sludge biodegradability, the higher the efficiency of thermal pretreated digestion was observed, in particular as regards higher biogas and methane production rates with respect to the parallel untreated sludge digestion. Heat balance of the combined thermal hydrolysis/thermophilic digestion process, applied on full-scale scenarios, showed positive values for direct combustion of methane. In case of combined heat and power generation, attractive electric energy recoveries were obtained, with a positive heat balance at high load. PMID:23792658

  3. Progressive Degradation of Crude Oil n-Alkanes Coupled to Methane Production under Mesophilic and Thermophilic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Shi, Shengbao; Li, Qiang; Chen, Jianfa; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Yahai

    2014-01-01

    Although methanogenic degradation of hydrocarbons has become a well-known process, little is known about which crude oil tend to be degraded at different temperatures and how the microbial community is responded. In this study, we assessed the methanogenic crude oil degradation capacity of oily sludge microbes enriched from the Shengli oilfield under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The microbial communities were investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes combined with cloning and sequencing. Enrichment incubation demonstrated the microbial oxidation of crude oil coupled to methane production at 35 and 55°C, which generated 3.7±0.3 and 2.8±0.3 mmol of methane per gram oil, respectively. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that crude oil n-alkanes were obviously degraded, and high molecular weight n-alkanes were preferentially removed over relatively shorter-chain n-alkanes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the concurrence of acetoclastic Methanosaeta and hydrogenotrophic methanogens but different methanogenic community structures under the two temperature conditions. Candidate divisions of JS1 and WWE 1, Proteobacteria (mainly consisting of Syntrophaceae, Desulfobacteraceae and Syntrophorhabdus) and Firmicutes (mainly consisting of Desulfotomaculum) were supposed to be involved with n-alkane degradation in the mesophilic conditions. By contrast, the different bacterial phylotypes affiliated with Caldisericales, “Shengli Cluster” and Synergistetes dominated the thermophilic consortium, which was most likely to be associated with thermophilic crude oil degradation. This study revealed that the oily sludge in Shengli oilfield harbors diverse uncultured microbes with great potential in methanogenic crude oil degradation over a wide temperature range, which extend our previous understanding of methanogenic degradation of crude oil alkanes. PMID:25409013

  4. Rapid establishment of thermophilic anaerobic microbial community during the one-step startup of thermophilic anaerobic digestion from a mesophilic digester.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Yu; Li, Yuyou; Chi, Yongzhi; Yang, Min

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how fast the thermophilic anaerobic microbial community could be established during the one-step startup of thermophilic anaerobic digestion from a mesophilic digester. Stable thermophilic anaerobic digestion was achieved within 20 days from a mesophilic digester treating sewage sludge by adopting the one-step startup strategy. The succession of archaeal and bacterial populations over a period of 60 days after the temperature increment was followed by using 454-pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. After the increase of temperature, thermophilic methanogenic community was established within 11 days, which was characterized by the fast colonization of Methanosarcina thermophila and two hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanothermobacter spp. and Methanoculleus spp.). At the same time, the bacterial community was dominated by Fervidobacterium, whose relative abundance rapidly increased from 0 to 28.52 % in 18 days, followed by other potential thermophilic genera, such as Clostridium, Coprothermobacter, Anaerobaculum and EM3. The above result demonstrated that the one-step startup strategy could allow the rapid establishment of the thermophilic anaerobic microbial community. PMID:25463927

  5. Abiotic and microbiotic factors controlling biofilm formation by thermophilic sporeformers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Caspers, Martien P M; Metselaar, Karin I; de Boer, Paulo; Roeselers, Guus; Moezelaar, Roy; Nierop Groot, Masja; Montijn, Roy C; Abee, Tjakko; Kort, Remco

    2013-09-01

    One of the major concerns in the production of dairy concentrates is the risk of contamination by heat-resistant spores from thermophilic bacteria. In order to acquire more insight in the composition of microbial communities occurring in the dairy concentrate industry, a bar-coded 16S amplicon sequencing analysis was carried out on milk, final products, and fouling samples taken from dairy concentrate production lines. The analysis of these samples revealed the presence of DNA from a broad range of bacterial taxa, including a majority of mesophiles and a minority of (thermophilic) spore-forming bacteria. Enrichments of fouling samples at 55°C showed the accumulation of predominantly Brevibacillus and Bacillus, whereas enrichments at 65°C led to the accumulation of Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus species. Bacterial population analysis of biofilms grown using fouling samples as an inoculum indicated that both Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus preferentially form biofilms on surfaces at air-liquid interfaces rather than on submerged surfaces. Three of the most potent biofilm-forming strains isolated from the dairy factory industrial samples, including Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, and Anoxybacillus flavithermus, have been characterized in detail with respect to their growth conditions and spore resistance. Strikingly, Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, which forms the most thermostable spores of these three species, is not able to grow in dairy intermediates as a pure culture but appears to be dependent for growth on other spoilage organisms present, probably as a result of their proteolytic activity. These results underscore the importance of abiotic and microbiotic factors in niche colonization in dairy factories, where the presence of thermophilic sporeformers can affect the quality of end products. PMID:23851093

  6. Abiotic and Microbiotic Factors Controlling Biofilm Formation by Thermophilic Sporeformers

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu; Caspers, Martien P. M.; Metselaar, Karin I.; de Boer, Paulo; Roeselers, Guus; Moezelaar, Roy; Nierop Groot, Masja; Montijn, Roy C.; Abee, Tjakko

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns in the production of dairy concentrates is the risk of contamination by heat-resistant spores from thermophilic bacteria. In order to acquire more insight in the composition of microbial communities occurring in the dairy concentrate industry, a bar-coded 16S amplicon sequencing analysis was carried out on milk, final products, and fouling samples taken from dairy concentrate production lines. The analysis of these samples revealed the presence of DNA from a broad range of bacterial taxa, including a majority of mesophiles and a minority of (thermophilic) spore-forming bacteria. Enrichments of fouling samples at 55°C showed the accumulation of predominantly Brevibacillus and Bacillus, whereas enrichments at 65°C led to the accumulation of Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus species. Bacterial population analysis of biofilms grown using fouling samples as an inoculum indicated that both Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus preferentially form biofilms on surfaces at air-liquid interfaces rather than on submerged surfaces. Three of the most potent biofilm-forming strains isolated from the dairy factory industrial samples, including Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, and Anoxybacillus flavithermus, have been characterized in detail with respect to their growth conditions and spore resistance. Strikingly, Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, which forms the most thermostable spores of these three species, is not able to grow in dairy intermediates as a pure culture but appears to be dependent for growth on other spoilage organisms present, probably as a result of their proteolytic activity. These results underscore the importance of abiotic and microbiotic factors in niche colonization in dairy factories, where the presence of thermophilic sporeformers can affect the quality of end products. PMID:23851093

  7. Energetic and hydrogen limitations of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic methanogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, L. C.; Holden, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are a unique ecosystem, based ultimately not on photosynthesis but chemosynthetic primary production. This makes them an excellent analog environment for the early Earth, and for potential extraterrestrial habitable environments, such as those on Mars and Europa. The habitability of given vent systems for chemoautotrophic prokaryotes can be modeled energetically by estimating the available Gibbs energy for specific modes of chemoautotrophy, using geochemical data and mixing models for hydrothermal fluids and seawater (McCollom and Shock, 1997). However, modeling to date has largely not taken into account variation in organisms' energy demands in these environments. Controls on maintenance energies are widely assumed to be temperature-dependent, rising with increasing temperature optima (Tijhuis et al., 1993), and species-independent. The impacts of other environmental stressors and particular energy-gathering strategies on maintenance energies have not been investigated. We have undertaken culture-based studies of growth and maintenance energies in thermophilic and hyperthermophilic methanogenic (hydrogenotrophic) archaea from deep-sea hydrothermal vents to investigate potential controls on energy demands in hydrothermal vent microbes, and to quantify their growth and maintenance energies for future bioenergetic modeling. We have investigated trends in their growth energies over their full temperature range and a range of nitrogen concentrations, and in their maintenance energies at different hydrogen concentrations. Growth energies in these organisms appear to rise with temperature, but do not vary between hyperthermophilic and thermophilic methanogens. Nitrogen availability at tested levels (40μM - 9.4 mM) does not appear to affect growth energies in all but one tested organism. In continuous chemostat culture, specific methane production varied with hydrogen availability but was similar between a thermophilic and a hyperthermophilic

  8. Thermophilic and alkaliphilic Actinobacteria: biology and potential applications

    PubMed Central

    Shivlata, L.; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2015-01-01

    Microbes belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria are prolific sources of antibiotics, clinically useful bioactive compounds and industrially important enzymes. The focus of the current review is on the diversity and potential applications of thermophilic and alkaliphilic actinobacteria, which are highly diverse in their taxonomy and morphology with a variety of adaptations for surviving and thriving in hostile environments. The specific metabolic pathways in these actinobacteria are activated for elaborating pharmaceutically, agriculturally, and biotechnologically relevant biomolecules/bioactive compounds, which find multifarious applications. PMID:26441937

  9. Caenibacillus caldisaponilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic, spore-forming and phospholipid-degrading bacterium isolated from acidulocompost.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Ryo; Furuya, Hiroto; Ishihara, Daisuke; Sahara, Takehiko; Kimura, Nobutada; Nishino, Tokuzo; Tsuruoka, Naoki; Shigeri, Yasushi; Watanabe, Kunihiko

    2016-07-01

    A thermophilic and phospholipid-degrading bacterium, designated strain B157T, was isolated from acidulocompost, a garbage compost processed under acidic conditions at moderately high temperature. The organism was Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, spore-forming and rod-shaped. Growth was observed to occur at 40-65 °C and pH 4.8-8.1 (optimum growth: 50-60 °C, pH 6.2). The strain was catalase- and oxidase-positive. The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, alanine, glutamic acid and galactose. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7) and the major fatty acids were anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain B157T was related most closely to Tuberibacillus calidus 607T (94.8 % identity), and the phylogenetic analysis revealed that it belonged to the family Sporolactobacillaceae. The DNA G+C content was determined as 51.8 mol%. In spite of many similarities with the type strains of members of the family Sporolactobacillaceae, genotypic analyses suggest that strain B157T represents a novel species of a new genus, Caenibacilluscaldisaponilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Caenibacilluscaldisaponilyticus is B157T (=NBRC 111400T=DSM 101100T). PMID:27117268

  10. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Elisabeth; Ingjer, Frank; Bø, Kari

    2011-12-01

    Edvardsen, E, Ingjer, F, and Bø, K. Fit women are not able to use the whole aerobic capacity during aerobic dance. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3479-3485, 2011-This study compared the aerobic capacity during maximal aerobic dance and treadmill running in fit women. Thirteen well-trained female aerobic dance instructors aged 30 ± 8.17 years (mean ± SD) exercised to exhaustion by running on a treadmill for measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and peak heart rate (HRpeak). Additionally, all subjects performed aerobic dancing until exhaustion after a choreographed videotaped routine trying to reach the same HRpeak as during maximal running. The p value for statistical significance between running and aerobic dance was set to ≤0.05. The results (mean ± SD) showed a lower VO(2)max in aerobic dance (52.2 ± 4.02 ml·kg·min) compared with treadmill running (55.9 ± 5.03 ml·kg·min) (p = 0.0003). Further, the mean ± SD HRpeak was 182 ± 9.15 b·min in aerobic dance and 192 ± 9.62 b·min in treadmill running, giving no difference in oxygen pulse between the 2 exercise forms (p = 0.32). There was no difference in peak ventilation (aerobic dance: 108 ± 10.81 L·min vs. running: 113 ± 11.49 L·min). In conclusion, aerobic dance does not seem to be able to use the whole aerobic capacity as in running. For well endurance-trained women, this may result in a lower total workload at maximal intensities. Aerobic dance may therefore not be as suitable as running during maximal intensities in well-trained females. PMID:22080322

  11. Knowledge-based discovery for designing CRISPR-CAS systems against invading mobilomes in thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Chellapandi, P; Ranjani, J

    2015-09-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) are direct features of the prokaryotic genomes involved in resistance to their bacterial viruses and phages. Herein, we have identified CRISPR loci together with CRISPR-associated sequences (CAS) genes to reveal their immunity against genome invaders in the thermophilic archaea and bacteria. Genomic survey of this study implied that genomic distribution of CRISPR-CAS systems was varied from strain to strain, which was determined by the degree of invading mobiloms. Direct repeats found to be equal in some extent in many thermopiles, but their spacers were differed in each strain. Phylogenetic analyses of CAS superfamily revealed that genes cmr, csh, csx11, HD domain, devR were belonged to the subtypes of cas gene family. The members in cas gene family of thermophiles were functionally diverged within closely related genomes and may contribute to develop several defense strategies. Nevertheless, genome dynamics, geological variation and host defense mechanism were contributed to share their molecular functions across the thermophiles. A thermophilic archaean, Thermococcus gammotolerans and thermophilic bacteria, Petrotoga mobilis and Thermotoga lettingae have shown superoperons-like appearance to cluster cas genes, which were typically evolved for their defense pathways. A cmr operon was identified with a specific promoter in a thermophilic archaean, Caldivirga maquilingensis. Overall, we concluded that knowledge-based genomic survey and phylogeny-based functional assignment have suggested for designing a reliable genetic regulatory circuit naturally from CRISPR-CAS systems, acquired defense pathways, to thermophiles in future synthetic biology. PMID:26279704

  12. Solubilization, solution equilibria, and biodegradation of PAH's under thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Viamajala, Sridhar; Peyton, Brent M; Richards, Lee A; Petersen, James N

    2007-01-01

    Biodegradation rates of PAHs are typically low at mesophilic conditions and it is believed that the kinetics of degradation is controlled by PAH solubility and mass transfer rates. Solubility tests were performed on phenanthrene, fluorene and fluoranthene at 20 degrees C, 40 degrees C and 60 degrees C and, as expected, a significant increase in the equilibrium solubility concentration and of the rate of dissolution of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed with increasing temperature. A first-order model was used to describe the PAH dissolution kinetics and the thermodynamic property changes associated with the dissolution process (enthalpy, entropy and Gibb's free energy of solution) were evaluated. Further, other relevant thermodynamic properties for these PAHs, including the activity coefficients at infinite dilution, Henry's law constants and octanol-water partition coefficients, were calculated in the temperature range 20-60 degrees C. In parallel with the dissolution studies, three thermophilic Geobacilli were isolated from compost that grew on phenanthrene at 60 degrees C and degraded the PAH more rapidly than other reported mesophiles. Our results show that while solubilization rates of PAHs are significantly enhanced at elevated temperatures, the biodegradation of PAHs under thermophilic conditions is likely mass transfer limited due to enhanced degradation rates. PMID:16934313

  13. Global transport of thermophilic bacteria in atmospheric dust.

    PubMed

    Perfumo, Amedea; Marchant, Roger

    2010-04-01

    Aerosols from dust storms generated in the Sahara-Sahel desert area of Africa are transported north over Europe and periodically result in dry dust precipitation in the Mediterranean region. Samples of dust collected in Turkey and Greece following two distinct desert storm events contained viable thermophilic organisms of the genus Geobacillus, namely G. thermoglucosidasius and G. thermodenitrificans, and the recently reclassified Aeribacillus pallidus (formerly Geobacillus pallidus). We present here evidence that African dust storms create an atmospheric bridge between distant geographical regions and that they are also probably the source of thermophilic geobacilli later deposited over northern Europe by rainfall or dust plumes themselves. The same organisms (99% similarity in the 16S rDNA sequence) were found in dust collected in the Mediterranean region and inhabiting cool soils in Northern Ireland. This study also contributes new insights to the taxonomic identification of Geobacillus sp. Attempts to identify these organisms using 16S rRNA gene sequences have revealed that they contain multiple and diverse copies of the ribosomal RNA operon (up to 10 copies with nine different sequences), which dictates care in interpreting data about the systematics of this genus. PMID:23766086

  14. Solubilization, Solution Equilibria, and Biodegradation of PAH's under Thermophilic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Viamajala, S.; Peyton, B. M.; Richards, L. A.; Petersen, J. N.

    2007-01-01

    Biodegradation rates of PAHs are typically low at mesophilic conditions and it is believed that the kinetics of degradation is controlled by PAH solubility and mass transfer rates. Solubility tests were performed on phenanthrene, fluorene and fluoranthene at 20 C, 40 C and 60 C and, as expected, a significant increase in the equilibrium solubility concentration and of the rate of dissolution of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed with increasing temperature. A first-order model was used to describe the PAH dissolution kinetics and the thermodynamic property changes associated with the dissolution process (enthalpy, entropy and Gibb's free energy of solution) were evaluated. Further, other relevant thermodynamic properties for these PAHs, including the activity coefficients at infinite dilution, Henry's law constants and octanol-water partition coefficients, were calculated in the temperature range 20-60 C. In parallel with the dissolution studies, three thermophilic Geobacilli were isolated from compost that grew on phenanthrene at 60 C and degraded the PAH more rapidly than other reported mesophiles. Our results show that while solubilization rates of PAHs are significantly enhanced at elevated temperatures, the biodegradation of PAHs under thermophilic conditions is likely mass transfer limited due to enhanced degradation rates.

  15. Purification and physicochemical properties of lipase from thermophilic Bacillus aerius.

    PubMed

    Saun, Nitin Kumar; Mehta, Poonam; Gupta, Reena

    2014-01-01

    A thermophilic bacterial isolate producing lipase was isolated from soil of hot spring and identified as Bacillus aerius (MTCC 10978). Peak lipase activity was observed when 30 h old inoculum was used and incubated in shaking conditions for 48 h. The optimal temperature and pH for the bacterial growth and lipase production was found to be 55°C and 8.0 respectively with cottonseed oil as carbon source, yeast extract and beef extract as nitrogen source. The enzyme produced by thermophilic Bacillus aerius (MTCC 10978) was purified to 9-fold with 7.2% recovery by ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE-Cellulose Column Chromatography. The enzyme was found to be a protein having a molecular weight of 33 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The Km and Vmax value of lipase using p-nitrophenyl palmitate as calculated from Lineweaver-Burk plot was 2.13 mM and 0.66 µmol/ml/min respectively. PMID:25391687

  16. Report: antibiotic production by thermophilic Bacillus specie SAT-4.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Syed Aun; Ahmad, Safia; Hameed, Abdul

    2009-07-01

    Production of antimicrobial compounds seems to be a general phenomenon for most bacteria. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among key microbial pathogens is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Current solutions involve development of a more rationale approach to antibiotic use and discover of new antimicrobials. Bacillus species produce a large number of biological compounds active against bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. The process of production usually involves screening of wide range of microorganisms, testing and modification. Production is carried out using fermentation. Thermophilic spore-forming, gram positive, motile rod bacterial strains were isolated from the Thar Desserts, Sindh Province, Pakistan. These strains were screened and checked for antibacterial activity. The best activity was observed by SAT4 against Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. The activity was only observed against gram positive bacteria and no activity was seen against Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Thermophilic Bacillus specie SAT4 was found to be active in the fermentation process to produce the antimicrobial agents. Further optimizations of different conditions (time of incubation, media, pH, glucose concentrations, nitrogen concentrations, and temperature) for antimicrobial production by the selected bacterial strain was performed. Agar diffusion assay was performed to evaluate the antibacterial activity. Optimum conditions for the production of antimicrobials by selected isolate were observed to be 48 hour, pH 5, temperature 55 degrees C, 2% glucose and 1.5% nitrogen concentration. This newly isolated bacterial strain has great potential for antimicrobial production at industrial scale. PMID:19553186

  17. Psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic triosephosphate isomerases from three clostridial species.

    PubMed Central

    Shing, Y W; Akagi, J M; Himes, R H

    1975-01-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase was purified to homogeneity as judged by analytical gel electrophoresis from clostridium sp. strain 69, clostridium pasteurianum, and C. thermosaccharolyticum, which grow optimally at 18, 37, and 55 C, respectively. Comparative studies on these purified proteins showed that they had the same molecular weight (53,000) and subunit molecular weight (26,500). They were equally susceptible to the active site-directed inhibitor, glycidol phosphate. However, their temperature and pH optima, as well as their stabilities to heat, urea, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, differed. The proteins also had different mobilities in acrylamide gel electrophoresis. This difference in ionic character was also reflected in the elution behavior of the enzymes from hydroxyapatite and in the isoelectric points determined by isoelectric focusing in acrylamide gel. The amino acid composition of these proteins showed that the thermophilic enzyme contains a greater amount of proline than the other enzymes. The ratio of acidic amino acids to basic amino acids was 1.79, 1.38, and 1.66 for the thermophilic mesophilic and psychrophilic enzymes, respectively. This is consistent with the relative isoelectric point values of these three enzymes. Images PMID:235509

  18. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Chen, Edward H.; Nordlund, Dennis; Diaz, Rosa E.; Gaaton, Ophir; Englund, Dirk; Owen, Jonathan S.

    2014-10-27

    Here we investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed.more » Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. Lastly, we discuss the importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications.« less

  19. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, Abraham; Schiros, Theanne; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Chen, Edward H.; Nordlund, Dennis; Diaz, Rosa E.; Gaaton, Ophir; Englund, Dirk; Owen, Jonathan S.

    2014-10-27

    Here we investigate the aerobic oxidation of high-pressure, high-temperature nanodiamonds (5–50 nm dimensions) using a combination of carbon and oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption, wavelength-dependent X-ray photoelectron, and vibrational spectroscopies. Oxidation at 575 °C for 2 h eliminates graphitic carbon contamination (>98%) and produces nanocrystals with hydroxyl functionalized surfaces as well as a minor component (<5%) of carboxylic anhydrides. The low graphitic carbon content and the high crystallinity of HPHT are evident from Raman spectra acquired using visible wavelength excitation (λexcit = 633 nm) as well as carbon K-edge X-ray absorption spectra where the signature of a core–hole exciton is observed. Both spectroscopic features are similar to those of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond but differ significantly from the spectra of detonation nanodiamond. Lastly, we discuss the importance of these findings to the functionalization of nanodiamond surfaces for biological labeling applications.

  20. Comparison of selected aerobic and anaerobic procedures for MSW treatment.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Klaus; Santen, Heike; Wallmann, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers selected efficiency rates and process data of aerobic and anaerobic procedures for the treatment of municipal solid waste and residual waste. Data are exclusively related to mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) procedures for generating waste appropriate for landfilling. The following aspects are regarded: general framework conditions for the application of MBT, efficiency of decomposition and of stabilisation, air and water emissions and energy balances. The presented data can be used for more efficient planning. In comparison to aerobic processes, anaerobic digestion can be ecologically advantageous, particularly with regard to exhaust emissions and energy balances. On the other hand, the wastewater emissions and the wastewater treatment required must be regarded as disadvantageous. Due to the relatively short period of operational history of most anaerobic processes for mechanical-biological waste treatment and thus limited experiences, operational reliability of anaerobic processes is slightly lower. Extensive biological stability of the treated waste for low-emission disposal cannot be reached by anaerobic digestion alone, but only in combination with additional aerobic post-treatment. In connection with the utilisation of renewable energies and the rising relevancy of climate protection, it can be affirmed that anaerobic digestion for the treatment of municipal solid waste has a high potential for further development. PMID:16125060

  1. Thermophiles as potential source of novel endotoxin antagonists: the full structure and bioactivity of the lipo-oligosaccharide from Thermomonas hydrothermalis.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Paciello, Ida; Fazio, Luigi Lembo; Albuquerque, Luciana; Sturiale, Luisa; da Costa, Milton S; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Garozzo, Domenico; Bernardini, Maria Lina; Silipo, Dott Alba; Molinaro, Antonio

    2014-09-22

    Thermomonas hydrothermalis is a Gram-negative thermophilic bacterium that is able to live at 50 °C. This ability is attributed to chemical modifications, involving those to bacterial cell-wall components, such as proteins and (glyco)lipids. As the main component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are exposed to the environment, thus they can undergo structural chemical changes to allow thermophilic bacteria to live at their optimal growth temperature. Furthermore, as one of the major target of the eukaryotic innate immune system, LPS elicits host immune response in a structure-dependent mode; thus the uncommon chemical features of thermophilic bacterial LPSs might exert a different biological action on the innate immune system-an antagonistic effect, as shown in studies of LPS structure-activity relationship in the ongoing research into antagonist LPS candidates. Here, we report the complete structural and biological activity analysis of the lipo-oligosaccharide isolated from Thermomonas hydrothermalis, achieved by a multidisciplinary approach (chemical analysis, NMR, MALDI MS and cellular immunology). We demonstrate a tricky and interesting structure combined with a very interesting effect on human innate immunity. PMID:25171597

  2. Improving the Thermostability and Activity of a Thermophilic Subtilase by Incorporating Structural Elements of Its Psychrophilic Counterpart

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bi-Lin; Dai, Meihong; Chen, Yuanhao; Meng, Dongheng; Wang, Yasi; Fang, Nan; Tang, Xiao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of the structural elements of thermostable enzymes into their less stable counterparts is generally used to improve enzyme thermostability. However, the process of engineering enzymes with both high thermostability and high activity remains an important challenge. Here, we report that the thermostability and activity of a thermophilic subtilase were simultaneously improved by incorporating structural elements of a psychrophilic subtilase. There were 64 variable regions/residues (VRs) in the alignment of the thermophilic WF146 protease, mesophilic sphericase, and psychrophilic S41. The WF146 protease was subjected to systematic mutagenesis, in which each of its VRs was replaced with those from S41 and sphericase. After successive rounds of combination and screening, we constructed the variant PBL5X with eight amino acid residues from S41. The half-life of PBL5X at 85°C (57.1 min) was approximately 9-fold longer than that of the wild-type (WT) WF146 protease (6.3 min). The substitutions also led to an increase in the apparent thermal denaturation midpoint temperature (Tm) of the enzyme by 5.5°C, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the WT, PBL5X exhibited high caseinolytic activity (25 to 95°C) and high values of Km and kcat (25 to 80°C). Our study may provide a rational basis for developing highly stable and active enzymes, which are highly desired in industrial applications. PMID:26150464

  3. Seven N-terminal Residues of a Thermophilic Xylanase Are Sufficient to Confer Hyperthermostability on Its Mesophilic Counterpart

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shan; He, Yongzhi; Yu, Haiying; Dong, Zhiyang

    2014-01-01

    Xylanases, and especially thermostable xylanases, are increasingly of interest for the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. In this paper, the termini of a pair of xylanases, mesophilic SoxB and thermophilic TfxA, were studied. Two regions in the N-terminus of TfxA were discovered to be potentially important for the thermostability. By focusing on Region 4, it was demonstrated that only two mutations, N32G and S33P cooperated to improve the thermostability of mesophilic SoxB. By introducing two potential regions into SoxB in combination, the most thermostable mutant, M2-N32G-S33P, was obtained. The M2-N32G-S33P had a melting temperature (Tm) that was 25.6°C higher than the Tm of SoxB. Moreover, M2-N32G-S33P was even three-fold more stable than TfxA and had a Tm value that was 9°C higher than the Tm of TfxA. Thus, for the first time, the mesophilic SoxB “pupil” outperformed its thermophilic TfxA “master” and acquired hyperthermostability simply by introducing seven thermostabilizing residues from the extreme N-terminus of TfxA. This work suggested that mutations in the extreme N-terminus were sufficient for the mesophilic xylanase SoxB to acquire hyperthermostability. PMID:24498158

  4. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  5. Neuromodulation of Aerobic Exercise—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard; Kibele, Armin; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2016-01-01

    Running, and aerobic exercise in general, is a physical activity that increasingly many people engage in but that also has become popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree aerobic exercise modulates hormones, amino acids, and neurotransmitters levels. In general, it seems that factors such as genes, gender, training status, and hormonal status need to be taken into account to gain a better understanding of the neuromodular underpinnings of aerobic exercise. More research using longitudinal studies and considering individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. We suggest that, in order to succeed, aerobic exercise programs should include optimal periodization, prevent overtraining and be tailored to interindividual differences, including neuro-developmental and genetically-based factors. PMID:26779053

  6. Aerobic Dance for Children: Resources and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Denise A.

    1986-01-01

    Aerobic dance classes may be safe for older children, but are inappropriate for children in the fourth grade and under. Programs for these children should emphasize creativity. Resources for program development are given. (MT)

  7. Conditioning and Aerobics for Older Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    A class designed for the maintenance and gradual improvement of senior citizens' physical fitness includes relaxation training, flexibility and stretching exercises, interval training activities (designed as a link between less strenuous exercise and more strenuous activities), and aerobic exercises. (CJ)

  8. Aerobic dynamic feeding as a strategy for in situ accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoate in aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Gobi, K; Vadivelu, V M

    2014-06-01

    Aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) strategy was applied in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) in aerobic granules. The aerobic granules were able to remove 90% of the COD from palm oil mill effluent (POME). The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the POME are the sole source of the PHA accumulation. In this work, 100% removal of propionic and butyric acids in the POME were observed. The highest amount of PHA produced in aerobic granules was 0.6833mgPHA/mgbiomass. The PHA formed was identified as a P (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) P (HB-co-HV). PMID:24725384

  9. Physiological responses during aerobic dance of individuals grouped by aerobic capacity and dance experience.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, D; Ballor, D L

    1991-03-01

    This study examined the effects of aerobic capacity (peak oxygen uptake) and aerobic dance experience on the physiological responses to an aerobic dance routine. The heart rate (HR) and VO2 responses to three levels (intensities) of aerobic dance were measured in 27 women. Experienced aerobic dancers (AD) (mean peak VO2 = 42 ml.kg-1.min-1) were compared to subjects with limited aerobic dance experience of high (HI) (peak VO2 greater than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) and low (LO) (peak VO2 less than 35 ml.kg-1.min-1) aerobic capacities. The results indicated the LO group exercised at a higher percentage of peak heart rate and peak VO2 at all three dance levels than did either the HI or AD groups (HI = AD). Design of aerobic dance routines must consider the exercise tolerance of the intended audience. In mixed groups, individuals with low aerobic capacities should be shown how and encouraged to modify the activity to reduce the level of exertion. PMID:2028095

  10. Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: A meta-analysis of andomized controlled trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentration...

  11. Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentration...

  12. Microbial community dynamics in thermophilic undefined milk starter cultures.

    PubMed

    Parente, Eugenio; Guidone, Angela; Matera, Attilio; De Filippis, Francesca; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Ricciardi, Annamaria

    2016-01-18

    Model undefined thermophilic starter cultures were produced from raw milk of nine pasta-filata cheesemaking plants using a selective procedure based on pasteurization and incubation at high temperature with the objective of studying the microbial community dynamics and the variability in performances under repeated (7-13) reproduction cycles with backslopping. The traditional culture-dependent approach, based on random isolation and molecular characterization of isolates was coupled to the determination of pH and the evaluation of the ability to produce acid and fermentation metabolites. Moreover, a culture-independent approach based on amplicon-targeted next-generation sequencing was employed. The microbial diversity was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V1-V3 regions), while the microdiversity of Streptococcus thermophilus populations was explored by using novel approach based on sequencing of partial amplicons of the phosphoserine phosphatase gene (serB). In addition, the occurrence of bacteriophages was evaluated by qPCR and by multiplex PCR. Although it was relatively easy to select for a community dominated by thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) within a single reproduction cycle, final pH, LAB populations and acid production activity fluctuated over reproduction cycles. Both culture-dependent and -independent methods showed that the cultures were dominated by either S. thermophilus or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis or by both species. Nevertheless, subdominant mesophilic species, including lactococci and spoilage organisms, persisted at low levels. A limited number of serB sequence types (ST) were present in S. thermophilus populations. L. delbrueckii and Lactococcus lactis bacteriophages were below the detection limit of the method used and high titres of cos type S. thermophilus bacteriophages were detected in only two cases. In one case a high titre of bacteriophages was concurrent with a S. thermophilus biotype shift in the culture

  13. Aerobic Dance and the Mentally Retarded--A Winning Combination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Bonnie J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a study on an experimental dance program for mentally retarded children show that these children can improve in physical fitness and that success through physical activities can enhance their generally poor self-concept. (JN)

  14. Monitoring of thermophilic adaptation of mesophilic anaerobe fermentation of sugar beet pressed pulp.

    PubMed

    Tukacs-Hájos, Annamária; Pap, Bernadett; Maróti, Gergely; Szendefy, Judit; Szabó, Piroska; Rétfalvi, Tamás

    2014-08-01

    Anaerobe fermentation of sugar beet pressed pulp was investigated in pilot-scale digesters. Thermophilic adaptation of mesophilic culture was monitored using chemical analysis and metagenomic characterization of the sludge. Temperature adaptation was achieved by increasing the temperature gradually (2 °C day(-1)) and by greatly decreasing the OLR. During stable run, the OLR was increased gradually to 11.29 kg VS m(-3)d(-1) and biogas yield was 5% higher in the thermophilic reactor. VFA levels increased in the thermophilic reactor with increased OLR (acetic acid 646 mg L(-1), propionic acid 596 mg L(-1)), then VFA decreased and the operation was manageable beside the relative high tVFA (1300-2000 mg L(-1)). The effect of thermophilic adaptation on the microbial communities was studied using a sequencing-based metagenomic approach. Connections between physico-chemical parameters and populations of bacteria and methanogen archaea were revealed. PMID:24926601

  15. A novel membrane distillation-thermophilic bioreactor system: biological stability and trace organic compound removal.

