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Sample records for combustivel tipo mtr

  1. MTR OFFICE WINGS AT WEST SIDE OF MTR HIGH BAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR OFFICE WINGS AT WEST SIDE OF MTR HIGH BAY REACTOR BUILDING. CONTEXTUAL VIEW. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, TRA-652 (OFFICE WING), TRA-661 (SOUTH WING EXTENSION), SECOND/THIRD FLOOR (BALCONIES) OF MTR-603, MTR HIGH-BAY. AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW IS REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING (TRA-635). INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-44-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. MTR MAIN FLOOR. MTR TRACTOR IS IN CENTER OF VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR MAIN FLOOR. MTR TRACTOR IS IN CENTER OF VIEW AMIDST AN ACCUMULATION OF CLUTTER ON THE FLOOR. TRACTOR HAD ATTACHMENTS IN FRONT TO FACILITATE MOVING OF COFFINS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3027. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 9/17/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Transportation of spent MTR fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Raisonnier, D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various aspects of MTR spent fuel transportation and provides in particular information about the on-going shipment of 4 spent fuel casks to the United States. Transnucleaire is a transport and Engineering Company created in 1963 at the request of the French Atomic Energy Commission. The company followed the growth of the world nuclear industry and has now six subsidiaries and affiliated companies established in countries with major nuclear programs.

  4. Regulation of the MtrC-MtrD-MtrE efflux-pump system modulates the in vivo fitness of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Warner, Douglas M; Folster, Jason P; Shafer, William M; Jerse, Ann E

    2007-12-15

    The Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrC-MtrD-MtrE multidrug-resistance efflux pump expels macrolide antibiotics, penicillin, and antimicrobial effectors of the innate defense. Mutation of the mtrR locus, which encodes a transcriptional repressor of the mtrCDE operon, increases gonococcal resistance to these agents. Here we report that, in a mouse infection model, an mtrR mutant is more fit than the wild-type bacteria. Consistent with derepression of the mtrCDE operon as the primary reason for the fitness benefit, an mtrR,mtrE double mutant and an mtrE mutant showed no difference in survival phenotype. Gonococcal mutants deficient in MtrA, an activator of the mtrCDE operon, exhibited significantly reduced fitness in vivo, and mtrA mutants with spontaneous compensatory mtrR mutations were selected during infection. These results confirm the importance of the MtrC-MtrD-MtrE efflux-pump system during experimental gonococcal genital-tract infection and also illustrate an antibiotic-resistance mechanism that is accompanied by a fitness benefit rather than a fitness cost. PMID:18190261

  5. MTR BUILDING, TRA603. WEST SIDE OF MTR SECOND/THIRD FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. WEST SIDE OF MTR SECOND/THIRD FLOOR AND HIGH-BAY REACTOR FLOOR (WITH STAIRWAY FROM ROOF). CAMERA FACING EAST FROM ROOF OF TRA-604. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-42-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, April 2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. MTR plates modeling with MAIA

    SciTech Connect

    Marelle, V.; Dubois, S.; Ripert, M.; Noirot, J.

    2008-07-15

    MAIA is a thermo-mechanical code dedicated to the modeling of MTR fuel plates. The main physical phenomena modeled in the code are the cladding oxidation, the interaction between fuel and Al-matrix, the swelling due to fission products and the Al/fuel particles interaction. The creeping of the plate can be modeled in the mechanical calculation. MAIA has been validated on U-Mo dispersion fuel experiments such as IRIS 1 and 2 and FUTURE. The results are in rather good agreement with post-irradiation examinations. MAIA can also be used to calculate in-pile behavior of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} plates as in the SHARE experiment irradiated in the SCK/Mol BR2 reactor. The main outputs given by MAIA throughout the irradiation are temperatures, cladding oxidation thickness, interaction thickness, volume fraction of meat constituents, swelling, displacements, strains and stresses. MAIA is originally a two-dimensional code but a three-dimensional version is currently under development. (author)

  7. MTR, SOUTH FACE OF REACTOR. SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL SHIELDING WAS REQUIRED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, SOUTH FACE OF REACTOR. SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL SHIELDING WAS REQUIRED OUTSIDE OF MTR FOR EXPERIMENTS. THE AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION PROJECT DOMINATED THE USE OF THIS PART OF THE MTR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 7225. Unknown Photographer, 11/28/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. MTR BASEMENT. WORKERS (DON ALVORD AND CYRIL VAN ORDEN OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BASEMENT. WORKERS (DON ALVORD AND CYRIL VAN ORDEN OF PHILLIPS PETROLEUM CO.) POSE FOR GAMMA IRRADIATION EXPERIMENT IN MTR CANAL. CANS OF FOOD WILL BE LOWERED TO CANAL BOTTOM, WHERE SPENT MTR FUEL ELEMENTS EMIT GAMMA RADIATION. INL NEGATIVE NO. 11746. Unknown Photographer, 8/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. MTR BUILDING, TRA603. DETAILED VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNERS OF MTR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. DETAILED VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNERS OF MTR HIGH-BAY AND SECOND/THIRD STORY SECTIONS. NOTE SHAPE OF PANEL ABOVE WINDOW OVER "TRA-603" BUILDING NUMBERS. THIS IS A "STANDARD PANEL." INL NEGATIVE NUMBER HD46-42-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. ETR AND MTR COMPLEXES IN CONTEXT. CAMERA FACING NORTHERLY. FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR AND MTR COMPLEXES IN CONTEXT. CAMERA FACING NORTHERLY. FROM BOTTOM TO TOP: ETR COOLING TOWER, ELECTRICAL BUILDING AND LOW-BAY SECTION OF ETR BUILDING, HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING (WITH U SHAPED YARD), COMPRESSOR BUILDING. MTR REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING IS ATTACHED TO SOUTH WALL OF MTR. WING A IS ATTACHED TO BALCONY FLOOR OF MTR. NEAR UPPER RIGHT CORNER OF VIEW IS MTR PROCESS WATER BUILDING. WING B IS AT FAR WEST END OF COMPLEX. NEAR MAIN GATE IS GAMMA FACILITY, WITH "COLD" BUILDINGS BEYOND: RAW WATER STORAGE TANKS, STEAM PLANT, MTR COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE AND COOLING TOWER. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4101. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. MATERIALS TESTING REACTOR (MTR) BUILDING, TRA603. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF MTR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MATERIALS TESTING REACTOR (MTR) BUILDING, TRA-603. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF MTR BUILDING SHOWING NORTH SIDES OF THE HIGH-BAY REACTOR BUILDING, ITS SECOND/THIRD FLOOR BALCONY LEVEL, AND THE ATTACHED ONE-STORY OFFICE/LABORATORY BUILDING, TRA-604. CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST. VERTICAL CONCRETE-SHROUDED BEAMS SUPPORT PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS. CONCRETE PROJECTION FORMED AS A BUNKER AT LEFT OF VIEW IS TRA-657, PLUG STORAGE BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-42-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Analysis of Structural MtrC Models Based on Homology with the Crystal Structure of MtrF

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Marcus; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Richardson, David; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2012-12-01

    The outer-membrane decahaem cytochrome MtrC is part of the transmembrane MtrCAB complex required for mineral respiration by Shewanella oneidensis. MtrC has significant sequence similarity to the paralogous decahaem cytochrome MtrF, which has been structurally solved through X-ray crystallography. This now allows for homology-based models of MtrC to be generated. The structure of these MtrC homology models contain ten bis-histidine-co-ordinated c-type haems arranged in a staggered cross through a four-domain structure. This model is consistent with current spectroscopic data and shows that the areas around haem 5 and haem 10, at the termini of an octahaem chain, are likely to have functions similar to those of the corresponding haems in MtrF. The electrostatic surfaces around haem 7, close to the β-barrels, are different in MtrF and MtrC, indicating that these haems may have different potentials and interact with substrates differently.

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis MtrB Sensor Kinase Interactions with FtsI and Wag31 Proteins Reveal a Role for MtrB Distinct from That Regulating MtrA Activities

    PubMed Central

    Plocinska, Renata; Martinez, Luis; Gorla, Purushotham; Pandeeti, Emmanuel; Sarva, Krishna; Blaszczyk, Ewelina; Dziadek, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    The septal association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis MtrB, the kinase partner of the MtrAB two-component signal transduction system, is necessary for the optimal expression of the MtrA regulon targets, including ripA, fbpB, and ftsI, which are involved in cell division and cell wall synthesis. Here, we show that MtrB, irrespective of its phosphorylation status, interacts with Wag31, whereas only phosphorylation-competent MtrB interacts with FtsI. We provide evidence that FtsI depletion compromises the MtrB septal assembly and MtrA regulon expression; likewise, the absence of MtrB compromises FtsI localization and, possibly, FtsI activity. We conclude from these results that FtsI and MtrB are codependent for their activities and that FtsI functions as a positive modulator of MtrB activation and MtrA regulon expression. In contrast to FtsI, Wag31 depletion does not affect MtrB septal assembly and MtrA regulon expression, whereas the loss of MtrB increased Wag31 localization and the levels of PknA/PknB (PknA/B) serine-threonine protein kinase-mediated Wag31 phosphorylation. Interestingly, we found that FtsI decreased levels of phosphorylated Wag31 (Wag31∼P) and that MtrB interacted with PknA/B. Overall, our results indicate that MtrB interactions with FtsI, Wag31, and PknA/B are required for its optimal localization, MtrA regulon expression, and phosphorylation of Wag31. Our results emphasize a new role for MtrB in cell division and cell wall synthesis distinct from that regulating the MtrA phosphorylation activities. PMID:25225272

  14. MTR BUILDING AND BALCONY FLOORS. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. PHOTOGRAPHER DID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING AND BALCONY FLOORS. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. PHOTOGRAPHER DID NOT EXPLAIN DARK CLOUD. MTR WING WILL ATTACH TO GROUND FLOOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1567. Unknown Photographer, 2/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY, UNDER CONSTRUCTION OVER MTR CANAL IN BASEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY, UNDER CONSTRUCTION OVER MTR CANAL IN BASEMENT OF MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. WOOD PLANKS REST ON CANAL WALL OBSERVABLE IN FOREGROUND. INL NEGATIVE NO. 11745. Unknown Photographer, 8/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. 33 CFR 154.1041 - Specific response information to be maintained on mobile MTR facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be maintained on mobile MTR facilities. 154.1041 Section 154.1041 Navigation and Navigable Waters... maintained on mobile MTR facilities. (a) Each mobile MTR facility must carry the following information as... respond to a discharge from the mobile MTR facility. (3) List of the appropriate persons and...

  17. CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF "EXCLUSION" MTR AREA WITH IDAHO CHEMICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF "EXCLUSION" MTR AREA WITH IDAHO CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT IN BACKGROUND AT CENTER TOP OF VIEW. CAMERA FACING EAST. EXCLUSION GATE HOUSE AT LEFT OF VIEW. BEYOND MTR BUILDING AND ITS WING, THE PROCESS WATER BUILDING AND WORKING RESERVOIR ARE LEFT-MOST. FAN HOUSE AND STACK ARE TO ITS RIGHT. PLUG STORAGE BUILDING IS RIGHT-MOST STRUCTURE. NOTE FAN LOFT ABOVE MTR BUILDING'S ONE-STORY WING. THIS WAS LATER CONVERTED FOR OFFICES. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3610. Unknown Photographer, 10/30/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION EXPERIMENT NO. 1. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6510. Unknown Photographer, 9/29/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. TOP OF MTR. CONTROL RODS AND GRID PLATE EMERGE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOP OF MTR. CONTROL RODS AND GRID PLATE EMERGE FROM REACTOR TANK. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6206. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 6/27/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. MTR MAIN FLOOR. MEN DEMONSTRATE INSERTION OF DUMMY PLUG INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR MAIN FLOOR. MEN DEMONSTRATE INSERTION OF DUMMY PLUG INTO AN MTR BEAM HOLE. ONE MAN CHECKS RADIATION LEVEL AT THE END OF THE UNIVERSAL COFFIN, WHILE ANOTHER USES TOOL TO INSERT PLUG INTO HOLE THROUGH COFFIN. MEN WEAR "ANTI-C" (ANTI-CONTAMINATION) CLOTHING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6198. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 6/27/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. The MATROSHKA experiment: results and comparison from extravehicular activity (MTR-1) and intravehicular activity (MTR-2A/2B) exposure.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Paweł; Hajek, Michael; Puchalska, Monika; Reitz, Günther

    2013-12-01

    Astronauts working and living in space are exposed to considerably higher doses and different qualities of ionizing radiation than people on Earth. The multilateral MATROSHKA (MTR) experiment, coordinated by the German Aerospace Center, represents the most comprehensive effort to date in radiation protection dosimetry in space using an anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom used for radiotherapy treatment planning. The anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom maps the radiation distribution as a simulated human body installed outside (MTR-1) and inside different compartments (MTR-2A: Pirs; MTR-2B: Zvezda) of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station. Thermoluminescence dosimeters arranged in a 2.54 cm orthogonal grid, at the site of vital organs and on the surface of the phantom allow for visualization of the absorbed dose distribution with superior spatial resolution. These results should help improve the estimation of radiation risks for long-term human space exploration and support benchmarking of radiation transport codes. PMID:24252101

  2. 33 CFR 154.1041 - Specific response information to be maintained on mobile MTR facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... maintained on mobile MTR facilities. (a) Each mobile MTR facility must carry the following information as... respond to a discharge from the mobile MTR facility. (3) List of the appropriate persons and agencies... National Response Center. (b) The owner or operator of the mobile facility must also retain the...

  3. MTR CONTROL ROOM WITH CONTROL CONSOLE AND STATUS READOUTS ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR CONTROL ROOM WITH CONTROL CONSOLE AND STATUS READOUTS ALONG WALL. WORKERS MAKE ELECTRICAL AND OTHER CONNECTIONS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4289. Unknown Photographer, 2/26/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. CAMERA IS ON CATWALK ABOVE MTR. CRANE HOOK LOWERS TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAMERA IS ON CATWALK ABOVE MTR. CRANE HOOK LOWERS TOP PLUG ONTO REACTOR. NOTE PLANK-LIKE BRIDGE (WALKWAY) TO BALCONY AT UPPER RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4502. Unknown Photographer, probable date 3/31/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELECTRICAL LINES ARRIVE FROM CENTRAL FACILITIES AREA, SOUTH OF MTR. EXCAVATION RUBBLE IN FOREGROUND. CONTRACTOR CRAFT SHOPS, CRANES, AND OTHER MATERIALS ON SITE. CAMERA FACES EAST, WITH LITTLE BUTTE AND MIDDLE BUTTE IN DISTANCE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 335. Unknown Photographer, 7/1/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. CUTS FOR MTR EXCAVATION ILLUSTRATE SEDIMENTARY MANTLE OF SOIL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CUTS FOR MTR EXCAVATION ILLUSTRATE SEDIMENTARY MANTLE OF SOIL AND GRAVEL OVERLAYING LAVA ROCK FIFTY FEET BELOW. SAGEBRUSH HAS BEEN SCOURED FROM REST OF SITE. CAMERA PROBABLY FACES SOUTHWEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 67. Unknown Photographer, 6/4/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY. CAMERA LOOKS DOWN INTO MTR CANAL. REACTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FACILITY. CAMERA LOOKS DOWN INTO MTR CANAL. REACTOR IS FUELED AS AN ETR MOCK-UP. LIGHTS DANGLE BELOW WATER LEVEL. CONTROL RODS AND OTHER APPARATUS DESCEND FROM ABOVE WATER LEVEL. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-900. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 3/26/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. CANAL EMERGES FROM EAST SIDE OF MTR BUILDING. "EXTRA" LENGTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CANAL EMERGES FROM EAST SIDE OF MTR BUILDING. "EXTRA" LENGTH WAS TO STORE SPENT FUEL THAT WOULD ACCUMULATE BEFORE THE CHEMICAL PROCESSING PLANT WAS READY TO PROCESS IT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1659. Unknown Photographer, 3/9/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. CONTROL ROOM ON MARCH 31, 1952, AS THE MTR GOES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL ROOM ON MARCH 31, 1952, AS THE MTR GOES CRITICAL FOR THE FIRST TIME. COMPARE CEILING FIXTURES IN THIS PHOTO AND PHOTO ID-33-G-212 FOR COMMON PERSPECTIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4517. Unknown Photographer, 3/31/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Fission yeast mtr1p regulates interphase microtubule cortical dwell-time

    PubMed Central

    Carlier-Grynkorn, Frédérique; Ji, Liang; Fraisier, Vincent; Lombard, Berangère; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Paoletti, Anne; Ronot, Xavier; Tran, Phong T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The microtubule cytoskeleton plays important roles in cell polarity, motility and division. Microtubules inherently undergo dynamic instability, stochastically switching between phases of growth and shrinkage. In cells, some microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and molecular motors can further modulate microtubule dynamics. We present here the fission yeast mtr1+, a new regulator of microtubule dynamics that appears to be not a MAP or a motor. mtr1-deletion (mtr1Δ) primarily results in longer microtubule dwell-time at the cell tip cortex, suggesting that mtr1p acts directly or indirectly as a destabilizer of microtubules. mtr1p is antagonistic to mal3p, the ortholog of mammalian EB1, which stabilizes microtubules. mal3Δ results in short microtubules, but can be partially rescued by mtr1Δ, as the double mutant mal3Δ mtr1Δ exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant. By sequence homology, mtr1p is predicted to be a component of the ribosomal quality control complex. Intriguingly, deletion of a predicted ribosomal gene, rps1801, also resulted in longer microtubule dwell-time similar to mtr1Δ. The double-mutant mal3Δ rps1801Δ also exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant alone. Our study suggests a possible involvement of mtr1p and the ribosome complex in modulating microtubule dynamics. PMID:24928430

  11. Fission yeast mtr1p regulates interphase microtubule cortical dwell-time.

    PubMed

    Carlier-Grynkorn, Frédérique; Ji, Liang; Fraisier, Vincent; Lombard, Berangère; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Paoletti, Anne; Ronot, Xavier; Tran, Phong T

    2014-01-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton plays important roles in cell polarity, motility and division. Microtubules inherently undergo dynamic instability, stochastically switching between phases of growth and shrinkage. In cells, some microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and molecular motors can further modulate microtubule dynamics. We present here the fission yeast mtr1(+), a new regulator of microtubule dynamics that appears to be not a MAP or a motor. mtr1-deletion (mtr1Δ) primarily results in longer microtubule dwell-time at the cell tip cortex, suggesting that mtr1p acts directly or indirectly as a destabilizer of microtubules. mtr1p is antagonistic to mal3p, the ortholog of mammalian EB1, which stabilizes microtubules. mal3Δ results in short microtubules, but can be partially rescued by mtr1Δ, as the double mutant mal3Δ mtr1Δ exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant. By sequence homology, mtr1p is predicted to be a component of the ribosomal quality control complex. Intriguingly, deletion of a predicted ribosomal gene, rps1801, also resulted in longer microtubule dwell-time similar to mtr1Δ. The double-mutant mal3Δ rps1801Δ also exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant alone. Our study suggests a possible involvement of mtr1p and the ribosome complex in modulating microtubule dynamics. PMID:24928430

  12. Identification of a cell envelope protein (MtrF) involved in hydrophobic antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Veal, Wendy L; Shafer, William M

    2003-01-01

    The mtrCDE-encoded efflux pump of Neisseria gonorrhoeae provides gonococci with a mechanism to resist structurally diverse antimicrobial hydrophobic agents (HAs). Strains of N. gonorrhoeae that display hypersusceptibility to HAs often contain mutations in the efflux pump genes, mtrCDE. Such strains frequently contain a phenotypically suppressed mutation in mtrR, a gene that encodes a repressor (MtrR) of mtrCDE gene expression, and one that would normally result in HA resistance. We have recently examined HA-hypersusceptible clinical isolates of gonococci that contain such phenotypically suppressed mtrR mutations, in order to determine whether genes other than mtrCDE are involved in HA resistance. These studies led to the discovery of a gene that we have designated mtrF, located downstream of the mtrR gene, that is predicted to encode a 56.1 kDa cytoplasmic membrane protein containing 12 transmembrane domains. Expression of mtrF was enhanced in a strain deficient in MtrR production, indicating that this gene, together with the closely linked mtrCDE operon, is subject to MtrR-dependent transcriptional control. Orthologues of mtrF were identified in a number of diverse bacteria. Except for the AbgT protein of Escherichia coli, their products have been identified as hypothetical proteins with unknown function(s). Genetic evidence is presented that MtrF is important in the expression of high-level detergent resistance by gonococci. We propose that MtrF acts in conjunction with the MtrC-MtrD-MtrE efflux pump, to confer on gonococci high-level resistance to certain HAs. PMID:12493784

  13. MTR MAIN FLOOR. NEUTRON TUNNEL (SPANNED BY STILELIKE STEPS) PROJECTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR MAIN FLOOR. NEUTRON TUNNEL (SPANNED BY STILE-LIKE STEPS) PROJECTS FROM THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE MTR TOWARD SOUTHEAST CORNER OF BUILDING, WHERE SHIELDING BLOCKS BEGIN TO SURROUND THE TUNNEL AS IT NEARS DETECTING INSTRUMENTS NEAR THE BUILDING WALL. GEAR RELATED TO CRYSTAL NEUTRON SPECTROMETER IS IN FOREGROUND SURROUNDED BY SHIELDING. DATA CONSOLES ARE AT MID-LEVEL OF EAST FACE. OTHER WORK PROCEEDS ON TOP OF AND ELSEWHERE AROUND REACTOR. NOTE TOOLS HANGING AGAINST SOUTHEAST CORNER, USED TO CHANGE FUEL ELEMENTS AND OTHER REACTOR ITEMS DURING REFUELING CYCLES. INL NEGATIVE NO. 10439. Unknown Photographer, 4/20/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. MTR BASEMENT. DOORWAY TO SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IS AT CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BASEMENT. DOORWAY TO SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IS AT CENTER OF VIEW; TO DECONTAMINATION ROOM, AT RIGHT. PART OF MAZE ENTRY IS VISIBLE INSIDE VAULT DOORWAY. INL NEGATIVE NO. 7763. Unknown Photographer, photo was dated as 3/30/1953, but this was probably an error. The more likely date is 3/30/1952. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. TOP OF MTR. MAN CLIMBS FRAME ON FOOT LADDER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOP OF MTR. MAN CLIMBS FRAME ON FOOT LADDER TO POSITION CRANE HOOK, WHICH WILL LIFT TOP PLUG FROM REACTOR AS A STEP IN REFUELING PROCEDURES. NOTE CRANE OPERATOR AT UPPER LEFT OF VIEW. ENTIRE APPARATUS, INCLUDING FRAME AND DRIVES FOR CONTROL RODS, WILL BE LIFTED. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6199. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 6/22/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. MTR CAISSONS WERE DRILLED INTO BEDROCK. IN CENTER OF VIEW, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR CAISSONS WERE DRILLED INTO BEDROCK. IN CENTER OF VIEW, CONCRETE FLOWS FROM TRUCK INTO DRUM, WHICH IS LOWERED INTO CAISSON AND RELEASED AT BOTTOM OF HOLE. BEYOND, TRUCK-MOUNTED DRILLING RIG DRILLS HOLE FOR ANOTHER CAISSON NEAR EDGE OF EXCAVATION. MATERIAL REMOVED FROM HOLE IS CARRIED BY CONVEYOR TO WAITING TRUCK. INL NEGATIVE NO. 307. Unknown Photographer, 6/1950. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. CONTROL CONSOLE FOR MTR FISSION PRODUCT MONITOR, USED TO DETECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL CONSOLE FOR MTR FISSION PRODUCT MONITOR, USED TO DETECT BREAKS IN CLADDING OF FUEL ELEMENTS. COUNT-RATE METER IN TOP PANEL INDICATES AMOUNT OF RADIOACTIVITY. LOWER PANELS SUPPLY POWER AND AMPLIFICATION OF SIGNALS GENERATED BY SCINTILLATION COUNTER/PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBE COMBINATION IN RESPONSE TO RADIOACTIVITY IN A SAMPLE OF THE COOLING WATER. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-771. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 3/15/1956. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Mutations in Mtr4 Structural Domains Reveal Their Important Role in Regulating tRNAiMet Turnover in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Mtr4p Enzymatic Activities In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Burclaff, Joseph; Anderson, James T.

    2016-01-01

    RNA processing and turnover play important roles in the maturation, metabolism and quality control of a large variety of RNAs thereby contributing to gene expression and cellular health. The TRAMP complex, composed of Air2p, Trf4p and Mtr4p, stimulates nuclear exosome-dependent RNA processing and degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Mtr4 protein structure is composed of a helicase core and a novel so-called arch domain, which protrudes from the core. The helicase core contains highly conserved helicase domains RecA-1 and 2, and two structural domains of unclear functions, winged helix domain (WH) and ratchet domain. How the structural domains (arch, WH and ratchet domain) coordinate with the helicase domains and what roles they are playing in regulating Mtr4p helicase activity are unknown. We created a library of Mtr4p structural domain mutants for the first time and screened for those defective in the turnover of TRAMP and exosome substrate, hypomodified tRNAiMet. We found these domains regulate Mtr4p enzymatic activities differently through characterizing the arch domain mutants K700N and P731S, WH mutant K904N, and ratchet domain mutant R1030G. Arch domain mutants greatly reduced Mtr4p RNA binding, which surprisingly did not lead to significant defects on either in vivo tRNAiMet turnover, or in vitro unwinding activities. WH mutant K904N and Ratchet domain mutant R1030G showed decreased tRNAiMet turnover in vivo, as well as reduced RNA binding, ATPase and unwinding activities of Mtr4p in vitro. Particularly, K904 was found to be very important for steady protein levels in vivo. Overall, we conclude that arch domain plays a role in RNA binding but is largely dispensable for Mtr4p enzymatic activities, however the structural domains in the helicase core significantly contribute to Mtr4p ATPase and unwinding activities. PMID:26820724

  19. Mutations in Mtr4 Structural Domains Reveal Their Important Role in Regulating tRNAiMet Turnover in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Mtr4p Enzymatic Activities In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Burclaff, Joseph; Anderson, James T

    2016-01-01

    RNA processing and turnover play important roles in the maturation, metabolism and quality control of a large variety of RNAs thereby contributing to gene expression and cellular health. The TRAMP complex, composed of Air2p, Trf4p and Mtr4p, stimulates nuclear exosome-dependent RNA processing and degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The Mtr4 protein structure is composed of a helicase core and a novel so-called arch domain, which protrudes from the core. The helicase core contains highly conserved helicase domains RecA-1 and 2, and two structural domains of unclear functions, winged helix domain (WH) and ratchet domain. How the structural domains (arch, WH and ratchet domain) coordinate with the helicase domains and what roles they are playing in regulating Mtr4p helicase activity are unknown. We created a library of Mtr4p structural domain mutants for the first time and screened for those defective in the turnover of TRAMP and exosome substrate, hypomodified tRNAiMet. We found these domains regulate Mtr4p enzymatic activities differently through characterizing the arch domain mutants K700N and P731S, WH mutant K904N, and ratchet domain mutant R1030G. Arch domain mutants greatly reduced Mtr4p RNA binding, which surprisingly did not lead to significant defects on either in vivo tRNAiMet turnover, or in vitro unwinding activities. WH mutant K904N and Ratchet domain mutant R1030G showed decreased tRNAiMet turnover in vivo, as well as reduced RNA binding, ATPase and unwinding activities of Mtr4p in vitro. Particularly, K904 was found to be very important for steady protein levels in vivo. Overall, we conclude that arch domain plays a role in RNA binding but is largely dispensable for Mtr4p enzymatic activities, however the structural domains in the helicase core significantly contribute to Mtr4p ATPase and unwinding activities. PMID:26820724

  20. CONCRETE POURS HAVE PRODUCED A REINFORCED SUPPORT BASE FOR MTR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONCRETE POURS HAVE PRODUCED A REINFORCED SUPPORT BASE FOR MTR REACTOR. PIPE TUNNEL IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT CENTER OF VIEW. PIPES WILL CARRY RADIOACTIVE WATER FROM REACTOR TO WATER PROCESS BUILDING. CAMERA LOOKS SOUTH INTO TUNNEL ALONG WEST SIDE OF REACTOR BASE. TWO CAISSONS ARE AT LEFT SIDE OF VIEW. NOTE "WINDOW" IN SOUTH FACE OF REACTOR BASE AND ALSO GROUP OF PENETRATIONS TO ITS LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 733. Unknown Photographer, 10/6/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. WORKERS FABRICATE ROOF SLABS FOR MTR BUILDING AT THE CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WORKERS FABRICATE ROOF SLABS FOR MTR BUILDING AT THE CONSTRUCTION SITE. FORMS WERE MADE OF STEEL. AFTER AN INCH OF CONCRETE HAD BEEN POURED IN THE FORM, A MAT OF REINFORCING STEEL WAS PLACED ON IT. THE REMAINDER OF THE FORM WAS FILLED, AND THE CONCRETE WAS VIBRATED, STRUCK, AND TROWELED. GROOVES AT CORNER WILL HAVE 1/4 INCH RODS WELDED INTO THE EYE OF THE STEEL MAT FOR GROUNDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 578. Unknown Photographer, 9/1/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. TEST REACTOR AREA PLOT PLAN CA. 1968. MTR AND ETR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TEST REACTOR AREA PLOT PLAN CA. 1968. MTR AND ETR AREAS SOUTH OF PERCH AVENUE. "COLD" SERVICES NORTH OF PERCH. ADVANCED TEST REACTOR IN NEW SECTION WEST OF COLD SERVICES SECTION. NEW PERIMETER FENCE ENCLOSES BETA RAY SPECTROMETER, TRA-669, AN ATR SUPPORT FACILITY, AND ATR STACK. UTM LOCATORS HAVE BEEN DELETED. IDAHO NUCLEAR CORPORATION, FROM A BLAW-KNOX DRAWING, 3/1968. INL INDEX NO. 530-0100-00-400-011646, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. MTR, TRA603. SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IN BASEMENT. MAZE ENTRY. SOLID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. SOURCE STORAGE VAULT IN BASEMENT. MAZE ENTRY. SOLID CONCRETE WALLS. CONCRETE PLUGS, ONE LINED WITH LEAD, AND LIFT HANDLES. FLOOR WELLS SIX FEET DEEP BELOW FLOOR. IDO MTR-603-IDO-5, 12/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-396-110469, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. MTR, TRA603. BASEMENT DECONTAMINATION ROOM DETAILS. WALLS OF SOLID CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. BASEMENT DECONTAMINATION ROOM DETAILS. WALLS OF SOLID CONCRETE MASONRY. STAINLESS STEEL WORK BENCH, FLOOR COVING AND DRAINS. "WARM" FLOOR DRAIN. OVERHEAD SHOWER WITH CHAIN PULL. IDO MTR-603-IDO-4, 12/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-396-110468, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. BASEMENT. CAMERA IN WEST CORRIDOR FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. BASEMENT. CAMERA IN WEST CORRIDOR FACING SOUTH. FREIGHT ELEVATOR IS AT RIGHT OF VIEW. AT CENTER VIEW IS MTR VAULT NO. 1, USED TO STORE SPECIAL OR FISSIONABLE MATERIALS. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-6-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Crystal structure of the open state of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrE outer membrane channel.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hsiang-Ting; Chou, Tsung-Han; Su, Chih-Chia; Bolla, Jani Reddy; Kumar, Nitin; Radhakrishnan, Abhijith; Long, Feng; Delmar, Jared A; Do, Sylvia V; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Shafer, William M; Yu, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    Active efflux of antimicrobial agents is one of the most important strategies used by bacteria to defend against antimicrobial factors present in their environment. Mediating many cases of antibiotic resistance are transmembrane efflux pumps, composed of one or more proteins. The Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux pump, belonging to the hydrophobic and amphiphilic efflux resistance-nodulation-cell division (HAE-RND) family, spans both the inner and outer membranes of N. gonorrhoeae and confers resistance to a variety of antibiotics and toxic compounds. We here describe the crystal structure of N. gonorrhoeae MtrE, the outer membrane component of the MtrCDE tripartite multidrug efflux system. This trimeric MtrE channel forms a vertical tunnel extending down contiguously from the outer membrane surface to the periplasmic end, indicating that our structure of MtrE depicts an open conformational state of this channel. PMID:24901251

  7. CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF "COLD" NORTH HALF OF MTR COMPLEX. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF "COLD" NORTH HALF OF MTR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. FOREGROUND CORNER CONTAINS OIL STORAGE TANKS. WATER TANKS AND WELL HOUSES ARE BEYOND THEM TO THE LEFT. LARGE LIGHT-COLORED BUILDING IN CENTER OF VIEW IS STEAM PLANT. DEMINERALIZER AND WATER STORAGE TANK ARE BEYOND. SIX-CELL COOLING TOWER AND ITS PUMP HOUSE ARE ABOVE IT IN VIEW. SERVICE BUILDINGS INCLUDING CANTEEN ARE ON NORTH SIDE OF ROAD. "EXCLUSION" AREA IS BEYOND ROAD. COMPARE LOCATION OF EXCLUSION-AREA GATE WITH PHOTO ID-33-G-202. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3608. Unknown Photographer, 10/30/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR, TRA642. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ORIENTATING ETR TO MTR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR, TRA-642. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ORIENTATING ETR TO MTR. CAMERA IS ON ROOF OF MTR BUILDING AND FACES DUE SOUTH. MTR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635, IN LOWER RIGHT CORNER. STEEL FRAMES SHOW BUILDINGS TO BE ATTACHED TO ETR BUILDING. HIGH-BAY SECTION IN CENTER IS REACTOR BUILDING. TWO-STORY CONTROL ROOM AND OFFICE BUILDING, TRA-647, IS BETWEEN IT AND MTR SERVICE BUILDING. STRUCTURE TO THE LEFT (WITH NO FRAMING YET) IS COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-643, AND BEYOND IT WILL BE HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644, GREAT SOUTHERN BUTTE ON HORIZON. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-2382. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 6/10/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. PUMP HOUSE FOR MTR WELL NO. 1, TRA601. FLOOR PLAN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PUMP HOUSE FOR MTR WELL NO. 1, TRA-601. FLOOR PLAN, ELEVATIONS, SECTION SHOWING WELL CASING, ROOF FRAMING PLAN. AS BUILT. WELL HOUSE FOR WELL NO. 2, TRA-602, WAS IDENTICAL IN ALL PARTICULARS EXCEPT FLOOR DIMENSIONS AND ARRANGEMENT OF PUMP AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT INSIDE. IDAHO OPERATIONS OFFICE MTR-601-IDO-1, 12/1954. INL INDEX NO. 531-0601-00-396-110463, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Mutational and gene expression analysis of mtrDEF, omcA and mtrCAB during arsenate and iron reduction in Shewanella sp. ANA-3

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Carolina; Murphy, Julie N.; Saltikov, Chad W.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Arsenate respiration and Fe(III) reduction are important processes that influence the fate and transport of arsenic in the environment. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of arsenate on Fe(III) reduction using arsenate and Fe(III) reduction deficient mutants of Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3. Ferrihydrite reduction in the absence of arsenate was similar for an arsenate reduction mutant (arrA and arsC deletion strain of ANA-3) compared with wild-type ANA-3. However, the presence of arsenate adsorbed onto ferrihydrite impeded Fe(III) reduction for the arsenate reduction mutant but not in the wild-type. In an Fe(III) reduction mutant (mtrDEF, omcA, mtrCAB null mutant of ANA-3), arsenate was reduced similarly to wild-type ANA-3 indicating the Fe(III) reduction pathway is not required for ferrihydrite-associated arsenate reduction. Expression analysis of the mtr/omc gene cluster of ANA-3 showed that omcA and mtrCAB were expressed under soluble Fe(III), ferrihydrite and arsenate growth conditions and not in aerobically grown cells. Expression of arrA was greater with ferrihydrite pre-adsorbed with arsenate relative to ferrihydrite only. Lastly, arrA and mtrA were simultaneously induced in cells shifted to anaerobic conditions and exposed to soluble Fe(III) and arsenate. These observations suggest that, unlike Fe(III), arsenate can co-induce operons (arr and mtr) implicated in arsenic mobilization. PMID:20236164

  11. MtrA of the sodium ion pumping methyltransferase binds cobalamin in a unique mode.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Tristan; Ermler, Ulrich; Shima, Seigo

    2016-01-01

    In the three domains of life, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is primarily used in methyltransferase and isomerase reactions. The methyltransferase complex MtrA-H of methanogenic archaea has a key function in energy conservation by catalysing the methyl transfer from methyl-tetrahydromethanopterin to coenzyme M and its coupling with sodium-ion translocation. The cobalamin-binding subunit MtrA is not homologous to any known B12-binding proteins and is proposed as the motor of the sodium-ion pump. Here, we present crystal structures of the soluble domain of the membrane-associated MtrA from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and the cytoplasmic MtrA homologue/cobalamin complex from Methanothermus fervidus. The MtrA fold corresponds to the Rossmann-type α/β fold, which is also found in many cobalamin-containing proteins. Surprisingly, the cobalamin-binding site of MtrA differed greatly from all the other cobalamin-binding sites. Nevertheless, the hydrogen-bond linkage at the lower axial-ligand site of cobalt was equivalently constructed to that found in other methyltransferases and mutases. A distinct polypeptide segment fixed through the hydrogen-bond linkage in the relaxed Co(III) state might be involved in propagating the energy released upon corrinoid demethylation to the sodium-translocation site by a conformational change. PMID:27324530

  12. MtrA of the sodium ion pumping methyltransferase binds cobalamin in a unique mode

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Tristan; Ermler, Ulrich; Shima, Seigo

    2016-01-01

    In the three domains of life, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is primarily used in methyltransferase and isomerase reactions. The methyltransferase complex MtrA–H of methanogenic archaea has a key function in energy conservation by catalysing the methyl transfer from methyl-tetrahydromethanopterin to coenzyme M and its coupling with sodium-ion translocation. The cobalamin-binding subunit MtrA is not homologous to any known B12-binding proteins and is proposed as the motor of the sodium-ion pump. Here, we present crystal structures of the soluble domain of the membrane-associated MtrA from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and the cytoplasmic MtrA homologue/cobalamin complex from Methanothermus fervidus. The MtrA fold corresponds to the Rossmann-type α/β fold, which is also found in many cobalamin-containing proteins. Surprisingly, the cobalamin-binding site of MtrA differed greatly from all the other cobalamin-binding sites. Nevertheless, the hydrogen-bond linkage at the lower axial-ligand site of cobalt was equivalently constructed to that found in other methyltransferases and mutases. A distinct polypeptide segment fixed through the hydrogen-bond linkage in the relaxed Co(III) state might be involved in propagating the energy released upon corrinoid demethylation to the sodium-translocation site by a conformational change. PMID:27324530

  13. The Mtr4 ratchet helix and arch domain both function to promote RNA unwinding.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lacy L; Jackson, Ryan N; Rexhepaj, Megi; King, Alejandra Klauer; Lott, Lindsey K; van Hoof, Ambro; Johnson, Sean J

    2014-12-16

    Mtr4 is a conserved Ski2-like RNA helicase and a subunit of the TRAMP complex that activates exosome-mediated 3'-5' turnover in nuclear RNA surveillance and processing pathways. Prominent features of the Mtr4 structure include a four-domain ring-like helicase core and a large arch domain that spans the core. The 'ratchet helix' is positioned to interact with RNA substrates as they move through the helicase. However, the contribution of the ratchet helix in Mtr4 activity is poorly understood. Here we show that strict conservation along the ratchet helix is particularly extensive for Ski2-like RNA helicases compared to related helicases. Mutation of residues along the ratchet helix alters in vitro activity in Mtr4 and TRAMP and causes slow growth phenotypes in vivo. We also identify a residue on the ratchet helix that influences Mtr4 affinity for polyadenylated substrates. Previous work indicated that deletion of the arch domain has minimal effect on Mtr4 unwinding activity. We now show that combining the arch deletion with ratchet helix mutations abolishes helicase activity and produces a lethal in vivo phenotype. These studies demonstrate that the ratchet helix modulates helicase activity and suggest that the arch domain plays a previously unrecognized role in unwinding substrates. PMID:25414331

  14. Preliminary developments of MTR plates with uranium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Durand, J.P.; Laudamy, P.; Richter, K.

    1997-08-01

    In the opinion of CERCA, the total weight of Uranium per MTR plate (without changing the external dimensions) cannot be further increased using U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. Limits have been reached on plates with a thicker meat or loaded to 6g Ut/cm{sup 3}. The use of a denser fuel like Uranium mononitride could permit an increase in these limits. A collaboration between the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, and CERCA has been set ut. The preliminary studies at the ITU to check compatibility between aluminium and UN proved that there are no metallurgical interactions below 500{degrees}C. Feasibility of the manufacturing, on a laboratory scale at CERCA, of depleted Uranium mononitride plates loaded to 7 g Ut/cm{sup 3} has been demonstrated. The manufacturing process, however, is only one aspect of the development of a new fuel. The experience gained in the case of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} has shown that the development of a new fuel requires considerable time and financial investment. Such a development certainly represents an effort of about 10 years.

  15. Mtr Extracellular Electron Transfer Pathways in Fe(III)-reducing or Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacteria: A Genomic Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2012-12-01

    Originally discovered in the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1), the Mtr (i.e., metal-reducing) pathway exists in all characterized strains of metal-reducing Shewanella. The protein components identified to date for the Mtr pathway of MR-1 include four multi-heme c-type cytochromes (c-Cyts), CymA, MtrA, MtrC and OmcA, and a porin-like, outer membrane protein MtrB. They are strategically positioned along the width of the MR-1 cell envelope to mediate electron transfer from the quinone/quinol pool in the inner-membrane to the Fe(III)-containing minerals external to the bacterial cells. A survey of microbial genomes revealed homologues of the Mtr pathway in other dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, including Aeromonas hydrophila, Ferrimonas balearica and Rhodoferax ferrireducens, and in the Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria Dechloromonas aromatica RCB, Gallionella capsiferriformans ES-2 and Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1. The widespread distribution of Mtr pathways in Fe(III)-reducing or Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria emphasizes the importance of this type of extracellular electron transfer pathway in microbial redox transformation of Fe. Their distribution in these two different functional groups of bacteria also emphasizes the bi-directional nature of electron transfer reactions carried out by the Mtr pathways. The characteristics of the Mtr pathways may be shared by other pathways used by microorganisms for exchanging electrons with their extracellular environments.

  16. MTR and In-vivo 1H-MRS studies on mouse brain with parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Moon-Hyun; Kim, Hyeon-Jin; Chung, Jin-Yeung; Doo, Ah-Reum; Park, Hi-Joon; Kim, Seung-Nam; Choe, Bo-Young

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the changes in the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) histogram are related to specific characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD) and to investigate whether the MTR histogram parameters are associated with neurochemical dysfunction by performing in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). MTR and in vivo 1H-MRS studies were performed on control mice (n = 10) and 1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine intoxicated mice (n = 10). All the MTR and in vivo 1H-MRS experiments were performed on a 9.4 T MRI/MRS system (Bruker Biospin, Germany) using a standard head coil. The protondensity fast spin echo (FSE) images and the T2-weighted spin echo (SE) images were acquired with no gap. Outer volume suppression (OVS), combined with the ultra-short echo-time stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM), was used for the localized in-vivo 1H-MRS. The quantitative analysis of metabolites was performed from the 1H spectra obtained in vivo on the striatum (ST) by using jMRUI (Lyon, France). The peak height of the MTR histograms in the PD model group was significantly lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05). The midbrain MTR values for volume were lower in the PD group than the control group(p < 0.05). The complex peak (Glx: glutamine+glutamate+ GABA)/creatine (Cr) ratio of the right ST in the PD group was significantly increased as compared to that of the control group. The present study revealed that the peak height of the MTR histogram was significantly decreased in the ST and substantia nigra, and a significant increase in the Gl x /Cr ratio was found in the ST of the PD group, as compared with that of the control group. These findings could reflect the early phase of neuronal dysfunction of neurotransmitters.

  17. The Mtr Respiratory Pathway Is Essential for Reducing Flavins and Electrodes in Shewanella oneidensis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Coursolle, Dan; Baron, Daniel B.; Bond, Daniel R.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mtr respiratory pathway of Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 is required to effectively respire both soluble and insoluble forms of oxidized iron. Flavins (riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide) recently have been shown to be excreted by MR-1 and facilitate the reduction of insoluble substrates. Other Shewanella species tested accumulated flavins in supernatants to an extent similar to that of MR-1, suggesting that flavin secretion is a general trait of the species. External flavins have been proposed to act as both a soluble electron shuttle and a metal chelator; however, at biologically relevant concentrations, our results suggest that external flavins primarily act as electron shuttles for MR-1. Using deletion mutants lacking various Mtr-associated proteins, we demonstrate that the Mtr extracellular respiratory pathway is essential for the reduction of flavins and that decaheme cytochromes found on the outer surface of the cell (MtrC and OmcA) are required for the majority of this activity. Given the involvement of external flavins in the reduction of electrodes, we monitored current production by Mtr respiratory pathway mutants in three-electrode bioreactors under controlled flavin concentrations. While mutants lacking MtrC were able to reduce flavins at 50% of the rate of the wild type in cell suspension assays, these strains were unable to grow into productive electrode-reducing biofilms. The analysis of mutants lacking OmcA suggests a role for this protein in both electron transfer to electrodes and attachment to surfaces. The parallel phenotypes of Mtr mutants in flavin and electrode reduction blur the distinction between direct contact and the redox shuttling strategies of insoluble substrate reduction by MR-1. PMID:19897659

  18. Shielding analysis of the NAC-LWT cask with MTR fuel using SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Napolitano, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    NAC International has used the SCALE Code Package extensively for transport and storage cask design. This includes the design of the NAC-STC dual purpose cask, the ENSA-DPT dual purpose cask as well as design modifications to the NAC-LWT cask. The NAC-LWT is a legal weight truck cask that was originally designed to transport one pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assembly or two boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies. Recently, this cask has been modified to transport up to 42 materials test reactor (MTR) fuel elements. This paper discusses the use of the SCALE package in performing a source term analysis of MTR fuel and shielding analysis of the NAC-LWT cask in support of a 10 CFR Part 71 license amendment for MTR fuel contents.

  19. The crystal structure of Mtr4 reveals a novel arch domain required for rRNA processing

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.N.; Robinson, H.; Klauer, A. A.; Hintze, B. J.; van Hoof, A.; Johnson, S. J.

    2010-07-01

    The essential RNA helicase, Mtr4, performs a critical role in RNA processing and degradation as an activator of the nuclear exosome. The molecular basis for this vital function is not understood and detailed analysis is significantly limited by the lack of structural data. In this study, we present the crystal structure of Mtr4. The structure reveals a new arch-like domain that is specific to Mtr4 and Ski2 (the cytosolic homologue of Mtr4). In vivo and in vitro analyses demonstrate that the Mtr4 arch domain is required for proper 5.8S rRNA processing, and suggest that the arch functions independently of canonical helicase activity. In addition, extensive conservation along the face of the putative RNA exit site highlights a potential interface with the exosome. These studies provide a molecular framework for understanding fundamental aspects of helicase function in exosome activation, and more broadly define the molecular architecture of Ski2-like helicases.

  20. MTR,TRA603. EXPERIMENTERS' SPACE ALLOCATIONS IN BASEMENT AS OF 1963. SHIELDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR,TRA-603. EXPERIMENTERS' SPACE ALLOCATIONS IN BASEMENT AS OF 1963. SHIELDED CUBICLES WERE IDENTIFIED BY SPONSORING LABORATORY AND ITS TEST HOLE NUMBER IN THE REACTOR, IE, "KAPL HB-1" SIGNIFIED KNOLLS ATOMIC POWER LABORATORY, HORIZONTAL BEAM NO. 1. "WAPD" WAS WESTINGHOUSE ATOMIC POWER DIVISION. CATCH TANKS AND SAMPLE STATIONS FOR TEST LOOPS WERE ASSOCIATED WITH THESE CUBICLES. NOTE DESKS, STORAGE CABINETS, SWITCH GEAR, INSTRUMENT PANELS. PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY MTR-E-5205, 4/1963. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-706-009757, REV. 5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. MTR WING, TRA604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. INTERIOR VIEW FROM SAME LOCATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. INTERIOR VIEW FROM SAME LOCATION IN WEST CORRIDOR AS PHOTO ID-33-G-42 BUT CAMERA FACES SOUTH. SIGN ON DOOR FOR "PIPE TUNNEL" WARNS OF RADIOLOGICAL AND ASBESTOS HAZARDS. DOOR HAS METAL HASPS. SIGN ON OVERHEAD WASTE HEAT RECOVERY PIPES SAYS THEY CONTAIN "ASBESTOS FREE INSULATION." FIRE DOOR AT LEFT LEADS TO STAIRWAY TO FIRST FLOOR. DOOR AT RIGHT LEADS TO ROOM WHICH ONCE CONTAINED MTR LIBRARY. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-13-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. MTR WING, TRA604. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. ENTRY LOBBY, MACHINE SHOP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. ENTRY LOBBY, MACHINE SHOP, INSTRUMENT SHOP, COUNTING ROOM, HEALTH PHYSICS LAB, LABS AND OFFICES, STORAGE, SHIPPING AND RECEIVING. BLAW-KNOX 3150-4-2, 7/1950. INL INDEX NO. 053-604-00-099-100008, REV. 7. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. MTR, TRA603. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. REACTOR SHIELDING, CANAL AND RABBIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. REACTOR SHIELDING, CANAL AND RABBIT CANAL, DEEP WELL STORAGE. DECONTAMINATION ROOM, VAULT, MONITOR ROOM, OFFICE, STAIRWAYS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-1, 7/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100560, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. MTR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA651. TWO JOY COMPRESSORS ARE INSTALLED. OUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-651. TWO JOY COMPRESSORS ARE INSTALLED. OUT OF VIEW ON RIGHT WERE TWO INGERSOLL-RAND COMPRESSORS. NOTE FRAME STRUCTURE OF METAL-SIDING BUILDING. COMPARE WITH ID-33-G-4. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1257. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 4/20/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA610. FIRST FLOOR, ROOF AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BLOWER AND FAN HOUSE, TRA-610. FIRST FLOOR, ROOF AND FOUNDATION PLANS. DOOR SCHEDULE AND LOCATION OF STRUCTURAL STEEL AND HOLLOW METAL DOORS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-810-1, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0610-00-098-100688, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. MTR, TRA603. SUBBASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. INLET/OUTLET TUNNELS FOR COOLANT WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. SUB-BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. INLET/OUTLET TUNNELS FOR COOLANT WATER (NORTH SIDE) AND AIR (SOUTH SIDE). RABBIT CANAL AND BULKHEADS. SUMPS AND DRAINS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-3-7, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100006, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. MTR WING, TRA604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. WEST CORRIDOR. CAMERA FACES NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. WEST CORRIDOR. CAMERA FACES NORTH. HVAC AREA IS AT RIGHT OF CORRIDOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-13-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. BASEMENT. CAMERA IS IN SOUTHWEST QUADRANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. BASEMENT. CAMERA IS IN SOUTHWEST QUADRANT OF BASEMENT AND FACING NORTHEAST. PANEL DISPLAYS DATA READOUTS. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-6-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA IS AT NORTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA IS AT NORTH END OF THIRD FLOOR BALCONY LOOKING SOUTHEAST. DETAIL OF REACTOR'S NORTH FACE AND ITS TEST HOLES. MOCK-UP APPARATUS IS BEYOND REACTOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-5-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA IS ON SECOND FLOOR BALCONY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA IS ON SECOND FLOOR BALCONY LOOKING DOWN ON WEST FACE OF REACTOR. SHIELDING BLOCKS IN FOREGROUND ATOP CABINET. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-3-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA IS AT SOUTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA IS AT SOUTH END OF THIRD FLOOR BALCONY LOOKING NORTHEAST. BRIDGE BETWEEN BALCONY AND REACTOR TOP AT LEFT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-5-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603, REACTOR FLOOR. DETAIL OF REACTOR'S SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603, REACTOR FLOOR. DETAIL OF REACTOR'S SOUTH FACE. CAMERA FACING NORTHWESTERLY. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-1-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603, REACTOR FLOOR. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603, REACTOR FLOOR. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER OF REACTOR. WEST FACE IS TOWARD LEFT OF VIEW. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-2-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA IS ON SECOND FLOOR BALCONY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA IS ON SECOND FLOOR BALCONY LOOKING DOWN ON REACTOR FLOOR, FACING NORTHEAST, THE WEST AND SOUTH FACES OF THE REACTOR. MOCK-UP APPARATUS IS AT RIGHT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD-46-3-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA635. EAST SIDE. CAMERA LOOKING NORTHWEST. MTR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-635. EAST SIDE. CAMERA LOOKING NORTHWEST. MTR BUILDING, TRA-603, AT RIGHT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-41-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA635. WEST SIDE. CAMERA LOOKING NORTHEAST. MTR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-635. WEST SIDE. CAMERA LOOKING NORTHEAST. MTR (TRA-603) AT LEFT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-41-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST CORNER OF REACTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST CORNER OF REACTOR FLOOR. SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT RELATE TO MOCK-UP PROJECT. NOTE PRECAST WALL PANELS SUPPORTED BY VERTICAL COLUMNS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-4-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603, REACTOR FLOOR. DETAIL OF REACTOR TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603, REACTOR FLOOR. DETAIL OF REACTOR TEST HOLE OPENING IN WEST FACE. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-2-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603, REACTOR FLOOR. VIEW DOWN CORRIDOR CREATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603, REACTOR FLOOR. VIEW DOWN CORRIDOR CREATED BY EAST WALL ON LEFT AND APPARATUS ON RIGHT. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-1-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. SOUTH WING, MTR661. INTERIOR DETAIL INSIDE LAB ROOM 131. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH WING, MTR-661. INTERIOR DETAIL INSIDE LAB ROOM 131. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. NOTE CONCRETE BLOCK WALLS. SAFETY SHOWER AND EYE WASHER AT REAR WALL. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-7-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Structure and function of Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrF illuminates a class of antimetabolite efflux pumps.

    PubMed

    Su, Chih-Chia; Bolla, Jani Reddy; Kumar, Nitin; Radhakrishnan, Abhijith; Long, Feng; Delmar, Jared A; Chou, Tsung-Han; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Shafer, William M; Yu, Edward W

    2015-04-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen and the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea. The control of this disease has been compromised by the increasing proportion of infections due to antibiotic-resistant strains, which are growing at an alarming rate. N. gonorrhoeae MtrF is an integral membrane protein that belongs to the AbgT family of transporters for which no structural information is available. Here, we describe the crystal structure of MtrF, revealing a dimeric molecule with architecture distinct from all other families of transporters. MtrF is a bowl-shaped dimer with a solvent-filled basin extending from the cytoplasm to halfway across the membrane bilayer. Each subunit of the transporter contains nine transmembrane helices and two hairpins, posing a plausible pathway for substrate transport. A combination of the crystal structure and biochemical functional assays suggests that MtrF is an antibiotic efflux pump mediating bacterial resistance to sulfonamide antimetabolite drugs. PMID:25818299

  2. Performance of the MTR core with MOX fuel using the MCNP4C2 code.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Ismail; Albarhoum, Mohamad

    2016-08-01

    The MCNP4C2 code was used to simulate the MTR-22 MW research reactor and perform the neutronic analysis for a new fuel namely: a MOX (U3O8&PuO2) fuel dispersed in an Al matrix for One Neutronic Trap (ONT) and Three Neutronic Traps (TNTs) in its core. Its new characteristics were compared to its original characteristics based on the U3O8-Al fuel. Experimental data for the neutronic parameters including criticality relative to the MTR-22 MW reactor for the original U3O8-Al fuel at nominal power were used to validate the calculated values and were found acceptable. The achieved results seem to confirm that the use of MOX fuel in the MTR-22 MW will not degrade the safe operational conditions of the reactor. In addition, the use of MOX fuel in the MTR-22 MW core leads to reduce the uranium fuel enrichment with (235)U and the amount of loaded (235)U in the core by about 34.84% and 15.21% for the ONT and TNTs cases, respectively. PMID:27213809

  3. MTR WING A, TRA604, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. DETAIL VIEW INSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING A, TRA-604, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. DETAIL VIEW INSIDE LABORATORY 114. CAMERA FACING NORTH. DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IS UNDERWAY. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-12-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. MTR, TRA603. INCANAL CONVEYOR TABLE, SAW TABLE, AND STORAGE AREA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. IN-CANAL CONVEYOR TABLE, SAW TABLE, AND STORAGE AREA RACKS. DISCHARGE MECHANISM. BLAW-KNOX 3150-579-1, 12/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-603-40-098-100302, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. MTR WING, TRA604. A LABORATORY ROOM WITH ITS CABINETS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604. A LABORATORY ROOM WITH ITS CABINETS AND SERVICE STRIP DOWN CENTER OF ROOM. CARD IN LEFT CORNER OF VIEW WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON THE ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3817. Unknown Photographer, 11/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations and Molecular Conductance Measurements of the Bacterial Decaheme Cytochrome MtrF

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, H. S.; Pirbadian, S.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Shi, Liang; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.

    2014-09-05

    Microorganisms overcome the considerable hurdle of respiring extracellular solid substrates by deploying large multiheme cytochrome complexes that form 20 nanometer conduits to traffic electrons through the periplasm and across the cellular outer membrane. Here we report the first kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and single-molecule scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements of the Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 outer membrane decaheme cytochrome MtrF, which can perform the final electron transfer step from cells to minerals and microbial fuel cell anodes. We find that the calculated electron transport rate through MtrF is consistent with previously reported in vitro measurements of the Shewanella Mtr complex, as well as in vivo respiration rates on electrode surfaces assuming a reasonable (experimentally verified) coverage of cytochromes on the cell surface. The simulations also reveal a rich phase diagram in the overall electron occupation density of the hemes as a function of electron injection and ejection rates. Single molecule tunneling spectroscopy confirms MtrF's ability to mediate electron transport between an STM tip and an underlying Au(111) surface, but at rates higher than expected from previously calculated heme-heme electron transfer rates for solvated molecules.