    PubMed

    Wijekoon, Kaushalya C; Hai, Faisal I; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Cath, Tzahi Y; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-05-01

    The removal of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) by a novel membrane distillation-thermophilic bioreactor (MDBR) system was examined. Salinity build-up and the thermophilic conditions to some extent adversely impacted the performance of the bioreactor, particularly the removal of total nitrogen and recalcitrant TrOCs. While most TrOCs were well removed by the thermophilic bioreactor, compounds containing electron withdrawing functional groups in their molecular structure were recalcitrant to biological treatment and their removal efficiency by the thermophilic bioreactor was low (0-53%). However, the overall performance of the novel MDBR system with respect to the removal of total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and TrOCs was high and was not significantly affected by the conditions of the bioreactor. All TrOCs investigated here were highly removed (>95%) by the MDBR system. Biodegradation, sludge adsorption, and rejection by MD contribute to the removal of TrOCs by MDBR treatment. PMID:24658107

  16. [Treatment of Flue Gas from Sludge Drying Process by A Thermophilic Biofilter].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-he; Deng, Ming-jia; Luo, Hui; Ding, Wen-iie; Li, Lin; Lin, Jian; Liu, Jun-xin

    2016-01-15

    A thermophilic biofilter was employed to treat the flue gas generated from sludge drying process, and the performance in both the start period and the stationary phase was studied under the gas flow rate of 2 700-3 100 m3 x h(-1) and retention time of 21.88-25.10 s. The results showed that the thermophilic biofilter could effectively treat gases containing sulfur dioxide, ammonia and volatile organic compounds (VOC). The removal efficiencies could reach 100%, 93.61% and 87.01%, respectively. Microbial analysis indicated that most of the population belonged to thermophilic bacteria. Paenibacillus sp., Chelatococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Clostridium thermosuccinogenes, Pseudoxanthomonas sp. and Geobacillus debilis which were abundant in the thermophilic biofilter, had the abilities of denitrification, desulfurization and degradation of volatile organic compounds. PMID:27078980

  17. Effect of aerobic and anaerobic exercises on glycemic control in type 1 diabetic youths

    PubMed Central

    Lukács, Andrea; Barkai, László

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the long-term effect of aerobic and/or anaerobic exercise on glycemic control in youths with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Literature review was performed in spring and summer 2014 using PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Scopus, and ScienceDirect with the following terms: aerobic, anaerobic, high-intensity, resistance, exercise/training, combined with glycemic/metabolic control, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and type 1 diabetes. Only peer-reviewed articles in English were included published in the last 15 years. It was selected from 1999 to 2014. Glycemic control was measured with HbA1c. Studies with an intervention lasting at least 12 wk were included if the HbA1c was measured before and after the intervention. RESULTS: A total of nine articles were found, and they were published between the years of 2002-2011. The sample size was 401 diabetic youths (166 males and 235 females) with an age range of 10-19 years except one study, in which the age range was 13-30 years. Study participants were from Australia, Tunisia, Lithuania, Taiwan, Turkey, Brazilia, Belgium, Egypt and France. Four studies were aerobic-based, four were combined aerobic and anaerobic programs, and one compared aerobic exercise to anaerobic one. Available studies had insufficient evidence that any type of exercise or combined training would clearly improve the glycemic control in type 1 diabetic youth. Only three (two aerobic-based and one combined) studies could provide a significant positive change in glycemic control. CONCLUSION: The regular physical exercise has several other valuable physiological and health benefits that justify the inclusion of exercise in pediatric diabetes treatment and care. PMID:25897363

  18. Taxonomy of Aerobic Marine Eubacteria

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Linda; Baumann, Paul; Mandel, M.; Allen, Richard D.

    1972-01-01

    Two hundred and eighteen strains of nonfermentative marine bacteria were submitted to an extensive morphological, physiological, and nutritional characterization. All the strains were gram-negative, straight or curved rods which were motile by means of polar or peritrichous flagella. A wide variety of organic substrates served as sole sources of carbon and energy. The strains differed extensively in their nutritional versatility, being able to utilize from 11 to 85 carbon compounds. Some strains had an extracellular amylase, gelatinase, lipase, or chitinase and were able to utilize n-hexadecane and to denitrify. None of the strains had a yellow, cell-associated pigment or a constitutive arginine dihydrolase system, nor were they able to hydrolyze cellulose or agar. The results of the physiological and nutritional characterization were submitted to a numerical analysis which clustered the strains into 22 groups on the basis of phenotypic similarities. The majority of these groups were separable by a large number of unrelated phenotypic traits. Analysis of the moles per cent guanine plus cytosine (GC) content in the deoxyribonucleic acid of representative strains indicated that the peritrichously flagellated groups had a GC content of 53.7 to 67.8 moles%; polarly flagellated strains had a GC content of 30.5 to 64.7 moles%. The peritrichously flagellated groups were assigned to the genus Alcaligenes. The polarly flagellated groups, which had a GC content of 43.2 to 48.0 moles%, were placed into a newly created genus, Alteromonas; groups which had a GC content of 57.8 to 64.7 moles% were placed into the genus Pseudomonas; and the remaining groups were left unassigned. Twelve groups were given the following designations: Alteromonas communis, A. vaga, A. macleodii, A. marinopraesens, Pseudomonas doudoroffi, P. marina, P. nautica, Alcaligenes pacificus, A. cupidus, A. venustus, and A. aestus. The problems of assigning species of aerobic marine bacteria to genera are

  19. Taxonomy of aerobic marine eubacteria.

    PubMed

    Baumann, L; Baumann, P; Mandel, M; Allen, R D

    1972-04-01

    Two hundred and eighteen strains of nonfermentative marine bacteria were submitted to an extensive morphological, physiological, and nutritional characterization. All the strains were gram-negative, straight or curved rods which were motile by means of polar or peritrichous flagella. A wide variety of organic substrates served as sole sources of carbon and energy. The strains differed extensively in their nutritional versatility, being able to utilize from 11 to 85 carbon compounds. Some strains had an extracellular amylase, gelatinase, lipase, or chitinase and were able to utilize n-hexadecane and to denitrify. None of the strains had a yellow, cell-associated pigment or a constitutive arginine dihydrolase system, nor were they able to hydrolyze cellulose or agar. The results of the physiological and nutritional characterization were submitted to a numerical analysis which clustered the strains into 22 groups on the basis of phenotypic similarities. The majority of these groups were separable by a large number of unrelated phenotypic traits. Analysis of the moles per cent guanine plus cytosine (GC) content in the deoxyribonucleic acid of representative strains indicated that the peritrichously flagellated groups had a GC content of 53.7 to 67.8 moles%; polarly flagellated strains had a GC content of 30.5 to 64.7 moles%. The peritrichously flagellated groups were assigned to the genus Alcaligenes. The polarly flagellated groups, which had a GC content of 43.2 to 48.0 moles%, were placed into a newly created genus, Alteromonas; groups which had a GC content of 57.8 to 64.7 moles% were placed into the genus Pseudomonas; and the remaining groups were left unassigned. Twelve groups were given the following designations: Alteromonas communis, A. vaga, A. macleodii, A. marinopraesens, Pseudomonas doudoroffi, P. marina, P. nautica, Alcaligenes pacificus, A. cupidus, A. venustus, and A. aestus. The problems of assigning species of aerobic marine bacteria to genera are

  20. Coal Depyritization by the Thermophilic Archaeon Metallosphaera sedula

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Thomas R.; Baldi, Franco; Olson, Gregory J.

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of pyrite oxidation by Metallosphaera sedula were investigated with mineral pyrite and two coals with moderate (Pittsburgh no. 8) and high (New Brunswick, Canada) pyritic sulfur content. M. sedula oxidized mineral pyrite at a greater rate than did another thermophile, Acidianus brierleyi, or a mesophile, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Maximum rates of coal depyritization were also greater with M. sedula, although the magnitude of biological stimulation above abiotic rates was notably less than with mineral pyrite. Coal depyritization appears to be limited by the oxidation of pyrite with ferric ions and not by the rate of biotic oxidation of ferrous iron, as evidenced by the maintenance of a high ratio of ferric to ferrous iron in solution by M. sedula. Significant precipitation of hydronium jarosite at elevated temperature occurred only with New Brunswick coal. PMID:16349006

  1. Genetics of thermophilic bacteria. [Bacillus stearothermophilus:a2

    SciTech Connect

    Welker, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    Organisms adapted to high temperature have evolved a variety of unique solutions to the biochemical problems imposed by this environment. Adaptation is commonly used to describe the biochemical properties of organisms which have become adapted to their environment (genetic adaptation). It can also mean the direct response-at the cellular level-of an organism to changes in temperature (physiological adaptation). Thermophilic bacilli (strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus) can exhibit a variety of biochemical adaptations in response to changes in temperature. These include changes in the composition and stability of the membrane, metabolic potential, the transport of amino acids, regulatory mechanisms, ribose methylation of tRNA, protein thermostability, and nutritional requirements. The objectives of the research were to develop efficient and reliable genetic systems to analyze and manipulate B. Stearothermophilus, and to use these systems initiate a biochemical, molecular, and genetic investigations of genes that are required for growth at high temperature.

  2. Biocorrosive Thermophilic Microbial Communities in Alaskan North Slope Oil Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Kathleen E.; Gieg, Lisa M.; Parisi, Victoria A.; Tanner, Ralph S.; Green Tringe, Susannah; Bristow, Jim; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2009-09-16

    Corrosion of metallic oilfield pipelines by microorganisms is a costly but poorly understood phenomenon, with standard treatment methods targeting mesophilic sulfatereducing bacteria. In assessing biocorrosion potential at an Alaskan North Slope oil field, we identified thermophilic hydrogen-using methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, peptideand amino acid-fermenting bacteria, iron reducers, sulfur/thiosulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfate-reducing archaea. These microbes can stimulate metal corrosion through production of organic acids, CO2, sulfur species, and via hydrogen oxidation and iron reduction, implicating many more types of organisms than are currently targeted. Micromolar quantities of putative anaerobic metabolites of C1-C4 n-alkanes in pipeline fluids were detected, implying that these low molecular weight hydrocarbons, routinely injected into reservoirs for oil recovery purposes, are biodegraded and provide biocorrosive microbial communities with an important source of nutrients.

  3. Pathway engineering to improve ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Lynd, L.R.

    1998-12-31

    Continuation of a research project jointly funded by the NSF and DOE is proposed. The primary project goal is to develop and characterize strains of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum having ethanol selectivity similar to more convenient ethanol-producing organisms. An additional goal is to document the maximum concentration of ethanol that can be produced by thermophiles. These goals build on results from the previous project, including development of most of the genetic tools required for pathway engineering in the target organisms. As well, we demonstrated that the tolerance of C. thermosaccharolyticum to added ethanol is sufficiently high to allow practical utilization should similar tolerance to produced ethanol be demonstrated, and that inhibition by neutralizing agents may explain the limited concentrations of ethanol produced in studies to date. Task 1 involves optimization of electrotransformation, using either modified conditions or alternative plasmids to improve upon the low but reproducible transformation, frequencies we have obtained thus far.

  4. The bioleaching of different sulfide concentrates using thermophilic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, F.; Blázquez, M. L.; González, F.; Ballester, A.; Mier, J. L.

    1995-05-01

    The bioleaching of different mineral sulfide concentrates with thermophilic bacteria (genus Sulfolobus @#@) was studied. Since the use of this type of bacteria in leaching systems involves stirring and the control of temperature, the influence of the type of stirring and the pulp density on dissolution rates was studied in order to ascertain the optimum conditions for metal recovery. At low pulp densities, the dissolution kinetic was favored by pneumatic stirring, but for higher pulp densities, orbital stirring produced the best results. A comparative study of three differential concentrates, one mixed concentrate, and one global concentrate was made. Copper and iron extraction is directly influenced by bacterial activity, while zinc dissolution is basically due to an indirect mechanism that is activated in the presence of copper ions. Galvanic interactions between the different sulfides favors the selective bioleaching of some phases (sphalerite and chalcopyrite) and leads to high metal recovery rates. However, the formation of galvanic couples depends on the type of concentrate.

  5. A hexokinase with broad sugar specificity from a thermophilic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jungdon; Kim, Dooil; Choi, Yongseok; Koh, Sukhoon; Park, Jung Eun; Su Kim, Joong; Moon, Seong Hoon; Park, Bo-Hyun; Park, Miri; Song, Hye-Eun; Hong, Suk-In; Lee, Dae-Sil

    2005-09-01

    A recombinant thermophilic Thermus caldophilus GK24 hexokinase, one of the ROK-type (repressor protein, open reading frames, and sugar kinase) proteins, exists uniquely as a 120 kDa molecule with four subunits (31 kDa), in contrast to eukaryotic and bacterial sugar kinases which are monomers or dimers. The optimal temperature and pH for the enzyme reaction are 70-80 degrees C and 7.5, respectively. This enzyme shows broad specificity toward glucose, mannose, glucosamine, allose, 2-deoxyglucose, and fructose. To understand the sugar specificity at a structural level, the enzyme-ATP/Mg2+-sugar binding complex models have been constructed. It has been shown that the sugar specificity is probably dependent on the interaction energy occurred by the positional proximity of sugars bound in the active site of the enzyme, which exhibits a tolerance to modification at C2 or C3 of glucose. PMID:16053915

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Thermophilic Spore Formers Isolated from a Dairy-Processing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Caspers, Martien P. M.; Boekhorst, Jos; de Jong, Anne; Kort, Remco; Nierop Groot, Masja

    2016-01-01

    Spores of thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are a common cause of contamination in dairy products. Here, we report draft genome sequences of four thermophilic strains from a milk-processing plant or standard milk, namely, a Geobacillus thermoglucosidans isolate (TNO-09.023), Geobacillus stearothermophilus TNO-09.027, and two Anoxybacillus flavithermus isolates (TNO-09.014 and TNO-09.016). PMID:27516503

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Thermophilic Spore Formers Isolated from a Dairy-Processing Environment.

    PubMed

    Caspers, Martien P M; Boekhorst, Jos; de Jong, Anne; Kort, Remco; Nierop Groot, Masja; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    Spores of thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are a common cause of contamination in dairy products. Here, we report draft genome sequences of four thermophilic strains from a milk-processing plant or standard milk, namely, a Geobacillus thermoglucosidans isolate (TNO-09.023), Geobacillus stearothermophilus TNO-09.027, and two Anoxybacillus flavithermus isolates (TNO-09.014 and TNO-09.016). PMID:27516503

  8. Aerobic Excercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children. (Project AEROBIC). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Univ., Moscow.

    The final report summarizes accomplishments of Project AEROBIC (Aerobic Exercise and Research Opportunities to Benefit Impaired Children), which provided a physical education exercise program for severely, profoundly, and multiply handicapped children aged 10-21. Activities are outlined for the 3 year period and include modification of exercise…

  9. Hydrophobic and Electrostatic Cell Surface Properties of Thermophilic Dairy Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    van der Mei, H. C.; de Vries, J.; Busscher, H. J.

    1993-01-01

    Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) and microelectrophoresis were done in 10 mM potassium phosphate solutions to characterize the surfaces of thermophilic dairy streptococci, isolated from pasteurizers. Regardless of whether they were grown (in M17 broth) with lactose, sucrose, or glucose added, strains were relatively hydrophilic (showing low initial removal rates by hexadecane) and slightly negatively charged. A tendency exists for cells grown with sucrose added to be more hydrophilic than cells grown with glucose or lactose added. Also, the lowest isoelectric points, i.e., the pH values for which the zeta potentials are zero, were measured for strains with glucose added to the growth medium. The isoelectric points for the strains were all rather high, between pH 3 and 5, indicative of protein-rich surfaces, although X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy did not measure excessively large amounts of nitrogen on the cell surfaces. Both MATH and microelectrophoresis were done as a function of pH. Maxima in hydrophobicity were observed at certain pH values. Usually these pH values were in the range of the isoelectric points of the cells. Thus it appears that MATH measures an interplay of hydrophobicity and electrostatic interactions. MATH measures solely hydrophobicity only when electrostatic interactions are absent, i.e., close to the isoelectric points of the cells. Considering that these thermophilic streptococci are all rather hydrophilic, a possible pathway to prevent fouling in the pasteurization process might be to render the heat exchanger plates of the pasteurizer more hydrophobic. PMID:16349127

  10. The metabolism of hydrogen by extremely thermophilic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.W.W.

    1991-01-01

    The novel archaebacterium, Pyrococcus furiosus, grows optimally at 100{degree}C by a fermentative metabolism and produces hydrogen (H{sub 2}). We have shown that this organism appears to ferment glucose and evolve H{sub 2} by a novel pathway. The following metalloenzymes and proteins involved in H{sub 2} metabolism have been purified and characterized: hydrogenase (NiFeS), ferredoxin (FeS), pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (FeS), and an new enzyme which contains tungsten, glyceraldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (WFeS). A rubredoxin was also purified, and it and the ferredoxin have been sequenced. In addition, a second new enzyme has been identified, glucose ferredoxin oxidoreductase. These represent the first enzymes and proteins to be purified from any organism able to grow optimally above 90{degree}C. All are remarkably thermostable and show maximal catalytic activity >95{degree}C. The ferredoxin has several unique properties and is potentially an extremely thermostable model for the catalytic sites of a variety of mesophilic metalloenzymes. In addition, the FeS-containing enzymes, hydrogenase and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and a ferredoxin, have been purified from the most thermophilic eubacterium currently known, Thermotoga maritima. This organism grows up to 90{degree}C, also by fermentation. The hydrogenases of T. maritima and P. furiosus each have many unique properties in comparison with mesophilic hydrogenases, and both appear to contain new types of metal centers that are specifically adapted to catalyze H{sub 2} production at the extreme temperatures. Hydrogenase activity has also been measured in four other extremely thermophilic organisms, one of which is capable of growth at 120{degree}C. 1 fig.

  11. Diversity of Cultured Thermophilic Anaerobes in Hot Springs of Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L.; Lu, Y.; Dong, X.; Liu, X.; Wei, Y.; Ji, X.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Thermophilic anaerobes including Archaea and Bacteria refer to those growing optimally at temperatures above 50°C and do not use oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor for growth. Study on thermophilic anaerobes will help to understand how life thrives under extreme conditions. Meanwhile thermophilic anaerobes are of importance in potential application and development of thermophilic biotechnology. We have surveyed culturable thermophilic anaerobes in hot springs (pH6.5-7.5; 70 - 94°C) in Rehai of Tengchong, Bangnazhang of Longlin, Eryuan of Dali,Yunnan, China. 50 strains in total were cultured from the hot springs water using Hungate anaerobic technique, and 30 strains were selected based on phenotypic diversity for analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 28 strains belonged to the members of five genera: Caldanaerobacter, Calaramator, Thermoanaerobacter, Dictyoglomus and Fervidobacterium, which formed five branches on the phylogenetic tree. Besides, 2 strains of methanogenic archaea were obtained. The majority of the isolates were the known species, however, seven strains were identified as novel species affiliated to the five genera based on the lower 16S rDNA sequence similarities (less than 93 - 97%) with the described species. This work would provide the future study on their diversity, distribution among different regions and the potential application of thermophilic enzyme. Supported by State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences(SKLMR-080605)and the Foundation of State Natural Science (30660009, 30960022, 31081220175).

  12. Presence and potential role of thermophilic bacteria in temperate terrestrial environments.

    PubMed

    Portillo, M C; Santana, M; Gonzalez, J M

    2012-01-01

    Organic sulfur and nitrogen are major reservoirs of these elements in terrestrial systems, although their cycling remains to be fully understood. Both sulfur and nitrogen mineralization are directly related to microbial metabolism. Mesophiles and thermophiles were isolated from temperate environments. Thermophilic isolates were classified within the Firmicutes, belonging to the Geobacillus, Brevibacillus, and Ureibacillus genera, and showed optimum growth temperatures between 50°C and 60°C. Sulfate and ammonium produced were higher during growth of thermophiles both for isolated strains and natural bacterial assemblages. They were positively related to organic nutrient load. Temperature also affected the release of sulfate and ammonium by thermophiles. Quantitative, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction on environmental samples indicated that the examined thermophilic Firmicutes represented up to 3.4% of the total bacterial community RNA. Temperature measurements during summer days showed values above 40°C for more than 10 h a day in soils from southern Spain. These results support a potential role of thermophilic bacteria in temperate terrestrial environments by mineralizing organic sulfur and nitrogen ruled by the existence and length of warm periods. PMID:22159635

  13. Cognitive enhancement by transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jungyun; Castelli, Darla M; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2016-08-01

    This is the first randomized, controlled study comparing the cognitive effects of transcranial laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise on the same cognitive tasks. We examined whether transcranial infrared laser stimulation of the prefrontal cortex, acute high-intensity aerobic exercise, or the combination may enhance performance in sustained attention and working memory tasks. Sixty healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatments: (1) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with infrared laser to two forehead sites while seated (total 8 min, 1064 nm continuous wave, 250 mW/cm(2), 60 J/cm(2) per site of 13.6 cm(2)); (2) acute exercise (EX) of high-intensity (total 20 min, with 10-min treadmill running at 85-90 % VO2max); (3) combined treatment (LLLT + EX); or (4) sham control (CON). Participants were tested for prefrontal measures of sustained attention with the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and working memory with the delayed match-to-sample task (DMS) before and after the treatments. As compared to CON, both LLLT and EX reduced reaction time in the PVT [F(1.56) = 4.134, p = 0.01, η (2)  = 0.181] and increased the number of correct responses in the DMS [F(1.56) = 4.690, p = 0.005, η (2)  = 0.201], demonstrating a significant enhancing effect of LLLT and EX on cognitive performance. LLLT + EX effects were similar but showed no significantly greater improvement on PVT and DMS than LLLT or EX alone. The transcranial infrared laser stimulation and acute aerobic exercise treatments were similarly effective for cognitive enhancement, suggesting that they augment prefrontal cognitive functions similarly. PMID:27220529

  14. Feasibility of composting combinations of sewage sludge, olive mill waste and winery waste in a rotary drum reactor.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Francisco J; Sánchez-Arias, Virginia; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Villaseñor, José

    2010-10-01

    Representative samples of the following biowastes typically generated in Castilla La Mancha (Spain) were composted using a pilot-scale closed rotary drum composting reactor provided with adequate control systems: waste from the olive oil industry (olive mill waste; OMW), winery-distillery waste containing basically grape stalk and exhausted grape marc (WDW), and domestic sewage sludge. Composting these biowastes was only successful when using a bulking agent or if sufficient porosity was supported. OMW waste composting was not possible, probably because of its negligible porosity, which likely caused anaerobic conditions. WDW was successfully composted using a mixture of solid wastes generated from the same winery. SS was also successfully composted, although its higher heavy metal content was a limitation. Co-composting was an adequate strategy because the improved mixture characteristics helped to maintain optimal operating conditions. By co-composting, the duration of the thermophilic period increased, the final maturity level improved and OMW was successfully composted. Using the proposed reactor, composting could be accelerated compared to classical outdoor techniques, enabling easy control of the process. Moisture could be easily controlled by wet air feeding and leachate recirculation. Inline outlet gas analysis helped to control aerobic conditions without excessive aeration. The temperature reached high values in a few days, and sufficient thermal requirements for pathogen removal were met. The correct combination of biowastes along with appropriate reactor design would allow composting as a management option for such abundant biowastes in this part of Spain. PMID:20435457

  15. Characterization of Melioribacter roseus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel facultatively anaerobic thermophilic cellulolytic bacterium from the class Ignavibacteria, and a proposal of a novel bacterial phylum Ignavibacteriae.

    PubMed

    Podosokorskaya, Olga A; Kadnikov, Vitaly V; Gavrilov, Sergey N; Mardanov, Andrey V; Merkel, Alexander Y; Karnachuk, Olga V; Ravin, Nikolay V; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Kublanov, Ilya V

    2013-06-01

    A novel moderately thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic chemoorganotrophic bacterium strain P3M-2(T) was isolated from a microbial mat developing on the wooden surface of a chute under the flow of hot water (46°C) coming out of a 2775-m-deep oil exploration well (Tomsk region, Russia). Strain P3M-2(T) is a moderate thermophile and facultative anaerobe growing on mono-, di- or polysaccharides by aerobic respiration, fermentation or by reducing diverse electron acceptors [nitrite, Fe(III), As(V)]. Its closest cultivated relative (90.8% rRNA gene sequence identity) is Ignavibacterium album, the only chemoorganotrophic member of the phylum Chlorobi. New genus and species Melioribacter roseus are proposed for isolate P3M-2(T) . Together with I. album, the new organism represents the class Ignavibacteria assigned to the phylum Chlorobi. The revealed group includes a variety of uncultured environmental clones, the 16S rRNA gene sequences of some of which have been previously attributed to the candidate division ZB1. Phylogenetic analysis of M. roseus and I. album based on their 23S rRNA and RecA sequences confirmed that these two organisms could represent an even deeper, phylum-level lineage. Hence, we propose a new phylum Ignavibacteriae within the Bacteroidetes-Chlorobi group with a sole class Ignavibacteria, two families Ignavibacteriaceae and Melioribacteraceae and two species I. album and M. roseus. This proposal correlates with chemotaxonomic data and phenotypic differences of both organisms from other cultured representatives of Chlorobi. The most essential differences, supported by the analyses of complete genomes of both organisms, are motility, facultatively anaerobic and obligately organotrophic mode of life, the absence of chlorosomes and the apparent inability to grow phototrophically. PMID:23297868

  16. The Ability of Instructors to Organize Aerobic Dance Exercise Into Effective Cardiovascular Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claremont, Alan D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The ability of five aerobics instructors to combine music and exercise movements into effective low, medium, and high levels of cardiovascular intensity was evaluated by measuring respiratory gas exchange and heart rate for twelve subjects. Results underscore the need for instructor training guidelines. (Author/MT)

  17. Growth dynamics of specific spoilage organisms and associated spoilage biomarkers in chicken breast stored aerobically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to identify and quantify selected volatile spoilage biomarkers in a headspace over chicken breast using solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detectors (GC-MS/FID). The chicken breast samples were aerobically s...

  18. Could petroleum biodegradation be a joint achievement of aerobic and anaerobic microrganisms in deep sea reservoirs?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Several studies suggest that petroleum biodegradation can be achieved by either aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms, depending on oxygen input or other electron acceptors and appropriate nutrients. Evidence from in vitro experiments with samples of petroleum formation water and oils from Pampo Field indicate that petroleum biodegradation is more likely to be a joint achievement of both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial consortium, refining our previous observations of aerobic degradation. The aerobic consortium depleted, in decreasing order, hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes while the anaerobic consortium depleted hydrocarbons > steranes > hopanes > tricyclic terpanes. The oxygen content of the mixed consortia was measured from time to time revealing alternating periods of microaerobicity (O2 ~0.8 mg.L-1) and of aerobicity (O2~6.0 mg.L-1). In this experiment, the petroleum biodegradation changed from time to time, alternating periods of biodegradation similar to the aerobic process and periods of biodegradation similar to the anaerobic process. The consortia showed preferences for metabolizing hydrocarbons > hopanes > steranes > tricyclic terpanes during a 90-day period, after which this trend changed and steranes were more biodegraded than hopanes. The analysis of aerobic oil degrading microbiota by the 16S rRNA gene clone library detected the presence of Bacillus, Brevibacterium, Mesorhizobium and Achromobacter, and the analysis of the anaerobic oil degrading microbiota using the same technique detected the presence of Bacillus and Acinetobacter (facultative strains). In the mixed consortia Stenotrophomonas, Brevibacterium, Bacillus, Rhizobium, Achromobacter and 5% uncultured bacteria were detected. This is certainly a new contribution to the study of reservoir biodegradation processes, combining two of the more important accepted hypotheses. PMID:22196374

  19. An Na+-pumping V1V0-ATPase complex in the thermophilic bacterium Clostridium fervidus.

    PubMed Central

    Höner zu Bentrup, K; Ubbink-Kok, T; Lolkema, J S; Konings, W N

    1997-01-01

    Energy transduction in the anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Clostridium fervidus relies exclusively on Na+ as the coupling ion. The Na+ ion gradient across the membrane is generated by a membrane-bound ATPase (G. Speelmans, B. Poolman, T. Abee, and W. N. Konings, J. Bacteriol. 176:5160-5162, 1994). The Na+-ATPase complex was purified to homogeneity. It migrates as a single band in native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and catalyzes Na+-stimulated ATPase activity. Denaturing gel electrophoresis showed that the complex consists of at least six different polypeptides with apparent molecular sizes of 66, 61, 51, 37, 26, and 17 kDa. The N-terminal sequences of the 66- and 51-kDa subunits were found to be significantly homologous to subunits A and B, respectively, of the Na+-translocating V-type ATPase of Enterococcus hirae. The purified V1V0 protein complex was reconstituted in a mixture of Escherichia coli phosphatidylethanolamine and egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and shown to catalyze the uptake of Na+ ions upon hydrolysis of ATP. Na+ transport was completely abolished by monensin, whereas valinomycin stimulated the uptake rate. This is indicative of electrogenic sodium transport. The presence of the protonophore SF6847 had no significant effect on the uptake, indicating that Na+ translocation is a primary event and in the cell is not accomplished by an H+-translocating pump in combination with an Na+-H+ antiporter. PMID:9023212

  20. Controlling the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols.

    PubMed

    Esguerra, Kenneth Virgel N; Fall, Yacoub; Petitjean, Laurène; Lumb, Jean-Philip

    2014-05-28

    The oxidation of phenols is the subject of extensive investigation, but there are few catalytic aerobic examples that are chemo- and regioselective. Here we describe conditions for the ortho-oxygenation or oxidative coupling of phenols under copper (Cu)-catalyzed aerobic conditions that give rise to ortho-quinones, biphenols or benzoxepines. We demonstrate that each product class can be accessed selectively by the appropriate choice of Cu(I) salt, amine ligand, desiccant and reaction temperature. In addition, we evaluate the effects of substituents on the phenol and demonstrate their influence on selectivity between ortho-oxygenation and oxidative coupling pathways. These results create an important precedent of catalyst control in the catalytic aerobic oxidation of phenols and set the stage for future development of catalytic systems and mechanistic investigations. PMID:24784319

  1. [Anaerobic-aerobic infection in acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Mamchich, V I; Ulitovskiĭ, I V; Savich, E I; Znamenskiĭ, V A; Beliaeva, O A

    1998-01-01

    362 patients with acute appendicitis (AA) were examined. For microbiological diagnosis of aerobic and anaerobic nonclostridial microflora we used complex accelerated methods (including evaluation of gram-negative microorganisms in comparison with tinctorial-fermentative method of differential staining according to oxygen sensitivity of catalasopositive together with aerobic and cathalasonegative anaerobic microorganisms) as well as complete bacteriologic examination with determination of sensitivity of the above microorganism to antimicrobial remedies. High rate of aerobic-anaerobic microbial associations and substantial identity of microflora from appendicis and exudate from abdominal cavity was revealed, which evidenced the leading role of endogenous microorganisms in etiology and pathogenesis of AA and peritonitis i. e. autoinfection. In patients with destructive forms of AA, complicated by peritonitis it is recommended to use the accelerated method of examination of pathologic material as well as the complete scheme of examination with the identification of the isolated microorganisms and the correction of antibiotic treatment. PMID:9511291

  2. Aerobic biodegradation of trichloroethene without auxiliary substrates.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kathrin R; Gaza, Sarah; Voropaev, Andrey; Ertl, Siegmund; Tiehm, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Trichloroethene (TCE) represents a priority pollutant and is among the most frequently detected contaminants in groundwater. The current bioremediation measures have certain drawbacks like e.g. the need for auxiliary substrates. Here, the aerobic biodegradation of TCE as the sole growth substrate is demonstrated. This new process of metabolic TCE degradation was first detected in groundwater samples. TCE degradation was stable in an enriched mixed bacterial culture in mineral salts medium for over five years and repeated transfers of the culture resulting in a 10(10) times dilution of the original groundwater. Aerobic TCE degradation resulted in stoichiometric chloride formation. Stable carbon isotope fractionation was observed providing a reliable analytical tool to assess this new biodegradation process at field sites. The results suggest that aerobic biodegradation of TCE without auxiliary substrate could be considered as an option for natural attenuation or engineered bioremediation of contaminated sites. PMID:24793109

  3. Drying and recovery of aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Quanguo; Chen, Yu-You; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    To dehydrate aerobic granules to bone-dry form was proposed as a promising option for long-term storage of aerobic granules. This study cultivated aerobic granules with high proteins/polysaccharide ratio and then dried these granules using seven protocols: drying at 37°C, 60°C, 4°C, under sunlight, in dark, in a flowing air stream or in concentrated acetone solutions. All dried granules experienced volume shrinkage of over 80% without major structural breakdown. After three recovery batches, although with loss of part of the volatile suspended solids, all dried granules were restored most of their original size and organic matter degradation capabilities. The strains that can survive over the drying and storage periods were also identified. Once the granules were dried, they can be stored over long period of time, with minimal impact yielded by the applied drying protocols. PMID:27392096

  4. Aerobic Microbial Respiration in Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Schunck, Harald; Loescher, Carolin; Desai, Dhwani K.; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2014-05-01

    In the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the tropical oceans, sluggish ventilation combined with strong microbial respiration of sinking organic matter results in the depletion of oxygen (O2). When O2 concentrations drop below ~5 µmol/L, organic matter is generally assumed to be respired with nitrate, ultimately leading to the loss of fixed inorganic nitrogen via anammox and denitrification. However, direct measurements of microbial O2 consumption at low O2 levels are - apart from a single experiment conducted in the OMZ off Peru - so far lacking. At the same time, consistently observed active aerobic ammonium and nitrite oxidation at non-detectable O2 concentrations (<1 µmol/L) in all major OMZs, suggests aerobic microorganisms, likely including heterotrophs, to be well adapted to near-anoxic conditions. Consequently, microaerobic (≤5 µmol/L) remineralization of organic matter, and thus release of ammonium, in low- O2 environments might be significantly underestimated at present. Here we present extensive measurements of microbial O2 consumption in OMZ waters, combined with highly sensitive O2 (STOX) measurements and meta-omic functional gene analyses. Short-term incubation experiments with labelled O2 (18-18O2) carried out in the Namibian and Peruvian OMZ, revealed persistent aerobic microbial activity at depths with non-detectable concentrations of O2 (≤50 nmol/L). In accordance, examination of metagenomes and metatranscriptomes from Chilean and Peruvian OMZ waters identified genes encoding for terminal respiratory oxidases with high O2 affinities as well as their expression by diverse microbial communities. Oxygen consumption was particularly enhanced near the upper OMZ boundaries and could mostly (~80%) be assigned to heterotrophic microbial activity. Compared to previously identified anaerobic microbial processes, microaerobic organic matter respiration was the dominant remineralization pathway and source of ammonium (~90%) in the upper Namibian and

  5. Aggression is associated with aerobic glycolysis in the honey bee brain1

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, S.; Rittschof, C. C.; Djukovic, D.; Gu, H.; Raftery, D.; Price, N. D.; Robinson, G. E.

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis involves increased glycolysis and decreased oxidative catabolism of glucose even in the presence of an ample oxygen supply. Aerobic glycolysis, a common metabolic pattern in cancer cells, was recently discovered in both the healthy and diseased human brain, but its functional significance is not understood. This metabolic pattern in the brain is surprising because it results in decreased efficiency of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in a tissue with high energetic demands. We report that highly aggressive honey bees (Apis mellifera) show a brain transcriptomic and metabolic state consistent with aerobic glycolysis, i.e. increased glycolysis in combination with decreased oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, exposure to alarm pheromone, which provokes aggression, causes a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis in the bee brain. We hypothesize that this metabolic state, which is associated with altered neurotransmitter levels, increased glycolytically derived ATP and a reduced cellular redox state, may lead to increased neuronal excitability and oxidative stress in the brain. Our analysis provides evidence for a robust, distinct and persistent brain metabolic response to aggression-inducing social cues. This finding for the first time associates aerobic glycolysis with naturally occurring behavioral plasticity, which has important implications for understanding both healthy and diseased brain function. PMID:25640316

  6. Impact of methanogenic pre-treatment on the performance of an aerobic MBR system.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, A; Buntner, D; Garrido, J M

    2013-03-01

    The combination of anaerobic treatment with an aerobic MBR as a polishing step is an alternative to treat some industrial wastewater and/or urban wastewaters generated in warm climate countries. In this work a pilot-scale UASB reactor and an aerobic MBR as a polishing step was operated. The impact of the methanogenic stage on membrane fouling was studied. Operating fluxes of 11-18 L m(-2) h(-1) and permeabilities of 100-250 L m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1) were reported. It was demonstrated that the recirculation of aerobic biomass to the anaerobic stage provoked a release of biopolymers due to the hydrolysis of aerobic biomass in these conditions. Depending on biomass concentration in membrane chamber, the presence of biopolymers worsened membrane performance. Fouling rate was three times higher when biomass concentration decreased from 8 to 2 g L(-1), with similar concentrations of biopolymers present. Moreover, the presence of plastic support in the aerobic stage was shown to improve membrane performance, decreasing the concentrations of the studied fouling indicators. Carbohydrate fraction of soluble microbial products, biopolymer clusters (BPC) and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) concentrations were studied as possible fouling indicators for this system. A strong correlation between both colloidal fraction of BPC (cBPC) and TEP with membrane fouling rate was observed. PMID:23245539

  7. Trade-off between mesophilic and thermophilic denitrification: rates vs. sludge production, settleability and stability.

    PubMed

    Courtens, Emilie N P; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Verliefde, Arne; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H; Boon, Nico

    2014-10-15

    The development of thermophilic nitrogen removal strategies will facilitate sustainable biological treatment of warm nitrogenous wastewaters. Thermophilic denitrification was extensively compared to mesophilic denitrification for the first time in this study. Two sequential batch reactors (SBR) at 34 °C and 55 °C were inoculated with mesophilic activated sludge (26 °C), fed with synthetic influent in a first phase. Subsequently, the carbon source was switched from acetate to molasses, whereas in a third phase, the nitrate source was fertilizer industry wastewater. The denitrifying sludge maintained its activity at 55 °C, resulting in an immediate process start-up, obtaining nitrogen removal rates higher than 500 mg N g(-1) VSS d(-1) in less than one week. Although the mesophilic SBR showed twice as high specific nitrogen removal rates, the maximum thermophilic denitrifying activity in this study was nearly 10 times higher than the activities reported thus far. The thermophilic SBR moreover had a 73% lower sludge volume index, a 45% lower sludge production and a higher resilience towards a change in carbon source compared with the mesophilic SBR. The higher resilience was potentially related to a higher microbial diversity and evenness of the thermophilic community at the end of the synthetic feeding period. The thermophilic microbial community showed a higher similarity over the different feeding periods implying a more stable community. Overall, this study showed the capability of mesophilic denitrifiers to maintain their activity after a large temperature increase. Existing mesophilic process systems with cooling for the treatment of warm wastewaters could thus efficiently be converted to thermophilic systems with low sludge production and good settling properties. PMID:25007305

  8. Evaluation of continuous mesophilic, thermophilic and temperature phased anaerobic digestion of microwaved activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Nuno Miguel Gabriel; Droste, Ronald L; Kennedy, Kevin J

    2011-04-01

    The effects of microwave (MW) pretreatment, staging and digestion temperature on anaerobic digestion were investigated in a setup of ten reactors. A mesophilic reactor was used as a control. Its performance was compared to single-stage mesophilic and thermophilic reactors treating pretreated and non-pretreated sludge, temperature-phased (TPAD) thermophilic-mesophilic reactors treating pretreated and non-pretreated sludge and thermophilic-thermophilic reactors also treating pretreated and non-pretreated sludge. Four different sludge retention times (SRTs) (20, 15, 10 and 5 d) were tested for all reactors. Two-stage thermo-thermo reactors treating pretreated sludge produced more biogas than all other reactors and removed more volatile solids. Maximum volatile solids (VS) removal was 53.1% at an SRT of 15 d and maximum biogas increase relative to control was 106% at the shortest SRT tested. Both the maximum VS removal and biogas relative increase were measured for a system with thermophilic acidogenic reactor and thermophilic methanogenic reactor. All the two-stage systems treating microwaved sludge produced sludge free of pathogen indicator bacteria, at all tested conditions even at a total system SRT of only 5 d. MW pretreatment and staging reactors allowed the application of very short SRT (5 d) with no significant decrease in performance in terms of VS removal in comparison with the control reactor. MW pretreatment caused the solubilization of organic material in sludge but also allowed more extensive hydrolysis of organic material in downstream reactors. The association of MW pretreatment and thermophilic operation improves dewaterability of digested sludge. PMID:21470653

  9. Characteristics of nitrogen transformation and microbial community in an aerobic composting reactor under two typical temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Wang, X C; Zhang, H H; Shi, H L; Hu, T; Ngo, H H

    2013-06-01

    Batch experiments were conducted for feces composting using an aerobic composting reactor with sawdust as bulky matrix. In the 14-day composting processes at 35±2 and 55±2°C, compost samples were collected daily and chemical analyses and PCR-DGGE were carried out for investigating the influence of composting temperature on organic decomposition, nitrogen transformation, and microbial communities. At 55±2°C, in addition to a slightly higher COD removal, nitrogen loss was greatly restrained. As organic nitrogen took about 85% of the total nitrogen originated from human feces, the suppression of ammonification process under thermophilic environment might be the main reason for less nitrogen loss at 55±2°C. By PCR-DGGE analysis, the microbial community was found to undergo successions differently at 35±2 and 55±2°C. Certain sequences identified from the compost at 55±2°C represented the microbial species which could perform nitrogen-fixation or sustain a lower pH in the compost so that gaseous ammonia emission was suppressed. PMID:23587829

  10. INACTIVATION OF ENTERIC PATHOGENS DURING AEROBIC DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of aerobic and anaerobic digestion on enteric viruses, enteric bacteria, total aerobic bacteria, and intestinal parasites were studied under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the temperature of the sludge digestion was the major factor infl...

  11. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  12. Enhancing Cognitive Training Through Aerobic Exercise After a First Schizophrenia Episode: Theoretical Conception and Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Nuechterlein, Keith H; Ventura, Joseph; McEwen, Sarah C; Gretchen-Doorly, Denise; Vinogradov, Sophia; Subotnik, Kenneth L

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive training (CT) and aerobic exercise have separately shown promise for improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Aerobic exercise releases brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which promotes synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Thus, aerobic exercise provides a neurotrophic platform for neuroplasticity-based CT. The combination of aerobic exercise and CT may yield more robust effects than CT alone, particularly in the initial course of schizophrenia. In a pilot study, 7 patients with a recent onset of schizophrenia were assigned to Cognitive Training & Exercise (CT&E) and 9 to CT alone for a 10-week period. Posit Science programs were used for CT. Neurocognitive training focused on tuning neural circuits related to perceptual processing and verbal learning and memory. Social cognitive training used the same learning principles with social and affective stimuli. Both groups participated in these training sessions 2d/wk, 2h/d. The CT&E group also participated in an aerobic conditioning program for 30 minutes at our clinic 2d/wk and at home 2d/wk. The effect size for improvement in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Overall Composite score for CT&E patients relative to CT patients was large. Functional outcome, particularly independent living skills, also tended to improve more in the CT&E than in the CT group. Muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and diastolic blood pressure also showed relative improvement in the CT&E compared to the CT group. These encouraging pilot study findings support the promise of combining CT and aerobic exercise to improve the early course of schizophrenia. PMID:27460618

  13. Alicyclobacillus dauci sp. nov., a slightly thermophilic, acidophilic bacterium isolated from a spoiled mixed vegetable and fruit juice product.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Chisa; Takahashi, Naoto; Tanaka, Naoto; Okada, Sanae

    2015-02-01

    A novel, moderately thermophilic, acidophilic, Gram-variable, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium was isolated from a spoiled mixed vegetable and fruit juice product that had the off-flavour of guaiacol. The bacterium, strain 4F(T), grew aerobically at 20-50 °C (optimum 40 °C) and pH 3.0-6.0 (optimum pH 4.0) and produced acid from glycerol, d-galactose and d-glucose. It contained menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as the major isoprenoid quinone and the DNA G+C content was 49.6 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain 4F(T) were ω-alicyclic (ω-cyclohexane fatty acids), which are characteristic of the genus Alicyclobacillus. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belongs to the Alicyclobacillus cluster, and is related most closely to the type strains of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris (97.4 % similarity) and Alicyclobacillus fastidiosus (97.3 %). Strain 4F(T) produced guaiacol from vanillic acid. It can be distinguished from related species by its acid production type and guaiacol production. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness values, it can be concluded that the strain represents a novel species of the genus Alicyclobacillus, for which the name Alicyclobacillus dauci sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 4F(T) ( = DSM 28700(T) = NBRC 108949(T) = NRIC 0938(T)). PMID:25505343

  14. Characteristics of oxidation-reduction potential, VFAs, SCOD, N, and P in an ATAD system under different thermophilic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiehong; Kong, Feng; Zhu, Jun; Wu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    One-stage autoheated thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) can stabilize sludge to meet class A standard. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to investigate the characteristics of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), and nutrients at different temperatures (45, 55, and 65 °C) in the one-stage ATAD. Results showed that the ORP values remained between approximately -350 and -120 mV in the primary 5-day digestion despite of excessive aeration in the digester, indicating that the aeration level could be decreased in an ATAD system to save energy. The pH exhibited a poor correlation (R (2) < 0.11) with ORP, indicating that some variables synthetically effected on pH. Digestion at 65 °C caused more intercellular compounds released because of the highest concentrations of SCOD, VFA, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the solution among three digestion temperatures. The volatile suspended solid (VSS) removal rate for sludge at 55 °C was the highest among three digestion temperatures, reaching 41.4 % on day 13 and meeting Class A standard. VSS removal rate of 30.1 % under 65 °C did not satisfy the effluent standard because of the high soluble content of ammonium nitrogen. The majority of nitrogen and phosphorus left in the sludge supernatant under 65 °C could hinder its further use for land applications. Therefore, the optimal temperature of 55 °C is suitable for the ATAD process. PMID:25245680

  15. Kinetics and mechanism of the biodegradation of PLA/clay nanocomposites during thermophilic phase of composting process.

    PubMed

    Stloukal, Petr; Pekařová, Silvie; Kalendova, Alena; Mattausch, Hannelore; Laske, Stephan; Holzer, Clemens; Chitu, Livia; Bodner, Sabine; Maier, Guenther; Slouf, Miroslav; Koutny, Marek

    2015-08-01

    The degradation mechanism and kinetics of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite films, containing various commercially available native or organo-modified montmorillonites (MMT) prepared by melt blending, were studied under composting conditions in thermophilic phase of process and during abiotic hydrolysis and compared to the pure polymer. Described first order kinetic models were applied on the data from individual experiments by using non-linear regression procedures to calculate parameters characterizing aerobic composting and abiotic hydrolysis, such as carbon mineralization, hydrolysis rate constants and the length of lag phase. The study showed that the addition of nanoclay enhanced the biodegradation of PLA nanocomposites under composting conditions, when compared with pure PLA, particularly by shortening the lag phase at the beginning of the process. Whereas the lag phase of pure PLA was observed within 27days, the onset of CO2 evolution for PLA with native MMT was detected after just 20days, and from 13 to 16days for PLA with organo-modified MMT. Similarly, the hydrolysis rate constants determined tended to be higher for PLA with organo-modified MMT, particularly for the sample PLA-10A with fastest degradation, in comparison with pure PLA. The acceleration of chain scission in PLA with nanoclays was confirmed by determining the resultant rate constants for the hydrolytical chain scission. The critical molecular weight for the hydrolysis of PLA was observed to be higher than the critical molecular weight for onset of PLA mineralization, suggesting that PLA chains must be further shortened so as to be assimilated by microorganisms. In conclusion, MMT fillers do not represent an obstacle to acceptance of the investigated materials in composting facilities. PMID:25981155

  16. Pyrinomonas methylaliphatogenes gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel group 4 thermophilic member of the phylum Acidobacteria from geothermal soils.

    PubMed

    Crowe, M A; Power, J F; Morgan, X C; Dunfield, P F; Lagutin, K; Rijpstra, W I C; Rijpstra, I C; Vyssotski, G N S; Sinninghe Damste, J S; Houghton, K M; Ryan, J L J; Stott, M B

    2014-01-01

    An aerobic, thermophilic, moderately acidophilic non-spore-forming bacterium, strain K22(T), was isolated from geothermally heated soil at Mount Ngauruhoe, New Zealand. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, K22(T) was shown to belong to subdivision 4 of the phylum Acidobacteria and to be most closely related to 'Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum' (86 %) and Blastocatella fastidiosa (86 %). Cells stained Gram-negative and were catalase and oxidase-positive. The major fatty acids detected were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0, iso-C19 : 0 and iso-C21 : 0 when standard lipid extraction protocols were employed. Analysis of the total cell lipid acid hydrolysate also detected membrane-spanning and ether lipids, which made up approximately 40 % of the total membrane composition. These lipids included dicarboxylic (iso-diabolic) acid and the glyceryl ether of alkyl analogues of iso-C15 : 0 and iso-diabolic acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 59.6 mol% and the primary respiratory quinone was MK-8. Strain K22(T) grew at 50-69 °C with an optimum temperature of 65 °C and at pH 4.1-7.8 with an optimum growth pH of 6.5. NaCl tolerance was up to 1 % (w/v). Cells displayed a chemoheterotrophic and obligately aerobic metabolism. Cells grew on nutrient broth, alginate, arabinose, Casamino acids, glucose, lactate, formate, mannose, sodium alginate, peptone, sucrose, tryptone, xanthan, xylan, xylose and yeast extract. Nitrogen sources included nitrate, ammonium, urea, yeast extract and Casamino acids, but not dinitrogen gas. The distinct phylogenetic position and the phenotypic characteristics separate strain K22(T) from all other members of the class Acidobacteria and indicate that it represents a novel species and genus, for which the name Pyrinomonas methylaliphatogenes gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is K22(T) ( = DSM 25857(T) = ICMP 18710(T)). PMID:24048862

  17. By reducing hexokinase 2, resveratrol induces apoptosis in HCC cells addicted to aerobic glycolysis and inhibits tumor growth in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yujing; He, Lei; Chen, Kan; Li, Jingjing; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jianrong; Lu, Wenxia; Zhou, Yuqing; Yin, Qin; Abudumijiti, Huerxidan; Chen, Rongxia; Zhang, Rong; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Zheng; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Jing; Wang, Chengfen; Zhang, Huawei; Zhou, Yingqun; Xu, Ling; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells exhibit an altered metabolic phenotype known as the aerobic glycolysis. The expression of HK2 changes the metabolic phenotype of cells to support cancerous growth. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of resveratrol on HK2 expression and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell glycolysis. Aerobic glycolysis was observed in four HCC cell lines compared to the normal hepatic cells. Resveratrol sensitized aerobic glycolytic HCC cells to apoptosis, and this effect was attenuated by glycolytic inhibitors. The induction of mitochondrial apoptosis was associated with the decrease of HK2 expression by resveratrol in HCC cells. In addition, resveratrol enhanced sorafenib induced cell growth inhibition in aerobic glycolytic HCC cells. Combination treatment with both reagents inhibited the growth and promoted apoptosis of HCC-bearing mice. The reduction of HK2 by resveratrol provides a new dimension to clinical HCC therapies aimed at preventing disease progression. PMID:25938543

  18. Maximal aerobic capacity at several ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide at several altitudes. Research report, April 1984-January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, S.M.; Agnew, J.W.; Wagner, J.A.; Bedi, J.F.

    1988-12-01

    To assess the combined effects of altitude and acute carbon monoxide exposure, 11 male and 12 female subjects, all nonsmokers in good health, were given incremental maximal aerobic-capacity tests. Each subject, after attaining the required altitude and ambient carbon monoxide level, performed the maximal aerobic capacity test. Blood samples were drawn at several points in the aerobic capacity test protocol, and analyzed for hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma proteins, lactates, and carboxyhemoglobin. Carbon-monoxide-carboxyhemoglobin uptake rates were derived from the submaximal workloads. Despite increases in carboxyhemoglobin, no additional significant decreases in maximal aerobic capacity were observed. Immediately prior to and at maximal workloads, carbon monoxide shifted into extravascular spaces and returned to the vascular space within five minutes after exercise stopped.

  19. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by the thermophilic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajesh; Dong, Hailiang; Liu, Deng; Zhao, Linduo; Marts, Amy R.; Farquhar, Erik; Tierney, David L.; Almquist, Catherine B.; Briggs, Brandon R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant progress on iron reduction by thermophilic microorganisms, studies on their ability to reduce toxic metals are still limited, despite their common co-existence in high temperature environments (up to 70 °C). In this study, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, an obligate thermophilic methanogen, was used to reduce hexavalent chromium. Experiments were conducted in a growth medium with H2/CO2 as substrate with various Cr6+ concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 1, 3, and 5 mM) in the form of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). Time-course measurements of aqueous Cr6+ concentrations using 1,5-diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method showed complete reduction of the 0.2 and 0.4 mM Cr6+ solutions by this methanogen. However, much lower reduction extents of 43.6%, 13.0%, and 3.7% were observed at higher Cr6+ concentrations of 1, 3 and 5 mM, respectively. These lower extents of bioreduction suggest a toxic effect of aqueous Cr6+ to cells at this concentration range. At these higher Cr6+ concentrations, methanogenesis was inhibited and cell growth was impaired as evidenced by decreased total cellular protein production and live/dead cell ratio. Likewise, Cr6+ bioreduction rates decreased with increased initial concentrations of Cr6+ from 13.3 to 1.9 μM h-1. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed a progressive reduction of soluble Cr6+ to insoluble Cr3+ precipitates, which was confirmed as amorphous chromium hydroxide by selected area electron diffraction pattern. However, a small fraction of reduced Cr occurred as aqueous Cr3+. Scanning and transmission electron microscope observations of M. thermautotrophicus cells after Cr6+ exposure suggest both extra- and intracellular chromium reduction mechanisms. Results of this study demonstrate the ability of M. thermautotrophicus cells to reduce toxic Cr6+ to less toxic Cr3+ and its potential application in metal bioremediation, especially at high temperature subsurface radioactive waste disposal

  20. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by the thermophilic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Singh, Rajesh; Dong, Hailiang; Liu, Deng; Zhao, Linduo; Marts, Amy R.; Farquhar, Erik; Tierney, David L.; Almquist, Catherine B.; Briggs, Brandon R.

    2014-10-22

    Despite the significant progress on iron reduction by thermophilic microorganisms, studies on their ability to reduce toxic metals are still limited, despite their common co-existence in high temperature environments (up to 70°C). In this study, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, an obligate thermophilic methanogen, was used to reduce hexavalent chromium. Experiments were conducted in a growth medium with H2/CO2 as substrate with various Cr6+ concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 1, 3, and 5 mM) in the form of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). Time-course measurements of aqueous Cr6+ concentrations with the 1, 5-diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method showed complete reduction of the 0.2 and 0.4 mM Cr6+ solutions bymore » this methanogen. However, much lower reduction extents of 43.6%, 13.0%, and 3.7% were observed at higher Cr6+ concentrations of 1, 3 and 5 mM, respectively. These lower extents of bioreduction suggest a toxic effect of aqueous Cr6+ to cells at this concentration range. At these higher Cr6+ concentrations, methanogenesis was inhibited and cell growth was impaired as evidenced by decreased total cellular protein production and live/dead cell ratio. Likewise, Cr6+ bioreduction rates decreased with increased initial concentrations of Cr6+ from 13.3 to1.9 μM h₋1. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed a progressive reduction of soluble Cr6+ to insoluble Cr3+ precipitates, which was confirmed as amorphous chromium hydroxide by X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction pattern. However, a small fraction of reduced Cr occurred as aqueous Cr3+. Scanning and transmission electron microscope observations of M. thermautotrophicus cells after Cr6+ exposure suggest both extra- and intracellular chromium reduction mechanisms. Results of this study demonstrate the ability of M. thermautotrophicus cells to reduce toxic Cr6+ to less toxic Cr3+ and its potential application in metal bioremediation, especially at high temperature

  1. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by the thermophilic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajesh; Dong, Hailiang; Liu, Deng; Zhao, Linduo; Marts, Amy R.; Farquhar, Erik; Tierney, David L.; Almquist, Catherine B.; Briggs, Brandon R.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant progress on iron reduction by thermophilic microorganisms, studies on their ability to reduce toxic metals are still limited, despite their common co-existence in high temperature environments (up to 70°C). In this study, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, an obligate thermophilic methanogen, was used to reduce hexavalent chromium. Experiments were conducted in a growth medium with H2/CO2 as substrate with various Cr6+ concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 1, 3, and 5 mM) in the form of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). Time-course measurements of aqueous Cr6+ concentrations with the 1, 5-diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method showed complete reduction of the 0.2 and 0.4 mM Cr6+ solutions by this methanogen. However, much lower reduction extents of 43.6%, 13.0%, and 3.7% were observed at higher Cr6+ concentrations of 1, 3 and 5 mM, respectively. These lower extents of bioreduction suggest a toxic effect of aqueous Cr6+ to cells at this concentration range. At these higher Cr6+ concentrations, methanogenesis was inhibited and cell growth was impaired as evidenced by decreased total cellular protein production and live/dead cell ratio. Likewise, Cr6+ bioreduction rates decreased with increased initial concentrations of Cr6+ from 13.3 to1.9 µM h−1. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed a progressive reduction of soluble Cr6+ to insoluble Cr3+ precipitates, which was confirmed as amorphous chromium hydroxide by X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction pattern. However, a small fraction of reduced Cr occurred as aqueous Cr3+. Scanning and transmission electron microscope observations of M. thermautotrophicus cells after Cr6+ exposure suggest both extra- and intracellular chromium reduction mechanisms. Results of this study demonstrate the ability of M. thermautotrophicus cells to reduce toxic Cr6+ to less toxic Cr3+ and its potential application in metal bioremediation, especially at high temperature

  2. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by the thermophilic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Rajesh; Dong, Hailiang; Liu, Deng; Zhao, Linduo; Marts, Amy R.; Farquhar, Erik; Tierney, David L.; Almquist, Catherine B.; Briggs, Brandon R.

    2014-10-22

    Despite the significant progress on iron reduction by thermophilic microorganisms, studies on their ability to reduce toxic metals are still limited, despite their common co-existence in high temperature environments (up to 70°C). In this study, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, an obligate thermophilic methanogen, was used to reduce hexavalent chromium. Experiments were conducted in a growth medium with H2/CO2 as substrate with various Cr6+ concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 1, 3, and 5 mM) in the form of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7). Time-course measurements of aqueous Cr6+ concentrations with the 1, 5-diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method showed complete reduction of the 0.2 and 0.4 mM Cr6+ solutions by this methanogen. However, much lower reduction extents of 43.6%, 13.0%, and 3.7% were observed at higher Cr6+ concentrations of 1, 3 and 5 mM, respectively. These lower extents of bioreduction suggest a toxic effect of aqueous Cr6+ to cells at this concentration range. At these higher Cr6+ concentrations, methanogenesis was inhibited and cell growth was impaired as evidenced by decreased total cellular protein production and live/dead cell ratio. Likewise, Cr6+ bioreduction rates decreased with increased initial concentrations of Cr6+ from 13.3 to1.9 μM h₋1. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed a progressive reduction of soluble Cr6+ to insoluble Cr3+ precipitates, which was confirmed as amorphous chromium hydroxide by X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction pattern. However, a small fraction of reduced Cr occurred as aqueous Cr3+. Scanning and transmission electron microscope observations of M. thermautotrophicus cells after Cr6+ exposure suggest both extra- and intracellular chromium reduction mechanisms. Results of

  3. Sample prefractionation with liquid isoelectric focusing enables in depth microbial metaproteome analysis of mesophilic and thermophilic biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Kohrs, F; Heyer, R; Magnussen, A; Benndorf, D; Muth, T; Behne, A; Rapp, E; Kausmann, R; Heiermann, M; Klocke, M; Reichl, U

    2014-10-01

    Biogas production from energy crops and biodegradable waste is one of the major sources for renewable energies in Germany. Within a biogas plant (BGP) a complex microbial community converts biomass to biogas. Unfortunately, disturbances of the biogas process occur occasionally and cause economic losses of varying extent. Besides technical failures the microbial community itself is commonly assumed as a reason for process instability. To improve the performance and efficiency of BGP, a deeper knowledge of the composition and the metabolic state of the microbial community is required and biomarkers for monitoring of process deviations or even the prediction of process failures have to be identified. Previous work based on 2D-electrophoresis demonstrated that the analysis of the metaproteome is well suited to provide insights into the apparent metabolism of the microbial communities. Using SDS-PAGE with subsequent mass spectrometry, stable protein patterns were evaluated for a number of anaerobic digesters. Furthermore, it was shown that severe changes in process parameters such as acidification resulted in significant modifications of the metaproteome. Monitoring of changing protein patterns derived from anaerobic digesters, however, is still a challenge due to the high complexity of the metaproteome. In this study, different combinations of separation techniques to reduce the complexity of proteomic BGP samples were compared with respect to the subsequent identification of proteins by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS): (i) 1D: proteins were tryptically digested and the resulting peptides were separated by reversed phase chromatography prior to MS/MS. (ii) 2D: proteins were separated by GeLC-MS/MS according to proteins molecular weights before tryptic digestion, (iii) 3D: proteins were separated by gel-free fractionation using isoelectric focusing (IEF) conducted before GeLC-MS/MS. For this study, a comparison of two anaerobic digesters operated at mesophilic and at

  4. Development of a multiplex real time PCR to detect thermophilic lactic acid bacteria in natural whey starters.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Benedetta; Agrimonti, Caterina; Gatti, Monica; Neviani, Erasmo; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A multiplex real time PCR (mRealT-PCR) useful to rapidly screen microbial composition of thermophilic starter cultures for hard cooked cheeses and to compare samples with potentially different technological properties was developed. Novel primers directed toward pheS gene were designed and optimized for multiple detection of Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum. The assay was based on SYBR Green chemistry followed by melting curves analysis. The method was then evaluated for applications in the specific detection of the 4 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in 29 different natural whey starters for Parmigiano Reggiano cheese production. The results obtained by mRealT-PCR were also compared with those obtained on the same samples by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Length-Heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR). The mRealT-PCR developed in this study, was found to be effective for analyzing species present in the samples with an average sensitivity down to less than 600 copies of DNA and therefore sensitive enough to detect even minor LAB community members of thermophilic starter cultures. The assay was able to describe the microbial population of all the different natural whey starter samples analyzed, despite their natural variability. A higher number of whey starter samples with S. thermophilus and L. fermentum present in their microbial community were revealed, suggesting that these species could be more frequent in Parmigiano Reggiano natural whey starter samples than previously shown. The method was more effective than LH-PCR and FISH and, considering that these two techniques have to be used in combination to detect the less abundant species, the mRealT-PCR was also faster. Providing a single step sensitive detection of L. helveticus, L. delbrueckii, S. thermophilus and L. fermentum, the developed mRealT-PCR could be used for screening thermophilic starter cultures and to follow the presence of

  5. Reflections on Psychotherapy and Aerobic Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wade

    This document provides a series of reflections by a practicing psychologist on the uses of aerobic workouts in psychotherapy. Two case histories are cited to illustrate the contention that the mode of exercise, rather than simply its presence or absence, is the significant indicator of a patient's emotional well-being or psychopathology. The first…

  6. Aerobic Exercise Prescription for Rheumatoid Arthritics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Williams, Hilda L.

    The use of exercise as a general treatment for rheumatoid arthritics (RA) has included range of motion, muscular strength, water exercise and rest therapy while virtually ignoring possible benefits of aerobic exercise. The purposes of this project were to examine the guidelines for exercise prescription in relation to this special population and…

  7. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza. PMID:24669667

  8. Media for the aerobic growth of campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of agar and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium was examined. The broth medium was supplemented with 0.0 to 0.2% agar and inoculated with 106 CFU/ml of Campylobacter coli 33559, Campylobacter fetus 27349, Campylobacter...

  9. Strengthening aerobic granule by salt precipitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-You; Pan, Xiangliang; Li, Jun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    Structural stability of aerobic granules is generally poor during long-term operation. This study precipitated seven salts inside aerobic granules using supersaturated solutions of (NH4)3PO4, CaCO3, CaSO4, MgCO3, Mg3(PO4)2, Ca3(PO4)2 or SiO2 to enhance their structural stability. All precipitated granules have higher interior strength at ultrasonic field and reveal minimal loss in organic matter degradation capability at 160-d sequential batch reactor tests. The strength enhancement followed: Mg3(PO4)2=CaSO4>SiO2>(NH4)3PO4>MgCO3>CaCO3=Ca3(PO4)2>original. Also, the intra-granular solution environment can be buffered by the precipitate MgCO3 to make the aerobic granules capable of degradation of organic matters at pH 3. Salt precipitation is confirmed a simple and cost-effective modification method to extend the applicability of aerobic granules for wastewater treatments. PMID:27377228

  10. AEROBIC DENITRIFICATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR NITROGEN FATE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Mississippi, as well as most nitrogen-degraded rivers and streams, NO3- is the dominant N species and therefore understanding its biogeochemical behavior is critical for accurate nitrogen fate modeling. To our knowledge this is the first work to report aerobic denitrificat...

  11. Anaerobic and aerobic transformation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Kulpa, C.F.; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.

    1996-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used pure cultures of aerobic microorganisms. In many cases, attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions by pure cultures result in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, mixed culture systems properly operated result in the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and in some cases mineralization of TNT occurs. In this paper, the mixed culture system is described with emphasis on intermediates and the characteristics of the aerobic microbial process including the necessity for a co-substrate. The possibility of removing TNT under aerobic/anoxic conditions is described in detail. Another option for the biodegradation of TNT and nitroaromatics is under anaerobic, sulfate reducing conditions. In this instance, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. TNT under sulfate reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitro groups from TNT is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the formation of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). These metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. The data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT under different growth condition are reviewed in this report.