  7. MTR STACK, TRA71, DETAIL OF PUMICE BLOCK SERVICE BUILDING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR STACK, TRA-71-, DETAIL OF PUMICE BLOCK SERVICE BUILDING AT BASE OF STACK. CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD52-1-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 5/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. MTR WING A, TRA604, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. VIEW DOWN CORRIDOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING A, TRA-604, INTERIOR. MAIN FLOOR. VIEW DOWN CORRIDOR 2 (BETWEEN ROOMS ON WEST WALL AND IN CENTER OF FLOOR). CAMERA FACING SOUTH. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-12-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. MTR, TRA603. CONTROL ROOM DETAILS. ACOUSTIC PLASTER CEILING, USHAPED CONSOLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. CONTROL ROOM DETAILS. ACOUSTIC PLASTER CEILING, U-SHAPED CONSOLE, INSTRUMENT PANELS, GLASS DOOR, ASPHALT TILE FLOOR AND COLORS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-11, 10/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100570, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. MTR WING, TRA604. PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS AND DIMENSIONS FOR PANELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604. PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS AND DIMENSIONS FOR PANELS K THROUGH Q. BLAW-KNOX 3150-804-21, SHEET #2, 11/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0604-62-098-100645, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. MTR STACK, TRA710, CONTEXTUAL VIEW, CAMERA FACING SOUTH. PERIMETER SECURITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR STACK, TRA-710, CONTEXTUAL VIEW, CAMERA FACING SOUTH. PERIMETER SECURITY FENCE AND SECURITY LIGHTING IN VIEW AT LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD52-1-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 5/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. MTR BUILDING, TRA603. SOUTH ELEVATION. PRECAST INSULATED PANEL DETAILS. AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. SOUTH ELEVATION. PRECAST INSULATED PANEL DETAILS. AIR DUCT PLENUM CHAMBER. BLAW-KNOX 3150-80-5, 9/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100564, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. MTR WING A, TRA604. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING A, TRA-604. SOUTH SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTH. THIS VIEW TYPIFIES TENDENCY FOR EXPANSIONS TO TAKE THE FORM OF PROJECTIONS AND INFILL USING AVAILABLE YARD SPACES. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD47-44-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. MTR, TRA603. NORTH ELEVATION. PLUG STORAGE AREA WITH ROLLING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. NORTH ELEVATION. PLUG STORAGE AREA WITH ROLLING STEEL DOOR. PIPE TUNNEL IN SUB-BASEMENT. FIXED SASH WINDOWS IN BALCONY SECTION. DOOR DETAILS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-7, 7/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100566, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. The exosome-binding factors Rrp6 and Rrp47 form a composite surface for recruiting the Mtr4 helicase.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Benjamin; Feigenbutz, Monika; Makino, Debora L; Falk, Sebastian; Basquin, Claire; Mitchell, Phil; Conti, Elena

    2014-12-01

    The exosome is a conserved multi-subunit ribonuclease complex that functions in 3' end processing, turnover and surveillance of nuclear and cytoplasmic RNAs. In the yeast nucleus, the 10-subunit core complex of the exosome (Exo-10) physically and functionally interacts with the Rrp6 exoribonuclease and its associated cofactor Rrp47, the helicase Mtr4 and Mpp6. Here, we show that binding of Mtr4 to Exo-10 in vitro is dependent upon both Rrp6 and Rrp47, whereas Mpp6 binds directly and independently of other cofactors. Crystallographic analyses reveal that the N-terminal domains of Rrp6 and Rrp47 form a highly intertwined structural unit. Rrp6 and Rrp47 synergize to create a composite and conserved surface groove that binds the N-terminus of Mtr4. Mutation of conserved residues within Rrp6 and Mtr4 at the structural interface disrupts their interaction and inhibits growth of strains expressing a C-terminal GFP fusion of Mtr4. These studies provide detailed structural insight into the interaction between the Rrp6-Rrp47 complex and Mtr4, revealing an important link between Mtr4 and the core exosome. PMID:25319414

  16. Construction of prokaryotic expression plasmid of mtrC protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and its expression in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxiang; Tu, Yating; Lin, Nengxing; Huang, Changzheng

    2005-01-01

    In order to provide a rational research basis for detection of resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antimicrobial hydrophobic agents and study on the resistant mechanism of multiple transferable resistance (mtr) efflux system, plasmid pET-28a(+) encoding mtrC gene was constructed and the related target protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) DE3. The fragments of mtrC gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from the standard strains were amplified and cloned into prokaryotic expression plasmid pET-28a(+) with restriction endonuclease to construct recombinant pET-mtrC which was verified by restriction endonuclease and DNA sequencing. The recombinant was transformed into E. coli DE3 to express the protein mtrC induced by IPTG. The results showed mtrC DNA fragment was proved correct through restriction endonuclease and DNA sequencing. Its sequence was 99.5% homologus to that published on GeneBank (U14993). A 48.5 kD fusion protein which was induced by IPTG was detected by SDS-PAGE. It was concluded that the construction of prokaryotic expression plasmid of mtrC protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was correct and the fusion protein was successively expressed in E. coli. PMID:16463681

  17. The exosome-binding factors Rrp6 and Rrp47 form a composite surface for recruiting the Mtr4 helicase

    PubMed Central

    Schuch, Benjamin; Feigenbutz, Monika; Makino, Debora L; Falk, Sebastian; Basquin, Claire; Mitchell, Phil; Conti, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The exosome is a conserved multi-subunit ribonuclease complex that functions in 3′ end processing, turnover and surveillance of nuclear and cytoplasmic RNAs. In the yeast nucleus, the 10-subunit core complex of the exosome (Exo-10) physically and functionally interacts with the Rrp6 exoribonuclease and its associated cofactor Rrp47, the helicase Mtr4 and Mpp6. Here, we show that binding of Mtr4 to Exo-10 in vitro is dependent upon both Rrp6 and Rrp47, whereas Mpp6 binds directly and independently of other cofactors. Crystallographic analyses reveal that the N-terminal domains of Rrp6 and Rrp47 form a highly intertwined structural unit. Rrp6 and Rrp47 synergize to create a composite and conserved surface groove that binds the N-terminus of Mtr4. Mutation of conserved residues within Rrp6 and Mtr4 at the structural interface disrupts their interaction and inhibits growth of strains expressing a C-terminal GFP fusion of Mtr4. These studies provide detailed structural insight into the interaction between the Rrp6–Rrp47 complex and Mtr4, revealing an important link between Mtr4 and the core exosome. PMID:25319414

  18. Extracellular Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Belchik, Sara M.; Kennedy, David W.; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Wang, Yuanmin; Sevinc, Papatya C.; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe; Lu, H. Peter; Fredrickson, James K.; Shi, Liang

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the roles of cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in Cr(VI) reduction, the effects of deleting the mtrC and/or omcA gene on Cr(VI) reduction and the cellular locations of reduced Cr(III) precipitates were investigated. Compared to the rate of reduction of Cr(VI) by the wild type (wt), the deletion of mtrC decreased the initial rate of Cr(VI) reduction by 43.5%, while the deletion of omcA or both mtrC and omcA lowered the rate by 53.4% and 68.9%, respectively. In wt cells, Cr(III) precipitates were detected by transmission electron microscopy in the extracellular matrix between the cells, in association with the outer membrane, and inside the cytoplasm. No extracellular matrix-associated Cr(III) precipitates, however, were found in the cytochrome mutant cell suspension. In mutant cells without either MtrC or OmcA, most Cr(III) precipitates were found in association with the outer membrane, while in mutant cells lacking both MtrC and OmcA, most Cr(III) precipitates were found inside the cytoplasm. Cr(III) precipitates were also detected by scanning election microscopy on the surfaces of the wt and mutants without MtrC or OmcA but not on the mutant cells lacking both MtrC and OmcA, demonstrating that the deletion of mtrC and omcA diminishes the extracellular formation of Cr(III) precipitates. Furthermore, purified MtrC and OmcA reduced Cr(VI) with apparent kcat values of 1.2 ± 0.2 (mean ± standard deviation) and 10.2 ± 1 s−1 and Km values of 34.1 ± 4.5 and 41.3 ± 7.9 μM, respectively. Together, these results consistently demonstrate that MtrC and OmcA are the terminal reductases used by S. oneidensis MR-1 for extracellular Cr(VI) reduction where OmcA is a predominant Cr(VI) reductase. PMID:21498755

  19. MTR BUILDING, TRA603. EAST SIDE. CAMERA FACING WEST. CORRUGATED IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. EAST SIDE. CAMERA FACING WEST. CORRUGATED IRON BUILDING MARKED WITH "X" IS TRA-651. TRA-626, TO ITS RIGHT, HOUSED COMPRESSOR EQUIPMENT FOR THE AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION PROGRAM. LATER, IT WAS USED FOR STORAGE. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-42-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, April 2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603, REACTOR FLOOR. CAMERA IS IN NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603, REACTOR FLOOR. CAMERA IS IN NORTHEAST CORNER FACING SOUTHWEST. NORTH FACE OF REACTOR IS IN LEFT HALF OF VIEW. WEST WALL CONTAINS CONTROL BALCONIES. BRIDGE FROM REACTOR TO SECOND-FLOOR BALCONY IS IN CENTER OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-1-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603, REACTOR FLOOR. VIEW DOWN CORRIDOR CREATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603, REACTOR FLOOR. VIEW DOWN CORRIDOR CREATED BY REACTOR (LEFT OF VIEW) AND WEST WALL ON RIGHT. BRIDGE OVERHEAD PROVIDED ACCESS TO TOP OF REACTOR FROM BALCONY. NOTE WIDTH OF BRIDGE. CAMERA FACING SOUTH TOWARDS OPEN DOOR OF REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-1-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603, SECOND FLOOR BALCONY. CAMERA FACING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603, SECOND FLOOR BALCONY. CAMERA FACING NORTH. ROOMS 204, 203, 202, AND 201 ARE TO LEFT. VIEW TOWARDS REACTOR FLOOR IS SEEN THROUGH BALCONY RAILING. PLATFORM BETWEEN REACTOR AND THIRD FLOOR BALCONY IS SEEN BEYOND SQUARE PILLAR IN FOREGROUND. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-3-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA IS AT NORTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA IS AT NORTH END OF SECOND FLOOR BALCONY LOOKING TOWARDS WORK PLATFORMS ON NORTH FACE OF REACTOR. BRIDGE TO THIRD FLOOR BALCONY FROM TOP OF REACTOR IS AT UPPER RIGHT OF VIEW. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD-46-4-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA IS ON SECOND FLOOR BALCONY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA IS ON SECOND FLOOR BALCONY LOOKING DOWN ON REACTOR FLOOR, FACING EAST. REACTOR IS AT LEFT OF VIEW. APPARATUS DIRECTLY IN FRONT OF CAMERA IS PART OF A MOCK-UP PROJECT. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-3-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA IS AT NORTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA IS AT NORTH END OF THIRD FLOOR BALCONY LOOKING SOUTHEAST AND ACROSS TOP OF REACTOR. MOCK-UP APPARATUS IS BEYOND REACTOR. BRIDGE CONNECTING BALCONY AND REACTOR TOP AT RIGHT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-5-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. MTR WING, TRA604. PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS AND DIMENSIONS. TYPES A, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604. PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS AND DIMENSIONS. TYPES A, B, C, D, E, AND F; AND HOW THEY ARE CONNECTED. TYPES C AND D ARE ON WEST SIDE WHERE GLASS BLOCKS SURROUND ENTRY DOOR. BLAW-KNOX 3150-804-20, SHEET #1, 11/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0604-62-098-100644, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. MTR WING, TRA604. ELEVATIONS OF NORTH, WEST AND SOUTH SIDES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604. ELEVATIONS OF NORTH, WEST AND SOUTH SIDES. EAST SIDE CONNECTS TO TRA-603'S WEST SIDE. REFERENCE TO PANEL TYPES A, B, C, D, E, H. WINDOWS IN BANKS OF FOUR. DETAILS OF ENTRY ON WEST SIDE: CANOPY, GLASS BLOCK. FAN DECK. BLAW-KNOX 3150-804-5, 11/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0604-00-098-100630, REV. 5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. MTR WING A, TRA604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. DETAIL OF A19 LAB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING A, TRA-604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. DETAIL OF A-19 LAB AREA ALONG SOUTH WALL. SIGN ON FLOOR DIRECTS WORKERS TO OBTAIN WHOLE BODY FRISK UPON LEAVING AREA. SIGN ON EQUIPMENT IN CENTER OF VIEW REQUESTS WORKERS TO "NOTIFY HEALTH PHYSICS BEFORE WORKING ON THIS SYSTEM." CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-13-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. MTR BUILDING, TRA603. SOUTHEAST CORNER, EAST SIDE FACING TOWARD RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. SOUTHEAST CORNER, EAST SIDE FACING TOWARD RIGHT OF VIEW. CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST. LIGHT-COLORED PROJECTION AT LEFT IS ENGINEERING SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-635. SMALL CONCRETE BLOCK BUILDING AT CENTER OF VIEW IS FAST CHOPPER DETECTOR HOUSE, TRA-665. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-43-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Thermodynamics of Electron Flow in the Bacterial Deca-heme Cytochrome MtrF

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, Marian; Zarzycki, Piotr P.; Blumberger, Jochen; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2012-07-01

    Electron transporting multiheme cytochromes are essential to the metabolism of microbes that inhabit soils and carry out important biogeochemical processes. Recently the first crystal structure of a prototype bacterial deca-heme cytochrome (MtrF) has been resolved and its electrochemistry characterized. However, the molecular details of electron conductance along heme chains in the cytochrome are difficult to access via experiment due to the nearly identical chemical nature of the heme cofactors. Here we employ large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to compute the reduction potentials of the ten hemes of MtrF in aqueous solution. We find that as a whole they fall within a range of about 0.3 V in agreement with experiment. Individual reduction potentials give rise to a free energy profile for electron conduction that is approximately symmetric with respect to the center of the protein. Our calculations indicate that there is no significant potential bias along the orthogonal octa- and tetra-heme chains suggesting that under aqueous conditions MtrF is a nearly reversible two-dimensional conductor.

  11. Targeted protein degradation of outer membrane decaheme cytochrome MtrC metal reductase in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 measured using biarsenical probe CrAsH-EDT(2).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yijia; Chen, Baowei; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, James K; Bigelow, Diana J; Squier, Thomas C

    2011-11-15

    Development of efficient microbial biofuel cells requires an ability to exploit interfacial electron transfer reactions to external electron acceptors, such as metal oxides; such reactions occur in the facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 through the catalytic activity of the outer membrane decaheme c-type cytochrome MtrC. Central to the utility of this pathway to synthetic biology is an understanding of cellular mechanisms that maintain optimal MtrC function, cellular localization, and renewal by degradation and resynthesis. In order to monitor trafficking to the outer membrane, and the environmental sensitivity of MtrC, we have engineered a tetracysteine tag (i.e., CCPGCC) at its C-terminus that permits labeling by the cell impermeable biarsenical fluorophore carboxy-FlAsH (CrAsH) of MtrC at the surface of living Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells. In comparison, the cell permeable reagent FlAsH permits labeling of the entire population of MtrC, including proteolytic fragments resulting from incorrect maturation. We demonstrate specific labeling by CrAsH of engineered MtrC (MtrC*) which is dependent on the presence of a functional type 2 secretion system (T2S), as evidenced by T2S system gspD or gspG deletion mutants which are incapable of CrAsH labeling. Under these latter conditions, MtrC* undergoes proteolytic degradation to form a large 35-38 kDa fragment; this degradation product is also resolved during normal turnover of the CrAsH-labeled MtrC protein. No MtrC protein is released into the medium during turnover, suggesting the presence of cellular turnover systems involving MtrC reuptake and degradation. The mature MtrC localized on the outer membrane is a long-lived protein, with a turnover rate of 0.043 h(-1) that is insensitive to O(2) concentration. Maturation of MtrC is relatively inefficient, with substantial rates of turnover of the immature protein prior to export to the outer membrane (i.e., 0.028 h(-1)) that are

  12. Dose Rate Calculations of Spent MTR-HEU Fuel Elements of the IAN-R1 Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarta Fuentes, Jose Antonio

    2005-04-01

    With cooperation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States, several tasks related to the waste disposal of spent MTR fuel enriched nominally to 93% were carried out for the conversion of the IAN-R1 Research Reactor from MTR-HEU fuel to TRIGA-LEU fuel. In order to remove the spent MTR-HEU fuel of the core and store it safetly, a program was established at the Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares y Energìas Alternativas (INEA). This program included training, acquisition of hardware and sofware, design and construction of a decay pool, transfer of the spent HEU fuel elements into the decay pool and his final transport to Savanah River in United States. In this paper are presented external dose rates which were calculated for a standard spent MTR-HEU fuel element of the IAN-R1 Research Reactor. The calculations take in consideration the activity due to contributions of fission, activation and actinides products for each relevant radionuclide present in a standard spent MTR-HEU fuel. The datas obtained were the base for the respective dosimetric evaluations in the transfering operations of fuel elements into the decay pool and for shielding calculations in designing of the decay pool.

  13. Radionuclide Compositions and Total Activity of Spent MTR-HEU Fuel Elements of the IAN-R1 Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarta, Josè A.; Castiblanco, Luis A.

    2005-05-01

    With cooperation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States, several calculations and tasks related to the waste disposal of spent MTR fuel enriched nominally to 93% were carried out for the conversion of the IAN-R1 Research Reactor from MTR-HEU fuel to TRIGA-LEU fuel. In order to remove the spent MTR-HEU fuel of the core and store it safely a program was established at the Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares y Energìas Alternativas (INEA). This program included training, acquisition of hardware and software, design and construction of a decay pool, transfer of the spent HEU fuel elements into the decay pool and his final transport to Savannah River in United States. In this paper are presented data of activities calculated for each relevant radionuclide present in spent MTR-HEU fuel elements of the IAN-R1 Research Reactor and the total activity. The total activity calculated takes in consideration contributions of fission, activation and actinides products. The data obtained were the base for shielding calculations for the decay pool concerning the storage of spent MTR-HEU fuel elements and the respective dosimetric evaluations in the transferring operations of fuel elements into the decay pool.

  14. Radionuclide Compositions and Total Activity of Spent MTR-HEU Fuel Elements of the IAN-R1 Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sarta, Jose A.; Castiblanco, Luis A

    2005-05-24

    With cooperation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States, several calculations and tasks related to the waste disposal of spent MTR fuel enriched nominally to 93% were carried out for the conversion of the IAN-R1 Research Reactor from MTR-HEU fuel to TRIGA-LEU fuel. In order to remove the spent MTR-HEU fuel of the core and store it safely a program was established at the Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares y Energias Alternativas (INEA). This program included training, acquisition of hardware and software, design and construction of a decay pool, transfer of the spent HEU fuel elements into the decay pool and his final transport to Savannah River in United States. In this paper are presented data of activities calculated for each relevant radionuclide present in spent MTR-HEU fuel elements of the IAN-R1 Research Reactor and the total activity. The total activity calculated takes in consideration contributions of fission, activation and actinides products. The data obtained were the base for shielding calculations for the decay pool concerning the storage of spent MTR-HEU fuel elements and the respective dosimetric evaluations in the transferring operations of fuel elements into the decay pool.

  15. Targeted Protein Degradation of Outer Membrane Decaheme Cytochrome MtrC Metal Reductase in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Measured Using Biarsenical Probe CrAsH-EDT2

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Yijia; Chen, Baowei; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2011-10-14

    Development of efficient microbial biofuel cells requires an ability to exploit interfacial electron transfer reactions to external electron acceptors, such as metal oxides; such reactions occur in the facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 through the catalytic activity of the outer membrane decaheme c-type cytochrome MtrC. Central to the utility of this pathway to synthetic biology is an understanding of cellular mechanisms that maintain optimal MtrC function, cellular localization, and renewal by degradation and resynthesis. In order to monitor trafficking to the outer membrane, and the environmental sensitivity of MtrC, we have engineered a tetracysteine tag (i.e., CCPGCC) at its C-terminus that permits labeling by the cell impermeable biarsenical fluorophore, carboxy-FlAsH (CrAsH) of MtrC at the surface of living Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells. In comparison, the cell permeable reagent FlAsH permits labeling of the entire population of MtrC, including proteolytic fragments resulting from incorrect maturation. We demonstrate specific labeling by CrAsH of engineered MtrC which is dependent on the presence of a functional type-2 secretion system (T2S), as evidenced by T2S system gspD or gspG deletion mutants which are incapable of CrAsH labeling. Under these latter conditions, MtrC undergoes proteolytic degradation to form a large 35-38 kDa fragment; this degradation product is also resolved during normal turnover of the CrAsH-labeled MtrC protein. No MtrC protein is released into the medium during turnover, suggesting the presence of cellular turnover systems involving MtrC reuptake and degradation. The mature MtrC localized on the outer membrane is a long-lived protein, with a turnover rate of 0.043 hr-1 that is insensitive to O2 concentration. Maturation of MtrC is relatively inefficient, with substantial rates of turnover of the immature protein prior to export to the outer membrane (i.e., 0.028 hr-1) that are consistent

  16. MpeR regulates the mtr efflux locus in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and modulates antimicrobial resistance by an iron-responsive mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mercante, Alexandra Dubon; Jackson, Lydgia; Johnson, Paul J T; Stringer, Virginia A; Dyer, David W; Shafer, William M

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that the MpeR transcriptional regulator produced by Neisseria gonorrhoeae represses the expression of mtrF, which encodes a putative inner membrane protein (MtrF). MtrF works as an accessory protein with the Mtr efflux pump, helping gonococci to resist high levels of diverse hydrophobic antimicrobials. Regulation of mpeR has been reported to occur by an iron-dependent mechanism involving Fur (ferric uptake regulator). Collectively, these observations suggest the presence of an interconnected regulatory system in gonococci that modulates the expression of efflux pump protein-encoding genes in an iron-responsive manner. Herein, we describe this connection and report that levels of gonococcal resistance to a substrate of the mtrCDE-encoded efflux pump can be modulated by MpeR and the availability of free iron. Using microarray analysis, we found that the mtrR gene, which encodes a direct repressor (MtrR) of mtrCDE, is an MpeR-repressed determinant in the late logarithmic phase of growth when free iron levels would be reduced due to bacterial consumption. This repression was enhanced under conditions of iron limitation and resulted in increased expression of the mtrCDE efflux pump operon. Furthermore, as judged by DNA-binding analysis, MpeR-mediated repression of mtrR was direct. Collectively, our results indicate that both genetic and physiologic parameters (e.g., iron availability) can influence the expression of the mtr efflux system and modulate levels of gonococcal susceptibility to efflux pump substrates. PMID:22214775

  17. The use of experimental data in an MTR-type nuclear reactor safety analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Simon E.

    Reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) are a category of events required for research reactor safety analysis. A subset of this is unprotected RIAs in which mechanical systems or human intervention are not credited in the response of the system. Light-water cooled and moderated MTR-type ( i.e., aluminum-clad uranium plate fuel) reactors are self-limiting up to some reactivity insertion limit beyond which fuel damage occurs. This characteristic was studied in the Borax and Spert reactor tests of the 1950s and 1960s in the USA. This thesis considers the use of this experimental data in generic MTR-type reactor safety analysis. The approach presented herein is based on fundamental phenomenological understanding and uses correlations in the reactor test data with suitable account taken for differences in important system parameters. Specifically, a semi-empirical approach is used to quantify the relationship between the power, energy and temperature rise response of the system as well as parametric dependencies on void coefficient and the degree of subcooling. Secondary effects including the dependence on coolant flow are also examined. A rigorous curve fitting approach and error assessment is used to quantify the trends in the experimental data. In addition to the initial power burst stage of an unprotected transient, the longer term stability of the system is considered with a stylized treatment of characteristic power/temperature oscillations (chugging). A bridge from the HEU-based experimental data to the LEU fuel cycle is assessed and outlined based on existing simulation results presented in the literature. A cell-model based parametric study is included. The results are used to construct a practical safety analysis methodology for determining reactivity insertion safety limits for a light-water moderated and cooled MTR-type core.

  18. Studies of mixed HEU-LEU-MTR cores using 3D models

    SciTech Connect

    Haenggi, P.; Lehmann, E.; Hammer, J.; Christen, R.

    1997-08-01

    Several different core loadings were assembled at the SAPHIR research reactor in Switzerland combining the available types of MTR-type fuel elements, consisting mainly of both HEU and LEU fuel. Bearing in mind the well known problems which can occur in such configurations (especially power peaking), investigations have been carried out for each new loading with a 2D neutron transport code (BOXER). The axial effects were approximated by a global buckling value and therefore the radial effects could be studied in considerably detail. Some of the results were reported at earlier RERTR meetings and were compared to those obtained by other methods and with experimental values. For the explicit study of the third dimension of the core, another code (SILWER), which has been developed in PSI for LWR power plant cores, has been selected. With the help of an adapted model for the MTR-core of SAPHIR, several important questions have been addressed. Among other aspects, the estimation of the axial contribution to the hot channel factors, the influence of the control rod position and of the Xe-poisoning on the power distribution were studied. Special attention was given to a core position where a new element was assumed placed near a empty, water filled position. The comparison of elements of low and high enrichments at this position was made in terms of the induced power peaks, with explicit consideration of axial effects. The program SILWER has proven to be applicable to MTR-cores for the investigation of axial effects. For routine use as for the support of reactor operation, this 3D code is a good supplement to the standard 2D model.

  19. MTR WING, TRA604. ONE OF THE LABORATORY UNITS ALONG THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604. ONE OF THE LABORATORY UNITS ALONG THE SOUTH SIDE WALL. NOTE SINK, CABINET, TABLE, AND HOOD UNITS. DUCT ABOVE RECEIVES CONTAMINATED AIR AND SENDS IT TO FAN HOUSE AND STACK. NOTE PARTITION WALL BEHIND WORK UNITS. THE HEALTH PHYSICS LAB WAS SIMILARLY EQUIPPED. WINDOW AT LEFT EDGE OF VIEW. CARD IN LOWER RIGHT WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4225. Unknown Photographer, 2/13/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. MTR, TRA603. LONGITUDINAL SECTION SHOWS EAST/WEST SECTION AND PROJECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. LONGITUDINAL SECTION SHOWS EAST/WEST SECTION AND PROJECTION OF CANAL BEYOND EAST WALL OF BUILDING; PIPE TUNNEL, BULKHEAD LOCATIONS IN CANAL, SWING-OUT ISOLATION GATE, TUNNEL HATCH UNDER ROADWAY; SUB-PILE AND RABBIT CANAL SECTIONS; BALCONY CONTROL AND INSTRUMENT ROOMS; CATWALK, MAIN AND AUXILIARY HOISTS. AIR COMPRESSOR BUILDING (TRA-626) TO THE NORTH. BLAW-KNOX BKC-3150-3-5, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100004, REV. 7. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. MTR, TRA603. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. REACTOR AT CENTER. TWENTYMETER CHOPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. REACTOR AT CENTER. TWENTY-METER CHOPPER HOUSE. COFFIN TURNING ROLLS. REMOVABLE PANEL OVER CANAL ON EAST SIDE. NEW PLUG STORAGE ACCESS. DOOR SCHEDULE INDICATES STEEL (FOR VAULT), WIRE MESH, AND HOLLOW METAL TYPES. STORAGE AND ISSUE ROOM. SAFETY SHOWERS. DOORWAY TO WING, TRA-604. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-2, 7/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100561, REV. 10. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Comparison of radioiodinated TOC, TOCA and Mtr-TOCA: the effect of carbohydration on the pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Schottelius, Margret; Scheidhauer, Klemens; Reubi, Jean-Claude; Wolf, Ingo; Schwaiger, Markus

    2002-01-01

    Although somatostatin-based peptide receptor imaging (sst-PRI) and peptide receptor radiotherapy (sst-PRRT) of human endocrine tumours and their metastases has become a valuable method, the experience with radiohalogenated sst-directed peptides has so far been disappointing. To extend the broad spectrum of radiohalogens with suitable radionuclide properties for sst-PRI and PRRT, new strategies in ligand development are required. The major drawbacks to be overcome include fast hepatic uptake, high abdominal background activity and low tumour uptake. Recently we introduced radiolabelled glycated octreotides as a new series of sst-binding radiotracers with excellent physicochemical characteristics. In this study we compared [(125)I]Tyr(3)-octreotide ([(125)I]TOC, ( 1)), [(125)I]Tyr(3)-octreotate ([(125)I]TOCA, ( 2)) and a carbohydrated octreotide derivative, maltotriose-[(125)I]Tyr(3)-octreotate ([(125)I]Mtr-TOCA, ( 3)) to evaluate the effect of single C-terminal oxidation and simultaneous N-terminal carbohydration. The biodistribution was compared in nude mice bearing AR42J tumour xenografts. Compared with ( 1), activity uptake of ( 2) and ( 3) at 1 h was decreased in intestine [36% ( 2), 72% ( 3)], liver [62% ( 2), 79% ( 3)] and kidney [34% ( 2), 41% ( 3)], respectively. Blood clearance was fast for all compounds investigated. Using ( 1) as reference, tumour uptake of ( 2) and ( 3) was 3.8- and 4.3-fold higher at 1 h p.i. At 1 h the tumour-to-blood ratio of ( 3) was 28.2+/-7.3, and the tumour-to-muscle ratio, 147+/-48. Specificity of tumour uptake was demonstrated in AR42J tumour-bearing mice by pretreatment with 0.8 mg TOC/kg 5 min prior to injection of ( 3). In cells transfected with sst1-sst5, the binding profile of I-Mtr-TOCA revealed a very high affinity and selectivity for sst2. In a first scintigraphic [(123)I]Mtr-TOCA study of a patient with a carcinoid of the small intestine with known peritoneal carcinomatosis and a solitary liver metastasis, all tumour

  3. WATER PROCESS SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM FOR MTR, TRA603. SUMMARY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WATER PROCESS SYSTEM FLOW DIAGRAM FOR MTR, TRA-603. SUMMARY OF COOLANT FLOW FROM WORKING RESERVOIR TO INTERIOR OF REACTOR'S THERMAL SHIELD. NAMES TANK SECTIONS. PIPE AND DRAIN-LINE SIZES. SHOWS DIRECTION OF AIR FLOW THROUGH PEBBLE AND GRAPHITE BLOCK ZONE. NEUTRON CURTAIN AND THERMAL COLUMN DOOR. BLAW-KNOX 3150-92-7, 3/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-51-098-100036, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. MTR4, a putative RNA helicase and exosome co-factor, is required for proper rRNA biogenesis and development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lange, Heike; Sement, François M; Gagliardi, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    The exosome is a conserved protein complex that is responsible for essential 3'→5' RNA degradation in both the nucleus and the cytosol. It is composed of a nine-subunit core complex to which co-factors confer both RNA substrate recognition and ribonucleolytic activities. Very few exosome co-factors have been identified in plants. Here, we have characterized a putative RNA helicase, AtMTR4, that is involved in the degradation of several nucleolar exosome substrates in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that AtMTR4, rather than its closely related protein HEN2, is required for proper rRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis. AtMTR4 is mostly localized in the nucleolus, a subcellular compartmentalization that is shared with another exosome co-factor, RRP6L2. AtMTR4 and RRP6L2 cooperate in several steps of rRNA maturation and surveillance, such as processing the 5.8S rRNA and removal of rRNA maturation by-products. Interestingly, degradation of the Arabidopsis 5' external transcribed spacer (5' ETS) requires cooperation of both the 5'→3' and 3'→5' exoribonucleolytic pathways. Accumulating AtMTR4 targets give rise to illegitimate small RNAs; however, these do not affect rRNA metabolism or contribute to the phenotype of mtr4 mutants. Plants lacking AtMTR4 are viable but show several developmental defects, including aberrant vein patterning and pointed first leaves. The mtr4 phenotype resembles that of several ribosomal protein and nucleolin mutants, and may be explained by delayed ribosome biogenesis, as we observed a reduced rate of rRNA accumulation in mtr4 mutants. Taken together, these data link AtMTR4 with rRNA biogenesis and development in Arabidopsis. PMID:21682783

  5. Analysis of MTR and MTRR Polymorphisms for Neural Tube Defects Risk Association

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongxin; Liu, Yuan; Ji, Wenyu; Qin, Hu; Wu, Hao; Xu, Danshu; Tukebai, Turtuohut; Wang, Zengliang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common congenital defects of the central nervous system among neonates and the folate status during pregnancy was considered as the most important etiopathogenesis of NTDs. Besides, methionine synthase (MTR) gene and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene were folate metabolism involved genes and had been investigated in several previous studies with inconsistent results. Hence, we aimed to explore the association of 4 selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on MTRR/MTR gene and the susceptibility of NTDs in a Chinese population. Seven SNPs were selected from HapMap databases with Haploview 4.2 software. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed to genotype the polymorphisms from blood samples of 165 NTDs patients and 280 healthy controls. The correlation between these SNPs and NTDs risk was tested by Student t test and Chi-square test by STATA 11.0 software. Furthermore, we performed a meta-analysis of relevant studies to investigate the association between the SNPs MTRR 66A>G and MTR 2756A>G and the susceptibility of NTDs. An increased risk of NTDs was verified to be significantly associated with MTRR 66A>G (G allele vs. A allele: OR = 1.36 (1.03–1.80), P = 0.028; GG + AG vs. AA: OR = 1.60 (1.05–2.43), P = 0.027) and MTR 2756A>G (G allele vs. A allele: OR = 1.45 (1.06–1.98), P = 0.021; GG + AG vs. AA: OR = 1.51 (1.02–2.23), P = 0.038) in our study. However, the other SNPs in our analysis showed no significant association with NTDs risk (all P > 0.05). Furthermore, the result of the meta-analysis supported the association between MTRR 66A>G and NTDs risk (G allele vs. A allele: OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.09–1.61, GG + GA vs. AA: OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.06–2.09, GG vs. AA: OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.04–2.49). Our study confirmed that the MTRR 66A>G and MTR 2756A>G were significantly

  6. Mutagenesis of the C1 Oxidation Pathway in Methanosarcina barkeri: New Insights into the Mtr/Mer Bypass Pathway▿

    PubMed Central

    Welander, Paula V.; Metcalf, William W.

    2008-01-01

    A series of Methanosarcina barkeri mutants lacking the genes encoding the enzymes involved in the C1 oxidation/reduction pathway were constructed. Mutants lacking the methyl-tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT):coenzyme M (CoM) methyltransferase-encoding operon (Δmtr), the methylene-H4MPT reductase-encoding gene (Δmer), the methylene-H4MPT dehydrogenase-encoding gene (Δmtd), and the formyl-methanofuran:H4MPT formyl-transferase-encoding gene (Δftr) all failed to grow using either methanol or H2/CO2 as a growth substrate, indicating that there is an absolute requirement for the C1 oxidation/reduction pathway for hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic methanogenesis. The mutants also failed to grow on acetate, and we suggest that this was due to an inability to generate the reducing equivalents needed for biosynthetic reactions. Despite their lack of growth on methanol, the Δmtr and Δmer mutants were capable of producing methane from this substrate, whereas the Δmtd and Δftr mutants were not. Thus, there is an Mtr/Mer bypass pathway that allows oxidation of methanol to the level of methylene-H4MPT in M. barkeri. The data further suggested that formaldehyde may be an intermediate in this bypass; however, no methanol dehydrogenase activity was found in Δmtr cell extracts, nor was there an obligate role for the formaldehyde-activating enzyme (Fae), which has been shown to catalyze the condensation of formaldehyde and H4MPT in vitro. Both the Δmer and Δmtr mutants were able to grow on a combination of methanol plus acetate, but they did so by metabolic pathways that are clearly distinct from each other and from previously characterized methanogenic pathways. PMID:18178739

  7. Isolation of a High-Affinity Functional Protein Complex between OmcA and MtrC: Two Outer Membrane Decaheme c-type Cytochromes of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Chen, Baowei; Wang, Zheming; Elias, Dwayne A.; Mayer, M. Uljana; Gorby, Yuri A.; Ni, Shuisong; Lower, Brian H.; Kennedy, David W.; Wunschel, David S.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Hill, Eric A.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2006-07-01

    SUMMARY Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium that is capable of using insoluble oxidized metals, such as manganese [Mn(III, IV)] and iron [Fe(III)] oxides and oxyhydroxides, as terminal electron acceptors during anaerobic respiration. The ability of S. oneidensis MR-1 to reduce oxidized Mn and/or Fe has previously been linked to OmcA and MtrC: two decaheme c-type cytochromes that are localized to the outer membrane. To investigate how the electron transport proteins OmcA and MtrC are organized, we expressed and purified recombinant OmcA and MtrC from wild type S. oneidensis MR-1 as well as a mutant that lacked OmcA and MtrC (ΔomcA/mtrC). After purification to the nearly electrophoretic homogeneity from the ΔomcA/mtrC mutant, the recombinant OmcA and MtrC exhibited the characteristics of c-type cytochromes, and each of their polypeptides was confirmed to contain 10 hemes. When purified from wild type cells, endogenous MtrC or OmcA was always co-purified with recombinant OmcA or MtrC, respectively. Fluorescence polarization experiment showed that recombinant OmcA bound to the FlAsH-labeled MtrC with a dissociation constant of 7 ×10-7 M. The purified recombinant OmcA or MtrC alone displayed intrinsic ferric reductase activity with NADH used as an electron donor. Ferric reductase specific activity increased by 35 to 41% when nearly equimolar concentrations of OmcA and MtrC were assayed relative to the two proteins assayed independently. These results demonstrate that OmcA and MtrC directly interact with each other to form a stable complex with high ferric reductase activity.

  8. Direct Involvement of Type II Secretion System in Extracellular Translocation of Shewanella Oneidensis Outer Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Deng, Shuang; Marshall, Matthew J.; Wang, Zheming; Kennedy, David W.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mottaz, Heather M.; Hill, Eric A.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Richardson, David J.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2008-08-01

    Outer membrane decaheme c-type cytochromes MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 are extracellular lipoproteins important for dissimilatory reduction of solid metal (hydr)oxides during anaerobic respiration. To investigate the roles of type II secretion system (T2S) in translocation of MtrC and OmcA across outer membrane, we measured the effects of deleting two T2S genes, gspD and gspG, on the secretion of MtrC and OmcA when cells were grown under anaerobic conditions. Deletion of gspD or gspG resulted in slightly yellowish supernatants, different from the pink supernatant of wild type (wt). Comparative proteomic analyses revealed that, although MtrC, OmcA and NrfA, a periplasmic nitrite reductase, were present the supernatants of wt and ΔgspD mutant, their peptides counts were much lower in ΔgspD than in wt. Subsequent analyses with heme-staining and Western blot not only confirmed that deletion of gspD or gspG reduced the abundances of MtrC and OmcA in the supernatants, but also revealed that the deletions consequently increased their abundances inside the cells. Complementation of ΔgspG mutant with functional GspG could reverse the effects of deleting gspG on the colors of the supernatants and the abundances of MtrC and OmcA. In contrast, Western results showed that the abundance of NrfA was reduced in the supernatant and the cells of ΔgspD mutant, suggesting that reduced NrfA in the periplasm, where MtrC and OmcA were accumulated, contributed to its reduction in the supernatant. Thus, our results demonstrate at the first time that T2S facilitates translocation of MtrC and OmcA across outer membrane.

  9. FarR regulates the farAB-encoded efflux pump of Neisseria gonorrhoeae via an MtrR regulatory mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lee, E-H; Rouquette-Loughlin, C; Folster, J P; Shafer, W M

    2003-12-01

    The farAB operon of Neisseria gonorrhoeae encodes an efflux pump which mediates gonococcal resistance to antibacterial fatty acids. It was previously observed that expression of the farAB operon was positively regulated by MtrR, which is a repressor of the mtrCDE-encoded efflux pump system (E.-H. Lee and W. M. Shafer, Mol. Microbiol. 33:839-845, 1999). This regulation was believed to be indirect since MtrR did not bind to the farAB promoter. In this study, computer analysis of the gonococcal genome sequence database, lacZ reporter fusions, and gel mobility shift assays were used to elucidate the regulatory mechanism by which expression of the farAB operon is modulated by MtrR in gonococci. We identified a regulatory protein belonging to the MarR family of transcriptional repressors and found that it negatively controls expression of farAB by directly binding to the farAB promoter. We designated this regulator FarR to signify its role in regulating the farAB operon. We found that MtrR binds to the farR promoter, thereby repressing farR expression. Hence, MtrR regulates farAB in a positive fashion by modulating farR expression. This MtrR regulatory cascade seems to play an important role in adjusting levels of the FarAB and MtrCDE efflux pumps to prevent their excess expression in gonococci. PMID:14645274

  10. Characterization of Shewanella oneidensis MtrC: a cell-surface decaheme cytochrome involved in respiratory electron transport to extracellular electron acceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorne, Robert S.; Jepson, Brian N.; Clarke, Thomas A.; Field, Sarah J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Shi, Liang; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David

    2007-09-04

    Abstract MtrC is a decaheme c-type cytochrome associated with the outer cell membrane of Fe(III)-respiring species of the Shewanella genus. It is proposed to play a role in anaerobic respiration by mediating electron transfer to extracellular mineral oxides that can serve as terminal electron acceptors. The present work presents the first spectropotentiometric and voltammetric characterization of MtrC, using protein purified from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Potentiometric titrations, monitored by UV–vis absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, reveal that the hemes within MtrC titrate over a broad potential range spanning between approximately +100 and approximately *500 mV (vs. the standard hydrogen electrode). Across this potential window the UV– vis absorption spectra are characteristic of low-spin c-type hemes and the EPR spectra reveal broad, complex features that suggest the presence of magnetically spin-coupled lowspin c-hemes. Non-catalytic protein film voltammetry of MtrC demonstrates reversible electrochemistry over a potential window similar to that disclosed spectroscopically. The voltammetry also allows definition of kinetic properties of MtrC in direct electron exchange with a solid electrode surface and during reduction of a model Fe(III) substrate. Taken together, the data provide quantitative information on the potential domain in which MtrC can operate.

  11. Structural characterization of the principal mRNA-export factor Mex67–Mtr2 from Chaetomium thermophilum

    SciTech Connect

    Aibara, Shintaro; Valkov, Eugene; Lamers, Meindert H.; Dimitrova, Lyudmila; Hurt, Ed; Stewart, Murray

    2015-06-27

    The crystal structures of the individual domains of the Mex67–Mtr2 complex from C. thermophilum have been determined and their arrangement in solution has been studied by SAXS. Members of the Mex67–Mtr2/NXF–NXT1 family are the principal mediators of the nuclear export of mRNA. Mex67/NXF1 has a modular structure based on four domains (RRM, LRR, NTF2-like and UBA) that are thought to be present across species, although the level of sequence conservation between organisms, especially in lower eukaryotes, is low. Here, the crystal structures of these domains from the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum are presented together with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and in vitro RNA-binding data that indicate that, not withstanding the limited sequence conservation between different NXF family members, the molecules retain similar structural and RNA-binding properties. Moreover, the resolution of crystal structures obtained with the C. thermophilum domains was often higher than that obtained previously and, when combined with solution and biochemical studies, provided insight into the structural organization, self-association and RNA-binding properties of Mex67–Mtr2 that facilitate mRNA nuclear export.

  12. Electrochemical interaction of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and its outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and MtrC with hematite electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Meitl, Leisa A.; Eggleston, Carrick M.; Colberg, Patricia J.; Khare, Nidhi; Reardon, Catherine L.; Shi, Liang

    2009-09-15

    Bacterial metal reduction is an important biogeochemical process in anaerobic environments. An understanding of electron transfer pathways from dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) to solid phase metal (hydr)oxides is important for understanding metal redox cycling in soils and sediments, for utilizing DMRB in bioremedation, and for developing technologies such as microbial fuel cells. Here we hypothesize that the outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and MtrC from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 are the only terminal reductases capable of direct electron transfer to a hematite working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to study electron transfer between hematite electrodes and protein films, S. oneidensis MR-1 wild-type cell suspensions, and cytochrome deletion mutants. After controlling for hematite electrode dissolution at negative potential, the midpoint potentials of adsorbed OmcA and MtrC were measured (-201 mV and -163 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively). Cell suspensions of wild-type MR-1, deletion mutants deficient in OmcA (ΔomcA), MtrC (ΔmtrC), and both OmcA and MtrC (ΔmtrC-ΔomcA) were also studied; voltammograms for ΔmtrC-ΔomcA were indistinguishable from the control. When the control was subtracted from the single deletion mutant voltammograms, redox peaks were consistent with the present cytochrome (i.e., ΔomcA consistent with MtrC and ΔmtrC consistent with OmcA). The results indicate that OmcA and MtrC are capable of direct electron exchange with hematite electrodes, consistent with a role as terminal reductases in the S. oneidensis MR-1 anaerobic respiratory pathway involving ferric minerals. There was no evidence for other terminal reductases operating under the conditions investigated. A Marcus-based approach to electron transfer kinetics indicated that the rate constant for electron transfer ket varies from 0.025 s-1 in the absence of a barrier to 63.5 s-1 with a 0.2 eV barrier.

  13. Genetic Variant in MTRR, but Not MTR, Is Associated with Risk of Congenital Heart Disease: An Integrated Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Rong; Zou, Li; Zhu, Beibei; Chen, Wei; Shen, Na; Ke, Juntao; Lou, Jiao; Wang, Zhenling; Sun, Yu; Liu, Lifeng; Song, Ranran

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common birth defects and the leading cause of deaths among individuals with congenital structural abnormalities worldwide. Both Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) and Methionine synthase (MTR) are key enzymes involved in the metabolic pathway of homocysteine, which are significant in the earlier period embryogenesis, particularly in the cardiac development. Evidence is mounting for the association between MTRR A66G (rs1801394)/MTR A2756G (rs1805087) and the CHD risk, but results are controversial. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis integrating case-control and transmitted disequilibrium test (TDT) studies to obtain more precise estimate of the associations of these two variants with the CHD risk. Methods To combine case-control and TDT studies, we used the Catmap package of R software to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 9 reports were included in the final meta-analysis. Eight of them comprised of 914 cases, 964 controls, and 441 families that were germane to MTRR A66G polymorphism; and 4 reports comprised of 250 cases, 205 controls, and 53 families that were relevant to MTR A2756G polymorphism. The pooled OR for the MTRR 66 G allele versus A allele was 1.35 (95% CI = 1.14–1.59, P<0.001, Pheterogeneity = 0.073). For MTR A2756G, the G allele conferred a pooled OR of 1.10 (95% CI = 0.78–1.57, P = 0.597, Pheterogeneity = 0.173) compared with the A allele. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to asses the effects of each individual study on the pooled OR, indicating the stability of the outcome. Moreover, positive results were also obtained in all subgroups stratified by study type and ethnicity except the subgroup of TDT studies in MTRR A66G variant. Conclusions This meta-analysis demonstrated a suggestive result that the A66G variant in MTRR, but not the A2756G in MTR, may be associated with the increase of CHD risks. PMID

  14. Draft genome sequence of Janthinobacterium lividum strain MTR reveals its mechanism of capnophilic behavior.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Natalia; Soto, Paola; Cottet, Luis; Alarcon, Paula; Gonzalez, Alex; Castillo, Antonio; Corsini, Gino; Tello, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Janthinobacterium lividum is a Gram-negative bacterium able to produce violacein, a pigment with antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Janthinobacterium lividum colonizes the skin of some amphibians and confers protection against fungal pathogens. The mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. In order to identify the advantages for the bacterium to colonize amphibian skin we sequenced Janthinobacterium lividum strain MTR, a strain isolated from Cajón del Maipo, Chile. The strain has capnophilic behavior, with growth favored by high concentrations (5 %) of carbon dioxide. Its genome is 6,535,606 bp in size, with 5,362 coding sequences and a G + C content of 62.37 %. The presence of genes encoding for products that participate in the carbon fixation pathways (dark CAM pathways), and the entire set of genes encoding for the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle may explain the capnophilic behavior and allow us to propose that the CO2 secreted by the skin of amphibians is the signal molecule that guides colonization by Janthinobacterium lividum. PMID:26605004

  15. Search for polarimetric sensitivity in the first observations with THEMIS spectropolarimetric mode MTR (August 1998 campaign)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bommier, V.; Rayrole, J.

    2002-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to the search for the polarimetric sensitivity level in observations of the Fe I 5576 Å line performed with the THEMIS spectropolarimetric mode MTR on August 23 1998. This line is insensitive to the Zeeman effect and the present work is thus useful to calibration purposes. The upper level of the line is unpolarizable (J=0) and insensitive to the Hanle effect, and the observations have been performed at disk center to avoid any scattering polarization of lower level atomic polarization origin. In the present paper, we describe the steps of a method that is the basis of a data reduction code implemented on systems at the Meudon Observatory for the interpretation of observations where a large number ( ~ 150) of images are averaged, and where the signal is in addition averaged along the slit. First, we describe the numerical methods used to determine the line position in the images, and to perform operations on the profiles by FFT techniques (such as translation, dilation, defocusing, apodization). Then, the preprocessing steps are described: dark current subtraction, destretching and flat-field correction. The polarization analysis is then performed, based on the idea that, as the flat-field images are unpolarized, they can be used to correct spurious polarization occuring in the observations. As a result, the observed line is found to be unpolarized, and a sensitivity of 2-4x 10-4 is found for the polarization degree in the neighboring continuum.

  16. The RNA Helicases AtMTR4 and HEN2 Target Specific Subsets of Nuclear Transcripts for Degradation by the Nuclear Exosome in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Heike; Zuber, Hélène; Sement, François M.; Chicher, Johana; Kuhn, Lauriane; Hammann, Philippe; Brunaud, Véronique; Bérard, Caroline; Bouteiller, Nathalie; Balzergue, Sandrine; Aubourg, Sébastien; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Vaucheret, Hervé; Gagliardi, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The RNA exosome is the major 3′-5′ RNA degradation machine of eukaryotic cells and participates in processing, surveillance and turnover of both nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA. In both yeast and human, all nuclear functions of the exosome require the RNA helicase MTR4. We show that the Arabidopsis core exosome can associate with two related RNA helicases, AtMTR4 and HEN2. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation shows that each of the RNA helicases co-purifies with the exosome core complex and with distinct sets of specific proteins. While AtMTR4 is a predominantly nucleolar protein, HEN2 is located in the nucleoplasm and appears to be excluded from nucleoli. We have previously shown that the major role of AtMTR4 is the degradation of rRNA precursors and rRNA maturation by-products. Here, we demonstrate that HEN2 is involved in the degradation of a large number of polyadenylated nuclear exosome substrates such as snoRNA and miRNA precursors, incompletely spliced mRNAs, and spurious transcripts produced from pseudogenes and intergenic regions. Only a weak accumulation of these exosome substrate targets is observed in mtr4 mutants, suggesting that MTR4 can contribute, but plays rather a minor role for the degradation of non-ribosomal RNAs and cryptic transcripts in Arabidopsis. Consistently, transgene post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is marginally affected in mtr4 mutants, but increased in hen2 mutants, suggesting that it is mostly the nucleoplasmic exosome that degrades aberrant transgene RNAs to limit their entry in the PTGS pathway. Interestingly, HEN2 is conserved throughout green algae, mosses and land plants but absent from metazoans and other eukaryotic lineages. Our data indicate that, in contrast to human and yeast, plants have two functionally specialized RNA helicases that assist the exosome in the degradation of specific nucleolar and nucleoplasmic RNA populations, respectively. PMID:25144737

  17. Solution-Based Structural Analysis of the Decaheme Cytochrome, MtrA, by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering and Analytical Ultracentrifugation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The potential exploitation of metal-reducing bacteria as a means for environmental cleanup or alternative fuel is an exciting prospect; however, the cellular processes that would allow for these applications need to be better understood. MtrA is a periplasmic decaheme c-type cytochrome from Shewanella oneidensis involved in the reduction of extracellular iron oxides and therefore is a critical element in Shewanella ability to engage in extracellular charge transfer. As a relatively small 333-residue protein, the heme content is surprisingly high. MtrA is believed to obtain electrons from the inner membrane-bound quinol oxidoreductase, CymA, and shuttle them across the outer membrane to MtrC, another decaheme cytochrome that directly interacts with insoluble metal oxides. How MtrA is able to perform this task is a question of interest. Here through the use of two solution-based techniques, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC), we present the first structural analysis of MtrA. Our results establish that between 0.5 and 4 mg/mL, MtrA exists as a monomeric protein that is shaped like an extended molecular “wire” with a maximum protein dimension (Dmax) of 104 Å and a rod-like aspect ratio of 2.2 to 2.5. This study contributes to a greater understanding of how MtrA fulfills its role in the redox processes that must occur before electrons reach the outside of the cell. PMID:21838277

  18. Tipos de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Lista alfabética de todos los tipos de cáncer con enlaces a enfermedades específicas e información general sobre tratamiento, cuidados de apoyo, exámenes de detección, prevención, estudios clínicos y otros temas.

  19. Specific Bonds between an Iron Oxide Surface and Outer Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Lower, Brian H.; Shi, Liang; Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Droubay, Timothy C.; Mccready, David E.; Lower, Steven

    2007-07-31

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is purported to express outer membrane cytochromes (e.g., MtrC and OmcA) that transfer electrons directly to Fe(III) in a mineral during anaerobic respiration.  A prerequisite for this type of reaction would be the formation of a stable bond between a cytochrome and an iron oxide surface.  Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to detect whether a specific bond forms between a hematite (Fe2O3) thin film, created with oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and recombinant MtrC or OmcA molecules coupled to gold substrates.  Force spectra displayed a unique force signature indicative of a specific bond between each cytochrome and the hematite surface.  The strength of the OmcA-hematite bond was approximately twice as strong as the MtrC-hematite bond, but direct binding to hematite was twice as favorable for MtrC.  Reversible folding/unfolding reactions were observed for mechanically denatured MtrC molecules bound to hematite.  The force measurements for the hematite-cytochrome pairs were compared to spectra collected between an iron oxide and S. oneidensis under anaerobic conditions.  There is a strong correlation between the whole cell and pure protein force spectra suggesting that the unique binding attributes of each cytochrome complement one another and allow both MtrC and OmcA to play a prominent role in the transfer of electrons to Fe(III) in minerals.  Finally, by comparing the magnitude of binding force for the whole cell vs. pure protein data, we were able to estimate that a single bacterium of S. oneidensis (2 x 0.5 μm) expresses ~104 cytochromes on its outer surface. 

  20. Characterization of Axial and Proximal Histidine Mutations of the Decaheme Cytochrome MtrA from Shewanella sp. Strain ANA-3 and Implications for the Electron Transport System

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Fang; Zhang, Alissa; Bondarev, Sergey; Welch, Angel; Thelen, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular respiration of solid-phase electron acceptors in some microorganisms requires a complex chain of multiheme c-type cytochromes that span the inner and outer membranes. In Shewanella species, MtrA, an ∼35-kDa periplasmic decaheme c-type cytochrome, is an essential component for extracellular respiration of iron(III). The exact mechanism of electron transport has not yet been resolved, but the arrangement of the polypeptide chain may have a strong influence on the capability of the MtrA cytochrome to transport electrons. The iron hemes of MtrA are bound to its polypeptide chain via proximal (CXXCH) and distal histidine residues. In this study, we show the effects of mutating histidine residues of MtrA to arginine on protein expression and extracellular respiration using Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3 as a model organism. Individual mutations to six out of nine proximal histidines in CXXCH of MtrA led to decreased protein expression. However, distal histidine mutations resulted in various degrees of protein expression. In addition, the effects of histidine mutations on extracellular respiration were tested using ferrihydrite and current production in microbial fuel cells. These results show that proximal histidine mutants were unable to reduce ferrihydrite. Mutations to the distal histidine residues resulted in various degrees of ferrihydrite reduction. These findings indicate that mutations to the proximal histidine residues affect MtrA expression, leading to loss of extracellular respiration ability. In contrast, mutations to the distal histidine residues are less detrimental to protein expression, and extracellular respiration can proceed. PMID:22923588

  1. Specific bonds between an iron oxide surface and outer membrane cytochromes MtrC and OmcA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Lower, Brian H; Shi, Liang; Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Droubay, Timothy C; McCready, David E; Lower, Steven K

    2007-07-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is purported to express outer membrane cytochromes (e.g., MtrC and OmcA) that transfer electrons directly to Fe(III) in a mineral during anaerobic respiration. A prerequisite for this type of reaction would be the formation of a stable bond between a cytochrome and an iron oxide surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to detect whether a specific bond forms between a hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) thin film, created with oxygen plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, and recombinant MtrC or OmcA molecules coupled to gold substrates. Force spectra displayed a unique force signature indicative of a specific bond between each cytochrome and the hematite surface. The strength of the OmcA-hematite bond was approximately twice that of the MtrC-hematite bond, but direct binding to hematite was twice as favorable for MtrC. Reversible folding/unfolding reactions were observed for mechanically denatured MtrC molecules bound to hematite. The force measurements for the hematite-cytochrome pairs were compared to spectra collected for an iron oxide and S. oneidensis under anaerobic conditions. There is a strong correlation between the whole-cell and pure-protein force spectra, suggesting that the unique binding attributes of each cytochrome complement one another and allow both MtrC and OmcA to play a prominent role in the transfer of electrons to Fe(III) in minerals. Finally, by comparing the magnitudes of binding force for the whole-cell versus pure-protein data, we were able to estimate that a single bacterium of S. oneidensis (2 by 0.5 microm) expresses approximately 10(4) cytochromes on its outer surface. PMID:17468239

  2. Specific Bonds between an Iron Oxide Surface and Outer Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1▿

    PubMed Central

    Lower, Brian H.; Shi, Liang; Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Droubay, Timothy C.; McCready, David E.; Lower, Steven K.

    2007-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is purported to express outer membrane cytochromes (e.g., MtrC and OmcA) that transfer electrons directly to Fe(III) in a mineral during anaerobic respiration. A prerequisite for this type of reaction would be the formation of a stable bond between a cytochrome and an iron oxide surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to detect whether a specific bond forms between a hematite (Fe2O3) thin film, created with oxygen plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, and recombinant MtrC or OmcA molecules coupled to gold substrates. Force spectra displayed a unique force signature indicative of a specific bond between each cytochrome and the hematite surface. The strength of the OmcA-hematite bond was approximately twice that of the MtrC-hematite bond, but direct binding to hematite was twice as favorable for MtrC. Reversible folding/unfolding reactions were observed for mechanically denatured MtrC molecules bound to hematite. The force measurements for the hematite-cytochrome pairs were compared to spectra collected for an iron oxide and S. oneidensis under anaerobic conditions. There is a strong correlation between the whole-cell and pure-protein force spectra, suggesting that the unique binding attributes of each cytochrome complement one another and allow both MtrC and OmcA to play a prominent role in the transfer of electrons to Fe(III) in minerals. Finally, by comparing the magnitudes of binding force for the whole-cell versus pure-protein data, we were able to estimate that a single bacterium of S. oneidensis (2 by 0.5 μm) expresses ∼104 cytochromes on its outer surface. PMID:17468239

  3. Interaction of MTHFR C677T and A1298C, and MTR A2756G gene polymorphisms in breast cancer risk in a population in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Cássia Carvalho Barbosa, Rita; da Costa, Débora Menezes; Cordeiro, Denise Ellen Francelino; Vieira, Ana Patricia Freitas; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem

    2012-11-01

    Polymorphisms in genes encoding enzymes of folate metabolism are a focus of breast cancer risk studies due of the role of these enzymes in DNA methylation, synthesis, and repair. MTHFR, encoding for 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, is one of the most studied genes in this regard, but findings are controversial, and the majority of studies have analyzed polymorphisms individually. In this case control study, we examined the combination of the polymorphisms MTHFR C677T and A1298C with MTR A2756G, where MTR, methionine synthase, is an important enzyme of the folate cycle in the methylation pathway. One hundred and forty-two patients with breast cancer and controls were included and the genotypes were determined using PCR-RFLP. In the population studied, individuals carrying the polymorphic allele in the heterozygous state for both enzymes, MTHFR C677T and MTR A2756G, had an increased risk [odds ratio, OR=2.77 (95% confidence interval, CI=1.19-6.52)] for disease, compared to those with the wild genotype. In addition, individuals carrying the MTR 2756 genotype AG had an increased risk when this was combined with the MTHFR 1298 genotype CC [OR=5.13 (95% CI=0.87-38.82)]. No significant results were found from the analyses associating the MTHFR C677T and A1298C genotypes. However, when stratifying the patients by age (50 years old as the cut-off), patients over 50 years old had greater risk, with the presence of both MTHFR polymorphisms in the heterozygous state [OR=5.33 (95% CI=1.42-21.03)]. This study points out the importance of the interactions between the MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms, and also highlights the relevance of the MTR A2756G polymorphism and age in breast cancer risk. PMID:23155246

  4. Deletion of mtrC in Haemophilus ducreyi Increases Sensitivity to Human Antimicrobial Peptides and Activates the CpxRA Regulon ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rinker, Sherri D.; Trombley, Michael P.; Gu, Xiaoping; Fortney, Kate R.; Bauer, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi resists killing by antimicrobial peptides encountered during human infection, including cathelicidin LL-37, α-defensins, and β-defensins. In this study, we examined the role of the proton motive force-dependent multiple transferable resistance (MTR) transporter in antimicrobial peptide resistance in H. ducreyi. We found a proton motive force-dependent effect on H. ducreyi's resistance to LL-37 and β-defensin HBD-3, but not α-defensin HNP-2. Deletion of the membrane fusion protein MtrC rendered H. ducreyi more sensitive to LL-37 and human β-defensins but had relatively little effect on α-defensin resistance. The mtrC mutant 35000HPmtrC exhibited phenotypic changes in outer membrane protein profiles, colony morphology, and serum sensitivity, which were restored to wild type by trans-complementation with mtrC. Similar phenotypes were reported in a cpxA mutant; activation of the two-component CpxRA regulator was confirmed by showing transcriptional effects on CpxRA-regulated genes in 35000HPmtrC. A cpxR mutant had wild-type levels of antimicrobial peptide resistance; a cpxA mutation had little effect on defensin resistance but led to increased sensitivity to LL-37. 35000HPmtrC was more sensitive than the cpxA mutant to LL-37, indicating that MTR contributed to LL-37 resistance independent of the CpxRA regulon. The CpxRA regulon did not affect proton motive force-dependent antimicrobial peptide resistance; however, 35000HPmtrC had lost proton motive force-dependent peptide resistance, suggesting that the MTR transporter promotes proton motive force-dependent resistance to LL-37 and human β-defensins. This is the first report of a β-defensin resistance mechanism in H. ducreyi and shows that LL-37 resistance in H. ducreyi is multifactorial. PMID:21444663

  5. In Vivo Identification of the Outer Membrane Protein OmcA-MtrC Interaction Network in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Cells Using Novel Hydrophobic Chemical Cross-Linkers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haizhen; Tang, Xiaoting; Munske, Gerhard R.; Zakharova, Natalia L.; Yang, Li; Zheng, Chunxiang; Wolff, Meagan A.; Tolic, Nikola; Anderson, Gordon A.; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bruce, James E.