  12. Ventilation and Speech Characteristics during Submaximal Aerobic Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan E.; Hipp, Jenny; Alessio, Helaine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method: Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max).…

  13. Adolescents' Interest and Performances in Aerobic Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Senlin; Parrott, James

    2014-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval,…

  14. A proposed aerobic granules size development scheme for aerobic granulation process.

    PubMed

    Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Abdullah, Norhayati; Yuzir, Ali; Olsson, Gustaf; Salmiati; Hamdzah, Myzairah; Din, Mohd Fadhil Mohd; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul; Anuar, Aznah Nor; Noor, Zainura Zainon; Ujang, Zaini

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic granulation is increasingly used in wastewater treatment due to its unique physical properties and microbial functionalities. Granule size defines the physical properties of granules based on biomass accumulation. This study aims to determine the profile of size development under two physicochemical conditions. Two identical bioreactors namely Rnp and Rp were operated under non-phototrophic and phototrophic conditions, respectively. An illustrative scheme was developed to comprehend the mechanism of size development that delineates the granular size throughout the granulation. Observations on granules' size variation have shown that activated sludge revolutionised into the form of aerobic granules through the increase of biomass concentration in bioreactors which also determined the changes of granule size. Both reactors demonstrated that size transformed in a similar trend when tested with and without illumination. Thus, different types of aerobic granules may increase in size in the same way as recommended in the aerobic granule size development scheme. PMID:25661308

  15. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness in adolescents with obesity: the HEARTY trial.

    PubMed

    Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Sigal, Ronald J; Goldfield, Gary S; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Phillips, Penny; Malcolm, Janine; Ma, Jinhui; Doucette, Steve; Gougeon, Rejeanne; Wells, George A; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic, resistance, and combined exercise training on cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness in postpubertal adolescents with obesity. After a 4-week supervised moderate-intensity exercise run-in, 304 adolescents aged 14-18 years with body mass index ≥85th percentile were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks of aerobic training, resistance training, combined training, or a nonexercising control. All participants received dietary counselling with a maximum daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. Cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption) was measured by indirect calorimetry using a graded treadmill exercise test. Musculoskeletal fitness was measured using the 2003 Canadian Physical Activity Fitness and Lifestyle Appraisal tests (hand grip, push-ups, partial curl-ups, sit and reach, and vertical jump). Muscular strength was assessed using an 8-repetition maximum test on the bench press, seated row, and leg press machines. A greater increase in peak oxygen consumption in the aerobic exercise group (30.6 ± 0.6 to 33.4 ± 0.7 mLO2/kg/min) was measured relative to the control group (30.6 ± 0.5 to 30.9 ± 0.7 mLO2/kg/min) (p = 0.002). Similarly, the number of partial curl-ups increased in the aerobic group (19 ± 1 to 23 ± 1) while no differences were measured in the control group (19 ± 1 to 20 ± 1) (p = 0.015). Increases in muscular strength and number of push-ups were greatest in the resistance group versus the control and combined groups versus the aerobic group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, aerobic training had the strongest effect on cardiorespiratory fitness, while resistance and combined training improved both muscular strength and endurance more than control and aerobic training alone, respectively, in adolescents with obesity. PMID:26881317

  16. Kinetic characterization of thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion for coffee grounds and waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Xiaochang; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Shofie, Mohammad; Li, Yu-You

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the kinetics of an anaerobic process (hydrolysis, acetogenesis, acidogenesis and methanogenesis) under thermophilic (55 °C) and mesophilic (35 °C) conditions with coffee grounds and waste activated sludge (WAS) as the substrates. Special focus was given to the kinetics of propionic acid degradation to elucidate the accumulation of VFAs. Under the thermophilic condition, the methane production rate of all substrates (WAS, ground coffee and raw coffee) was about 1.5 times higher than that under the mesophilic condition. However, the effects on methane production of each substrate under the thermophilic condition differed: WAS increased by 35.8-48.2%, raw coffee decreased by 76.3-64.5% and ground coffee decreased by 74.0-57.9%. Based on the maximum reaction rate (Rmax) of each anaerobic stage obtained from the modified Gompertz model, acetogenesis was found to be the rate-limiting step for coffee grounds and WAS. This can be explained by the kinetics of propionate degradation under thermophilic condition in which a long lag-phase (more than 18 days) was observed, although the propionate concentration was only 500 mg/L. Under the mesophilic condition, acidogenesis and hydrolysis were found to be the rate-limiting step for coffee grounds and WAS, respectively. Even though reducing the particle size accelerated the methane production rate of coffee grounds, but did not change the rate-limiting step: acetogenesis in thermophilic and acidogenesis in mesophilic. PMID:25534040

  17. Comparing residue clusters from thermophilic and mesophilic enzymes reveals adaptive mechanisms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sammond, Deanne W.; Kastelowitz, Noah; Himmel, Michael E.; Yin, Hang; Crowley, Michael F.; Bomble, Yannick J.

    2016-01-07

    Understanding how proteins adapt to function at high temperatures is important for deciphering the energetics that dictate protein stability and folding. While multiple principles important for thermostability have been identified, we lack a unified understanding of how internal protein structural and chemical environment determine qualitative or quantitative impact of evolutionary mutations. In this work we compare equivalent clusters of spatially neighboring residues between paired thermophilic and mesophilic homologues to evaluate adaptations under the selective pressure of high temperature. We find the residue clusters in thermophilic enzymes generally display improved atomic packing compared to mesophilic enzymes, in agreement with previous research.more » Unlike residue clusters from mesophilic enzymes, however, thermophilic residue clusters do not have significant cavities. In addition, anchor residues found in many clusters are highly conserved with respect to atomic packing between both thermophilic and mesophilic enzymes. As a result, the improvements in atomic packing observed in thermophilic homologues are not derived from these anchor residues but from neighboring positions, which may serve to expand optimized protein core regions.« less

  18. Comparing Residue Clusters from Thermophilic and Mesophilic Enzymes Reveals Adaptive Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sammond, Deanne W.; Kastelowitz, Noah; Himmel, Michael E.; Yin, Hang; Crowley, Michael F.; Bomble, Yannick J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how proteins adapt to function at high temperatures is important for deciphering the energetics that dictate protein stability and folding. While multiple principles important for thermostability have been identified, we lack a unified understanding of how internal protein structural and chemical environment determine qualitative or quantitative impact of evolutionary mutations. In this work we compare equivalent clusters of spatially neighboring residues between paired thermophilic and mesophilic homologues to evaluate adaptations under the selective pressure of high temperature. We find the residue clusters in thermophilic enzymes generally display improved atomic packing compared to mesophilic enzymes, in agreement with previous research. Unlike residue clusters from mesophilic enzymes, however, thermophilic residue clusters do not have significant cavities. In addition, anchor residues found in many clusters are highly conserved with respect to atomic packing between both thermophilic and mesophilic enzymes. Thus the improvements in atomic packing observed in thermophilic homologues are not derived from these anchor residues but from neighboring positions, which may serve to expand optimized protein core regions. PMID:26741367

  19. Community dynamics and glycoside hydrolase activities of thermophilic bacterial consortia adapted to switchgrass

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, J.M.; Allgaier, M.; Miller, C.S.; Hazen, T.C.; VanderGheynst, J.S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Simmons, B.A.; Singer, S.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale biofuel production requires robust enzymatic cocktails to produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacterial consortia are a potential source of cellulases and hemicellulases adapted to harsher reaction conditions than commercial fungal enzymes. Compost-derived microbial consortia were adapted to switchgrass at 60 C to develop thermophilic biomass-degrading consortia for detailed studies. Microbial community analysis using small-subunit rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and short-read metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that thermophilic adaptation to switchgrass resulted in low-diversity bacterial consortia with a high abundance of bacteria related to thermophilic paenibacilli, Rhodothermus marinus, and Thermus thermophilus. At lower abundance, thermophilic Chloroflexi and an uncultivated lineage of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum were observed. Supernatants isolated from these consortia had high levels of xylanase and endoglucanase activities. Compared to commercial enzyme preparations, the endoglucanase enzymes had a higher thermotolerance and were more stable in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), an ionic liquid used for biomass pretreatment. The supernatants were used to saccharify [C2mim][OAc]-pretreated switchgrass at elevated temperatures (up to 80 C), demonstrating that these consortia are an excellent source of enzymes for the development of enzymatic cocktails tailored to more extreme reaction conditions.

  20. A comparative study on thermomechanical pulping pressate treatment using thermophilic and mesophilic sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Meiru; Liao, B Q

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study on the treatment of thermomechanical pulping (TMP) pressate was conducted under thermophilic (55 degrees C) and mesophilic (30 degrees C) temperatures to explore in-mill biological treatment, with the intention to operate under heat-efficient conditions. The experimental study involved sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) operated over 114 days. Receiving a total influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 3700-4100 mg L(-1), the COD removal efficiencies of 80-90% and 75-85% were achieved for the mesophilic and thermophilic SBRs, respectively, at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 and 24h. Excellent sludge settleability (sludge volume index < 100 mL g(-1) mixed liquor suspended solids) was obtained at both thermophilic and mesophilic SBRs. A higher level of effluent suspended solids was observed under thermophilic conditions. The results support the feasibility of applying thermophilic biological treatment of TMP pressate. The treated effluent has the potential for subsequent reuse as process water after polishing, thus addressing the long-standing desire to develop water system closure for the pulp and paper mill operation. PMID:24701939

  1. Genetic tool development underpins recent advances in thermophilic whole‐cell biocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, M. P.; van Zyl, L.; Tuffin, I. M.; Leak, D. J.; Cowan, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The environmental value of sustainably producing bioproducts from biomass is now widely appreciated, with a primary target being the economic production of fuels such as bioethanol from lignocellulose. The application of thermophilic prokaryotes is a rapidly developing niche in this field, driven by their known catabolic versatility with lignocellulose‐derived carbohydrates. Fundamental to the success of this work has been the development of reliable genetic and molecular systems. These technical tools are now available to assist in the development of other (hyper)thermophilic strains with diverse phenotypes such as hemicellulolytic and cellulolytic properties, branched chain alcohol production and other ‘valuable bioproduct’ synthetic capabilities. Here we present an insight into the historical limitations, recent developments and current status of a number of genetic systems for thermophiles. We also highlight the value of reliable genetic methods for increasing our knowledge of thermophile physiology. We argue that the development of robust genetic systems is paramount in the evolution of future thermophilic based bioprocesses and make suggestions for future approaches and genetic targets that will facilitate this process. PMID:21310009

  2. Microthrix parvicella and Gordona amarae in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems.

    PubMed

    Marneri, Matina; Mamais, Daniel; Koutsiouki, Efi

    2009-04-14

    The scope of the study presented in this paper is to determine the fate of the filamentous bacteria Gordona amarae and Microthrix parvicella in anaerobic digestion operating under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. In order to detect and quantify foaming bacteria in the anaerobic digesters, a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method was developed and applied. This paper presents the results of a laboratory-scale study that involved the operation of four lab-scale anaerobic digestion systems operating in the mesophilic (35 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) temperature ranges at 20 days' detention time. According to the FISH counts of G. amarae and M. parvicella, it appears that thermophilic conditions resulted in a higher destruction of both filamentous bacteria, averaging approximately 97% and 94% for the single thermophilic digester and the dual thermophilic/mesophilic system, respectively. Within the context of this study, the overall performance of the four different anaerobic digestion systems was evaluated in terms of biogas production per mass of volatile solids destroyed, COD destruction, sludge dewaterability and foaming characteristics. The dual stage systems used in this study outperformed the single stage digesters. PMID:19507434

  3. CO Metabolism in the Thermophilic Acetogen Thermoanaerobacter kivui.

    PubMed

    Weghoff, Marie Charlotte; Müller, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The thermophilic acetogenic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter kivui, previously described not to use carbon monoxide as a carbon and energy source, was adapted to grow on CO. This was achieved by using a preculture grown on H2 plus CO2 and by increasing the CO concentration in small, 10% increments.T. kivui was finally able to grow within a 100% CO atmosphere. Growth on CO was found in complex and mineral media, and vitamins were not required. Carbon monoxide consumption was accompanied by acetate and hydrogen production. Cells also grew on synthesis gas (syngas) with the simultaneous use of CO and H2 coupled to acetate production. CO oxidation in resting cells was coupled to hydrogen and acetate production and accompanied by the synthesis of ATP. A protonophore abolished ATP synthesis but stimulated H2 production, which is consistent with a chemiosmotic mechanism of ATP synthesis. Hydrogenase activity was highest in crude extracts of CO-grown cells, and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) activity was highest in H2-plus-CO2- or CO-grown cells. The genome of T. kivui harbors two CODH gene clusters, and both CODH proteins were present in crude extracts, but one CODH was more prevalent in crude extracts from CO-grown cells. PMID:26850300

  4. Role of Polyphosphate in Thermophilic Synechococcus sp. from Microbial Mats

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Fariba; Grote, Alexandra; Grossman, Arthur R.; Bhaya, Devaki

    2013-01-01

    Synechococcus OS-B′, a thermophilic unicellular cyanobacterium, recently isolated from the microbial mats in Octopus Spring (Yellowstone National Park), induces a suite of genes, including phosphatases and transporters, in response to phosphorus (P) starvation. Here we describe two different approaches to examine the ability of Synechococcus OS-B′ to synthesize and break down polyphosphate (poly P), a key storage compound in many prokaryotes. First, we developed a transformation protocol to create mutants in the polyphosphate kinase (ppk), the major enzyme responsible for the synthesis of poly P. The ppk mutant exhibited a pleiotropic phenotype with defects in poly P accumulation, aberrant levels of Pho regulon transcripts, growth defects, and changes in cell size and exopolysaccharide levels, among others. Second, we measured transcripts of ppk and ppx (encoding the polyphosphatase) directly from mat samples and found that the levels varied dramatically over a diel cycle. We also used Western blot analysis to quantify levels of PPK and PPX and found that these enzymes differentially accumulated during the diel cycle. Levels of polyphosphate kinase peaked at night, while polyphosphatase levels were highest during the early morning hours. We hypothesize that the opposing activities of these two enzymes allow cells to store and utilize poly P to optimize growth over a diel cycle. PMID:23687278

  5. Kinetics of inactivation of indicator pathogens during thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Popat, Sudeep C; Yates, Marylynn V; Deshusses, Marc A

    2010-12-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic sludge digestion is a promising process to divert waste to beneficial use, but an important question is the required temperature and holding time to achieve a given degree of pathogen inactivation. In this study, the kinetics of inactivation of Ascaris suum and vaccine strain poliovirus type 1 (PVS-1), selected as indicators for helminth ova and enteric viruses respectively, were determined during anaerobic digestion at temperatures ranging from 51 to 56 °C. Inactivation of both indicator organisms was fast with greater than two log reductions achieved within 2 h for A. suum and three log reductions for PVS-1, suggesting that the current U.S. regulations are largely conservative. The first-order inactivation rate constants k followed Arrhenius relationship with activation energies of 105 and 39 KJ mol(-1) for A. suum and PVS-1, respectively indicating that A. suum was more sensitive to temperature. Although inactivation was fast, the presence of compounds in the sludge that are known to be protective of pathogen inactivation was observed, suggesting that composition-dependent time-temperature relationships are necessary. PMID:20692678

  6. Biogeography of thermophilic phototrophic bacteria belonging to Roseiflexus genus.

    PubMed

    Gaisin, Vasil A; Grouzdev, Denis S; Namsaraev, Zorigto B; Sukhacheva, Marina V; Gorlenko, Vladimir M; Kuznetsov, Boris B

    2016-03-01

    Isolated environments such as hot springs are particularly interesting for studying the microbial biogeography. These environments create an 'island effect' leading to genetic divergence. We studied the phylogeographic pattern of thermophilic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, belonging to the Roseiflexus genus. The main characteristic of the observed pattern was geographic and geochronologic fidelity to the hot springs within Circum-Pacific and Alpine-Himalayan-Indonesian orogenic belts. Mantel test revealed a correlation between genetic divergence and geographic distance among the phylotypes. Cluster analysis revealed a regional differentiation of the global phylogenetic pattern. The phylogeographic pattern is in correlation with geochronologic events during the break up of Pangaea that led to the modern configuration of continents. To our knowledge this is the first geochronological scenario of intercontinental prokaryotic taxon divergence. The existence of the modern phylogeographic pattern contradicts with the existence of the ancient evolutionary history of the Roseiflexus group proposed on the basis of its deep-branching phylogenetic position. These facts indicate that evolutionary rates in Roseiflexus varied over a wide range. PMID:26826142

  7. Isolation and characterization of novel thermophilic lipase-secreting bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Mohammed; Bagherinejad, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Hamid MirMohammad; Shariat, Ziaedin Samsam; Etemadifar, Zahra; Moazen, Fatemeh; Rahbari, Manizheh; Mafakher, Ladan; Zaghian, Saeideh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to screen and identify the lipase-producing microorganisms from various regions of Iran. Samples collected from hot spring, Persian Gulf, desert area and oil-contaminated soil, were analyzed for thermophilic extracellular-lipase producing organisms. Six strains with high activity on rhodamine B plates were selected for chemical identification and further study. Among these isolated bacteria, four strains show higher activity in pH-Stat method at 55 °C. These strains were identified by PCR amplification of 16s rRNA genes using universal primers. Fermentation increased the activity up to 50%. The growth medium, designed for lipase production, increased the activity up to 4.55 folds. The crude supernatant of ZR-5 after fermentation and separation the cells, was lyophilized and the activity was measured. Total activity of this strain was 12 kU/g that shows its potential for industrial uses. Further study is required for purification of enzyme and calculation its specific activity. Immobilization is another approach should be considered. PMID:24688500

  8. Isolation and characterization of novel thermophilic lipase-secreting bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Mohammed; Bagherinejad, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Hamid MirMohammad; Shariat, Ziaedin Samsam; Etemadifar, Zahra; Moazen, Fatemeh; Rahbari, Manizheh; Mafakher, Ladan; Zaghian, Saeideh

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to screen and identify the lipase-producing microorganisms from various regions of Iran. Samples collected from hot spring, Persian Gulf, desert area and oil-contaminated soil, were analyzed for thermophilic extracellular-lipase producing organisms. Six strains with high activity on rhodamine B plates were selected for chemical identification and further study. Among these isolated bacteria, four strains show higher activity in pH-Stat method at 55 °C. These strains were identified by PCR amplification of 16s rRNA genes using universal primers. Fermentation increased the activity up to 50%. The growth medium, designed for lipase production, increased the activity up to 4.55 folds. The crude supernatant of ZR-5 after fermentation and separation the cells, was lyophilized and the activity was measured. Total activity of this strain was 12 kU/g that shows its potential for industrial uses. Further study is required for purification of enzyme and calculation its specific activity. Immobilization is another approach should be considered. PMID:24688500

  9. Allosteric regulation in phosphofructokinase from the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    McGresham, Maria S; Lovingshimer, Michelle; Reinhart, Gregory D

    2014-01-14

    An investigation into the kinetics and regulatory properties of the type-1 phosphofructokinase (PFK) from the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus (TtPFK) reveals an enzyme that is inhibited by PEP and activated by ADP by modifying the affinity exhibited for the substrate fructose 6-phosphate (Fru-6-P) in a manner analogous to other prokaryotic PFKs. However, TtPFK binds both of these allosteric ligands significantly more tightly than other bacterial PFKs while effecting a substantially more modest extent of inhibition or activation at 25 °C, reinforcing the principle that binding affinity and effectiveness can be both independent and uncorrelated to one another. These properties have allowed us to establish rigorously that PEP only inhibits by antagonizing the binding of Fru-6-P and not by influencing turnover, a conclusion that requires kcat to be determined under conditions in which both inhibitor and substrate are saturating simultaneously. In addition, the temperature dependence of the allosteric effects on Fru-6-P binding indicate that the coupling free energies are entropy-dominated, as observed previously for PFK from Bacillus stearothermophilus but not for PFK from Escherichia coli , supporting the hypothesis that entropy-dominated allosteric effects may be a characteristic of enzymes derived from thermostable organisms. For such enzymes, the root cause of the allosteric effect may not be easily discerned from static structural information such as that obtained from X-ray crystallography. PMID:24328040

  10. Hydrogenomics of the Extremely Thermophilic Bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    van de Werken, Harmen J. G.; Verhaart, Marcel R. A.; VanFossen, Amy L.; Willquist, Karin; Lewis, Derrick L.; Nichols, Jason D.; Goorissen, Heleen P.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Nelson, Karen E.; van Niel, Ed W. J.; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Ward, Donald E.; de Vos, Willem M.; van der Oost, John; Kelly, Robert M.; Kengen, Servé W. M.

    2008-01-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus is an extremely thermophilic, gram-positive anaerobe which ferments cellulose-, hemicellulose- and pectin-containing biomass to acetate, CO2, and hydrogen. Its broad substrate range, high hydrogen-producing capacity, and ability to coutilize glucose and xylose make this bacterium an attractive candidate for microbial bioenergy production. Here, the complete genome sequence of C. saccharolyticus, consisting of a 2,970,275-bp circular chromosome encoding 2,679 predicted proteins, is described. Analysis of the genome revealed that C. saccharolyticus has an extensive polysaccharide-hydrolyzing capacity for cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, and starch, coupled to a large number of ABC transporters for monomeric and oligomeric sugar uptake. The components of the Embden-Meyerhof and nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathways are all present; however, there is no evidence that an Entner-Doudoroff pathway is present. Catabolic pathways for a range of sugars, including rhamnose, fucose, arabinose, glucuronate, fructose, and galactose, were identified. These pathways lead to the production of NADH and reduced ferredoxin. NADH and reduced ferredoxin are subsequently used by two distinct hydrogenases to generate hydrogen. Whole-genome transcriptome analysis revealed that there is significant upregulation of the glycolytic pathway and an ABC-type sugar transporter during growth on glucose and xylose, indicating that C. saccharolyticus coferments these sugars unimpeded by glucose-based catabolite repression. The capacity to simultaneously process and utilize a range of carbohydrates associated with biomass feedstocks is a highly desirable feature of this lignocellulose-utilizing, biofuel-producing bacterium. PMID:18776029

  11. Continuous culture of Methanococcus jannaschii, an extremely thermophilic methanogen

    SciTech Connect

    Jiahuey Tsao; Kaneshiro, S.M.; Shusan Yu; Clark, D.S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-02-05

    Methanococcus jannaschii, an extremely thermophilic methanogen isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent was grown at 80 C in continuous culture on a mineral salts medium gassed with H[sub 2] and CO[sub 2] at three different flow rates. The maximum specific growth rate was 0.56 h[sup [minus]1], and the maximum specific methane productivity was 0.32 (mol g[sup [minus]1] h[sup [minus]1]). Uncoupling of growth and methane production was evidenced by an increase in the non-growth-associated rate of methane formation, [Beta], with increasing gaseous input. The specific hydrogenase activity exhibited growth-associated behavior at low growth rates, but showed no dependence on growth at higher growth rates. The growth dependence of hydrogenase activity is consistent with the pressure dependence of hydrogenase activity measured in previous experiments. In contrast, the specific protease activity was independent of the growth rate over the entire range of dilution rates studied.

  12. Roles of triosephosphate isomerase and aerobic metabolism in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    Helfert, S; Estévez, A M; Bakker, B; Michels, P; Clayton, C

    2001-01-01

    Kinetoplastid protozoa compartmentalize the first seven enzymes of glycolysis and two enzymes of glycerol metabolism in a microbody, the glycosome. While in its mammalian host, Trypanosoma brucei depends entirely on glucose for ATP generation. Under aerobic conditions, most of the glucose is metabolized to pyruvate. Aerobic metabolism depends on the activities of glycosomal triosephosphate isomerase and a mitochondrial glycerophosphate oxidase, and on glycerophosphate<-->dihydroxyacetone phosphate exchange across the glycosomal membrane. Using a combination of genetics and computer modelling, we show that triosephosphate isomerase is probably essential for bloodstream trypanosome survival, but not for the insect-dwelling procyclics, which preferentially use amino acids as an energy source. When the enzyme level decreased to about 15% of that of the wild-type, the growth rate was halved. Below this level, a lethal rise in dihydroxyacetone phosphate was predicted. Expression of cytosolic triosephosphate isomerase inhibited cell growth. Attempts to knockout the trypanosome alternative oxidase genes (which are needed for glycerophosphate oxidase activity) were unsuccessful, but when we lowered the level of the corresponding mRNA by expressing a homologous double-stranded RNA, oxygen consumption was reduced fourfold and the rate of trypanosome growth was halved. PMID:11415442

  13. Intrinsic aerobic capacity impacts susceptibility to acute high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Matthew Morris, E.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Johnson, Ginger C.; Liu, Tzu-Wen; Lopez, Jordan L.; Kearney, Monica L.; Fletcher, Justin A.; Meers, Grace M. E.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Stephen L.; Scott Rector, R.; Ibdah, Jamal A.; MacLean, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic capacity/fitness significantly impacts susceptibility for fatty liver and diabetes, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Herein, we utilized rats selectively bred for high (HCR) and low (LCR) intrinsic aerobic capacity to examine the mechanisms by which aerobic capacity impacts metabolic vulnerability for fatty liver following a 3-day high-fat diet (HFD). Indirect calorimetry assessment of energy metabolism combined with radiolabeled dietary food was employed to examine systemic metabolism in combination with ex vivo measurements of hepatic lipid oxidation. The LCR, but not HCR, displayed increased hepatic lipid accumulation in response to the HFD despite both groups increasing energy intake. However, LCR rats had a greater increase in energy intake and demonstrated greater daily weight gain and percent body fat due to HFD compared with HCR. Additionally, total energy expenditure was higher in the larger LCR. However, controlling for the difference in body weight, the LCR has lower resting energy expenditure compared with HCR. Importantly, respiratory quotient was significantly higher during the HFD in the LCR compared with HCR, suggesting reduced whole body lipid utilization in the LCR. This was confirmed by the observed lower whole body dietary fatty acid oxidation in LCR compared with HCR. Furthermore, LCR liver homogenate and isolated mitochondria showed lower complete fatty acid oxidation compared with HCR. We conclude that rats bred for low intrinsic aerobic capacity show greater susceptibility for dietary-induced hepatic steatosis, which is associated with a lower energy expenditure and reduced whole body and hepatic mitochondrial lipid oxidation. PMID:24961240

  14. Complete genome sequence of the aerobic, heterotroph Marinithermus hydrothermalis type strain (T1T) from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, A; Gu, Wei; Yasawong, Montri; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Deshpande, Shweta; Pagani, Ioanna; Tapia, Roxanne; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Pan, Chongle; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian; Sikorski, Johannes; Goker, Markus; Detter, J. Chris; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Marinithermus hydrothermalis Sako et al. 2003 is the type species of the monotypic genus Marinithermus. M. hydrothermalis T1 T was the first isolate within the phylum ThermusDeinococcus to exhibit optimal growth under a salinity equivalent to that of sea water and to have an absolute requirement for NaCl for growth. M. hydrothermalis T1 T is of interest because it may provide a new insight into the ecological significance of the aerobic, thermophilic decomposers in the circulation of organic compounds in deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Marinithermus and the seventh sequence from the family Thermaceae. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,269,167 bp long genome with its 2,251 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  15. Herbinix hemicellulosilytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic cellulose-degrading bacterium isolated from a thermophilic biogas reactor.

    PubMed

    Koeck, Daniela E; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Wanner, Gerhard; Zverlov, Vladimir V; Liebl, Wolfgang; Schwarz, Wolfgang H

    2015-08-01

    Phenotypic and phylogenetic studies were performed on new isolates of a novel Gram-stain-positive, anaerobic, non-sporulating, rod-shaped bacterium isolated from a thermophilic biogas plant. The novel organisms were able to degrade crystalline cellulose. 16S rRNA gene comparative sequence analysis demonstrated that the isolates formed a hitherto unknown subline within the family Lachnospiraceae. As a representative of the whole group of isolates, strain T3/55T was further characterized. The closest relative of T3/55T among the taxa with validly published names is Mobilitalea sibirica, sharing 93.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Strain T3/55T was catalase-negative, indole-negative, and produced acetate, ethanol and propionic acid as major end products from cellulose metabolism. The major cellular fatty acids (>1%) were 16 : 0 dimethyl acetal, 16 : 0 fatty acid methyl ester and 16 : 0 aldehyde. The DNA G+C content was 36.6 mol%. A novel genus and species, Herbinix hemicellulosilytica gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed based on phylogenetic analysis and physiological properties of the novel isolate. Strain T3/55T ( = DSM 29228T = CECT 8801T), represents the type strain of Herbinix hemicellulosilytica gen. nov., sp. nov. PMID:25872956

  16. Characteristics of Recombinant Phytase (rSt-Phy) of the Thermophilic mold Sporotrichum thermophile and its applicability in dephytinizing foods.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Bibhuti; Singh, Bijender; Satyanarayana, T

    2015-12-01

    Sporotrichum thermophile produces very low titres of phytase (St-Phy) extracellularly, which is acidstable, thermostable, and protease insensitive with broad substrate specificity, and therefore, the gene encoding phytase (St-Phy) has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified recombinant phytase (rSt-Phy) has the molecular mass of 55 kDa with Km and Vmax (calcium phytate), kcat and kcat/Km of 0.143 mM, 185.05 nmoles mg(-1)  s(-1), 5.1 × 10(3) s(-1), and 3.5 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Mg(2+) and Ba(2+) display slight stimulatory effect on the enzyme, while it is inhibited by other ions to a varied extent. The enzyme is also inhibited by chaotropic agents (guanidinium hydrochloride, potassium iodide, and urea), Woodward's reagent K, and 2,3-butanedione but resistant to both pepsin and trypsin. The rSt-Phy is useful in dephytinization of tandoori and naan (unleavened flat Indian breads), and bread, liberating soluble inorganic phosphate that mitigates anti-nutrient effects of phytic acid. PMID:26433599

  17. Comparison of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pulp: performance, dewaterability and foam control.

    PubMed

    Suhartini, Sri; Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    Digestion of sugar beet pulp was assessed in relation to biogas and methane production, foaming potential, and digestate dewaterability. Four 4-litre working volume digesters were operated mesophilically (37±0.5 °C) and four thermophilically (55±0.5 °C) over three hydraulic retention times. Digesters were operated in duplicate at organic loading rates (OLR) of 4 and 5 g volatile solids l(-1) day(-1) without water addition. Thermophilic digestion gave higher biogas and methane productivity than mesophilic and was able to operate at the higher OLR, where mesophilic digestion showed signs of instability. Digestate dewaterability was assessed using capillary suction time and frozen image centrifugation. The occurrence of, or potential for, stable foam formation was assessed using a foaming potential test. Thermophilic operation allowed higher loadings to be applied without loss of performance, and gave a digestate with superior dewatering characteristics and very little foaming potential. PMID:24291796

  18. Anaerobic digestion of mixed microalgae cultivated in secondary effluent under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Cea-Barcia, Glenda; Moreno, Gloria; Buitrón, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of mixed indigenous microalgae, grown in a secondary effluent, was evaluated in batch tests at mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (50°C) conditions. Under mesophilic conditions, specific methane production varied from 178 to 207 mL CH4/g volatile solids (VS) and the maximum production rate varied from 8.8 to 26.1 mL CH4/(gVS day), depending on the type of microalgae culture. Lower methane parameters were observed in those cultures where Scenedesmus represents more than 95% of the microalge. The culture with the lowest digestion performances under mesophilic conditions was studied under thermophilic conditions. The increase in the incubation temperature significantly increased the specific methane production (390 mL CH4/g VS) and rate (26.0 mL CH4/(gVS day)). However, under thermophilic conditions a lag period of 30 days was observed. PMID:26465311

  19. Comparison of multi-enzyme and thermophilic bacteria on the hydrolysis of mariculture organic waste (MOW).

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Sun, Mei; Zong, Yan; Zhao, Yangguo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian

    2016-01-01

    Mariculture organic waste (MOW) is rich in organic matter, which is a potential energy resource for anaerobic digestion. In order to enhance the anaerobic fermentation, the MOW was hydrolyzed by multi-enzyme and thermophilic bacteria. It was advantageous for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) release at MOW concentrations of 6 and 10 g/L with multi-enzyme and thermophilic bacteria pretreatments. For multi-enzyme, the hydrolysis was not obvious at substrate concentrations of 1 and 3 g/L, and the protein and carbohydrate increased with hydrolysis time at substrate concentrations of 6 and 10 g/L. For thermophilic bacteria, the carbohydrate was first released at 2-4 h and then consumed, and the protein increased with hydrolysis time. The optimal enzyme hydrolysis for MOW was determined by measuring the changes of SCOD, protein, carbohydrate, ammonia and total phosphorus, and comparing with acid and alkaline pretreatments. PMID:27120653

  20. Hexokinase-2-mediated aerobic glycolysis is integral to cerebellar neurogenesis and pathogenesis of medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While aerobic glycolysis is linked to unconstrained proliferation in cancer, less is known about its physiological role. Why this metabolic program that promotes tumor growth is preserved in the genome has thus been unresolved. We tested the hypothesis that aerobic glycolysis derives from developmental processes that regulate rapid proliferation. Methods We performed an integrated analysis of metabolism and gene expression in cerebellar granule neuron progenitors (CGNPs) with and without Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), their endogenous mitogen. Because our analysis highlighted Hexokinase-2 (Hk2) as a key metabolic regulator induced by Shh, we studied the effect of conditional genetic Hk2 deletion in CGNP development. We then crossed Hk2 conditional knockout mice with transgenic SmoM2 mice that develop spontaneous medulloblastoma and determined changes in SmoM2-driven tumorigenesis. Results We show that Shh and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling combine to induce an Hk2-dependent glycolytic phenotype in CGNPs. This phenotype is recapitulated in medulloblastoma, a malignant tumor of CGNP origin. Importantly, cre-mediated ablation of Hk2 abrogated aerobic glycolysis, disrupting CGNP development and Smoothened-induced tumorigenesis. Comparing tumorigenesis in medulloblastoma-prone SmoM2 mice with and without functional Hk2, we demonstrate that loss of aerobic glycolysis reduces the aggressiveness of medulloblastoma, causing tumors to grow as indolent lesions and allowing long-term survival of tumor bearing mice. Conclusions Our investigations demonstrate that aerobic glycolysis in cancer derives from developmental mechanisms that persist in tumorigenesis. Moreover, we demonstrate in a primary tumor model the anti-cancer potential of blocking aerobic glycolysis by targeting Hk2. See commentary article:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/11/3 PMID:24280485

  1. [Research advances in denitrogenation characteristics of aerobic denitrifiers].

    PubMed

    Liang, Shu-Cheng; Zhao, Min; Lu, Lei; Zhao, Li-Yan

    2010-06-01

    The discovery of aerobic denitrifiers is the enrichment and breakthrough of traditional denitrification theory. Owing to their unique superiority in denitrogenation, aerobic denitrifiers have become a hotspot in the study of bio-denitrogenation of waste water. Under aerobic conditions, the aerobic denitrifiers can utilize organic carbon sources for their growth, and produce N2 from nitrate and nitrite. Most of the denitrifiers can also proceed with heterotrophic nitrification simultaneously, transforming NH4(+)-N to gaseous nitrogen. In this paper, the denitrogenation characteristics and action mechanisms of some isolated aerobic denitrifiers were discussed from the aspects of electron theory and denitrifying enzyme system. The effects of the environmental factors DO, carbon sources, and C/N on the denitrogenation process of aerobic denitrifiers were analyzed, and the screening methods as well as the present and potential applications of aerobic denitrifiers in wastewater treatment were described and discussed. PMID:20873638

  2. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth

  3. Biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community in mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion processes.

    PubMed

    Yu, D; Kurola, J M; Lähde, K; Kymäläinen, M; Sinkkonen, A; Romantschuk, M

    2014-10-01

    Over 258 Mt of solid waste are generated annually in Europe, a large fraction of which is biowaste. Sewage sludge is another major waste fraction. In this study, biowaste and sewage sludge were co-digested in an anaerobic digestion reactor (30% and 70% of total wet weight, respectively). The purpose was to investigate the biogas production and methanogenic archaeal community composition in the anaerobic digestion reactor under meso- (35-37 °C) and thermophilic (55-57 °C) processes and an increasing organic loading rate (OLR, 1-10 kg VS m(-3) d(-1)), and also to find a feasible compromise between waste treatment capacity and biogas production without causing process instability. In summary, more biogas was produced with all OLRs by the thermophilic process. Both processes showed a limited diversity of the methanogenic archaeal community which was dominated by Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (e.g. Methanosarcina) in both meso- and thermophilic processes. Methanothermobacter was detected as an additional dominant genus in the thermophilic process. In addition to operating temperatures, the OLRs, the acetate concentration, and the presence of key substrates like propionate also affected the methanogenic archaeal community composition. A bacterial cell count 6.25 times higher than archaeal cell count was observed throughout the thermophilic process, while the cell count ratio varied between 0.2 and 8.5 in the mesophilic process. This suggests that the thermophilic process is more stable, but also that the relative abundance between bacteria and archaea can vary without seriously affecting biogas production. PMID:24837280

  4. Efficient production of a thermophilic 2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate aldolase in glucose-limited fed-batch cultivations of Escherichia coli by continuous lactose induction strategy.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xiao-Lin; Wang, Qiu-Yan; Li, Cheng-Lu; Qiu, Xiao-Feng; Xie, Kai-Lin; Huang, Li-Feng; Wang, An-Ming; Zeng, Zhao-Wu; Xie, Tian

    2011-09-01

    The production of a thermophilic 2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate aldolases (DERA) in Escherichia coli BL21 under continuous lactose induction strategy was investigated. The process was combined with the exponential feeding method, controlling the feeding rate to maintain the specific growth rate at 0.15 h(-1). The results indicate that the lactose concentration in the feed medium affected directly the expression of the target protein. The use of 50 g/L in the feed medium resulted in the biomass concentration of 39.3 g DCW/L, and an expression level of above 30%, and the maximum final DERA concentration of 16,200 U/L. Furthermore, the acetate concentration remained at a low level in the fed-batch phase, less than 0.5 g/L. In conclusion, combining glucose feeding with lactose induction is a more powerful way to achieve high cell density cultures and to efficiently produce the thermophilic DERA. The results also indicate the potential industrial utility in the scale production of other recombinant proteins. PMID:21509600

  5. Recombinant thermoactive phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from Thermosynechococcus elongatus and its coupling with mesophilic/thermophilic bacterial carbonic anhydrases (CAs) for the conversion of CO2 to oxaloacetate.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Sonia; De Luca, Viviana; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T; Carginale, Vincenzo

    2016-01-15

    With the continuous increase of atmospheric CO2 in the last decades, efficient methods for carbon capture, sequestration, and utilization are urgently required. The possibility of converting CO2 into useful chemicals could be a good strategy to both decreasing the CO2 concentration and for achieving an efficient exploitation of this cheap carbon source. Recently, several single- and multi-enzyme systems for the catalytic conversion of CO2 mainly to bicarbonate have been implemented. In order to design and construct a catalytic system for the conversion of CO2 to organic molecules, we implemented an in vitro multienzyme system using mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. The system, in fact, was constituted by a recombinant phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus, in combination with mesophilic/thermophilic bacterial carbonic anhydrases (CAs), for converting CO2 into oxaloacetate, a compound of potential utility in industrial processes. The catalytic procedure is in two steps: the conversion of CO2 into bicarbonate by CA, followed by the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate with bicarbonate, catalyzed by PEPC, with formation of oxaloacetate (OAA). All tested CAs, belonging to α-, β-, and γ-CA classes, were able to increase OAA production compared to procedures when only PEPC was used. Interestingly, the efficiency of the CAs tested in OAA production was in good agreement with the kinetic parameters for the CO2 hydration reaction of these enzymes. This PEPC also revealed to be thermoactive and thermostable, and when coupled with the extremely thermostable CA from Sulphurhydrogenibium azorense (SazCA) the production of OAA was achieved even if the two enzymes were exposed to temperatures up to 60 °C, suggesting a possible role of the two coupled enzymes in biotechnological processes. PMID:26712095

  6. Oligo-1,6-glucosidase from a thermophile, Bacillus thermoglucosidasius KP1006, was efficiently produced by combinatorial expression of GroEL in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kunihiko; Fujiwara, Hisashi; Inui, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2002-02-01

    To improve the production of oligo-1,6-glucosidase from the obligately thermophilic Bacillus thermoglucosidasius KP1006 in Escherichia coli, the combined expression of oligo-1,6-glucosidase with various chaperone proteins of Hsp (heat-shock protein) 60 team proteins (GroES and GroEL) or Hsp70 team proteins (GrpE, DnaK and DnaJ) from the same thermophile was examined. This attempt was based on the facts that, (i) among glycosyl hydrolases of Family 13, bacillary oligo-1,6-glucosidases share highest homology with yeast alpha-glucosidase, and (ii) this yeast enzyme interacts with GroEL. In B. thermoglucosidasius Hsp60 team proteins, in particular, GroEL brought about a remarkable rise in expression of B. thermoglucosidasius oligo-1,6-glucosidase, while Hsp70 team proteins had no significant effect. The effect of B. thermoglucosidasius GroEL on oligo-1,6-glucosidase expression was supported by the finding that thermally inactivated B. thermoglucosidasius oligo-1,6-glucosidase was revived by B. thermoglucosidasius GroEL. Although the molecular mass of B. thermoglucosidasius oligo-1,6-glucosidase (66 kDa) exceeds the major range of substrates for GroEL proteins, the GroEL molecules probably recognized the alpha/beta motifs contained in the N-terminal domain and the subdomain of the oligo-1,6-glucosidase. Here we show that (i) the production of B. thermoglucosidasius oligo-1,6-glucosidase in E. coli was improved 3.8-fold by Hsp60 team proteins, (ii) the system can function for the expression of other glycosyl hydrolases of Family 13 that have defects in expression and (iii) the combinatorial expression of thermostable proteins with GroEL from the same thermophile in E. coli can increase the production of thermostable enzymes, preventing problems derived from differences in protein biogenesis. PMID:11834128

  7. Isolation and characterization of a fast-growing, thermophilic Methanobacterium species

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, H.; Boone, D.R.; Mah, R.A.

    1986-11-01

    A thermophilic, autotrophic methanogen (strain CB12, DSM 3664) was isolated from a mesophilic biogas digestor. This bacterium used H/sub 2/-CO/sub 2/ or formate as a substrate and grew as short rods, sometimes in pairs and in crooked filaments. Motility was not observed. Its optimum temperature (56/sup 0/C) was lower than that of other thermophilic members of the genus Methanobacterium. The maximum observed specific growth rate was 0.564 h/sup -1/ (74-min doubling time).

  8. Chromosome map of the thermophilic archaebacterium Thermococcus celer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, K. M.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1989-01-01

    A physical map for the chromosome of the thermophilic archaebacterium Thermococcus celer Vu13 has been constructed. Thirty-four restriction endonucleases were tested for their ability to generate large restriction fragments from the chromosome of T. celer. Of these, the enzymes NheI, SpeI, and XbaI yielded the fewest fragments when analyzed by pulsed-field electrophoresis. NheI and SpeI each gave 5 fragments, while XbaI gave 12. The size of the T. celer chromosome was determined from the sum of the apparent sizes of restriction fragments derived from single and double digests by using these enzymes and was found to be 1,890 +/- 27 kilobase pairs. Partial and complete digests allowed the order of all but three small (less than 15 kilobase pairs) fragments to be deduced. These three fragments were assigned positions by using hybridization probes derived from these restriction fragments. The positions of the other fragments were confirmed by using hybridization probes derived in the same manner. The positions of the 5S, 16S, and 23S rRNA genes as well as the 7S RNA gene were located on this map by using cloned portions of these genes as hybridization probes. The 5S rRNA gene was localized 48 to 196 kilobases from the 5' end of the 16S gene. The 7S RNA gene was localized 190 to 504 kilobases from the 3' end of the 23S gene. These analyses demonstrated that the chromosome of T. celer is a single, circular DNA molecule. This is the first such demonstration of the structure of an archaebacterial chromosome.

  9. Kinetics of thermophilic anaerobes in fixed-bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Perez, M; Romero, L I; Sales, D

    2001-08-01

    The main objective of this study is to estimate growth kinetic constants and the concentration of "active" attached biomass in two anaerobic thermophilic reactors which contain different initial sizes of immobilized anaerobic mixed cultures and decompose distillery wastewater. This paper studies the substrate decomposition in two lab-scale fixed-bed reactors operating at batch conditions with corrugated tubes as support media. It can be demonstrated that high micro-organisms-substrate ratios favor the degradation activity of the different anaerobic cultures, allowing the stable operation without lag-phases and giving better quality in effluent. The kinetic parameters obtained--maximum specific growth rates (mu(max)), non-biodegradable substrate (S(NB)) and "active or viable biomass" concentrations (X(V0))--were obtained by applying the Romero kinetic model [L.I. Romero, 1991. Desarrollo de un modelo matemático general para los procesos fermentativos, Cinética de la degradación anaerobia, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cádiz (Spain), Serv. Pub. Univ. Cádiz], with COD as substrate and methane (CH4) as the main product of the anaerobic process. This method is suitable to calculate and to differentiate the main kinetic parameters of both the total anaerobic mixed culture and the methanogenic population. Comparison of experimental measured concentration of volatile attached solids (VS(att)) in both reactors with the estimated "active" biomass concentrations obtained by applying Romero kinetic model [L.I. Romero, 1991. Desarrollo de un modelo matemático general para los procesos fermentativos, Cinética de la degradación anaerobia, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cádiz (Spain), Serv. Pub. Univ. Cádiz] shows that a large amount of inert matter is present in the fixed-bed reactor. PMID:11513409

  10. Experimental evolution of a facultative thermophile from a mesophilic ancestor.

    PubMed

    Blaby, Ian K; Lyons, Benjamin J; Wroclawska-Hughes, Ewa; Phillips, Grier C F; Pyle, Tyler P; Chamberlin, Stephen G; Benner, Steven A; Lyons, Thomas J; Crécy-Lagard, Valérie de; Crécy, Eudes de

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evolution via continuous culture is a powerful approach to the alteration of complex phenotypes, such as optimal/maximal growth temperatures. The benefit of this approach is that phenotypic selection is tied to growth rate, allowing the production of optimized strains. Herein, we demonstrate the use of a recently described long-term culture apparatus called the Evolugator for the generation of a thermophilic descendant from a mesophilic ancestor (Escherichia coli MG1655). In addition, we used whole-genome sequencing of sequentially isolated strains throughout the thermal adaptation process to characterize the evolutionary history of the resultant genotype, identifying 31 genetic alterations that may contribute to thermotolerance, although some of these mutations may be adaptive for off-target environmental parameters, such as rich medium. We undertook preliminary phenotypic analysis of mutations identified in the glpF and fabA genes. Deletion of glpF in a mesophilic wild-type background conferred significantly improved growth rates in the 43-to-48°C temperature range and altered optimal growth temperature from 37°C to 43°C. In addition, transforming our evolved thermotolerant strain (EVG1064) with a wild-type allele of glpF reduced fitness at high temperatures. On the other hand, the mutation in fabA predictably increased the degree of saturation in membrane lipids, which is a known adaptation to elevated temperature. However, transforming EVG1064 with a wild-type fabA allele had only modest effects on fitness at intermediate temperatures. The Evolugator is fully automated and demonstrates the potential to accelerate the selection for complex traits by experimental evolution and significantly decrease development time for new industrial strains. PMID:22020511

  11. Characterization of Thermophilic Consortia from Two Souring Oil Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, R. F.; Nielsen, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    The microbial consortia from produced water at two different oil fields in Alaska (Kuparuk) and the North Sea (Ninian) were investigated for sulfate-reducing and methanogenic activity over a range of temperatures and for a variety of substrates. The consortia were sampled on site, and samples were either incubated on site at 60(deg)C with various substrates or frozen for later incubation and analyses. Temperature influenced the rates of sulfate reduction, hydrogen sulfide production, and substrate oxidation, as well as the cell morphology. The highest rates of sulfate reduction and substrate oxidation were found between 50 and 60(deg)C. Formate and n-butyrate were the most favorable electron donors at any tested temperature. Acetate was utilized at 35(deg)C but not at 50 or 70(deg)C and was produced at 60(deg)C. This indicates that the high levels of acetate found in produced water from souring oil formations are due mainly to an incomplete oxidation of volatile fatty acids to acetate. The cell size distribution of the microbial consortium indicated a nonuniform microbial composition in the original sample from the Kuparuk field. At different temperatures, different microbial morphologies and physiologies were observed. Methane-producing activity at thermophilic temperatures (60(deg)C) was found only for the Kuparuk consortium when hydrogen and carbon dioxide were present. No methane production from acetate was observed. Suppression of methanogenic activity in the presence of sulfate indicated a competition with sulfate-reducing bacteria for hydrogen. PMID:16535394

  12. Geobacillus sp., a thermophilic soil bacterium producing volatile antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yuhao; Strobel, Gary; Sears, Joe; Park, Melina

    2010-07-01

    Geobacillus, a bacterial genus, is represented by over 25 species of Gram-positive isolates from various man-made and natural thermophilic areas around the world. An isolate of this genus (M-7) has been acquired from a thermal area near Yellowstone National Park, MT and partially characterized. The cells of this organism are globose (ca. 0.5 mu diameter), and they are covered in a matrix capsule which gives rise to elongate multicelled bacilliform structures (ranging from 3 to 12 mum) as seen by light and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The organism produces unique petal-shaped colonies (undulating margins) on nutrient agar, and it has an optimum pH of 7.0 and an optimum temperature range of 55-65 degrees C. The partial 16S rRNA sequence of this organism has 97% similarity with Geobacillus stearothermophilus, one of its closest relatives genetically. However, uniquely among all members of this genus, Geobacillus sp. (M-7) produces volatile organic substances (VOCs) that possess potent antibiotic activities. Some of the more notable components of the VOCs are benzaldehyde, acetic acid, butanal, 3-methyl-butanoic acid, 2-methyl-butanoic acid, propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, and benzeneacetaldehyde. An exposure of test organisms such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae, and Geotrichum candidum produced total inhibition of growth on a 48-h exposure to Geobacillus sp.(M-7) cells (ca.10(7)) and killing at a 72-h exposure at higher bacterial cell concentrations. A synthetic mixture of those available volatile compounds, at the ratios occurring in Geobacillus sp. (M-7), mimicked the bioactivity of this organism. PMID:20091406

  13. A RAPD based study revealing a previously unreported wide range of mesophilic and thermophilic spore formers associated with milk powders in China.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Faizan A; Li, Yun; Liu, TongJie; Flint, Steve; Zhang, Guohua; He, GuoQing

    2016-01-18

    Aerobic spore forming bacteria are potential milk powder contaminants and are viewed as indicators of poor quality. A total of 738 bacteria, including both mesophilic and thermophilic, isolated from twenty-five powdered milk samples representative of three types of milk powders in China were analyzed based on the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) protocol to provide insight into species diversity. Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent bacterium with greatest diversity (~43% of the total isolates) followed by Geobacillus stearothermophilus (~21% of the total isolates). Anoxybacillus flavithermus represented only 8.5% of the total profiles. Interestingly, actinomycetes represented a major group of the isolates with the predominance of Laceyella sacchari followed by Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, altogether comprising of 7.3% of the total isolates. Out of the nineteen separate bacterial species (except five unidentified groups) recovered and identified from milk powders, twelve proved to belong to novel or previously unreported species in milk powders. Assessment and characterization of the harmful effects caused by this particular micro-flora on the quality and safety of milk powders will be worth doing in the future. PMID:26555161

  14. Targeting aerobic glycolysis: 3-bromopyruvate as a promising anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Cardaci, Simone; Desideri, Enrico; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2012-02-01

    The Warburg effect refers to the phenomenon whereby cancer cells avidly take up glucose and produce lactic acid under aerobic conditions. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor reliance on glycolysis remains not completely clear, its inhibition opens feasible therapeutic windows for cancer treatment. Indeed, several small molecules have emerged by combinatorial studies exhibiting promising anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo, as a single agent or in combination with other therapeutic modalities. Therefore, besides reviewing the alterations of glycolysis that occur with malignant transformation, this manuscript aims at recapitulating the most effective pharmacological therapeutics of its targeting. In particular, we describe the principal mechanisms of action and the main targets of 3-bromopyruvate, an alkylating agent with impressive antitumor effects in several models of animal tumors. Moreover, we discuss the chemo-potentiating strategies that would make unparalleled the putative therapeutic efficacy of its use in clinical settings. PMID:22328057

  15. Aerobic workout and bone mass in females.

    PubMed

    Alfredson, H; Nordström, P; Lorentzon, R

    1997-12-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate bone mass in females participating in aerobic workout. Twenty-three females (age 24.1 +/- 2.7 years), participating in aerobic workout for about 3 hours/week, were compared with 23 age-, weight- and height-matched non-active females. Areal bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in total body, head, whole dominant humerus, lumbar spine, right femoral neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter femoris, in specific sites in right femur diaphysis, distal femur, proximal tibia and tibial diaphysis, and bone mineral content (BMC) was measured in the whole dominant arm and right leg, using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The aerobic workout group had significantly (P < 0.05-0.01) higher BMD in total body (3.7%), lumbar spine (7.8%), femoral neck (11.6%), Ward's triangle (11.7%), trochanter femoris (9.6%), proximal tibia (6.8%) and tibia diaphysis (5.9%) compared to the non-active controls. There were no differences between the groups concerning BMD of the whole dominant humerus, femoral diaphysis, distal femur and BMC and lean mass of the whole dominant arm and right leg. Leaness of the whole dominant arm and leg was correlated to BMC of the whole dominant arm and right leg in both groups. In young females, aerobic workout containing alternating high and low impact movements for the lower body is associated with a higher bone mass in clinically important sites like the lumbar spine and hip, but muscle strengthening exercises like push-ups and soft-glove boxing are not associated with a higher bone mass in the dominant humerus. It appears that there is a skeletal adaptation to the loads of the activity. PMID:9458499

  16. Active sulfur cycling by diverse mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms in terrestrial mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Green-Saxena, A; Feyzullayev, A; Hubert, C R J; Kallmeyer, J; Krueger, M; Sauer, P; Schulz, H-M; Orphan, V J

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial mud volcanoes (TMVs) represent geochemically diverse habitats with varying sulfur sources and yet sulfur cycling in these environments remains largely unexplored. Here we characterized the sulfur-metabolizing microorganisms and activity in four TMVs in Azerbaijan. A combination of geochemical analyses, biological rate measurements and molecular diversity surveys (targeting metabolic genes aprA and dsrA and SSU ribosomal RNA) supported the presence of active sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing guilds in all four TMVs across a range of physiochemical conditions, with diversity of these guilds being unique to each TMV. The TMVs varied in potential sulfate reduction rates (SRR) by up to four orders of magnitude with highest SRR observed in sediments where in situ sulfate concentrations were highest. Maximum temperatures at which SRR were measured was 60°C in two TMVs. Corresponding with these trends in SRR, members of the potentially thermophilic, spore-forming, Desulfotomaculum were detected in these TMVs by targeted 16S rRNA analysis. Additional sulfate-reducing bacterial lineages included members of the Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae detected by aprA and dsrA analyses and likely contributing to the mesophilic SRR measured. Phylotypes affiliated with sulfide-oxidizing Gamma- and Betaproteobacteria were abundant in aprA libraries from low sulfate TMVs, while the highest sulfate TMV harboured 16S rRNA phylotypes associated with sulfur-oxidizing Epsilonproteobacteria. Altogether, the biogeochemical and microbiological data indicate these unique terrestrial habitats support diverse active sulfur-cycling microorganisms reflecting the in situ geochemical environment. PMID:23116231

  17. Nitrification and aerobic denitrification in anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Alzate Marin, Juan C; Caravelli, Alejandro H; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of achieving nitrogen (N) removal using a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) exposed to anoxic/aerobic (AN/OX) phases, focusing to achieve aerobic denitrification. This process will minimize emissions of N2O greenhouse gas. The effects of different operating parameters on the reactor performance were studied: cycle duration, AN/OX ratio, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC), and organic load. The highest inorganic N removal (NiR), close to 70%, was obtained at pH=7.5, low organic load (440mgCOD/(Lday)) and high aeration given by 12h cycle, AN/OX ratio=0.5:1.0 and DOC higher than 4.0mgO2/L. Nitrification followed by high-rate aerobic denitrification took place during the aerobic phase. Aerobic denitrification could be attributed to Tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs) with phenotype of glycogen accumulating organisms using polyhydroxyalkanoate and/or glycogen storage. The proposed AN/OX system constitutes an eco-friendly N removal process providing N2 as the end product. PMID:26512862

  18. Aerobic and two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion with pure oxygen and air aeration.

    PubMed

    Zupancic, Gregor D; Ros, Milenko

    2008-01-01

    The degradability of excess activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant was studied. The objective was establishing the degree of degradation using either air or pure oxygen at different temperatures. Sludge treated with pure oxygen was degraded at temperatures from 22 degrees C to 50 degrees C while samples treated with air were degraded between 32 degrees C and 65 degrees C. Using air, sludge is efficiently degraded at 37 degrees C and at 50-55 degrees C. With oxygen, sludge was most effectively degraded at 38 degrees C or at 25-30 degrees C. Two-stage anaerobic-aerobic processes were studied. The first anaerobic stage was always operated for 5 days HRT, and the second stage involved aeration with pure oxygen and an HRT between 5 and 10 days. Under these conditions, there is 53.5% VSS removal and 55.4% COD degradation at 15 days HRT - 5 days anaerobic, 10 days aerobic. Sludge digested with pure oxygen at 25 degrees C in a batch reactor converted 48% of sludge total Kjeldahl nitrogen to nitrate. Addition of an aerobic stage with pure oxygen aeration to the anaerobic digestion enhances ammonium nitrogen removal. In a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic sludge digestion process within 8 days HRT of the aerobic stage, the removal of ammonium nitrogen was 85%. PMID:17251012

  19. Effects of ethanol, molasses and Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation quality, in vitro digestibility and aerobic stability of total mixed ration silages in the Tibetan plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xianjun; Wen, Aiyou; Wang, Jian; Guo, Gang; Desta, Seare T; Shao, Tao

    2016-05-01

    In Tibet, it is common practice to make and relocate total mixed ration (TMR) silages before feeding due to the uneven distribution of forages temporally and spatially. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum (L), molasses (M) or ethanol (E) on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of local adaptive TMR silage. After 45 days of ensiling, pH and ammonia nitrogen in inoculated TMR silages were significantly lower than control. During the first 6 days of the aerobic exposure test, a small fluctuation in lactic acid concentration for all TMR silages was observed, and then silages with ethanol continued this trend, while lactic acid in silage without ethanol sharply decreased until the end of the aerobic exposure period. Meanwhile, pH gradually increased along the aerobic exposure; silages treated with ethanol showed lower pH after 9 days of aerobic exposure. The population of yeast gradually increased during 6 days of aerobic exposure, after that an accelerated rise was observed in TMR silages without ethanol. The combinational beneficial effect of L. plantarum and ethanol was found in combined addition of ethanol and Lactobacillus plantarum silages (EL), indicated by intermediate fermentation quality and higher aerobic stability. PMID:26419793

  20. An obligately aerobic soil bacterium activates fermentative hydrogen production to survive reductive stress during hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Berney, Michael; Greening, Chris; Conrad, Ralf; Jacobs, William R.; Cook, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen availability is a major factor and evolutionary force determining the metabolic strategy of bacteria colonizing an environmental niche. In the soil, conditions can switch rapidly between oxia and anoxia, forcing soil bacteria to remodel their energy metabolism accordingly. Mycobacterium is a dominant genus in the soil, and all its species are obligate aerobes. Here we show that an obligate aerobe, the soil actinomycete Mycobacterium smegmatis, adopts an anaerobe-type strategy by activating fermentative hydrogen production to adapt to hypoxia. This process is controlled by the two-component system DosR-DosS/DosT, an oxygen and redox sensor that is well conserved in mycobacteria. We show that DosR tightly regulates the two [NiFe]-hydrogenases: Hyd3 (MSMEG_3931-3928) and Hyd2 (MSMEG_2719-2718). Using genetic manipulation and high-sensitivity GC, we demonstrate that Hyd3 facilitates the evolution of H2 when oxygen is depleted. Combined activity of Hyd2 and Hyd3 was necessary to maintain an optimal NAD+/NADH ratio and enhanced adaptation to and survival of hypoxia. We demonstrate that fermentatively-produced hydrogen can be recycled when fumarate or oxygen become available, suggesting Mycobacterium smegmatis can switch between fermentation, anaerobic respiration, and aerobic respiration. Hydrogen metabolism enables this obligate aerobe to rapidly meet its energetic needs when switching between microoxic and anoxic conditions and provides a competitive advantage in low oxygen environments. PMID:25049411

  1. An obligately aerobic soil bacterium activates fermentative hydrogen production to survive reductive stress during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Berney, Michael; Greening, Chris; Conrad, Ralf; Jacobs, William R; Cook, Gregory M

    2014-08-01

    Oxygen availability is a major factor and evolutionary force determining the metabolic strategy of bacteria colonizing an environmental niche. In the soil, conditions can switch rapidly between oxia and anoxia, forcing soil bacteria to remodel their energy metabolism accordingly. Mycobacterium is a dominant genus in the soil, and all its species are obligate aerobes. Here we show that an obligate aerobe, the soil actinomycete Mycobacterium smegmatis, adopts an anaerobe-type strategy by activating fermentative hydrogen production to adapt to hypoxia. This process is controlled by the two-component system DosR-DosS/DosT, an oxygen and redox sensor that is well conserved in mycobacteria. We show that DosR tightly regulates the two [NiFe]-hydrogenases: Hyd3 (MSMEG_3931-3928) and Hyd2 (MSMEG_2719-2718). Using genetic manipulation and high-sensitivity GC, we demonstrate that Hyd3 facilitates the evolution of H2 when oxygen is depleted. Combined activity of Hyd2 and Hyd3 was necessary to maintain an optimal NAD(+)/NADH ratio and enhanced adaptation to and survival of hypoxia. We demonstrate that fermentatively-produced hydrogen can be recycled when fumarate or oxygen become available, suggesting Mycobacterium smegmatis can switch between fermentation, anaerobic respiration, and aerobic respiration. Hydrogen metabolism enables this obligate aerobe to rapidly meet its energetic needs when switching between microoxic and anoxic conditions and provides a competitive advantage in low oxygen environments. PMID:25049411

  2. Understanding of aerobic granulation enhanced by starvation in the perspective of quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Sun, Supu; Ma, Buyun; Zhang, Chen; Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-04-01

    Three sequencing batch reactors (M1, M2, and M3) were set up to investigate the influence of different lengths of starvation time (3, 5, and 7 h) on aerobic granulation in the perspective of quorum sensing (QS). Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) level was quantified to evaluate the QS ability of aerobic granules. The results indicated that AI-2 level increased steadily during a cycle of sequencing batch reactors, suggesting that starvation was closely related to AI-2 secretion. In the long-term operation, aerobic granules cultivated using a prolonged starvation period had a better integrity and a higher level of cell adhesiveness despite a slower formation speed. With the extension of the starvation period, the total amount of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) displayed an increasing tendency. EPS with large molecular weight (MW) also reached a higher level using a prolonged starvation period. However, a higher level of AI-2 and cell adhesiveness was observed in M2, which might be related to more stable granules. The results implied that the starvation period could trigger AI-2 secretion and promoted the production of large MW EPS, leading to cell adhesiveness enhancement and granule formation. Therefore, a combination of different starvation periods was proposed in this study in order to improve aerobic granulation. PMID:26695156

  3. Effects of cognitive training with and without aerobic exercise on cognitively demanding everyday activities.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Mark A; Binder, Ellen F; Bugg, Julie M; Waldum, Emily R; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Kudelka, Chris

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive-training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults' performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome measures were 3 laboratory tasks that simulated everyday activities: Cooking Breakfast, Virtual Week, and Memory for Health Information. Two months of cognitive training improved older adults' performance on prospective-memory tasks embedded in Virtual Week. Cognitive training, either alone or in combination with 6 months of aerobic exercise, did not significantly improve Cooking Breakfast or Memory for Health Information. Although gains in aerobic power were comparable with previous reports, aerobic exercise did not produce improvements for the primary outcome measures. Discussion focuses on the possibility that cognitive-training programs that include explicit strategy instruction and varied practice contexts may confer gains to older adults for performance on cognitively challenging everyday tasks. PMID:25244489

  4. Treatment of sewage sludge in a thermophilic membrane reactor (TMR) with alternate aeration cycles.

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Castagnola, Federico; Sordi, Marco; Bertanza, Giorgio

    2015-10-01

    The management of sewage sludge is becoming a more and more important issue, both at national and international level, in particular due to the uncertain recovery/disposal future options. Therefore, it is clear that the development of new technologies that can mitigate the problem at the source by reducing sludge production is necessary, such as the European Directive 2008/98/EC prescribes. This work shows the results obtained with a thermophilic membrane reactor, for processing a biological sludge derived from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) that treats urban and industrial wastewater. Sewage sludge was treated in a thermophilic membrane reactor (TMR), at pilot-scale (1 m(3) volume), with alternate aeration cycles. The experimentation was divided into two phases: a "startup phase" during which, starting with a psychrophilic/mesophilic biomass, thermophilic conditions were progressively reached, while feeding a highly biodegradable substrate; the obtained thermophilic biomass was then used, in the "regime phase", to digest biological sludge which was fed to the plant. Good removal yields were observed: 64% and 57% for volatile solids (VS) and total COD (CODtot), respectively, with an average hydraulic retention time (HRT) equal to 20 d, an organic loading rate (OLR) of about 1.4-1.8 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) and aeration/non aeration cycles alternated every 4 h. PMID:26233586

  5. Thermal adaptation analyzed by comparison of protein sequences from mesophilic and extremely thermophilic Methanococcus species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haney, P. J.; Badger, J. H.; Buldak, G. L.; Reich, C. I.; Woese, C. R.; Olsen, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    The genome sequence of the extremely thermophilic archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii provides a wealth of data on proteins from a thermophile. In this paper, sequences of 115 proteins from M. jannaschii are compared with their homologs from mesophilic Methanococcus species. Although the growth temperatures of the mesophiles are about 50 degrees C below that of M. jannaschii, their genomic G+C contents are nearly identical. The properties most correlated with the proteins of the thermophile include higher residue volume, higher residue hydrophobicity, more charged amino acids (especially Glu, Arg, and Lys), and fewer uncharged polar residues (Ser, Thr, Asn, and Gln). These are recurring themes, with all trends applying to 83-92% of the proteins for which complete sequences were available. Nearly all of the amino acid replacements most significantly correlated with the temperature change are the same relatively conservative changes observed in all proteins, but in the case of the mesophile/thermophile comparison there is a directional bias. We identify 26 specific pairs of amino acids with a statistically significant (P < 0.01) preferred direction of replacement.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of a Thermophilic Desulfurization Bacterium, Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius Strain W-2

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lin; Li, Mingchang; Guo, Shuyi

    2016-01-01

    Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius strain W-2 is a thermophilic bacterium isolated from a deep-subsurface oil reservoir in northern China, which is capable of degrading organosulfur compounds. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of G. thermoglucosidasius strain W-2, which may help to elucidate the genetic basis of biodegradation of organosulfur pollutants under heated conditions. PMID:27491977

  7. Microbial diversity in innovative mesophilic/thermophilic temperature-phased anaerobic digestion of sludge.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, M C; Braguglia, C M; Gallipoli, A; Gianico, A; Rossetti, S

    2015-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the few sustainable technologies that both produce energy and treat waste streams. Driven by a complex and diverse community of microbes, AD may be affected by different factors, many of which also influence the composition and activity of the microbial community. In this study, the biodiversity of microbial populations in innovative mesophilic/thermophilic temperature-phased AD of sludge was evaluated by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The increase of digestion temperature drastically affected the microbial composition and selected specialized biomass. Hydrogenotrophic Methanobacteriales and the protein fermentative bacterium Coprothermobacter spp. were identified in the thermophilic anaerobic biomass. Shannon-Weaver diversity (H') and evenness (E) indices were calculated using FISH data. Species richness was lower under thermophilic conditions compared with the values estimated in mesophilic samples, and it was flanked by similar trend of the evenness indicating that thermophilic communities may be therefore more susceptible to sudden changes and less prompt to adapting to operative variations. PMID:24875310

  8. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF MESOPHILIC AND THERMOPHILIC ANAEROBIC DIGESTION. PHASE 2. STEADY STATE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted of the relative performance of anaerobic digestion systems under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Fifty liter laboratory scale digesters were fed primary sludge from the Allentown, PA Waste Water Treatment Plant. Long-term, steady-state performance da...