    2008-04-01

    Outer membrane (OM) cytochromes OmcA (SO1779) and MtrC (SO1778) are the integral components of electron transfer used by Shewanella oneidensis for anaerobic respiration of metal (hydr)oxides. Here the OmcA-MtrC interaction was identified in vivo using a novel hydrophobic chemical cross-linker (MRN) combined with immunoprecipitation techniques. In addition, identification of other OM proteins from the cross-linked complexes allows first visualization of the OmcA-MtrC interaction network. Further experiments on omcA and mtrC mutant cells showed OmcA plays a central role in the network interaction. For comparison, two commercial cross-linkers were also used in parallel and both resulted in fewer OM protein identifications, indicating the superior properties of MRN for identification of membrane protein interactions. Finally, comparison experiments of in vivo cross-linking and cell lysate cross-linking resulted in significantly different protein interaction data, demonstrating the importance of in vivo cross-linking for study of protein-protein interactions in cells.

  6. The MTR 2756A>G polymorphism and maternal risk of birth of a child with Down syndrome: a case-control study and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio; Bosco, Paolo; Lorenzoni, Valentina; Migheli, Francesca; Barone, Concetta; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Romano, Corrado; Migliore, Lucia

    2013-12-01

    Methionine synthase (MTR) is required for the conversion of homocysteine (hcy) to methionine in the one-carbon metabolic pathway. Previous studies investigating a common MTR 2756A>G polymorphism as a maternal risk factor for the birth of a child with Down syndrome (DS) are conflicting and limited by small case-control cohorts, and its contribution to circulating hcy levels is still debated. We performed a large case-control study and a meta-analysis of the literature to further address the role of MTR 2756A>G as a maternal risk factor for the birth of a child with DS. 286 mothers of a DS child (MDS) and 305 control mothers of Italian origin were included in the case-control study. Genotyping was performed by means of PCR/RFLP technique. Data on circulating levels of hcy, folates, and vitamin B12 were available for 189 MDS and 194 control mothers. The meta analysis of previous and present data involved a total of 8 studies (1,171 MDS and 1,402 control mothers). Both the case-control study and the meta-analysis showed no association of MTR 2756A>G with the maternal risk of birth of a child with DS (OR = 1.15; 95 % CI 0.85-1.55, and OR = 1.08; 95 % CI 0.93-1.25, respectively), even after stratification of the overall data available for the meta-analysis into ethnic groups. No association of the studied polymorphism with circulating levels of hcy, folates, and vitamin B12 was observed. Present data do not support a role for MTR 2756A>G as independent maternal risk factor for a DS birth. PMID:24150725

  7. Role of Outer-Membrane Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in the Biomineralization of Ferrihydrite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, Catherine L.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Kennedy, David W.; Saffarini, Daad; Arey, Bruce W.; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Moore, Dean A.; Mclean, Jeffrey S.; Moyles, Dianne M.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to improve the understanding of electron transfer mechanisms at the microbe-mineral interface, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 mutants with in-frame deletions of outer membrane cytochrome genes mtrC, omcA, or both, were characterized for the ability to reduce metal oxides using a suite of microscopic, spectroscopic, and biochemicalr techniques. The results indicate that neither MtrC nor OmcA are essential for the reduction of soluble, complexed Fe(III)-citrate or Fe(III)-NTA; however, at least one of these outer membrane cytochromes is required for the reduction of Fe(III)- and Mn(III/IV)- oxides. In vitro analysis of purified, recombinant protein demonstrated that both cytochromes transfer electrons directly to metal-oxides; however, MtrC transfers electrons at a faster rate than OmcA. Immunolocalization of MtrC and OmcA reveal that both cytochromes are surface-exposed on the cell outer-membrane and co-localize with insoluble iron precipitates when respiring ferrihydrite or cultured aerobically with Fe(III)-citrate. Additionally, during prolonged incubation, wild-type cells promoted biotransformation of ferrihydrite to vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2•8H2O] while the double cytochrome mutant was unable to form any secondary mineral phases. Collectively, our results support a role for direct electron transfer from OMCs to metal oxides by establishing their in vitro electron transfer activities, confirming the requirement of either MtrC or OmcA for in vivo reductive biomineralization of ferrihydrite, and localizing the cytochromes to the cell exterior where they can directly contact mineral substrates.

  8. Molecular Structure and Free Energy Landscape for Electron Transport in the Deca-Heme Cytochrome MtrF

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, Marian; Zarzycki, Piotr P.; Shi, Liang; Clarke, Thomas; Edwards, Marcus; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Blumberger, Jochen; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2012-12-01

    The free energy profile for electron flow through the bacterial deca-heme cytochrome MtrF has been computed using thermodynamic integration and classical molecular dynamics. The extensive calculations on two versions of the structure help validate the method and results, because differences in the profiles can be related to differences in the charged amino acids local to specific heme groups. First estimates of reorganization free energies λ yield a range consistent with expectations for partially solvent exposed cofactors, and reveal an activation energy range surmountable for electron flow. Future work will aim at increasing the accuracy of λ with polarizable force field dynamics and quantum chemical energy gap calculations, as well as quantum chemical computation of electronic coupling matrix elements.

  9. Role of MTHFR C677T and MTR A2756G polymorphisms in thyroid and breast cancer development.

    PubMed

    Zara-Lopes, T; Gimenez-Martins, A P A; Nascimento-Filho, C H V; Castanhole-Nunes, M M U; Galbiatti-Dias, A L S; Padovani-Júnior, J A; Maniglia, J V; Francisco, J L E; Pavarino, E C; Goloni-Bertollo, E M

    2016-01-01

    Folate metabolism is essential for DNA synthesis and repair. Alterations in genes that participate in folate metabolism can be associated with several types of malignant neoplasms, including thyroid and breast cancer. In the present case-control study, we examined the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T, rs1801133) and methionine synthase (MTR A2756G, rs1805087) polymorphisms and risk for thyroid and breast cancer. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length technique was used to determine the specific genotypes in the genes of interest. Statistical analysis was performed by multiple logistic regression test. We found an association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and risks to both thyroid (OR = 2.50; 95%CI = 1.15-5.46; P = 0.02) and breast cancer (OR = 2.53; 95%CI = 1.08-5.93; P = 0.03). Tobacco consumption and high body mass index were also associated with thyroid cancer. In addition, increased age (≥50 years) and alcohol consumption were found to be associated with breast cancer. Our results indicated that MTHFR C677T is significantly associated with thyroid and breast cancer risks. Thus, these factors may be used as potential prognostic markers for thyroid and breast cancers. PMID:27173331

  10. Association study of folate-related enzymes (MTHFR, MTR, MTRR) genetic variants with non-obstructive male infertility in a Polish population.

    PubMed

    Kurzawski, Mateusz; Wajda, Anna; Malinowski, Damian; Kazienko, Anna; Kurzawa, Rafal; Drozdzik, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Spermatogenesis is a process where an important contribution of genes involved in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is observed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between male infertility and the MTHFR (677C > T; 1298A > C), MTR (2756A > G) and MTRR (66A > G) polymorphisms in a Polish population. No significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies were detected between the groups of 284 infertile men and of 352 fertile controls. These results demonstrate that common polymorphisms in folate pathway genes are not major risk factors for non-obstructive male infertility in the Polish population. PMID:25983623

  11. Homocysteine Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms (MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G) Jointly Elevate the Risk of Folate Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Xing; Dai, Shao-Xing; Zheng, Jun-Juan; Liu, Jia-Qian; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2015-08-01

    Folate deficiency is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. We aimed to explore the joint effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G, and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms on folate deficiency in a Chinese hypertensive population. A total of 480 subjects aged 28-75 were enrolled in this study from September 2005-December 2005 from six hospitals in different Chinese regions. Known genotypes were detected by PCR-RFLP methods and serum folate was measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Our results showed that MTHFR 677TT and MTR 2756AG + GG were independently associated with a higher risk of folate deficiency (TT vs. CC + CT, p < 0.001 and AG + GG vs. AA p = 0.030, respectively). However, the MTHFR A1298C mutation may confer protection by elevating the serum folate level (p = 0.025). Furthermore, patients carrying two or more risk genotypes showed higher odds of folate deficiency than null risk genotype carriers, especially those carrying four risk genotypes. These findings were verified by generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (p = 0.0107) and a cumulative effects model (p = 0.001). The results of this study have shown that interactions among homocysteine metabolism gene polymorphisms lead to dramatic elevations in the folate deficiency risk. PMID:26266420

  12. Homocysteine Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms (MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G) Jointly Elevate the Risk of Folate Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Xing; Dai, Shao-Xing; Zheng, Jun-Juan; Liu, Jia-Qian; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Folate deficiency is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. We aimed to explore the joint effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G, and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms on folate deficiency in a Chinese hypertensive population. A total of 480 subjects aged 28–75 were enrolled in this study from September 2005–December 2005 from six hospitals in different Chinese regions. Known genotypes were detected by PCR-RFLP methods and serum folate was measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Our results showed that MTHFR 677TT and MTR 2756AG + GG were independently associated with a higher risk of folate deficiency (TT vs. CC + CT, p < 0.001 and AG + GG vs. AA p = 0.030, respectively). However, the MTHFR A1298C mutation may confer protection by elevating the serum folate level (p = 0.025). Furthermore, patients carrying two or more risk genotypes showed higher odds of folate deficiency than null risk genotype carriers, especially those carrying four risk genotypes. These findings were verified by generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (p = 0.0107) and a cumulative effects model (p = 0.001). The results of this study have shown that interactions among homocysteine metabolism gene polymorphisms lead to dramatic elevations in the folate deficiency risk. PMID:26266420

  13. Role of outer membrane c-type cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cell production, accumulation and detachment during respiration on hematite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 has the capacity to contribute to iron cycling over the long term by respiring on crystalline iron oxides such as hematite when poorly crystalline phases are depleted. The ability of outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and MtrC of MR-1 to bind to an...

  14. Effects of Bio-Au Nanoparticles on Electrochemical Activity of Shewanella oneidensis Wild Type and ΔomcA/mtrC Mutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ranran; Cui, Li; Chen, Lixiang; Wang, Chao; Cao, Changli; Sheng, Guoping; Yu, Hanqing; Zhao, Feng

    2013-11-01

    Both Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 wild type and its mutant ΔomcA/mtrC are capable of transforming AuIII into Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). Cyclic voltammetry reveals a decrease in redox current after the wild type is exposed to AuIII but an increase in oxidation current for the mutant. The peak current of the wild type is much higher than that of the mutant before the exposure of AuIII, but lower than that of the mutant after the formation of AuNPs. This suggests that damage to the electron transfer chain in the mutant could be repaired by AuNPs to a certain extent. Spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE analysis indicate a decrease in cell protein content after the formation of AuNPs, which provides a convenient way to detect intracellular information on cells.

  15. Effects of Bio-Au Nanoparticles on Electrochemical Activity of Shewanella oneidensis Wild Type and ΔomcA/mtrC Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ranran; Cui, Li; Chen, Lixiang; Wang, Chao; Cao, Changli; Sheng, Guoping; Yu, Hanqing; Zhao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Both Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 wild type and its mutant ΔomcA/mtrC are capable of transforming AuIII into Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). Cyclic voltammetry reveals a decrease in redox current after the wild type is exposed to AuIII but an increase in oxidation current for the mutant. The peak current of the wild type is much higher than that of the mutant before the exposure of AuIII, but lower than that of the mutant after the formation of AuNPs. This suggests that damage to the electron transfer chain in the mutant could be repaired by AuNPs to a certain extent. Spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE analysis indicate a decrease in cell protein content after the formation of AuNPs, which provides a convenient way to detect intracellular information on cells. PMID:24264440

  16. Homocysteine Level and Mechanisms of Injury in Parkinson's Disease as Related to MTHFR, MTR, and MTHFD1 Genes Polymorphisms and L-Dopa Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rozycka, Agata; Jagodzinski, Pawel P.; Kozubski, Wojciech; Lianeri, Margarita; Dorszewska, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    An elevated concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid is considered to be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Homocysteine (Hcy) levels are influenced by folate concentrations and numerous genetic factors through the folate cycle, however, their role in the pathogenesis of PD remains controversial. Hcy exerts a neurotoxic action and may participate in the mechanisms of neurodegeneration, such as excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, calcium accumulation, and apoptosis. Elevated Hcy levels can lead to prooxidative activity, most probably through direct interaction with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and sensitization of dopaminergic neurons to age-related dysfunction and death. Several studies have shown that higher concentration of Hcy in PD is related to long-term administration of levodopa (L-dopa). An elevation of plasma tHcy levels can also reflect deficiencies of cofactors in remethylation of Hcy to methionine (Met) (folates and vitamin B12) and in its transsulfuration to cysteine (Cys) (vitamin B6). It is believed that the increase in the concentration of Hcy in PD can affect genetic polymorphisms of the folate metabolic pathway genes, such as MTHFR (C677T, A1298C and G1793A), MTR (A2756G), and MTHFD1 (G1958A), whose frequencies tend to increase in PD patients, as well as the reduced concentration of B vitamins. In PD, increased levels of Hcy may lead to dementia, depression and progression of the disease. PMID:24532985

  17. Role of Outer Membrane C-Type Cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1 Cell Production, Accumulation, and Detachment During Respiration on Hematite

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Andrew C.; Peterson, L.; Reardon, Catherine L.; Reed, Samantha B.; Culley, David E.; Romine, Margaret F.; Geesey, Gill G.

    2012-07-01

    Solid phase iron oxides are considered to be important terminal electron acceptors for microbial respiration in many anoxic environments. Besides the knowledge that cells attach to and reduce these substrates, other aspects of surface-associated cell behavior and the related cell surface components that influence cell-mineral interactions are not well understood. In the present study, wild-type cells of the dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 formed thin biofilms one-to-two cell layers in thickness when respiring on natural specular hematite under flow conditions similar to those which exist in aquatic sediments and subsurface environments. The distribution of cells within the biofilm indicated that direct contact was not required for electron transfer from cells to the mineral surface. Detached biomass in the form of single cells represented >99% of the surface-associated wild-type cell production from respiration on hematite over the biofilm life cycle. A mutant deficient in the outer membrane c35 type cytochrome OmcA, while still able to respire and replicate on hematite, established a lower steady-state cell density on the mineral surface than that of the wild-type strain. A mutant deficient in MtrC, another outer membrane c-type cytochrome, and a mutant deficient in both cytochromes were unable to reduce sufficient amounts of hematite to support detectable growth on the mineral surface. When considered in the context of previous work, the results support a growing body of evidence that the relative importance of OmcA and MtrC to cell respiration and replication depends on the form of iron oxide available as terminal electron acceptor.

  18. Qué tipos hay de estudios clínicos

    Cancer.gov

    Información sobre los diversos tipos de estudios clínicos de cáncer, como son los estudios de tratamiento, de prevención, de exámenes selectivos de detección, de cuidados médicos de apoyo y de cuidados paliativos.

  19. Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility in Barcelona: penA, ponA, mtrR, and porB mutations and NG-MAST sequence types associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Serra-Pladevall, J; Barberá, M J; Rodriguez, S; Bartolomé-Comas, R; Roig, G; Juvé, R; Andreu, A

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in our area, to analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in cephalosporins resistance, and to undertake molecular typing of our NG strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the Etest. The genes penA, mtrR, penB, and ponA were studied. Molecular typing was performed by N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing. Of 329 strains analyzed in 2013, none showed high-level cephalosporin resistance, but 8.2 % had resistance to cefixime [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 0.125 μg/mL] and 0.6 % to ceftriaxone (MIC > 0.125 μg/mL). Azithromycin resistance was documented in 4.3 % and ciprofloxacin resistance in 49.2 %. Among 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 58.3 % showed the penA mosaic pattern XXXIV, 98 % a Leu → Pro substitution at position 421 of the ponA gene, 100 % amino acid changes at positions 101 and 102 of the PorB1b porin, and 87.5 % of strains an adenine deletion in the promoter region of the MtrC-D-E efflux pump. A significant difference between strains with and without decreased cephalosporin susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) was observed for these four genes. Of the 48 strains with an MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL to cefixime, 43.8 % belonged to the genogroup G1407 and 27.1 % belonged to the genogroup G2400. A significant association of G1407 with decreased susceptibility (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/mL) and G2992 with susceptibility was found, and also between G1407 and mosaic pattern XXXIV and between G2400 and A501T substitution in penA. The NG resistance rate in our area is higher than the median of Europe. We have detected the emergence of G2400, which may be a source of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27255221

  20. Protótipo do primeiro interferômetro brasileiro - BDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Neri, J. A. C. F.; Bethi, N.; Felipini, N. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.; Andrade, M. C.; Soares, A. C.; Alonso, E. M. B., Sawant, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    A interferometria é uma poderosa ferramenta usada para investigar estruturas espaciais de fontes astrofísicas fornecendo uma riqueza de detalhes inatingível pelas técnicas convencionais de imageamento. Em particular, a interferometria com ondas de rádio abre o horizonte de conhecimento do Universo nesta ampla banda do espectro eletromagnético, que vai de cerca de 20 kHz até centenas de GHz já próximo ao infravermelho, e que está acessível a partir de instrumentos instalados em solo. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o interferômetro designado por Arranjo Decimétrico Brasileiro (BDA). Trata-se do primeiro interferômetro a ser desenvolvido no Brasil e América Latina que já está em operação na fase de protótipo. Apresentamos o desenvolvimento realizado até o momento, o sítio de instalação do instrumento, o protótipo e os principais resultados dos testes de sua operação, as perspectivas futuras e a ciência a ser desenvolvida com o instrumento nas fases II e III. Neste trabalho é dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento, testes de operação e principais resultados do protótipo. É discutida brevemente a ciência que pode ser feita com o instrumento. Tanto os detalhes técnicos quanto os principais parâmetros estimados para o instrumento nas próximas fases de desenvolvimento e o desempenho do protótipo serão publicados em breve.

  1. Local structure of spin Peierls compound TiPO4: 47/49Ti and 31P NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Raivo; Heinmaa, Ivo; Leitmäe, Alexander; Joon, Enno; Tsirlin, Alexander; Kremer, Reinhard; Glaum, Robert

    TiPO4 structure is made of slightly corrugated TiO2 ribbon chains of edge-sharing TiO6 octahedra. The almost perfect 1D spin 1/2 Ti3 + chains are well separated by PO4 tetrahedra. By magnetic susceptibility and MAS-NMR measurements [1] it was shown that TiPO4 has nonmagnetic singlet ground state with remarkably high Spin-Peierls (SP) transition temperature. The high-T magnetic susceptibility of TiPO4 follows well that of a S =1/2 Heisenberg chain with very strong nearest-neighbor AF spin-exchange coupling constant of J =965K. On cooling TiPO4 shows two successive phase transitions at 111K and 74K, with incommensurate (IC) SP phase between them. We studied local structure and dynamics in TiPO4 single crystal using 47/49Ti and 31P NMR in the temperature range 40K to 300K, and determined the principal values and orientation of the magnetic shift tensors for 31P and 47,49Ti nuclei. Since 47,49Ti (S =5/2 and S =7/2, respectively) have quadrupolar moments, we also found the principal axis values and orientations of the electric field gradient (efg) tensor in SP phase and at 295K. In SP phase the structure contains 2 magnetically inequivalent P sites and only one Ti site. From the T-dependence of the relaxation rate of 31P and 47Ti nuclei we determined activation energy Ea = 550 K for spin excitations in SP phase. J. Law et al ., PRB 83, 180414(R) (2011).

  2. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e

  3. Análise Temporal de Estruturas Morfológicas na Cauda do Tipo I do Cometa P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Matsuura, O. T.

    1996-08-01

    Com base em (Brandt et al, 1992), centenas de imagens do cometa P/Halley foram visualmente analisadas, objetivando examinar possíveis perturbações magnetohidrodinâmicas ao longo da cauda do tipo I. Do total de 1439 imagens, abrangendo o período entre 16 de outubro de 1982 e 12 de fevereiro de 1991, foram escolhidas 531 do período entre 17 de setembro de 1985 e 06 de julho de 1986 por mostrarem cauda bem desenvolvida e rica de estruturas morfológicas. Nelas constatou-se a existência de 124 estruturas ondulatórias (trens de onda) ao longo da cauda principal, 27 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 109 ondas solitárias (sólitons) ao longo da cauda principal, 36 ao longo de caudas secundárias, 12 caudas do tipo Swan, 47 eventos de desconexão e 23 regiões de adensamento ("knots"). Foi examinada a correlação temporal entre esses diferentes tipos de eventos. Os de desconexão foram analisados isoladamente. Seus movimentos próprios foram calculados, bem como os seus instantes iniciais, o que nos permitiu inferir a passagem do cometa pela fronteira entre setores magnéticos distintos. A velocidade do plasma cometário desconectado foi corrigida dos efeitos de projeção e correlacionada com a distância heliocêntrica do cometa. Também foi investigada a periodicidade de ocorrência das desconexães, e constatado que sua distribuição é bimodal. Por fim, a possibilidade dos modos de propagação de ondas MHD "sausage" e "kink" superficiais ou volumétricas, é discutida no contexto das descontinuidades magnéticas tangenciais. - Brandt, J.C., Niedner Jr., M.B., Rahe, J.: The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena. Impresso por: Johnson Printing Co, Boulder, CO. University of Colorado-Boulder, 1992.

  4. Composição química, evolução e cinemática de estrelas de tipo solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. O.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Milone, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    A composição química das estrelas de tipo solar é um diagnóstico extremamente valioso da evolução química do disco da Galáxia. Existe alguma evidência de que tal evolução tem sido heterogênea no espaço e ao longo do tempo e que a composição química do Sol pode não ser um padrão representativo de abundâncias. Neste trabalho, foram obtidas as abundâncias dos elementos químicos C, N, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd e Sm em uma amostra de estrelas de tipo solar na vizinhança solar (distâncias £ 25 pc). A técnica empregada foi a análise espectroscópica diferencial em relação ao Sol, baseando-se em dados de alta resolução (R ~ 46.000) e alta razão sinal/ruído (S/R > 300), obtidos com o espectrógrafo échelle de bancada do telescópio de 1,5 m do CTIO. Adicionalmente, abundâncias de C e N foram obtidas através de síntese de bandas moleculares dos Sistemas Eletrônicos Swan do C2 e Vermelho do CN utilizando-se um programa de síntese espectral. Os parâmetros atmosféricos foram estabelecidos usando cores fotométricas, o equilíbrio de excitação e ionização de linhas do Fe e a análise da temperatura e da luminosidade estelares no diagrama HR. Os resultados de abundâncias químicas obtidos proporcionam uma melhor compreensão da relação das abundâncias conhecidas para o Sol com a das estrelas anãs de tipo G da população local, uma vez que as razões de abundâncias de diversos elementos (em relação ao ferro) obtidas para estrelas de metalicidade semelhante à solar diferem daquelas obtidas para o Sol. Tais resultados também contribuem para um melhor entendimento do processo de evolução química da vizinhança solar e do enriquecimento nucleossintético do disco galáctico.

  5. Evaluation of the use of nodal methods for MTR neutronic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Reitsma, F.; Mueller, E.Z.

    1997-08-01

    Although modern nodal methods are used extensively in the nuclear power industry, their use for research reactor analysis has been very limited. The suitability of nodal methods for material testing reactor analysis is investigated with the emphasis on the modelling of the core region (fuel assemblies). The nodal approach`s performance is compared with that of the traditional finite-difference fine mesh approach. The advantages of using nodal methods coupled with integrated cross section generation systems are highlighted, especially with respect to data preparation, simplicity of use and the possibility of performing a great variety of reactor calculations subject to strict time limitations such as are required for the RERTR program.

  6. Code System for the Analysis of Material Test Reactor (MTR) Cores.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-03-24

    Version 00 The RETRAC code uses a set of coupled neutron point-kinetics equations and thermal-hydraulic conservation laws to simulate nuclear reactor core behavior under transient or accident conditions. The reactor core is represented by a single equivalent unit cell composed of three regions: fuel, clad, and moderator (coolant).

  7. Health and safety plan for characterization sampling of ETR and MTR facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, D.E.

    1994-10-01

    This health and safety plan establishes the procedures and requirements that will be used to minimize health and safety risks to persons performing Engineering Test Reactor and Materials Test Reactor characterization sampling activities, as required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard, 29 CFR 1910.120. It contains information about the hazards involved in performing the tasks, and the specific actions and equipment that will be used to protect persons working at the site.

  8. Program Guide for Basic Precision Machining 8754000 (IN48.052300) and Precision Machining MTR0470 (IN48.050300).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based program guide provides course content information and procedures for secondary schools, postsecondary vocational schools, and community colleges in Florida that conduct programs in basic precision machining and precision machining. The first section is on legal authority, which applies to all vocational education programs in…

  9. Evidence for the Assembly of a Bacterial Tripartite Multidrug Pump with a Stoichiometry of 3:6:3*

    PubMed Central

    Janganan, Thamarai K.; Bavro, Vassiliy N.; Zhang, Li; Matak-Vinkovic, Dijana; Barrera, Nelson P.; Venien-Bryan, Catherine; Robinson, Carol V.; Borges-Walmsley, Maria Inês; Walmsley, Adrian R.

    2011-01-01

    The multiple transferable resistance (mTR) pump from Neisseria gonorrhoeae MtrCDE multidrug pump is assembled from the inner and outer membrane proteins MtrD and MtrE and the periplasmic membrane fusion protein MtrC. Previously we established that while there is a weak interaction of MtrD and MtrE, MtrC binds with relatively high affinity to both MtrD and MtrE. MtrD conferred antibiotic resistance only when it was expressed with MtrE and MtrC, suggesting that these proteins form a functional tripartite complex in which MtrC bridges MtrD and MtrE. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MtrC interacts with an intraprotomer groove on the surface of MtrE, inducing channel opening. However, a second groove is apparent at the interface of the MtrE subunits, which might also be capable of engaging MtrC. We have now established that MtrC can be cross-linked to cysteines placed in this interprotomer groove and that mutation of residues in the groove impair the ability of the pump to confer antibiotic resistance by locking MtrE in the closed channel conformation. Moreover, MtrE K390C forms an intermolecular disulfide bond with MtrC E149C locking MtrE in the open channel conformation, suggesting that a functional salt bridge forms between these residues during the transition from closed to open channel conformations. MtrC forms dimers that assemble into hexamers, and electron microscopy studies of single particles revealed that these hexamers are arranged into ring-like structures with an internal aperture sufficiently large to accommodate the MtrE trimer. Cross-linking of single cysteine mutants of MtrC to stabilize the dimer interface in the presence of MtrE, trapped an MtrC-MtrE complex with a molecular mass consistent with a stoichiometry of 3:6 (MtrE3MtrC6), suggesting that dimers of MtrC interact with MtrE, presumably by binding to the two grooves. As both MtrE and MtrD are trimeric, our studies suggest that the functional pump is assembled with a stoichiometry of 3

  10. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the TRA/MTR Warm Waste System Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Tank System TRA-007

    SciTech Connect

    K. Winterholler

    2007-01-30

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Plan was developed for portions of the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System located in the Materials Test Reactor Building (TRA-603) at the Reactor Technology Complex, Idaho National Laboratory Site, to meet a further milestone established under Voluntary Consent Order Action Plan SITE-TANK-005 for the Tank System TRA-007. The reactor drain tank and canal sump to be closed are included in the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System. The reactor drain tank and the canal sump will be closed in accordance with the interim status requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.05.009 and Code of Federal Regulations 265. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods for achieving those standards.

  11. Isolation and characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mRNA transport-defective (mtr) mutants [published erratum appears in J Cell Biol 1994 Sep;126(6):1627

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of mRNA transport in eukaryotes, we have isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants which accumulate poly(A)+ RNA in the nucleus at the restrictive temperature. A total of 21 recessive mutants were isolated and classified into 16 complementation groups. Backcrossed mRNA transport- defective strains from each complementation group have been analyzed. A strain which is ts for heat shock transcription factor was also analyzed since it also shows nuclear accumulation of poly(A)+ RNA at 37 degrees C. At 37 degrees C the mRNA of each mutant is characterized by atypically long polyA tails. Unlike ts pre-mRNA splicing mutants, these strains do not interrupt splicing of pre-mRNA at 37 degrees C; however four strains accumulate oversized RNA polymerase II transcripts. Some show inhibition of rRNA processing and a further subset of these strains is also characterized by inhibition of tRNA maturation. Several strains accumulate nuclear proteins in the cytoplasm when incubated at semipermissive temperature. Remarkably, many strains exhibit nucleolar fragmentation or enlargement at the restrictive temperature. Most strains show dramatic ultrastructural alterations of the nucleoplasm or nuclear membrane. Distinct mutants accumulate poly(A)+ RNA in characteristic patterns in the nucleus. PMID:8045930

  12. New Dosimetric Interpretation of the DV50 Vessel-Steel Experiment Irradiated in the OSIRIS MTR Reactor Using the Monte-Carlo Code TRIPOLI-4®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malouch, Fadhel

    2016-02-01

    An irradiation program DV50 was carried out from 2002 to 2006 in the OSIRIS material testing reactor (CEA-Saclay center) to assess the pressure vessel steel toughness curve for a fast neutron fluence (E > 1 MeV) equivalent to a French 900-MWe PWR lifetime of 50 years. This program allowed the irradiation of 120 specimens out of vessel steel, subdivided in two successive irradiations DV50 n∘1 and DV50 n∘2. To measure the fast neutron fluence (E > 1 MeV) received by specimens after each irradiation, sample holders were equipped with activation foils that were withdrawn at the end of irradiation for activity counting and processing. The fast effective cross-sections used in the dosimeter processing were determined with a specific calculation scheme based on the Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI-3 (and the nuclear data ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90). In order to put vessel-steel experiments at the same standard, a new dosimetric interpretation of the DV50 experiment has been performed by using the Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI-4 and more recent nuclear data (JEFF3.1.1 and IRDF-2002). This paper presents a comparison of previous and recent calculations performed for the DV50 vessel-steel experiment to assess the impact on the dosimetric interpretation.

  13. Characterization of an electron conduit between bacteria and the extracellular environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorne, R. S.; Reardon, C. L.; Ross, D.; Nuester, J.; Clarke, T. A.; Gates, A. J.; Mills, P. C.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Zachara, J. M.; Shi, L.; Beliaev, A. S.; Marshall, M. J.; Tien, M.; Brantley, S.; Butt, J. N.; Richardson, D. J.

    2009-12-17

    A number of species of Gram-negative bacteria can use insoluble minerals of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) as extracellular respiratory electron acceptors. In some species of Shewanella, deca-heme electron transfer proteins lie at the extracellular face of the outer membrane (OM), where they can interact with insoluble substrates. To reduce extracellular substrates, these redox proteins must be charged by the inner membrane/periplasmic electron transfer system. Here, we present a spectro-potentiometric characterization of a trans-OM icosa-heme complex, MtrCAB, and demonstrate its capacity to move electrons across a lipid bilayer after incorporation into proteoliposomes. We also show that a stable MtrAB subcomplex can assemble in the absence of MtrC; an MtrBC subcomplex is not assembled in the absence of MtrA; and MtrA is only associated to the membrane in cells when MtrB is present. We propose a model for the modular organization of the MtrCAB complex in which MtrC is an extracellular element that mediates electron transfer to extracellular substrates and MtrB is a trans-OM spanning β-barrel protein that serves as a sheath, within which MtrA and MtrC exchange electrons. Finally, we have identified the MtrAB module in a range of bacterial phyla, suggesting that it is widely used in electron exchange with the extracellular environment.

  14. Analytical Method of Correction of B 1 Errors in Mapping of Magnetization Transfer Ratio in Highfield Magnetic Resonance Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarnykh, V. L.; Khodanovich, M. Yu.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR) is a widely used parameter for quantitative estimation of tissues in magnetic resonance tomography (MRT). At the same time, MTR is rather sensitive to errors caused by the nonideal characteristics of magnetic resonance tomographs. In particular, MTR depends strongly on the local inhomogeneities of the radio-frequency field B 1 that limits the MTR application for high magnetic field strengths. In the present research, a simple analytical model of the MTR dependence on B 1 is derived. Based on this model, a correction algorithm is developed using a set of parameters independent of tissue. This algorithm is tested for MTR mapping of the human brain in the field with induction of 3 T. The MTR correction demonstrates high accuracy for a wide range of B 1 inhomogeneities. Combination of the analytical algorithm with fast B 1 mapping enables high-precision MTR brain mapping for neuroimaging applications and analysis of histograms on high-field scanners.

  15. Materials Data on Ti(PO3)3 (SG:9) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. Materials Data on Ti(PO3)4 (SG:60) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on Li2TiPO4F (SG:1) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Materials Data on Ti(PO3)4 (SG:15) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Matroshka DOSTEL measurements onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrenz, Johannes; Burmeister, Soenke; Berger, Thomas; Heber, Bernd; Reitz, Guenther

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the absorbed dose and dose equivalent rate measurements achieved with the DOSimetry TElescope (DOSTEL) during the two Matroshka (MTR) experiment campaigns in 2004/2005 (MTR-1) and 2007/2008 (MTR-2B). The comparison between the inside (MTR-2B) and outside (MTR-1) mission has shown that the shielding thickness provided by the International Space Station (ISS) spacecraft hull has a minor effect on the radiation exposure caused by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). The exposure varies with the solar modulation of the GCR, too. Particles from Earth's radiation belts are effectively shielded by the spacecraft hull, and thus the contribution to the radiation exposure is lower for the inside measurement during MTR-2B. While the MTR-DOSTEL absorbed dose rate shows a good agreement with passive detectors of the MTR experiment for the MTR-2B mission phase, the MTR-1 absorbed dose rates from MTR-DOSTEL measurements are much lower than those obtained by a nearby passive detector. Observed discrepancies between the MTR-DOSTEL measurements and the passive detectors located nearby could be explained by the additional exposure to an enhanced flux of electrons trapped between L-parameter 2.5 and 3.5 caused by solar storms in July 2004.

  20. TRA Closure Plan REV 0-9-20-06 HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the TRA/MTR Warm Waste System Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Tank System TRA-007

    SciTech Connect

    Winterholler, K.

    2007-01-31

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan was developed for portions of the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System located in the Materials Test Reactor Building (TRA-603) at the Reactor Technology Complex, Idaho National Laboratory Site, to meet a further milestone established under Voluntary Consent Order Action Plan SITE-TANK-005 for Tank System TRA-007. The reactor drain tank and canal sump to be closed are included in the Test Reactor Area/Materials Test Reactor Warm Waste System. The reactor drain tank and the canal sump were characterized as having managed hazardous waste. The reactor drain tank and canal sump will be closed in accordance with the interim status requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.05.009 and 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods for achieving those standards.

  1. Intermediates in the recycling of 5-methylthioribose to methionine in fruits.

    PubMed

    Kushad, M M; Richardson, D G; Ferro, A J

    1983-10-01

    The recycling of 5-methylthioribose (MTR) to methionine in avocado (Persea americana Mill, cv Hass) and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill, cv unknown) was examined. [(14)CH(3)]MTR was not metabolized in cell free extract from avocado fruit. Either [(14)CH(3)]MTR plus ATP or [(14)CH(3)]5-methylthioribose-1-phosphate (MTR-1-P) alone, however, were metabolized to two new products by these extracts. MTR kinase activity has previously been detected in these fruit extracts. These data indicate that MTR must be converted to MTR-1-P by MTR kinase before further metabolism can occur. The products of MTR-1-P metabolism were tentatively identified as alpha-keto-gamma-methylthiobutyric acid (alpha-KMB) and alpha-hydroxy-gamma-methylthiobutyric acid (alpha-HMB) by chromatography in several solvent systems. [(35)S]alpha-KMB was found to be further metabolized to methionine and alpha-HMB by these extracts, whereas alpha-HMB was not. However, alpha-HMB inhibited the conversion of alpha-KMB to methionine. Both [U-(14)C]alpha-KMB and [U-(14)C]methionine, but not [U-(14)C]alpha-HMB, were converted to ethylene in tomato pericarp tissue. In addition, aminoethoxyvinylglycine inhibited the conversion of alpha-KMB to ethylene. These data suggest that the recycling pathway leading to ethylene is MTR --> MTR-1-P --> alpha-KMB --> methionine --> S-adenosylmethionine --> 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid --> ethylene. PMID:16663204

  2. Myofascial trigger points and innervation zone locations in upper trapezius muscles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are hyperirritable spots located in taut bands of muscle fibres. Electrophysiological studies indicate that abnormal electrical activity is detectable near MTrPs. This phenomenon has been described as endplate noise and it has been purported to be associated MTrP pathophysiology. Thus, it is suggested that MTrPs will be overlap the innervation zone (IZ). The purpose of this work was to describe the location of MTrPs and the IZ in the right upper trapezius. Methods We screened 71 individuals and eventually enrolled 24 subjects with neck pain and active MTrPs and 24 neck pain-free subjects with latent MTrPs. Surface electromyography (sEMG) signals were detected using an electrode matrix during isometric contraction of the upper trapezius. A physiotherapist subsequently examined the subject’s trapezius to confirm the presence of MTrPs and establish their location. IZ locations were identified by visual analysis of sEMG signals. IZ and MTrPs locations were described using an anatomical coordinate system (ACS), with the skin area covered by the matrix divided into four quadrants. Results No significant difference was observed between active and latent MTrPs locations (P = 0.6). Forty-five MTrPs were in the third quadrant of the ACS, and 3 were included in second quadrant. IZs were located approximately midway between the seventh cervical vertebrae and the acromial angle in a limited area in the second and third quadrants. The mean distance between MTrP and IZ was 10.4 ± 5.8 mm. Conclusions According to the acquired results, we conclude that IZ and MTrPs are located in well-defined areas in upper trapezius muscle. Moreover, MTrPs in upper trapezius are proximally located to the IZ but not overlapped. PMID:23758854

  3. Structure of Arabidopsis thaliana 5-methylthioribose Kinase Reveals a More Occluded Active Site Than its Bacterial Homolog

    SciTech Connect

    Ku,S.; Cornell, K.; Howell, P.

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic variations exist between the methionine salvage pathway of humans and a number of plants and microbial pathogens. 5-Methylthioribose (MTR) kinase is a key enzyme required for methionine salvage in plants and many bacteria. The absence of a mammalian homolog suggests that MTR kinase is a good target for the design of specific herbicides or antibiotics. The structure of Arabidopsis thaliana MTR kinase co-crystallized with ATP?S and MTR has been determined at 1.9 Angstroms resolution. The structure is similar to B. subtilis MTR kinase and has the same protein kinase fold observed in other evolutionarily related protein kinase-like phosphotransferases. The active site is comparable between the two enzymes with the DXE-motif coordinating the nucleotide-Mg, the D238 of the HGD catalytic loop polarizing the MTR O1 oxygen, and the RR-motif interacting with the substrate MTR. Unlike its bacterial homolog, however, the Gly-rich loop (G-loop) of A. thaliana MTR kinase has an extended conformation, which shields most of the active site from solvent, a feature that resembles eukaryotic protein kinases more than the bacterial enzyme. The G- and W-loops of A. thaliana and B. subtilis MTR kinase adopt different conformations despite high sequence similarity. The ATP?S analog was hydrolyzed during the co-crystallization procedure, resulting in ADP in the active site. This suggests that the A. thaliana enzyme, like its bacterial homolog, may have significant ATPase activity in the absence of MTR. The structure of A. thaliana MTR kinase provides a template for structure-based design of agrochemicals, particularly herbicides whose effectiveness could be regulated by nutrient levels. Features of the MTR binding site offer an opportunity for a simple organic salt of an MTR analog to specifically inhibit MTR kinase.

  4. Long-Lasting Gene Conversion Shapes the Convergent Evolution of the Critical Methanogenesis Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sishuo; Chen, Youhua; Cao, Qinhong; Lou, Huiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Methanogenesis and its key small-molecule methyltransferase Mtr complex are poorly understood despite their pivotal role in Earth’s global carbon cycle. Mtr complex is encoded by a conserved mtrEDCBAFGH operon in most methanogens. Here we report that two discrete lineages, Methanococcales and Methanomicrobiales, have a noncanonical mtr operon carrying two copies of mtrA resulting from an ancient duplication. Compared to mtrA-1, mtrA-2 acquires a distinct transmembrane domain through domain shuffling and gene fusion. However, the nontransmembrane domains (MtrA domain) of mtrA-1 and mtrA-2 are homogenized by gene conversion events lasting throughout the long history of these extant methanogens (over 2410 million years). Furthermore, we identified a possible recruitment of ancient nonmethanogenic methyltransferase genes to establish the methanogenesis pathway. These results not only provide novel evolutionary insight into the methanogenesis pathway and methyltransferase superfamily but also suggest an unanticipated long-lasting effect of gene conversion on gene evolution in a convergent pattern. PMID:26384370

  5. Experienced versus Inexperienced Interexaminer Reliability on Location and Classification of Myofascial Trigger Point Palpation to Diagnose Lateral Epicondylalgia: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Mora-Relucio, Raquel; Núñez-Nagy, Susana; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Rus, Alma; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Romero-Franco, Natalia; Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Pecos-Martín, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the interexaminer reliability of experienced and inexperienced examiners on location and classification of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in two epicondylar muscles and the association between the MTrP found and the diagnosis of lateral epicondylalgia (LE). Fifty-two pianists (some suffered LE) voluntarily participated in the study. Three physiotherapists (one inexperienced in myofascial pain) examined, located, and marked MTrPs in the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscles. Forearms were photographed and analyzed to establish the degree of agreement on MTrPs diagnosis. Data showed 81.73% and 77.88% of agreement on MTrP classification and 85.58% and 72.12% on MTrP location between the expert evaluators for ECRB and EDC, respectively. The agreement on MTrP classification between experienced and inexperienced examiners was 54.81% and 51.92% for ECRB and 50.00% and 55.77% for EDC. Also, agreement on MTrP location was 54.81% and 60.58% for ECRB and 48.08% and 48.08% for EDC. A strong association was found between presence of relevant MTrPs, LE diagnosis, and forearm pain when the examiners were experts. The analysis of location and classification of MTrPs in the epicondylar muscles through physical examination by experienced evaluators is reliable, reproducible, and suitable for diagnosing LE. PMID:26881005

  6. Rapid electron exchange between surface-exposed bacterial cytochromes and Fe(III) minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Gaye F.; Shi, Zhi; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2013-04-01

    The mineral-respiring bacterium Shewanella oneidensis uses a protein complex, MtrCAB, composed of two decaheme cytochromes, MtrC and MtrA, brought together inside a transmembrane porin, MtrB, to transport electrons across the outer membrane to a variety of mineral-based electron acceptors. A proteoliposome system containing a pool of internalized electron carriers was used to investigate how the topology of the MtrCAB complex relates to its ability to transport electrons across a lipid bilayer to externally located Fe(III) oxides. With MtrA facing the interior and MtrC exposed on the outer surface of the phospholipid bilayer, the established in vivo orientation, electron transfer from the interior electron carrier pool through MtrCAB to solid-phase Fe(III) oxides was demonstrated. The rates were 103 times higher than those reported for reduction of goethite, hematite, and lepidocrocite by S. oneidensis, and the order of the reaction rates was consistent with those observed in S. oneidensis cultures. In contrast, established rates for single turnover reactions between purified MtrC and Fe(III) oxides were 103 times lower. By providing a continuous flow of electrons, the proteoliposome experiments demonstrate that conduction through MtrCAB directly to Fe(III) oxides is sufficient to support in vivo, anaerobic, solid-phase iron respiration.

  7. Rapid electron exchange between surface-exposed bacterial cytochromes and Fe(III) minerals

    PubMed Central

    White, Gaye F.; Shi, Zhi; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The mineral-respiring bacterium Shewanella oneidensis uses a protein complex, MtrCAB, composed of two decaheme cytochromes, MtrC and MtrA, brought together inside a transmembrane porin, MtrB, to transport electrons across the outer membrane to a variety of mineral-based electron acceptors. A proteoliposome system containing a pool of internalized electron carriers was used to investigate how the topology of the MtrCAB complex relates to its ability to transport electrons across a lipid bilayer to externally located Fe(III) oxides. With MtrA facing the interior and MtrC exposed on the outer surface of the phospholipid bilayer, the established in vivo orientation, electron transfer from the interior electron carrier pool through MtrCAB to solid-phase Fe(III) oxides was demonstrated. The rates were 103 times higher than those reported for reduction of goethite, hematite, and lepidocrocite by S. oneidensis, and the order of the reaction rates was consistent with those observed in S. oneidensis cultures. In contrast, established rates for single turnover reactions between purified MtrC and Fe(III) oxides were 103 times lower. By providing a continuous flow of electrons, the proteoliposome experiments demonstrate that conduction through MtrCAB directly to Fe(III) oxides is sufficient to support in vivo, anaerobic, solid-phase iron respiration. PMID:23538304

  8. Experienced versus Inexperienced Interexaminer Reliability on Location and Classification of Myofascial Trigger Point Palpation to Diagnose Lateral Epicondylalgia: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Relucio, Raquel; Núñez-Nagy, Susana; Gallego-Izquierdo, Tomás; Rus, Alma; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Romero-Franco, Natalia; Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Pecos-Martín, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the interexaminer reliability of experienced and inexperienced examiners on location and classification of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in two epicondylar muscles and the association between the MTrP found and the diagnosis of lateral epicondylalgia (LE). Fifty-two pianists (some suffered LE) voluntarily participated in the study. Three physiotherapists (one inexperienced in myofascial pain) examined, located, and marked MTrPs in the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscles. Forearms were photographed and analyzed to establish the degree of agreement on MTrPs diagnosis. Data showed 81.73% and 77.88% of agreement on MTrP classification and 85.58% and 72.12% on MTrP location between the expert evaluators for ECRB and EDC, respectively. The agreement on MTrP classification between experienced and inexperienced examiners was 54.81% and 51.92% for ECRB and 50.00% and 55.77% for EDC. Also, agreement on MTrP location was 54.81% and 60.58% for ECRB and 48.08% and 48.08% for EDC. A strong association was found between presence of relevant MTrPs, LE diagnosis, and forearm pain when the examiners were experts. The analysis of location and classification of MTrPs in the epicondylar muscles through physical examination by experienced evaluators is reliable, reproducible, and suitable for diagnosing LE. PMID:26881005

  9. Molecular Underpinnings of Fe(III) Oxide Reduction by Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liang; Rosso, Kevin M.; Clarke, Tomas A.; Richardson, David J.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, James K.

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of O2 and other electron acceptors, the Gram-negative bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 can use ferric [Fe(III)] (oxy)(hydr)oxide minerals as the terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration. At circumneutral pH and in the absence of strong complexing ligands, Fe(III) oxides are relatively insoluble and thus are external to the bacterial cells. S. oneidensis MR-1 and related strains of metal-reducing Shewanella have evolved machinery (i.e., metal-reducing or Mtr pathway) for transferring electrons from the inner-membrane, through the periplasm and across the outer-membrane to the surface of extracellular Fe(III) oxides. The protein components identified to date for the Mtr pathway include CymA, MtrA, MtrB, MtrC, and OmcA. CymA is an inner-membrane tetraheme c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) that belongs to the NapC/NrfH family of quinol dehydrogenases. It is proposed that CymA oxidizes the quinol in the inner-membrane and transfers the released electrons to MtrA either directly or indirectly through other periplasmic proteins. A decaheme c-Cyt, MtrA is thought to be embedded in the trans outer-membrane and porin-like protein MtrB. Together, MtrAB deliver the electrons through the outer-membrane to the MtrC and OmcA on the outmost bacterial surface. MtrC and OmcA are the outer-membrane decaheme c-Cyts that are translocated across the outer-membrane by the bacterial type II secretion system. Functioning as terminal reductases, MtrC and OmcA can bind the surface of Fe(III) oxides and transfer electrons directly to these minerals via their solvent-exposed hemes. To increase their reaction rates, MtrC and OmcA can use the flavins secreted by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells as diffusible co-factors for reduction of Fe(III) oxides. Because of their extracellular location and broad redox potentials, MtrC and OmcA can also serve as the terminal reductases for soluble forms of Fe(III). In addition to Fe(III) oxides, Mtr pathway is also involved in reduction of

  10. Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-07-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) receives aluminum clad spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel from all over the world for storage and eventual reprocessing. There are hundreds of different kinds of MTR fuels and these fuels will continue to be received at SRS for approximately ten more years. SRS''s current criticality evaluation methodology requires the modeling of all MTR fuels utilizing Monte Carlo codes, which is extremely time consuming and resource intensive. Now that amore » significant number of MTR calculations have been conducted it is feasible to consider building statistical models that will provide reasonable estimations of MTR behavior. These statistical models can be incorporated into a standardized model homogenization spreadsheet package to provide analysts with a means of performing routine MTR fuel analyses with a minimal commitment of time and resources. This became the purpose for development of the Candidate Assembly Statistical Evaluation (CASE) program at SRS.« less

  11. Cinemática y masas de agujeros negros en galaxias activas del tipo "Narrow Line Seyfert 1"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oío, G.; Schmidt, E.; Vega Neme, L. R.

    We apply a spectral synthesis method to Narrow Line Seyfert 1 active galax- ies with public spectra available. Our goal will be to obtain the stellar ve- locity dispersions, and then the central black hole masses via the Tremaine relation. We comment several problems we found in fitting this type of objects and the possibility of obtaining masses through the emission lines. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  12. Home-Type Activities at the Day Care Center. (Tipos De Actividades Del Hogar En El Centro De Cuidado Diario.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, May; Moberg, Patricia E.

    This paper argues that home activities comprise a valuable unplanned curriculum and that many of these activities can be transferred to the day care center. It is suggested that these activities foster a closer relationship between child and caregiver and bridge the gap between familiar home environment and novel day care setting. Home activities…

  13. Relaciones fundamentales de la población de galaxias de tipo temprano del cúmulo de Antlia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, J. P.; Bassino, L. P.; Cellone, S. A.; Smith Castelli, A. V.; Caso, J. P.

    We present the results of a study of more than 100 early-type galaxies in Antlia Cluster, that span from giant ellipticals to dwarf ellipticals, covering a magnitude range of 11 magnitudes (M_{V_T} = -22 to -11). We perform surface photometry of these galaxies, and their total magnitudes, surface brightnesses and radii are determined on the basis of the Sérsic law fits. Finally, the fundamental relations between them are analyzed. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  14. Charge carrier transport in polycrystalline organic thin film based field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Varsha; Sharma, Akanksha; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2016-05-01

    The charge carrier transport mechanism in polycrystalline thin film based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) has been explained using two competing models, multiple trapping and releases (MTR) model and percolation model. It has been shown that MTR model is most suitable for explaining charge carrier transport in grainy polycrystalline organic thin films. The energetic distribution of traps determined independently using Mayer-Neldel rule (MNR) is in excellent agreement with the values obtained by MTR model for copper phthalocyanine and pentacene based OFETs.

  15. A decahaem cytochrome as an electron conduit in protein-enzyme redox processes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chong-Yong; Reuillard, Bertrand; Sokol, Katarzyna P; Laftsoglou, Theodoros; Lockwood, Colin W J; Rowe, Sam F; Hwang, Ee Taek; Fontecilla-Camps, Juan C; Jeuken, Lars J C; Butt, Julea N; Reisner, Erwin

    2016-05-31

    The decahaem cytochrome MtrC from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 was employed as a protein electron conduit between a porous indium tin oxide electrode and redox enzymes. Using a hydrogenase and a fumarate reductase, MtrC was shown as a suitable and efficient diode to shuttle electrons to and from the electrode with the MtrC redox activity regulating the direction of the enzymatic reactions. PMID:27193068

  16. Current studies on myofascial pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Ta-Shen

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies have clarified the nature of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). In an MTrP region, multiple hyperirritable loci can be found. The sensory components of the MTrP locus are sensitized nociceptors that are responsible for pain, referred pain, and local twitch responses. The motor components are dysfunctional endplates that are responsible for taut band formation as a result of excessive acetylcholine (ACh) leakage. The concentrations of pain- and inflammation-related substances are increased in the MTrP region. It has been hypothesized that excessive ACh release, sarcomere shortening, and release of sensitizing substances are three essential features that relate to one another in a positive feedback cycle. This MTrP circuit is the connection among spinal sensory (dorsal horn) neurons responsible for the MTrP phenomena. Recent studies suggest that measurement of biochemicals associated with pain and inflammation in the MTrP region, the sonographic study of MTrPs, and the magnetic resonance elastography for taut band image are potential tools for the diagnosis of MTrPs. Many methods have been used to treat myofascial pain, including laser therapy, shockwave therapy, and botulinum toxin type A injection. PMID:19728962

  17. The NASA modern technology rotors program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, M. E.; Cross, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Existing data bases regarding helicopters are based on work conducted on 'old-technology' rotor systems. The Modern Technology Rotors (MTR) Program is to provide extensive data bases on rotor systems using present and emerging technology. The MTR is concerned with modern, four-bladed, rotor systems presently being manufactured or under development. Aspects of MTR philosophy are considered along with instrumentation, the MTR test program, the BV 360 Rotor, and the UH-60 Black Hawk. The program phases include computer modelling, shake test, model-scale test, minimally instrumented flight test, extensively pressure-instrumented-blade flight test, and full-scale wind tunnel test.

  18. Molecular characterization of methanogenic N(5)-methyl-tetrahydromethanopterin: Coenzyme M methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Vikrant; Ceh, Katharina; Tumulka, Franz; Abele, Rupert; Hoffmann, Jan; Langer, Julian; Shima, Seigo; Ermler, Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    Methanogenic archaea share one ion gradient forming reaction in their energy metabolism catalyzed by the membrane-spanning multisubunit complex N(5)-methyl-tetrahydromethanopterin: coenzyme M methyltransferase (MtrABCDEFGH or simply Mtr). In this reaction the methyl group transfer from methyl-tetrahydromethanopterin to coenzyme M mediated by cobalamin is coupled with the vectorial translocation of Na(+) across the cytoplasmic membrane. No detailed structural and mechanistic data are reported about this process. In the present work we describe a procedure to provide a highly pure and homogenous Mtr complex on the basis of a selective removal of the only soluble subunit MtrH with the membrane perturbing agent dimethyl maleic anhydride and a subsequent two-step chromatographic purification. A molecular mass determination of the Mtr complex by laser induced liquid bead ion desorption mass spectrometry (LILBID-MS) and size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle light scattering (SEC-MALS) resulted in a (MtrABCDEFG)3 heterotrimeric complex of ca. 430kDa with both techniques. Taking into account that the membrane protein complex contains various firmly bound small molecules, predominantly detergent molecules, the stoichiometry of the subunits is most likely 1:1. A schematic model for the subunit arrangement within the MtrABCDEFG protomer was deduced from the mass of Mtr subcomplexes obtained by harsh IR-laser LILBID-MS. PMID:27342374

  19. Serial Magnetization Transfer Imaging in Acute Optic Neuritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, S. J.; Toosy, A. T.; Jones, S. J.; Altmann, D. R.; Miszkiel, K. A.; MacManus, D. G.; Barker, G. J.; Plant, G. T.; Thompson, A. J.; Miller, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    In serial studies of multiple sclerosis lesions, reductions in magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) are thought to be due to demyelination and axonal loss, with later rises due to remyelination. This study followed serial changes in MTR in acute optic neuritis in combination with clinical and electrophysiological measurements to determine if the MTR…

  20. FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA665. CONTEXTUAL VIEW: CHOPPER BUILDING IN CENTER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA-665. CONTEXTUAL VIEW: CHOPPER BUILDING IN CENTER. MTR REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING,TRA-635, TO LEFT; MTR BUILDING TO RIGHT. CAMERA FACING WEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. 33 CFR 154.1015 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transferring oil to or from a vessel with a capacity of 250 barrels or more and deepwater ports; (2) Mobile MTR facilities used or intended to be used to transfer oil to or from a vessel with a capacity of 250 barrels or... ports, and fixed MTR onshore facilities capable of transferring oil to or from a vessel with a...

  2. 33 CFR 154.1015 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transferring oil to or from a vessel with a capacity of 250 barrels or more and deepwater ports; (2) Mobile MTR facilities used or intended to be used to transfer oil to or from a vessel with a capacity of 250 barrels or... ports, and fixed MTR onshore facilities capable of transferring oil to or from a vessel with a...

  3. 33 CFR 154.1015 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transferring oil to or from a vessel with a capacity of 250 barrels or more and deepwater ports; (2) Mobile MTR facilities used or intended to be used to transfer oil to or from a vessel with a capacity of 250 barrels or... ports, and fixed MTR onshore facilities capable of transferring oil to or from a vessel with a...

  4. Export of detritus and invertebrate from headwater streams: linking mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mining to downstream receiving waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has resulted in large scale alteration of the topography, reduced forest productivity, and burial of headwater streams in the U.S. Central Appalachians. Although MTR/VF coal mining has occurred for several decades and the ...

  5. A Decaheme Cytochrome as a Molecular Electron Conduit in Dye-Sensitized Photoanodes

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ee Taek; Sheikh, Khizar; Orchard, Katherine L; Hojo, Daisuke; Radu, Valentin; Lee, Chong-Yong; Ainsworth, Emma; Lockwood, Colin; Gross, Manuela A; Adschiri, Tadafumi; Reisner, Erwin; Butt, Julea N; Jeuken, Lars J C

    2015-01-01

    In nature, charge recombination in light-harvesting reaction centers is minimized by efficient charge separation. Here, it is aimed to mimic this by coupling dye-sensitized TiO2 nanocrystals to a decaheme protein, MtrC from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, where the 10 hemes of MtrC form a ≈7-nm-long molecular wire between the TiO2 and the underlying electrode. The system is assembled by forming a densely packed MtrC film on an ultra-flat gold electrode, followed by the adsorption of approximately 7 nm TiO2 nanocrystals that are modified with a phosphonated bipyridine Ru(II) dye (RuP). The step-by-step construction of the MtrC/TiO2 system is monitored with (photo)electrochemistry, quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Photocurrents are dependent on the redox state of the MtrC, confirming that electrons are transferred from the TiO2 nanocrystals to the surface via the MtrC conduit. In other words, in these TiO2/MtrC hybrid photodiodes, MtrC traps the conduction-band electrons from TiO2 before transferring them to the electrode, creating a photobioelectrochemical system in which a redox protein is used to mimic the efficient charge separation found in biological photosystems. PMID:26180522

  6. SOUTH WING, TRA661. WEST SIDE. CAMERA FACING EAST. COVERED STAIRWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH WING, TRA-661. WEST SIDE. CAMERA FACING EAST. COVERED STAIRWAY AND BUILDING END AT LEFT OF VIEW IS TRA-652, ANOTHER MTR OFFICE WING. WEST SIDE OF MTR HIGH BAY BEYOND. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-45-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Structural and functional characteristics of natural and constructed channels draining a reclaimed mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has altered the landscape of the Central Appalachian region in the United States. The goals of this study were to 1) compare the structure and function of natural and constructed stream channels in forested and MTR/VF catch...

  8. Preliminary Observations on Sensitivity and Specificity of Magnetization Transfer Asymmetry for Imaging Myelin of Rat Brain at High Field

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Woong; Choi, Jiye; Cho, Janggeun; Lee, Chulhyun; Jeon, Daejong; Park, Sung-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) has been often used for imaging myelination. Despite its high sensitivity, the specificity of MTR to myelination is not high because tissues with no myelin such as muscle can also show high MTR. In this study, we propose a new magnetization transfer (MT) indicator, MT asymmetry (MTA), as a new method of myelin imaging. The experiments were performed on rat brain at 9.4 T. MTA revealed high signals in white matter and significantly low signals in gray matter and muscle, indicating that MTA has higher specificity than MTR. Demyelination and remyelination studies demonstrated that the sensitivity of MTA to myelination was as high as that of MTR. These experimental results indicate that MTA can be a good biomarker for imaging myelination. In addition, MTA images can be efficiently acquired with an interslice MTA method, which may accelerate clinical application of myelin imaging. PMID:26413534

  9. Age-effects in white matter using associated diffusion tensor imaging and magnetization transfer ratio during late childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Kempton, Matthew; Barker, Gareth; Salum, Giovanni; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo; Del Aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Anés, Mauricio; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Amaro, Edson; Rohde, Luis Augusto; McGuire, Philip; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Sato, João Ricardo; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2016-05-01

    In the last decade, several studies have described the typical brain white matter maturation in children and adolescents. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is the most frequent MRI technique used to investigate the structural changes across development. However, few previous studies have used the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), which gives a closer measure of myelin content. Here, we employed both techniques for the same sample of 176 typically developing children from 7 to 14years of age. We investigated the associations between DTI parameters and MTR measure, to assess the myelination in the brain in development. Secondly, we investigated age-effects on DTI parameters (fractional anisotropy, axial, radial and mean diffusivities) and MTR. No significant correlations between MTR and DTI parameters were observed. In addition, a significant age-effect was detected for DTI data but was not visible for MTR data. Thereby, changes in white matter at this age might be primarily correlated with microstructural changes. PMID:26708037

  10. Overexpression of Mycothiol Disulfide Reductase Enhances Corynebacterium glutamicum Robustness by Modulating Cellular Redox Homeostasis and Antioxidant Proteins under Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Si, Meiru; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Bing; Wei, Dawei; Chen, Keqi; Yang, Xu; Xiao, He; Shen, Xihui

    2016-01-01

    Mycothiol (MSH) is the dominant low-molecular-weight thiol (LMWT) unique to high-(G+C)-content Gram-positive Actinobacteria, such as Corynebacterium glutamicum, and is oxidised into its disulfide form mycothiol disulfide (MSSM) under oxidative conditions. Mycothiol disulfide reductase (Mtr), an NADPH-dependent enzyme, reduces MSSM to MSH, thus maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis. In this study, a recombinant plasmid was constructed to overexpress Mtr in C. glutamicum using the expression vector pXMJ19-His6. Mtr-overexpressing C. glutamicum cells showed increased tolerance to ROS induced by oxidants, bactericidal antibiotics, alkylating agents, and heavy metals. The physiological roles of Mtr in resistance to oxidative stresses were corroborated by decreased ROS levels, reduced carbonylation damage, decreased loss of reduced protein thiols, and a massive increase in the levels of reversible protein thiols in Mtr-overexpressing cells exposed to stressful conditions. Moreover, overexpression of Mtr caused a marked increase in the ratio of reduced to oxidised mycothiol (MSH:MSSM), and significantly enhanced the activities of a variety of antioxidant enzymes, including mycothiol peroxidase (MPx), mycoredoxin 1 (Mrx1), thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), and methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA). Taken together, these results indicate that the Mtr protein functions in C. glutamicum by protecting cells against oxidative stress. PMID:27383057

  11. Regional patterns of grey matter atrophy and magnetisation transfer ratio abnormalities in multiple sclerosis clinical subgroups: A voxel-based analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Muhlert, Nils; Samson, Rebecca S; Sethi, Varun; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia AM; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T

    2015-01-01

    Background: In multiple sclerosis (MS), demyelination and neuro-axonal loss occur in the brain grey matter (GM). We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of GM magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) and volume to assess the regional localisation of reduced MTR (reflecting demyelination) and atrophy (reflecting neuro-axonal loss) in relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS), secondary progressive MS (SPMS) and primary progressive MS (PPMS). Methods: A total of 98 people with MS (51 RRMS, 28 SPMS, 19 PPMS) and 29 controls had T1-weighted volumetric and magnetisation transfer scans. SPM8 was used to undertake voxel-based analysis (VBA) of GM tissue volumes and MTR. MS subgroups were compared with controls, adjusting for age and gender. A voxel-by-voxel basis correlation analysis between MTR and volume within each subject group was performed, using biological parametric mapping. Results: MTR reduction was more extensive than atrophy. RRMS and SPMS patients showed proportionately more atrophy in the deep GM. SPMS and PPMS patients showed proportionately greater cortical MTR reduction. RRMS patients demonstrated the most correlation of MTR reduction and atrophy in deep GM. In SPMS and PPMS patients, there was less extensive correlation. Conclusions: These results suggest that in the deep GM of RRMS patients, demyelination and neuro-axonal loss may be linked, while in SPMS and PPMS patients, neuro-axonal loss and demyelination may occur mostly independently. PMID:25145689

  12. Metabolism of 5-methylthioribose to methionine

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, J.H.; Yang, S.F.

    1987-06-01

    During ethylene biosynthesis, the H/sub 3/CS-group of S-adenosylmethionine is released as 5'-methylthioadenosine, which is recycled to methionine via 5-methylthioribose (MTR). In mungbean hypocotyls and cell-free extracts of avocado, (/sup 14/C)MTR was converted into labeled methionine via 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid (KMB) and 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyric acid (HMB), as intermediates. Incubation of (ribose-U-/sup 14/C)MTR with avocado extract resulted in the production of (/sup 14/C)formate, indicating the conversion of MTR to KMB involves a loss of formate, presumably from C-1 of MTR. Tracer studies showed that KMB was converted readily in vivo and in vitro to methionine, while HMB was converted much more slowly. The conversion of KMB to methionine by dialyzed avocado extract requires an amino donor. Among several potential donors examined, L-glutamine was the most efficient. Anaerobiosis inhibited only partially the oxidation of MTR to formate, KMB/HMB, and methionine by avocado extract. The role of O/sub 2/ in the conversion of MTR to methionine is discussed.

  13. Overexpression of Mycothiol Disulfide Reductase Enhances Corynebacterium glutamicum Robustness by Modulating Cellular Redox Homeostasis and Antioxidant Proteins under Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Si, Meiru; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Bing; Wei, Dawei; Chen, Keqi; Yang, Xu; Xiao, He; Shen, Xihui

    2016-01-01

    Mycothiol (MSH) is the dominant low-molecular-weight thiol (LMWT) unique to high-(G+C)-content Gram-positive Actinobacteria, such as Corynebacterium glutamicum, and is oxidised into its disulfide form mycothiol disulfide (MSSM) under oxidative conditions. Mycothiol disulfide reductase (Mtr), an NADPH-dependent enzyme, reduces MSSM to MSH, thus maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis. In this study, a recombinant plasmid was constructed to overexpress Mtr in C. glutamicum using the expression vector pXMJ19-His6. Mtr-overexpressing C. glutamicum cells showed increased tolerance to ROS induced by oxidants, bactericidal antibiotics, alkylating agents, and heavy metals. The physiological roles of Mtr in resistance to oxidative stresses were corroborated by decreased ROS levels, reduced carbonylation damage, decreased loss of reduced protein thiols, and a massive increase in the levels of reversible protein thiols in Mtr-overexpressing cells exposed to stressful conditions. Moreover, overexpression of Mtr caused a marked increase in the ratio of reduced to oxidised mycothiol (MSH:MSSM), and significantly enhanced the activities of a variety of antioxidant enzymes, including mycothiol peroxidase (MPx), mycoredoxin 1 (Mrx1), thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), and methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA). Taken together, these results indicate that the Mtr protein functions in C. glutamicum by protecting cells against oxidative stress. PMID:27383057

  14. Proximal nerve magnetization transfer MRI relates to disability in Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dethrage, Lindsey M.; Gore, John C.; Smith, Seth A.; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a novel magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) MRI assay of the proximal sciatic nerve (SN), which is inaccessible via current tools for assessing peripheral nerves, and (2) to evaluate the resulting MTR values as a potential biomarker of myelin content changes in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) diseases. Methods: MTR was measured in the SN of patients with CMT type 1A (CMT1A, n = 10), CMT type 2A (CMT2A, n = 3), hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (n = 3), and healthy controls (n = 21). Additional patients without a genetically confirmed subtype (n = 4), but whose family histories and electrophysiologic tests were consistent with CMT, were also included. The relationship between MTR and clinical neuropathy scores was assessed, and the interscan and inter-rater reliability of MTR was estimated. Results: Mean volumetric MTR values were significantly decreased in the SN of patients with CMT1A (33.8 ± 3.3 percent units) and CMT2A (31.5 ± 1.9 percent units) relative to controls (37.2 ± 2.3 percent units). A significant relationship between MTR and disability scores was also detected (p = 0.01 for genetically confirmed patients only, p = 0.04 for all patients). From interscan and inter-rater reliability analyses, proximal nerve MTR values were repeatable at the slicewise and mean volumetric levels. Conclusions: MTR measurements may be a viable biomarker of proximal nerve pathology in patients with CMT. PMID:25253751

  15. Porin-mediated antibiotic resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: ion, solute, and antibiotic permeation through PIB proteins with penB mutations.

    PubMed

    Olesky, Melanie; Zhao, Shuqing; Rosenberg, Robert L; Nicholas, Robert A

    2006-04-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae has two porins, PIA and PIB, whose genes (porA and porB, respectively) are alleles of a single por locus. We recently demonstrated that penB mutations at positions 120 and 121 in PIB, which are presumed to reside in loop 3 that forms the pore constriction zone, confer intermediate-level resistance to penicillin and tetracycline (M. Olesky, M. Hobbs, and R. A. Nicholas, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:2811-2820, 2002). In the present study, we investigated the electrophysiological properties as well as solute and antibiotic permeation rates of recombinant PIB proteins containing penB mutations (G120K, G120D/A121D, G120P/A121P, and G120R/A121H). In planar lipid bilayers, the predominant conducting state of each porin variant was 30 to 40% of the wild type, even though the anion selectivity and maximum channel conductance of each PIB variant was similar to that of the wild type. Liposome-swelling experiments revealed no significant differences in the permeation of sugars or beta-lactam antibiotics through the wild type or PIB variants. Although these results are seemingly contradictory with the ability of these variants to increase antibiotic resistance, they are consistent with MIC data showing that these porin mutations confer resistance only in strains containing an mtrR mutation, which increases expression of the MtrC-MtrD-MtrE efflux pump. Moreover, both the mtrR and penB mutations were required to decrease in vivo permeation rates below those observed in the parental strain containing either mtrR or porin mutations alone. Thus, these data demonstrate a novel mechanism of porin-mediated resistance in which mutations in PIB have no affect on antibiotic permeation alone but instead act synergistically with the MtrC-MtrD-MtrE efflux pump in the development of antibiotic resistance in gonococci. PMID:16547016

  16. Añadir quimioterapia después de la radioterapia mejora la supervivencia de adultos con un tipo de tu

    Cancer.gov

    Adultos con gliomas de grado bajo, una forma de tumor cerebral, que recibieron tratamiento con quimioterapia después de la radioterapia vivieron más tiempo que pacientes que recibieron solo radioterapia, según los resultados de seguimiento a largo plazo d

  17. Análisis y determinación de parámetros físicos de estrellas de tipo FU Orionis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramajo, L.; Gómez, M.; Whitney, B.

    FU Orionis stars (FUORs) are pre-main sequence objects that periodically incur in a steeply increase of brightness (outburst) of DeltaV~ 6 mag in a period of ~ 10 yr, followed by a gradual descent to the original magnitude in an interval of time of ~100 yr. In this contribution we present initial results on the modeling of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a group of 7 FU Orionis stars: FU Ori, V1515 Cyg, V1057 Cyg, Z CMa, BBW 76, V1735 Cyg, and V883 Ori. We initially used the grid of SEDs calculated by Robitaille et al. (2006). This solution was refined applying the code developed by Whitney et al. (2003). We derived physical and geometrical parameters for the disks of these FUORs. We compared these properties with those of ''canonical'' T Tauri disks. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  18. Stay at a Healthy Weight. Tips for Kids with Type 2 Diabetes = Mantente en un Peso Saludable. Consejos Para Muchachos con Diabetes Tipo 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A healthy weight means you are not too fat or too thin. Your doctor may have said that you should not gain more weight or that you need to lose a few pounds. If you have diabetes and are overweight, you are not alone. The steps you take to manage your weight will help you feel better and may improve your blood sugar or glucose (GLOO-kos) levels.…

  19. Importance of multidrug efflux pumps in the antimicrobial resistance property of clinical multidrug-resistant isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Golparian, Daniel; Shafer, William M; Ohnishi, Makoto; Unemo, Magnus

    2014-06-01

    The contribution of drug efflux pumps in clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that express extensively drug-resistant or multidrug-resistant phenotypes has heretofore not been examined. Accordingly, we assessed the effect on antimicrobial resistance of loss of the three gonococcal efflux pumps associated with a known capacity to export antimicrobials (MtrC-MtrD-MtrE, MacA-MacB, and NorM) in such clinical isolates. We report that the MIC of several antimicrobials, including seven previously and currently recommended for treatment was significantly impacted. PMID:24733458

  20. Estimating benthic secondary production from aquatic insect emergence in streams affected by mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining recountours the Appalachian landscape, buries headwater stream channels, and degrades downstream water quality. The goal of this study was to compare benthic community production estimates, based on seasonal insect emergen...

  1. 33 CFR 154.100 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... piping are gas free. (c) Upon a determination by the COTP under § 154.1016 that an MTR facility, as... Operations Manual: Procedures for examination. (10) Section 154.500 Hose assemblies. Paragraphs (a), (b),...

  2. Molecular Underpinnings of Fe(III) Oxide Reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Rosso, Kevin M.; Clarke, Thomas A.; Richardson, David J.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2012-02-15

    In the absence of O2 and other electron acceptors, the Gram-negative bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 can use ferric [Fe(III)] (oxy)(hydr)oxide minerals as the terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration. At circumneutral pH and in the absence of strong complexing ligands, Fe(III) oxides are relatively insoluble and thus are external to the bacterial cells. S. oneidensis MR-1 and related strains of metal-reducing Shewanella have evolved the machinery (i.e., metal-reducing or Mtr pathway) for transferring electrons from the inner-membrane, through the periplasm and across the outer-membrane to the surface of extracellular Fe(III) oxides. The protein components identified to date for the Mtr pathway include CymA, MtrA, MtrB, MtrC and OmcA. CymA is an inner-membrane tetraheme c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) that belongs to the NapC/NrfH family of quinol dehydrogenases. It is proposed that CymA oxidizes the quinol in the inner-membrane and transfers the released electrons to redox proteins in the periplasm. Although the periplasmic proteins receiving electrons from CymA during Fe(III) oxidation have not been identified, they are believed to relay the electrons in the periplasm to MtrA. A decaheme c-Cyt, MtrA is thought to be embedded in the trans outer-membrane and porin-like protein MtrB. Together, MtrAB deliver the electrons through the outer-membrane to the MtrC and OmcA on the outmost bacterial surface. MtrC and OmcA are the outer-membrane decaheme c-Cyts that are translocated across the outer-membrane by the bacterial type II secretion system. Functioning as terminal reductases, MtrC and OmcA can bind the surface of Fe(III) oxides and transfer electrons directly to these minerals via their solvent-exposed hemes. To increase their reaction rates, MtrC and OmcA can use the flavins secreted by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells as diffusible co-factors for reduction of Fe(III) oxides. Because of their extracellular location and broad redox potentials, MtrC and OmcA can

  3. Sediment and epilithon metabolism and hydrolytic activity in streams affected by mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley filling (MTR/VF) is a method of coal mining used in the Central Appalachians. Despite regulations requiring that potential mpacts to stream function be considered in determining compensatory mitigation associated with permitted fill activities, asse...

  4. Grey and White Matter Magnetisation Transfer Ratio Measurements in the Lumbosacral Enlargement: A Pilot In Vivo Study at 3T

    PubMed Central

    Ugorji, Chinyere O.; Samson, Rebecca S.; Liechti, Martina D.; Panicker, Jalesh N.; Miller, David H.; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A. M.; Yiannakas, Marios C.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetisation transfer (MT) imaging of the central nervous system has provided further insight into the pathophysiology of neurological disease. However, the use of this method to study the lower spinal cord has been technically challenging, despite the important role of this region, not only for motor control of the lower limbs, but also for the neural control of lower urinary tract, sexual and bowel functions. In this study, the feasibility of obtaining reliable grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) measurements within the lumbosacral enlargement (LSE) was investigated in ten healthy volunteers using a clinical 3T MRI system. The mean cross-sectional area of the LSE (LSE-CSA) and the mean GM area (LSE-GM-CSA) were first obtained by means of image segmentation and tissue-specific (i.e. WM and GM) MTR measurements within the LSE were subsequently obtained. The reproducibility of the segmentation method and MTR measurements was assessed from repeated measurements and their % coefficient of variation (%COV). Mean (± SD) LSE-CSA across 10 healthy subjects was 59.3 (± 8.4) mm2 and LSE-GM-CSA was 17.0 (± 3.1) mm2. The mean intra- and inter-rater % COV for measuring the LSE-CSA were 0.8% and 2.3%, respectively and for the LSE-GM-CSA were 3.8% and 5.4%, respectively. Mean (± SD) WM-MTR was 43.2 (± 4.4) and GM-MTR was 40.9 (± 4.3). The mean scan-rescan % COV for measuring WM-MTR was 4.6% and for GM-MTR was 3.8%. Using a paired t-test, a statistically significant difference was identified between WM-MTR and GM-MTR in the LSE (p<0.0001). This pilot study has shown that it is possible to obtain reliable tissue-specific MTR measurements within the LSE using a clinical MR system at 3T. The MTR acquisition and analysis protocol presented in this study can be used in future investigations of intrinsic spinal cord diseases that affect the LSE. PMID:26230729

  5. Structures of 5-Methylthioribose Kinase Reveal Substrate Specificity and Unusual Mode of Nucleotide Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Ku,S.; Yip, P.; Cornell, K.; Riscoe, M.; Behr, J.; Guillerm, G.; Howell, P.

    2007-01-01

    The methionine salvage pathway is ubiquitous in all organisms, but metabolic variations exist between bacteria and mammals. 5-Methylthioribose (MTR) kinase is a key enzyme in methionine salvage in bacteria and the absence of a mammalian homolog suggests that it is a good target for the design of novel antibiotics. The structures of the apo-form of Bacillus subtilis MTR kinase, as well as its ADP, ADP-PO4, AMPPCP, and AMPPCP-MTR complexes have been determined. MTR kinase has a bilobal eukaryotic protein kinase fold but exhibits a number of unique features. The protein lacks the DFG motif typically found at the beginning of the activation loop and instead coordinates magnesium via a DXE motif (Asp{sup 250}-Glu{sup 252}). In addition, the glycine-rich loop of the protein, analogous to the 'Gly triad' in protein kinases, does not interact extensively with the nucleotide. The MTR substrate-binding site consists of Asp{sup 233} of the catalytic HGD motif, a novel twin arginine motif (Arg{sup 340}/Arg{sup 341}), and a semi-conserved W-loop, which appears to regulate MTR binding specificity. No lobe closure is observed for MTR kinase upon substrate binding. This is probably because the enzyme lacks the lobe closure/inducing interactions between the C-lobe of the protein and the ribosyl moiety of the nucleotide that are typically responsible for lobe closure in protein kinases. The current structures suggest that MTR kinase has a dissociative mechanism.

  6. REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA635, INTERIOR. CAMERA FACES NORTHWEST TOWARDS INTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635, INTERIOR. CAMERA FACES NORTHWEST TOWARDS INTERIOR WALL ENCLOSING STORAGE AND OFFICE SPACE ALONG THE WEST SIDE. AT RIGHT EDGE IS DOOR TO MTR BUILDING. FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, SPACE WAS PLANNED FOR A LOCKER ROOM, MTR ISSUE ROOM, AND STORAGE AREAS AND RELATED OFFICES. NOTE SECOND "MEZZANINE" FLOOR ABOVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 10227. Unknown Photographer, 3/23/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA665. CAMERA FACING NORTH. NOTE BRICKEDIN WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA-665. CAMERA FACING NORTH. NOTE BRICKED-IN WINDOW ON RIGHT SIDE (BELOW PAINTED NUMERALS "665"). SLIDING METAL DOOR ON COVERED RAIL AT UPPER LEVEL. SHELTERED ENTRANCE TO STEEL SHIELDING DOOR. DOOR INTO MTR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635, STANDS OPEN. MTR BEHIND CHOPPER BUILDING. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. FROM BOTTOM OF VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. FROM BOTTOM OF VIEW TO TOP: MTR, MTR SERVICE BUILDING, ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, ETR CONTROL BUILDING (ATTACHED TO ETR), ETR BUILDING (HIGH-BAY), COMPRESSOR BUILDING (ATTACHED AT LEFT OF ETR), HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING (JUST BEYOND COMPRESSOR BUILDING), COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, COOLING TOWER. OTHER BUILDINGS ARE CONTRACTORS' CONSTRUCTION BUILDINGS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4105. Unknown Photographer, ca. 1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Moderate treadmill running exercise prior to tendon injury enhances wound healing in aging rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianying; Yuan, Ting; Wang, James H-C.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of exercise on wound healing in aging tendon was tested using a rat moderate treadmill running (MTR) model. The rats were divided into an MTR group that ran on a treadmill for 4 weeks and a control group that remained in cages. After MTR, a window defect was created in the patellar tendons of all rats and wound healing was analyzed. We found that MTR accelerated wound healing by promoting quicker closure of wounds, improving the organization of collagen fibers, and decreasing senescent cells in the wounded tendons when compared to the cage control. MTR also lowered vascularization, increased the numbers of tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs) and TSC proliferation than the control. Besides, MTR significantly increased the expression of stem cell markers, OCT-4 and Nanog, and tenocyte genes, Collagen I, Collagen III and tenomodulin, and down-regulated PPAR-γ, Collagen II and Runx-2 (non-tenocyte genes). These findings indicated that moderate exercise enhances healing of injuries in aging tendons through TSC based mechanisms, through which exercise regulates beneficial effects in tendons. This study reveals that appropriate exercise may be used in clinics to enhance tendon healing in aging patients. PMID:26885754

  10. Rapid electron exchange between surface-exposed bacterial cytochromes and Fe(III) minerals

    SciTech Connect

    White, Gaye F.; Shi, Zhi; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Dohnalkova, Alice; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2013-04-16

    The mineral respiring bacterium Shewanella oneidensis uses a protein complex, MtrCAB, composed of two decaheme cytochromes brought together inside a transmembrane porin to transport electrons across the outer membrane to a variety of mineral-based electron acceptors. A proteoliposome system that contains methyl viologen as an internalised electron carrier has been used to investigate how the topology of the MtrCAB complex relates to its ability to transport electrons across a lipid bilayer to externally-located Fe(III) oxides. With MtrA facing the interior and MtrC exposed on the outer surface of the phospholipid bilayer, direct electron transfer from the interior through MtrCAB to solid-phase Fe(III) oxides was demonstrated. The observed rates of conduction through the protein complex were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that observed in whole cells, demonstrating that direct electron exchange between MtrCAB and Fe(III) oxides is efficient enough to support in-vivo, anaerobic, solid phase iron respiration.

  11. A Cajal body-independent pathway for telomerase trafficking in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, Rebecca L.; Li, Jian; Culp, Bradley R.; Terns, Rebecca M. Terns, Michael P.

    2010-10-15

    The intranuclear trafficking of human telomerase involves a dynamic interplay between multiple nuclear sites, most notably Cajal bodies and telomeres. Cajal bodies are proposed to serve as sites of telomerase maturation, storage, and assembly, as well as to function in the cell cycle-regulated delivery of telomerase to telomeres in human cells. Here, we find that telomerase RNA does not localize to Cajal bodies in mouse cells, and instead resides in separate nuclear foci throughout much of the cell cycle. However, as in humans, mouse telomerase RNA (mTR) localizes to subsets of telomeres specifically during S phase. The localization of mTR to telomeres in mouse cells does not require coilin-containing Cajal bodies, as mTR is found at telomeres at similar frequencies in cells from wild-type and coilin knockout mice. At the same time, we find that human TR localizes to Cajal bodies (as well as telomeres) in mouse cells, indicating that the distinct trafficking of mTR is attributable to an intrinsic property of the RNA (rather than a difference in the mouse cell environment such as the properties of mouse Cajal bodies). We also find that during S phase, mTR foci coalesce into short chains, with at least one of the conjoined mTR foci co-localizing with a telomere. These findings point to a novel, Cajal body-independent pathway for telomerase biogenesis and trafficking in mice.

  12. Probable Mechanisms of Needling Therapies for Myofascial Pain Control

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Li-Wei; Kao, Mu-Jung; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) has been defined as a regional pain syndrome characterized by muscle pain caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) clinically. MTrP is defined as the hyperirritable spot in a palpable taut band of skeletal muscle fibers. Appropriate treatment to MTrPs can effectively relieve the clinical pain of MPS. Needling therapies, such as MTrP injection, dry needling, or acupuncture (AcP) can effectively eliminate pain immediately. AcP is probably the first reported technique in treating MPS patients with dry needling based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory. The possible mechanism of AcP analgesia were studied and published in recent decades. The analgesic effect of AcP is hypothesized to be related to immune, hormonal, and nervous systems. Compared to slow-acting hormonal system, nervous system acts in a faster manner. Given these complexities, AcP analgesia cannot be explained by any single mechanism. There are several principles for selection of acupoints based on the TCM principles: “Ah-Shi” point, proximal or remote acupoints on the meridian, and extra-meridian acupoints. Correlations between acupoints and MTrPs are discussed. Some clinical and animal studies of remote AcP for MTrPs and the possible mechanisms of remote effectiveness are reviewed and discussed. PMID:23346211

  13. A chimeric light-regulated amino acid transport system allows the isolation of blue light regulator (blr) mutants of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Carattoli, A; Kato, E; Rodriguez-Franco, M; Stuart, W D; Macino, G

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a system for the isolation of Neurospora crassa mutants that shows altered responses to blue light. To this end we have used the light-regulated promoter of the albino-3 gene fused to the neutral amino acid permease gene mtr. The product of the mtr gene is required for the uptake of neutral aliphatic and aromatic amino acids, as well as toxic analogs such as p-flurophenylalanine or 4-methyltryptophan. mtr trp-2-carrying cells were transformed with the al-3 promoter-mtr wild-type gene (al-3p-mtr+) to obtain a strain with a light-regulated tryptophan uptake. This strain is sensitive to p-fluorophenylalanine when grown under illumination and resistant when grown in the dark. UV mutagenesis of the al-3p-mtr(+)-carrying strain allowed us to isolate two mutant strains, BLR-1 and BLR-2 (blue light regulator), that are light-resistant to p-fluorophenylalanine and have lost the ability to grow on tryptophan. These two strains have a pale-orange phenotype and show down-regulation of all the photoregulated genes tested (al-3, al-1, con-8, and con-10). Mutations in the BLR strains are not allelic with white collar 1 or white collar 2, regulatory genes that are also involved in the response to blue light. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7604041

  14. The Effect of Monochromatic Infrared Photo Energy on the Irritability of Myofascial Trigger Spot of Rabbit Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Ta-Shen; Lin, Yu-Ching; Lien, Wei-Chih; Hsieh, Pei-Chun; Chung, Yu-Ting; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Chou, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether the vasodilatation effect of monochromatic infrared photo energy (MIRE) had the potential for the treatment of myofascial trigger spot (MTrS) in rabbits. Design. A randomized-controlled animal study. Subjects. Twelve adult New Zealand rabbits. Methods. For each rabbit, a MTrS (equivalent to a myofascial trigger point in humans) in one side of the biceps femoris muscle was randomly selected for MIRE treatment (experimental side), while another MTrS in the other side (control side) received a sham treatment. The intervention consisted of a daily 40 minutes treatment, three times per week for 2 weeks. The prevalence of endplate noise (EPN) loci in the MTrS was assessed before, immediately after, and one week after the completion of the 2-week treatment. Results. MIRE could suppress the prevalence of EPN in the MTrS. The degree of reduction in EPN prevalence in the MTrS between the experimental side and the control side was significantly different immediately after MIRE treatment, but not significantly different one week after MIRE treatment. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MIRE may be a useful therapeutic option for the management of the myofascial trigger point in humans. PMID:26442122

  15. Remote Subcutaneous Needling to Suppress the Irritability of Myofascial Trigger Spots: An Experimental Study in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhonghua; Hsieh, Yueh-Ling; Hong, Chang-Zern; Kao, Mu-Jung; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chou, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To obtain electrophysiological effects of Fu's subcutaneous needling (FSN) on needling distance by assessment of endplate noise (EPN) recorded from the myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs) in rabbit skeletal muscle. Method. Eighteen New Zealand rabbits weighing 2.5–3.0 kg were randomly divided into two groups as follows: proximal needling (PN) group and distal needling (DN) group. The needling procedure followed the instructions described by the inventor of FSN, including needling insertion and swaying movement. The amplitudes of EPN on the MTrS region of BF muscle were recorded as an index of MTrS irritability. Random sampling of EPN tracings were taken for further analyses before, during, and after FSN treatment. Results. In PN and DN groups, the trends of EPN amplitude alterations were similar at conditions before, during, and after FSN treatment. The degree of reduction in the EPN amplitude in PN group was significantly higher than that in DN group. There were no significant changes in EPN amplitudes in the MTrS of contralateral BF without FSN intervention either in DN or PN group. Conclusion. The irritability of proximal MTrSs could be modulated after ipsilateral FSNs. The placement of FSN may affect the effectiveness of suppression of irritability of MTrSs. PMID:23346200

  16. Measurement of photon flux with a miniature gas ionization chamber in a Material Testing Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourmentel, D.; Filliatre, P.; Villard, J. F.; Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Carcreff, H.

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTR) are crucial for the design of the experimental devices and the prediction of the temperature of the hosted samples. Nuclear heating in MTR materials (except fuel) is mainly due to the energy deposition by the photon flux. Therefore, the photon flux is a key input parameter for the computer codes which simulate nuclear heating and temperature reached by samples/devices under irradiation. In the Jules Horowitz MTR under construction at the CEA Cadarache, the maximal expected nuclear heating levels will be about 15 to 18 W g-1 and it will be necessary to assess this parameter with the best accuracy. An experiment was performed at the OSIRIS reactor to combine neutron flux, photon flux and nuclear heating measurements to improve the knowledge of the nuclear heating in MTR. There are few appropriate sensors for selective measurement of the photon flux in MTR even if studies and developments are ongoing. An experiment, called CARMEN-1, was conducted at the OSIRIS MTR and we used in particular a gas ionization chamber based on miniature fission chamber design to measure the photon flux. In this paper, we detail Monte-Carlo simulations to analyze the photon fluxes with ionization chamber measurements and we compare the photon flux calculations to the nuclear heating measurements. These results show a good accordance between photon flux measurements and nuclear heating measurement and allow improving the knowledge of these parameters.

  17. Modified pectic polysaccharide from turmeric (Curcuma longa): A potent dietary component against gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Harsha, Mysore R; Chandra Prakash, Serkad V; Dharmesh, Shylaja M

    2016-03-15

    Native, intact (TrPP) and modified, low-molecular-weight (MTrPP) forms of pectic polysaccharides isolated from turmeric were evaluated for ulcer-preventive potentials in in vitro and in vivo models. Data indicated that MTrPP possessed significantly better ulcer-preventive property than TrPP; inhibiting ulcer scores up to 85%. Results were substantiated by effective muco-protection, H(+),K(+)-ATPase down-regulation, inhibition of H. pylori growth/adherence, higher antioxidant/cytoprotective mechanisms. Structural data indicated TrPP and MTrPP differ in their molecular weights and structural characteristics with different sugar compositions and side chain ratios. MTrPP was rich in galacturonic acid (687mg/g; TrPP-544mg/g) and galactose (52.9%; TrPP-21.7%). Results were substantiated by NMR/FTIR data indicating the presence of homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonam-I containing galactans. By virtue of binding to inflammatory marker (galectin-3), galactans may reduce inflammation induced ulcerations. The low molecular weight of MTrPP (155kDa; TrPP-13kDa) may increase its bioavailability than TrPP, thus MTrPP may possess higher antiulcer potential. PMID:26794747

  18. Diversity and origins of Indian multi-triazole resistant strains of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Howard; Ashu, Eta; Sharma, Cheshta; Kathuria, Shallu; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Xu, Jianping

    2016-07-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a widespread opportunistic fungal pathogen causing an alarmingly high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. Nosocomial infections by drug-resistant A. fumigatus strains are of particular concern, and there is a pressing need to understand the origin, dispersal and long-term evolution of drug resistance in this organism. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity and putative origins of triazole resistance of A. fumigatus from India. Eighty-nine isolates, including 51 multiple triazole resistant (MTR) isolates and 38 azole-susceptible isolates, were genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), mating typing and PCR fingerprinting. MLST resolved the 51 MTR isolates into three genotypes, two of which have susceptible counterparts, suggesting that MTR isolates originated multiple times in India. The multiple-origin hypothesis was further supported by the diversity of sequences at the triazole target gene CYP51A among the MTR isolates, and by PCR fingerprints. Interestingly, there is abundant evidence for mating and recombination in natural population of A. fumigatus in India, suggesting that sexual spread of TR34 /L98H, the dominant MTR allele, is possible. Our results call for greater attention to MTR in A. fumigatus and for better management of antifungal drug use. PMID:26931802

  19. Development and aging of superficial white matter myelin from young adulthood to old age: Mapping by vertex-based surface statistics (VBSS).

    PubMed

    Wu, Minjie; Kumar, Anand; Yang, Shaolin

    2016-05-01

    Superficial white matter (SWM) lies immediately beneath cortical gray matter and consists primarily of short association fibers. The characteristics of SWM and its development and aging were seldom examined in the literature and warrant further investigation. Magnetization transfer imaging is sensitive to myelin changes in the white matter. Using an innovative multimodal imaging analysis approach, vertex-based surface statistics (VBSS), the current study vertexwise mapped age-related changes of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in SWM from young adulthood to old age (30-85 years, N = 66). Results demonstrated regionally selective and temporally heterochronologic changes of SWM MTR with age, including (1) inverted U-shaped trajectories of SWM MTR in the rostral middle frontal, medial temporal, and temporoparietal regions, suggesting continuing myelination and protracted maturation till age 40-50 years and accelerating demyelination at age 60 and beyond, (2) linear decline of SWM MTR in the middle and superior temporal, and pericalcarine areas, indicating early maturation and less acceleration in age-related degeneration, and (3) no significant changes of SWM MTR in the primary motor, somatosensory and auditory regions, suggesting resistance to age-related deterioration. We did not observe similar patterns of changes in cortical thickness in our sample, suggesting the observed SWM MTR changes are not due to cortical atrophy. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1759-1769, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26955787

  20. Voxel-based analysis of grey matter magnetization transfer ratio maps in early relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Audoin, B; Davies, G; Rashid, W; Fisniku, L; Thompson, A J; Miller, D H

    2007-05-01

    Previous studies using magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) histogram analysis have demonstrated the existence of global grey matter (GM) abnormalities in patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). However, MTR histogram analysis does not provide any information on the localization of the morphological changes within the GM. The aim of this study was to investigate the localization of GM injury in early RRMS, performing voxel-based analysis of GM MTR maps. Statistical mapping analysis of GM MTR maps was performed in a group of 38 patients with early RRMS and 45 healthy controls. Between-group comparisons (P<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons) demonstrated significant GM MTR decrease in patients located in the bilateral lenticular nuclei, the bilateral insula, the left posterior cingulate cortex, and the right orbitofrontal cortex. To limit the potential confounding effect of regional GM atrophy, the percentages of GM were assessed in the regions showing significant MTR decrease, and no GM atrophy was evidenced in these regions. This study demonstrates that several GM regions are commonly affected in patients with early RRMS. Predominant involvement of these structures may be partly related to their vulnerability to anterograde or retrograde degeneration from transected axons in the white matter and/or to the predominant localization of GM demyelinating lesions in such regions. PMID:17463071

  1. Anticancer drug mithramycin interacts with core histones: An additional mode of action of the DNA groove binder

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Amrita; Sanyal, Sulagna; Kulkarni, Kirti K.; Jana, Kuladip; Roy, Siddhartha; Das, Chandrima; Dasgupta, Dipak

    2014-01-01

    Mithramycin (MTR) is a clinically approved DNA-binding antitumor antibiotic currently in Phase 2 clinical trials at National Institutes of Health for treatment of osteosarcoma. In view of the resurgence in the studies of this generic antibiotic as a human medicine, we have examined the binding properties of MTR with the integral component of chromatin – histone proteins – as a part of our broad objective to classify DNA-binding molecules in terms of their ability to bind chromosomal DNA alone (single binding mode) or both histones and chromosomal DNA (dual binding mode). The present report shows that besides DNA, MTR also binds to core histones present in chromatin and thus possesses the property of dual binding in the chromatin context. In contrast to the MTR–DNA interaction, association of MTR with histones does not require obligatory presence of bivalent metal ion like Mg2+. As a consequence of its ability to interact with core histones, MTR inhibits histone H3 acetylation at lysine 18, an important signature of active chromatin, in vitro and ex vivo. Reanalysis of microarray data of Ewing sarcoma cell lines shows that upon MTR treatment there is a significant down regulation of genes, possibly implicating a repression of H3K18Ac-enriched genes apart from DNA-binding transcription factors. Association of MTR with core histones and its ability to alter post-translational modification of histone H3 clearly indicates an additional mode of action of this anticancer drug that could be implicated in novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25473595

  2. Myofascial Trigger Points Then and Now: A Historical and Scientific Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jay P.; Thaker, Nikki; Heimur, Juliana; Aredo, Jacqueline V.; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Gerber, Lynn H.

    2015-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to discuss the evolving role of the myofascial trigger point (MTrP) in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) from both a historical and scientific perspective. MTrPs are hard, discrete, palpable nodules in a taut band of skeletal muscle that may be spontaneously painful (i.e. active), or painful only on compression (i.e. latent). MPS is a term used to describe a pain condition which can be acute or, more commonly, chronic and involves the muscle and its surrounding connective tissue (e.g. fascia). According to Travell and Simons, MTrPs are central to the syndrome—but are they necessary? Although the clinical study of muscle pain and MTrPs has proliferated over the past two centuries, the scientific literature often seems disjointed and confusing. Unfortunately, much of the terminology, theories, concepts, and diagnostic criteria are inconsistent, incomplete, or controversial. In order to address these deficiencies, investigators have recently applied clinical, imaging (of skeletal muscle and brain), and biochemical analyses to systematically and objectively study the MTrP and its role in MPS. Data suggest that the soft tissue milieu around the MTrP, neurogenic inflammation, sensitization, and limbic system dysfunction may all play a role in the initiation, amplification, and perpetuation of MPS. The authors will chronicle the advances that have led to the current understanding of MTrP pathophysiology and its relationship to MPS, and review the contributions of clinicians and researchers who have influenced and expanded our contemporary level of clinical knowledge and practice. PMID:25724849

  3. Dry Needling Alters Trigger Points in the Upper Trapezius Muscle and Reduces Pain in Subjects with Chronic Myofascial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Lynn H.; Shah, Jay; Rosenberger, William; Armstrong, Kathryn; Turo, Diego; Otto, Paul; Heimur, Juliana; Thaker, Nikki; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether dry needling of an active myofascial trigger point (MTrP) reduces pain and alters the status of the trigger point to either a non-spontaneously tender nodule or its resolution. Design A prospective, non-randomized, controlled interventional clinical study Setting University campus Participants Fifty-six subjects with neck or shoulder girdle pain > 3 months duration and active MTrPs were recruited from a campus-wide, volunteer sample. Fifty-two completed the study (23 male/33 female) with mean age of 35.8 years. Interventions Three weekly dry needling treatments of a single active MTrP Main Outcome Measures Primary Outcomes: Baseline and post treatment evaluations of pain using the verbal analogue scale, the Brief Pain Inventory and the status of the MTrP as determined by digital palpation. Trigger points were rated: active (spontaneously painful), latent (requiring palpation to reproduce the characteristic pain) and resolved (no palpable nodule). Secondary Outcomes: Profile of Mood States, Oswestry Disability Index, Short Form 36, Cervical Range of Motion. Results Primary outcomes: 41 subjects had a change in trigger point status from active to latent or resolved; and 11 had no change (p < .001). Reduction in all pain scores was significant (p<.001). Secondary outcomes: significant improvement in post-treatment cervical rotational asymmetry in subjects with unilateral/bilateral MTrPs (p=.001, p=21, respectively); in pain pressure threshold in subjects with unilateral/bilateral MTrPs, (p=.006, p=.012), respectively; improvement in the SF-36 mental health and physical functioning subscales (p=.019, p=.03) respectively; decrease in the Oswestry disability scale (p=.003). Conclusions Dry needling reduces pain and changes MTrP status. Change in trigger point status is associated with a statistically and clinically significant reduction in pain. Reduction in pain is associated with improved mood, function and level of disability. PMID

  4. A Longitudinal Magnetization Transfer Imaging Evaluation of Brain Injury in a Macaque Model of NeuroAIDS

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Xia; Herndon, James G.; Novembre, Francis J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Magnetization transfer (MT) imaging has been explored in prior studies of HIV patients and showed the potential capacity to assess brain injury after HIV infection. In the present study, adult pig-tailed macaques were infected with a highly neuropathogenic virus SIVsmmFGb. MT imaging was exploited to examine the monkey brains before simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) inoculation and 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks post-SIV inoculation. Blood samples were collected from each animal for monitoring CD4+ and CD8+ T cells before each MRI scan. The MT ratios (MTR) in several brain regions of interest were evaluated longitudinally. Significant reductions of MTR were observed in whole brain and selected regions of interest (genu, splenium, thalamus, caudate, centrum semiovale, frontal white matter, frontal gray matter, and putamen) in the SIV-infected monkeys, consistent with those reported previously in HIV patients. In particular, the longitudinal results indicate that abnormal MTR reduction can be detected as early as in 2 weeks and MTR may be more sensitive to the brain injury in cortical regions than in subcortical regions during acute SIV infection. In addition, MTR reduction in genu, centrum semiovale, and thalamus significantly correlated with the CD4+ T cell percentage decrease. Also, the MTR reduction in thalamus correlated with the CD8+ T cell percentage elevation. Taken together, this study reported the longitudinal evolution of MTR in different brain regions during SIV infection and further validates previous findings in HIV patients. The preliminary results suggest that MT imaging could be a robust and sensitive approach to characterize the neurodegeneration after SIV or HIV infection. PMID:25376011

  5. Intra-rater reliability of an experienced physiotherapist in locating myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius muscle

    PubMed Central

    Barbero, Marco; Bertoli, Paolo; Cescon, Corrado; Macmillan, Fiona; Coutts, Fiona; Gatti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are considered the principal clinical feature of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). An MTrP consists of spot tenderness within a taut band of muscle fibers and its stimulation can produce both local and referred pain. The clinical diagnosis of MPS depends on correct history taking and a physical examination aimed at identifying the presence of MTrP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra-rater reliability of a palpation protocol used for locating an MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle. Methods: Twenty-four subjects with MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle were examined by an experienced physiotherapist. During each of eight experimental sessions, subjects were examined twice in randomized order using a palpation protocol. An anatomical landmark system was defined and the MTrP location established using X and Y values. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient ICC(1,1) values were 0.62 (95% CI: 0.30–0.81) for X and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.61–0.91) for Y. The Bland–Altman plots for X and Y showed a mean of difference of 0.04 and −0.2 mm, respectively. Limits of agreement for X ranged from −26.3 to 26.2 mm and for Y from −27 to 26.4 mm. Discussion: The ICC(1,1) for the observed values revealed a moderate to high correlation and the Bland–Altman analysis showed means of difference very close to zero with narrow limits of agreement. An experienced physiotherapist can reliably identify MTrP locations in upper trapezius muscle using a palpation protocol. PMID:24179324

  6. Effect of Treatment with Interferon Beta-1a on Changes in Voxel-Wise Magnetization Transfer Ratio in Normal Appearing Brain Tissue and Lesions of Patients with Relapsing–Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A 24-Week, Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Zivadinov, Robert; Dwyer, Michael G.; Markovic-Plese, Silva; Kennedy, Cheryl; Bergsland, Niels; Ramasamy, Deepa P.; Durfee, Jacqueline; Hojnacki, David; Hayward, Brooke; Dangond, Fernando; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    Background This pilot study investigated changes in remyelinating and demyelinating activity in normal appearing brain tissue (NABT) and lesions, by using voxel-wise magnetization transfer ratio (VW-MTR), in patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) receiving interferon beta-1a 44 mcg subcutaneously (IFN β-1a SC) three times weekly versus healthy controls (HCs) (NCT01085318). Methods Increasing (suggestive of remyelination) and decreasing (suggestive of demyelination) VW-MTR changes in NABT and in T2, T1 and gadolinium (Gd)-enhancing lesion volume were measured over 24 weeks in 23 patients treated with IFN β-1a SC and in 15 HCs (where applicable). VW-MTR changes were tested using the Wilcoxon signed–rank or Wilcoxon rank–sum test. Results A trend for greater volume of NABT with increasing VW-MTR at 24 weeks was observed for patients versus HCs (median [range] 1206 [0–15278]; 342 [0–951] mm3; p = 0.061). NABT volume with increasing VW-MTR at 12 weeks was significantly greater in patients than in HCs (852 [6–11577]; 360 [0–1755] mm3; p = 0.028). Similar findings were detected for lesion volumes. Two patients with notably high numbers of Gd-enhancing lesions at baseline had a markedly greater volume of tissue with increasing VW-MTR compared with other patients. Volume of NABT tissue with decreasing VW-MTR was significantly greater in patients versus HCs at 24 weeks (942 [0–6141]; 297 [0–852] mm3; p<0.001). Conclusions The significant change in NABT volume with increasing VW-MTR at 12 weeks suggests that active remyelination in patients with RRMS may occur during treatment with IFN β-1a SC. Findings from two patients with the highest number of Gd-enhancing lesions at baseline suggest that extensive remyelination in NABT may occur in patients with high disease activity. Tissue volume with decreasing VW-MTR was greater in patients than in HCs, despite treatment, validating the sensitivity of this technique for detecting MS

  7. Meta-Analysis of Studies Comparing Single and Multi-Tablet Fixed Dose Combination HIV Treatment Regimens.

    PubMed

    Clay, P G; Nag, S; Graham, C M; Narayanan, S

    2015-10-01

    Availability of a single source review of once-daily fixed-dose single tablet regimen (STR) and multiple tablet fixed-dose regimen (MTR) would optimally inform healthcare providers and policy makers involved in the management of population with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).We conducted a meta-analysis of published literature to compare patient adherence, clinical, and cost outcomes of STR to MTR.Published literature in English between 2005 and 2014 was searched using Embase, PubMed (Medline in-process), and ClinicalTrials.Gov databases. Two-level screening was undertaken by 2 independent researchers to finalize articles for evidence synthesis. Adherence, efficacy, safety, tolerability, healthcare resource use (HRU), and costs were assessed comparing STR to MTR. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed and heterogeneity examined using meta-regression.Thirty-five articles were identified for qualitative evidence synthesis, of which 9 had quantifiable data for meta-analysis (4 randomized controlled trials and 5 observational studies). Patients on STR were significantly more adherent when compared to patients on MTR of any frequency (odds ratio [OR]: 2.37 [95% CI: 1.68, 3.35], P < 0.001; 4 studies), twice-daily MTR (OR: 2.53 [95% CI: 1.13, 5.66], P = 0.02; 2 studies), and once-daily MTR (OR: 1.81 [95% CI: 1.15, 2.84], P = 0.01; 2 studies). The relative risk (RR) for viral load suppression at 48 weeks was higher (RR: 1.09 [95% CI: 1.04, 1.15], P = .0003; 3 studies) while RR of grade 3 to 4 laboratory abnormalities was lower among patients on STR (RR: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.49, 0.94], P = 0.02; 2 studies). Changes in CD4 count at 48 weeks, any severe adverse events (SAEs), grade 3 to 4 AEs, mortality, and tolerability were found comparable between STR and MTR. Several studies reported significant reduction in HRU and costs among STR group versus MTR.Study depicted comparable tolerability, safety (All-SAE and Grade 3-4 AE), and mortality and fewer Grade 3 to 4 lab

  8. Meta-Analysis of Studies Comparing Single and Multi-Tablet Fixed Dose Combination HIV Treatment Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Clay, P.G.; Nag, S.; Graham, C.M.; Narayanan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Availability of a single source review of once-daily fixed-dose single tablet regimen (STR) and multiple tablet fixed-dose regimen (MTR) would optimally inform healthcare providers and policy makers involved in the management of population with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We conducted a meta-analysis of published literature to compare patient adherence, clinical, and cost outcomes of STR to MTR. Published literature in English between 2005 and 2014 was searched using Embase, PubMed (Medline in-process), and ClinicalTrials.Gov databases. Two-level screening was undertaken by 2 independent researchers to finalize articles for evidence synthesis. Adherence, efficacy, safety, tolerability, healthcare resource use (HRU), and costs were assessed comparing STR to MTR. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed and heterogeneity examined using meta-regression. Thirty-five articles were identified for qualitative evidence synthesis, of which 9 had quantifiable data for meta-analysis (4 randomized controlled trials and 5 observational studies). Patients on STR were significantly more adherent when compared to patients on MTR of any frequency (odds ratio [OR]: 2.37 [95% CI: 1.68, 3.35], P < 0.001; 4 studies), twice-daily MTR (OR: 2.53 [95% CI: 1.13, 5.66], P = 0.02; 2 studies), and once-daily MTR (OR: 1.81 [95% CI: 1.15, 2.84], P = 0.01; 2 studies). The relative risk (RR) for viral load suppression at 48 weeks was higher (RR: 1.09 [95% CI: 1.04, 1.15], P = .0003; 3 studies) while RR of grade 3 to 4 laboratory abnormalities was lower among patients on STR (RR: 0.68 [95% CI: 0.49, 0.94], P = 0.02; 2 studies). Changes in CD4 count at 48 weeks, any severe adverse events (SAEs), grade 3 to 4 AEs, mortality, and tolerability were found comparable between STR and MTR. Several studies reported significant reduction in HRU and costs among STR group versus MTR. Study depicted comparable tolerability, safety (All-SAE and Grade 3–4 AE), and

  9. Electron tunneling properties of outer-membrane decaheme cytochromes from Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Wigginton, Nicholas S; Rosso, Kevin M; Lower, Brian H; Shi, Liang; Hochella, Michael F

    2007-02-01

    In this report, we describe the characterization of two outer-membrane decaheme cytochromes OmcA and MtrC purified from the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and tunneling spectroscopy (TS). OmcA and MtrC were solubilized with a common detergent and irreversibly bound to Au (111) substrates as self-assembled cytochrome films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified that OmcA and MtrC were covalently bound to the Au surface via thiol bonds to cysteine residues. Initial STM images show that a layer of detergent covers and protects the cytochrome films. Temporary application of high bias voltage causes the detergent film to reorganize around the tip, opening a window for direct STM imaging of the cytochrome layer underneath. The STM apparent sizes of both OmcA and MtrC are 58 nanometers in diameter consistent with expectations from their molecular masses. Current-voltage TS over individual cytochromes showed that OmcA and MtrC have different abilities to mediate the tunneling current, reflecting differences in their electronic structures. The data suggest that the two cytochromes could have different roles in the electron transport chain during metal reduction.

  10. Characterization of microcrystalline cellulose and silicified microcrystalline cellulose wet masses using a powder rheometer.

    PubMed

    Luukkonen, P; Schaefer, T; Podczeck, F; Newton, M; Hellén, L; Yliruusi, J

    2001-05-01

    A powder rheometer has been used to study the properties of wet powder masses and the results have been compared to the mixer torque rheometer (MTR). Two different microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) grades (Avicel and Emcocel) and silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC, Prosolv) were used as model powders. The wet massing behaviour of one material (Prosolv) was studied by the powder rheometer using liquid addition experiments, while the rheological properties of wet granules were studied using both the powder rheometer and the MTR. In water addition measurements the torque behaved in a similar way to MTR measurements and the maximum value of ZTL (zero torque limit) was achieved at the capillary state of wet mass. The wet granules exhibited different behaviour in the powder rheometer and the MTR experiments, which indicates that these rheometers involve different shear forces or they measure different properties of the wet granules. Emcocel wet masses achieved the capillary state at lower liquid amount than Avicel and Prosolv masses, which indicates that Emcocel is not able to hold as much water in the internal structure as Avicel and Prosolv. The powder rheometer proved to be a sensitive piece of equipment, which can be used to study both dry and wet powder masses. It was able to distinguish wet granules from wet powder masses after liquid addition, whereas the MTR could not. However, before the powder rheometer can be properly utilised in wet powder mass studies, the problem of torque overload requires resolution. PMID:11297898

  11. 2′-O-ribose methylation of cap2 in human: function and evolution in a horizontally mobile family

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Maria; Purta, Elżbieta; Kaminska, Katarzyna H.; Cymerman, Iwona A.; Campbell, David A.; Mittra, Bidyottam; Zamudio, Jesse R.; Sturm, Nancy R.; Jaworski, Jacek; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

    2011-01-01

    The 5′ cap of human messenger RNA consists of an inverted 7-methylguanosine linked to the first transcribed nucleotide by a unique 5′–5′ triphosphate bond followed by 2′-O-ribose methylation of the first and often the second transcribed nucleotides, likely serving to modify efficiency of transcript processing, translation and stability. We report the validation of a human enzyme that methylates the ribose of the second transcribed nucleotide encoded by FTSJD1, henceforth renamed HMTR2 to reflect function. Purified recombinant hMTr2 protein transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the 2′-O-ribose of the second nucleotide of messenger RNA and small nuclear RNA. Neither N7 methylation of the guanosine cap nor 2′-O-ribose methylation of the first transcribed nucleotide are required for hMTr2, but the presence of cap1 methylation increases hMTr2 activity. The hMTr2 protein is distributed throughout the nucleus and cytosol, in contrast to the nuclear hMTr1. The details of how and why specific transcripts undergo modification with these ribose methylations remains to be elucidated. The 2′-O-ribose RNA cap methyltransferases are present in varying combinations in most eukaryotic and many viral genomes. With the capping enzymes in hand their biological purpose can be ascertained. PMID:21310715

  12. Structure of MRDI Explains its Dual Function as a Metabolic Enzyme and a Mediator of Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Paul D.; Litman, Elizabeth S.; Metzner, Sandra I.; Ahn, Natalie G.; Sousa, Marcelo C.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is among the most intractable cancers to treat, where patients show resistance to therapy and limited survival time. A critical step in the development of metastatic melanoma is the acquisition of invasion and transition from thin to thick tumors on the skin, followed by invasion to lymph nodes. Prior studies have shown that metastatic melanoma is associated with dysregulation of RhoA and enhanced expression of a protein named “mediator of RhoA-dependent invasion (MRDI)”. Importantly, MRDI is a “moonlighting” enzyme, with two distinct functions in melanoma cells. First, MRDI acts as a methylthioribose-1-phosphate (MTR-1-P) isomerase, catalyzing a critical step in methionine salvage. Second, MRDI promotes and is necessary for melanoma cell invasion, independent of its catalytic activity. Here, we demonstrate that MtnA, a bacterial MTR-1-P isomerase, rescues the methionine salvage function of MRDI, but is unable to rescue its role in invasion. We then solve the crystal structure of MRDI to a resolution of 2.5 Å, in order to identify structural elements important for its invasion activity. We present this structure and its comparison with other MTR-1-P isomerases, and identify mutations within a region separate from the MTR-1-P binding site which interfere with invasion. Thus, structural elements in MRDI distal from the MTR-1-P catalytic site are responsible for the invasion phenotype. PMID:23859498

  13. Efficacy of Myofascial Trigger Point Dry Needling in the Prevention of Pain after Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mayoral, Orlando; Salvat, Isabel; Martín, María Teresa; Martín, Stella; Santiago, Jesús; Cotarelo, José; Rodríguez, Constantino

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the dry needling of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) is superior to placebo in the prevention of pain after total knee arthroplasty. Forty subjects were randomised to a true dry needling group (T) or to a sham group (S). All were examined for MTrPs by an experienced physical therapist 4–5 hours before surgery. Immediately following anesthesiology and before surgery started, subjects in the T group were dry needled in all previously diagnosed MTrPs, while the S group received no treatment in their MTrPs. Subjects were blinded to group allocation as well as the examiner in presurgical and follow-up examinations performed 1, 3, and 6 months after arthroplasty. Subjects in the T group had less pain after intervention, with statistically significant differences in the variation rate of the visual analogue scale (VAS) measurements 1 month after intervention and in the need for immediate postsurgery analgesics. Differences were not significant at 3- and 6-month follow-up examinations. In conclusion, a single dry needling treatment of MTrP under anaesthesia reduced pain in the first month after knee arthroplasty, when pain was the most severe. Results show a superiority of dry needling versus placebo. An interesting novel placebo methodology for dry needling, with a real blinding procedure, is presented. PMID:23606888

  14. [Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with chronic kidney disease. Grupo de Trabajo para el Documento de Consenso sobre el tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 2 en el paciente con enfermedad renal crónica].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Artola, Sara; Górriz, José Luis; Menéndez, Edelmiro

    2014-01-21

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are highly prevalent chronic diseases, which represent an important public health problem and require a multidisciplinary management. T2DM is the main cause of CKD and it also causes a significant comorbidity with regard to non-diabetic nephropathy. Patients with diabetes and kidney disease represent a special risk group as they have higher morbi-mortality as well as higher risk of hypoglycemia than diabetic individuals with a normal kidney function. Treatment of T2DM in patients with CKD is controversial because of the scarcity of available evidence. The current consensus report aims to ease the appropriate selection and dosage of antidiabetic treatments as well as the establishment of safety objectives of glycemic control in patients with CKD. PMID:24268912

  15. "Processing Instruction": un tipo di grammatica comunicativa per la classe di lingua straniera. Il caso del futuro italiano. (Processing Instruction: One Type of Communicative Grammar for the Foreign Language Classroom. The Case of the Italian Future Tense).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benati, Alessandro

    2000-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and practical rationale for processing instruction as a method of incorporating grammar instruction in a communicative foreign language approach. Presents results of a study on the role of processing instruction on the learning of the Italian future indicative tense by a group of English-speaking students. Results…

  16. The Impact of Different Types of Journaling Techniques on EFL Learners' Self-Efficacy (El impacto de diferentes tipos de diario en la autosuficiencia de estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Mortazavi, Mahboobeh

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of the impact of different methods of journaling on self-efficacy of learners of English as a foreign language. Sixty upper-intermediate Iranian English language learners were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions, namely no-feedback, teacher-feedback, and peer-feedback, and one control…

  17. The Preschool Classroom as a Context for Cognitive Development: Type of Teacher Feedback and Children's Metacognitive Control (El aula Preescolar como espacio de desarrollo cognitivo: tipo de feedback docente y control metacognitivo en los niños)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Liz; Cruz, Josefina Santa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this work was to determine whether the type of feedback given by the preschool teacher during class impacts the children's metacognitive control. For this purpose, the children's behavior was analyzed while teachers provided feedback during collaborative learning sessions. Method: A quasi-experimental, cross-sectional…

  18. Profiles of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone and melatonin during the sex change and maturation of cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Jae; Habibi, Hamid R; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-06-24

    The present study aimed to determine the relationship between melatonin and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) and their effect on reproduction in cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus. Accordingly, we investigated the expression pattern of GnIH, GnIH receptor (GnIH-R), and melatonin receptor (MT-R1) mRNA and protein, as well as the plasma levels of melatonin, during sex change in cinnamon clownfish. We found that GnIH and MT-R1 mRNA and melatonin activity were higher in fish with mature brain than in fish with developing gonads, and using double immunofluorescence staining, we found that both GnIH and MT-R1 proteins were co-expressed in the hypothalamus of cinnamon clownfish. These findings support the hypothesis that melatonin plays an important role in the negative regulation of maturation and GnIH regulation during reproduction. PMID:27208779

  19. Inhibition of Experimental Liver Cirrhosis in Mice by Telomerase Gene Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Karl Lenhard; Chang, Sandy; Millard, Melissa; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole; DePinho, Ronald A.