  9. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF MESOPHILIC AND THERMOPHILIC DIGESTION - PHASE II. STEADY STATE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study of the relative performance of anaerobic digestion systems under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions was conducted. Fifty liter laboratory scale digesters were fed primary sludge from the Allentown, PA Waste Water Treatment Plant. Long-term, steady-state performance da...

  10. Proteogenomic Analysis of a Thermophilic Bacterial Consortium Adapted to Deconstruct Switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    D'haeseleer, Patrik; Gladden, John M.; Allgaier, Martin; Chain, Patrik S. G.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Robinson, Errol W.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Hugenholtz, Philip; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Thermophilic bacteria are a potential source of enzymes for the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. However, the complement of proteins used to deconstruct biomass and the specific roles of different microbial groups in thermophilic biomass deconstruction are not well-explored. Here we report on the metagenomic and proteogenomic analyses of a compost-derived bacterial consortium adapted to switchgrass at elevated temperature with high levels of glycoside hydrolase activities. Near-complete genomes were reconstructed for the most abundant populations, which included composite genomes for populations closely related to sequenced strains of Thermus thermophilus and Rhodothermus marinus, and for novel populations that are related to thermophilic Paenibacilli and an uncultivated subdivision of the little-studied Gemmatimonadetes phylum. Partial genomes were also reconstructed for a number of lower abundance thermophilic Chloroflexi populations. Identification of genes for lignocellulose processing and metabolic reconstructions suggested Rhodothermus, Paenibacillus and Gemmatimonadetes as key groups for deconstructing biomass, and Thermus as a group that may primarily metabolize low molecular weight compounds. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of the consortium was used to identify >3000 proteins in fractionated samples from the cultures, and confirmed the importance of Paenibacillus and Gemmatimonadetes to biomass deconstruction. These studies also indicate that there are unexplored proteins with important roles in bacterial lignocellulose deconstruction. PMID:23894306

  11. Thermal and Spectroscopic Characterization of a Proton Pumping Rhodopsin from an Extreme Thermophile*

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Takashi; Inoue, Keiichi; Kandori, Hideki; Sudo, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    So far retinylidene proteins (∼rhodopsin) have not been discovered in thermophilic organisms. In this study we investigated and characterized a microbial rhodopsin derived from the extreme thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus, which lives in a hot spring at around 75 °C. The gene for the retinylidene protein, named thermophilic rhodopsin (TR), was chemically synthesized with codon optimization. The codon optimized TR protein was functionally expressed in the cell membranes of Escherichia coli cells and showed active proton transport upon photoillumination. Spectroscopic measurements revealed that the purified TR bound only all-trans-retinal as a chromophore and showed an absorption maximum at 530 nm. In addition, TR exhibited both photocycle kinetics and pH-dependent absorption changes, which are characteristic of rhodopsins. Of note, time-dependent thermal denaturation experiments revealed that TR maintained its absorption even at 75 °C, and the denaturation rate constant of TR was much lower than those of other proton pumping rhodopsins such as archaerhodopsin-3 (200 ×), Haloquadratum walsbyi bacteriorhodopsin (by 10-times), and Gloeobacter rhodopsin (100 ×). Thus, these results suggest that microbial rhodopsins are also distributed among thermophilic organisms and have high stability. TR should allow the investigation of the molecular mechanisms of ion transport and protein folding. PMID:23740255

  12. Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus geothermalis Strain GSsed3, a Novel Thermophilic Endospore-Forming Species

    PubMed Central

    Filippidou, Sevasti; Jaussi, Marion; Junier, Thomas; Wunderlin, Tina; Roussel-Delif, Ludovic; Jeanneret, Nicole; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Vetter, Alexandra; Regenspurg, Simona; McMurry, Kim; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Lo, Chien-Chi; Li, Paul; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Chain, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Anoxybacillus geothermalis strain GSsed3 is an endospore-forming thermophilic bacterium isolated from filter deposits in a geothermal site. This novel species has a larger genome size (7.2 Mb) than that of any other Anoxybacillus species, and it possesses genes that support its phenotypic metabolic characterization and suggest an intriguing link to metals. PMID:26067952

  13. Dissecting and engineering metabolic and regulatory networks of thermophilic bacteria for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lu; Xu, Jian

    2013-11-01

    Interest in thermophilic bacteria as live-cell catalysts in biofuel and biochemical industry has surged in recent years, due to their tolerance of high temperature and wide spectrum of carbon-sources that include cellulose. However their direct employment as microbial cellular factories in the highly demanding industrial conditions has been hindered by uncompetitive biofuel productivity, relatively low tolerance to solvent and osmic stresses, and limitation in genome engineering tools. In this work we review recent advances in dissecting and engineering the metabolic and regulatory networks of thermophilic bacteria for improving the traits of key interest in biofuel industry: cellulose degradation, pentose-hexose co-utilization, and tolerance of thermal, osmotic, and solvent stresses. Moreover, new technologies enabling more efficient genetic engineering of thermophiles were discussed, such as improved electroporation, ultrasound-mediated DNA delivery, as well as thermo-stable plasmids and functional selection systems. Expanded applications of such technological advancements in thermophilic microbes promise to substantiate a synthetic biology perspective, where functional parts, module, chassis, cells and consortia were modularly designed and rationally assembled for the many missions at industry and nature that demand the extraordinary talents of these extremophiles. PMID:23510903

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Thermophile Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, Lawrence F; Foden, Justine; Barrett, Trisha; Davenport, Karen W.; Bruce, David; Detter, J. Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Lapidus, Alla L.; Lucas, Susan; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Ivanova, N; Mikhailova, Natalia; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Argyros, Aaron; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Hogsett, David; Caiazza, Nicky

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum DSM1313 is a thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium with some of the highest rates of cellulose hydrolysis reported. The complete genome sequence reveals a suite of carbohydrate-active enzymes and demonstrates a level of diversity at the species level distinguishing it from the type strain ATCC27405.

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis OB47T

    SciTech Connect

    Elkins, James G; Lochner, Adriane; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott; Walston Davenport, Karen; Podar, Mircea; Brown, Steven D; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Raman, Babu; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Tapia, Roxanne; Meincke, Linda; Detter, J C; Bruce, David; Han, Cliff; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Cottingham, Robert W; Keller, Martin; Graham, David E

    2010-01-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis OB47T (ATCC BAA-2073; JCM 16842) is an extremely thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium capable of hydrolyzing plant-derived polymers through the expression of multidomain/multifunctional hydrolases. The complete genome sequence reveals a diverse set of carbohydrate-active enzymes and provides further insight into lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis at high temperatures.

  16. Inactivation of Clostridium difficile in sewage sludge by anaerobic thermophilic digestion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changyun; Salsali, Hamidreza; Weese, Scott; Warriner, Keith

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in community-associated Clostridium difficile infections with biosolids derived from wastewater treatment being identified as one potential source. The current study evaluated the efficacy of thermophilic digestion in decreasing levels of C. difficile ribotype 078 associated with sewage sludge. Five isolates of C. difficile 078 were introduced (final density of 5 log CFU/g) into digested sludge and subjected to anaerobic digestion at mesophilic (36 or 42 °C) or thermophilic (55 °C) temperatures for up to 60 days. It was found that mesophilic digestion at 36 °C did not result in a significant reduction in C. difficile spore levels. In contrast, thermophilic sludge digestion reduced endospore levels at a rate of 0.19-2.68 log CFU/day, depending on the strain tested. The mechanism of lethality was indirect - by stimulating germination then inactivating the resultant vegetative cells. Acidification of sludge by adding acetic acid (6 g/L) inhibited the germination of spores regardless of the sludge digestion temperature. In conclusion, thermophilic digestion can be applied to reduce C. difficile in biosolids, thereby reducing the environmental burden of the enteric pathogen. PMID:26564276

  17. Leg allometry in ants: extreme long-leggedness in thermophilic species.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Stefan; Wehner, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    The thermophilic ant genera Cataglyphis and Ocymyrmex share a variety of specialisations that enable them to engage in high-speed foraging at considerably higher temperatures than less heat-tolerant species. In the present account we test the hypothesis that thermophilic ants have longer legs than closely related species from more mesic habitats. By comparing large-sized, medium-sized, and small-sized species of Cataglyphis and Ocymyrmex with size-matched species of the closely related non-thermophilic genera Formica (Formicinae) and Messor (Myrmicinae), respectively, we show that the thermophilic species are equipped with considerably longer legs than their less heat-tolerant relatives. Hence phylogenetically, extreme long-leggedness has evolved at least twice in desert ants: in the Formicinae and the Myrmicinae. Functionally, this morphological trait is adaptive for a number of reasons. The long legs raise the body into cooler layers of air and enable higher running speeds, which increase convective cooling and reduce foraging time. These are important adaptations all the more as due to the low food density prevailing in desert habitats foraging Cataglyphis and Ocymyrmex ants have to cover large distances within their physically demanding foraging grounds. PMID:21992805

  18. Anaerobic High-Throughput Cultivation Method for Isolation of Thermophiles Using Biomass-Derived Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Allman, Steve L; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Elkins, James G

    2012-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) techniques have been developed for sorting mesophilic organisms, but the difficulty increases if the target microbes are thermophilic anaerobes. We demonstrate a reliable, high-throughput method of screening thermophilic anaerobic organisms using FCM and 96-well plates for growth on biomass-relevant substrates. The method was tested using the cellulolytic thermophiles Clostridium ther- mocellum (Topt = 55 C), Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis (Topt = 78 C) and the fermentative hyperthermo- philes, Pyrococcus furiosus (Topt = 100 C) and Thermotoga maritima (Topt = 80 C). Multi-well plates were incubated at various temperatures for approximately 72 120 h and then tested for growth. Positive growth resulting from single cells sorted into individual wells containing an anaerobic medium was verified by OD600. Depending on the growth substrate, up to 80 % of the wells contained viable cultures, which could be transferred to fresh media. This method was used to isolate thermophilic microbes from Rabbit Creek, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming. Substrates for enrichment cultures including crystalline cellulose (Avicel), xylan (from Birchwood), pretreated switchgrass and Populus were used to cultivate organisms that may be of interest to lignocellulosic biofuel production.

  19. Proteogenomic Analysis of a Thermophilic Bacterial Consortium Adapted to Deconstruct Switchgrass

    SciTech Connect

    D'haeseleer, Patrik; Gladden, John M.; Allgaier, Martin; Chain, Patrick; Tringe, Susannah G.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Robinson, Errol W.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Hugenholtz, Philip; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.

    2013-07-19

    Thermophilic bacteria are a potential source of enzymes for the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. However, the complement of proteins used to deconstruct biomass and the specific roles of different microbial groups in thermophilic biomass deconstruction are not well-explored. Here we report on the metagenomic and proteogenomic analyses of a compost-derived bacterial consortium adapted to switchgrass at elevated temperature with high levels of glycoside hydrolase activities. Near-complete genomes were reconstructed for the most abundant populations, which included composite genomes for populations closely related to sequenced strains of Thermus thermophilus and Rhodothermus marinus, and for novel populations that are related to thermophilic Paenibacilli and an uncultivated subdivision of the littlestudied Gemmatimonadetes phylum. Partial genomes were also reconstructed for a number of lower abundance thermophilic Chloroflexi populations. Identification of genes for lignocellulose processing and metabolic reconstructions suggested Rhodothermus, Paenibacillus and Gemmatimonadetes as key groups for deconstructing biomass, and Thermus as a group that may primarily metabolize low molecular weight compounds. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of the consortium was used to identify .3000 proteins in fractionated samples from the cultures, and confirmed the importance of Paenibacillus and Gemmatimonadetes to biomass deconstruction. These studies also indicate that there are unexplored proteins with important roles in bacterial lignocellulose deconstruction.

  20. First Insights into the Genome of the Moderately Thermophilic Bacterium Clostridium tepidiprofundi SG 508T.

    PubMed

    Poehlein, Anja; Friedrich, Ines; Krüger, Larissa; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The moderately thermophilic bacterium Clostridium tepidiprofundi is Gram-positive and belongs to clostridial cluster I. It was isolated from a hydrothermal vent chimney. Substrates utilized by C. tepidiprofundi include casein, peptone, tryptone, yeast extract, beef extract, starch, maltose, and glucose. The genome consists of one replicon (3.06 Mb). PMID:27174286

  1. First Insights into the Genome of the Moderately Thermophilic Bacterium Clostridium tepidiprofundi SG 508T

    PubMed Central

    Poehlein, Anja; Friedrich, Ines; Krüger, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    The moderately thermophilic bacterium Clostridium tepidiprofundi is Gram-positive and belongs to clostridial cluster I. It was isolated from a hydrothermal vent chimney. Substrates utilized by C. tepidiprofundi include casein, peptone, tryptone, yeast extract, beef extract, starch, maltose, and glucose. The genome consists of one replicon (3.06 Mb). PMID:27174286

  2. Polysaccharide-degrading thermophiles generated by heterologous gene expression in Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hirokazu; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2013-09-01

    Thermophiles have important advantages over mesophiles as host organisms for high-temperature bioprocesses, functional production of thermostable enzymes, and efficient expression of enzymatic activities in vivo. To capitalize on these advantages of thermophiles, we describe here a new inducible gene expression system in the thermophile Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426. Six promoter regions in the HTA426 genome were identified and analyzed for expression profiles using β-galactosidase reporter assay. This analysis identified a promoter region upstream of a putative amylose-metabolizing gene cluster that directed high-level expression of the reporter gene. The expression was >280-fold that without a promoter and was further enhanced 12-fold by maltose addition. In association with a multicopy plasmid, this promoter region was used to express heterologous genes. Several genes, including a gene whose product was insoluble when expressed in Escherichia coli, were successfully expressed as soluble proteins, with yields of 0.16 to 59 mg/liter, and conferred new functions to G. kaustophilus strains. Remarkably, cellulase and α-amylase genes conferred the ability to degrade cellulose paper and insoluble starch at high temperatures, respectively, generating thermophiles with the potential to degrade plant biomass. Our results demonstrate that this novel expression system expands the potential applications of G. kaustophilus. PMID:23793634

  3. Polysaccharide-Degrading Thermophiles Generated by Heterologous Gene Expression in Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Thermophiles have important advantages over mesophiles as host organisms for high-temperature bioprocesses, functional production of thermostable enzymes, and efficient expression of enzymatic activities in vivo. To capitalize on these advantages of thermophiles, we describe here a new inducible gene expression system in the thermophile Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426. Six promoter regions in the HTA426 genome were identified and analyzed for expression profiles using β-galactosidase reporter assay. This analysis identified a promoter region upstream of a putative amylose-metabolizing gene cluster that directed high-level expression of the reporter gene. The expression was >280-fold that without a promoter and was further enhanced 12-fold by maltose addition. In association with a multicopy plasmid, this promoter region was used to express heterologous genes. Several genes, including a gene whose product was insoluble when expressed in Escherichia coli, were successfully expressed as soluble proteins, with yields of 0.16 to 59 mg/liter, and conferred new functions to G. kaustophilus strains. Remarkably, cellulase and α-amylase genes conferred the ability to degrade cellulose paper and insoluble starch at high temperatures, respectively, generating thermophiles with the potential to degrade plant biomass. Our results demonstrate that this novel expression system expands the potential applications of G. kaustophilus. PMID:23793634

  4. Fermentation of Corn Fiber Hydrolysate to Lactic Acid by the Moderate Thermophile Bacillus coagulans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composted manure from a dairy farm in Texas was examined for thermophilic microorganisms by enrichment in xylose broth medium. Forty randomly picked isolates were identified as strains of Bacillus coagulans by sequence analysis of rRNA genes. One strain, designated as MXL-9, could convert mixed su...

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of the Cellulolytic Thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis OB47T▿

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, James G.; Lochner, Adriane; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D.; Davenport, Karen Walston; Podar, Mircea; Brown, Steven D.; Land, Miriam L.; Hauser, Loren J.; Klingeman, Dawn M.; Raman, Babu; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Tapia, Roxanne; Meincke, Linda J.; Detter, J. Chris; Bruce, David C.; Han, Cliff S.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Cottingham, Robert W.; Keller, Martin; Graham, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis OB47T (ATCC BAA-2073, JCM 16842) is an extremely thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium capable of hydrolyzing plant-derived polymers through the expression of multidomain/multifunctional hydrolases. The complete genome sequence reveals a diverse set of carbohydrate-active enzymes and provides further insight into lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis at high temperatures. PMID:20851897

  6. Genome Sequence of Anoxybacillus geothermalis Strain GSsed3, a Novel Thermophilic Endospore-Forming Species.

    PubMed

    Filippidou, Sevasti; Jaussi, Marion; Junier, Thomas; Wunderlin, Tina; Roussel-Delif, Ludovic; Jeanneret, Nicole; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Vetter, Alexandra; Regenspurg, Simona; Johnson, Shannon L; McMurry, Kim; Gleasner, Cheryl D; Lo, Chien-Chi; Li, Paul; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Chain, Patrick S; Junier, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Anoxybacillus geothermalis strain GSsed3 is an endospore-forming thermophilic bacterium isolated from filter deposits in a geothermal site. This novel species has a larger genome size (7.2 Mb) than that of any other Anoxybacillus species, and it possesses genes that support its phenotypic metabolic characterization and suggest an intriguing link to metals. PMID:26067952

  7. Effect of Temperature on the Respiration and Cytochromes of an Extreme Thermophile

    PubMed Central

    McFeters, Gordon A.; Ulrich, J. Terry

    1972-01-01

    The rate of oxygen uptake in an extreme thermophile at 70 C was three times greater than at 50 C. Cytochromes a, b, and c were present in cells grown at 50, 60, and 70 C. The content of these electron transport system elements remained relatively constant as the growth temperature was raised. PMID:5022175

  8. The aerobic and anaerobic bacteriology of perirectal abscesses.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, I; Frazier, E H

    1997-01-01

    The microbiology of perirectal abscesses in 144 patients was studied. Aerobic or facultative bacteria only were isolated in 13 (9%) instances, anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 27 (19%) instances, and mixed aerobic and anaerobic flora were isolated in 104 (72%) instances. A total of 325 anaerobic and 131 aerobic or facultative isolates were recovered (2.2 anaerobic isolates and 0.9 aerobic isolates per specimen). The predominant anaerobes were as follows: Bacteroides fragilis group (85 isolates), Peptostreptococcus spp. (72 isolates), Prevotella spp. (71 isolates), Fusobacterium spp. (21 isolates), Porphyromonas spp. (20 isolates), and Clostridium spp. (15 isolates). The predominant aerobic and facultative bacteria were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus (34 isolates), Streptococcus spp. (28 isolates), and Escherichia coli (19 isolates). These data illustrate the polymicrobial aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of perirectal abscesses. PMID:9350771

  9. Discrimination among thermophilic Campylobacter species by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 23S rRNA gene fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Eyers, M; Chapelle, S; Van Camp, G; Goossens, H; De Wachter, R

    1993-01-01

    By comparing nucleic acid sequences determined for one of the most variable areas of 23S rRNA genes of 23 Campylobacter strains, we were able to identify regions specific for thermophilic Campylobacter strains. Oligonucleotide primers corresponding to these unique regions were synthesized and used in the polymerase chain reaction. One primer pair selectively detected all thermophilic Campylobacter species, while four other primer pairs allowed discrimination among the thermophilic species Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and Campylobacter upsaliensis. All primer sets were tested successfully on a large number of clinical isolates. Images PMID:7508460

  10. Properties of an amylase from thermophilic Bacillus SP

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Raquel Vieira; Côrrea, Thamy Lívia Ribeiro; da Silva, Júlia Caroline Matos; de Oliveira Mansur, Luciana Ribeiro Coutinho; Martins, Meire Lelis Leal

    2008-01-01

    α-Amylase production by thermophilic Bacillus sp strain SMIA-2 cultivated in liquid cultures containing soluble starch as a carbon source and supplemented with 0.05% whey protein and 0.2% peptone reached a maximum activity at 32 h, with levels of 37 U/mL. Studies on the amylase characterization revealed that the optimum temperature of this enzyme was 90°C. The enzyme was stable for 1 h at temperatures ranging from 40-50°C while at 90°C, 66% of its maximum activity was lost. However, in the presence of 5 mM CaCl2, the enzyme was stable at 90°C for 30 min and retained about 58% residual activity after 1 h. The optimum pH of the enzyme was found to be 8.5. After incubation of enzyme for 2 h at pH 9.5 and 11.0 was observed a decrease of about 6.3% and 16.5% of its original activity. At pH 6.0 the enzyme lost about 36% of its original activity. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by Co2+, Cu2+ and Ba2+, but less affected by Mg2+, Na+ and K+. In the presence of 2.0 M NaCl, 63% of amylase activity was retained after 2 h incubation at 45°C. The amylase exhibited more than 70% activity when incubated for 1 h at 50°C with sodium dodecyl sulphate. However, very little residual activity was obtained with sodium hypochlorite and with hydrogen peroxide the enzyme was completely inhibited. The compatibility of Bacillus sp SMIA-2 amylase with certain commercial detergents was shown to be good as the enzyme retained 86%, 85% and 75% of its activity after 20 min incubation at 50°C in the presence of the detergent brands Omo®, Campeiro® and Tide®, respectively. PMID:24031188

  11. Stability and activity of mesophilic subtilisin E and its thermophilic homolog: Insights from molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Colombo, G.; Merz, K.M. Jr.

    1999-07-28

    This report examines the origin of the high-temperature (250 K) behavior of a thermophilic mutant enzyme (labeled at 5-3H5; see Zhao and Arnold Prot. Eng. 1999, 12, 47--53) derived from subtilisin E by eight amino acid substitutions. Through the use of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the authors have provided molecular-level insights into how point mutations can affect protein structure and dynamics. From simulations the authors observed a reduced rmsd in several key regions, an increased overall flexibility, an increase in the number of hydrogen bonds, and an increase in the number of stabilizing interactions in the thermophilic system. It was shown that it is not a necessary requirement that thermophilic enzymes be less flexible than their mesophilic counterparts at low temperatures. However, thermophilic enzymes must retain their three-dimensional structures and flexibility at high temperatures in order to retain activity. Furthermore, the authors have been able to point out the effects of some of the single substitutions. Even if it is not possible yet to give general rules for rational protein design, the authors are able to make some predictions on how a protein should be stabilized in order to be thermophilic. In particular, the authors suggest that a promising strategy toward speeding up the design of thermally stable proteins would be to identify fluxional regions within a protein through the use of MD simulations (or suitable experiments). Presumably these regions allow for autocatalytic reactions to occur and are also involved in allowing water to gain access to the interior of the protein and initiate protein unfolding. These fluxional regions could also adversely affect the positioning of the catalytic machinery, thereby decreasing catalytic efficiency. Thus, once these locations have been identified, focused directed evolution studies could be designed that stabilize these fluxional regions.

  12. Conventional mesophilic vs. thermophilic anaerobic digestion: a trade-off between performance and stability?

    PubMed

    Labatut, Rodrigo A; Angenent, Largus T; Scott, Norman R

    2014-04-15

    A long-term comparative study using continuously-stirred anaerobic digesters (CSADs) operated at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures was conducted to evaluate the influence of the organic loading rate (OLR) and chemical composition on process performance and stability. Cow manure was co-digested with dog food, a model substrate to simulate a generic, multi-component food-like waste and to produce non-substrate specific, composition-based results. Cow manure and dog food were mixed at a lower - and an upper co-digestion ratio to produce a low-fiber, high-strength substrate, and a more recalcitrant, lower-strength substrate, respectively. Three increasing OLRs were evaluated by decreasing the CSADs hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 20 to 10 days. At longer HRTs and lower manure-to-dog food ratio, the thermophilic CSAD was not stable and eventually failed as a result of long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation/degradation, which was triggered by the compounded effects of temperature on reaction rates, mixing intensity, and physical state of LCFAs. At shorter HRTs and upper manure-to-dog food ratio, the thermophilic CSAD marginally outperformed the biomethane production rates and substrate stabilization of the mesophilic CSAD. The increased fiber content relative to lipids at upper manure-to-dog food ratios improved the stability and performance of the thermophilic process by decreasing the concentration of LCFAs in solution, likely adsorbed onto the manure fibers. Overall, results of this study show that stability of the thermophilic co-digestion process is highly dependent on the influent substrate composition, and particularly for this study, on the proportion of manure to lipids in the influent stream. In contrast, mesophilic co-digestion provided a more robust and stable process regardless of the influent composition, only with marginally lower biomethane production rates (i.e., 7%) for HRTs as short as 10 days (OLR = 3 g VS/L-d). PMID:24530545

  13. Novel thermophilic hemicellulases for the conversion of lignocellulose for second generation biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Cobucci-Ponzano, Beatrice; Strazzulli, Andrea; Iacono, Roberta; Masturzo, Giuseppe; Giglio, Rosa; Rossi, Mosè; Moracci, Marco

    2015-10-01

    The biotransformation of lignocellulose biomasses into fermentable sugars is a very complex procedure including, as one of the most critical steps, the (hemi) cellulose hydrolysis by specific enzymatic cocktails. We explored here, the potential of stable glycoside hydrolases from thermophilic organisms, so far not used in commercial enzymatic preparations, for the conversion of glucuronoxylan, the major hemicellulose of several energy crops. Searches in the genomes of thermophilic bacteria led to the identification, efficient production, and detailed characterization of novel xylanase and α-glucuronidase from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (GH10-XA and GH67-GA, respectively) and a α-glucuronidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (GH67-GC). Remarkably, GH10-XA, if compared to other thermophilic xylanases from this family, coupled good specificity on beechwood xylan and the best stability at 65 °C (3.5 days). In addition, GH67-GC was the most stable α-glucuronidases from this family and the first able to hydrolyse both aldouronic acid and aryl-α-glucuronic acid substrates. These enzymes, led to the very efficient hydrolysis of beechwood xylan by using 7- to 9-fold less protein (concentrations <0.3 μM) and in much less reaction time (2h vs 12h) if compared to other known biotransformations catalyzed by thermophilic enzymes. In addition, remarkably, together with a thermophilic β-xylosidase, they catalyzed the production of xylose from the smart cooking pre-treated biomass of one of the most promising energy crops for second generation biorefineries. We demonstrated that search by the CAZy Data Bank of currently available genomes and detailed enzymatic characterization of recombinant enzymes allow the identification of glycoside hydrolases with novel and interesting properties and applications. PMID:26215346

  14. Thermophilic Sulfate Reduction in Hydrothermal Sediment of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Elsgaard, Lars; Prieur, Daniel; Mukwaya, Gashagaza M.; Jørgensen, Bo B.

    1994-01-01

    In environments with temperatures above 60°C, thermophilic prokaryotes are the only metabolically active life-forms. By using the 35SO42- tracer technique, we studied the activity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in hot sediment from a hydrothermal vent site in the northern part of freshwater Lake Tanganyika (East Africa). Incubation of slurry samples at 8 to 90°C demonstrated meso- and thermophilic sulfate reduction with optimum temperatures of 34 to 45°C and 56 to 65°C, respectively, and with an upper temperature limit of 80°C. Sulfate reduction was stimulated at all temperatures by the addition of short-chain fatty acids and benzoate or complex substrates (yeast extract and peptone). A time course experiment showed that linear thermophilic sulfate consumption occurred after a lag phase (12 h) and indicated the presence of a large population of SRM in the hydrothermal sediment. Thermophilic sulfate reduction had a pH optimum of about 7 and was completely inhibited at pH 8.8 to 9.2. SRM could be enriched from hydrothermal chimney and sediment samples at 60 and 75°C. In lactate-grown enrichments, sulfide production occurred at up to 70 and 75°C, with optima at 63 and 71°C, respectively. Several sporulating thermophilic enrichments were morphologically similar to Desulfotomaculum spp. Dissimilatory sulfate reduction in the studied hydrothermal area of Lake Tanganyika apparently has an upper temperature limit of 80°C. PMID:16349249

  15. Defluviitalea phaphyphila sp. nov., a Novel Thermophilic Bacterium That Degrades Brown Algae

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Shi-Qi; Wang, Bing; Lu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Brown algae are one of the largest groups of oceanic primary producers for CO2 removal and carbon sinks for coastal regions. However, the mechanism for brown alga assimilation remains largely unknown in thermophilic microorganisms. In this work, a thermophilic alginolytic community was enriched from coastal sediment, from which an obligate anaerobic and thermophilic bacterial strain, designated Alg1, was isolated. Alg1 shared a 16S rRNA gene identity of 94.6% with Defluviitalea saccharophila LIND6LT2T. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic studies suggested strain Alg1 represented a novel species of the genus Defluviitalea, for which the name Defluviitalea phaphyphila sp. nov. is proposed. Alg1 exhibited an intriguing ability to convert carbohydrates of brown algae, including alginate, laminarin, and mannitol, to ethanol and acetic acid. Three gene clusters participating in this process were predicted to be in the genome, and candidate enzymes were successfully expressed, purified, and characterized. Six alginate lyases were demonstrated to synergistically deconstruct alginate into unsaturated monosaccharide, followed by one uronic acid reductase and two 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate (KDG) kinases to produce pyruvate. A nonclassical mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalyzing d-mannitol 1-phosphate to fructose 1-phosphate in the presence of NAD+, and one laminarase also were disclosed. This work revealed that a thermophilic brown alga-decomposing system containing numerous novel thermophilic alginate lyases and a unique mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase was adopted by the natural ethanologenic strain Alg1 during the process of evolution in hostile habitats. PMID:26590273

  16. Defluviitalea phaphyphila sp. nov., a Novel Thermophilic Bacterium That Degrades Brown Algae.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shi-Qi; Wang, Bing; Lu, Ming; Li, Fu-Li

    2016-02-01

    Brown algae are one of the largest groups of oceanic primary producers for CO2 removal and carbon sinks for coastal regions. However, the mechanism for brown alga assimilation remains largely unknown in thermophilic microorganisms. In this work, a thermophilic alginolytic community was enriched from coastal sediment, from which an obligate anaerobic and thermophilic bacterial strain, designated Alg1, was isolated. Alg1 shared a 16S rRNA gene identity of 94.6% with Defluviitalea saccharophila LIND6LT2(T). Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic studies suggested strain Alg1 represented a novel species of the genus Defluviitalea, for which the name Defluviitalea phaphyphila sp. nov. is proposed. Alg1 exhibited an intriguing ability to convert carbohydrates of brown algae, including alginate, laminarin, and mannitol, to ethanol and acetic acid. Three gene clusters participating in this process were predicted to be in the genome, and candidate enzymes were successfully expressed, purified, and characterized. Six alginate lyases were demonstrated to synergistically deconstruct alginate into unsaturated monosaccharide, followed by one uronic acid reductase and two 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate (KDG) kinases to produce pyruvate. A nonclassical mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalyzing D-mannitol 1-phosphate to fructose 1-phosphate in the presence of NAD(+), and one laminarase also were disclosed. This work revealed that a thermophilic brown alga-decomposing system containing numerous novel thermophilic alginate lyases and a unique mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase was adopted by the natural ethanologenic strain Alg1 during the process of evolution in hostile habitats. PMID:26590273

  17. Enhancement of Synthetic Trichoderma-Based Enzyme Mixtures for Biomass Conversion with an Alternative Family 5 Glycosyl Hydrolase from Sporotrichum thermophile