    2000-02-01

    Accelerated telomere loss has been proposed to be a factor leading to end-stage organ failure in chronic diseases of high cellular turnover such as liver cirrhosis. To test this hypothesis directly, telomerase-deficient mice, null for the essential telomerase RNA (mTR) gene, were subjected to genetic, surgical, and chemical ablation of the liver. Telomere dysfunction was associated with defects in liver regeneration and accelerated the development of liver cirrhosis in response to chronic liver injury. Adenoviral delivery of mTR into the livers of mTR-/- mice with short dysfunctional telomeres restored telomerase activity and telomere function, alleviated cirrhotic pathology, and improved liver function. These studies indicate that telomere dysfunction contributes to chronic diseases of continual cellular loss-replacement and encourage the evaluation of ``telomerase therapy'' for such diseases.

  20. ADP-2Ho as a Phasing Tool for Nucleotide-Containing Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ku,S.; Smith, G.; Howell, P.

    2007-01-01

    Trivalent holmium ions were shown to isomorphously replace magnesium ions to form an ADP-2Ho complex in the nucleotide-binding domain of Bacillus subtilis 5-methylthioribose (MTR) kinase. This nucleotide-holmium complex provided sufficient phasing power to allow SAD and SIRAS phasing of this previously unknown structure using the L{sub III} absorption edge of holmium. The structure of ADP-2Ho reveals that the two Ho ions are approximately 4 {angstrom} apart and are likely to share their ligands: the phosphoryl O atoms of ADP and a water molecule. The structure determination of MTR kinase using data collected using Cu K X-radiation was also attempted. Although the heavy-atom substructure determination was successful, interpretation of the map was more challenging. The isomorphous substitution of holmium for magnesium in the MTR kinase-nucleotide complex suggests that this could be a useful phasing tool for other metal-dependent nucleotide-containing proteins.

  1. Links between dwarf and classical novae, and implications for the space densities and evolution of cataclysmic binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Shara, M.M.; Livio, M.; Moffat, A.F.J.; Orio, M.

    1986-12-01

    The effects of mass and angular momentum losses during a nova eruption are investigated by simulation in the context of a new nova evolution model. It is argued that surveys for cataclysmic variables (CVs) are very incomplete and that the local space density of CVs could well be 0.0001/cu pc. It is shown that the competing effets of mass and angular momentum loss usually increase the separation of a red and white dwarf during a nova eruption. The reasons why old novae remain bright for about a century after eruption and why they reduce the mass transfer rate (MTR) and eventually go into a state of hibernation for a thousand to a million years, eventually reviving as dwarf novae or novalike variables, are discussed. The results of these simulations are used to demonstrate the consistency of variable MTR in resolving the MTR discrepancy. 43 references.

  2. Measuring the Elongational Properties of Polymer Melts—a Simple Task?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaschta, Joachim; Münstedt, Helmut

    2008-07-01

    Elongational flow measurements were performed on a number of samples under similar conditions using two different elongational rheometers, a Münstedt type oil bath rheometer (MTR) and the elongational viscosity fixture (EVF) of TA Instruments in an ARES rheometer. Deviations of several degrees from the set temperature are found in the case of the EVF/ARES and had to be corrected before comparing results. Inhomogeneous deformation, e.g. due to sagging, leads to an artificial strain-hardening of the EVF. For strain-hardening and/or high viscous materials a good agreement between measurements from both rheometers is found. The strain hardening measured in the EVF/ARES starts at smaller strains compared the MTR. This effect is more pronounced for weakly strain-hardening materials. The possibility of creep and creep-recovery experiments performed by the MTR demonstrates its wide application range.

  3. Reversal of Low-Grade Cerebral Edema After Lactulose/Rifaximin Therapy in Patients with Cirrhosis and Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Rahul; Ahuja, Chirag K; Agrawal, Swastik; Kalra, Naveen; Duseja, Ajay; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Chawla, Yogesh; Dhiman, Radha K

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Decreased magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) in the brain characterizes cerebral edema (CE) in patients with liver cirrhosis, but the role of treatment on its reversibility has not been studied in patients who have minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). This study was carried to evaluate the reversibility of CE with lactulose and rifaximin treatment in patients with MHE and role of ammonia, pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-1, IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in its pathogenesis. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with cirrhosis (14 with MHE, 9 without MHE (NMHE)) and 6 healthy controls underwent ammonia, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α estimation, and MTR in frontal white matter (FWM), parietal white matter (PWM), internal capsule (IC), and basal ganglia (BG). RESULTS: Ammonia was significantly higher in the cirrhosis group compared with controls and in MHE compared with the NMHE group. Ammonia correlated positively with IL-1 and IL-6. MTRs in FWM, PWM, IC, and BG were significantly lower in the MHE group compared with controls and in PWM, IC, and BG compared with the NMHE group. MHE patients showed significant MTR increase in FWM, PWM, and IC with treatment. IL-6 and ammonia had significant negative and significant positive psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES) correlation with MTR in various regions. CONCLUSIONS: This study, for the first time, demonstrated the reversibility of low-grade CE with treatment in patients with MHE. Negative correlation between ammonia, IL-6 levels, and MTR and positive correlation between PHES and MTR in MHE patients suggests the role of inflammation and ammonia in the genesis of low-grade CE. PMID:26378384

  4. In Vitro Activity of Delafloxacin against Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates and Selection of Gonococcal Delafloxacin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Soge, Olusegun O; Salipante, Stephen J; No, David; Duffy, Erin; Roberts, Marilyn C

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the in vitro activity of delafloxacin against a panel of 117 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains, including 110 clinical isolates collected from 2012 to 2015 and seven reference strains, compared with the activities of seven antimicrobials currently or previously recommended for treatment of gonorrhea. We examined the potential for delafloxacin to select for resistant mutants in ciprofloxacin-susceptible and ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae We characterized mutations in the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes and the multidrug-resistant efflux pumps (MtrC-MtrD-MtrE and NorM) by PCR and sequencing and by whole-genome sequencing. The MIC50, MIC90, and MIC ranges of delafloxacin were 0.06 μg/ml, 0.125 μg/ml, and ≤0.001 to 0.25 μg/ml, respectively. The frequency of spontaneous mutation ranged from 10(-7) to <10(-9) The multistep delafloxacin resistance selection of 30 daily passages resulted in stable resistant mutants. There was no obvious cross-resistance to nonfluoroquinolone comparator antimicrobials. A mutant with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC, 0.25 μg/ml) obtained from the ciprofloxacin-susceptible parental strain had a novel Ser91Tyr alteration in the gyrA gene. We also identified new mutations in the gyrA and/or parC and parE genes and the multidrug-resistant efflux pumps (MtrC-MtrD-MtrE and NorM) of two mutant strains with elevated delafloxacin MICs of 1 μg/ml. Although delafloxacin exhibited potent in vitro activity against N. gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains with diverse antimicrobial resistance profiles and demonstrated a low tendency to select for spontaneous mutants, it is important to establish the correlation between these excellent in vitro data and treatment outcomes through appropriate randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:26976873

  5. Mechanisms of Electron Transfer in Two Decaheme Cytochromes from a Metal-Reducing Bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Wigginton, Nicholas S.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Hochella, Michael F.

    2007-11-08

    Single-molecule current-voltage (I–V) spectra were collected using a scanning tunneling microscope for two decaheme c-type cytochromes, OmcA and MtrC, which are outer-membrane proteins from the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis. Although the two cytochromes are similar in heme count, charge-carrying amino-acid content, and molecular mass, their I–V spectra are significantly different. The I–V spectra for OmcA show smoothly varying symmetric exponential behavior. These spectra are well fit by a coherent tunneling model that is based on a simple square barrier description of the tunneling junction. In contrast, the I–V spectra for MtrC have pronounced breaks in slope in the positive tip bias range. Two large peaks in the normalized differential conductance spectra of MtrC were fit to a tunneling model that accounts for the possibility of transient population of empty states stabilized by vibrational relaxation. Reorganization energies deduced for the two features are similar to those normally assigned to metal centers in other metalloproteins. Work function measurements of the cytochrome films were used to convert the energies of these two spectral features to the normal hydrogen electrode scale for comparison with the midpoint potential measured using protein film voltammetry, which showed good correspondence. We conclude that MtrC mediates tunneling current by heme orbital participation. The difference in tunneling behavior between OmcA and MtrC suggests distinct physiological functions for the two cytochromes; in contrast to OmcA, MtrC appears to be tuned to a specific operating potential.

  6. Changes in blood flow and cellular metabolism at a myofascial trigger point with trigger point release (ischemic compression): a proof-of-principle pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Moraska, Albert F.; Hickner, Robert C.; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Brewer, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate proof-of-principle measurement for physiological change within an active myofascial trigger point (MTrP) undergoing trigger point release (ischemic compression). Design Interstitial fluid was sampled continuously at a trigger point before and after intervention. Setting A biomedical research clinic at a university hospital. Participants Two subjects from a pain clinic presenting with chronic headache pain. Interventions A single microdialysis catheter was inserted into an active MTrP of the upper trapezius to allow for continuous sampling of interstitial fluid before and after application of trigger point therapy by a massage therapist. Main Outcome Measures Procedural success, pain tolerance, feasibility of intervention during sample collection, determination of physiologically relevant values for local blood flow, as well as glucose and lactate concentrations. Results Both patients tolerated the microdialysis probe insertion into the MTrP and treatment intervention without complication. Glucose and lactate concentrations were measured in the physiological range. Following intervention, a sustained increase in lactate was noted for both subjects. Conclusions Identifying physiological constituents of MTrP’s following intervention is an important step toward understanding pathophysiology and resolution of myofascial pain. The present study forwards that aim by showing proof-of-concept for collection of interstitial fluid from an MTrP before and after intervention can be accomplished using microdialysis, thus providing methodological insight toward treatment mechanism and pain resolution. Of the biomarkers measured in this study, lactate may be the most relevant for detection and treatment of abnormalities in the MTrP. PMID:22975226

  7. Mechanical pain sensitivity of deep tissues in children - possible development of myofascial trigger points in children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is still unclear when latent myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) develop during early life. This study is designed to investigate the mechanical pain sensitivity of deep tissues in children in order to see the possible timing of the development of latent MTrPs and attachment trigger points (A-TrPs) in school children. Methods Five hundreds and five healthy school children (age 4- 11 years) were investigated. A pressure algometer was used to measure the pressure pain threshold (PPT) at three different sites in the brachioradialis muscle: the lateral epicondyle at elbow (site A, assumed to be the A-TrP site), the mid-point of the muscle belly (site B, assumed to be the MTrP site), and the muscle-tendon junction as a control site (site C). Results The results showed that, for all children in this study, the mean PPT values was significantly lower (p < 0.05) at the assumed A-TrP site (site A) than at the other two sites, and was significantly lower (p < 0.05) at the assumed MTrP site (site B) than at the control site (site C). These findings are consistent if the data is analyzed for different genders, different dominant sides, and different activity levels. Conclusions It is concluded that a child had increased sensitivity at the tendon attachment site and the muscle belly (endplate zone) after age of 4 years. Therefore, it is likely that a child may develop an A-Trp and a latent MTrP at the brachioradialis muscle after the age of 4 years. The changes in sensitivity, or the development for these trigger points, may not be related to the activity level of children aged 7-11 years. Further investigation is still required to indentify the exact timing of the initial occurrence of a-Trps and latent MTrPs. PMID:22316064

  8. ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, TRA654. CONTEXTUAL VIEW. CAMERA ON ROOF OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR CRITICAL FACILITY, TRA-654. CONTEXTUAL VIEW. CAMERA ON ROOF OF MTR BUILDING AND FACING SOUTH. ETR AND ITS COOLANT BUILDING AT UPPER PART OF VIEW. ETR COOLING TOWER NEAR TOP EDGE OF VIEW. EXCAVATION AT CENTER IS FOR ETR CF. CENTER OF WHICH WILL CONTAIN POOL FOR REACTOR. NOTE CHOPPER TUBE PROCEEDING FROM MTR IN LOWER LEFT OF VIEW, DIAGONAL TOWARD LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4227. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 12/18/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. MRT fuel element inspection at Dounreay

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1997-08-01

    To ensure that their production and inspection processes are performed in an acceptable manner, ie. auditable and traceable, the MTR Fuel Element Fabrication Plant at Dounreay operates to a documented quality system. This quality system, together with the fuel element manufacturing and inspection operations, has been independently certified to ISO9002-1987, EN29002-1987 and BS5750:Pt2:1987 by Lloyd`s Register Quality Assurance Limited (LRQA). This certification also provides dual accreditation to the relevant German, Dutch and Australian certification bodies. This paper briefly describes the quality system, together with the various inspection stages involved in the manufacture of MTR fuel elements at Dounreay.

  10. The Multi-index Mittag-Leffler Functions and Their Applications for Solving Fractional Order Problems in Applied Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiryakova, V. S.; Luchko, Yu. F.

    2010-11-01

    During the last few decades, differential equations and systems of fractional order (that is arbitrary one, not necessarily integer) begun to play an important role in modeling of various phenomena of physical, engineering, automatization, biological and biomedical, chemical, earth, economics, social relations, etc. nature. The so-called Special Functions of Fractional Calculus (SF of FC) provide an important tool of Fractional Calculus (FC) and Applied Analysis (AA). In particular, they are often used to represent the solutions of fractional differential equations in explicit form. Among the most popular representatives of the SF of FC are: the Mittag-Leffler (ML) function, the Wright generalized hypergeometric function pΨq, the more general Fox H-function, and the Inayat-HussainH-function. The classical Special Functions (called also SF of Mathematical Physics), including the orthogonal polynomials, and the pFq-hypergeometric functions fall in this scheme as examples of the simpler Meijer G-function. In this survey talk, we overview the properties and some applications of an important class of SF of FC, introduced for the first time in our works. For integer m>1 and arbitrary real (or complex, under suitable restrictions) indices ρ1,…,ρm>0 and μ1,…,μm, we define the multi-index (vector-index) Mittag-Leffler functions by: E(1/ρi),(μi)(z) = E)1/ρi),(μi)(m)(z) = ∑ K=0∞zk/Γ(μ1+kρ1)…Γ(μm+k/ρm) = 1Ψm[mtr>(1,1)mtr>>(μ1,1/ρi)1m;zmtr>] = H1,m+11,1[-z‖mtr>(0,1)mtr>>(0,1),(1-μi,1/ρi)1mmtr>]. We propose also a list of examples of SF of FC that are E(1/ρi),(μi)-functions and play important role in pure mathematics and in solving problems from natural, applied and social sciences, and state

  11. MTRETR MAINTENANCE SHOP, TRA653. FLOOR PLAN FOR FIRST FLOOR: MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR-ETR MAINTENANCE SHOP, TRA-653. FLOOR PLAN FOR FIRST FLOOR: MACHINE SHOP, ELECTRICAL AND INSTRUMENT SHOP, TOOL CRIB, ELECTRONIC SHOP, LOCKER ROOM, SPECIAL TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED ROOM, AND OFFICES. "NEW" ON DRAWING REFERS TO REVISION OF 11/1956 DRAWING ON WHICH AREAS WERE DESIGNATED AS "FUTURE." HUMMEL HUMMEL & JONES 810-MTR-ETR-653-A-7, 5/1957. INL INDEX NO. 532-0653-00-381-101839, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. AERIAL TAKEN WHILE SEVERAL PIPE TRENCHES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. AERIAL TAKEN WHILE SEVERAL PIPE TRENCHES REMAINED OPEN. CAMERA FACES EASTERLY. NOTE DUAL PIPES BETWEEN REACTOR BUILDING AND NORTH SIDE OF PROCESS WATER BUILDING. PIPING NEAR WORKING RESERVOIR HEADS FOR RETENTION RESERVOIR. PIPE FROM DEMINERALIZER ENTERS MTR FROM NORTH. SEE ALSO TRENCH FOR COOLANT AIR DUCT AT SOUTH SIDE OF MTR AND LEADING TO FAN HOUSE AND STACK. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2966-A. Unknown Photographer, 7/31/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF HOT CELL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF HOT CELL BUILDING, IN VIEW AT LEFT, AS YET WITHOUT ROOF. PLUG STORAGE BUILDING LIES BETWEEN IT AND THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE MTR BUILDING AND ITS WING. NOTE CONCRETE DRIVE BETWEEN ROLL-UP DOOR IN MTR BUILDING AND CHARGING FACE OF PLUG STORAGE. REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING (TRA-635) WILL COVER THIS DRIVE AND BUTT UP TO CHARGING FACE. DOTTED LINE IS ON ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. TRA PARKING LOT IN LEFT CORNER OF THE VIEW. CAMERA FACING NORTHWESTERLY. INL NEGATIVE NO. 8274. Unknown Photographer, 7/2/1953 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. FAST CHOPPER DETECTOR HOUSE, TRA665. FIRST FLOOR, PLAN AND SECTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FAST CHOPPER DETECTOR HOUSE, TRA-665. FIRST FLOOR, PLAN AND SECTION, AS PROPOSED FOR MODIFICATION IN 1962. CONCRETE WALLS THREE FEET THICK. EXISTING WINDOWS IN MTR AND DETECTOR HOUSE WALLS WERE TO BE FILLED IN WITH HIGH-DENSITY BRICK. NOTE 20-METER MARK, WHERE THE FAST CHOPPER DETECTOR HAD BEEN LOCATED. F.C. TORKELSON 842-MTR-665-S-2, 4/1962. INL INDEX NO. 531-0665-60-851-150996, REV. 5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. Multivariate combination of magnetization transfer, T2* and B0 orientation to study the myelo-architecture of the in vivo human cortex.

    PubMed

    Mangeat, G; Govindarajan, S T; Mainero, C; Cohen-Adad, J

    2015-10-01

    Recently, T2* imaging at 7Tesla (T) MRI was shown to reveal microstructural features of the cortical myeloarchitecture thanks to an increase in contrast-to-noise ratio. However, several confounds hamper the specificity of T2* measures (iron content, blood vessels, tissues orientation). Another metric, magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), is known to also be sensitive to myelin content and thus would be an excellent complementary measure because its underlying contrast mechanisms are different than that from T2*. The goal of this study was thus to combine MTR and T2* using multivariate statistics in order to gain insights into cortical myelin content. Seven healthy subjects were scanned at 7T and 3T to obtain T2* and MTR data, respectively. A multivariate myelin estimation model (MMEM) was developed, and consists in (i) normalizing T2* and MTR values and (ii) extracting their shared information using independent component analysis (ICA). B0 orientation dependence and cortical thickness were also computed and included in the model. Results showed high correlation between MTR and T2* in the whole cortex (r=0.76, p<10(-16)), suggesting that both metrics are partly driven by a common source of contrast, here assumed to be the myelin. Average MTR and T2* were respectively 31.0+/-0.3% and 32.1+/-1.4 ms. Results of the MMEM spatial distribution showed similar trends to that from histological work stained for myelin (r=0.77, p<0.01). Significant right-left differences were detected in the primary motor cortex (p<0.05), the posterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05) and the visual cortex (p<0.05). This study demonstrates that MTR and T2* are highly correlated in the cortex. The combination of MTR, T2*, CT and B0 orientation may be a useful means to study cortical myeloarchitecture with more specificity than using any of the individual methods. The MMEM framework is extendable to other contrasts such as T1 and diffusion MRI. PMID:26095090

  16. Possible Dynamically Gated Conductance along Heme Wires in Bacterial Multiheme Cytochromes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Dayle MA; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2014-07-24

    The staggered cross decaheme configuration of electron transfer co-factors in the outer-membrane cytochrome MtrF may serve as a prototype for conformationally-gated multi-heme electron transport. Derived from the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis, the staggered cross configuration reveals intersecting c-type octaheme and tetraheme “wires” containing thermodynamic “hills” and “valleys”, suggesting that the protein structure may include a dynamical mechanism for conductance and pathway switching depending on enzymatic functional need. Recent molecular simulations have established the pair-wise electronic couplings, redox potentials, and reorganization energies to predict the maximum conductance along the various heme wire pathways by sequential hopping of a single electron (PNAS (2014) 11,611-616). Here, we expand this information with classical molecular and statistical mechanics calculations of large-amplitude protein dynamics in MtrF, to address its potential to modulate pathway conductance, including assessment of the effect of the total charge state. Explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of fully oxidized and fully reduced MtrF employing ten independent 50-ns simulations at 300 K and 1 atm showed that reduced MtrF is more expanded and explores more conformational space than oxidized MtrF, and that heme reduction leads to increased heme solvent exposure. The slowest mode of collective decaheme motion is 90% similar between the oxidized and reduced states, and consists primarily of inter-heme separation with minor rotational contributions. The frequency of this motion is 1.7×107 s 1 for fully-oxidized and fully-reduced MtrF, respectively, slower than the downhill electron transfer rates between stacked heme pairs at the octaheme termini and faster than the electron transfer rates between parallel hemes in the tetraheme chain. This implies that MtrF uses slow conformational fluctuations to modulate electron flow along the octaheme pathway

  17. Toward Distinguishing Recurrent Tumor From Radiation Necrosis: DWI and MTC in a Gamma Knife–Irradiated Mouse Glioma Model

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Torres, Carlos J.; Engelbach, John A.; Cates, Jeremy; Thotala, Dinesh; Yuan, Liya; Schmidt, Robert E.; Rich, Keith M.; Drzymala, Robert E.; Ackerman, Joseph J.H.; Garbow, Joel R.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Accurate noninvasive diagnosis is vital for effective treatment planning. Presently, standard anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is incapable of differentiating recurring tumor from delayed radiation injury, as both lesions are hyperintense in both postcontrast T1- and T2-weighted images. Further studies are therefore necessary to identify an MRI paradigm that can differentially diagnose these pathologies. Mouse glioma and radiation injury models provide a powerful platform for this purpose. Methods and Materials: Two MRI contrasts that are widely used in the clinic were chosen for application to a glioma/radiation-injury model: diffusion weighted imaging, from which the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is obtained, and magnetization transfer contrast, from which the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) is obtained. These metrics were evaluated longitudinally, first in each lesion type alone–glioma versus irradiation – and then in a combined irradiated glioma model. Results: MTR was found to be consistently decreased in all lesions compared to nonlesion brain tissue (contralateral hemisphere), with limited specificity between lesion types. In contrast, ADC, though less sensitive to the presence of pathology, was increased in radiation injury and decreased in tumors. In the irradiated glioma model, ADC also increased immediately after irradiation, but decreased as the tumor regrew. Conclusions: ADC is a better metric than MTR for differentiating glioma from radiation injury. However, MTR was more sensitive to both tumor and radiation injury than ADC, suggesting a possible role in detecting lesions that do not enhance strongly on T1-weighted images.

  18. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST FLOOR AND BASEMENT. SECTIONS. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-648-A-2, 12/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0648-00-486-101402, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. ETR, TRA642. ELEVATIONS. METAL SIDING. OFFICE BUILDING (TRA647) AND ELECTRICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ELEVATIONS. METAL SIDING. OFFICE BUILDING (TRA-647) AND ELECTRICAL BUILDING (TRA-648) ATTACHED. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-642-A-11, 11/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-486-100919, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. ETR, TRA642. WALL SECTION DETAILS. METAL SIDING JOINS TO ELECTRICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. WALL SECTION DETAILS. METAL SIDING JOINS TO ELECTRICAL BUILDING, OFFICE BUILDING, AND ROOF. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-A-13, 11/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-486-100920, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. ROOF PLAN. DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. ELEVATIONS AND DETAILS. ROOF PLAN. DOOR SCHEDULE. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-648-A-3, 1/1956. INL INDEX NO. 532-0648-00-486-101403, REV. 5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Single-Cell Imaging and Spectroscopic Analyses of Cr(VI) Reduction on the Surface of Bacterial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanmin; Sevinc, Papatya C.; Balchik, Sara M.; Fridrickson, Jim; Shi, Liang; Lu, H. Peter

    2013-01-01

    We investigate single-cell reduction of toxic Cr(VI) by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1), an important bioremediation process, using Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Our experiments indicate that the toxic and highly soluble Cr(VI) can be efficiently reduced to the less toxic and non-soluble Cr2O3 nanoparticles by MR-1. Cr2O3 is observed to emerge as nanoparticles adsorbed on the cell surface and its chemical nature is identified by EDX imaging and Raman spectroscopy. Co-localization of Cr2O3 and cytochromes by EDX imaging and Raman spectroscopy suggests a terminal reductase role for MR-1 surface-exposed cytochromes MtrC and OmcA. Our experiments revealed that the cooperation of surface proteins OmcA and MtrC makes the reduction reaction most efficient, and the sequence of the reducing reactivity of the MR-1 is: wild type > single mutant ΔmtrC or mutant ΔomcA > double mutant (ΔomcA-ΔmtrC). Moreover, our results also suggest that the direct microbial Cr(VI) reduction and Fe(II) (hematite)-mediated Cr(VI) reduction mechanisms may co-exist in the reduction processes. PMID:23249294

  3. ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA647. FLOOR PLANS FOR BASEMENT, FIRST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA-647. FLOOR PLANS FOR BASEMENT, FIRST AND SECOND FLOORS. METAL PANEL WALL. NAMES OF ROOMS. STAIRWAYS. WALL CONSTRUCTION LEGEND. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-647-A-6, 12/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0647-00-486-101357, REV. 9. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. FIRST FLOOR FOUNDATION PLAN SHOWS SECTIONALIZED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. FIRST FLOOR FOUNDATION PLAN SHOWS SECTIONALIZED FLOOR LOADINGS AND CONCRETE SLAB THICKNESSES, A TYPICAL FEATURE OF NUCLEAR ARCHITECTURE. IDAHO OPERATIONS OFFICE MTR-632-IDO-2, 11/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0632-62-396-110561, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. ETRMTR MECHANICAL SERVICES BUILDING, TRA653. CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST AS BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR-MTR MECHANICAL SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-653. CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST AS BUILDING WAS NEARLY COMPLETE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 57-3653. K. Mansfield, Photographer, 7/22/1957 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. ETRMTR MECHANICAL SERVICES BUILDING, TRA653, INTERIOR. CAMERA IS INSIDE MEN'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR-MTR MECHANICAL SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-653, INTERIOR. CAMERA IS INSIDE MEN'S LAVATORY AND SHOWER FACING SOUTHEAST. SHOWER AND TOILET STALLS ARE IN PLACE. ROUND COMMUNAL SINK AT LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 57-3652. K. Mansfield, Photographer, 7/22/1957 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA626. ELEVATIONS. WINDOWS. WALL SECTIONS. PUMICE BLOCK BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COMPRESSOR BUILDING, TRA-626. ELEVATIONS. WINDOWS. WALL SECTIONS. PUMICE BLOCK BUILDING HOUSED COMPRESSORS FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION EXPERIMENTS. MTR-626-IDO-2S, 3/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0626-00-396-110535, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. A conserved virus-induced cytoplasmic TRAMP-like complex recruits the exosome to target viral RNA for degradation.

    PubMed

    Molleston, Jerome M; Sabin, Leah R; Moy, Ryan H; Menghani, Sanjay V; Rausch, Keiko; Gordesky-Gold, Beth; Hopkins, Kaycie C; Zhou, Rui; Jensen, Torben Heick; Wilusz, Jeremy E; Cherry, Sara

    2016-07-15

    RNA degradation is tightly regulated to selectively target aberrant RNAs, including viral RNA, but this regulation is incompletely understood. Through RNAi screening in Drosophila cells, we identified the 3'-to-5' RNA exosome and two components of the exosome cofactor TRAMP (Trf4/5-Air1/2-Mtr4 polyadenylation) complex, dMtr4 and dZcchc7, as antiviral against a panel of RNA viruses. We extended our studies to human orthologs and found that the exosome as well as TRAMP components hMTR4 and hZCCHC7 are antiviral. While hMTR4 and hZCCHC7 are normally nuclear, infection by cytoplasmic RNA viruses induces their export, forming a cytoplasmic complex that specifically recognizes and induces degradation of viral mRNAs. Furthermore, the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of bunyaviral mRNA is sufficient to confer virus-induced exosomal degradation. Altogether, our results reveal that signals from viral infection repurpose TRAMP components to a cytoplasmic surveillance role where they selectively engage viral RNAs for degradation to restrict a broad range of viruses. PMID:27474443

  9. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. CAMERA LOOKING EAST AND TO WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. CAMERA LOOKING EAST AND TO WEST WALL NOW ENCLOSING FLASH EVAPORATORS. PIPES IN FOREGROUND WILL CARRY DEMINERALIZED COOLING WATER TO AND FROM THE MTR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2937. Unknown Photographer, 7/30/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. SCIENTIST DEMONSTRATES PLACING A "RABBIT CATCHER" INTO ONE OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SCIENTIST DEMONSTRATES PLACING A "RABBIT CATCHER" INTO ONE OF THE VERTICAL TEST HOLES AT THE TOP OF THE MTR. CONTROL ROD DRIVES ARE BEHIND HIM TOWARDS LEFT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-513. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 2/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Myelin and Axonal Remodeling in the Uninjured Motor Network After Stroke.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Chia; Daducci, Alessandro; Meskaldji, Djalel Eddine; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Michel, Patrik; Meuli, Reto; Krueger, Gunnar; Menegaz, Gloria; Granziera, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Contralesional brain connectivity plasticity was previously reported after stroke. This study aims at disentangling the biological mechanisms underlying connectivity plasticity in the uninjured motor network after an ischemic lesion. In particular, we measured generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) to assess whether poststroke connectivity remodeling depends on axonal and/or myelin changes. Diffusion-spectrum imaging and magnetization transfer MRI at 3T were performed in 10 patients in acute phase, at 1 and 6 months after stroke, which was affecting motor cortical and/or subcortical areas. Ten age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were scanned 1 month apart for longitudinal comparison. Clinical assessment was also performed in patients prior to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the contralesional hemisphere, average measures and tract-based quantitative analysis of GFA and MTR were performed to assess axonal integrity and myelination along motor connections as well as their variations in time. Mean and tract-based measures of MTR and GFA showed significant changes in a number of contralesional motor connections, confirming both axonal and myelin plasticity in our cohort of patients. Moreover, density-derived features (peak height, standard deviation, and skewness) of GFA and MTR along the tracts showed additional correlation with clinical scores than mean values. These findings reveal the interplay between contralateral myelin and axonal remodeling after stroke. PMID:25296185

  12. PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA611, AS IT LOOKED WITH EARTHEN SHIELD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA-611, AS IT LOOKED WITH EARTHEN SHIELD COVERING STORAGE TUBES. MTR WING, TRA-604, AT RIGHT OF VIEW. CAMERA FACES NORTHWEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3177. Unknown Photographer, 8/29/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  14. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  15. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  16. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  17. 33 CFR 154.1055 - Exercises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exercises. 154.1055 Section 154... Exercises. (a) A response plan submitted by an owner or operator of an MTR facility must include an exercise program containing both announced and unannounced exercises. The following are the minimum...

  18. Methionine synthase A2756G transition might be a risk factor for male infertility: Evidences from seven case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Karimian, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Abasalt

    2016-04-15

    Methionine synthase (MTR) has a crucial role in DNA synthesis and methylation reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the MTR-A2756G polymorphism with idiopathic male infertility. Blood samples were collected from 217 idiopathic infertile- and 233 healthy-men, and MTR-A2756G genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. Meta-analysis was conducted by pooling our data with the data obtained from 6 previous studies. Also, the effects of this substitution on protein structure were evaluated by bioinformatics tools. Our study revealed the association of AG-genotype, GG-genotype, and G-allele with male infertility. Meta-analysis showed a significant association between A2756G transition and male infertility. In addition, structural analysis of the transition effect on protein revealed a significant influence on MTR function (with score: 38; expected accuracy: 66%). These findings suggest that the A2756G substitution might be a genetic risk factor and a potential biomarker for idiopathic male infertility. PMID:26905524

  19. REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA635. CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST. BUILDING PROJECTS FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635. CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST. BUILDING PROJECTS FROM AND CONNECTS TO SOUTH WALL OF MTR BUILDING. EARTH BERM SHIELDING PLUG STORAGE BUILDING IS AT RIGHT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. 9913. Unknown Photographer, 2/23/1954 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND REMOVAL FROM AIR STREAMS BY MEMBRANES SEPARATION MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This membrane separation technology developed by Membrane Technology and Research (MTR), Incorporated, is designed to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated air streams. In the process, organic vapor-laden air contacts one side of a membrane that is permeable ...

  1. FAST CHOPPER DETECTOR HOUSE, TRA665. SECOND FLOOR ADDITION: PLAN, SECTIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FAST CHOPPER DETECTOR HOUSE, TRA-665. SECOND FLOOR ADDITION: PLAN, SECTIONS AND DETAILS AS ADDED TO THE EXISTING CHOPPER HOUSE IN 1962. F.C. TORKELSON 842-MTR-665-S-3, 4/1962. INL INDEX NO. 531-0665-60-851-150997, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Mechanism and Consequences of Anaerobic Respiration of Cobalt by Shewanella oneidensis Strain MR-1 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hau, Heidi H.; Gilbert, Alan; Coursolle, Dan; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria from the genus Shewanella are the most diverse respiratory organisms studied to date and can utilize a variety of metals and metal(loid)s as terminal electron acceptors. These bacteria can potentially be used in bioremediation applications since the redox state of metals often influences both solubility and toxicity. Understanding molecular mechanisms by which metal transformations occur and the consequences of by-products that may be toxic to the organism and thus inhibitory to the overall process is significant to future applications for bioremediation. Here, we examine the ability of Shewanella oneidensis to catalyze the reduction of chelated cobalt. We describe an unexpected ramification of [Co(III)-EDTA]− reduction by S. oneidensis: the formation of a toxic by-product. We found that [Co(II)-EDTA]2−, the product of [Co(III)-EDTA]− respiration, inhibited the growth of S. oneidensis strain MR-1 and that this toxicity was partially abolished by the addition of MgSO4. We demonstrate that [Co(III)-EDTA]− reduction by S. oneidensis requires the Mtr extracellular respiratory pathway and associated pathways required to develop functional Mtr enzymes (the c-type cytochrome maturation pathway) and ensure proper localization (type II secretion). The Mtr pathway is known to be required for a variety of substrates, including some chelated and insoluble metals and organic compounds. Understanding the full substrate range for the Mtr pathway is crucial for developing S. oneidensis strains as a tool for bioremediation. PMID:18836009

  3. Deciphering the Electron Transport Pathway for Graphene Oxide Reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 ▿†‡

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yongqin; Qian, Fang; Li, Yat; Wang, Gongming; Saltikov, Chad W.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    We determined that graphene oxide reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 requires the Mtr respiratory pathway by analyzing a range of mutants lacking these proteins. Electron shuttling compounds increased the graphene oxide reduction rate 3- to 5-fold. These results may help facilitate the use of bacteria for large-scale graphene production. PMID:21602337

  4. Methionine salvage pathway in relation to ethylene biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The recycling of methionine during ethylene biosynthesis (the methionine cycle) was studied. During ethylene biosynthesis, the H/sub 3/CS-group of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is released at 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), which is recycled to methionine via 5'-methylthioribose (MTS). In mungbean hypocotyls and cell-free extracts of avocado fruit, (/sup 14/C)MTR was converted to labeled methionine via 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyric acid (KMB) and 2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyric acid (HMB) as intermediates. Radioactive tracer studies showed that KMB was converted readily in vivo and in vitro to methionine, while HMB was converted much more slowly. The conversion of KMB to methionine by dialyzed avocado extract required an amino group donor. Among several potential donors tested, L-glutamine was the most efficient. Incubation of (ribose-U-/sup 14/C)MTR with avocado extract resulted in the production of (/sup 14/C)formate, with little evolution of other /sup 14/C-labeled one-carbon compounds, indicating that the conversion of MTR to KMB involves a loss of formate, presumably from C-1 of MTR.

  5. ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS. PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS. PUMP CUBICLES WITH PUMP MOTORS OUTSIDE CUBICLES. HEAT EXCHANGER EQUIPMENT. COOLANT PIPE TUNNEL ENTERS FROM REACTOR BUILDING. KAISER ETR-5582-MTR-644-A-3, 2/1956. INL INDEX NO. 532-0644-00-486-101294, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA635, INTERIOR. ALSO KNOWN AS MATERIAL RECEIVING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-635, INTERIOR. ALSO KNOWN AS MATERIAL RECEIVING AREA AND LABORATORY. CAMERA ON FIRST FLOOR FACING NORTH TOWARD MTR BUILDING. MOCK-UP AREA WAS TO THE RIGHT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-10-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA665. DETAIL SHOWS UPPER AND LOWER LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA-665. DETAIL SHOWS UPPER AND LOWER LEVEL WALLS OF DIFFERING MATERIALS. NOTE DOORWAY TO MTR TO RIGHT OF CHOPPER BUILDING'S CLIPPED CORNER. CAMERA FACING WEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. The neurophysiological effects of dry needling in patients with upper trapezius myofascial trigger points: study protocol of a controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadeh-Amirdehi, Maryam; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Dry needling (DN) is an effective method for the treatment of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). There is no report on the neurophysiological effects of DN in patients with MTrPs. The aim of the present study will be to assess the immediate neurophysiological efficacy of deep DN in patients with upper trapezius MTrPs. Methods and analysis A prospective, controlled clinical trial was designed to include patients with upper trapezius MTrPs and volunteered healthy participants to receive one session of DN. The primary outcome measures are neuromuscular junction response and sympathetic skin response. The secondary outcomes are pain intensity and pressure pain threshold. Data will be collected at baseline and immediately after intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study protocol has been approved by the Research Council, School of Rehabilitation and the Ethics Committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The results of the study will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. PMID:23793673

  9. ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA644. EAST SIDE. CAMERA FACING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING, TRA-644. EAST SIDE. CAMERA FACING WEST. NOTE COURSE OF PIPE FROM GROUND AND FOLLOWING ROOF OF BUILDING. MTR BUILDING IN BACKGROUND AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-36-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. High bit rate mass data storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The HDDR-II mass data storage system consists of a Leach MTR 7114 recorder reproducer, a wire wrapped, integrated circuit flat plane and necessary power supplies for the flat plane. These units, with interconnecting cables and control panel are enclosed in a common housing mounted on casters. The electronics used in the HDDR-II double density decoding and encoding techniques are described.

  11. PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA611, AWAITS SHIELDING SOIL TO BE PLACED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLUG STORAGE BUILDING, TRA-611, AWAITS SHIELDING SOIL TO BE PLACED OVER PLUG STORAGE TUBES. WING WALLS WILL SUPPORT EARTH FILL. MTR, PROCESS WATER BUILDING, AND WORKING RESERVOIR IN VIEW BEYOND PLUG STORAGE. CAMERA FACES NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2949. Unknown Photographer, 7/30/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. 33 CFR 154.1210 - Purpose and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fats or vegetable oils including— (1) A fixed MTR facility capable of transferring oil in bulk, to or... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1210 Purpose and applicability. (a) The requirements of...

  13. 33 CFR 154.1210 - Purpose and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fats or vegetable oils including— (1) A fixed MTR facility capable of transferring oil in bulk, to or... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1210 Purpose and applicability. (a) The requirements of...

  14. 33 CFR 154.1210 - Purpose and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fats or vegetable oils including— (1) A fixed MTR facility capable of transferring oil in bulk, to or... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1210 Purpose and applicability. (a) The requirements of...

  15. 33 CFR 154.1210 - Purpose and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fats or vegetable oils including— (1) A fixed MTR facility capable of transferring oil in bulk, to or... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1210 Purpose and applicability. (a) The requirements of...

  16. 33 CFR 154.1210 - Purpose and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fats or vegetable oils including— (1) A fixed MTR facility capable of transferring oil in bulk, to or... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1210 Purpose and applicability. (a) The requirements of...

  17. Dry Needling at Myofascial Trigger Spots of Rabbit Skeletal Muscles Modulates the Biochemicals Associated with Pain, Inflammation, and Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yueh-Ling; Yang, Shun-An; Yang, Chen-Chia; Chou, Li-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Dry needling is an effective therapy for the treatment of pain associated with myofascial trigger point (MTrP). However, the biochemical effects of dry needling that are associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia are unclear. This study investigated the activities of β-endorphin, substance P, TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF after different dosages of dry needling at the myofascial trigger spots (MTrSs) of a skeletal muscle in rabbit. Materials and Methods. Dry needling was performed either with one dosage (1D) or five dosages (5D) into the biceps femoris with MTrSs in New Zealand rabbits. Biceps femoris, serum, and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were sampled immediately and 5 d after dry needling for β-endorphin, substance P, TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF immunoassays. Results. The 1D treatment enhanced the β-endorphin levels in the biceps femoris and serum and reduced substance P in the biceps femoris and DRG. The 5D treatment reversed these effects and was accompanied by increase of TNF-α, COX-2, HIF-1α, iNOS, and VEGF production in the biceps femoris. Moreover, the higher levels of these biochemicals were still maintained 5 d after treatment. Conclusion. Dry needling at the MTrSs modulates various biochemicals associated with pain, inflammation, and hypoxia in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:23346198

  18. ARMF, TRA660. NORTH, WEST AND EAST ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARMF, TRA-660. NORTH, WEST AND EAST ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. VERTICAL LIFT DOOR IN WEST WALL. WINDOWS AND LOUVERS WERE LATER COVERED. H.K. FERGUSON 8956 MTR-ETR-660-53, 9/1959. INL INDEX NO. 531-0660-00-279-101994, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. BLOWER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. BLOWER AND FILTER LOFT PLATFORM AND LADDER ON EAST SIDE. IDAHO OPERATIONS OFFICE MTR-632-IDO-4, 11/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0632-00-396-110563, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. CONTROL HOUSE, TRA620. MASONS ERECT PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. BUILDING WILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL HOUSE, TRA-620. MASONS ERECT PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. BUILDING WILL CONTROL ACCESS TO MTR AND OTHER "HOT" AND CLASSIFIED AREAS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 577. Unknown Photographer, 9/11/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. CAFETERIA, TRA616. MODIFICATIONS ENLARGED SEATING AND WORK AREAS IN 1957. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAFETERIA, TRA-616. MODIFICATIONS ENLARGED SEATING AND WORK AREAS IN 1957. FLOOR PLAN. WALL BETWEEN CAFETERIA AND WAREHOUSE SECTIONS. C.A. SUNDBERG AND ASSOCIATES 884-MTR-616-A-2, 12/1956. INL INDEX NO. 531-0616-00-822-101880, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Interaction between the RNA-dependent ATPase and poly(A) polymerase subunits of the TRAMP complex is mediated by short peptides and important for snoRNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Losh, Jillian S.; King, Alejandra Klauer; Bakelar, Jeremy; Taylor, Lacy; Loomis, John; Rosenzweig, Jason A.; Johnson, Sean J.; van Hoof, Ambro

    2015-01-01

    The RNA exosome is one of the main 3′ to 5′ exoribonucleases in eukaryotic cells. Although it is responsible for degradation or processing of a wide variety of substrate RNAs, it is very specific and distinguishes between substrate and non-substrate RNAs as well as between substrates that need to be 3′ processed and those that need to be completely degraded. This specificity does not appear to be determined by the exosome itself but rather by about a dozen other proteins. Four of these exosome cofactors have enzymatic activity, namely, the nuclear RNA-dependent ATPase Mtr4, its cytoplasmic paralog Ski2 and the nuclear non-canonical poly(A) polymerases, Trf4 and Trf5. Mtr4 and either Trf4 or Trf5 assemble into a TRAMP complex. However, how these enzymes assemble into a TRAMP complex and the functional consequences of TRAMP complex assembly remain unknown. Here, we identify an important interaction site between Mtr4 and Trf5, and show that disrupting the Mtr4/Trf interaction disrupts specific TRAMP and exosome functions, including snoRNA processing. PMID:25589546

  3. Catalog of experimental projects for a fissioning plasma reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzo, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations were carried out to determine the feasibility of using a small scale fissioning uranium plasma as the power source in a driver reactor. The driver system is a light water cooled and moderated reactor of the MTR type. The eight experiments and proposed configurations for the reactor are outlined.

  4. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2005-12-22

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology Group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group first found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produced about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit was built to bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid was built by ABB. NTE ordered the required compressor and MTR made the membrane modules for a December 2004 delivery. However, the gas supply was not steady enough for field testing, and MTR/ABB have now located other sites for field testing and commercial development.

  5. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2005-12-15

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is now working with the company's Randall Gas Technology Group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group first found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produced about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit was built to bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid was built by ABB. NTE ordered the required compressor and MTR made the membrane modules for a December 2004 delivery. However, the gas supply was not steady enough for field testing, and MTR/ABB have now located other sites for field testing and commercial development.

  6. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. ELEVATIONS FOR SOUTH, NORTH AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. ELEVATIONS FOR SOUTH, NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF 1958 EXTENSION. H.K. FERGUSON CO. 895-MTR-ETR-632-A3, 12/1958. INL INDEX NO. 531-0632-00-279-101926, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. 75 FR 74768 - Madison Terminal Railway, LLC-Lease and Operation Exemption-Line of Railroad in Dane County, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Madison Terminal Railway, LLC--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Line of Railroad in Dane County, WI Madison Terminal Railway, LLC (MTR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified...

  8. Structural and Functional Characteristics of Natural and Constructed Channels Draining a Reclaimed Mountaintop Removal and Valley Fill Coal Mine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has altered the landscape of the Central Appalachian region in the USA. Among the changes are large-scale topographic recontouring, burial of headwater streams, and degradation of downstream water quality. The goals of our ...

  9. Single-Cell Imaging and Spectroscopic Analyses of Cr(VI) Reduction on the Surface of Bacterial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuanmin; Sevinc, Papatya C.; Belchik, Sara M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Shi, Liang; Lu, H. Peter

    2013-01-22

    We investigate single-cell reduction of toxic Cr(VI) by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1), an important bioremediation process, using Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Our experiments indicate that the toxic and highly soluble Cr(VI) can be efficiently reduced to the less toxic and non-soluble Cr2O3 nanoparticles by MR-1. Cr2O3 is observed to emerge as nanoparticles adsorbed on the cell surface and its chemical nature is identified by EDX imaging and Raman spectroscopy. Co-localization of Cr2O3 and cytochromes by EDX imaging and Raman spectroscopy suggests a terminal reductase role for MR-1 surface-exposed cytochromes MtrC and OmcA. Our experiments revealed that the cooperation of surface proteins OmcA and MtrC makes the reduction reaction most efficient, and the sequence of the reducing reactivity of the MR-1 is: wild type > single mutant @mtrC or mutant @omcA > double mutant (@omcA-@mtrC). Moreover, our results also suggest that the direct microbial Cr(VI) reduction and Fe(II) (hematite)-mediated Cr(VI) reduction mechanisms may co-exist in the reduction processes.

  10. TRITIUM LAB, TRA666. SECTIONS THROUGH LENGTH AND WIDTH OF BUILDING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRITIUM LAB, TRA-666. SECTIONS THROUGH LENGTH AND WIDTH OF BUILDING. STRUCTURAL STEEL CEILING BEAM. CRANE BRIDGE WITH ENDLESS CHAIN. F.C. TORKELSON 842-MTR-666-A2, 12/1962. INL INDEX NO. 531-0666-00-851-150948, REV. 5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. TRITIUM LAB, TRA666. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. ROLLUP DOOR DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRITIUM LAB, TRA-666. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. ROLLUP DOOR DETAILS (SOUTH ELEVATION). PERSONNEL DOOR ON WEST SIDE. F.C. TORKELSON 842-MTR-666-A-1, 10/1952. INL INDEX NO. 531-0666-00-851-150945, REV. 8. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. In vivo quantification of brain injury in adult Niemann-Pick Disease Type C.

    PubMed

    Zaaraoui, Wafaa; Crespy, Lydie; Rico, Audrey; Faivre, Anthony; Soulier, Elisabeth; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J; Pelletier, Jean; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Kaphan, Elsa; Audoin, Bertrand

    2011-06-01

    Development of surrogate markers is necessary to assess the potential efficacy of new therapeutics in Niemann-Pick Disease Type C (NP-C). In the present study, magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging, a quantitative MRI imaging technique sensitive to subtle brain microstructural changes, was applied in two patients suffering from adult NP-C. Statistical mapping analysis was performed to compare each patient's MTR maps with those of a group of 34 healthy controls to quantify and localize the extent of brain injury of each patient. Using this method, pathological changes were evidenced in the cerebellum, the thalami and the lenticular nuclei in both patients and also in the fronto-temporal cortices in the patient with the worse functional deficit. In addition, white matter changes were located in the midbrain, the cerebellum and the fronto-temporal lobes in the patient with the higher level of disability and in only one limited periventricular white matter region in the other patient. A 6-month follow-up was performed in the patient with the lower functional deficit and evidenced significant extension of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) injuries during the following period (14% of increased injury for GM and 53% for WM). This study demonstrates that significant brain injury related to clinical deficit can be assessed in vivo in adult NP-C using MTR imaging. Although preliminary, these findings suggest that MTR imaging may be a relevant candidate for the development of biomarker in NP-C. PMID:21397539

  13. Effects of guaifenesin, N-acetylcysteine, and ambroxol on MUC5AC and mucociliary transport in primary differentiated human tracheal-bronchial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Therapeutic intervention in the pathophysiology of airway mucus hypersecretion is clinically important. Several types of drugs are available with different possible modes of action. We examined the effects of guaifenesin (GGE), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and ambroxol (Amb) on differentiated human airway epithelial cells stimulated with IL-13 to produce additional MUC5AC. Methods After IL-13 pre-treatment (3 days), the cultures were treated with GGE, NAC or Amb (10–300 μM) in the continued presence of IL-13. Cellular and secreted MUC5AC, mucociliary transport rates (MTR), mucus rheology at several time points, and the antioxidant capacity of the drugs were assessed. Results IL-13 increased MUC5AC content (~25%) and secretion (~2-fold) and decreased MTR, but only slightly affected the G’ (elastic) or G” (viscous) moduli of the secretions. GGE significantly inhibited MUC5AC secretion and content in the IL-13-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50s at 24 hr ~100 and 150 μM, respectively). NAC or Amb were less effective. All drugs increased MTR and decreased G’ and G” relative to IL-13 alone. Cell viability was not affected and only NAC exhibited antioxidant capacity. Conclusions Thus, GGE effectively reduces cellular content and secretion of MUC5AC, increases MTR, and alters mucus rheology, and may therefore be useful in treating airway mucus hypersecretion and mucostasis in airway diseases. PMID:23113953

  14. 'Fishing' for Alternatives to Mountaintop Mining in Southern West Virginia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal mining (MTR) is a major industry in southern West Virginia with many detrimental effects for small to mid-sized streams, and interest in alternative, sustainable industries is on the rise. As a first step in a larger effort to assess the value of sport fisheri...

  15. Myelin vs Axon Abnormalities in White Matter in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E; Ongür, Dost; Sperry, Sarah H; Cohen, Bruce M; Sehovic, Selma; Goldbach, Jacqueline R; Du, Fei

    2015-01-01

    White matter (WM) abnormalities are among the most commonly reported neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder. Nonetheless, the specific nature and pathophysiology of these abnormalities remain unclear. Use of a combination of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and diffusion tensor spectroscopy (DTS) permits examination of myelin and axon abnormalities separately. We aimed to examine myelination and axon geometry in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP) by combining these two complementary noninvasive MRI techniques. We applied a combined MRI approach using MTR to study myelin content and DTS to study metabolite (N-acetylaspartate, NAA) diffusion within axons in patients with BDP (n=21) and healthy controls (n=24). Data were collected from a 1 × 3 × 3-cm voxel within the right prefrontal cortex WM at 4 Tesla. Clinical and cognitive data were examined in association with MTR and DTS data. MTR was significantly reduced in BDP, suggesting reduced myelin content. The apparent diffusion coefficient of NAA did not differ from healthy controls, suggesting no changes in axon geometry in patients with BDP. These findings suggest that patients with BDP exhibit reduced myelin content, but no changes in axon geometry compared with controls. These findings are in contrast with our recent findings, using the same techniques, in patients with schizophrenia (SZ), which suggest both myelination and axon abnormalities in SZ. This difference may indicate that alterations in WM in BDP may have unique causes and may be less extensive than WM abnormalities seen in SZ. PMID:25409595

  16. Hydrolytic activity and metabolism of sediment and epilithon in streams draining mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountaintop removal and valley filling (MTR/VF) is a method of coal mining used in the Central Appalachians. Regulations require that potential impacts to stream functions must be considered when determining the compensatory mitigation necessary for replacing aquatic resources un...

  17. Neural substrate of quality of life in patients with schizophrenia: a magnetisation transfer imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Catherine, Faget-Agius; Boyer, Laurent; Jonathan, Wirsich; Jean-Philippe, Ranjeva; Raphaelle, Richieri; Elisabeth, Soulier; Sylviane, Confort-Gouny; Pascal, Auquier; Maxime, Guye; Christophe, Lançon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neural substrate underlying quality of life (QoL) and to demonstrate the microstructural abnormalities associated with impaired QoL in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia, using magnetisation transfer imaging. A total of 81 right-handed men with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 25 age- and sex-similar healthy controls were included and underwent a 3T MRI with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) to detect microstructural abnormalities. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia had grey matter (GM) decreased MTR values in the temporal lobe (BA21, BA37 and BA38), the bilateral insula, the occipital lobe (BA17, BA18 and BA19) and the cerebellum. Patients with impaired QoL had lower GM MTR values relative to patients with preserved QoL in the bilateral temporal pole (BA38), the bilateral insula, the secondary visual cortex (BA18), the vermis and the cerebellum. Significant correlations between MTR values and QoL scores (p < 0.005) were observed in the GM of patients in the right temporal pole (BA38), the bilateral insula, the vermis and the right cerebellum. Our study shows that QoL impairment in patients with schizophrenia is related to the microstructural changes in an extensive network, suggesting that QoL is a bio-psychosocial marker. PMID:26632639

  18. Interaction between the RNA-dependent ATPase and poly(A) polymerase subunits of the TRAMP complex is mediated by short peptides and important for snoRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Losh, Jillian S; King, Alejandra Klauer; Bakelar, Jeremy; Taylor, Lacy; Loomis, John; Rosenzweig, Jason A; Johnson, Sean J; van Hoof, Ambro

    2015-02-18

    The RNA exosome is one of the main 3′ to 5′ exoribonucleases in eukaryotic cells. Although it is responsible for degradation or processing of a wide variety of substrate RNAs, it is very specific and distinguishes between substrate and non-substrate RNAs as well as between substrates that need to be 3′ processed and those that need to be completely degraded. This specificity does not appear to be determined by the exosome itself but rather by about a dozen other proteins. Four of these exosome cofactors have enzymatic activity, namely, the nuclear RNA-dependent ATPase Mtr4, its cytoplasmic paralog Ski2 and the nuclear non-canonical poly(A) polymerases, Trf4 and Trf5. Mtr4 and either Trf4 or Trf5 assemble into a TRAMP complex. However, how these enzymes assemble into a TRAMP complex and the functional consequences of TRAMP complex assembly remain unknown. Here, we identify an important interaction site between Mtr4 and Trf5, and show that disrupting the Mtr4/Trf interaction disrupts specific TRAMP and exosome functions, including snoRNA processing. PMID:25589546

  19. Impacts of Mountaintop Removal and Valley Fill Coal Mining on C and N Processing in Terrestrial Soils and Headwater Streams.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured C and N cycling indicators in Appalachian watersheds impacted by mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining, and in nearby forested watersheds. These watersheds include ephemeral, intermittent, and perennial stream reaches, and the length of time since d...

  20. Spontaneous electrical activities at myofascial trigger points at different stages of recovery from injury in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiang-Min; Lv, Jiao-Jiao; Ruanshi, Qiong-Mei; Liu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Spontaneous electrical activity (SEA) is a feature of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs), which can either be latent or active. However, SEA at different stages of recovery from MTrPs remains unclear. Objective To investigate the temporal changes in the nature of SEA after generation of MTrPs in a rat model. Methods 32 rats were divided into four groups: 24 rats were assigned to experimental groups (EGs), which underwent the MTrP modelling intervention and 8 were allocated to a control group (CG). All EG rats received a blunt strike to the left vastus medialis combined with eccentric exercise for 8 weeks. After modelling, the EG rats were subdivided into three groups with total recovery times of 4, 8 and 12 weeks (EG-4w, EG-8w and EG-12w, respectively). Taut bands (TBs) with and without the presence of active MTrPs were identified in the left hind limb muscles of all rats, verified by SEA and further examined with electromyography recordings. Myoelectrical signals were also categorised into one of five types. Results CG rats had fewer TBs than EG rats and EGs showed variable frequencies of SEA. SEA frequencies were higher in EG-4w than in EG-8w and EG-12w groups (240.57±72.9 vs 168.14±64.5 and 151.63±65.4, respectively, p<0.05) and were significantly greater in all EGs than in the CG (55.75±21.9). Relative to CG rats, amplitudes and durations of electrical potentials in the EG were only increased in the EG-8w and EG-12w groups. Types IV and V myoelectrical signals were never seen in latent MTrPs and type V signals did not occur in EG-4w rats. Conclusions Increasing recovery periods following a MTrP modelling intervention in rats are characterised by different frequencies and amplitudes of SEA from TBs. Trial registration number 2014012. PMID:25971282

  1. Association between SNPs in genes involved in folate metabolism and preterm birth risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, B J; Liu, M J; Wang, Y; Dai, J R; Tao, J Y; Wang, S N; Zhong, N; Chen, Y

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 genes involved in folate metabolic and preterm birth. A subset of SNPs selected from 11 genes/loci involved in the folic acid metabolism pathway were subjected to SNaPshot analysis in a case-control study. Twelve SNPs (CBS-C699T, DHFR-c594+59del19, GST01-C428T, MTHFD-G1958A, MTHFR-C677T, MTHFR-A1298C, MTR-A2756G, MTRR-A66G, NFE2L2-ins1+C11108T, RFC1-G80A, TCN2-C776G, and TYMS-1494del6) in 503 DNA samples were simultaneously tested, and included 315 preterm births and 188 controls. None of the 12 SNP genotype distributions related to the folic acid metabolism pathway showed a significant difference between preterm and term babies. The frequency of the compound mutation genotype of MTHFD-G1958A, MTR-A2756G and RFC1-G80A in preterm babies was 7.3%, which was significantly higher than the 2.7% in term babies. Seven babies carried the compound mutation genotype of MTHFD-G1958A, MTR-A2756G, and CBS-C699T, but this was not observed in term babies. The frequency of the combined wild-type genotype of MTHFD-G1958A, MTR-A2756G, MTRR-A66G, MTHFR-A1298C, NFE2L2-ins1+C11108T, and RFC1- G80A in preterm babies was 3.17%, which was significantly lower than the 7.4% in term babies. The 12 SNPs screened in this study were not independent risk factors of preterm birth. Compound mutation genotypes, including MTHFD-G1958A, MTR-A2756G, and RFC1- G80A and MTHFD-G1958A, MTR-A2756G, and CBS-C699T, may increase the risk of preterm birth. The combined wild-type genotype MTHFD-G1958A, MTR-A2756G, MTRR-A66G, MTHFR-A1298C, NFE2L2-ins1+C11108T, and RFC1-G80A may decrease the risk of preterm birth. PMID:25730024

  2. A multimodal MRI approach to identify and characterize microstructural brain changes in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Ece; Ingo, Carson; Tritanon, Oranan; Magro-Checa, Cesar; Smith, Alex; Smith, Seth; Huizinga, Tom; van Buchem, Mark A.; Ronen, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with multi-organ involvement and results in neurological and psychiatric (NP) symptoms in up to 40% of the patients. To date, the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) poses a challenge due to the lack of neuroradiological gold standards. In this study, we aimed to better localize and characterize normal appearing white matter (NAWM) changes in NPSLE by combining data from two quantitative MRI techniques, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI). 9 active NPSLE patients (37 ± 13 years, all females), 9 SLE patients without NP symptoms (44 ± 11 years, all females), and 14 healthy controls (HC) (40 ± 9 years, all females) were included in the study. MTI, DTI and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images were collected from all subjects on a 3 T MRI scanner. Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), axial diffusivity (AD) maps and white matter lesion maps based on the FLAIR images were created for each subject. MTR and DTI data were then co-analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics and a cumulative lesion map to exclude lesions. Significantly lower MTR and FA and significantly higher AD, RD and MD were found in NPSLE compared to HC in NAWM regions. The differences in DTI measures and in MTR, however, were only moderately co-localized. Additionally, significant differences in DTI measures, but not in MTR, were found between NPSLE and SLE patients, suggesting that the underlying microstructural changes detected by MD are linked to the onset of NPSLE. The co-analysis of the anatomical distribution of MTI and DTI measures can potentially improve the diagnosis of NPSLE and contribute to the understanding of the underlying microstructural damage. PMID:26106559

  3. Myofascial trigger point-focused head and neck massage for recurrent tension-type headache: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Moraska, Albert F.; Stenerson, Lea; Butryn, Nathan; Krutsch, Jason P.; Schmiege, Sarah J.; Mann, J. Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Objective Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are focal disruptions in skeletal muscle that can refer pain to the head and reproduce the pain patterns of tension-type headache (TTH). The present study applied massage focused on MTrPs of subjects with TTH in a placebo-controlled, clinical trial to assess efficacy on reducing headache pain. Methods Fifty-six subjects with TTH were randomized to receive 12 massage or placebo (detuned ultrasound) sessions over six weeks, or to wait-list. Trigger point release (TPR) massage focused on MTrPs in cervical musculature. Headache pain (frequency, intensity and duration) was recorded in a daily headache diary. Additional outcome measures included self-report of perceived clinical change in headache pain and pressure-pain threshold (PPT) at MTrPs in the upper trapezius and sub-occipital muscles. Results From diary recordings, group differences across time were detected in headache frequency (p=0.026), but not for intensity or duration. Post hoc analysis indicated headache frequency decreased from baseline for both massage (p<0.0003) and placebo (p=0.013), but no difference was detected between massage and placebo. Subject report of perceived clinical change was a greater reduction in headache pain for massage than placebo or wait-list groups (p=0.002). PPT improved in all muscles tested for massage only (all p's<0.002). Discussion Two findings from this study are apparent: 1) MTrPs are important components in the treatment of TTH, and 2) TTH, like other chronic conditions, is responsive to placebo. Clinical trials on headache that do not include a placebo group are at risk for overestimating the specific contribution from the active intervention. PMID:25329141

  4. Characterization of the periplasmic redox network that sustains the versatile anaerobic metabolism of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Mónica N.; Neto, Sónia E.; Alves, Alexandra S.; Fonseca, Bruno M.; Carrêlo, Afonso; Pacheco, Isabel; Paquete, Catarina M.; Soares, Cláudio M.; Louro, Ricardo O.

    2015-01-01

    The versatile anaerobic metabolism of the Gram-negative bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (SOMR-1) relies on a multitude of redox proteins found in its periplasm. Most are multiheme cytochromes that carry electrons to terminal reductases of insoluble electron acceptors located at the cell surface, or bona fide terminal reductases of soluble electron acceptors. In this study, the interaction network of several multiheme cytochromes was explored by a combination of NMR spectroscopy, activity assays followed by UV-visible spectroscopy and comparison of surface electrostatic potentials. From these data the small tetraheme cytochrome (STC) emerges as the main periplasmic redox shuttle in SOMR-1. It accepts electrons from CymA and distributes them to a number of terminal oxidoreductases involved in the respiration of various compounds. STC is also involved in the electron transfer pathway to reduce nitrite by interaction with the octaheme tetrathionate reductase (OTR), but not with cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNiR). In the main pathway leading the metal respiration STC pairs with flavocytochrome c (FccA), the other major periplasmic cytochrome, which provides redundancy in this important pathway. The data reveals that the two proteins compete for the binding site at the surface of MtrA, the decaheme cytochrome inserted on the periplasmic side of the MtrCAB–OmcA outer-membrane complex. However, this is not observed for the MtrA homologues. Indeed, neither STC nor FccA interact with MtrD, the best replacement for MtrA, and only STC is able to interact with the decaheme cytochrome DmsE of the outer-membrane complex DmsEFABGH. Overall, these results shown that STC plays a central role in the anaerobic respiratory metabolism of SOMR-1. Nonetheless, the trans-periplasmic electron transfer chain is functionally resilient as a consequence of redundancies that arise from the presence of alternative pathways that bypass/compete with STC. PMID:26175726

  5. NVL2, a nucleolar AAA-ATPase, is associated with the nuclear exosome and is involved in pre-rRNA processing

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikatsu, Yuki; Ishida, Yo-ichi; Sudo, Haruka; Yuasa, Keizo; Tsuji, Akihiko; Nagahama, Masami

    2015-08-28

    Nuclear VCP-like 2 (NVL2) is a member of the chaperone-like AAA-ATPase family and is involved in the biosynthesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in mammalian cells. We previously showed the interaction of NVL2 with a DExD/H-box RNA helicase MTR4/DOB1, which is a known cofactor for an exoribonuclease complex, the exosome. This finding implicated NVL2 in RNA metabolic processes during ribosome biogenesis. In the present study, we found that a series of mutations within the ATPase domain of NVL2 causes a defect in pre-rRNA processing into mature 28S and 5.8S rRNAs. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that NVL2 was associated with the nuclear exosome complex, which includes RRP6 as a nucleus-specific catalytic subunit. This interaction was prevented by depleting either MTR4 or RRP6, indicating their essential role in mediating this interaction with NVL2. Additionally, knockdown of MPP6, another cofactor for the nuclear exosome, also prevented the interaction by causing MTR4 to dissociate from the nuclear exosome. These results suggest that NVL2 is involved in pre-rRNA processing by associating with the nuclear exosome complex and that MPP6 is required for maintaining the integrity of this rRNA processing complex. - Highlights: • ATPase-deficient mutants of NVL2 have decreased pre-rRNA processing. • NVL2 associates with the nuclear exosome through interactions with MTR4 and RRP6. • MPP6 stabilizes MTR4-RRP6 interaction and allows NVL2 to interact with the complex.

  6. Methionine recycling pathways and antimalarial drug design.

    PubMed Central

    Sufrin, J R; Meshnick, S R; Spiess, A J; Garofalo-Hannan, J; Pan, X Q; Bacchi, C J

    1995-01-01

    5'-Deoxy-5'-(methylthio)adenosine (MTA) is an S-adenosylmethionine metabolite that is generated as a by-product of polyamine biosynthesis. In mammalian cells, MTA undergoes a phosphorolytic cleavage catalyzed by MTA phosphorylase to produce adenine and 5-deoxy-5-(methylthio)ribose-1-phosphate (MTRP). Adenine is utilized in purine salvage pathways, and MTRP is subsequently recycled to methionine. Whereas some microorganisms metabolize MTA to MTRP via MTA phosphorylase, others metabolize MTA to MTRP in two steps via initial cleavage by MTA nucleosidase to adenine and 5-deoxy-5-(methylthio)ribose (MTR) followed by conversion of MTR to MTRP by MTR kinase. In order to assess the extent to which these pathways may be operative in Plasmodium falciparum, we have examined a series of 5'-alkyl-substituted analogs of MTA and the related MTR analogs and compared their abilities to inhibit in vitro growth of this malarial parasite. The MTR analogs 5-deoxy-5-(ethylthio)ribose and 5-deoxy-5-(hydroxyethylthio)ribose were inactive at concentrations up to 1 mM, and 5-deoxy-5-(monofluoroethylthio)ribose was weakly active (50% inhibitory concentration = 700 microM). In comparison, the MTA analogs, 5'-deoxy-5'-(ethylthio)adenosine,5'-deoxy-5'-(hydroxyethylthio)ade nosine (HETA), and 5'-deoxy-5'-(monofluoroethylthio)adenosine, had 50% inhibitory concentrations of 80, 46, and 61 microM, respectively. Extracts of P. falciparum were found to have substantial MTA phosphorylase activity. Coadministration of MTA with HETA partially protected the parasites against the growth-inhibitory effects of HETA. Results of this study indicate that P. falciparum has an active MTA phosphorylase that can be targeted by analogs of MTA. PMID:8585735

  7. Effect of irregularity in shape and boundary of a macro-texture region in titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jeong K.; Blackshire, James L.; Freed, Shaun L.

    2016-02-01

    Peak amplitudes of mode converted shear wave signals back scattered from macro-texture regions (MTRs) in an aerospace grade titanium alloy material are measured to be about the same level as corner trapped shear wave signals. In addition to the abnormally high shear wave responses, the time of flight data indicates that the MTR signals are back scattered from a location deep in the sample so that the round trip travel time is close to that of corner trapped signals. In this work, these two ultrasonic properties of an MTR in a test specimen cut from a titanium jet engine disk are closely studied to understand the root cause of abnormally high shear wave responses. Based on the amplitude and time of flight data collected in a laboratory condition, a decision has been made to investigate further experimentally and computationally how surface irregularity of an acoustically reflective surface affects incoming shear waves upon reflection. Attempts are made to correlate the localized back scattered signal response of the MTR in the test specimen to the beam focusing effect of a non-planar surface of an acoustically impedance mismatched boundary layer such as a fatigue crack face. From the current experimental and computational results on the reflection of corner trapped shear waves from a concave shaped section of a non-planar crack face and the time of flight data, it is speculated that the root cause of the abnormally high peak amplitude MTR signal is possibly due to the beam focusing effect caused by the shape of the MTR.

  8. Differences of Intrasession Reproducibility of Circumpapillary Total Retinal Thickness and Circumpapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measurements Made with the RS-3000 Optical Coherence Tomograph

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Yoshiyuki; Hollό, Gábor; Kita, Ritsuko; Horie, Daisuke; Inoue, Makoto; Hirakata, Akito

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the intrasession reproducibility of various thickness parameters used to diagnose and follow-up glaucoma, in particular circumpapillary total retinal thickness (cpTR) provided by the RS-3000 optical coherence tomograph (OCT). Methods Fifty-three healthy eyes of 28 subjects underwent three consecutive imaging with the RS-3000 Advance OCT (NIDEK, Aichi,Japan) to evaluate the intrasession reproducibility of circumpapillary total retinal thickness (cpTR), circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFL), macular ganglion cell complex thickness (mGCC) and macular total retina thickness (mTR) measurements. Intraclass correlation (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV) and reproducibility coefficient (RC) were calculated for each parameter. Results The ICC and CV values for mean cpTR and cpRNFL were 0.987 and 0.897, and 0.60% and 2.81%, respectively. The RC values for the mean cpTR and cpRNFL were 5.95 μm and 9.04 μm, respectively. For all cpTR parameters the ICC values were higher and both the CV and RC values were lower than those for the corresponding cpRNFL parameters. The ICC and CV values for superior mGCC, inferior mGCC, superior mTR and inferior mTR were 0.983, 0.980, 0.983 and 0.988, and 0.84%, 0.98%, 0.48% and 0.43%, respectively. The RC values for superior mGCC, inferior mGCC, superior mTR and inferior mTR were 2.86 μm, 3.12 μm, 4.41μm and 4.43 μm, respectively. Conclusions Intrasession reproducibility of cpTR, mGCC and mTR measurements made on healthy eyes was high. Repeatability of cpTR measurements was better than that of the corresponding cpRNFL measurements. These results suggest that future clinical investigations addressing detection of glaucoma and glaucomatous progression with the RS-3000 OCT may benefit from focusing on the cpTR parameters. PMID:26657805

  9. Comparing Hydrologic Response Times Between a Forested and Mountaintop Mined Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. J.; Zegre, N.

    2012-12-01

    Mountaintop removal mining (MTR) represents the largest land cover/landuse change in the Central Appalachian region. By 2012, the U.S. EPA estimates that MTR will have impacted approximately 6.8% of the predominately forested Appalachian Coalfield region of West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia with nearly 4,000 miles of headwater streams buried under valley fills. In spite of the scale and extent of MTR, its hydrologic impacts are poorly understood. While MTR has a well-established pattern of downstream water quality degradation, its effect on the quantity and timing of catchment runoff is less clear. Several devastating floods in the region have been attributed to MTR, but there is little evidence to either confirm or refute this belief. Existing research has focused on statistical analysis of catchment outlet responses, but results from these studies only offer evidence of differences in hydrologic behavior, not process understanding of how the system is changing. This study begins to address that research gap by exploring differences in hydrologic response times, a fundamental hydraulic parameter that controls the conversion of rainfall to runoff. A simple rainfall-runoff model was used to quantify differences in response times for storm events in a mined and predominantly forested catchment. Results showed that the mountaintop mined catchment responded more quickly to storm events than the forested catchment. The mined catchment also showed more variability in response time than the forested catchment. These patterns repeated using multiple model structures. The more rapid response of the mined catchment is likely attributed to increased impervious surface, preferential flow paths within valley fills that rapidly route water to the stream, or rapid displacement of water stored in valley fills upon the onset of rain. However, further research using tools such as isotope tracers is needed to offer insight about the processes responsible for streamflow

  10. Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast density. We examine if these findings generalize to another population. Methods Texture patterns were recorded in digitalized pre-diagnosis (3.7 years) film mammograms of a nested case–control study within the Dutch screening program (S1) comprising of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls. The patterns were recognized in the same study using cross-validation to form resemblance scores associated with breast cancer. Texture patterns from S1 were examined in an independent nested case–control study within the Mayo Mammography Health Study cohort (S2) of 226 cases and 442 matched controls: mammograms on average 8.5 years prior to diagnosis, risk factor information and percent mammographic density (PD) estimated using Cumulus were available. MTR scores estimated from S1, S2 and S1 + S2 (the latter two as cross-validations) were evaluated in S2. MTR scores were analyzed as both quartiles and continuously for association with breast cancer using odds ratios (OR) and adjusting for known risk factors including age, body mass index (BMI), and hormone usage. Results The mean ages of S1 and S2 were 58.0 ± 5.7 years and 55.2 ± 10.5 years, respectively. The MTR scores on S1 showed significant capability to discriminate cancers from controls (area under the operator characteristics curve (AUC) = 0.63 ± 0.02, P <0.001), which persisted after adjustment for PD. S2 showed an AUC of 0.63, 0.61, and 0.60 based on PD, MTR scores trained on S2, and MTR scores trained on S1, respectively. When adjusted for PD, MTR scores of S2 trained on S1 showed an association with breast cancer for the highest quartile alone: OR in quartiles of controls as reference; 1

  11. [FlU Zhonghua's clinical experience of Fu's subcutaneous needling for cervical spondylosis].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Minying; Zhang, Xiyu

    2015-08-01

    Professor FU Zhonghua's unique clinical experience of Fu's subcutaneous needling (FSN) for cervical spondylosis (CS) is discussed in this paper, which is analyzed from the aspects of recognition of CS pathogenesis, treatment mechanism of FSN, advantage indications of FSN for CS and examples of medical cases. Professor FU introduced the theory of myofascial trigger points (MTrP) into the field of the management of CS. The site of neck MTrP should be carefully examined, and FSN needles for single use are used to sweep the affected area or subcutaneous layer of adjacent upper limb. This method can rapidly improve ischemia and hypoxia state of the relevant muscles and prompt the self-recovery of neck muscles. During FSN treatment, reperfusion approach is recommended to adopt to improve the qi and blood circulation and recovery of neck function. PMID:26571902

  12. Evidence for a reserpine-affected mechanism of resistance to tetracycline in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Joaquim; Ribera, Anna; Jurado, Angels; Marco, Francesc; Vila, Jordi

    2005-10-01

    The presence of a reserpine-affected mechanism of tetracycline resistance was investigated in 17 Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolates. To establish this fact the MIC of tetracycline in the presence and absence of reserpine was determined, and, in addition, mechanisms of tetracycline resistance were analyzed by PCR. The results showed that reserpine affects the MIC of tetracycline at least 4-fold in all isolates, including those containing the tetM gene. An inhibitory effect of reserpine against the MtrCDE efflux system was ruled out by using strains either with an inactive or with an unrepressed MtrCDE system. The results suggest the presence of a constitutive system of resistance to tetracycline, by a possible efflux pump, which may be inhibited by reserpine. Further studies are required to determine the exact nature of the action of reserpine on the MIC of tetracycline. PMID:16309425

  13. Exploring the biochemistry at the extracellular redox frontier of bacterial mineral Fe(III) respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, David J.; Edwards, Marcus; White, Gaye F.; Baiden, Nanakow; Hartshorne, Robert S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Shi, Liang; Zachara, John M.; Gates, Andrew J.; Butt, Julea N.; Clarke, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Many species of the bacterial Shewanella genus are notable for their ability to respire in anoxic environments utilizing insoluble minerals of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) as extracellular electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis, the process is dependent on the decahaem electron-transport proteins that lie at the extracellular face of the outer membrane where they can contact the insoluble mineral substrates. These extracellular proteins are charged with electrons provided by an inter-membrane electron-transfer pathway that links the extracellular face of the outer membrane with the inner cytoplasmic membrane and thereby intracellular electron sources. In the present paper, we consider the common structural features of two of these outermembrane decahaem cytochromes, MtrC and MtrF, and bring this together with biochemical, spectroscopic and voltammetric data to identify common and distinct properties of these prototypical members of different clades of the outer-membrane decahaem cytochrome superfamily.

  14. Genome sequence of a novel endornavirus from the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicicola.

    PubMed

    Shang, Hong-Hong; Zhong, Jie; Zhang, Ru-Jia; Chen, Chuan-Yuan; Gao, Bi-Da; Zhu, Hong-Jian

    2015-07-01

    In an effort to discover new mycoviruses from phytopathogenic fungi, a dsRNA molecule of 10,290 nt, resembling those associated with the viruses belonging to the family Endornaviridae, was isolated from Alternaria brassicicola, one of the causal agents of rapeseed black spot disease. Genome analysis revealed the presence of a single open reading frame coding for a polyprotein of 3400 aa containing conserved viral methyltransferase (MTR), viral RNA helicase 1 (Hel-1), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains. In addition, a cysteine-rich region (CRR) with conserved CXCC motifs, shared among several endornaviruses, was also identified between the MTR and Hel-1 domains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the RdRp sequence strongly suggested that the virus infecting A. brassicicola should be considered a representative of a novel endornavirus species, and this virus was designated as Alternaria brassicicola endornavirus 1 (AbEV1). PMID:25951967

  15. Associations between genetic variants in folate and drug metabolizing pathways and relapse risk in pediatric acute lymphoid leukemia on CCG-1952

    PubMed Central

    Vujkovic, Marijana; Kershenbaum, Aaron; Wray, Lisa; McWilliams, Thomas; Cannon, Shannon; Devidas, Meenakshi; Stork, Linda; Aplenc, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variation in drug detoxification pathways may influence outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We evaluated relapse risk and 24 variants in 17 genes in 714 patients in CCG-1961. Three TPMT and 1 MTR variant were associated with increased risks of relapse (rs4712327, OR 3.3, 95%CI 1.2–8.6; rs2842947, OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.1–6.8; rs2842935, OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.1–5.0; rs10925235, OR 4.9, 95%CI 1.1–25.1). One variant in SLC19A1 showed a protective effect (rs4819128, OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.3–0.9). Our study provides data that relapse risk in pediatric ALL is associated with germline variations in TPMT, MTR and SLC19A1. PMID:26605150

  16. Electron Flow in Multiheme Bacterial Cytochromes is a Balancing Act Between Heme Electronic Interaction and Redox Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, Marian; Rosso, Kevin M.; Blumberger, Jochen

    2014-01-14

    The naturally widespread process of electron transfer from metal reducing bacteria to extracellular solid metal oxides entails unique biomolecular machinery optimized for long-range electron transport. To perform this function efficiently microorganisms have adapted multi-heme c-type cytochromes to arrange heme cofactors into wires that cooperatively span the cellular envelope, transmitting electrons along distances greater than 100 Angstroms. Implications and opportunities for bionanotechnological device design are self-evident. However, at the molecular level how these proteins shuttle electrons along their heme wires, navigating intraprotein intersections and interprotein interfaces effciently, remains a mystery so far inaccessible to experiment. To shed light on this critical topic, we carried out extensive computer simulations to calculate Marcus theory quantities for electron transfer along the ten heme cofactors in the recently crystallized outer membrane cytochrome MtrF. The combination of electronic coupling matrix elements with free energy calculations of heme redox potentials and reorganization energies for heme-to-heme electron transfer allows the step-wise and overall electron transfer rate to be estimated and understood in terms of structural and dynamical characteristics of the protein. By solving a master equation for electron hopping, we estimate an intrinsic, maximum possible electron flux through solvated MtrF of 104-105 s-1, consistent with recently measured rates for the related MtrCAB protein complex. Intriguingly, this flux must navigate thermodynamically uphill steps past low potential hemes. Our calculations show that the rapid electron transport through MtrF is the result of a clear correlation between heme redox potential and the strength of electronic coupling along the wire: Thermodynamically uphill steps occur only between electronically well connected stacked heme pairs. This suggests that the protein evolved to harbor low potential

  17. Patterns in nutrient concentrations and biological quality indices across the upper Thames river basin, UK.

    PubMed

    Jarvi, Helen P; Lycett, Esther; Neal, Colin; Love, Alison

    2002-01-23

    This paper examines the nutrient chemistry and biological quality indices [Mean Trophic Rank (MTR) and Trophic Diatom Index (TDI)] for rivers within the upper Thames basin. The predominant sources of nitrogen within the rivers monitored were diffuse and agricultural in nature. However, phosphorus showed both diffuse and point source signals. MTR surveys undertaken both upstream and downstream of major STWs indicate that these rivers are 'at risk' of eutrophication or 'badly damaged'. MTR surveys also indicate increased trophic status downstream of STWs, whereas TDI does not indicate such a consistent pattern. Phosphorus treatment at selected major sewage treatment works in the upper Thames basin resulted in significant reductions in in-stream P concentrations and reductions in fluxes by a half to two thirds. However, the effects of P-reduction on in-stream ecology (measured as MTR and TDI) were more difficult to ascribe, owing to: (1) the high variability in river flow rates experienced since P-reduction was introduced; (2) lag effects related to P stores in river bed sediments; and (3) diffuse and smaller point source inputs upstream. The results of this study indicate that control of upstream sources of phosphorus may prove critical in improving the biological quality status of UK lowland rivers, including ecological responses to P-source controls on the major sewage treatment works downstream. Upstream sources include both diffuse (agricultural) sources and small point source inputs which, at present, are not classified as 'qualifying discharges' under the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive (UWWTD) and are thus not subject to phosphorus control measures. These results are of relevance for integrated, sustainable management and protection of European freshwater resources, particularly in terms of new ecological targets for water quality management under the new Water Framework Directive. PMID:11846074

  18. ETR, TRA642 AND TRA647. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST AND SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642 AND TRA-647. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST AND SECOND FLOORS OF THE OFFICE AND CONTROL BUILDING ALONG THE NORTH WALL OF THE ETR BUILDING. HEALTH PHYSICS, OPERATIONS, AND CONTROL ROOM. AIRLOCK DOOR. OFFICES. STAIRWAY LOCATIONS. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-642-A-3, 10/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-100911, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Identification and Characterization of UndA-HRCR-6, an Outer Membrane Endecaheme c-Type Cytochrome of Shewanella sp. Strain HRCR-6

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Belchik, Sara M.; Wang, Zheming; Kennedy, David W.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Marshall, Matthew J.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-08-01

    The outer membrane decaheme c-type cytochromes (c-Cyt) MtrC and OmcA of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1(MR-1) play critical roles in extracellular reduction of iron [Fe(III)] oxides and uranium [ U(VI)]. To identify and characterize the outer membrane c-Cyts found in the metal-reducing Shewanella strains isolated from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River (HRCR), 7 HRCR isolates were tested for the presence of mtrC, omcA and undA1 (a gene encoding a putative 11-heme c-Cyt) homologues in their genomes. All 7 tested strains possessed an mtrC homologue, while 3 strains had an omcA homologue and the remaining 4 strains contained an undA1 homologue. The coding region of an undA1 homologue from HRCR isolate 6 was cloned and sequenced. Because it was 93% identical to the UndA of S. baltica OS223, the protein product encoded by this sequenced gene was named as UndA-HRCR6. In MR-1, UndA-HRCR6 (i) restored an MR-1 mutant’s ability to reduce solid phase ferrihydrite at 40% of that for MR-1 wild type, (ii) increased extracellular formation of UO2 associated with the outer membrane and extracellular polymeric substances in a U(VI) reduction assay and (iii) was secreted to the extracellular environment by bacterial type II secretion system. UndA-HRCR6 was purified from the membrane fraction following its overexpression in MR-1 cells. Purified UndA-HRCR6 possessed 11 heme-Fe and reduced ferric complexes. Collectively, these results show that UndA-HRCR6 is an outer membrane endecaheme c-Cyt and can serve an extracellular metal reductase with functions similar to that of MR-1 MtrC and OmcA.

  20. REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA635, CONTEXTUAL VIEW DURING CONSTRUCTION. CAMERA IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635, CONTEXTUAL VIEW DURING CONSTRUCTION. CAMERA IS ATOP MTR BUILDING AND LOOKING SOUTHERLY. FOUNDATION AND DRAINS ARE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THE BUILDING WILL BUTT AGAINST CHARGING FACE OF PLUG STORAGE BUILDING. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632, IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT TOP CENTER OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. 8518. Unknown Photographer, 8/25/1953 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. RRFC hardware operation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Abhold, M.E.; Hsue, S.T.; Menlove, H.O.; Walton, G.

    1996-05-01

    The Research Reactor Fuel Counter (RRFC) system was developed to assay the {sup 235}U content in spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) type fuel elements underwater in a spent fuel pool. RRFC assays the {sup 235}U content using active neutron coincidence counting and also incorporates an ion chamber for gross gamma-ray measurements. This manual describes RRFC hardware, including detectors, electronics, and performance characteristics.

  2. Electron flow in multiheme bacterial cytochromes is a balancing act between heme electronic interaction and redox potentials

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Marian; Rosso, Kevin M.; Blumberger, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The naturally widespread process of electron transfer from metal reducing bacteria to extracellular solid metal oxides entails unique biomolecular machinery optimized for long-range electron transport. To perform this function efficiently, microorganisms have adapted multiheme c-type cytochromes to arrange heme cofactors into wires that cooperatively span the cellular envelope, transmitting electrons along distances greater than 100 Å. Implications and opportunities for bionanotechnological device design are self-evident. However, at the molecular level, how these proteins shuttle electrons along their heme wires, navigating intraprotein intersections and interprotein interfaces efficiently, remains a mystery thus far inaccessible to experiment. To shed light on this critical topic, we carried out extensive quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations to calculate stepwise heme-to-heme electron transfer rates in the recently crystallized outer membrane deca-heme cytochrome MtrF. By solving a master equation for electron hopping, we estimate an intrinsic, maximum possible electron flux through solvated MtrF of 104–105 s−1, consistent with recently measured rates for the related multiheme protein complex MtrCAB. Intriguingly, our calculations show that the rapid electron transport through MtrF is the result of a clear correlation between heme redox potential and the strength of electronic coupling along the wire: thermodynamically uphill steps occur only between electronically well-connected stacked heme pairs. This observation suggests that the protein evolved to harbor low-potential hemes without slowing down electron flow. These findings are particularly profound in light of the apparently well-conserved staggered cross-heme wire structural motif in functionally related outer membrane proteins. PMID:24385579

  3. GAMMA FACILITY, TRA611, INTERIOR. WITH HELP OF OVERHEAD CHAIN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GAMMA FACILITY, TRA-611, INTERIOR. WITH HELP OF OVERHEAD CHAIN AND HOOK, SCIENTIST GUIDES METAL CONTAINER (HOLDING POTATOES, IN THIS CASE) INTO RECEIVING "COLUMN" IN THE GAMMA CANAL. NOTE OTHER COLUMNS AT RIGHT AND LEFT WALLS OF CANAL. NEAR BOTTOM OF CANAL, SPENT MTR FUEL WILL IRRADIATE POTATOES. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-439. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 2/8/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. MECHANICALLY-JOINED PLATE-TYPE ALUMINUM-CLAD FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Erwin, J.H.

    1962-12-11

    A method of fabricating MTR-type fuel elements is described wherein dove- tailed joints are used to fasten fuel plates to supporting side members. The method comprises the steps of dove-tailing the lateral edges of the fuel plates, inserting the dove-tailed edges into corresponding recesses which are provided in a pair of supporting side members, and compressing the supporting side members in a direction so as to close the recesses onto the dove-tailed edges. (AEC)

  5. Tradeoffs in the utility of learned knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kedar, Smadar; Mckusick, Kathleen B.

    1992-01-01

    Planning systems which make use of domain theories can produce more accurate plans and achieve more goals as the quality of their domain knowledge improves. MTR, a multi-strategy learning system, was designed to learn from system failures and improve domain knowledge used in planning. However, augmented domain knowledge can decrease planning efficiency. We describe how improved knowledge that becomes expensive to use can be approximated to yield calculated tradeoffs in accuracy and efficiency.

  6. EAST FACE OF REACTOR BASE. COMING TOWARD CAMERA IS EXCAVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST FACE OF REACTOR BASE. COMING TOWARD CAMERA IS EXCAVATION FOR MTR CANAL. CAISSONS FLANK EACH SIDE. COUNTERFORT (SUPPORT PERPENDICULAR TO WHAT WILL BE THE LONG WALL OF THE CANAL) RESTS ATOP LEFT CAISSON. IN LOWER PART OF VIEW, DRILLERS PREPARE TRENCHES FOR SUPPORT BEAMS THAT WILL LIE BENEATH CANAL FLOOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 739. Unknown Photographer, 10/6/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. HEALTH AND SAFETY BUILDING, TRA667. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HEALTH AND SAFETY BUILDING, TRA-667. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. FLOOR PLAN AND ROOM DESIGNATIONS. NOTE PAIR OF ENTRY DOORS IN WEST ELEVATION FOR MEN AND WOMEN. CONCRETE T-BEAMS. F.C. TORKELSON CO. 842-MTR-667-A1, 1/1963. INL INDEX NO. 531-0667-00-851-151143, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. LOW-PRESSURE MEMBRANE CONTACTORS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Richard; Kniep, Jay; Hao, Pingjiao; Chan, Chi Cheng; Nguyen, Vincent; Huang, Ivy; Amo, Karl; Freeman, Brice; Fulton, Don; Ly, Jennifer; Lipscomb, Glenn; Lou, Yuecun; Gogar, Ravikumar

    2014-09-30

    This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

  9. FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA665, INTERIOR. LOWER (DETECTOR) LEVEL. NOTE BRICKEDIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA-665, INTERIOR. LOWER (DETECTOR) LEVEL. NOTE BRICKED-IN WINDOW ON MTR SIDE. USED FOR STORAGE OF LEAD BRICKS AFTER EXPERIMENTAL NEUTRON INSTRUMENTS WERE REMOVED. SIGN SAYS "IN-PROCESS LEAD SOURCE STORAGE." INL NEGATIVE NO. HD-42-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters methyl metabolism and programs serotonin transporter and glucocorticoid receptor expression in brain.

    PubMed

    Ngai, Ying Fai; Sulistyoningrum, Dian C; O'Neill, Ryan; Innis, Sheila M; Weinberg, Joanne; Devlin, Angela M

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) programs the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in HPA dysregulation and hyperresponsiveness to stressors in adulthood. Molecular mechanisms mediating these alterations are not fully understood. Disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, a source of methyl donors for epigenetic processes, contributes to alcoholic liver disease. We assessed whether PAE affects one-carbon metabolism (including Mtr, Mat2a, Mthfr, and Cbs mRNA) and programming of HPA function genes (Nr3c1, Nr3c2, and Slc6a4) in offspring from ethanol-fed (E), pair-fed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) dams. At gestation day 21, plasma total homocysteine and methionine concentrations were higher in E compared with C dams, and E fetuses had higher plasma methionine concentrations and lower whole brain Mtr and Mat2a mRNA compared with C fetuses. In adulthood (55 days), hippocampal Mtr and Cbs mRNA was lower in E compared with C males, whereas Mtr, Mat2a, Mthfr, and Cbs mRNA were higher in E compared with C females. We found lower Nr3c1 mRNA and lower nerve growth factor inducible protein A (NGFI-A) protein in the hippocampus of E compared with PF females, whereas hippocampal Slc6a4 mRNA was higher in E than C males. By contrast, hypothalamic Slc6a4 mRNA was lower in E males and females compared with C offspring. This was accompanied by higher hypothalamic Slc6a4 mean promoter methylation in E compared with PF females. These findings demonstrate that PAE is associated with alterations in one-carbon metabolism and has long-term and region-specific effects on gene expression in the brain. These findings advance our understanding of mechanisms of HPA dysregulation associated with PAE. PMID:26180184

  11. ETR COOLING TOWER. PUMP HOUSE (TRA645) IN SHADOW OF TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COOLING TOWER. PUMP HOUSE (TRA-645) IN SHADOW OF TOWER ON LEFT. AT LEFT OF VIEW, HIGH-BAY BUILDING IS ETR. ONE STORY ATTACHMENT IS ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING. STACK AT RIGHT IS ETR STACK; MTR STACK IS TOWARD LEFT. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3799. Jack L. Anderson, 11/26/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Quantification of in vivo pH-weighted amide proton transfer (APT) MRI in acute ischemic stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Iris Y.; Igarashi, Takahiro; Guo, Yingkun; Sun, Phillip Z.

    2015-03-01

    Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging is a specific form of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI that probes the pH-dependent amide proton exchange.The endogenous APT MRI is sensitive to tissue acidosis, which may complement the commonly used perfusion and diffusion scans for characterizing heterogeneous ischemic tissue damage. Whereas the saturation transfer asymmetry analysis (MTRasym) may reasonably compensate for direct RF saturation, in vivo MTRasym is however, susceptible to an intrinsically asymmetric shift (MTR'asym). Specifically, the reference scan for the endogenous APT MRI is 7 ppm upfield from that of the label scan, and subjects to concomitant RF irradiation effects, including nuclear overhauser effect (NOE)-mediated saturation transfer and semisolid macromolecular magnetization transfer. As such, the commonly used asymmetry analysis could not fully compensate for such slightly asymmetric concomitant RF irradiation effects, and MTRasym has to be delineated in order to properly characterize the pH-weighted APT MRI contrast. Given that there is very little change in relaxation time immediately after ischemia and the concomitant RF irradiation effects only minimally depends on pH, the APT contrast can be obtained as the difference of MTRasym between the normal and ischemic regions. Thereby, the endogenous amide proton concentration and exchange rate can be solved using a dual 2-pool model, and the in vivo MTR'asym can be calculated by subtracting the solved APT contrast from asymmetry analysis (i.e., MTR'asym =MTRasym-APTR). In addition, MTR'asym can be quantified using the classical 2-pool exchange model. In sum, our study delineated the conventional in vivo pH-sensitive MTRasym contrast so that pHspecific contrast can be obtained for imaging ischemic tissue acidosis.

  13. Phase I Study of Pazopanib in Combination with Weekly Paclitaxel in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Dowlati, Afshin; Jones, Suzanne F.; Infante, Jeffrey R.; Nishioka, Jennifer; Fang, Lei; Hodge, Jeffrey P.; Gainer, Shelby D.; Arumugham, Thangam; Suttle, A. Benjamin; Dar, Mohammed M.; Lager, Joanne J.; Burris, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the maximum tolerated regimen (MTR), dose-limiting toxicities, and pharmacokinetics of pazopanib, an oral small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and c-Kit, in combination with paclitaxel. Patients and Methods. Pazopanib was given daily with weekly paclitaxel on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days. Dose levels of pazopanib (mg/day)/paclitaxel (mg/m2) were 400/15, 800/15, 800/50, and 800/80. An expanded cohort was enrolled at the MTR. Plasma samples were collected to evaluate the effect of pazopanib, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4, on the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel, a CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 substrate. Results. Of 26 enrolled patients, 17 were treated at the MTR of 800 mg pazopanib and 80 mg/m2 paclitaxel. Dose-limiting toxicities included a grade 3 abscess and grade 2 hyperbilirubinemia. Other toxicities included elevated liver transaminases and diarrhea. Six patients (23%) had partial responses and 15 patients (58%) had stable disease. Administration of 800 mg pazopanib resulted in a 14% lower paclitaxel clearance and a 31% higher paclitaxel maximal concentration than with administration of paclitaxel alone at 15, 50, and 80 mg/m2. At the MTR, coadministration of 800 mg pazopanib and 80 mg/m2 paclitaxel resulted in a 26% higher geometric mean paclitaxel area under the curve. Conclusion. Pazopanib, at a dose of 800 mg daily, can be safely combined with a therapeutic dose of paclitaxel at 80 mg/m2 when administered on days 1, 8, and 15, every 28 days. The observed greater plasma concentrations of paclitaxel given concurrently with pazopanib suggest that pazopanib is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 and CYP2C8. PMID:21147873

  14. Experimental analysis of sapphire contact probes for Nd-YAG laser angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Ashley, S; Brooks, S G; Gehani, A A; Kester, R C; Rees, M R

    1990-06-01

    Laser angioplasty may offer percutaneous recanalization of occluded vessels where conventional guidewire and balloon techniques fail. Metal laser thermal angioplasty probes may, however, cause excessive thermal damage due to high tip temperatures (greater than 400.C). Therefore, contact probes made from artificial sapphire crystal designed for general laser surgery are currently being evaluated for use in laser angioplasty with continuous wave Nd-YAG energy. The sapphire modifies the laser energy in various ways, and this paper examines the physical characteristics of five types of rounded sapphire probe (SMTR, MTR, MTRL, OS, LT) and how these properties are affected by clinical usage. The laser beam profile emitted by these probes demonstrates a focal spot 1-2 mm in front of the tip. However, the forward transmission of Nd-YAG energy through the sapphires varied (SMTR, 85%; MTR, 83%; MTRL, 75%; OS, 54%; LT, 69%). Probe heating occurs owing to energy absorption within the sapphire. The surface temperature of the sapphires was measured in air by infrared thermography and the hottest region within the probes localized by an isothermographic technique. At energy settings used clinically (20 J, 10 watts for 2 s) the SMTR, MTR, and MTRL probes exhibited higher temperature rises (94-112.C) than the OS and LT probes (30.C), and heating was localized to the front surface of the former probes. Peak sapphire temperatures remained lower than those of metal probes even at higher energies. After clinical use, the MTR probe demonstrated reduced transmission, beam defocusing, and increased heating, due to surface pitting. Thus, recanalization with sapphire probes occurs by a combination of photothermal and contact thermal effects that are localized to the probe tip and may reduce the degree of thermal injury associated with metal probes. Understanding these basic properties is important to the application and development of contact probes for laser recanalization. PMID:2142867

  15. Conversion and evaluation of the THOR reactor core to TRIGA fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.-H.; Shiau, L.-C.

    1990-07-01

    The THOR reactor is a pool type 1 MW research reactor and has been operated since 1961. The original MTR fuel elements have been gradually replaced by TRIGA fuel elements since 1977 and the conversion completed in 1987. The calculations were performed for various core configurations by using computer codes, WIMS/CITATION. The computing results have been evaluated and compared with the core measurements after the fuel conversion. The analysis results are in good correspondence with the measurements. (author)

  16. Solvability of a stationary nonlinear Black-Scholes equation under conditions on the potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabião, Fátima; do Rosário Grossinho, Maria; Simões, Onofre

    2009-05-01

    In this work, we study a nonlinear problem suggested by the Black-Scholes model for option pricing with stochastic volatility, namely, {mtr>1/2σ2S2∂2f/∂S2+1/2σ2V2∂2f/∂σ2+ρσ2VS∂2f/∂S∂σ-1/2ρσ2V∂f/∂σ+rS∂f/∂S = rγ(f)in Ω,mtr>>f(S,σ) = h(S,σ),on ∂Ωmtr>| where the variables S and σ are respectively the asset value and the market volatility ([1], [2]). In [1], an analogous nonlinear problem has been investigated with a nonlinearity γ of the following type γ(f) = g(f)f. It has been used an iterative procedure under the hypothesis that g(f)f is nondecreasing, applying upper and lower solutions. The function g was assumed to be C2 and this regularity was used in computations in the proofs. We consider a Hölder continuous nonlinearity γ(f) and, assuming certain conditions on the potential Γ of γ, we prove the existence of a positive solution. The method of the proof, which is based on the construction of upper and lower solutions, obtained as solutions of an auxiliary initial value problem, also yields information on the localization of f.

  17. ADVANCED HEAT TRANSFER TEST FACILITY, TRA666A. ELEVATIONS. ROOF FRAMING PLAN. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADVANCED HEAT TRANSFER TEST FACILITY, TRA-666A. ELEVATIONS. ROOF FRAMING PLAN. CONCRETE BLOCK SIDING. SLOPED ROOF. ROLL-UP DOOR. AIR INTAKE ENCLOSURE ON NORTH SIDE. F.C. TORKELSON 842-MTR-666-A5, 8/1966. INL INDEX NO. 531-0666-00-851-152258, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Association of Aberrations in One Carbon Metabolism with Intimal Medial Thickening in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, R; Malati, T; Rupasree, Y; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The present work was aimed to study the association of one carbon genetic variants, hyperhomocysteinemia and oxidative stress markers, i.e., serum nitrite, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) on intimal medial thickening (IMT) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). A total number of 76 subjects from ACS Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, India were included in the study, i.e., Group I (n = 42) of T2D and Group II (n = 34) of age- and sex matched healthy controls. The glycated haemoglobin was measured by ion-exchange resin method; plasma homocysteine by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay method; serum nitrite (nitric oxide, NO), plasma MDA and GSH by spectrophotometric methods; the IMT by high frequency ultrasound. The polymorphisms of one carbon genetic variants were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and amplified fragment length polymorphism methods. Results indicate that methyltetrahydrofolate homocysteine methyl transferase (MTR) A2756G allele was found to be protective in T2D and the other variants were not significantly associated with T2D. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP II) C1561T (r = 0.34; p = 0.05) and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T (r = 0.35; 0.04) showed positive correlation with plasma homocysteine in T2D cases. In this study, MTR A2756G allele was found to be protective in T2D; GCP II C1561T and MTHFR C677T showed positive association with plasma homocysteine in T2D cases. Among all the genetic variants, MTR A2756G was found influence IMT. RFC 1 G80A and TYMS 5'-UTR 2R3R showed synergistically interact with MTR A2756G in influencing increase in IMT. PMID:26089610

  19. Neutronic study on conversion of SAFARI-1 to LEU silicide fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, G.; Pond, R.; Hanan, N.; Matos, J.

    1995-02-01

    This paper marks the initial study into the technical and economic feasibility of converting the SAFARI-1 reactor in South Africa to LEU silicide fuel. Several MTR assembly geometries and LEU uranium densities have been studied and compared with MEU and HEU fuels. Two factors of primary importance for conversion of SAFARI-1 to LEU fuel are the economy of the fuel cycle and the performance of the incore and excore irradiation positions.

  20. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. FLOOR PLAN OF EXPANSION SHOWS LOCATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. FLOOR PLAN OF EXPANSION SHOWS LOCATION OF NEW CELLS, "HEAVY" CELL AT WEST END, "LIGHT" CELLS AT EAST. MOCK-UP AND STORAGE AREAS IN SOUTH HALF OF FLOOR. H.K. FERGUSON 895-MTR-ETR-632-A1, 12/1958. INL INDEX NO. 531-0632-00-279-101924, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Comparing Teaching Styles and Personality Types of EFL Instructors in the Public and Private Sectors (Una comparación de los estilos de enseñanza y los tipos de personalidad de profesores de inglés de los sistemas educativos estatal y privado)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz Larenas, Claudio H.; Rodriguez Moran, Andrea Victoria; Poblete Rivera, Karen Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    This is an exploratory non-experimental research study whose main objective is to compare the teaching styles of a group of thirty teachers of English working in either public or private secondary education in Chile. In order to collect the required data, two instruments were administered to the participants: a teaching style inventory and a…

  2. Methionine synthase A2756G variation is associated with the risk of retinoblastoma in Iranian children.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohammad Taghi; Naderi, Asieh; Saremi, Leila; Sayad, Arezou; Irani, Shiva; Ahani, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Association of epigenetic modifications with cancer has been widely studied. Gene-specific hypermethylation and global DNA hypomethylation are the most frequently observed patterns in great number of tumors. The methionine synthase (MTR) gene plays key role in maintaining adequate intracellular folate, methionine and normal homocysteine concentrations and, its polymorphism have been associated with the risk of retinoblastoma and other neoplasms. We evaluated the association of MTR A2756G polymorphism with the risk of retinoblastoma in an Iranian population. Totally, 150 retinoblastoma patients and 300 individuals with no family history of cancer as control were included in this study. Genotyping of the A2756G polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using the restriction enzymes HaeIII. Our results showed that the "G" was the minor allele with a frequency of 31.7% and 20.3% in both retinoblastoma and control groups, respectively. The frequency of the 2756GG genotype (P=0.023) and 2756G allele (P=0.0001) were significantly higher in the patients than control group, respectively. Individual with the 2756GG genotype had a 2.99 fold increased risk for retinoblastoma. According to our results, the MTR A2756G polymorphism was associated with the risk of retinoblastoma in Iranian patients. PMID:26595280

  3. Preliminary structural studies on the MtxX protein from Methanococcus jannaschii

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Dong Hae

    2008-04-01

    In this study, the MtxX protein from M. jannaschii has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. Methanococcus jannaschii has an mtr gene cluster expressing N{sup 5}-methyltetrahydromethanopterin:coenzyme M methyltransferase, which generates methane by reducing CO{sub 2} with H{sub 2} with concomitant energy production under strictly anaerobic conditions. Some methanogenic archaea also have an mtr gene-cluster homologue, the mtxXAH gene cluster. M. jannaschii has both an entire mtr gene cluster and a single mtxX gene instead of the whole mtxXAH gene cluster. A PSI-BLAST search, secondary-structure prediction and the absence of phosphotransacetylase activity in M. jannaschii strongly support the possibility that the MtxX protein constitutes a unique methyltransferase family. In this study, the MtxX protein from M. jannaschii has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. Synchrotron data were collected to 2.9 Å from a crystal of selenomethionine-substituted MtxX protein. The crystal belonged to the primitive hexagonal space group P6{sub 1}22, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.9, b = 54.9, c = 341.1 Å, β = 120.0°. A full structure determination is under way in order to provide insight into the structure–function relationship of this protein.

  4. Application of Ultrasound-Guided Trigger Point Injection for Myofascial Trigger Points in the Subscapularis and Pectoralis Muscles to Post-Mastectomy Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyuk Jai; Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Wan Sung; Chang, Won Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the internal rotator muscles of the shoulder in post-mastectomy patients. Materials and Methods This pilot study was a non-controlled, prospective, clinical trial. Nineteen post-mastectomy patients with a diagnosis of at least one active MTrP in the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles were included. We performed trigger point injections into the subscapularis muscle deep behind the scapula as well as the pectoralis muscle for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose by the newly developed US-guided method. Results Visual analogue scale and range of motion of the shoulder for external rotation and of abduction showed significant improvement immediately after the first injection and 3 months after the last injection compared with baseline (p<0.05 for both). Duration from onset to surgery and duration of myofascial pain syndrome in the good responder group were significantly shorter than in the bad responder group (p<0.05). Patients did not report any complications related to the procedure or serious adverse events attributable to the treatment. Conclusion In post-mastectomy patients with shoulder pain, US-guided trigger point injections of the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles are effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of shoulder pain is suspected to originate from active MTrPs in these muscles, particularly, the subscapularis. PMID:24719150

  5. Linking land use with pesticides in Dutch surface waters.

    PubMed

    Van't, Zelfde M T; Tamis, W L M; Vijver, M G; De Snoo, G R

    2012-01-01

    Compared with other European countries The Netherlands has a relatively high level of pesticide consumption, particularly in agriculture. Many of the compounds concerned end up in surface waters. Surface water quality is routinely monitored and numerous pesticides are found to be present in high concentrations, with various standards being regularly exceeded. Many standards-breaching pesticides exhibit regional patterns that can be traced back to land use. These patterns have been statistically analysed by correlating surface area per land use category with standards exceedance per pesticide, thereby identifying numerous significant correlations with respect to breaches of both the ecotoxicological standard (Maximum Tolerable Risk, MTR) and the drinking water standard. In the case of the MTR, greenhouse horticulture, floriculture and bulb-growing have the highest number as well as percentage of standard-breaching pesticides, despite these market segments being relatively small in terms of area cropped. Cereals, onions, vegetables, perennial border plants and pulses are also associated with many pesticides that exceed the drinking water standard. When a correction is made for cropped acreage, cereals and potatoes also prove to be a major contributor to monitoring sites where the MTR standard is exceeded. Over the period 1998-2006 the land-use categories with the most and highest percentage of standards-exceeding pesticides (greenhouse horticulture, bulb-growing and flower cultivation) showed an increase in the percentage of standards-exceeding compounds. PMID:23885409

  6. Hydraulic parameters estimation by using an approach based on vertical electrical soundings (VES) in the semi-arid Khanasser valley region, Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2016-05-01

    A new alternative approach based on using Vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique is proposed for computing the hydraulic conductivity K of an aquifer. The approach takes only the salinity of the groundwater into consideration. VES measurements in the locations, where available water samples exist, are required in such an approach, in order to calibrate and establish empirical relationships between transverse resistance Dar-Zarrouck TR parameter and modified transverse resistance MTR, and between MTR and transmissivity T. Those relationships are thereafter used to extrapolate the transmissivity even in the VES points where no water samples exist. This approach is tested and practiced in the Khanasser valley, Northern Syria, where the hydraulic conductivity of the Quaternary aquifer is computed. An acceptable agreement is found between the hydraulic conductivity values obtained by the proposed approach and those obtained by the pumping test which range between 0.864 and 8.64 m/day (10-5 and 10-4 m/s). The Quaternary aquifer transmissivity of the Khanasser Valley, has been characterized by using this approach and by adapting the MTR parameter. The transmissivity varies between a minimum of 79 m2/day and a maximum of 814 m2/day, with an average of 283 m2/day and a standard deviation of 145 m2/day. The easy and inexpensive approach proposed in this paper can be applied in other semi arid regions.

  7. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2007-03-31

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, which met with limited success. MTR then located an alternative testing opportunity and signed a contract with Towne Exploration in the third quarter of 2006, for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, CA, to be run through May 2007. The demonstration for Towne has already resulted in the sale of two commercial skids to the company; the units will be delivered in mid-2007. Total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units from the partnership with ABB are now approaching $4.0 million.

  8. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Mycothiol levels in Wild-Type and Mycothiol Disulfide Reductase Mutant Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Holsclaw, Cynthia M.; Muse, Wilson B.; Carroll, Kate S.; Leary, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Mycothiol (MSH), the primary low-molecular weight thiol produced in mycobacteria, acts to protect the cell from oxidative stress and to maintain redox homeostasis, notably in the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the course of human infection. The mycothiol disulfide reductase (Mtr) enzyme reduces the oxidized form of mycothiol, mycothione (MSSM), back to MSH, however its role in bacterial viability is not clear. In this study, we sought to determine the MSH levels of wild-type (WT) and Mtr mutant mycobacteria during oxidative stress. We describe a rapid method for the relative quantification of MSH using high-sensitivity mass spectrometry (MS) with selected ion monitoring (SIM). This method uses only minimal sample cleanup, and does not require advanced chromatographic equipment or fluorescent compounds. MSH levels decreased in the Mtr mutant only upon treatment with peroxide, and the results were consistent between our method and previously-described thiol quantification methods. Our results indicate that our MS-based method is a useful, high-throughput alternative tool for the quantification of MSH from mycobacteria. PMID:21857792

  9. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping and Cross Taping Application in the Treatment of Latent Upper Trapezius Trigger Points: A Prospective, Single-Blind, Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Halski, Tomasz; Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Słupska, Lucyna; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Dymarek, Robert; Taradaj, Jakub; Bidzińska, Gabriela; Marczyński, Daniel; Cynarska, Aleksandra; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Kinesio taping (KT) may be a new treatment in patients with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). A new method available for taping practitioners is cross taping (CT). The main objective was to determine how CT, KT, and medical adhesive tape (sham group) affect the subjective assessment of resting bioelectrical activity and pain of the upper trapezius muscle (UT) in patients with MTrPs. 105 volunteers were recruited to participate. The primary outcome was resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle as assessed by surface electromyography (sEMG) in each group and pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS). Assessments were collected before and after intervention and after the 24-hours follow-up. No significant differences were observed in bioelectrical activity of UT between pre-, post-, and follow-up results. In three groups patients had significantly lower pain VAS score after the intervention (CT—p < 0.001, KT—p < 0.001, and sham—p < 0.01). The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed no significant differences in almost all measurements between groups. The application of all three types of tapes does not influence the resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle and may not lead to a reduction in muscle tone in the case of MTrPs. PMID:26491458

  10. The Kinesio Taping Method for Myofascial Pain Control

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Ting; Hong, Chang-Zern; Chou, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Many people continue suffering from myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) defined as a regional pain syndrome characterized by muscle pain caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) clinically. Muscle spasm and block of blood circulation can be noticed in the taut bands. In the MTrP region, nociceptors can be sensitized by the peripheral inflammatory factors and contracture of fascia can also be induced. Traditional treatments of MPS include stretching therapy, thermal treatment, electrical stimulation, massage, manipulation, trigger points injection, acupuncture, and medicine. However, the pain syndrome may not be relieved even under multiple therapies. Recently, the Kinesio Taping (KT) method is popularly used in sports injuries, postoperative complications, and various pain problems, but little research is focused on MPS with KT method. In this paper, we review the research studies on the application to KT in treating MPS and other related issues. It appears that the KT application can elevate the subcutaneous space and then increase the blood circulation and lymph fluid drainage to reduce the chemical factors around the MTrP region. Therefore, it is suggested that KT method can be used as a regular treatment or added to the previous treatment for myofascial pain. PMID:26185522

  11. The Crystal Structure of the Extracellular 11-heme Cytochrome UndA Reveals a Conserved 10-heme Motif and Defined Binding Site for Soluble Iron Chelates.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Marcus; Hall, Andrea; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2012-07-03

    Members of the genus Shewanella translocate deca- or undeca-heme cytochromes to the external cell surface thus enabling respiration using extracellular minerals and polynuclear Fe(III) chelates. The high resolution structure of the first undeca-heme outer membrane cytochrome, UndA, reveals a crossed heme chain with four potential electron ingress/egress sites arranged within four domains. Sequence and structural alignment of UndA and the deca-heme MtrF reveals the extra heme of UndA is inserted between MtrF hemes 6 and 7. The remaining UndA hemes can be superposed over the heme chain of the decaheme MtrF, suggesting that a ten heme core is conserved between outer membrane cytochromes. The UndA structure is the first outer membrane cytochrome to be crystallographically resolved in complex with substrates, an Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetate dimer or an Fe(III)-citrate trimer. The structural resolution of these UndA-Fe(III)-chelate complexes provides a rationale for previous kinetic measurements on UndA and other outer membrane cytochromes.

  12. The Affects of Mountain Top Removal Mining on Headwater Streams in Eastern Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Word, D. A.; Jack, J. D.; Kelley, R.

    2005-05-01

    Mountain Top Removal/Valley Fill (MTR/VF) coal mining is a relatively new coal extraction technology that is widely utilized throughout the Appalachian region. During this process, the mountaintop is blasted away, the coal removed and the leftover material (spoil) is then deposited into the surrounding valleys. The potential negative ecological effects of these operations on stream biodiversity has received some attention but there is little available data on how these fills affect stream functions such as litter decomposition rates. We selected 4 streams draining "retired" MTR/VF sites of various ages in eastern Kentucky (USA) and one stream from an actively mined site. We compared leaf mass loss rates, N dynamics, fungal colonization (as measured by ergosterol) and water chemistry parameters in these streams to three unmined reference streams. Leaf litter mass loss was usually higher in the reference streams while water chemistry parameters such as conductivity, nitrate and TDS were often much higher in the MTR/VF streams. Such differences in stream function and water quality should be considered in permitting decisions and in assessing recovery of streams after mining.

  13. The Kinesio Taping Method for Myofascial Pain Control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Ting; Hong, Chang-Zern; Chou, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Many people continue suffering from myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) defined as a regional pain syndrome characterized by muscle pain caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) clinically. Muscle spasm and block of blood circulation can be noticed in the taut bands. In the MTrP region, nociceptors can be sensitized by the peripheral inflammatory factors and contracture of fascia can also be induced. Traditional treatments of MPS include stretching therapy, thermal treatment, electrical stimulation, massage, manipulation, trigger points injection, acupuncture, and medicine. However, the pain syndrome may not be relieved even under multiple therapies. Recently, the Kinesio Taping (KT) method is popularly used in sports injuries, postoperative complications, and various pain problems, but little research is focused on MPS with KT method. In this paper, we review the research studies on the application to KT in treating MPS and other related issues. It appears that the KT application can elevate the subcutaneous space and then increase the blood circulation and lymph fluid drainage to reduce the chemical factors around the MTrP region. Therefore, it is suggested that KT method can be used as a regular treatment or added to the previous treatment for myofascial pain. PMID:26185522

  14. Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping and Cross Taping Application in the Treatment of Latent Upper Trapezius Trigger Points: A Prospective, Single-Blind, Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Halski, Tomasz; Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Słupska, Lucyna; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Dymarek, Robert; Taradaj, Jakub; Bidzińska, Gabriela; Marczyński, Daniel; Cynarska, Aleksandra; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Kinesio taping (KT) may be a new treatment in patients with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). A new method available for taping practitioners is cross taping (CT). The main objective was to determine how CT, KT, and medical adhesive tape (sham group) affect the subjective assessment of resting bioelectrical activity and pain of the upper trapezius muscle (UT) in patients with MTrPs. 105 volunteers were recruited to participate. The primary outcome was resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle as assessed by surface electromyography (sEMG) in each group and pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS). Assessments were collected before and after intervention and after the 24-hours follow-up. No significant differences were observed in bioelectrical activity of UT between pre-, post-, and follow-up results. In three groups patients had significantly lower pain VAS score after the intervention (CT-p < 0.001, KT-p < 0.001, and sham-p < 0.01). The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed no significant differences in almost all measurements between groups. The application of all three types of tapes does not influence the resting bioelectrical activity of UT muscle and may not lead to a reduction in muscle tone in the case of MTrPs. PMID:26491458

  15. Enrichment of Functional Redox Reactive Proteins and Identification by Mass Spectrometry Results in Several Terminal Fe(III)-reducing Candidate Proteins in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, Dwayne A.; Yang, Feng; Mottaz, Heather M.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2007-02-01

    Identification of the proteins directly involved in microbial metal-reduction is important to understanding the biochemistry involved in heavy metal reduction/immobilization and the ultimate cleanup of DOE contaminated sites. Although previous strategies for the identification of these proteins have traditionally required laborious protein purification/characterization of metal-reducing capability, activity is often lost before the final purification step, thus creating a significant knowledge gap. In the current study, subcellular fractions of S. oneidensis MR-1 were enriched for Fe(III)-NTA reducing proteins in a single step using several orthogonal column matrices. The protein content of eluted fractions that demonstrated activity were determined by ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/ MS). A comparison of the proteins identified from active fractions in all separations produced 30 proteins that may act as the terminal electron-accepting protein for Fe(III)-reduction. These include MtrA, MtrB, MtrC and OmcA as well as a number of other proteins not previously associated with Fe(III)-reduction. This is the first report of such an approach where the laborious procedures for protein purification are not required for identification of metal-reducing proteins. Such work provides the basis for a similar approach with other cultured organisms as well as analysis of sediment and groundwater samples from biostimulation efforts at contaminated sites.