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhuoliang; Zheng, Yun; Li, Bingyao; Borrusch, Melissa S.; Storms, Reginald; Walton, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic materials to fermentable sugars is a limiting step in the production of biofuels from biomass. We show here that combining enzymes from different microbial sources is one way to identify superior enzymes. Extracts of the thermophilic fungus Sporotrichum thermophile (synonym Myceliophthora thermophila) gave synergistic release of glucose (Glc) and xylose (Xyl) from pretreated corn stover when combined with an 8-component synthetic cocktail of enzymes from Trichoderma reesei. The S. thermophile extracts were fractionated and an enhancing factor identified as endo-β1,4- glucanase (StCel5A or EG2) of subfamily 5 of Glycosyl Hydrolase family 5 (GH5_5). In multi-component optimization experiments using a standard set of enzymes and either StCel5A or the ortholog from T. reesei (TrCel5A), reactions containing StCel5A yielded more Glc and Xyl. In a five-component optimization experiment (i.e., varying four core enzymes and the source of Cel5A), the optimal proportions for TrCel5A vs. StCel5A were similar for Glc yields, but markedly different for Xyl yields. Both enzymes were active on lichenan, glucomannan, and oat β-glucan; however, StCel5A but not TrCel5A was also active on β1,4-mannan, two types of galactomannan, and β1,4-xylan. Phylogenetically, fungal enzymes in GH5_5 sorted into two clades, with StCel5A and TrCel5A belonging to different clades. Structural differences with the potential to account for the differences in performance were deduced based on the known structure of TrCel5A and a homology-based model of StCel5A, including a loop near the active site of TrCel5A and the presence of four additional Trp residues in the active cleft of StCel5A. The results indicate that superior biomass-degrading enzymes can be identified by exploring taxonomic diversity combined with assays in the context of realistic enzyme combinations and realistic substrates. Substrate range may be a key factor contributing to superior

  18. Enhancement of synthetic Trichoderma-based enzyme mixtures for biomass conversion with an alternative family 5 glycosyl hydrolase from Sporotrichum thermophile.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhuoliang; Zheng, Yun; Li, Bingyao; Borrusch, Melissa S; Storms, Reginald; Walton, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic materials to fermentable sugars is a limiting step in the production of biofuels from biomass. We show here that combining enzymes from different microbial sources is one way to identify superior enzymes. Extracts of the thermophilic fungus Sporotrichum thermophile (synonym Myceliophthora thermophila) gave synergistic release of glucose (Glc) and xylose (Xyl) from pretreated corn stover when combined with an 8-component synthetic cocktail of enzymes from Trichoderma reesei. The S. thermophile extracts were fractionated and an enhancing factor identified as endo-β1,4-glucanase (StCel5A or EG2) of subfamily 5 of Glycosyl Hydrolase family 5 (GH5_5). In multi-component optimization experiments using a standard set of enzymes and either StCel5A or the ortholog from T. reesei (TrCel5A), reactions containing StCel5A yielded more Glc and Xyl. In a five-component optimization experiment (i.e., varying four core enzymes and the source of Cel5A), the optimal proportions for TrCel5A vs. StCel5A were similar for Glc yields, but markedly different for Xyl yields. Both enzymes were active on lichenan, glucomannan, and oat β-glucan; however, StCel5A but not TrCel5A was also active on β1,4-mannan, two types of galactomannan, and β1,4-xylan. Phylogenetically, fungal enzymes in GH5_5 sorted into two clades, with StCel5A and TrCel5A belonging to different clades. Structural differences with the potential to account for the differences in performance were deduced based on the known structure of TrCel5A and a homology-based model of StCel5A, including a loop near the active site of TrCel5A and the presence of four additional Trp residues in the active cleft of StCel5A. The results indicate that superior biomass-degrading enzymes can be identified by exploring taxonomic diversity combined with assays in the context of realistic enzyme combinations and realistic substrates. Substrate range may be a key factor contributing to superior performance

  19. Sequence-Based Identification of Aerobic Actinomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jean Baldus; Wallace, Richard J.; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Taylor, Tony; Imperatrice, Carol; Leonard, Deborah G. B.; Wilson, Rebecca W.; Mann, Linda; Jost, Kenneth C.; Nachamkin, Irving

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the utility of 500-bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying clinically significant species of aerobic actinomycetes. A total of 28 reference strains and 71 clinical isolates that included members of the genera Streptomyces, Gordonia, and Tsukamurella and 10 taxa of Nocardia were studied. Methods of nonsequencing analyses included growth and biochemical analysis, PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of the 439-bp Telenti fragment of the 65 hsp gene, susceptibility testing, and, for selected isolates, high-performance liquid chromatography. Many of the isolates were included in prior taxonomic studies. Sequencing of Nocardia species revealed that members of the group were generally most closely related to the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) type strains. However, the sequences of Nocardia transvalensis, N. otitidiscaviarum, and N. nova isolates were highly variable; and it is likely that each of these species contains multiple species. We propose that these three species be designated complexes until they are more taxonomically defined. The sequences of several taxa did not match any recognized species. Among other aerobic actinomycetes, each group most closely resembled the associated reference strain, but with some divergence. The study demonstrates the ability of partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify members of the aerobic actinomycetes, but the study also shows that a high degree of sequence divergence exists within many species and that many taxa within the Nocardia spp. are unnamed at present. A major unresolved issue is the type strain of N. asteroides, as the present one (ATCC 19247), chosen before the availability of molecular analysis, does not represent any of the common taxa associated with clinical nocardiosis. PMID:15184431

  20. Aerobic degradation of olive mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Benitez, J; Beltran-Heredia, J; Torregrosa, J; Acero, J L; Cercas, V

    1997-02-01

    The degradation of olive mill wastewater by aerobic microorganisms has been investigated in a batch reactor, by conducting experiments where the initial concentration of organic matter, quantified by the chemical oxygen demand, and the initial biomass were varied. The evolution of the chemical oxygen demand, biomass and the total contents of phenolic and aromatic compounds were followed through each experiment. According to the Contois model, a kinetic expression for the substrate utilization rate is derived, and its biokinetic constants are evaluated. This final predicted equation agrees well with all the experimental data. PMID:9077005

  1. [Heterotrophic Nitrification and Aerobic Denitrification of the Hypothermia Aerobic Denitrification Bacterium: Arthrobacter arilaitensis].

    PubMed

    He, Teng-xia; Ni, Jiu-pai; Li, Zhen-lun; Sun, Quan; Ye Qing; Xu, Yi

    2016-03-15

    High concentrations of ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen were employed to clarify the abilities of heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. Meanwhile, by means of inoculating the strain suspension into the mixed ammonium and nitrate, ammonium and nitrite nitrogen simulated wastewater, we studied the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification ability of Arthrobacter arilaitensis strain Y-10. In addition, cell optical density was assayed in each nitrogen removal process to analyze the relationship of cell growth and nitrogen removal efficiency. The results showed that the hypothermia denitrification strain Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 exhibited high nitrogen removal efficiency during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification. The ammonium, nitrate and nitrite removal rates were 65.0%, 100% and 61.2% respectively when strain Y-10 was cultivated for 4 d at 15°C with initial ammonium, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen concentrations of 208.43 mg · L⁻¹, 201.16 mg · L⁻¹ and 194.33 mg · L⁻¹ and initial pH of 7.2. Nitrite nitrogen could only be accumulated in the medium containing nitrate nitrogen during heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification process. Additionally, the ammonium nitrogen was mainly removed in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. In short, Arthrobacter arilaitensis Y-10 could conduct nitrification and denitrification effectively under aerobic condition and the ammonium nitrogen removal rate was more than 80.0% in the inorganic nitrogen mixed synthetic wastewater. PMID:27337904

  2. Adults Eligible for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Counseling and Participation in Aerobic Physical Activity - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Omura, John D; Carlson, Susan A; Paul, Prabasaj; Watson, Kathleen B; Loustalot, Fleetwood; Foltz, Jennifer L; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-09-25

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and physical inactivity is a major risk factor (1). Health care professionals have a role in counseling patients about physical activity for CVD prevention. In August 2014, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended that adults who are overweight or obese and have additional CVD risk factors be offered or referred to intensive behavioral counseling interventions to promote a healthful diet and physical activity for CVD prevention. Although the USPSTF recommendation does not specify an amount of physical activity, the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans state that for substantial health benefits adults should achieve ≥150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity or ≥75 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity. To assess the proportion of adults eligible for intensive behavioral counseling and not meeting the aerobic physical activity guideline, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This analysis indicated that 36.8% of adults were eligible for intensive behavioral counseling for CVD prevention. Among U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC), the prevalence of eligible adults ranged from 29.0% to 44.6%. Nationwide, 19.9% of all adults were eligible and did not meet the aerobic physical activity guideline. These data can inform the planning and implementation of health care interventions for CVD prevention that are based on physical activity. PMID:26401758

  3. Tracing organic compounds in aerobically altered methane-derived carbonate pipes (Gulf of Cadiz, SW Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merinero, Raúl; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Menor-Salván, César; Lunar, Rosario; Martínez-Frías, Jesús

    2012-07-01

    The primary geochemical process at methane seeps is anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), performed by methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The molecular fingerprints (biomarkers) of these chemosynthetic microorganisms can be preserved in carbonates formed through AOM. However, thermal maturity and aerobic degradation can change the original preserved compounds, making it difficult to establish the relation between AOM and carbonate precipitation. Here we report a study of amino acid and lipid abundances in carbonate matrices of aerobically altered pipes recovered from the seafloor of the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian Peninsula). This area is characterized by a complex tectonic regime that supports numerous cold seeps. Studies so far have not determined whether the precipitation of carbonate pipes in the Gulf of Cadiz is a purely chemical process or whether microbial communities are involved. Samples from this site show signs of exposure to oxygenated waters and of aerobic alteration, such as oxidation of authigenic iron sulfides. In addition, the degradation index, calculated from the relative abundance of preserved amino acids, indicates aerobic degradation of organic matter. Although crocetane was the only lipid identified from methanotrophic archaea, the organic compounds detected (n-alkanes, regular isoprenoids and alcohols) are compatible with an origin from AOM coupled with bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) and subsequent aerobic degradation. We establish a relation among AOM, BSR and pipe formation in the Gulf of Cadiz through three types of analysis: (1) stable carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate minerals; (2) carbonate microfabrics; and (3) mineralogical composition. Our results suggest that carbonate pipes may form through a process similar to the precipitation of vast amounts of carbonate pavements often found at cold seeps. Our approach suggests that some organic compound patterns, in combination with additional

  4. Intracellular azo decolorization is coupled with aerobic respiration by a Klebsiella oxytoca strain.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Xie, Tian; Hu, Jin-Mei; Wang, Shi; Li, Wen-Wei

    2015-03-01

    Reduction of azo dye methyl red coupled with aerobic respiration by growing cultures of Klebsiella oxytoca GS-4-08 was investigated. In liquid media containing dye and 0.6 % glucose in a mineral salts base, 100 mg l(-1) of the dye are completely removed in 3 h under shaking conditions. The dye cannot be aerobically decolorized by strain GS-4-08 without extra carbon sources, indicating a co-metabolism process. Higher initial dye concentration prolonged the lag phase of the cell growth, but final cell concentrations of each batches reached a same level with range from 6.3 to 7.6 mg l(-1) after the dye adaption period. This strain showed stronger dye tolerance and decolorization ability than many reported strains. Furthermore, a new intracellular oxygen-insensitive azoreductase was isolated from this strain, and the specific activity of enzyme was 0.846 and 0.633 U mg(-1) protein in the presence of NADH and NADPH, respectively. N,N dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine and anthranilic acid were stoichiometrically released from MR dye, indicating the breakage of azo bonds accounts for the intracellular decolorization. Combining the characteristics of azoreductase, the stoichiometry of EMP, and TCA cycle, the electron transfer chain theory of aerobic respiration, and the possible mechanism of aerobic respiration coupled with azo reduction by K. oxytoca GS-4-08 are proposed. This study is expected to provide a sound theoretical basis for the development of the K. oxytoca strain in aerobic process for azo dye containing wastewaters. PMID:25343980

  5. Controlled clinical evaluation of BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F and BacT/Alert Aerobic FAN bottles for detection of bloodstream infections.

    PubMed Central

    Pohlman, J K; Kirkley, B A; Easley, K A; Basille, B A; Washington, J A

    1995-01-01

    A total of 7,190 blood culture sets were obtained from adult patients with a suspected bloodstream infection. A 20-ml sample of blood was distributed equally between the aerobic FAN bottle which was monitored in the BacT/Alert system and a Plus Aerobic/F bottle which was monitored in the BACTEC 9240 system. A total of 988 positive cultures were obtained from 483 patients; however, only 453 positive cultures from 173 patients met the criteria for volume ( > or = ml per bottle) and clinical significance on the basis of concurrent case review required for data analysis. There were 25 and 68 false positives from the FAN and Plus Aerobic/F bottles, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between systems in the number of positive cultures or septic episodes by species; however, the total number of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates combined was significantly greater in the FAN bottle (P = 0.04). Detection times did not differ significantly between systems for positive cultures; however, episodes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia were detected significantly more rapidly from the FAN bottle (P = 0.005). There was no significant difference between systems in the detection of bloodstream infections in patients receiving antibiotics at the time of blood culture. PMID:8576333

  6. Aerobic/anoxic post-treatment of anaerobically digested sewage sludge as an alternative to biological nitrogen removal from reject water.

    PubMed

    Morras, Mikel; Dosta, J; García-Heras, J L

    2015-05-01

    Stabilisation and biological nitrogen removal (BNR) of anaerobically digested sewage sludge were studied in a post-aeration reactor at pilot scale working under alternating anoxic-aerobic conditions. Digested sludge came from a two-stage anaerobic digestion (thermophilic + mesophilic). The best post-aerator performance was achieved when working at an HRT of 10 days (4 days aerobic; dissolved oxygen of 1.8 mg L(-1)) and VS content in the feed no lower than 6.7 g L(-1). Free ammonia concentration values in the effluent above 1.5 mg N L(-1) (around 150 mg NH4 (+)-N L(-1) at pH 7) were necessary to promote the BNR over nitrite. Removal efficiencies up to 80 % NH4 (+)-N, 50-55 % total nitrogen and 15-20 % VS were recorded in this study, with no external addition of chemicals. A nitrogen mass balance revealed that the high percent of NH4 (+)-N assimilated in heterotrophic growth was counteracted with that released in ammonification and fermentation, leading to a NH4 (+)-N removal mainly related to biological nitritation/denitritation. PMID:25407727

  7. 13C-NMR Assessment of the Pattern of Organic Matter Transformation during Domestic Wastewater Treatment by Autothermal Aerobic Digestion (ATAD)

    PubMed Central

    Piterina, Anna V.; Barlett, John; Pembroke, J. Tony

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of biodegradation and the chemical changes occurring in the macromolecular fraction of domestic sludge during autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) was monitored and characterised via solid-state 13C-NMR CP-MAS. Major indexes such as aromaticity, hydrophobicity and alkyl/O-alkyl ratios calculated for the ATAD processed biosolids were compared by means of these values to corresponding indexes reported for sludges of different origin such as manures, soil organic matter and certain types of compost. Given that this is the first time that these techniques have been applied to ATAD sludge, the data indicates that long-chain aliphatics are easily utilized by the microbial populations as substrates for metabolic activities at all stages of aerobic digestion and serve as a key substrate for the temperature increase, which in turn results in sludge sterilization. The ATAD biosolids following treatment had a prevalence of O-alkyl domains, a low aromaticity index (10.4%) and an alkyl/O-alkyl ratio of 0.48 while the hydrophobicity index of the sludge decreased from 1.12 to 0.62 during the treatment. These results have important implications for the evolution of new ATAD modalities particularly in relation to dewatering and the future use of ATAD processed biosolids as a fertilizer, particularly with respect to hydrological impacts on the soil behaviour. PMID:19742161

  8. Limisphaera ngatamarikiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic, pink-pigmented coccus isolated from subaqueous mud of a geothermal hotspring.

    PubMed

    Anders, Heike; Power, Jean F; MacKenzie, Andrew D; Lagutin, Kirill; Vyssotski, Mikhail; Hanssen, Eric; Moreau, John W; Stott, Matthew B

    2015-04-01

    A novel bacterial strain, NGM72.4(T), was isolated from a hot spring in the Ngatamariki geothermal field, New Zealand. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences grouped it into the phylum Verrucomicrobia and class level group 3 (also known as OPB35 soil group). NGM72.4(T) stained Gram-negative, and was catalase- and oxidase-positive. Cells were small cocci, 0.5-0.8 µm in diameter, which were motile by means of single flagella. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) imaging showed an unusual pirellulosome-like intracytoplasmic membrane. The peptidoglycan content was very small with only trace levels of diaminopimelic acid detected. No peptidoglycan structure was visible in TEM imaging. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 (92%). The major fatty acids (>15%) were C(16 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). Major phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine (PMME) and cardiolipin (CL), and a novel analogous series of phospholipids where diacylglycerol was replaced with diacylserinol (sPE, sPMME, sCL). The DNA G+C content was 65.6 mol%. Cells displayed an oxidative chemoheterotrophic metabolism. NGM72.4(T) is a strictly aerobic thermophile (growth optimum 60-65 °C), has a slightly alkaliphilic pH growth optimum (optimum pH 8.1-8.4) and has a NaCl tolerance of up to 8 g l(-1). Colonies were small, circular and pigmented pale pink. The distinct phylogenetic position and phenotypic traits of strain NGM72.4(T) distinguish it from all other described species of the phylum Verrucomicrobia and, therefore, it is considered to represent a novel species in a new genus for which we propose the name Limisphaera ngatamarikiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is NGM72.4(T) ( = ICMP 20182(T) = DSM 27329(T)). PMID:25575826

  9. Characterization and aerobic biodegradation of selected monoterpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, G.; Pavlostathis, S.G.; Li, J.; Purdue, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    Monoterpenes are biogenic chemicals and occur in abundance in nature. Large-scale industrial use of these chemicals has recently been initiated in an attempt to replace halogenated solvents and chlorofluorocarbons which have been implicated in the stratospheric depletion of ozone. This study examined four hydrocarbon monoterpenes (d-limonene, {alpha}-pinene, {gamma}-terpinene, and terpinolene) and four alcohols (arbanol, linalool, plinol, and {alpha}-terpineol). Water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficients were estimated. Aerobic biodegradability tests were conducted in batch reactors by utilizing forest soil extract and enriched cultures as inoculum. The hydrophobic nature and high volatility of the hydrocarbons restricted the investigation to relatively low aqueous concentrations. Each monoterpene was analyzed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector after extraction from the aqueous phase with isooctane. Terpene mineralization was tested by monitoring liquid-phase carbon, CO{sub 2} production and biomass growth. All four hydrocarbons and two alcohols readily degraded under aerobic conditions. Plinol resisted degradation in assays using inocula from diverse sources, while arbanol degraded very slowly. The intrinsic biokinetics coefficients for the degradation of d-limonene and {alpha}-terpineol were estimated by using cultures enriched with the respective monoterpenes. Monoterpene biodegradation followed Monod kinetics.

  10. Reactor performance and microbial community dynamics during solid-state anaerobic digestion of corn stover at mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian; Wang, Zhongjiang; Stiverson, Jill A; Yu, Zhongtang; Li, Yebo

    2013-05-01

    Reactor performance and microbial community dynamics were investigated during solid state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of corn stover at mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Thermophilic SS-AD led to faster and greater reductions of cellulose and hemicelluloses during the first 12 days compared to mesophilic SS-AD. However, accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was 5-fold higher at thermophilic than mesophilic temperatures, resulting in a large pH drop during days 6-12 in the thermophilic reactors. Culture-based enumeration revealed 10-50 times greater populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic microbes during thermophilic SS-AD than mesophilic SS-AD. DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes showed dynamic shifts, especially during the thermophilic SS-AD, of bacterial and archaeal communities over the 38 days of SS-AD as a result of acclimation of the initial seed microbial consortia to the lignocellulosic feedstock. The findings of this study can guide future studies to improve efficiency and stability of SS-AD. PMID:23567733

  11. Decontamination of heavy metal laden sewage sludge with simultaneous solids reduction using thermophilic sulfur and ferrous oxidizing species.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, A; Kundu, K; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2016-02-01

    A possibility of using simultaneous sewage sludge digestion and metal leaching (SSDML) process at the thermophilic temperature to remove heavy metals and suspended solids from sewage sludge is explored in this study. Though thermophilic sludge digestion efficiently produces a stable sludge, its inability to remove heavy metals requires it to be used in tandem with another process like bioleaching for metal reduction. Previously, different temperature optima were known for the heterotrophs (thermophilic) responsible for the sludge digestion and the autotrophs involved in bioleaching (mesophilic), because of which the metal concentration was brought down separately in a different reactor. In our study, SSDML process was carried out at 50 °C (thermophilic) by using ferrous sulfate (batch-1) and sulfur (batch-2) as the energy source in two reactors. The concentration of volatile suspended solids reduced by >40% in both batches, while that of heavy metals zinc, copper, chromium, cadmium and nickel decreased by >50% in both batch-1 and batch-2. Lead got leached out only in batch-1. Using 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis, Alicyclobacillus tolerans was found to be the microorganism responsible for lowering the pH in both the reactors at thermophilic temperature. The indicator organism count was also below the maximum permissible limit making sludge suitable for agricultural use. Our results indicate that SSDML at thermophilic temperature can be effectively used for reduction of heavy metals and suspended solids from sewage sludge. PMID:26686075

  12. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  13. Psychological Benefits of Aerobic Running: Implications for Mental Health Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the effect of aerobic running on psychological functioning and its adjunctive use in mental health counseling. Concludes that mental health counselors can provide more comprehensive services if they expand the psychoeducational model to include physiological parameters such as aerobic running that are associated with optimum mental…

  14. The Psychology, Physiology, and Creativity of Middle School Aerobic Exercisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, J. Scott; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Investigated effects of aerobic running program on psychological and physical fitness and creative abilities of eight-grade school children. Students (n=85) were randomly assigned to aerobic running treatment groups or to control groups who participated in traditional, nonaerobic physical education. Found statistically significant increases for…

  15. Aerobic Fitness Thresholds Associated with Fifth Grade Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittberg, Richard; Cottrell, Lesley A.; Davis, Catherine L.; Northrup, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whereas effects of physical fitness and physical activity on cognitive function have been documented, little is known about how they are related. Purpose: This study assessed student aerobic fitness measured by FITNESSGRAM Mile times and/or Pacer circuits and whether the nature of the association between aerobic fitness and…

  16. Factors associated with low levels of aerobic fitness among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of low aerobic fitness levels and to analyze the association with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and excess body fatness among adolescents of southern Brazil. Methods: The study included 879 adolescents aged 14-19 years the city of São José/SC, Brazil. The aerobic fitness was assessed by Canadian modified test of aerobic fitness. Sociodemographic variables (skin color, age, sex, study turn, economic level), sexual maturation and lifestyle (eating habits, screen time, physical activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Excess body fatness was evaluated by sum of skinfolds triceps and subscapular. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Prevalence of low aerobic fitness level was 87.5%. The girls who spent two hours or more in front screen, consumed less than one glass of milk by day, did not smoke and had an excess of body fatness had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. White boys with low physical activity had had a higher chance of having lower levels of aerobic fitness. Conclusions: Eight out of ten adolescents were with low fitness levels aerobic. Modifiable lifestyle factors were associated with low levels of aerobic fitness. Interventions that emphasize behavior change are needed. PMID:26743851

  17. Aerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopping, Paul H.

    This manual contains the textual material for a single-lesson unit on aerobic sludge digestion. Topic areas addressed include: (1) theory of aerobic digestion; (2) system components; (3) performance factors; (4) indicators of stable operation; and (5) operational problems and their solutions. A list of objectives, glossary of key terms, and…

  18. EFFECTS OF CORN SILAGE INOCULANTS ON AEROBIC STABILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerobic stability of corn silage can be a major problem for farmers particularly in warm weather. Silage inoculants, while the most common type of silage additive, have not been consistently effective at improving aerobic stability. This study investigated new and proposed inoculant products over ...

  19. Aerobic Activity--Do Physical Education Programs Provide Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGing, Eileen

    1989-01-01

    High school physical education curricula should concentrate less on sport skill development and competition, and more on health-related fitness and aerobic activity. Results are reported from a study of the type and amount of aerobic exercise provided in 29 high school physical education programs in a large metropolitan area. (IAH)

  20. Sexual dimorphism in primate aerobic capacity: a phylogenetic test.

    PubMed

    Lindenfors, Patrik; Revell, L J; Nunn, C L

    2010-06-01

    Male intrasexual competition should favour increased male physical prowess. This should in turn result in greater aerobic capacity in males than in females (i.e. sexual dimorphism) and a correlation between sexual dimorphism in aerobic capacity and the strength of sexual selection among species. However, physiological scaling laws predict that aerobic capacity should be lower per unit body mass in larger than in smaller animals, potentially reducing or reversing the sex difference and its association with measures of sexual selection. We used measures of haematocrit and red blood cell (RBC) counts from 45 species of primates to test four predictions related to sexual selection and body mass: (i) on average, males should have higher aerobic capacity than females, (ii) aerobic capacity should be higher in adult than juvenile males, (iii) aerobic capacity should increase with increasing sexual selection, but also that (iv) measures of aerobic capacity should co-vary negatively with body mass. For the first two predictions, we used a phylogenetic paired t-test developed for this study. We found support for predictions (i) and (ii). For prediction (iii), however, we found a negative correlation between the degree of sexual selection and aerobic capacity, which was opposite to our prediction. Prediction (iv) was generally supported. We also investigated whether substrate use, basal metabolic rate and agility influenced physiological measures of oxygen transport, but we found only weak evidence for a correlation between RBC count and agility. PMID:20406346

  1. 40 CFR 796.3100 - Aerobic aquatic biodegradation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aerobic aquatic biodegradation. 796.3100 Section 796.3100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL FATE TESTING GUIDELINES Transformation Processes § 796.3100 Aerobic aquatic biodegradation. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 796.3100 - Aerobic aquatic biodegradation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aerobic aquatic biodegradation. 796.3100 Section 796.3100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL FATE TESTING GUIDELINES Transformation Processes § 796.3100 Aerobic aquatic biodegradation. (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 796.3100 - Aerobic aquatic biodegradation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aerobic aquatic biodegradation. 796.3100 Section 796.3100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL FATE TESTING GUIDELINES Transformation Processes § 796.3100 Aerobic aquatic biodegradation. (a)...

  4. Chemolithotrophic growth of the aerobic hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermocrinis ruber OC 14/7/2 on monothioarsenate and arsenite.

    PubMed

    Härtig, Cornelia; Lohmayer, Regina; Kolb, Steffen; Horn, Marcus A; Inskeep, William P; Planer-Friedrich, Britta

    2014-12-01

    Novel insights are provided regarding aerobic chemolithotrophic growth of Thermocrinis ruber OC14/7/2 on the electron donors arsenite and monothioarsenate. Thermocrinis ruber is a hyperthermophilic bacterium that thrives in pH-neutral to alkaline hot springs and grows on hydrogen, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate. Our study showed that T. ruber can also utilize arsenite as sole electron donor producing arsenate. Growth rates of 0.024 h(-1) were lower than for oxidation of thiosulfate to sulfate (μ = 0.247 h(-1)). Fast growth was observed on monothioarsenate (μ = 0.359 h(-1)), comprising different abiotic and biotic redox interactions. The initial dominant process was abiotic transformation of monothioarsenate to arsenate and elemental sulfur, followed by microbial oxidation of sulfur to sulfate. Elevated microbial activity during stationary growth of T. ruber might be explained by microbial oxidation of thiosulfate and arsenite, both also products of abiotic monothioarsenate transformation. However, the observed rapid decrease of monothioarsenate, exceeding concentrations in equilibrium with its products, also indicates direct microbial oxidation of arsenic-bond S(-II) to sulfate. Free sulfide was oxidized abiotically too fast to play a role as electron donor for T. ruber. Our present laboratory and previous field studies suggest that thioarsenates can either indirectly or directly be used by (hyper)thermophiles in arsenic-sulfidic environments. PMID:25251939

  5. Heart rate during aerobics classes in women with different previous experience of aerobics.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, R M; Kalaja, M K; Kalaja, S P; Holmala, E B; Paavolainen, L M; Tummavuori, M; Virtanen, P; Rusko, H K

    2001-01-01

    This study measured heart rate during floor and step aerobic classes at three intensity levels. A group of 20 female occasional exercisers [mean age 33 (SD 8) years, mean body mass index 21 (SD 2) kg.m-2 volunteered to participate in six aerobic classes (three floor classes, three step classes) and in a laboratory test as members of one of two groups according to their prestudy regular participation in aerobics classes. Subjects in group A had participated four or more times a week and those of group B less than twice a week. The characteristics of the groups were as follows: group A, n = 10, mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 38.7 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, mean maximal heart rate (HRmax) 183 (SD 8) beats.min-1; group B, n = 10, VO2max 36.1 (SD 3.6) ml.kg-1.min-1, HRmax 178 (SD 7) beats.min-1. Each class consisted of a warm-up, a 20 min period of structured aerobic exercise (cardiophase) and a cool-down. The cardiophase was planned and guided as light, (rate of perceived exertion, RPE 11-12), moderate (RPE 13-14) or heavy (RPE 15-17) by an experienced instructor. The mean heart rates during the light classes were 72 (step) and 74 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 75 (step) and 79 (floor) %HRmax in group B; during the moderate classes, 84 (step) and 80 (floor) %HRmax in group A and 82 (step) and 83 (floor) %HRmax in group B, and during the heavy classes 89 (step and floor) %HRmax in group A and 88 (step) and 92 (floor) %HRmax in group B. Differences in heart rate and %HRmax were not statistically significant between the groups. However, differences in heart rate and %HRmax between the intensities (light vs moderate, moderate vs heavy and light vs heavy) were significant within both groups (all, P < 0.01). Based on the results, we conclude that intensity management during the aerobics classes was generally successful regardless of the participants' prior participation in aerobics. However, some individuals who were older and/or had less prior participation tended to

  6. Hypertrophy-Promoting Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Pre-Senescent Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zhi; Cholewa, Jason; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Yue-Qin; Shang, Hua-Yu; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Su, Quan-Sheng; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1® mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload) and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity) of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown. PMID:27144582

  7. Hypertrophy-Promoting Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise in Pre-Senescent Mice.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhi; Cholewa, Jason; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Yue-Qin; Shang, Hua-Yu; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Su, Quan-Sheng; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have indicated a positive influence of leucine supplementation and aerobic training on the aging skeletal muscle signaling pathways that control muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling. However, the effect of a combined intervention requires further clarification. Thirteen month old CD-1(®) mice were subjected to moderate aerobic exercise (45 min swimming per day with 3% body weight workload) and fed a chow diet with 5% leucine or 3.4% alanine for 8 weeks. Serum and plasma were prepared for glucose, urea nitrogen, insulin and amino acid profile analysis. The white gastrocnemius muscles were used for determination of muscle size and signaling proteins involved in protein synthesis and degradation. The results show that both 8 weeks of leucine supplementation and aerobic training elevated the activity of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and its downstream target p70S6K and 4E-BP1, inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and increased fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) in white gastrocnemius muscle. Moreover, leucine supplementation in combination with exercise demonstrated more significant effects, such as greater CSA, protein content and altered phosphorylation (suggestive of increased activity) of protein synthesis signaling proteins, in addition to lower expression of proteins involved in protein degradation compared to leucine or exercise alone. The current study shows moderate aerobic training combined with 5% leucine supplementation has the potential to increase muscle size in fast-twitch skeletal muscle during aging, potentially through increased protein synthesis and decreased protein breakdown. PMID:27144582

  8. Calcium spatial distribution in aerobic granules and its effects on granule structure, strength and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ting-Ting; Liu, Li; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Zhang, Ming-Chuan; Zhu, Jian-Rong

    2008-07-01

    Calcium-rich aerobic granules were cultivated after 3-month operation. The chemical form and spatial distribution of calcium in the granules and their physicochemical characteristics were explored. Examination with a scanning electron microscope combined energy dispersive X-ray detector (SEM-EDX) shows that Ca was mainly accumulated in the core of the granules. CaCO(3) was found to be the main calcium precipitate in the granules. The fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis shows that the cells were crowded in the outer layer and gathered in clusters. Compared with the granules without Ca accumulation, the Ca-rich granules had more rigid structure and a higher strength. However, their specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) reduced after the Ca accumulation inside them. Comparison between the SOUR values of the granules with and without Ca accumulation suggests that Ca accumulated in the aerobic granules might have a negative effect on their bioactivity. PMID:18514253

  9. Discovery and characterization of ionic liquid-tolerant thermophilic cellulases from a switchgrass-adapted microbial community

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of advanced biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass will require the use of both efficient pretreatment methods and new biomass-deconstructing enzyme cocktails to generate sugars from lignocellulosic substrates. Certain ionic liquids (ILs) have emerged as a promising class of compounds for biomass pretreatment and have been demonstrated to reduce the recalcitrance of biomass for enzymatic hydrolysis. However, current commercial cellulase cocktails are strongly inhibited by most of the ILs that are effective biomass pretreatment solvents. Fortunately, recent research has shown that IL-tolerant cocktails can be formulated and are functional on lignocellulosic biomass. This study sought to expand the list of known IL-tolerant cellulases to further enable IL-tolerant cocktail development by developing a combined in vitro/in vivo screening pipeline for metagenome-derived genes. Results Thirty-seven predicted cellulases derived from a thermophilic switchgrass-adapted microbial community were screened in this study. Eighteen of the twenty-one enzymes that expressed well in E. coli were active in the presence of the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) concentrations of at least 10% (v/v), with several retaining activity in the presence of 40% (v/v), which is currently the highest reported tolerance to [C2mim][OAc] for any cellulase. In addition, the optimum temperatures of the enzymes ranged from 45 to 95°C and the pH optimum ranged from 5.5 to 7.5, indicating these enzymes can be used to construct cellulase cocktails that function under a broad range of temperature, pH and IL concentrations. Conclusions This study characterized in detail twenty-one cellulose-degrading enzymes derived from a thermophilic microbial community and found that 70% of them were [C2mim][OAc]-tolerant. A comparison of optimum temperature and [C2mim][OAc]-tolerance demonstrates that a positive correlation exists between these properties for those enzymes

  10. Saccharopolyspora subtropica sp. nov., a thermophilic actinomycete isolated from soil of a sugar cane field.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Bin; Pan, Shangli

    2016-05-01

    A novel thermophilic actinomycete, designated strain T3T, was isolated from a soil sample of a sugar cane field. The strain grew at 25-60 °C (optimum 37-50 °C), at pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum 7.0-9.0) and with 0-12.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-7 %). The aerial mycelium was white and the vegetative mycelium was colourless to pale yellow. The substrate mycelium fragmented into rod-shaped elements after 4-5 days at 50 °C. The aerial mycelium formed flexuous chains of 5-20 spores per chain; the oval-shaped spores had spiny surfaces and were non-motile. The organism contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The whole-cell sugars consisted of arabinose, galactose and ribose. The cellular fatty acid profile consisted mainly of anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The quinone system was composed predominantly of MK-9(H4). The phospholipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine and ninhydrin-positive glycophospholipids. The DNA G+C content of strain T3T was 71.3 mol%. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic properties typical of members of the genus Saccharopolyspora. In the 16S rRNA gene tree of Saccharopolyspora it formed a distinct phyletic line and was related most closely to Saccharopolyspora thermophila 216T. However, the phenotypic characteristics of strain T3T were significantly different from those of S. thermophila 216T and DNA-DNA hybridization revealed a low level of relatedness (28.6-32.3 %) between them. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain T3T represents a novel species in the genus Saccharopolyspora, for which the name Saccharopolyspora subtropica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T3T ( = DSM 46801T = CGMCC 4.7206T). PMID:26882893

  11. Specific Training Effects of Concurrent Aerobic and Strength Exercises Depend on Recovery Duration.

    PubMed

    Robineau, Julien; Babault, Nicolas; Piscione, Julien; Lacome, Mathieu; Bigard, André X

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the duration (0, 6, or 24 hours) of recovery between strength and aerobic sequences influences the responses to a concurrent training program. Fifty-eight amateur rugby players were randomly assigned to control (CONT), concurrent training (C-0h, C-6h, or C-24h), or strength training (STR) groups during a 7-week training period. Two sessions of each quality were proposed each week with strength always performed before aerobic training. Neuromuscular and aerobic measurements were performed before and immediately after the overall training period. Data were assessed for practical significance using magnitude-based inference. Gains in maximal strength for bench press and half squat were lower in C-0h compared with that in C-6h, C-24h, and STR. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) during isokinetic knee extension at 60°·s(-1) was likely higher for C-24h compared with C-0h. Changes in MVC at 180°·s(-1) was likely higher in C-24h and STR than in C-0h and C-6h. Training-induced gains in isometric MVC for C-0h, C-6h, C-24h, and STR were unclear. V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak increased in C-0h, C-6h, and C-24h. Training-induced changes in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak were higher in C-24h than in C-0h and C-6h. Our study emphasized that the interference on strength development depends on the recovery delay between the 2 sequences. Daily training without a recovery period between sessions (C-0h) and, to a lesser extent, training twice a day (C-6h), is not optimal for neuromuscular and aerobic improvements. Fitness coaches should avoid scheduling 2 contradictory qualities, with less than 6-hour recovery between them to obtain full adaptive responses to concurrent training. PMID:25546450

  12. Selecting anti-microbial treatment of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Ruban, Katerina; Bellen, Gert

    2015-05-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a vaginal infectious condition which is often confused with bacterial vaginosis (BV) or with the intermediate microflora as diagnosed by Nugent's method to detect BV on Gram-stained specimens. However, although both conditions reflect a state of lactobacillary disruption in the vagina, leading to an increase in pH, BV and AV differ profoundly. While BV is a noninflammatory condition composed of a multiplex array of different anaerobic bacteria in high quantities, AV is rather sparely populated by one or two enteric commensal flora bacteria, like Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylocuccus aureus, or Escherichia coli. AV is typically marked by either an increased inflammatory response or by prominent signs of epithelial atrophy or both. The latter condition, if severe, is also called desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. As AV is per exclusionem diagnosed by wet mount microscopy, it is a mistake to treat just vaginal culture results. Vaginal cultures only serve as follow-up data in clinical research projects and are at most used in clinical practice to confirm the diagnosis or exclude Candida infection. AV requires treatment based on microscopy findings and a combined local treatment with any of the following which may yield the best results: antibiotic (infectious component), steroids (inflammatory component), and/or estrogen (atrophy component). In cases with Candida present on microscopy or culture, antifungals must be tried first in order to see if other treatment is still needed. Vaginal rinsing with povidone iodine can provide rapid relief of symptoms but does not provide long-term reduction of bacterial loads. Local antibiotics most suitable are preferably non-absorbed and broad spectrum, especially those covering enteric gram-positive and gram-negative aerobes, like kanamycin. To achieve rapid and short-term improvement of severe symptoms, oral therapy with amoxyclav or moxifloxacin can be used, especially in deep dermal vulvitis and

  13. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles]. Progress report, May 15, 1989--May 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.H.

    1993-06-01

    The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH{sub 4}. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

  14. Distribution and Diversity of Symbiotic Thermophiles, Symbiobacterium thermophilum and Related Bacteria, in Natural Environments

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Kenji; Ohno, Michiyo; Yamamoto, Kaori; Nara, Hanae; Mori, Yujiro; Shimada, Masafumi; Hayashi, Masahiko; Oida, Hanako; Terashima, Yuko; Nagata, Mitsuyo; Beppu, Teruhiko

    2001-01-01

    Symbiobacterium thermophilum is a tryptophanase-positive thermophile which shows normal growth only in coculture with its supporting bacteria. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) indicated that the bacterium belongs to a novel phylogenetic branch at the outermost position of the gram-positive bacterial group without clustering to any other known genus. Here we describe the distribution and diversity of S. thermophilum and related bacteria in the environment. Thermostable tryptophanase activity and amplification of the specific 16S rDNA fragment were effectively employed to detect the presence of Symbiobacterium. Enrichment with kanamycin raised detection sensitivity. Mixed cultures of thermophiles containing Symbiobacterium species were frequently obtained from compost, soil, animal feces, and contents in the intestinal tracts, as well as feeds. Phylogenetic analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the specific 16S rDNA amplicons revealed a diversity of this group of bacteria in the environment. PMID:11525967

  15. [Effect of substrate concentration on pathogen indicators inactivation during thermophilic anaerobic digestion].

    PubMed

    Cao, Hong-Qing; Zhang, Fei-Fei; Li, Jian; Tong, Zi-Lin; Hu, Zhen-Hu

    2014-03-01

    Because excess sludge contains high density of pathogens, it has to be treated to reduce pathogens before being disposed for land application. In this study, the effect of substrate concentration on pathogen inactivation during thermophilic anaerobic digestion was investigated. The results show that, with the increase of substrate concentration, VFAs and cumulative methane production increased. The density of total coliforms in the suspension liquid has a 2.0-3.0 orders of magnitude decline and fecal coliforms has 1.8-3.3 orders of magnitude decline after 28 days thermophilic anaerobic digestion at substrate concentration of 28-84 g x L(-1) and temperature of 55 degrees C. More than 99% of total coliforms and fecal coliforms have been killed after 28 days digestion. Salmonella spp. was not detected in the suspension and solid after anaerobic digestion. When substrate concentration was higher than 45 g x L(-1), the inactivation of total coliforms and fecal coliforms declined. PMID:24881391

  16. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and thin stillage.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Huber, David H

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the performance of a thermophilic CSTR digester that has been stabilized on poultry litter will be enhanced or diminished by the addition of thin stillage as co-substrate. Replicate laboratory digesters, derived from a stable pilot-scale digester, were operated with increasing ratios (w/w) of thin stillage/poultry litter feedstock. After a period of adaptation to 20% and 40% thin stillage, digester performance showed increases in biogas, percent methane and COD removal, as well as a decrease in volatile acids. Peak performance occurred with 60% thin stillage. However, 80% thin stillage caused significant reduction of performance, including declines of methanogenic activity and COD removal. In conclusion, supplementing the thermophilic digestion of poultry litter with thin stillage improved the bioenergy (methane) output, but thin stillage became inhibitory at high concentrations. PMID:23567688

  17. Sulfur oxidation activities of pure and mixed thermophiles and sulfur speciation in bioleaching of chalcopyrite.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Xia, Jin-Lan; Yang, Yi; Nie, Zhen-yuan; Zheng, Lei; Ma, Chen-yan; Zhang, Rui-yong; Peng, An-an; Tang, Lu; Qiu, Guan-zhou

    2011-02-01

    The sulfur oxidation activities of four pure thermophilic archaea Acidianus brierleyi (JCM 8954), Metallosphaera sedula (YN 23), Acidianus manzaensis (YN 25) and Sulfolobus metallicus (YN 24) and their mixture in bioleaching chalcopyrite were compared. Meanwhile, the relevant surface sulfur speciation of chalcopyrite leached with the mixed thermophilic archaea was investigated. The results showed that the mixed culture, with contributing significantly to the raising of leaching rate and accelerating the formation of leaching products, may have a higher sulfur oxidation activity than the pure cultures, and jarosite was the main passivation component hindering the dissolution of chalcopyrite, while elemental sulfur seemed to have no influence on the dissolution of chalcopyrite. In addition, the present results supported the former speculation, i.e., covellite might be converted from chalcocite during the leaching experiments, and the elemental sulfur may partially be the derivation of covellite and chalcocite. PMID:21194927

  18. Biodegradation of crude oil by thermophilic bacteria isolated from a volcano island.

    PubMed

    Meintanis, Christos; Chalkou, Kalliopi I; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar; Karagouni, Amalia D

    2006-03-01

    One-hundred and fifty different thermophilic bacteria isolated from a volcanic island were screened for detection of an alkane hydroxylase gene using degenerated primers developed to amplify genes related to the Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas oleovorans alkane hydroxylases. Ten isolates carrying the alkJ gene were further characterized by 16s rDNA gene sequencing. Nine out of ten isolates were phylogenetically affiliated with Geobacillus species and one isolate with Bacillus species. These isolates were able to grow in liquid cultures with crude oil as the sole carbon source and were found to degrade long chain crude oil alkanes in a range between 46.64% and 87.68%. Results indicated that indigenous thermophilic hydrocarbon degraders of Bacillus and Geobacillus species are of special significance as they could be efficiently used for bioremediation of oil-polluted soil and composting processes. PMID:16456612

  19. Redirection of the Reaction Specificity of a Thermophilic Acetolactate Synthase toward Acetaldehyde Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Maria; Yoshiyasu, Hayato; Okano, Kenji; Ohtake, Hisao; Honda, Kohsuke

    2016-01-01

    Acetolactate synthase and pyruvate decarboxylase are thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes that convert pyruvate into acetolactate and acetaldehyde, respectively. Although the former are encoded in the genomes of many thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, the latter has been found only in mesophilic organisms. In this study, the reaction specificity of acetolactate synthase from Thermus thermophilus was redirected to catalyze acetaldehyde formation to develop a thermophilic pyruvate decarboxylase. Error-prone PCR and mutant library screening led to the identification of a quadruple mutant with 3.1-fold higher acetaldehyde-forming activity than the wild-type. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that the increased activity of the mutant was due to H474R amino acid substitution, which likely generated two new hydrogen bonds near the thiamine pyrophosphate-binding site. These hydrogen bonds might result in the better accessibility of H+ to the substrate-cofactor-enzyme intermediate and a shift in the reaction specificity of the enzyme. PMID:26731734

  20. Effects of total solids content on waste activated sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion and its sludge dewaterability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianfeng; Chen, Jie; Shen, Honglang; An, Dong

    2016-10-01

    The role of total solids content on sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion was investigated in batch reactors. A range of total solids content from 2% to 10% was evaluated with two replicates. The lowest inhibitory concentration for free ammonia and total ammonia of sludge thermophilic anaerobic digestion was 110.9-171.4mg/L and 1313.1-1806.7mg/L, respectively. The volumetric biogas production rate increased with increasing of total solids content, but the corresponding biogas yield per gram volatile solid decreased. The result of normalized capillary suction time indicated that the dewaterability of digested sludge at high total solids content was poor, while solid content of sediment obtained by centrifuging sludge at 2000g for 10min increased with increasing of total solids content of sludge. The results suggest that thickened sludge mixed with dewatered sludge at an appropriate ratio could get high organic loading rate, high biogas yield and adequate dewatering effort. PMID:26897469

  1. Biocatalytic synthesis of poly(δ-valerolactone) using a thermophilic esterase from archaeoglobus fulgidus as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hong; Han, Haobo; Li, Guangquan; Yang, Jiebing; Zhang, Lingfei; Yang, Yan; Fang, Xuedong; Li, Quanshun

    2012-01-01

    The ring-opening polymerization of δ-valerolactone catalyzed by a thermophilic esterase from the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus was successfully conducted in organic solvents. The effects of enzyme concentration, temperature, reaction time and reaction medium on monomer conversion and product molecular weight were systematically evaluated. Through the optimization of reaction conditions, poly(δ-valerolactone) was produced in 97% monomer conversion, with a number-average molecular weight of 2225 g/mol, in toluene at 70 °C for 72 h. This paper has produced a new biocatalyst for the synthesis of poly(δ-valerolactone), and also deeper insight has been gained into the mechanism of thermophilic esterase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization. PMID:23202895

  2. Genome sequence of a native-feather degrading extremely thermophilic Eubacterium, Fervidobacterium islandicum AW-1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Jik; Jeong, Haeyoung; Park, Gun-Seok; Kwak, Yunyoung; Lee, Sang-Jae; Lee, Sang Jun; Park, Min-Kyu; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Kang, Hwan Ku; Shin, Jae-Ho; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Fervidobacterium islandicum AW-1 (KCTC 4680) is an extremely thermophilic anaerobe isolated from a hot spring in Indonesia. This bacterium could degrade native chicken feathers completely at 70 °C within 48 h, which is of potential importance on the basis of relevant environmental and agricultural issues in bioremediation and development of eco-friendly bioprocesses for the treatment of native feathers. However, its genomic and phylogenetic analysis remains unclear. Here, we report the high-quality draft genome sequence of an extremely thermophilic anaerobe, F. islandicum AW-1. The genome consists of 2,359,755 bp, which encodes 2,184 protein-coding genes and 64 RNA-encoding genes. This may reveal insights into anaerobic metabolism for keratin degradation and also provide a biological option for poultry waste treatments. PMID:26421103

  3. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of thermal pretreated sludge: role of microbial community structure and correlation with process performances.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, M C; Braguglia, C M; Gianico, A; Mininni, G; Nakamura, K; Rossetti, S

    2015-01-01

    Thermal hydrolysis pretreatment coupled with Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (TAD) for Waste Activated Sludge (WAS) treatment is a promising combination to improve biodegradation kinetics during stabilization. However, to date there is a limited knowledge of the anaerobic biomass composition and its impact on TAD process performances. In this study, the structure and dynamics of the microbial communities selected in two semi-continuous anaerobic digesters, fed with untreated and thermal pretreated sludge, were investigated. The systems were operated for 250 days at different organic loading rate. 16S rRNA gene clonal analysis and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analyses allowed us to identify the majority of bacterial and archaeal populations. Proteolytic Coprothermobacter spp. and hydrogenotrophic Methanothermobacter spp. living in strict syntrophic association were found to dominate in TAD process. The establishment of a syntrophic proteolytic pathway was favoured by the high temperature of the process and enhanced by the thermal pretreatment of the feeding sludge. Proteolytic activity, alone or with thermal pretreatment, occurred during TAD as proven by increasing concentration of soluble ammonia and soluble COD (sCOD) during the process. However, the availability of a readily biodegradable substrate due to pretreatment allowed to significant sCOD removals (more than 55%) corresponding to higher biogas production in the reactor fed with thermal pretreated sludge. Microbial population dynamics analysed by FISH showed that Coprothermobacter and Methanothermobacter immediately established a stable syntrophic association in the reactor fed with pretreated sludge in line with the overall improved TAD performances observed under these conditions. PMID:25462756

  4. Quantifying contribution of synthrophic acetate oxidation to methane production in thermophilic anaerobic reactors by membrane inlet mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Ward, Alastair James; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Voigt, Niels Vinther; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Feilberg, Anders

    2014-02-18

    A unique method was developed and applied for monitoring methanogenesis pathways based on isotope labeled substrates combined with online membrane inlet quadrupole mass spectrometry (MIMS). In our study, a fermentation sample from a full-scale biogas plant fed with pig and cattle manure, maize silage, and deep litter was incubated with 100 mM of [2-(13)C] sodium acetate under thermophilic anaerobic conditions. MIMS was used to measure the isotopic distribution of dissolved CO2 and CH4 during the degradation of acetate, while excluding interference from water by applying a cold trap. After 6 days of incubation, the proportion of methane derived from reduction of CO2 had increased significantly and reached up to 87% of total methane, suggesting that synthrophic acetate oxidation coupled to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (SAO-HM) played an important role in the degradation of acetate. This study provided a new approach for online quantification of the relative contribution of methanogenesis pathways to methane production with a time resolution shorter than one minute. The observed contribution of SAO-HM to methane production under the tested conditions challenges the current widely accepted anaerobic digestion model (ADM1), which strongly emphasizes the importance of the acetoclastic methanogenesis. PMID:24437339

  5. Bio-hydrogen and bio-methane potentials of skim latex serum in batch thermophilic two-stage anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Jariyaboon, Rattana; O-Thong, Sompong; Kongjan, Prawit

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion by two-stage process, containing hydrogen-producing (acidogenic) first stage and methanogenic second stage, has been proposed to degrade substrates which are difficult to be treated by single stage anaerobic digestion process. This research was aimed to evaluate the bio-hydrogen and the bio-methane potentials (BHP and BMP) of skim latex serum (SLS) by using sequential batch hydrogen and methane cultivations at thermophilic conditions (55°C) and with initial SLS concentrations of 37.5-75.0% (v/v). The maximal 1.57 L H2/L SLS for BHP and 12.2L CH4/L SLS for BMP were both achieved with 60% (v/v) SLS. The dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria in the H2 batch reactor were Thermoanaerobacterium sp. and Clostrdium sp. Meanwhile, the CH4 batch reactor was dominated by the methanogens Methanosarcina mazei and Methanothermobacter defluvii. The results demonstrate that SLS can be degraded by conversion to form hydrogen and methane, waste treatment and bioenergy production are thus combined. PMID:26386423

  6. Moderately thermophilic, hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial communities in Kuwaiti desert soil: enhanced activity via Ca(2+) and dipicolinic acid amendment.

    PubMed

    Al-Mailem, D M; Kansour, M K; Radwan, S S

    2015-05-01

    Pristine and oil-contaminated desert soil samples from Kuwait harbored between 10 and 100 cells g(-1) of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria capable of growth at 50 °C. Enrichment by incubation of moistened soils for 6 months at 50 °C raised those numbers to the magnitude of 10(3) cells g(-1). Most of these organisms were moderately thermophilic and belonged to the genus Bacillus; they grew at 40-50 °C better than at 30 °C. Species belonging to the genera Amycolatopsis, Chelativorans, Isoptericola, Nocardia, Aeribacillus, Aneurinibacillus, Brevibacillus, Geobacillus, Kocuria, Marinobacter and Paenibacillus were also found. This microbial diversity indicates a good potential for hydrocarbon removal in soil at high temperature. Analysis of the same desert soil samples by a culture-independent method (combined, DGGE and 16S rDNA sequencing) revealed dramatically different lists of microorganisms, many of which had been recorded as hydrocarbonoclastic. Many species were more frequent in the oil contaminated than in the pristine soil samples, which may reflect their hydrocarbonoclastic activity in situ. The growth and hydrocarbon consumption potential of all tested isolates were dramatically enhanced by amendment of the cultures with Ca(2+) (up to 2.5 M CaSO4). This enhanced effect was even amplified when in addition 8 % w/v dipicolinic acid was amended. These novel findings are useful in suggesting biotechnologies for waste hydrocarbon remediation at moderately high temperature. PMID:25716145

  7. Brain aerobic glycolysis and motor adaptation learning

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Benjamin J.; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev Neil; Vlassenko, Andrei G.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2016-01-01

    Ten percent to 15% of glucose used by the brain is metabolized nonoxidatively despite adequate tissue oxygenation, a process termed aerobic glycolysis (AG). Because of the known role of glycolysis in biosynthesis, we tested whether learning-induced synaptic plasticity would lead to regionally appropriate, learning-dependent changes in AG. Functional MRI (fMRI) before, during, and after performance of a visual–motor adaptation task demonstrated that left Brodmann area 44 (BA44) played a key role in adaptation, with learning-related changes to activity during the task and altered resting-state, functional connectivity after the task. PET scans before and after task performance indicated a sustained increase in AG in left BA 44 accompanied by decreased oxygen consumption. Intersubject variability in behavioral adaptation rate correlated strongly with changes in AG in this region, as well as functional connectivity, which is consistent with a role for AG in synaptic plasticity. PMID:27217563

  8. Aerobic Microbial Degradation of Glucoisosaccharinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Strand, S. E.; Dykes, J.; Chiang, V.

    1984-01-01

    α-Glucoisosaccharinic acid (GISA), a major by-product of kraft paper manufacture, was synthesized from lactose and used as the carbon source for microbial media. Ten strains of aerobic bacteria capable of growth on GISA were isolated from kraft pulp mill environments. The highest growth yields were obtained with Ancylobacter spp. at pH 7.2 to 9.5. GISA was completely degraded by cultures of an Ancylobacter isolate. Ancylobacter cell suspensions consumed oxygen and produced carbon dioxide in response to GISA addition. A total of 22 laboratory strains of bacteria were tested, and none was capable of growth on GISA. GISA-degrading isolates were not found in forest soils. Images PMID:16346467

  9. Brain aerobic glycolysis and motor adaptation learning.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Benjamin J; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev Neil; Vlassenko, Andrei G; Shimony, Joshua S; Rutlin, Jerrel; Raichle, Marcus E

    2016-06-28

    Ten percent to 15% of glucose used by the brain is metabolized nonoxidatively despite adequate tissue oxygenation, a process termed aerobic glycolysis (AG). Because of the known role of glycolysis in biosynthesis, we tested whether learning-induced synaptic plasticity would lead to regionally appropriate, learning-dependent changes in AG. Functional MRI (fMRI) before, during, and after performance of a visual-motor adaptation task demonstrated that left Brodmann area 44 (BA44) played a key role in adaptation, with learning-related changes to activity during the task and altered resting-state, functional connectivity after the task. PET scans before and after task performance indicated a sustained increase in AG in left BA 44 accompanied by decreased oxygen consumption. Intersubject variability in behavioral adaptation rate correlated strongly with changes in AG in this region, as well as functional connectivity, which is consistent with a role for AG in synaptic plasticity. PMID:27217563

  10. New Routes for Aerobic Biodegradation of Dimethylsulfoniopropionate

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Barrie F.; Gilchrist, Darrin C.

    1991-01-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), an osmolyte in marine plants, is biodegraded by cleavage of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) or by demethylation to 3-methiolpropionate (MMPA) and 3-mercaptopropionate (MPA). Sequential demethylation has been observed only with anoxic slurries of coastal sediments. Bacteria that grew aerobically on MMPA and DMSP were isolated from marine environments and phytoplankton cultures. Enrichments with DMSP selected for bacteria that generated DMS, whereas MMPA enrichments selected organisms that produced methanethiol (CH3SH) from either DMSP or MMPA. A bacterium isolated on MMPA grew on MMPA and DMSP, but rapid production of CH3SH from DMSP occurred only with DMSP-grown cells. Low levels of MPA accumulated during growth on MMPA, indicating demethylation as well as demethiolation of MMPA. The alternative routes for DMSP biodegradation via MMPA probably impact on net DMS fluxes to the marine atmosphere. PMID:16348607

  11. Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventosa, Antonio; Nieto, Joaquín J.; Oren, Aharon

    1998-01-01

    The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms of adjustment of the intracellular environments and the properties of the cytoplasmic membrane enable rapid adaptation to changes in the salt concentration of the environment. Approaches to the study of genetic processes have recently been developed for several moderate halophiles, opening the way toward an understanding of haloadaptation at the molecular level. The new information obtained is also expected to contribute to the development of novel biotechnological uses for these organisms. PMID:9618450

  12. [Research of aerobic granule characteristics with different granule age].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Man; Yang, Chang-Zhu; Pu, Wen-Hong; Luo, Ying-Dong; Gong, Jian-Yu

    2012-03-01

    In the SBR reactor, we studied the different style, physicochemical characteristic, pollutants removal and microbial activity between the short age and long age aerobic granule, respectively. The short age aerobic granule was cultivated from activated floccules sludge and the other was gotten from aerobic granular sludge which was operated stably more than one year. The results indicated that the wet density, the specific gravity and integrated coefficient (IC) of the short age aerobic granule were 1.066 g x cm(-1), 1.013 g x cm(-3) and 98.7%, respectively. And that of long age were 1.026 g x cm(-3), 1.010 g x cm(-3) and 98.4%, respectively. All of them were higher than the long age aerobic granule. The mean diameters of them were 1.9 mm and 2.2 mm, respectively. The settling velocity of short age and long age aerobic granule were 0.005-0.032 m x s(-1) and 0.003-0.028 m x s(-1), respectively, and two kinds of aerobic granule settling velocity increased with the diameter increased. SVI of the former was lower. The COD removal rates of two aerobic granules were above 90%, and the NH4(+) -N removal rates of them were about 85%. The results of the COD effluent concentration, NH4(+) -N effluent concentration and the pollutants concentration in a typical cycle indicated that the short age aerobic granule had better pollutants removal efficiency. The TP removal rates of them were between 40% -90% and 32% -85%, respectively. The TN removal rates of them were about 80%. The SOUR(H) SOUR(NH4) and SOUR(NO2) of the short age aerobic granule were 26.4, 14.8 and 11.2 mg x (h x g)(-1), respectively. And that of long age were 25.2, 14.4 and 8.4 mg x (h x g)(-1), respectively. In summary, the aerobic granule had significantly different physical and chemical characteristics because of different granule age, and the short age aerobic granule exhibited better pollutants removal ability, higher microbial activity and more stability than the long age aerobic granule. PMID:22624385

  13. Effects of Kettlebell Training on Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Falatic, J Asher; Plato, Peggy A; Holder, Christopher; Finch, Daryl; Han, Kyungmo; Cisar, Craig J

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of a kettlebell training program on aerobic capacity. Seventeen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (age: 19.7 ± 1.0 years, height: 166.1 ± 6.4 cm, weight: 64.2 ± 8.2 kg) completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max). Participants were assigned to a kettlebell intervention group (KB) (n = 9) or a circuit weight-training (CWT) control group (n = 8). Participants in the KB group completed a kettlebell snatch test to determine individual snatch repetitions. Both groups trained 3 days a week for 4 weeks in addition to their off-season strength and conditioning program. The KB group performed the 15:15 MVO2 protocol (20 minutes of kettlebell snatching with 15 seconds of work and rest intervals). The CWT group performed multiple free-weight and dynamic body-weight exercises as part of a continuous circuit program for 20 minutes. The 15:15 MVO2 protocol significantly increased V̇O2max in the KB group. The average increase was 2.3 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, or approximately a 6% gain. There was no significant change in V̇O2max in the CWT control group. Thus, the 4-week 15:15 MVO2 kettlebell protocol, using high-intensity kettlebell snatches, significantly improved aerobic capacity in female intercollegiate soccer players and could be used as an alternative mode to maintain or improve cardiovascular conditioning. PMID:26102260

  14. Enumeration of Thermophilic Heterotrophs in Geothermally Heated Soils from Mount Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, J. Andrew; Daniel, Roy M.

    1988-01-01

    Soil samples with temperatures up to 64°C were collected from Mount Erebus, an active volcano located on Ross Island, Antarctica. Acridine orange direct counts and most probable number counts of soil samples stored at 4°C for 2 months showed a wide variation in the number of thermophilic microorganisms in different soils. Organisms similar to Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum, Bacillus schlegelii, and Bacillus acidocaldarius, as well as neutrophilic Bacillus strains, were isolated. PMID:16347573

  15. Enumeration of thermophilic heterotrophs in geothermally heated soils from mount erebus, ross island, antarctica.

    PubMed

    Hudson, J A; Daniel, R M

    1988-02-01

    Soil samples with temperatures up to 64 degrees C were collected from Mount Erebus, an active volcano located on Ross Island, Antarctica. Acridine orange direct counts and most probable number counts of soil samples stored at 4 degrees C for 2 months showed a wide variation in the number of thermophilic microorganisms in different soils. Organisms similar to Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum, Bacillus schlegelii, and Bacillus acidocaldarius, as well as neutrophilic Bacillus strains, were isolated. PMID:16347573

  16. The F- or V-type Na(+)-ATPase of the thermophilic bacterium Clostridium fervidus.

    PubMed Central

    Speelmans, G; Poolman, B; Abee, T; Konings, W N

    1994-01-01

    Clostridium fervidus is a thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium which uses solely Na+ as a coupling ion for energy transduction. Important features of the primary Na+ pump (ATPase) that generates the sodium motive force are presented. The advantage of using a sodium rather than a proton motive force at high temperatures becomes apparent from the effect of temperature on H+ and Na+ permeation in liposomes. PMID:8051034

  17. Comparing mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of chicken manure: Microbial community dynamics and process resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Qigui; Takemura, Yasuyuki; Kubota, Kengo; Li, Yu-You

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Microbial community dynamics and process functional resilience were investigated. • The threshold of TAN in mesophilic reactor was higher than the thermophilic reactor. • The recoverable archaeal community dynamic sustained the process resilience. • Methanosarcina was more sensitive than Methanoculleus on ammonia inhibition. • TAN and FA effects the dynamic of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria obviously. - Abstract: While methane fermentation is considered as the most successful bioenergy treatment for chicken manure, the relationship between operational performance and the dynamic transition of archaeal and bacterial communities remains poorly understood. Two continuous stirred-tank reactors were investigated under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions feeding with 10%TS. The tolerance of thermophilic reactor on total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was found to be 8000 mg/L with free ammonia (FA) 2000 mg/L compared to 16,000 mg/L (FA1500 mg/L) of mesophilic reactor. Biomethane production was 0.29 L/gV S{sub in} in the steady stage and decreased following TAN increase. After serious inhibition, the mesophilic reactor was recovered successfully by dilution and washing stratagem compared to the unrecoverable of thermophilic reactor. The relationship between the microbial community structure, the bioreactor performance and inhibitors such as TAN, FA, and volatile fatty acid was evaluated by canonical correspondence analysis. The performance of methanogenic activity and substrate removal efficiency were changed significantly correlating with the community evenness and phylogenetic structure. The resilient archaeal community was found even after serious inhibition in both reactors. Obvious dynamics of bacterial communities were observed in acidogenic and hydrolytic functional bacteria following TAN variation in the different stages.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of the Thermophilic, Piezophilic, Heterotrophic Bacterium Marinitoga piezophila KA3

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla L.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Peters, Lin; Mikhailova, Natalia; Teshima, Hazuki; Detter, J. Chris; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, N; Pagani, Ioanna; Vannier, Pauline; Oger, Phil; Bartlett, Douglas; Noll, Kenneth M; Woyke, Tanja; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Marinitoga piezophila KA3 is a thermophilic, anaerobic, chemoorganotrophic, sulfur-reducing bacterium isolated from the Grandbonum deep-sea hydrothermal vent site at the East Pacific Rise (13 degrees N, 2,630-m depth). The genome of M. piezophila KA3 comprises a 2,231,407-bp circular chromosome and a 13,386-bp circular plasmid. This genome was sequenced within Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute CSP 2010.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Moderately Thermophilic Bacterium Schleiferia thermophila Strain Yellowstone (Bacteroidetes).

    PubMed

    Thiel, Vera; Hamilton, Trinity L; Tomsho, Lynn P; Burhans, Richard; Gay, Scott E; Ramaley, Robert F; Schuster, Stephan C; Steinke, Laurey; Bryant, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of the moderately thermophilic bacterium Schleiferia thermophila strain Yellowstone (Bacteroidetes), isolated from Octopus Spring (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) was sequenced and comprises 2,617,694 bp in 35 contigs. The draft genome is predicted to encode 2,457 protein coding genes and 37 tRNA encoding genes and two rRNA operons. PMID:25169864

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of the Moderately Thermophilic Bacterium Schleiferia thermophila Strain Yellowstone (Bacteroidetes)

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Vera; Hamilton, Trinity L.; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Burhans, Richard; Gay, Scott E.; Ramaley, Robert F.; Schuster, Stephan C.; Steinke, Laurey

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of the moderately thermophilic bacterium Schleiferia thermophila strain Yellowstone (Bacteroidetes), isolated from Octopus Spring (Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA) was sequenced and comprises 2,617,694 bp in 35 contigs. The draft genome is predicted to encode 2,457 protein coding genes and 37 tRNA encoding genes and two rRNA operons. PMID:25169864