  16. The interstitial location of selenium and arsenic in rocks associated with coal mining using ultrasound extractions and principal component analysis (PCA).

    PubMed

    Pumure, I; Renton, J J; Smart, R B

    2011-12-30

    The release of selenium and arsenic from coal mine wastes into main waterways is an environmental cause for concern in the mining industry due to a myriad of subsequent ecotoxicological problems associated with the two metalloids. In a 2002 USEPA study undertaken in a mountaintop removal/valley fill (MTR/VF) mining area in southern West Virginia, measured Se concentrations were higher than the stipulated 5 ng/mL in 66 out of the 213 water samples collected. We studied the chemical composition of forty seven randomly selected pulverized core rock samples collected from depths of 25 ft to 881 ft from MTR/VF sites to determine the amounts of bioaccessible (ultrasound leachable) As and Se concentrations and their tentative locations within the rock matrix. The application of principal component analysis (PCA) to the chemical data, suggested that ultrasound leachable selenium concentrations were associated with 14 Å d-spacing phyllosilicate clays (chlorite, montmorillonite and vermiculite all 2:1 layered clays) whilst ultrasound leachable arsenic concentrations were closely related to the concentration of illite, another 2:1 phyllosilicate clay. Negative correlations between leachable arsenic and selenium with kaolinite a 1:1 layered clay, were also observed. We used the observed negative correlations to rule out the presence of selenium or arsenic in 1:1 kaolinite. Hence mining waste from MTR/VF sites containing substantial amounts of illite and 14 Å d-spacing clays may require to be placed in priority landfills or valley fills. PMID:22056124

  17. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPARATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2005-02-28

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd nitrogen removal/gas treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project field test at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. The membrane skid is scheduled to be completed by December 29. Our target is to have the unit installed and optimized by mid-January.

  18. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPARATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2004-09-01

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. The membrane skid is scheduled to be completed by December 29. Our target is to have the unit installed and optimized by mid-January.

  19. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2003-12-31

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. System fabrication was completed in January 2004 and the membrane inserts were loaded. Additional pressure testing and verification will be completed prior to shipment, which is expected in early February 2004.

  20. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPERATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2004-01-30

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. System fabrication was completed in January 2004 and the membrane inserts were loaded. Additional pressure testing and verification will be completed prior to shipment, which is expected in early February 2004.

  1. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPARATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2004-11-15

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. The membrane skid is scheduled to be completed by December 29. Our target is to have the unit installed and optimized by mid-January.

  2. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEPARATE NITROGEN FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Andre Da Costa

    2003-11-24

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During precommissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group has found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant. The plant produces about 1 MMscfd of gas containing 24% nitrogen. The membrane unit will bring this gas to 4% nitrogen for delivery to the pipeline. The membrane skid is being built by ABB. NTE has ordered the required compressor and MTR is making the membrane modules. The membrane skid is scheduled to be completed by December 29. The target is to have the unit installed and optimized by mid-January.

  3. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2006-09-30

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, and we continue, but have as yet been unsuccessful in our attempts, to negotiate with Atmos Energy for a final test of the original project demonstration unit. In the meantime, MTR has located an alternative testing opportunity and signed a contract with Towne Exploration for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, CA, to be run through May 2007. Several commercial sales have resulted from the partnership with ABB, and total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units are now approaching $2.6 million.

  4. Nonsense-Mediated Decay Restricts LncRNA Levels in Yeast Unless Blocked by Double-Stranded RNA Structure

    PubMed Central

    Wery, Maxime; Descrimes, Marc; Vogt, Nicolas; Dallongeville, Anne-Sophie; Gautheret, Daniel; Morillon, Antonin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Antisense long non-coding (aslnc)RNAs represent a substantial part of eukaryotic transcriptomes that are, in yeast, controlled by the Xrn1 exonuclease. Nonsense-Mediated Decay (NMD) destabilizes the Xrn1-sensitive aslncRNAs (XUT), but what determines their sensitivity remains unclear. We report that 3′ single-stranded (3′-ss) extension mediates XUTs degradation by NMD, assisted by the Mtr4 and Dbp2 helicases. Single-gene investigation, genome-wide RNA analyses, and double-stranded (ds)RNA mapping revealed that 3′-ss extensions discriminate the NMD-targeted XUTs from stable lncRNAs. Ribosome profiling showed that XUT are translated, locking them for NMD activity. Interestingly, mutants of the Mtr4 and Dbp2 helicases accumulated XUTs, suggesting that dsRNA unwinding is a critical step for degradation. Indeed, expression of anticomplementary transcripts protects cryptic intergenic lncRNAs from NMD. Our results indicate that aslncRNAs form dsRNA that are only translated and targeted to NMD if dissociated by Mtr4 and Dbp2. We propose that NMD buffers genome expression by discarding pervasive regulatory transcripts. PMID:26805575

  5. Design and expression of a synthetic mucin gene fragment in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dolby, N; Dombrowski, K E; Wright, S E

    1999-02-01

    Adenocarcinomas of glandular tissues produce a hypoglycosylated form of a normal glycoprotein (mucin) that elicits an immune response. A tumor-specific epitope of mucin occurs in a 20-amino-acid, tandemly repeated domain of human MUC1 mucin. A synthetic gene encoding five tandem repeats of the tumor-specific epitope of human mucin (m5tr) was designed for efficient cloning and expression in Escherichia coli for subsequent use in preparing reagent quantities of the mucin 5 tandem repeat (mtr5) polypeptide. The synthetic gene was cloned in the correct reading frame into the maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion expression vector pMAL-p2. Bacterial clones containing the mucin synthetic gene (m5tr) were shown to produce the intended recombinant fusion protein, MBP-mtr5. The fusion protein represents a significant fraction of the cell protein, 50% or more of which is secreted into the periplasm. The MBP-mtr5 protein is largely intact and easily prepared in sufficient quantity and purity for preliminary structure-function studies. PMID:10024481

  6. Motor network efficiency and disability in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yaldizli, Özgür; Sethi, Varun; Muhlert, Nils; Liu, Zheng; Samson, Rebecca S.; Altmann, Daniel R.; Ron, Maria A.; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A.M.; Miller, David H.; Chard, Declan T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop a composite MRI-based measure of motor network integrity, and determine if it explains disability better than conventional MRI measures in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Tract density imaging and constrained spherical deconvolution tractography were used to identify motor network connections in 22 controls. Fractional anisotropy (FA), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), and normalized volume were computed in each tract in 71 people with relapse onset MS. Principal component analysis was used to distill the FA, MTR, and tract volume data into a single metric for each tract, which in turn was used to compute a composite measure of motor network efficiency (composite NE) using graph theory. Associations were investigated between the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the following MRI measures: composite motor NE, NE calculated using FA alone, FA averaged in the combined motor network tracts, brain T2 lesion volume, brain parenchymal fraction, normal-appearing white matter MTR, and cervical cord cross-sectional area. Results: In univariable analysis, composite motor NE explained 58% of the variation in EDSS in the whole MS group, more than twice that of the other MRI measures investigated. In a multivariable regression model, only composite NE and disease duration were independently associated with EDSS. Conclusions: A composite MRI measure of motor NE was able to predict disability substantially better than conventional non-network-based MRI measures. PMID:26320199

  7. Subcortical biophysical abnormalities in patients with mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A; Yang, S; Ajilore, O; Wu, M; Charlton, R; Lamar, M

    2014-01-01

    Cortical–subcortical circuits have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Structural and biochemical abnormalities have been identified in patients diagnosed with mood disorders using magnetic resonance imaging-related approaches. In this study, we used magnetization transfer (MT), an innovative magnetic resonance approach, to study biophysical changes in both gray and white matter regions in cortical–subcortical circuits implicated in emotional regulation and behavior. Our study samples comprised 28 patients clinically diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 31 non-depressed subjects of comparable age and gender. MT ratio (MTR), representing the biophysical integrity of macromolecular proteins within key components of cortical–subcortical circuits—the caudate, thalamic, striatal, orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate and dorsolateral regions—was the primary outcome measure. In our study, the MTR in the head of the right caudate nucleus was significantly lower in the MDD group when compared with the comparison group. MTR values showed an inverse relationship with age in both groups, with more widespread relationships observed in the MDD group. These data indicate that focal biophysical abnormalities in the caudate nucleus may be central to the pathophysiology of depression and critical to the cortical–subcortical abnormalities that underlie mood disorders. Depression may also accentuate age-related changes in the biophysical properties of cortical and subcortical regions. These observations have broad implications for the neuronal circuitry underlying mood disorders across the lifespan. PMID:23877833

  8. Polymorphisms of Genes Involved in the Folate Metabolic Pathway Impact the Occurrence of Unexplained Recurrent Pregnancy Loss.

    PubMed

    Luo, Li; Chen, Yueming; Wang, Li; Zhuo, Guangchao; Qiu, Chunning; Tu, Qiaofeng; Mei, Jin; Zhang, Wen; Qian, Xia; Wang, Xianjun

    2015-07-01

    Low levels of folate combined with high levels of homocysteine may cause unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss (URPL). However, the relationships between polymorphisms in genes of the folate metabolic pathway and URPL remain controversial. We conducted a case-control study to explore polymorphisms of the major folate pathway genes, including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, methionine synthase (MTR) 2756A>G, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) 66A>G and reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC-1) 80A>G, and their associations with URPL. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to determine the distributions of MTHFR, MTR and RFC-1 polymorphisms, and the results were validated using direct sequencing. The polymorphisms in MTRR were determined using direct sequencing. Haplotypes were analyzed using SHEsis, an online tool for biological analysis. We found that the MTHFR 677T allele and the 677T/1298A/2756A/66A/80G haplotype were risk factors for URPL, while the MTR 2756G allele and the 677C/1298A/2756A/66A/80A haplotype exhibited protective effects on susceptibility to URPL in a Chinese Han population from the Hangzhou area. PMID:25544674

  9. Hydraulic parameters estimation by using an approach based on vertical electrical soundings (VES) in the semi-arid Khanasser valley region, Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2016-05-01

    A new alternative approach based on using Vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique is proposed for computing the hydraulic conductivity K of an aquifer. The approach takes only the salinity of the groundwater into consideration. VES measurements in the locations, where available water samples exist, are required in such an approach, in order to calibrate and establish empirical relationships between transverse resistance Dar-Zarrouck TR parameter and modified transverse resistance MTR, and between MTR and transmissivity T. Those relationships are thereafter used to extrapolate the transmissivity even in the VES points where no water samples exist. This approach is tested and practiced in the Khanasser valley, Northern Syria, where the hydraulic conductivity of the Quaternary aquifer is computed. An acceptable agreement is found between the hydraulic conductivity values obtained by the proposed approach and those obtained by the pumping test which range between 0.864 and 8.64 m/day (10-5 and 10-4 m/s). The Quaternary aquifer transmissivity of the Khanasser Valley, has been characterized by using this approach and by adapting the MTR parameter. The transmissivity varies between a minimum of 79 m2/day and a maximum of 814 m2/day, with an average of 283 m2/day and a standard deviation of 145 m2/day. The easy and inexpensive approach proposed in this paper can be applied in other semi arid regions.

  10. Individual voxel-based analysis of brain magnetization transfer maps shows great variability of gray matter injury in the first stage of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jure, Lorena; Zaaraoui, Wafaa; Rousseau, Celia; Reuter, Françoise; Rico, Audrey; Malikova, Irina; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J; Pelletier, Jean; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Audoin, Bertrand

    2010-08-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), it seems likely that the variability of the long-term disability might be partly due to the variability of the early gray matter (GM) injury. In the present study, we assessed the variability of GM injury in early MS, using a method designed to determine individual pathological GM patterns. Eighteen patients presenting with a clinically isolated syndrome and 24 healthy matched control subjects were included in this study. Patients were explored using a 1.5 Tesla MR scanner (Magnetom Vision Plus; Siemens). Brain MR protocol included magnetization transfer ratio imaging (MTR). Statistical mapping analyses were performed to compare each subject's GM MTR maps with those of the whole group of control subjects (SPM5). The statistical threshold was taken to be the maximum P value showing no significant cluster when any control individual was compared with the whole control population. GM abnormalities were observed in 83% of the patients, ranging in size from 0.3 to 125 cm(3). Among the patients with GM abnormalities, 87% had abnormalities located in the temporal cortex, 80% in the frontal cortex, 80% in the limbic cortex, 73% in the posterior fossa, 53% in the deep GM, 47% in the parietal cortex, and 47% in the occipital cortex. Individual statistical mapping of MTR data, which gives a quantitative assessment of individual GM lesions, demonstrates great variability of grey matter injury in the first stage of multiple sclerosis. PMID:20677272

  11. Prevalence of grey matter pathology in early multiple sclerosis assessed by magnetization transfer ratio imaging.

    PubMed

    Crespy, Lydie; Zaaraoui, Wafaa; Lemaire, Mathias; Rico, Audrey; Faivre, Anthony; Reuter, Françoise; Malikova, Irina; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J; Pelletier, Jean; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Audoin, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence, the distribution and the impact on disability of grey matter (GM) pathology in early multiple sclerosis. Eighty-eight patients with a clinically isolated syndrome with a high risk developing multiple sclerosis were included in the study. Forty-four healthy controls constituted the normative population. An optimized statistical mapping analysis was performed to compare each subject's GM Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR) imaging maps with those of the whole group of controls. The statistical threshold of significant GM MTR decrease was determined as the maximum p value (p<0.05 FDR) for which no significant cluster survived when comparing each control to the whole control population. Using this threshold, 51% of patients showed GM abnormalities compared to controls. Locally, 37% of patients presented abnormalities inside the limbic cortex, 34% in the temporal cortex, 32% in the deep grey matter, 30% in the cerebellum, 30% in the frontal cortex, 26% in the occipital cortex and 19% in the parietal cortex. Stepwise regression analysis evidenced significant association (p = 0.002) between EDSS and both GM pathology (p = 0.028) and T2 white matter lesions load (p = 0.019). In the present study, we evidenced that individual analysis of GM MTR map allowed demonstrating that GM pathology is highly heterogeneous across patients at the early stage of MS and partly underlies irreversible disability. PMID:21949813

  12. Neisseria gonorrhoeae cell envelope: permeability to hydrophobic molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Lysko, P G; Morse, S A

    1981-01-01

    Isogenic variants of antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive Neisseria gonorrhoeae were examined for differences in the inhibition of oxygen uptake by steroid hormones. Mutants designated as env, which possessed cell envelope mutations allowing phenotypic suppression of low-level antibiotic resistance, were more sensitive to steroid hormone inhibition of oxygen uptake than the wild-type parental strains. Possession of an mtr locus, which confers nonspecific resistance to multiple antibiotics, dyes, and detergents, was also associated with an increase in resistance to steroid hormone inhibition of oxygen uptake. The penA2 locus, which confers an eightfold increase in resistance to penicillin, was not responsible for the increased resistance to steroid hormones. Phospholipids in the outer membrane of intact env-2 cells were susceptible to digestion by phospholipase C, indicating exposure of phospholipid head groups on the outer surface. Cells of a wild-type and mtr-2 strain were not susceptible to phospholipase C digestion unless they were pretreated with mixed exoglycosidases. This pretreatment also increased the sensitivity of mtr-2 cells to progesterone inhibition of O2 uptake. These data suggest that the permeability of the gonococcus to hydrophobic antibiotic and steroid molecules is mediated by the degree of phospholipid exposure on the outer membrane. PMID:6780535

  13. Respiration of metal (hydr)oxides by Shewanella and Geobacter: a key role for multihaem c-type cytochromes

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Squier, Thomas C.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2007-07-01

    Dissimilatory reduction of metal (e.g. Fe, Mn) (hydr)oxides represents a challenge for microorganisms, as their cell envelopes are impermeable to metal (hydr)oxides that are poorly soluble in water. To overcome this physical barrier, the Gram-negative bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Geobactersulfurreducens have developed electron transfer (ET) strategies that require multihaem c-type cytochromes (c-Cyts). In S. oneidensis MR-1, multihaem c-Cyts CymA and MtrA are believed to transfer electrons from the inner membrane quinone/quinol pool through the periplasm to the outer membrane. The type II secretion system of S. oneidensis MR-1 has been implicated in the reduction of metal (hydr)oxides, most likely by translocating decahaem c-Cyts MtrC and OmcA across outer membrane to the surface of bacterial cells where they form a protein complex. The extracellular MtrC and OmcA can directly reduce solid metal (hydr)oxides. Likewise, outer membrane multihaem c-Cyts OmcE and OmcS of G. sulfurreducens are suggested to transfer electrons from outer membrane to type IV pili that are hypothesized to relay the electrons to solid metal (hydr)oxides. Thus, multihaem c-Cyts play critical roles in S. oneidensis MR-1-and G. sulfurreducens-mediated dissimilatory reduction of solid metal (hydr)oxides by facilitating ET across the bacterial cell envelope.

  14. Screening of an Escherichia coli promoter library for a phenylalanine biosensor.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Regina; von Boeselager, Raphael Freiherr; Wiechert, Johanna; Frunzke, Julia

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the application of transcription factor-based biosensors for the engineering of microbial production strains opened up new opportunities for industrial biotechnology. However, the design of synthetic regulatory circuits depends on the selection of suitable transcription factor-promoter pairs to convert the concentration of effector molecules into a measureable output. Here, we present an efficient strategy to screen promoter libraries for appropriate parts for biosensor design. To this end, we pooled the strains of the Alon library containing about 2000 different Escherichia coli promoter-gfpmut2 fusions, and enriched galactose- and L-phenylalanine-responsive promoters by toggled rounds of positive and negative selection using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). For both effectors, responsive promoters were isolated and verified by cultivation in microtiter plates. The promoter of mtr, encoding an L-tryptophan-specific transporter, was identified as suitable part for the construction of an L-phenylalanine biosensor. In the following, we performed a comparative analysis of different biosensor constructs based on the mtr promoter. The obtained data revealed a strong influence of the biosensor architecture on the performance characteristics. For proof-of-principle, the mtr sensor was applied in a FACS high-throughput screening of an E. coli MG1655 mutant library for the isolation of L-phenylalanine producers. These results emphasize the developed screening approach as a convenient strategy for the identification of effector-responsive promoters for the design of novel biosensors. PMID:27170323

  15. Molecular and cellular effects of vitamin B12 in brain, myocardium and liver through its role as co-factor of methionine synthase.

    PubMed

    Guéant, Jean-Louis; Caillerez-Fofou, Maatem; Battaglia-Hsu, Shyuefang; Alberto, Jean-Marc; Freund, Jean-Noel; Dulluc, Isabelle; Adjalla, Charles; Maury, Florence; Merle, Carole; Nicolas, Jean-Pierre; Namour, Fares; Daval, Jean-Luc

    2013-05-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, cbl) is a cofactor of methionine synthase (MTR) in the synthesis of methionine, the precursor of the universal methyl donor S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM), which is involved in epigenomic regulatory mechanisms. We have established a neuronal cell model with stable expression of a transcobalamin-oleosin chimer and subsequent decreased cellular availability of vitamin B12, which produces reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis and accelerated differentiation through PP2A, NGF and TACE pathways. Anti-transcobalamin antibody or impaired transcobalamin receptor expression produce also impaired proliferation in other cells. Consistently, the transcription, protein expression and activity of MTR are increased in proliferating cells of skin and intestinal epitheliums, in rat intestine crypts and in proliferating CaCo2 cells, while MTR activity correlates with DNA methylation in rat intestine villi. Exposure to nitrous oxide in animal models identified impairment of MTR reaction as the most important metabolic cause of neurological manifestations of B12 deficiency. Early vitamin B12 and folate deprivation during gestation and lactation of a 'dam-progeny' rat model developed in our laboratory is associated with long-lasting disabilities of behavior and memory capacities, with persisting hallmarks related to increased apoptosis, impaired neurogenesis and altered plasticity. We found also an epigenomic deregulation of energy metabolism and fatty acids beta-oxidation in myocardium and liver, through imbalanced methylation/acetylation of PGC-1alpha and decreased expression of SIRT1. These nutrigenomic effects display similarities with the molecular mechanisms of fetal programming. Beside deficiency, B12 loading increases the expression of MTR through internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) and down-regulates MDR-1 gene expression. In conclusion, vitamin B12 influences cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in brain. Vitamin B12 and folate combined

  16. HAMLET -Human Model MATROSHKA for Radiation Exposure Determination of Astronauts -Current status and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Pawel; Burmeister, Soenke; Labrenz, Johannes; Hager, Luke; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Hajek, Michael; Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, Lembit

    The exploration of space as seen in specific projects from the European Space Agency (ESA) acts as groundwork for human long duration space missions. One of the main constraints for long duration human missions is radiation. The radiation load on astronauts and cosmonauts in space (as for the ISS) is a factor of 100 higher than the natural radiation on Earth and will further increase should humans travel to Mars. In preparation for long duration space missions it is important to evaluate the impact of space radiation in order to secure the safety of the astronauts and minimize their radiation risks. To determine the radiation risk on humans one has to measure the radiation doses to radiosensitive organs within the human body. One way to approach this is the ESA facility MATROSHKA (MTR), under the scientific and project lead of DLR. It is dedicated to determining the radiation load on astronauts within and outside the International Space Station (ISS), and was launched in January 2004. MTR is currently preparing for its fourth experimental phase inside the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) in summer 2010. MTR, which mimics a human head and torso, is an anthropomorphic phantom containing over 6000 radiation detectors to determine the depth dose and organ dose distribution in the body. It is the largest international research initiative ever performed in the field of space dosimetry and combines the expertise of leading research institutions around the world, thereby generating a huge pool of data of potentially immense value for research. Aiming at optimal scientific exploitation, the FP7 project HAMLET aims to process and compile the data acquired individually by the participating laboratories of the MATROSHKA experiment. Based on experimental input from the MATROSHKA experiment phases as well as on radiation transport calculations, a three-dimensional model for the distribution of radiation dose in an astronaut's body will be built up. The scientific achievements

  17. In Vivo Magnetization Transfer and Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Detects Thrombus Composition in a Mouse Model of Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Prakash; Modarai, Bijan; Smith, Alberto; Botnar, René M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Deep vein thrombosis remains a major health problem necessitating accurate diagnosis. Thrombolysis is associated with significant morbidity and is effective only for the treatment of unorganized thrombus. We tested the feasibility of in vivo magnetization transfer (MT) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to detect thrombus organization in a murine model of deep vein thrombosis. Methods and Results Deep vein thrombosis was induced in the inferior vena cava of male BALB/C mice. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after thrombus induction using MT, diffusion-weighted, inversion-recovery, and T1-mapping protocols. Delayed enhancement and T1 mapping were repeated 2 hours after injection of a fibrin contrast agent. Finally, excised thrombi were used for histology. We found that MT and diffusion-weighted imaging can detect histological changes associated with thrombus aging. MT rate (MTR) maps and percentage of MT rate (%MTR) allowed visualization and quantification of the thrombus protein content, respectively. The %MTR increased with thrombus organization and was significantly higher at days 14, 21, and 28 after thrombus induction (days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28: %MTR=2483±451, 2079±1210, 7029±2490, 10 295±4356, 32 994±25 449; Panova<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between the %MTR and the histological protein content of the thrombus (r=0.70; P<0.05). The apparent diffusion coefficient was lower in erythrocyte-rich and collagen-rich thrombus (0.72±0.10 and 0.69±0.05 [×10−3 mm2/s]). Thrombus at days 7 and 14 had the highest apparent diffusion coefficient values (0.95±0.09 and 1.10±0.18 [×10−3 mm2/s]). Conclusions MT and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences are promising for the staging of thrombus composition and could be useful in guiding medical intervention. PMID:23564561

  18. Association between 11 genetic polymorphisms in folate-metabolising genes and head and neck cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Galbiatti, Ana Lívia Silva; da Silva, Lidia Maria Rebolho Batista; Ruiz-Cintra, Mariangela Torreglosa; Raposo, Luis Sérgio; Maníglia, José Victor; Pavarino, Erika Cristina; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria

    2012-07-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in folate metabolism may affect the risk of head and neck cancer (HNSCC) due to its involvement in DNA methylation and synthesis. We conducted a case-control study (265 HNSCC cases and 466 non-cancer controls) to investigate associations of MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G, RFC1 A80G, MTHFD1 G1958A, CBS 844ins68, TC2 C776G and A67G, SHMT C1420T and BHMT G742A polymorphisms with HNSCC risk. Interactions between polymorphisms and survival time, tobacco and alcohol habits, age, gender and tumour staging (TNM classification) were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. We found that age ≥ 49 years (P<0.001), male gender (P=0.03), tobacco habit (P<0.001), MTHFR 1298AC/CC (P=0.028), MTR 2756AG/GG (P=0.010) and RFC1 80AG/GG (P=0.015) genotypes were associated with an increased risk of HNSCC. There were interactions between lower survival and CBS 844ins68 (P=0.005); age ≥ 49 years and MTR 2756 AG/GG (P=0.004) and RFC1 80AG/GG (P=0.006) genotypes; male gender and MTHFR 1298 AC/CC (P=0.030), MTR 2756 AG/GG (P=0.006) and RFC1 80 AG/GG (P=0.009); tobacco non-habit and MTHFD1 1958GA/AA (P=0.040); tobacco and MTHFR 1298 AC/CC (P=0.054) and MTR 2756 AG/GG (P=0.010); alcohol non-consume and RFC1 80 AG/GG (P=0.008) with HNSCC increased risk. MTHFR C677CT/TT genotypes were less frequently in advanced tumours (P=0.04). In conclusion, our data provide evidence that folate metabolism genetic polymorphisms associated with variables as advanced age, male gender, tobacco and alcohol increase HNSCC development; CBS 844ins68 and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms are associated with less survival time and advanced stage tumours, respectively. PMID:22051736

  19. Identification and Characterization of MtoA: A Decaheme c-Type Cytochrome of the Neutrophilic Fe(II)-Oxidizing Bacterium Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Zheming; Belchik, Sara M.; Edwards, Marcus J.; Liu, Chongxuan; Kennedy, David W.; Merkley, Eric D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, James K.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Shi, Liang

    2012-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1 (ES-1) grows on FeCO3 or FeS at oxic–anoxic interfaces at circumneutral pH, and the ES-1-mediated Fe(II) oxidation occurs extracellularly. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ES-1’s ability to oxidize Fe(II) remain unknown. Survey of the ES-1 genome for candidate genes for microbial extracellular Fe(II) oxidation revealed that it contained a three-gene cluster encoding homologs of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1) MtrA, MtrB, and CymA that are involved in extracellular Fe(III) reduction. Homologs of MtrA and MtrB were also previously shown to be involved in extracellular Fe(II) oxidation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1. To distinguish them from those found in MR-1, the identified homologs were named MtoAB and CymAES-1. Cloned mtoA partially complemented an MR-1 mutant without MtrA with regards to ferrihydrite reduction. Characterization of purified MtoA showed that it was a decaheme c-type cytochrome and oxidized soluble Fe(II). Oxidation of Fe(II) by MtoA was pH- and Fe(II)-complexing ligand-dependent. Under conditions tested, MtoA oxidized Fe(II) from pH 7 to pH 9 with the optimal rate at pH 9. MtoA oxidized Fe(II) complexed with different ligands at different rates. The reaction rates followed the order Fe(II)Cl2 >  Fe(II)–citrate > Fe(II)–NTA > Fe(II)–EDTA with the second-order rate constants ranging from 6.3 × 10−3 μM−1 s−1 for oxidation of Fe(II)Cl2 to 1.0 × 10−3 μM−1 s−1 for oxidation of Fe(II)–EDTA. Thermodynamic modeling showed that redox reaction rates for the different Fe(II)-complexes correlated with their respective estimated reaction-free energies. Collectively, these results demonstrate that MtoA is a functional Fe(II)-oxidizing protein that, by working in concert with MtoB and CymAES-1, may oxidize Fe(II) at the bacterial surface and transfer released electrons across the bacterial cell envelope to the quinone pool in the

  20. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING BASED ON PERMSELECTIVE MEMBRANE AND CARBON ADSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    J.G. Wijmans; J.O. Stull

    2001-11-07

    The goal of this project was to develop chemical protective clothing for use by DOE decontamination and decommissioning workers that is sufficiently water vapor permeable to keep the workers cool, thereby enhancing their productivity. This report describes the results of Phase II of a two-phase project to complete development of the novel permselective material and to test protective clothing made from the fabric. In Phase I a novel material incorporating a nonporous hydrophilic polyvinylacohol (PVA) layer, which is water vapor permeable but relatively impermeable to organic vapors, was developed. The results of the Phase I tests showed that the chemical resistance of the MTR material is comparable to that of Saranex/Tyvek materials, and that the comfort properties are closer to those of Tyvek (as measured in terms of CLO and permeability). Chemical resistance was measured using permeation tests against liquid dichloromethane. Comfort properties were ascertained by measuring the water vapor transmission of the material and by sweating manikin tests on whole protective suits. In addition, a cost/benefit analysis demonstrated that use of MTR's material technology could result in significant improvements in work productivity and cost savings if protective clothing items made from the new material were used more than once. In Phase II, MTR undertook a program to optimize the performance and production engineering for the new material technology. A partnership was formed with Kimberly-Clark Corporation to assist with a detailed evaluation of the MTR technology, and MTR used the services of Mr. Jeff Stull, President of the consulting firm International Personnel Protection, Inc., who conducted a detailed economic and application analysis for the developed fabric. The protective fabric manufacturing steps were simplified significantly, resulting in a 30% reduction in manufacturing costs and eliminating the necessity for capital investment in production equipment

  1. F and Ti doped silicate nanocomposite thin films for antimicrobial and easy clean applications.

    PubMed

    Seo, YongSeong; Son, You-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Jin; Cho, Won-Je; Raj, C Justin; HyunYu, Kook

    2014-12-01

    Titanium isopropoxide (TIPO), tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and Fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) silane precursor were employed to coat transparent thin film on the glass substrate and these effectively prevents pollution on the glass from microorganisms. The each nanocomposition film was prepared by sol-gel method, the solution of nanocomposite was coated by spin coater with 1200 rpm for 30 sec and cured by thermal at 100 degrees C on glass which surface treated with Piranha solution. The nanocomposite films with highly self cleaning efficacy were fabricated and studied for various molar compositions of TEOS, TIPO and FAS. TEOS/TIPO film in glass substrate shows an optical transparency over 90% up to 30 mol% of TIPO in TEOS/TIPO composite films and also FAS incorporated up to 4 mol% onto TEOS/TIPO films. The anti-microbial efficiency of the nanocomposite film was improved 30% when it was exposed under UV light radiation than that in ambient condition. PMID:25971092

  2. Age and Geochemical Data From the Madeira-Tore Rise and Surrounding Seamounts: New Insights Into East Atlantic Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geldmacher, J.; Hoernle, K. A.; Kluegel, A.; van den Bogaard, P.

    2003-12-01

    Located off the NW African continental margin is a >3000 km long belt of volcanic archipelagoes (e.g. Canary, Madeira Islands) and large seamounts including the 900 km long Madeira-Tore Rise (MTR). The cause of the East Atlantic volcanism, and in particular the origin and age of the MTR, which is composed of a widespread plateau with several seamount groups, is controversial. Proposed models include an origin of the MTR at the Mid Atlantic Ridge, formation over a hotspot, or as a product of diffuse small-scale mantle convection. All recently dredged volcanic samples (RV Meteor cruise M51/1) from the MTR and nearby off-rise seamounts exhibit enriched Ocean Island Basalt-like incompatible trace element signatures similar to HIMU (high time integrated 238U/204Pb) ocean islands. Their isotope compositions are similar to those from Madeira with 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd overlapping Atlantic N-MORB to a large extent, but Pb isotope ratios plotting well below the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line and extending to 206Pb/204Pb values of 19.90. Our preliminary data confirm the existence of at least two distinct isotopic domains in the eastern North Atlantic: 1) a Madeira-like domain (as characterized above) stretching from Madeira Island along the MTR to the NE as far as the Azores Gibraltar fracture zone, and 2) a Canary-like domain with Sr, Nd, Pb isotope ratios intermediate between N-MORB and HIMU (206Pb/204Pb = 19.0-20.2; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.54-15.66) but with lower 143Nd/144Nd ratios (<0.5130) than the Madeira domain. We interpret the distinct compositions of these domains to reflect spatial zonation in the deeper sources of the mantle upwellings. The domains include zones influenced by Enriched Mantle (EM) I and II, which appear to be orientated along the extension of the Oceanographer (at ˜ 34° N) and the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zones (at ˜ 37° N), respectively. The first zone includes a hitherto unknown seamount that exhibits the most extreme EM I composition yet

  3. Molecular Assay for Detection of Genetic Markers Associated with Decreased Susceptibility to Cephalosporins in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, S. W.; Martin, I.; Demczuk, W.; Bharat, A.; Hoang, L.; Wylie, J.; Allen, V.; Lefebvre, B.; Tyrrell, G.; Horsman, G.; Haldane, D.; Garceau, R.; Wong, T.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae continues to rise in Canada; however, antimicrobial resistance data are lacking for approximately 70% of gonorrhea infections that are diagnosed directly from clinical specimens by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). We developed a molecular assay for surveillance use to detect mutations in genes associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins that can be applied to both culture isolates and clinical samples. Real-time PCR assays were developed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ponA, mtrR, penA, porB, and one N. gonorrhoeae-specific marker (porA). We tested the real-time PCR assay with 252 gonococcal isolates, 50 nongonococcal isolates, 24 N. gonorrhoeae-negative NAAT specimens, and 34 N. gonorrhoeae-positive NAAT specimens. Twenty-four of the N. gonorrhoeae-positive NAAT specimens had matched culture isolates. Assay results were confirmed by comparison with whole-genome sequencing data. For 252 N. gonorrhoeae strains, the agreement between the DNA sequence and real-time PCR was 100% for porA, ponA, and penA, 99.6% for mtrR, and 95.2% for porB. The presence of ≥2 SNPs correlated with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (sensitivities of >98%) and cefixime (sensitivities of >96%). Of 24 NAAT specimens with matched cultures, the agreement between the DNA sequence and real-time PCR was 100% for porB, 95.8% for ponA and mtrR, and 91.7% for penA. We demonstrated the utility of a real-time PCR assay for sensitive detection of known markers for the decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins in N. gonorrhoeae. Preliminary results with clinical NAAT specimens were also promising, as they correlated well with bacterial culture results. PMID:25878350

  4. Multiparametric MRI Analysis for the Identification of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound-Treated Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Strijkers, Gustav J.; Nicolay, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In this study endogenous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers for accurate segmentation of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU)-treated tumor tissue and residual or recurring non-treated tumor tissue were identified. Methods Multiparametric MRI, consisting of quantitative T1, T2, Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) and Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR) mapping, was performed in tumor-bearing mice before (n = 14), 1 h after (n = 14) and 72 h (n = 7) after HIFU treatment. A non-treated control group was included (n = 7). Cluster analysis using the Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis (ISODATA) technique was performed on subsets of MRI parameters (feature vectors). The clusters resulting from the ISODATA segmentation were divided into a viable and non-viable class based on the fraction of pixels assigned to the clusters at the different experimental time points. ISODATA-derived non-viable tumor fractions were quantitatively compared to histology-derived non-viable tumor volume fractions. Results The highest agreement between the ISODATA-derived and histology-derived non-viable tumor fractions was observed for feature vector {T1, T2, ADC}. R1 (1/T1), R2 (1/T2), ADC and MTR each were significantly increased in the ISODATA-defined non-viable tumor tissue at 1 h after HIFU treatment compared to viable, non-treated tumor tissue. R1, ADC and MTR were also significantly increased at 72 h after HIFU. Conclusions This study demonstrates that non-viable, HIFU-treated tumor tissue can be distinguished from viable, non-treated tumor tissue using multiparametric MRI analysis. Clinical application of the presented methodology may allow for automated, accurate and objective evaluation of HIFU treatment. PMID:24927280

  5. Effects of the Anaerobic Respiration of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 on the Stability of Extracellular U(VI) Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shenghua; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2013-01-01

    Uranium (VI) is considered to be one of the most widely dispersed and problematic environmental contaminants, due in large part to its high solubility and great mobility in natural aquatic systems. We previously reported that under anaerobic conditions, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 grown in medium containing uranyl acetate rapidly accumulated long, extracellular, ultrafine U(VI) nanofibers composed of polycrystalline chains of discrete meta-schoepite (UO3·2H2O) nanocrystallites. Wild-type MR-1 finally transformed the uranium (VI) nanofibers to uranium (IV) nanoparticles via further reduction. In order to investigate the influence of the respiratory chain in the uranium transformation process, a series of mutant strains lacking a periplasmic cytochrome MtrA, outer membrane (OM) cytochrome MtrC and OmcA, a tetraheme cytochrome CymA anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane, and a trans-OM protein MtrB, were tested in this study. Although all the mutants produced U(VI) nanofibers like the wild type, the transformation rates from U(VI) nanofibers to U(IV) nanoparticles varied; in particular, the mutant with deletion in tetraheme cytochrome CymA stably maintained the uranium (VI) nanofibers, suggesting that the respiratory chain of S. oneidensis MR-1 is probably involved in the stability of extracellular U(VI) nanofibers, which might be easily treated via the physical processes of filtration or flocculation for the remediation of uranium contamination in sediments and aquifers, as well as the recovery of uranium in manufacturing processes. PMID:23719584

  6. Effects of the anaerobic respiration of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 on the stability of extracellular U(VI) nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shenghua; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2013-01-01

    Uranium (VI) is considered to be one of the most widely dispersed and problematic environmental contaminants, due in large part to its high solubility and great mobility in natural aquatic systems. We previously reported that under anaerobic conditions, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 grown in medium containing uranyl acetate rapidly accumulated long, extracellular, ultrafine U(VI) nanofibers composed of polycrystalline chains of discrete meta-schoepite (UO(3)·2H2O) nanocrystallites. Wild-type MR-1 finally transformed the uranium (VI) nanofibers to uranium (IV) nanoparticles via further reduction. In order to investigate the influence of the respiratory chain in the uranium transformation process, a series of mutant strains lacking a periplasmic cytochrome MtrA, outer membrane (OM) cytochrome MtrC and OmcA, a tetraheme cytochrome CymA anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane, and a trans-OM protein MtrB, were tested in this study. Although all the mutants produced U(VI) nanofibers like the wild type, the transformation rates from U(VI) nanofibers to U(IV) nanoparticles varied; in particular, the mutant with deletion in tetraheme cytochrome CymA stably maintained the uranium (VI) nanofibers, suggesting that the respiratory chain of S. oneidensis MR-1 is probably involved in the stability of extracellular U(VI) nanofibers, which might be easily treated via the physical processes of filtration or flocculation for the remediation of uranium contamination in sediments and aquifers, as well as the recovery of uranium in manufacturing processes. PMID:23719584

  7. Tract-specific and age-related variations of the spinal cord microstructure: a multi-parametric MRI study using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT).

    PubMed

    Taso, Manuel; Girard, Olivier M; Duhamel, Guillaume; Le Troter, Arnaud; Feiweier, Thorsten; Guye, Maxime; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Callot, Virginie

    2016-06-01

    Being able to finely characterize the spinal cord (SC) microstructure and its alterations is a key point when investigating neural damage mechanisms encountered in different central nervous system (CNS) pathologies, such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or myelopathy. Based on novel methods, including inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT) and dedicated SC probabilistic atlas post-processing, the present study focuses on the in vivo characterization of the healthy SC tissue in terms of regional microstructure differences between (i) upper and lower cervical vertebral levels and (ii) sensory and motor tracts, as well as differences attributed to normal aging. Forty-eight healthy volunteers aged from 20 to 70 years old were included in the study and scanned at 3 T using axial high-resolution T2 *-w imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and ihMT, at two vertebral levels (C2 and C5). A processing pipeline with minimal user intervention, SC segmentation and spatial normalization into a reference space was implemented in order to assess quantitative morphological and structural parameters (cross-sectional areas, scalar DTI and MT/ihMT metrics) in specific white and gray matter regions of interest. The multi-parametric MRI metrics collected allowed upper and lower cervical levels to be distinguished, with higher ihMT ratio (ihMTR), higher axial diffusivity (λ∥ ) and lower radial diffusivity (λ⊥ ) at C2 compared with C5. Significant differences were also observed between white matter fascicles, with higher ihMTR and lower λ∥ in motor tracts compared with posterior sensory tracts. Finally, aging was found to be associated with significant metric alterations (decreased ihMTR and λ∥ ). The methodology proposed here, which can be easily transferred to the clinic, provides new insights for SC characterization. It bears great potential to study focal and diffuse SC damage in neurodegenerative and demyelinating diseases. Copyright

  8. White matter hyperintensities and normal-appearing white matter integrity in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Clayden, Jonathan D; Royle, Natalie A; Murray, Catherine; Morris, Zoe; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-02-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin are a common finding in brain magnetic resonance imaging of older individuals and contribute to cognitive and functional decline. It is unknown how WMH form, although white matter degeneration is characterized pathologically by demyelination, axonal loss, and rarefaction, often attributed to ischemia. Changes within normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in subjects with WMH have also been reported but have not yet been fully characterized. Here, we describe the in vivo imaging signatures of both NAWM and WMH in a large group of community-dwelling older people of similar age using biomarkers derived from magnetic resonance imaging that collectively reflect white matter integrity, myelination, and brain water content. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) were significantly lower, whereas mean diffusivity (MD) and longitudinal relaxation time (T1) were significantly higher, in WMH than NAWM (p < 0.0001), with MD providing the largest difference between NAWM and WMH. Receiver operating characteristic analysis on each biomarker showed that MD differentiated best between NAWM and WMH, identifying 94.6% of the lesions using a threshold of 0.747 × 10(-9) m(2)s(-1) (area under curve, 0.982; 95% CI, 0.975-0.989). Furthermore, the level of deterioration of NAWM was strongly associated with the severity of WMH, with MD and T1 increasing and FA and MTR decreasing in NAWM with increasing WMH score, a relationship that was sustained regardless of distance from the WMH. These multimodal imaging data indicate that WMH have reduced structural integrity compared with surrounding NAWM, and MD provides the best discriminator between the 2 tissue classes even within the mild range of WMH severity, whereas FA, MTR, and T1 only start reflecting significant changes in tissue microstructure as WMH become more severe. PMID:25457555

  9. Molecular Assay for Detection of Genetic Markers Associated with Decreased Susceptibility to Cephalosporins in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Peterson, S W; Martin, I; Demczuk, W; Bharat, A; Hoang, L; Wylie, J; Allen, V; Lefebvre, B; Tyrrell, G; Horsman, G; Haldane, D; Garceau, R; Wong, T; Mulvey, M R

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae continues to rise in Canada; however, antimicrobial resistance data are lacking for approximately 70% of gonorrhea infections that are diagnosed directly from clinical specimens by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). We developed a molecular assay for surveillance use to detect mutations in genes associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins that can be applied to both culture isolates and clinical samples. Real-time PCR assays were developed to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ponA, mtrR, penA, porB, and one N. gonorrhoeae-specific marker (porA). We tested the real-time PCR assay with 252 gonococcal isolates, 50 nongonococcal isolates, 24 N. gonorrhoeae-negative NAAT specimens, and 34 N. gonorrhoeae-positive NAAT specimens. Twenty-four of the N. gonorrhoeae-positive NAAT specimens had matched culture isolates. Assay results were confirmed by comparison with whole-genome sequencing data. For 252 N. gonorrhoeae strains, the agreement between the DNA sequence and real-time PCR was 100% for porA, ponA, and penA, 99.6% for mtrR, and 95.2% for porB. The presence of ≥2 SNPs correlated with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (sensitivities of >98%) and cefixime (sensitivities of >96%). Of 24 NAAT specimens with matched cultures, the agreement between the DNA sequence and real-time PCR was 100% for porB, 95.8% for ponA and mtrR, and 91.7% for penA. We demonstrated the utility of a real-time PCR assay for sensitive detection of known markers for the decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins in N. gonorrhoeae. Preliminary results with clinical NAAT specimens were also promising, as they correlated well with bacterial culture results. PMID:25878350

  10. The MisR Response Regulator Is Necessary for Intrinsic Cationic Antimicrobial Peptide and Aminoglycoside Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Justin L; Holley, Concerta L; Reimche, Jennifer L; Dhulipala, Vijaya; Balthazar, Jacqueline T; Muszyński, Artur; Carlson, Russell W; Shafer, William M

    2016-08-01

    During infection, the sexually transmitted pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the gonococcus) encounters numerous host-derived antimicrobials, including cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) produced by epithelial and phagocytic cells. CAMPs have both direct and indirect killing mechanisms and help link the innate and adaptive immune responses during infection. Gonococcal CAMP resistance is likely important for avoidance of host nonoxidative killing systems expressed by polymorphonuclear granulocytes (e.g., neutrophils) and intracellular survival. Previously studied gonococcal CAMP resistance mechanisms include modification of lipid A with phosphoethanolamine by LptA and export of CAMPs by the MtrCDE efflux pump. In the related pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, a two-component regulatory system (2CRS) termed MisR-MisS has been shown to contribute to the capacity of the meningococcus to resist CAMP killing. We report that the gonococcal MisR response regulator but not the MisS sensor kinase is involved in constitutive and inducible CAMP resistance and is also required for intrinsic low-level resistance to aminoglycosides. The 4- to 8-fold increased susceptibility of misR-deficient gonococci to CAMPs and aminoglycosides was independent of phosphoethanolamine decoration of lipid A and the levels of the MtrCDE efflux pump and seemed to correlate with a general increase in membrane permeability. Transcriptional profiling and biochemical studies confirmed that expression of lptA and mtrCDE was not impacted by the loss of MisR. However, several genes encoding proteins involved in membrane integrity and redox control gave evidence of being MisR regulated. We propose that MisR modulates the levels of gonococcal susceptibility to antimicrobials by influencing the expression of genes involved in determining membrane integrity. PMID:27216061

  11. Oxygen-dependent autoaggregation in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Mclean, Jeffrey S.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Bilskis, Christina L.; Zakrajsek, Brian A.; Hill, Eric A.; Saffarini, Daad; Romine, Margaret F.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2008-07-01

    In aerobic chemostat cultures maintained at 50% dissolved O2 tension (123.5 µM dissolved O2), Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 rapidly aggregated upon addition of 0.68 mM CaCl2 and retained this multi-cellular phenotype at high dilution rates. Confocal microscopy analysis of the extracellular matrix material contributing to the stability of the aggregate structures revealed the presence of extracellular DNA, protein, and glycoconjugates. Upon onset of O2-limited growth (dissolved O2 below detection) however, the Ca2+-supplemented chemostat cultures of strain MR-1 rapidly disaggregated and grew as motile dispersed cells. Global transcriptome analysis comparing aerobic aggregated to O2-limited unaggregated cells identified genes encoding cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface adhesion factors whose transcription increased upon exposure to increased O2 concentrations. The aerobic aggregated cells also revealed increased expression of putative anaerobic electron transfer and homologs of metal reduction genes, including mtrD (SO1782), mtrE (SO1781), and mtrF (SO1780). Our data indicate that mechanisms involved in autoaggregation of MR-1 are dependent on the function of pilD gene which encodes a putative prepilin peptidase. Mutants of S. oneidensis strain MR-1 deficient in PilD and associated pathways, including type IV and Msh pili biogenesis, displayed a moderate increase in sensitivity to H2O2. Taken together, our evidence indicates that aggregate formation in S. oneidensis MR-1 may serve as an alternative or an addition to biochemical detoxification to reduce the oxidative stress associated with production of reactive oxygen species during aerobic metabolism while facilitating the development of hypoxic conditions within the aggregate interior.

  12. Maternal folate, alcohol and energy metabolism-related gene polymorphisms and the risk of recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Sata, F; Yamada, H; Kishi, R; Minakami, H

    2012-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that the condition of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) may be multifactorial, with both genetic predisposition and environmental factors potentially involved in its pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to elucidate the associations between maternal folate, alcohol and energy metabolism-related gene polymorphisms and the risk of RPL. This case-control study, which involved 116 cases with two or more instances of RPL and 306 fertile controls, was performed in the city of Sapporo, Japan. The associations between eight single nucleotide polymorphisms of folate, alcohol and energy metabolism-related genes [methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR), alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), beta-3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG)], and RPL were assessed. Without consideration of cigarette smoking or alcohol use, the risk of RPL significantly decreased in women with the MTHFR rs1801133 TT, MTR rs1805087 AG or ALDH2 rs671 AA genotype (P < 0.05). The risk of RPL associated with cigarette smoking and alcohol use decreased significantly in women carrying the MTHFR rs1801133 T allele [odds ratio (OR), 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.27-0.95]. Similarly, the risk of RPL significantly decreased in women carrying the MTR rs1805087 G allele (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23-0.85). Our findings suggest that maternal gene polymorphisms related to folate metabolism may decrease the risk of RPL. Molecular epidemiological studies are needed to unequivocally elucidate the multifactorial effects of both genetic and environmental factors on human fecundity. PMID:25102261

  13. Manganese sulfide formation via concomitant microbial manganese oxide and thiosulfate reduction.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kennedy, David W.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Moore, Dean A.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Reed, Samantha B.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-09-27

    The dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 produced γ-MnS (rambergite) nanoparticles under the concurrent reduction of synthetic MnO2 and thiosulfate coupled to H2 oxidation. Using two MR-1 mutants defective in outer membrane c-type cytochromes (ΔmtrC/ΔomcA and ΔmtrC/ΔomcA/ΔmtrF) to eliminate the direct reduction pathway for solid electron acceptors, it was determined that respiratory reduction of MnO2 was dominant relative to chemical reduction by biogenic sulfide generated from bacterial thiosulfate reduction. Although bicarbonate was excluded from the medium, incubations of MR-1 using lactate as the sole electron donor produced MnCO3 (rhodochrosite) as well as MnS in nearly equivalent amounts as estimated by micro X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) analysis. It was concluded that carbonate released from lactate metabolism promoted MnCO3 formation and that Mn(II) mineralogy was strongly affected by carbonate ions even in the presence of abundant sulfide and weakly alkaline conditions that favor the precipitation of MnS. Formation of the biogenic MnS, as determined by a combination of micro-XRD, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction analyses was consistent with equilibrium speciation modeling predictions. Although biogenic MnS likely only forms and is stable over a relatively narrow range of conditions, it may be a significant sink for Mn in anoxic marine basins and terrestrial subsurface sediments where Mn and sulfur compounds are undergoing concurrent reduction.

  14. Simulations of MATROSHKA experiments at ISS using PHITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, L.; Sato, T.; Berger, T.; Reitz, G.

    Concerns about the biological effects of space radiation are increasing rapidly due to the per-spective of long-duration manned missions, both in relation to the International Space Station (ISS) and to manned interplanetary missions to Moon and Mars in the future. As a prepara-tion for these long duration space missions it is important to ensure an excellent capability to evaluate the impact of space radiation on human health in order to secure the safety of the astronauts/cosmonauts and minimize their risks. It is therefore necessary to measure the radi-ation load on the personnel both inside and outside the space vehicles and certify that organ and tissue equivalent doses can be simulated as accurate as possible. In this paper we will present simulations using the three-dimensional Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) of long term dose measurements performed with the ESA supported ex-periment MATROSHKA (MTR), which is an anthropomorphic phantom containing over 6000 radiation detectors, mimicking a human head and torso. The MTR experiment, led by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), was launched in January 2004 and has measured the ab-sorbed dose from space radiation both inside and outside the ISS. In this paper preliminary comparisons of measured and calculated dose and organ doses in the MTR located outside the ISS will be presented. The results confirm previous calculations and measurements which indicate that PHITS is a suitable tool for estimations of dose received from cosmic radiation and when performing shielding design studies of spacecraft. Acknowledgement: The research leading to these results has received funding from the Euro-pean Commission in the frame of the FP7 HAMLET project (Project 218817).

  15. Genetic and Lifestyle Variables Associated with Homocysteine Concentrations and the Distribution of Folate Derivatives in Healthy Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Carolyn M.; Mitchell, Laura E.; Stanislawska-Sachadyn, Anna; Baido, Shirley F.; Blair, Ian A.; Von Feldt, Joan M.; Whitehead, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low folate and high homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations are associated with pregnancy-related pathologies such as spina bifida. Polymorphisms in folate/Hcy metabolic enzymes may contribute to this potentially pathogenic biochemical phenotype. Methods The study comprised 26 Caucasian and 23 African-American premenopausal women. Subjects gave fasting blood samples for biochemical phenotyping and genotyping. Total Hcy (tHcy) and both plasma and red blood cell (RBC) folate derivatives [i.e. tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-methylTHF (5-MTHF), and 5,10-methenylTHF (5,10-MTHF)] were measured using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography, multiple reaction monitoring, mass spectrometry. Eleven polymorphisms from nine folate/Hcy pathway genes were genotyped. Tests of association between genetic, lifestyle, and biochemical variables were applied. Results In African American women, tHcy concentrations were associated (p<0.05) with total RBC folate, RBC 5-MTHF, B12, and polymorphisms in methionine synthase (MTR) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS). In Caucasian women, tHcy concentrations were not associated with total folate levels, but were associated (p<0.05) with RBC THF, ratios of RBC 5-MTHF: THF, and polymorphisms in 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and MTR . In African Americans, folate derivative levels were associated with smoking, B12, and polymorphisms in MTR, TYMS, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and reduced folate carrier1 (RFC1). In Caucasians, folate derivative levels were associated with vitamin use, B12, and polymorphisms in MTHFR, TYMS, and RFC1. Conclusions Polymorphisms in the folate/Hcy pathway are associated with tHcy and folate derivative levels. In African American and Caucasian women, different factors are associated with folate/Hcy phenotypes and may contribute to race-specific differences in the risks of a range of pregnancy-related pathologies. PMID:20544798

  16. Structural covariance of superficial white matter in mild Alzheimer's disease compared to normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Carmeli, Cristian; Fornari, Eleonora; Jalili, Mahdi; Meuli, Reto; Knyazeva, Maria G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Interindividual variations in regional structural properties covary across the brain, thus forming networks that change as a result of aging and accompanying neurological conditions. The alterations of superficial white matter (SWM) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are of special interest, since they follow the AD-specific pattern characterized by the strongest neurodegeneration of the medial temporal lobe and association cortices. Methods Here, we present an SWM network analysis in comparison with SWM topography based on the myelin content quantified with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) for 39 areas in each hemisphere in 15 AD patients and 15 controls. The networks are represented by graphs, in which nodes correspond to the areas, and edges denote statistical associations between them. Results In both groups, the networks were characterized by asymmetrically distributed edges (predominantly in the left hemisphere). The AD-related differences were also leftward. The edges lost due to AD tended to connect nodes in the temporal lobe to other lobes or nodes within or between the latter lobes. The newly gained edges were mostly confined to the temporal and paralimbic regions, which manifest demyelination of SWM already in mild AD. Conclusion This pattern suggests that the AD pathological process coordinates SWM demyelination in the temporal and paralimbic regions, but not elsewhere. A comparison of the MTR maps with MTR-based networks shows that although, in general, the changes in network architecture in AD recapitulate the topography of (de)myelination, some aspects of structural covariance (including the interhemispheric asymmetry of networks) have no immediate reflection in the myelination pattern. PMID:25328848

  17. Assessment of MRI Parameters as Imaging Biomarkers for Radiation Necrosis in the Rat Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Silun; Tryggestad, Erik; Zhou Tingting; Armour, Michael; Wen Zhibo; Fu Dexue; Ford, Eric; Zijl, Peter C.M. van; Zhou Jinyuan

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Radiation necrosis is a major complication of radiation therapy. We explore the features of radiation-induced brain necrosis in the rat, using multiple MRI approaches, including T{sub 1}, T{sub 2}, apparent diffusion constant (ADC), cerebral blood flow (CBF), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), and amide proton transfer (APT) of endogenous mobile proteins and peptides. Methods and Materials: Adult rats (Fischer 344; n = 15) were irradiated with a single, well-collimated X-ray beam (40 Gy; 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 mm{sup 2}) in the left brain hemisphere. MRI was acquired on a 4.7-T animal scanner at {approx}25 weeks' postradiation. The MRI signals of necrotic cores and perinecrotic regions were assessed with a one-way analysis of variance. Histological evaluation was accomplished with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: ADC and CBF MRI could separate perinecrotic and contralateral normal brain tissue (p < 0.01 and < 0.05, respectively), whereas T{sub 1}, T{sub 2}, MTR, and APT could not. MRI signal intensities were significantly lower in the necrotic core than in normal brain for CBF (p < 0.001) and APT (p < 0.01) and insignificantly higher or lower for T{sub 1}, T{sub 2}, MTR, and ADC. Histological results demonstrated coagulative necrosis within the necrotic core and reactive astrogliosis and vascular damage within the perinecrotic region. Conclusion: ADC and CBF are promising imaging biomarkers for identifying perinecrotic regions, whereas CBF and APT are promising for identifying necrotic cores.

  18. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2007-03-31

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, which met with limited success. However, a small test system was installed at a Twin Bottoms Energy well in Kentucky. This unit operated successfully for six months, and demonstrated the technology's reliability on a small scale. MTR then located an alternative test site with much larger gas flow rates and signed a contract with Towne Exploration in the third quarter of 2006, for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, California, to be run through May 2007. The demonstration for Towne has already resulted in the sale of two commercial skids to the company; both units will be delivered by the end of 2007. Total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units from the partnership with ABB are now approaching $4.0 million.

  19. Breast cancer risk associated with gene expression and genotype polymorphisms of the folate-metabolizing MTHFR gene: a case-control study in a high altitude Ecuadorian mestizo population.

    PubMed

    López-Cortés, Andrés; Echeverría, Carolina; Oña-Cisneros, Fabián; Sánchez, María Eugenia; Herrera, Camilo; Cabrera-Andrade, Alejandro; Rosales, Felipe; Ortiz, Malena; Paz-Y-Miño, César

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in 2014. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), and MTR reductase (MTRR) are enzymes that play an important role in folate metabolism. The single nucleotide polymorphisms, MTHFR C677T, A1298C, MTR A2756G, and MTRR A66G, alter plasmatic folate and homocysteine concentrations, causing problems during the repairment, synthesis, and methylation of the genetic material. Therefore, it is essential to know how BC risk is associated with histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics, genotype polymorphisms, and gene expression in a high altitude Ecuadorian mestizo population. DNA was extracted from 195 healthy and 114 affected women. Genotypes were determined by restriction enzymes and genomic sequencing. mRNA was extracted from 26 glandular breast tissue samples, both from cancerous tissue and healthy tissue adjacent to the tumor. Relative gene expression was determined with the comparative Livak method (2(-ΔΔCT)). We found significant association between the rs1801133 (A222V) genotypes and an increased risk of BC development: C/T (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-3.2; P = 0.039), T/T (OR = 2.9; 95 % CI = 1.2-7.2; P = 0.025), and C/T + T/T (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI = 1.1-3.3; P = 0.019). Regarding relative gene expression, we found significant mRNA subexpression between the combined genotypes C/T + T/T (rs1801133) and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) (P = 0.034). In brief, the MTHFR gene and its protein could act as potential predictive biomarkers of BC, especially TNBC among the high altitude Ecuadorian mestizo population. PMID:25801246

  20. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF A MEMBRANE PROCESS TO RECOVER HEAVY HYDROCARBONS AND TO REMOVE WATER FROM NATURAL GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-04-10

    The objective of this project is to design, construct and field demonstrate a 3-MMscfd membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. The gas processed by the membrane system will meet pipeline specifications for dew point and Btu value, and the process is likely to be significantly less expensive than glycol dehydration followed by propane refrigeration, the principal competitive technology. The BP-Amoco gas processing plant in Pascagoula, MS was finalized as the location for the field demonstration. Detailed drawings of the MTR membrane skid (already constructed) were submitted to the plant in February, 2000. However, problems in reaching an agreement on the specifications of the system compressor delayed the project significantly, so MTR requested (and was subsequently granted) a no-cost extension to the project. Following resolution of the compressor issues, the goal is to order the compressor during the first quarter of 2002, and to start field tests in mid-2002. Information from potential users of the membrane separation process in the natural gas processing industry suggests that applications such as fuel gas conditioning and wellhead gas processing are the most promising initial targets. Therefore, most of our commercialization effort is focused on promoting these applications. Requests for stream evaluations and for design and price quotations have been received through MTR's web site, from direct contact with potential users, and through announcements in industry publications. To date, about 90 commercial quotes have been supplied, and orders totaling about $1.13 million for equipment or rental of membrane units have been received.

  1. Characterization of airborne individual particles collected in an urban area, a satellite city and a clean air area in Beijing, 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zongbo; Shao, Longyi; Jones, T. P.; Whittaker, A. G.; Lu, Senlin; Bérubé, K. A.; He, Taoe; Richards, R. J.

    Collection campaigns for PM 10 and PM 2.5 have been conducted in a northwestern Beijing urban area in monthly periods over 2001, with 7 days collection per month. The samples were also collected simultaneously in a satellite city, Nankou, and a clean air area near the Ming Tombs Reservoir (MTR) over the domestic heating (March) and non-heating (July/August) periods in 2001 (both for one week). To assist the analysis, three types of 'source' particulate matter (PM) samples were taken. These consisted of coal combustion ash collected on top of a coke oven; dust storm particles collected during dust storm periods; and roadside PM 10 collected on a major road in Beijing. Monitoring results reveal that, in the urban area, particle mass levels were higher in winter than in other seasons. The 1-week/month average PM 10 mass levels were over 250 μg m -3 in winter. The particle mass levels in the satellite city were slightly lower than those at the urban site, and the lowest mass levels occurred at the MTR site. The morphology and chemical composition of individual airborne particles were determined by scanning electron microscopy, and image analysis was employed to study the number-size distributions. The number-size distributions of mineral particles showed that those in the Asia-Dust storm (ADS) collections are mostly coarser than 1 μm, while mineral particles of the non-ADS collections are predominately finer than 1 μm. The particles in the respirable (<2.5 μm) fraction accounted for 99% of the total particles in airborne PM samples. Soot aggregates were generally the most abundant components in airborne PM samples at all three sites. The fly ash (spherical) particles at the MTR site were significantly enriched over the heating period, indicating a domestic coal-burning source.

  2. Family resemblances: A common fold for some dimeric ion-coupled secondary transporters

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Jaque, Ariela; Fenollar-Ferrer, Cristina; Mulligan, Christopher; Mindell, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane transporter proteins catalyze the passage of a broad range of solutes across cell membranes, allowing the uptake and efflux of crucial compounds. Because of the difficulty of expressing, purifying, and crystallizing integral membrane proteins, relatively few transporter structures have been elucidated to date. Although every membrane transporter has unique characteristics, structural and mechanistic similarities between evolutionarily diverse transporters have been identified. Here, we compare two recently reported structures of membrane proteins that act as antimicrobial efflux pumps, namely MtrF from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and YdaH from Alcanivorax borkumensis, both with each other and with the previously published structure of a sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter from Vibrio cholerae, VcINDY. MtrF and YdaH belong to the p-aminobenzoyl-glutamate transporter (AbgT) family and have been reported as having architectures distinct from those of all other families of transporters. However, our comparative analysis reveals a similar structural arrangement in all three proteins, with highly conserved secondary structure elements. Despite their differences in biological function, the overall “design principle” of MtrF and YdaH appears to be almost identical to that of VcINDY, with a dimeric quaternary structure, helical hairpins, and clear boundaries between the transport and scaffold domains. This observation demonstrates once more that the same secondary transporter architecture can be exploited for multiple distinct transport modes, including cotransport and antiport. Based on our comparisons, we detected conserved motifs in the substrate-binding region and predict specific residues likely to be involved in cation or substrate binding. These findings should prove useful for the future characterization of the transport mechanisms of these families of secondary active transporters. PMID:26503722

  3. Identifying the role of cytochromes upon the attachment, growth and detachment of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 on hematite during dissimilatory iron reduction under natural- flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, A. C.; Geesey, G. G.

    2006-12-01

    Current understanding of bacterial respiration by dissimilatory iron (Fe) reduction is based primarily on studies of closed systems using soluble Fe(III). However, natural environments likely to support Fe reduction are typically open systems and contain Fe(III) primarily in the form of crystalline (hydr)oxides. Mechanisms by which electrons are transported between bacteria and mineral terminal electron acceptors (TEAs) under open system conditions are still poorly understood. However, a number of cytochromes have been identified as potentially playing a critical role in the electron transport system of some Fe reducing bacteria. Experiments were performed using (i) omcA, (ii) mtrC, or (iii) omcA and mtrC cytochrome deficient mutants of the Fe-reducing bacteria, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, in transparent-window flow- reactors containing hematite as the only TEA. These were operated under defined hydrodynamic and anaerobic conditions. Cells expressed green fluorescent protein (gfp), allowing real time measurement of cells at the mineral surface by epifluorescence microscopy. Cytochromes which play a critical role in the anaerobic growth of S. Oneidensis by Fe reduction under open system natural-flow conditions could then be identified. Differences in the accumulation, maximum density, detachment and total production of surface-associated cells growing on hematite surfaces were apparent between the mutants, and between the mutants and the wild-type. Mutants deficient in cytochromes grew to a lower max density by up to 2 orders of magnitude than the wild-type, and exhibited no reduced Fe in the reactor effluent or at the surface of the hematite at the conclusion of the experiment, as revealed by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Therefore omcA and / or mtrC cytochromes appear critical for electron shuttling and anaerobic growth of S. Oneidensis on hematite under natural-flow conditions.

  4. c-Type Cytochrome-Dependent Formation of U(IV) Nanoparticles by Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Kennedy, David W.; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Lai, Barry; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Mclean, Jeffrey S.; Reed, Samantha B.; Culley, David E.; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Simonson, Cody J.; Saffarini, Daad; Romine, Margaret F.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2006-08-08

    Modern approaches for bioremediation of radionuclide contaminated environments are based on the ability of microorganisms to effectively catalyze changes in the oxidation states of metals that in turn influence their solubility. Although microbial metal reduction has been identified as an effective means for immobilizing highly-soluble uranium(VI) complexes in situ, the biomolecular mechanisms of U(VI) reduction are not well understood. Here, we show that c-type cytochromes of a dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 are essential for the reduction of U(VI) and formation of extracelluar UO2 nanoparticles. In particular, the outer membrane (OM) decaheme cytochrome MtrC, previously implicated in Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reduction, directly transferred electrons to U(VI). Additionally, deletions of mtrC and/or omcA significantly affected the in vivo U(VI) reduction rate relative to wild type MR-1. Similar to the wild type, the mutants accumulated UO2 nanoparticles extracellularly to high densities in association with an exopolymeric substance (EPS). In wild type cells, this UO2-EPS matrix exhibited glycocalyx-like properties, contained multiple elements of the OM, polysaccharide, and heme containing proteins. Using a novel combination of methods including synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy and high resolution immune-electron microscopy, we demonstrate a close association of the extracellular UO2 nanoparticles with MtrC and OmcA. This is the first study to directly localize the OM-associated cytochromes with EPS, which contains biogenic UO2 nanoparticles. In the environment, such association of UO2 nanoparticles with biopolymers may exert a strong influence on subsequent behavior including susceptibility to oxidation by O2 or transport in soils and sediments.

  5. Effect of cropland management and slope position on soil organic carbon pool at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Yueli; Lal, Rattan; Owens, Lloyd; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Post, W M.; Hothem, Daniel

    2002-12-01

    Soil organic matter is strongly related to soil type, landscape morphology, and soil and crop management practices. Therefore, long-term (15-36-years) effects of six cropland management systems on soil organic carbon (SOC) pool in 0-30 cm depth were studied for the period of 1939-1999 at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds (<3 ha, Dystric Cambisol, Haplic Luvisol, and Haplic Alisol) near Coshocton, OH, USA. Six management treatments were: (1) no tillage continuous corn with NPK (NC); (2) no tillage continuous corn with NPK and manure (NTC-M); (3) no tillage corn?soybean rotation (NTR); (4) chisel tillage corn?soybean rotation (CTR); (5) moldboard tillage with corn?wheat?meadow?meadow rotation with improved practices (MTR-I); (6) moldboard tillage with corn?wheat?meadow?meadow rotation with prevalent practices (MTR-P). The SOC pool ranged from 24.5Mgha?1 in the 32-years moldboard tillage corn (Zea mays L.)?wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)?meadow?meadow rotation with straight row farming and annual application of fertilizer (N:P:K = 5:9:17) of 56?112 kg ha?1 and cattle (Bos taurus) manure of 9Mg ha?1 as the prevalent system (MTR-P) to 65.5Mgha?1 in the 36-years no tillage continuous corn with contour row farming and annual application of 170?225 kgNha?1 and appropriate amounts of P and K, and 6?11Mgha?1 of cattle manure as the improved system (NTC-M).

  6. Aqueous Alteration at a Delta in Eastern Libya Montes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Tirsch, Daniela; Tornabene, Livio L.; Seelos, Frank P.; Erkeling, Gino; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Libya Montes hosts ancient Noachian basalt altered by hydrothermal action from the Isidis impact, olivine- and pyroxene-bearing lavas from the Syrtis volcanic outflows, multiple craters that have excavated these geologic units, and numerous Hesperian-Amazonian-aged fluvial features that carved channels across the surface and may have transported material downward towards Isidis. Mineralogical analyses of a delta region in Eastern Libya Montes using recently available MTR3 CRISM images have revealed the presence of carbonate in additional to Al-, Fe-, and Mg-bearing phyllosilicates. We are investigating the origins of these aqueous components through stratigraphical and morphological analyses. We hypothesize that the carbonate and Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates are alteration products of the ancient basalt and that the Al-smectite formed as a result of the delta and more recent lacustrine or fluvial processes. The Al-smectite spectral features are most consistent with beidellite, which forms at elevated temperatures compared to montmorillonite. We seek to determine if the beidellite likely formed in warm delta waters or if it may have formed via burial diagenesis and was then excavated by the delta. Newly developed CRISM parameters are being utilized for analysis of the MTR3 versions of CRISM images FRT0000B0CB and FRT0001E2F2 in the fan and delta region of eastern Libya Montes. The MTR3 images feature joined short-wavelength and long-wavelength images and improved spectral signals through new atmospheric separation and noise removal techniques. This enables better detection of spectral signatures from small outcrops of aqueous components. We have placed these new CRISM mineral maps over HRSC stereo images to evaluate the stratigraphy of the aqueous components in relation to the ancient basalt and Syrtis lavas as in previous analyses of the central Libya Montes region. Coordinated CRISM-HiRISE views are expected to provide insights into the morphologies of the aqueous units

  7. Polymorphism in one-carbon metabolism pathway affects survival of gastric cancer patients: Large and comprehensive study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tingting; Gu, Dongying; Xu, Zhi; Huo, Xinying; Shen, Lili; Wang, Chun; Tang, Yongfei; Wu, Peng; He, Jason; Gong, Weida; He, Ming-Liang; Chen, Jinfei

    2015-04-20

    Although it has been shown that polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism (OCM) pathway are associated with gastric cancer (GC), their interactions and contributions for patients' survival are elusive. In this study, we investigated the effects of polymorphisms and their interactions on the survival of GC patients, including genes of Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C > T, 1298A > C), Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR 66A > G), Methionine synthase (MTR 2756A > G), and Thymidylate synthase (TS 3'-UTR ins6 > del6, 5'-UTR 2R > 3R). We recruited 919 GC patients from 1998 to 2006. The Kaplan-Meier plots, Cox regression analyses and the log-rank tests were carried out in this study. MTHFR 1298CC genotype showed protective effect (HR = 0.444, 95% CI = 0.210-0.940). MTRR 66 GA + GG genotypes decreased the risk of death (HR = 0.793, 95% CI = 0.651-0.967) in general, and in subgroups with more pronounced diffuse type, greater depth of invasion (T2/T3/T4), higher level lymph node metastasis (N1/N2/N3), advanced TNM stages (II/III level) and 5-Fu treatment. However, the improved survival disappeared when GC patients simultaneously had MTR 2756 GA + GG genotypes (HR = 1.063, 95% CI = 0.750-1.507). Although MTRR 66GA genotype was not associated with the survival of GC patients, patients with simultaneous MTRR 66GA and MTR 2756AA genotypes exhibited significant risk reduction of death (HR = 0.773, 95% CI = 0.609-0.981). MTHFR 1298 CA + CC combined with TS 5-UTR 2R3R + 3R3R genotypes (HR = 0.536, 95% CI = 0.315-0.913) also increased patient survival rates. Our results suggest that the MTRR 66A > G and MTHFR 1298A > C polymorphisms may be useful prognostic biomarkers for GC patients. PMID:25840420

  8. Gene promoter methylation in colorectal cancer and healthy adjacent mucosa specimens

    PubMed Central

    Coppedè, Fabio; Migheli, Francesca; Lopomo, Angela; Failli, Alessandra; Legitimo, Annalisa; Consolini, Rita; Fontanini, Gabriella; Sensi, Elisa; Servadio, Adele; Seccia, Massimo; Zocco, Giuseppe; Chiarugi, Massimo; Spisni, Roberto; Migliore, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the promoter methylation levels of the APC, MGMT, hMLH1, RASSF1A and CDKN2A genes in 107 colorectal cancer (CRC) samples and 80 healthy adjacent tissues. We searched for correlation with both physical and pathological features, polymorphisms of folate metabolism pathway genes (MTHFR, MTRR, MTR, RFC1, TYMS, and DNMT3B), and data on circulating folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine, which were available in a subgroup of the CRC patients. An increased number of methylated samples were found in CRC respect to adjacent healthy tissues, with the exception of APC, which was also frequently methylated in healthy colonic mucosa. Statistically significant associations were found between RASSF1A promoter methylation and tumor stage, and between hMLH1 promoter methylation and tumor location. Increasing age positively correlated with both hMLH1 and MGMT methylation levels in CRC tissues, and with APC methylation levels in the adjacent healthy mucosa. Concerning gender, females showed higher hMLH1 promoter methylation levels with respect to males. In CRC samples, the MTR 2756AG genotype correlated with higher methylation levels of RASSF1A, and the TYMS 1494 6bp ins/del polymorphism correlated with the methylation levels of both APC and hMLH1. In adjacent healthy tissues, MTR 2756AG and TYMS 1494 6bp del/del genotypes correlated with APC and MGMT promoter methylation, respectively. Low folate levels were associated with hMLH1 hypermethylation. Present results support the hypothesis that DNA methylation in CRC depends from both physiological and environmental factors, with one-carbon metabolism largely involved in this process. PMID:24500500

  9. c-Type Cytochrome-Dependent Formation of U(IV) Nanoparticles by Shewanella oneidensis

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Matthew J; Dohnalkova, Alice C; Kennedy, David W; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Boyanov, Maxim I; Lai, Barry; Kemner, Kenneth M; McLean, Jeffrey S; Reed, Samantha B; Culley, David E; Bailey, Vanessa L; Simonson, Cody J; Saffarini, Daad A; Romine, Margaret F; Zachara, John M

    2006-01-01

    Modern approaches for bioremediation of radionuclide contaminated environments are based on the ability of microorganisms to effectively catalyze changes in the oxidation states of metals that in turn influence their solubility. Although microbial metal reduction has been identified as an effective means for immobilizing highly-soluble uranium(VI) complexes in situ, the biomolecular mechanisms of U(VI) reduction are not well understood. Here, we show that c-type cytochromes of a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, are essential for the reduction of U(VI) and formation of extracelluar UO 2 nanoparticles. In particular, the outer membrane (OM) decaheme cytochrome MtrC (metal reduction), previously implicated in Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reduction, directly transferred electrons to U(VI). Additionally, deletions of mtrC and/or omcA significantly affected the in vivo U(VI) reduction rate relative to wild-type MR-1. Similar to the wild-type, the mutants accumulated UO 2 nanoparticles extracellularly to high densities in association with an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). In wild-type cells, this UO 2-EPS matrix exhibited glycocalyx-like properties and contained multiple elements of the OM, polysaccharide, and heme-containing proteins. Using a novel combination of methods including synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy and high-resolution immune-electron microscopy, we demonstrate a close association of the extracellular UO 2 nanoparticles with MtrC and OmcA (outer membrane cytochrome). This is the first study to our knowledge to directly localize the OM-associated cytochromes with EPS, which contains biogenic UO 2 nanoparticles. In the environment, such association of UO 2 nanoparticles with biopolymers may exert a strong influence on subsequent behavior including susceptibility to oxidation by O 2 or transport in soils and sediments. PMID:16875436

  10. Abbreviated sampling and analysis plan for planning decontamination and decommissioning at Test Reactor Area (TRA) facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    The objective is to sample and analyze for the presence of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents within certain areas of the Test Reactor Area (TRA), prior to D and D activities. The TRA is composed of three major reactor facilities and three smaller reactors built in support of programs studying the performance of reactor materials and components under high neutron flux conditions. The Materials Testing Reactor (MTR) and Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) facilities are currently pending D/D. Work consists of pre-D and D sampling of designated TRA (primarily ETR) process areas. This report addresses only a limited subset of the samples which will eventually be required to characterize MTR and ETR and plan their D and D. Sampling which is addressed in this document is intended to support planned D and D work which is funded at the present time. Biased samples, based on process knowledge and plant configuration, are to be performed. The multiple process areas which may be potentially sampled will be initially characterized by obtaining data for upstream source areas which, based on facility configuration, would affect downstream and as yet unsampled, process areas. Sampling and analysis will be conducted to determine the level of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents present in designated areas within buildings TRA-612, 642, 643, 644, 645, 647, 648, 663; and in the soils surrounding Facility TRA-611. These data will be used to plan the D and D and help determine disposition of material by D and D personnel. Both MTR and ETR facilities will eventually be decommissioned by total dismantlement so that the area can be restored to its original condition.

  11. Intensive Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Primary CNS Lymphoma: CALGB 50202 (Alliance 50202)

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, James L.; Hsi, Eric D.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Jung, Sin-Ho; Nakashima, Megan O.; Grant, Barbara; Cheson, Bruce D.; Kaplan, Lawrence D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Concerns regarding neurocognitive toxicity of whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) have motivated development of alternative, dose-intensive chemotherapeutic strategies as consolidation in primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). We performed a multicenter study of high-dose consolidation, without WBRT, in PCNSL. Objectives were to determine: one, rate of complete response (CR) after remission induction therapy with methotrexate, temozolomide, and rituximab (MT-R); two, feasibility of a two-step approach using high-dose consolidation with etoposide plus cytarabine (EA); three, progression-free survival (PFS); and four, correlation between clinical and molecular prognostic factors and outcome. Patients and Methods Forty-four patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL were treated with induction MT-R, and patients who achieved CR received EA consolidation. We performed a prospective analysis of molecular prognostic biomarkers in PCNSL in the setting of a clinical trial. Results The rate of CR to MT-R was 66%. The overall 2-year PFS was 0.57, with median follow-up of 4.9 years. The 2-year time to progression was 0.59, and for patients who completed consolidation, it was 0.77. Patients age > 60 years did as well as younger patients, and the most significant clinical prognostic variable was treatment delay. High BCL6 expression correlated with shorter survival. Conclusion CALGB 50202 demonstrates for the first time to our knowledge that dose-intensive consolidation for PCNSL is feasible in the multicenter setting and yields rates of PFS and OS at least comparable to those of regimens involving WBRT. On the basis of these encouraging results, an intergroup study has been activated comparing EA consolidation with myeloablative chemotherapy in this randomized trial in PCNSL, in which neither arm involves WBRT. PMID:23569323

  12. Testing of a Transport Cask for Research Reactor Spent Fuel - 13003

    SciTech Connect

    Mourao, Rogerio P.; Leite da Silva, Luiz; Miranda, Carlos A.; Mattar Neto, Miguel; Quintana, Jose F.A.; Saliba, Roberto O.; Novara, Oscar E.

    2013-07-01

    Since the beginning of the last decade three Latin American countries that operate research reactors - Argentina, Brazil and Chile - have been joining efforts to improve the regional capability in the management of spent fuel elements from the TRIGA and MTR reactors operated in the region. A main drive in this initiative, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency, is the fact that no definite solution regarding the back end of the research reactor fuel cycle has been taken by any of the participating country. However, any long-term solution - either disposition in a repository or storage away from reactor - will involve at some stage the transportation of the spent fuel through public roads. Therefore, a licensed cask that provides adequate shielding, assurance of subcriticality, and conformance to internationally accepted safety, security and safeguards regimes is considered a strategic part of any future solution to be adopted at a regional level. As a step in this direction, a packaging for the transport of irradiated fuel for MTR and TRIGA research reactors was designed by the tri-national team and a half-scale model equipped with the MTR version of the internal basket was constructed in Argentina and Brazil and tested in Brazil. Three test campaigns have been carried out so far, covering both normal conditions of transportation and hypothetical accident conditions. After failing the tests in the first two test series, the specimen successfully underwent the last test sequence. A second specimen, incorporating the structural improvements in view of the previous tests results, will be tested in the near future. Numerical simulations of the free drop and thermal tests are being carried out in parallel, in order to validate the computational modeling that is going to be used as a support for the package certification. (authors)

  13. The new postirradiation examination facility of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Walt, P.L. van der; Aspeling, J.C.; Jonker, W.D.; Sliep, A.S.J.F. )

    1992-01-01

    The Pelindaba Hot Cell Complex (HCC) forms an important part of the infrastructure and support services of the Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC) of South Africa. It is a comprehensive, one-stop facility designed to make South Africa self-sufficient in the fields of spent-fuel qualification and verification, reactor pressure vessel surveillance program testing, ad hoc failure analyses for the nuclear power industry, and research and development studies in conjunction with the Safari I material test reactor (MTR) and irradiation rigs. Local technology and expertise was used for the design and construction of the HCC, which start up in 1980. The facility was commissioned in 1990.

  14. Reinfiltration through liquid bridges formed between two matrix blocks in fractured rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejam, Morteza; Hassanzadeh, Hassan; Chen, Zhangxin

    2014-11-01

    Liquid reinfiltration is a significant process, which can considerably retard and slowdown the transport of oil, water and contaminants in fractured subsurface formations. However, accurate modeling of the reinfiltration via liquid bridges formed in a horizontal fracture or space between two rock porous blocks remains a controversial topic. In an attempt to improve an understanding of the problem, the reinfiltration from upper to lower matrix blocks through formation of liquid bridges is theoretically modeled by using generalization of the Lucas-Washburn theory for a porous medium, which takes into account pressure differences due to matrix capillary, gravity, inertia, viscous, and fracture capillary forces. The developed model results in a second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE), which is solved numerically to obtain depth and rate of the reinfiltrated liquid versus time. The results showed that three reinfiltration regimes: including Early Time Regime (ETR) (z ∼ t, q = constant), Middle Time Regime (MTR) (z ∼ √{ t } , q ∼ 1 /√{ t }) and Late Time Regime (LTR) (z ∼ t, q = constant) can be observed, where the inertia, viscous, and gravity forces are dominant, respectively. The results also indicated that by increasing the permeability of the porous medium, the durations of the ETR (z ∼ t, q = constant) and the LTR (z ∼ t, q = constant) are prolonged while the duration of the MTR (z ∼ √{ t } , q ∼ 1 /√{ t }) is reduced. Moreover, the results revealed that by increasing the liquid viscosity, the durations of the ETR (z ∼ t, q = constant) and LTR (z ∼ t, q = constant) are reduced whereas the duration of the MTR (z ∼ √{ t } , q ∼ 1 /√{ t }) is prolonged. In addition, the results showed that in the case of high permeability of the porous medium when the fracture capillary pressure is strong enough only the LTR (z ∼ t, q = constant) can be observed. The MTR (z ∼ √{ t } , q ∼ 1 /√{ t }) and the LTR (z ∼ t

  15. Development of amino acid uptake activity in Neurospora.

    PubMed

    Railey, R M; Kinsey, J A

    1976-02-01

    During the germination and growth of Neurospora conidia, amino acid permease systems I (neutral) and II (general) increase in specific activity. System III (basic) decreases in specific activity with the onset of germination. System I shows two peaks of activity during the logarithmic phase of growth. One peak occurs at 6 h, the other at 12 h of growth. Both peaks are abolished in the mtr mutant. Both peaks have a Km for phenylalanine of 40 muM. The peaks of system I activity appear to correlate with morphological changes. PMID:4208

  16. Exploration of the binding modes of buffalo PGRP1 receptor complexed with meso-diaminopimelic acid and lysine-type peptidoglycans by molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculation.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Bikash Ranjan; Dubey, Praveen Kumar; Goyal, Shubham; Bhoi, Gopal Krushna; Lenka, Santosh Kumar; Maharana, Jitendra; Pradhan, Sukanta Kumar; Kataria, Ranjit Singh

    2014-09-01

    The peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are the key components of innate-immunity, and are highly specific for the recognition of bacterial peptidoglycans (PGN). Among different mammalian PGRPs, the PGRP1 binds to murein PGN of Gram-positive bacteria (lysine-type) and also have bactericidal activity towards Gram-negative bacteria (diaminopimelic acid or Dap-type). Buffaloes are the major sources of milk and meat in Asian sub-continents and are highly exposed to bacterial infections. The PGRP activates the innate-immune signaling, but their studies has been confined to limited species due to lack of structural and functional information. So, to understand the structural constituents, 3D model of buffalo PGRP1 (bfPGRP1) was constructed and conformational and dynamics properties of bfPGRP1 was studied. The bfPGRP1 model highly resembled human and camel PGRP structure, and shared a highly flexible N-terminus and centrally placed L-shaped cleft. Docking simulation of muramyl-tripeptide, tetrapeptide, pentapeptide-Dap-(MTP-Dap, MTrP-Dap and MPP-Dap) and lysine-type (MTP-Lys, MTrP-Lys and MPP-Lys) in AutoDock 4.2 and ArgusLab 4.0.1 anticipated β1, α2, α4, β4, and loops connecting β1-α2, α2-β2, β3-β4 and α4-α5 as the key interacting domains. The bfPGRP1-ligand complex molecular dynamics simulation followed by free binding energy (BE) computation conceded BE values of -18.30, -35.53, -41.80, -25.03, -24.62 and -22.30 kJ mol(-1) for MTP-Dap, MTrP-Dap, MPP-Dap, MTP-Lys, MTrP-Lys and MPP-Lys, respectively. The groove-surface and key binding residues involved in PGN-Dap and Lys-type interaction intended by the molecular docking, and were also accompanied by significant BE values directed their importance in pharmacogenomics, and warrants further in vivo studies for drug targeting and immune signaling pathways exploration. PMID:25014416

  17. EXHAUST STACK RISES. STEEL FRAMEWORK FOR FAN HOUSE IN PLACE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXHAUST STACK RISES. STEEL FRAMEWORK FOR FAN HOUSE IN PLACE. TRENCH IN FOREGROUND IS FOR DUCT THAT WILL CARRY COOLANT AIR FROM MTR'S THERMAL SHIELD. DUCT LINES UP WITH NORTH SIDE OF FAN HOUSE. AT RIGHT OF VIEW, NOTE TRENCH LEADING TO SOUTH SIDE OF FAN HOUSE; IT WILL BRING CONTAMINATED AIR FROM LABORATORY HOODS AND VENTS. CAMERA FACING EAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2764. Unknown Photographer, 6/29/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Demyelination and Remyelination in the Cuprizone Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Tagge, Ian; O'Connor, Audrey; Chaudhary, Priya; Pollaro, Jim; Berlow, Yosef; Chalupsky, Megan; Bourdette, Dennis; Woltjer, Randy; Johnson, Mac; Rooney, William

    2016-01-01

    Cuprizone administration in mice provides a reproducible model of demyelination and spontaneous remyelination, and has been useful in understanding important aspects of human disease, including multiple sclerosis. In this study, we apply high spatial resolution quantitative MRI techniques to establish the spatio-temporal patterns of acute demyelination in C57BL/6 mice after 6 weeks of cuprizone administration, and subsequent remyelination after 6 weeks of post-cuprizone recovery. MRI measurements were complemented with Black Gold II stain for myelin and immunohistochemical stains for associated tissue changes. Gene expression was evaluated using the Allen Gene Expression Atlas. Twenty-five C57BL/6 male mice were split into control and cuprizone groups; MRI data were obtained at baseline, after 6 weeks of cuprizone, and 6 weeks post-cuprizone. High-resolution (100 μm isotropic) whole-brain coverage magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) parametric maps demonstrated concurrent caudal-to-rostral and medial-to-lateral gradients of MTR decrease within corpus callosum (CC) that correlated well with demyelination assessed histologically. Our results show that demyelination was not limited to the midsagittal line of the corpus callosum, and also that opposing gradients of demyelination occur in the lateral and medial CC. T2-weighted MRI gray/white matter contrast was strong at baseline, weak after 6 weeks of cuprizone treatment, and returned to a limited extent after recovery. MTR decreases during demyelination were observed throughout the brain, most clearly in callosal white matter. Myelin damage and repair appear to be influenced by proximity to oligodendrocyte progenitor cell populations and exhibit an inverse correlation with myelin basic protein gene expression. These findings suggest that susceptibility to injury and ability to repair vary across the brain, and whole-brain analysis is necessary to accurately characterize this model. Whole-brain parametric mapping

  19. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Demyelination and Remyelination in the Cuprizone Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Tagge, Ian; O’Connor, Audrey; Chaudhary, Priya; Pollaro, Jim; Berlow, Yosef; Chalupsky, Megan; Bourdette, Dennis; Woltjer, Randy; Johnson, Mac; Rooney, William

    2016-01-01

    Cuprizone administration in mice provides a reproducible model of demyelination and spontaneous remyelination, and has been useful in understanding important aspects of human disease, including multiple sclerosis. In this study, we apply high spatial resolution quantitative MRI techniques to establish the spatio-temporal patterns of acute demyelination in C57BL/6 mice after 6 weeks of cuprizone administration, and subsequent remyelination after 6 weeks of post-cuprizone recovery. MRI measurements were complemented with Black Gold II stain for myelin and immunohistochemical stains for associated tissue changes. Gene expression was evaluated using the Allen Gene Expression Atlas. Twenty-five C57BL/6 male mice were split into control and cuprizone groups; MRI data were obtained at baseline, after 6 weeks of cuprizone, and 6 weeks post-cuprizone. High-resolution (100μm isotropic) whole-brain coverage magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) parametric maps demonstrated concurrent caudal-to-rostral and medial-to-lateral gradients of MTR decrease within corpus callosum (CC) that correlated well with demyelination assessed histologically. Our results show that demyelination was not limited to the midsagittal line of the corpus callosum, and also that opposing gradients of demyelination occur in the lateral and medial CC. T2-weighted MRI gray/white matter contrast was strong at baseline, weak after 6 weeks of cuprizone treatment, and returned to a limited extent after recovery. MTR decreases during demyelination were observed throughout the brain, most clearly in callosal white matter. Myelin damage and repair appear to be influenced by proximity to oligodendrocyte progenitor cell populations and exhibit an inverse correlation with myelin basic protein gene expression. These findings suggest that susceptibility to injury and ability to repair vary across the brain, and whole-brain analysis is necessary to accurately characterize this model. Whole-brain parametric mapping across

  20. High-level azithromycin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolate in France, March 2014.

    PubMed

    Bercot, B; Belkacem, A; Goubard, A; Mougari, F; Sednaoui, P; La Ruche, G; Cambau, E

    2014-01-01

    We report the first case in France of a high-level azithromycin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 96 mg/L) assigned to MLST7363 (NG-MAST ST6360), also resistant to ciprofloxacin and tetracycline but susceptible to ceftriaxone. The patient was a 51 year-old heterosexual man who returned following 1g azithromycin monotherapy. Mechanisms of azithromycin resistance were a C2599T mutation in the four copies of the rrl gene and a novel mutation in the promoter of the mtrR gene. PMID:25394255

  1. ETR, TRA642. ETR COMPLEX NEARLY COMPLETE. CAMERA FACES NORTHWEST, PROBABLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. ETR COMPLEX NEARLY COMPLETE. CAMERA FACES NORTHWEST, PROBABLY FROM TOP DECK OF COOLING TOWER. SHADOW IS CAST BY COOLING TOWER UNITS OFF LEFT OF VIEW. HIGH-BAY REACTOR BUILDING IS SURROUNDED BY ITS ATTACHED SERVICES: ELECTRICAL (TRA-648), HEAT EXCHANGER (TRA-644 WITH U-SHAPED YARD), AND COMPRESSOR (TRA-643). THE CONTROL BUILDING (TRA-647) ON THE NORTH SIDE IS HIDDEN FROM VIEW. AT UPPER RIGHT IS MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3798. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 11/26/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING EAST. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: ETRCRITICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COMPLEX. CAMERA FACING EAST. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: ETR-CRITICAL FACILITY BUILDING, ETR CONTROL BUILDING (ATTACHED TO HIGH-BAY ETR), ETR, ONE-STORY SECTION OF ETR BUILDING, ELECTRICAL BUILDING, COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, COOLING TOWER. COMPRESSOR AND HEAT EXCHANGER BUILDING ARE PARTLY IN VIEW ABOVE ETR. DARK-COLORED DUCTS PROCEED FROM GROUND CONNECTION TO ETR WASTE GAS STACK. OTHER STACK IS MTR STACK WITH FAN HOUSE IN FRONT OF IT. RECTANGULAR STRUCTURE NEAR TOP OF VIEW IS SETTLING BASIN. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4102. Unknown Photographer, ca. 1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. THE USE OF TRIGGER POINT DRY NEEDLING AND INTRAMUSCULAR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION FOR A SUBJECT WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Study Design: Case Report. Background and Purpose: Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are widely accepted by clinicians and researchers as a primary source of regional neuromusculoskeletal pain. Trigger point dry needling (TrP‐DN) is an invasive procedure that involves stimulation of MTrPs using an monofilament needle. The purpose of this case report is to report the outcomes of TrP‐DN and intramuscular electrical stimulation (IES) as a primary treatment intervention in a subject with chronic low back pain. Case Description: The subject was a 30‐year‐old female, active duty military, who was referred to physical therapy for low back and right posterolateral hip pain. She noticed symptoms after suffering a lumbar flexion injury while picking up a barbell during weight training. Physical examination demonstrated findings that supported the diagnosis of lumbar segmental instability with a right hip stability dysfunction. Objective findings included a multi‐segmental flexion movement pattern dysfunction and MTrPs in the right gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles with deep palpation. The subject was treated with TrP‐DN and IES for a total of two visits. Bilateral L3 and L5 multifidus and right gluteus maximus and medius muscles were treated, along with implementing a home exercise program consisting of core stability exercises. Outcomes: The subject reported no existing pain and disability on the Numerical Pain Rating Scale and Oswestry Disability Questionnaire and a large perceived change in recovery on the Global Rating of Change at final follow‐up. Physical examination was normal, demonstrating no observed impairments or functional limitations, including normal multi‐segmental flexion and no MTrPs with deep palpation. Discussion: The subject was able to return to full military active duty without any physical limitations and resumed pre‐injury activity levels, including the ability to resume all activities without pain. There is much promise

  4. RETRAC: A program for the analysis of materials test reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Baggoura, B.; Hamidouche, T.; Bousbia-Salah, A. . Lab. des Analyses de Surete)

    1994-09-01

    REactor TRansient Analysis Code (RETRAC) is a computer code specially developed for the analysis of materials test reactor (MTR) cores. The RETRAC code uses a set of coupled neutron point-kinetics equations and thermal-hydraulic conservation laws to simulate nuclear reactor core behavior under transient or accident conditions. The reactor core is represented by a single equivalent unit cell composed of three regions: fuel, clad, and moderator (coolant). Validation tests of the RETRAC code were performed by using the International Atomic Energy Agency 10-MW benchmark cores, for protected transients. Further assessment studies are in progress using experimental data. The code was developed on a VAX-4000 working station.

  5. The Octagon Model: a clinical tool for assessing marginal tissue recession.

    PubMed

    Atieh, Momen A; Leichter, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The Octagon Model is a clinical assessment tool designed to assess marginal tissue recession (MTR) and estimate the level of difficulty in achieving root coverage. It evaluates eight patient- and siterelated factors: patient's expectations, smoking status, width of keratinized tissue, absence/presence of cervical lesion, interproximal soft tissue/bone level, depth and width of recession defect, and buccal bone thickness. The model is presented in a three-colored diagram to facilitate communication between clinicians and between clinicians and their patients, and to assist clinicians in optimizing treatment plans at both site and patient levels. PMID:26835526

  6. Heterogeneity of passenger exposure to air pollutants in public transport microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fenhuan; Kaul, Daya; Wong, Ka Chun; Westerdahl, Dane; Sun, Li; Ho, Kin-fai; Tian, Linwei; Brimblecombe, Peter; Ning, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies have linked human exposure to pollutants with adverse health effects. Passenger exposure in public transport systems contributes an important fraction of daily burden of air pollutants. While there is extensive literature reporting the concentrations of pollutants in public transport systems in different cities, there are few studies systematically addressing the heterogeneity of passenger exposure in different transit microenvironments, in cabins of different transit vehicles and in areas with different characteristics. The present study investigated PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm), black carbon (BC), ultrafine particles (UFP) and carbon monoxide (CO) pollutant concentrations in various public road transport systems in highly urbanized city of Hong Kong. Using a trolley case housing numerous portable air monitors, we conducted a total of 119 trips during the campaign. Transit microenvironments, classified as 1). busy and secondary roadside bus stops; 2). open and enclosed termini; 3). above- and under-ground Motor Rail Transport (MTR) platforms, were investigated and compared to identify the factors that may affect passenger exposures. The pollutants inside bus and MTR cabins were also investigated together with a comparison of time integrated exposure between the transit modes. Busy roadside and enclosed termini demonstrated the highest average particle concentrations while the lowest was found on the MTR platforms. Traffic-related pollutants BC, UFP and CO showed larger variations than PM2.5 across different microenvironments and areas confirming their heterogeneity in urban environments. In-cabin pollutant concentrations showed distinct patterns with BC and UFP high in diesel bus cabins and CO high in LPG bus cabins, suggesting possible self-pollution issues and/or penetration of on-road pollutants inside cabins during bus transit. The total passenger exposure along selected routes, showed bus

  7. Management of land use land cover through the application of remote sensing, geographic information systems and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Praveen

    Deforestation and degradation of forest areas, including those in the Protected Areas (PAs), are major concerns in India. There were 2 broad objectives of the study: the technological objective pertained to the development of state-of-art programs that could serve as Decision Support Systems while finalizing plans and policy interventions, while the other objective aimed at generating geo-spatial data in 2 PAs. A part of the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, Manas Tiger Reserve (MTR), Assam, India having an area of 2837.12 sq km and an important part of Rajaji-Corbett Tiger Conservation Unit, Rajaji National Park (RNP), Uttarakhand, India, having an area of 820.42 sq km, were taken for the assessment of land use and land cover (LULC) change during 1990--2004. Simulation was undertaken in a smaller area of 1.2 km * 1.2 km right on the fringe of RNP. Three advanced geo-spatial programs---Multi-Algorithm Automation Program (MAAP), Data Automatic Modification Program (DAMP) and Multi-Stage Simulation Program (MUSSIP)---developed by the author were used extensively. Based on the satellite data, MAAP was used for the rapid assessments of LULC of 2004 and 1990; DAMP was used for the spectral modification of the satellite data of the adjacent scenes of 2004 and of 1990; and MUSSIP was used to simulate LULC maps for the future periods (till 2018). These programs produced very high accuracy levels: 91.12% in 2004 and 89.67% in 1990 were obtained for MTR; and 94.87% in 2004 and 94.10% in 1990 were obtained for RNP; 93.40% pixel-to-pixel accuracy and 0.7904 for kappa were achieved for simulation. The annual rate of loss of forests (0.41% in MTR and 1.20% in RNP) and loss of water (1.79% in MTR and 1.69% in RNP) during 1990-2004 is a matter of serious concern. The scenario analysis in the study area for simulation revealed that the deforestation rate of 1.27% per year during 2004--2018 would increase to 2.04% if the human population growth rate is enhanced by 10%. Hence

  8. Diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors. ISPO C-50 Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Binford, F.T.

    1984-01-01

    This study deals with diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors -- specifically, MTR fuel; pool- or tank-type research reactors with light-water moderator; and water, beryllium, or graphite reflectors, and which have a power level of 25 MW(t) or more. The objective is to provide assistance to the IAEA in documentation of criteria and inspection observables related to undeclared plutonium production in the reactors described above, including: criteria for undeclared plutonium production, necessary design information for implementation of these criteria, verification guidelines including neutron physics and heat transfer, and safeguards measures to facilitate the detection of undeclared plutonium production at large research reactors.

  9. Diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Binford, F.T.

    1984-01-01

    This study deals with diversion assumptions for high-powered research reactors -- specifically, MTR fuel; pool- or tank-type research reactors with light-water moderator; and water, beryllium, or graphite reflectors, and which have a power level of 25 MW(t) or more. The objective is to provide assistance to the IAEA in documentation of criteria and inspection observables related to undeclared plutonium production in the reactors described above, including: criteria for undeclared plutonium production, necessary design information for implementation of these criteria, verification guidelines including neutron physics and heat transfer, and safeguards measures to facilitate the detection of undeclared plutonium production at large research reactors.

  10. Bench-Scale Development of a Hybrid Membrane-Absorption CO{sub 2} Capture Process: Preliminary Cost Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Brice; Kniep, Jay; Pingjiao, Hao; Baker, Richard; Rochelle, Gary; Chen, Eric; Frailie, Peter; Ding, Junyuan; Zhang, Yue

    2014-03-31

    This report describes a study of capture costs for a hybrid membrane-absorption capture system based on Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR)’s low-pressure membrane contactors and the University of Texas at Austin’s 5 m piperazine (PZ) Advanced Flash Stripper (AFS; 5 m PZ AFS) based CO2 capture system. The report is submitted for NETL review, and may be superseded by a final topical report on this topic that will be submitted to satisfy the Task 2 report requirement of the current project (DE-FE0013118).

  11. HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA632. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ALONG WALLEYE AVENUE, CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HOT CELL BUILDING, TRA-632. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ALONG WALLEYE AVENUE, CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. HOT CELL BUILDING IS AT CENTER LEFT OF VIEW; THE LOW-BAY PROJECTION WITH LADDER IS THE TEST TRAIN ASSEMBLY FACILITY, ADDED IN 1968. MTR BUILDING IS IN LEFT OF VIEW. HIGH-BAY BUILDING AT RIGHT IS THE ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR BUILDING, TRA-642. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-32-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Expression of a novel non-coding mitochondrial RNA in human proliferating cells

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Jaime; Burzio, Veronica; Villota, Claudio; Landerer, Eduardo; Martinez, Ronny; Santander, Marcela; Martinez, Rodrigo; Pinto, Rodrigo; Vera, María I.; Boccardo, Enrique; Villa, Luisa L.; Burzio, Luis O.

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we reported the presence in mouse cells of a mitochondrial RNA which contains an inverted repeat (IR) of 121 nucleotides (nt) covalently linked to the 5′ end of the mitochondrial 16S RNA (16S mtrRNA). Here, we report the structure of an equivalent transcript of 2374 nt which is over-expressed in human proliferating cells but not in resting cells. The transcript contains a hairpin structure comprising an IR of 815 nt linked to the 5′ end of the 16S mtrRNA and forming a long double-stranded structure or stem and a loop of 40 nt. The stem is resistant to RNase A and can be detected and isolated after digestion with the enzyme. This novel transcript is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) and several evidences suggest that the transcript is synthesized in mitochondria. The expression of this transcript can be induced in resting lymphocytes stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Moreover, aphidicolin treatment of DU145 cells reversibly blocks proliferation and expression of the transcript. If the drug is removed, the cells re-assume proliferation and over-express the ncmtRNA. These results suggest that the expression of the ncmtRNA correlates with the replicative state of the cell and it may play a role in cell proliferation. PMID:17962305

  13. THERMAL MODELING ANALYSIS OF SRS 70 TON CASK

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Jordan, J.; Hensel, S.

    2011-03-08

    The primary objective of this work was to perform the thermal calculations to evaluate the Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel assembly temperatures inside the SRS 70-Ton Cask loaded with various bundle powers. MTR fuel consists of HFBR, MURR, MIT, and NIST. The MURR fuel was used to develop a bounding case since it is the fuel with the highest heat load. The results will be provided for technical input for the SRS 70 Ton Cask Onsite Safety Assessment. The calculation results show that for the SRS 70 ton dry cask with 2750 watts total heat source with a maximum bundle heat of 670 watts and 9 bundles of MURR bounding fuel, the highest fuel assembly temperatures are below about 263 C. Maximum top surface temperature of the plastic cover is about 112 C, much lower than its melting temperature 260 C. For 12 bundles of MURR bounding fuel with 2750 watts total heat and a maximum fuel bundle of 482 watts, the highest fuel assembly temperatures are bounded by the 9 bundle case. The component temperatures of the cask were calculated by a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach. The modeling calculations were performed by considering daily-averaged solar heat flux.

  14. Mechanisms of Bacterial Extracellular Electron Exchange.

    PubMed

    White, G F; Edwards, M J; Gomez-Perez, L; Richardson, D J; Butt, J N; Clarke, T A

    2016-01-01

    The biochemical mechanisms by which microbes interact with extracellular soluble metal ions and insoluble redox-active minerals have been the focus of intense research over the last three decades. The process presents two challenges to the microorganism. Firstly, electrons have to be transported at the cell surface, which in Gram-negative bacteria presents an additional problem of electron transfer across the ~6nm of the outer membrane. Secondly, the electrons must be transferred to or from the terminal electron acceptors or donors. This review covers the known mechanisms that bacteria use to transport electrons across the cell envelope to external electron donors/acceptors. In Gram-negative bacteria, electron transfer across the outer membrane involves the use of an outer membrane β-barrel and cytochrome. These can be in the form of a porin-cytochrome protein, such as Cyc2 of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, or a multiprotein porin-cytochrome complex like MtrCAB of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. For mineral-respiring organisms, there is the additional challenge of transferring the electrons from the cell to mineral surface. For the strict anaerobe Geobacter sulfurreducens this requires electron transfer through conductive pili to associated cytochrome OmcS that directly reduces Fe(III)oxides, while the facultative anaerobe S. oneidensis MR-1 accomplishes mineral reduction through direct membrane contact, contact through filamentous extensions and soluble flavin shuttles, all of which require the outer membrane cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in addition to secreted flavin. PMID:27134022

  15. Neutron beam studies for a medical therapy reactor.

    PubMed

    Neuman, W A

    1990-01-01

    A conceptual design of a Medical Therapy Reactor (MTR) for neutron capture therapy (NCT) has been performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The initial emphasis of the conceptual design was toward the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and other presently incurable cancers. The design goal of the facility is to provide routine patient treatments both in brief time intervals (approximately 10 minutes) and inexpensively. The conceptual study has shown this goal to be achievable by locating an MTR at a major medical facility. This paper addresses the next step in the conceptual design process: a guide to the optimization of the epithermal-neutron filter and collimator assembly for the treatment of brain tumors. The current scope includes the sensitivity of the treatment beam to variations in filter length, gamma shield length, and collimator lengths as well as exit beam aperture size. The study shows the areas which can provide the greatest latitude in improving beam intensity and quality. Suggestions are given for future areas of optimization of beam filtering and collimation. PMID:2268234

  16. Experimental validation of photon-heating calculation for the Jules Horowitz Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, M.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Lyoussi, A.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Di Salvo, J.; Gruel, A.

    2015-04-01

    The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is the next Material-Testing Reactor (MTR) under construction at CEA Cadarache. High values of photon heating (up to 20 W/g) are expected in this MTR. As temperature is a key parameter for material behavior, the accuracy of photon-heating calculation in the different JHR structures is an important stake with regard to JHR safety and performances. In order to experimentally validate the calculation of photon heating in the JHR, an integral experiment called AMMON was carried out in the critical mock-up EOLE at CEA Cadarache to help ascertain the calculation bias and its associated uncertainty. Nuclear heating was measured in different JHR-representative AMMON core configurations using ThermoLuminescent Detectors (TLDs) and Optically Stimulated Luminescent Detectors (OSLDs). This article presents the interpretation methodology and the calculation/experiment (C/E) ratio for all the TLD and OSLD measurements conducted in AMMON. It then deals with representativeness elements of the AMMON experiment regarding the JHR and establishes the calculation biases (and its associated uncertainty) applicable to photon-heating calculation for the JHR.

  17. Nuclear data production, calculation and measurement: a global overview of the gamma heating issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombier, A.-C.; Amharrak, H.; Fourmentel, D.; Ravaux, S.; Régnier, D.; Gueton, O.; Hudelot, J.-P.; Lemaire, M.

    2013-03-01

    The gamma heating evaluation in different materials found in current and future generations of nuclear reactor (EPRTM, GENIV, MTR-JHR), is becoming an important issue especially for the design of many devices (control rod, heavy reflector, in-core & out-core experiments…). This paper deals with the works started since 2009 in the Reactor Studies Department of CEA Cadarache in ordre to answer to several problematic which have been identified as well for nuclear data production and calculation as for experimental measurement methods. The selected subjects are: Development of a Monte Carlo code (FIFRELIN) to simulate the prompt fission gamma emission which represents the major part of the gamma heating production inside the core Production and qualification of new evaluations of nuclear data especially for radiative capture and inelastic neutron scattering which are the main sources of gamma heating out-core Development and qualification of a recommended method for the total gamma heating calculation using the Monte Carlo simulation code TRIPOLI-4 Development, test and qualification of new devices dedicated to the in-core gamma heating measurement as well in MTR-JHR as in zero power facilities (EOLE-MINERVE) of CEA, Cadarache to increase the experimental measurement accuracy.

  18. Corrosion of aluminum clad spent nuclear fuel in the 70 ton cask during transfer from L area to H-canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J. I.

    2015-08-01

    Aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel will be transported for processing in the 70-ton nuclear fuel element cask from L Basin to H-canyon. During transport these fuels would be expected to experience high temperature aqueous corrosion from the residual L Basin water that will be present in the cask. Cladding corrosion losses during transport were calculated for material test reactor (MTR) and high flux isotope reactors (HFIR) fuels using literature and site information on aqueous corrosion at a range of time/temperature conditions. Calculations of the cladding corrosion loss were based on Arrhenius relationships developed for aluminum alloys typical of cladding material with the primary assumption that an adherent passive film does not form to retard the initial corrosion rate. For MTR fuels a cladding thickness loss of 33% was found after 1 year in the cask with a maximum temperature of 263 °C. HFIR fuels showed a thickness loss of only 6% after 1 year at a maximum temperature of 180 °C. These losses are not expected to impact the overall confinement function of the aluminum cladding.

  19. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Recover Heavy Hydrocarbons and to Remove Water from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2007-03-30

    The objective of this project was to design, construct and field demonstrate a membrane system to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) and remove water from raw natural gas. An extended field test to demonstrate system performance under real-world high-pressure conditions was conducted to convince industry users of the efficiency and reliability of the process. The system was designed and fabricated by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) and installed and operated at BP Amoco's Pascagoula, MS plant. The Gas Research Institute partially supported the field demonstration and BP-Amoco helped install the unit and provide onsite operators and utilities. The gas processed by the membrane system meets pipeline specifications for dew point and BTU value and can be delivered without further treatment to the pipeline. During the course of this project, MTR has sold thirteen commercial units related to the field test technology. Revenue generated from new business is already more than four times the research dollars invested in this process by DOE. The process is ready for broader commercialization and the expectation is to pursue the commercialization plans developed during this project, including collaboration with other companies already servicing the natural gas processing industry.

  20. Redox Linked Flavin Sites in Extracellular Decaheme Proteins Involved in Microbe-Mineral Electron Transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Marcus J.; White, Gaye F.; Norman, Michael; Tome-Fernandez, Alice; Ainsworth, Emma; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular microbe-mineral electron transfer is a major driving force for the oxidation of organic carbon in many subsurface environments. Extracellular multi-heme cytochromes of the Shewenella genus play a major role in this process but the mechanism of electron exchange at the interface between cytochrome and acceptor is widely debated. The 1.8 Å x-ray crystal structure of the decaheme MtrC revealed a highly conserved CX8C disulfide that, when substituted for AX8A, severely compromised the ability of S. oneidensis to grow under aerobic conditions. Reductive cleavage of the disulfide in the presence of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) resulted in the reversible formation of a stable flavocytochrome. Similar results were also observed with other decaheme cytochromes, OmcA, MtrF and UndA. The data suggest that these decaheme cytochromes can transition between highly reactive flavocytochromes or less reactive cytochromes, and that this transition is controlled by a redox active disulfide that responds to the presence of oxygen. PMID:26126857

  1. Audibility-based annoyance prediction modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Finegold, Lawrence S.

    1992-04-01

    The effects of rapid onset times and high absolute sound pressures near military training routes (MTR's) including possible startle effects and increased annoyance due to the unpredictable nature of these flights, have been of longstanding concern. A more recent concern is the possibility of increased annoyance due to low ambient noise levels near military flight training operations and differences in expectations about noise exposure in high and low population density areas. This paper describes progress in developing audibility-based methods for predicting the annoyance of noise produced at some distance from aircraft flight tracks. Audibility-based models which take into account near-ground acoustic propagation and ambient noise levels may be useful in assessing environmental impacts of MTR's and Military Operating Areas (MOA's) under some conditions. A prototype Single Event Annoyance Prediction Model (SEAPM) has been developed under USAF sponsorship as an initial effort to address these issues, and work has progressed on a geographic information system (GIS) to produce cartographically referenced representations of aircraft audibility.

  2. Redox linked flavin sites in extracellular decaheme proteins involved in microbe-mineral electron transfer.

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Edwards, Marcus J.; White, Gaye F.; Norman, Michael; Tome-Fernandez, Alice; Ainsworth, Emma; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; et al

    2015-07-01

    Extracellular microbe-mineral electron transfer is a major driving force for the oxidation of organic carbon in many subsurface environments. Extracellular multi-heme cytochromes of the Shewenella genus play a major role in this process but the mechanism of electron exchange at the interface between cytochrome and acceptor is widely debated. The 1.8 Å x-ray crystal structure of the decaheme MtrC revealed a highly conserved CX₈C disulfide that, when substituted for AX₈A, severely compromised the ability of S. oneidensis to grow under aerobic conditions. Reductive cleavage of the disulfide in the presence of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) resulted in the reversible formation ofmore » a stable flavocytochrome. Similar results were also observed with other decaheme cytochromes, OmcA, MtrF and UndA. The data suggest that these decaheme cytochromes can transition between highly reactive flavocytochromes or less reactive cytochromes, and that this transition is controlled by a redox active disulfide that responds to the presence of oxygen.« less

  3. Redox linked flavin sites in extracellular decaheme proteins involved in microbe-mineral electron transfer.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Marcus J.; White, Gaye F.; Norman, Michael; Tome-Fernandez, Alice; Ainsworth, Emma; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2015-07-01

    Extracellular microbe-mineral electron transfer is a major driving force for the oxidation of organic carbon in many subsurface environments. Extracellular multi-heme cytochromes of the Shewenella genus play a major role in this process but the mechanism of electron exchange at the interface between cytochrome and acceptor is widely debated. The 1.8 Å x-ray crystal structure of the decaheme MtrC revealed a highly conserved CX₈C disulfide that, when substituted for AX₈A, severely compromised the ability of S. oneidensis to grow under aerobic conditions. Reductive cleavage of the disulfide in the presence of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) resulted in the reversible formation of a stable flavocytochrome. Similar results were also observed with other decaheme cytochromes, OmcA, MtrF and UndA. The data suggest that these decaheme cytochromes can transition between highly reactive flavocytochromes or less reactive cytochromes, and that this transition is controlled by a redox active disulfide that responds to the presence of oxygen.

  4. T2-weighted MRI detects presymptomatic pathology in the SOD1 mouse model of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Matthew C; Serres, Sébastien; Khrapitchev, Alexandre A; Stolp, Helen B; Anthony, Daniel C; Talbot, Kevin; Turner, Martin R; Sibson, Nicola R

    2014-01-01

    Neuroinflammation has been identified as a potential therapeutic target in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but relevant biomarkers are needed. The superoxide dismutase (SOD1)G93A transgenic mouse model of ALS offers a unique opportunity to study and potentially manipulate presymptomatic pathology. While T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be sensitive to pathologic changes at symptom onset, no earlier biomarkers were previously identified and the underlying histopathologic correlates remain uncertain. To address these issues, we used a multimodal MRI approach targeting structural (T2, T1, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR)), vascular (gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid), and endothelial (vascular cell adhesion molecule–microparticles of iron oxide) changes, together with histopathologic analysis from presymptomatic to symptomatic stages of disease. Presymptomatic changes in brainstem nuclei were evident on T2-weighted images from as early as 60 days (P<0.05). Histologic indices of vacuolation, astro- and microglial activation all correlated with T2-weighted changes. Significant reductions in ADC (P<0.01) and MTR (P<0.05) were found at 120 days in the same brainstem nuclei. No changes in T1 relaxation, vascular permeability, or endothelial activation were found at any stage of disease. These findings suggest that T2-weighted MRI offers the strongest biomarker potential in this model, and that MRI has unique potential for noninvasive and longitudinal assessment of presymptomatically applied therapeutic and neuroprotective agents. PMID:24496176

  5. T₂-weighted MRI detects presymptomatic pathology in the SOD1 mouse model of ALS.

    PubMed

    Evans, Matthew C; Serres, Sébastien; Khrapitchev, Alexandre A; Stolp, Helen B; Anthony, Daniel C; Talbot, Kevin; Turner, Martin R; Sibson, Nicola R

    2014-05-01

    Neuroinflammation has been identified as a potential therapeutic target in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but relevant biomarkers are needed. The superoxide dismutase (SOD1)(G93A) transgenic mouse model of ALS offers a unique opportunity to study and potentially manipulate presymptomatic pathology. While T₂-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be sensitive to pathologic changes at symptom onset, no earlier biomarkers were previously identified and the underlying histopathologic correlates remain uncertain. To address these issues, we used a multimodal MRI approach targeting structural (T₂, T₁, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), magnetization transfer ratio (MTR)), vascular (gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid), and endothelial (vascular cell adhesion molecule-microparticles of iron oxide) changes, together with histopathologic analysis from presymptomatic to symptomatic stages of disease. Presymptomatic changes in brainstem nuclei were evident on T₂-weighted images from as early as 60 days (P<0.05). Histologic indices of vacuolation, astro- and microglial activation all correlated with T₂-weighted changes. Significant reductions in ADC (P<0.01) and MTR (P<0.05) were found at 120 days in the same brainstem nuclei. No changes in T₁ relaxation, vascular permeability, or endothelial activation were found at any stage of disease. These findings suggest that T₂-weighted MRI offers the strongest biomarker potential in this model, and that MRI has unique potential for noninvasive and longitudinal assessment of presymptomatically applied therapeutic and neuroprotective agents. PMID:24496176

  6. Pronounced and extensive microtubule defects in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae DIS3 mutant.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sarah B; Kiss, Daniel L; Turk, Edward; Tartakoff, Alan M; Andrulis, Erik D

    2011-11-01

    Subunits of the RNA processing exosome assemble into structurally distinct protein complexes that function in disparate cellular compartments and RNA metabolic pathways. Here, in a genetic, cell biological and transcriptomic analysis, we examined the role of Dis3, an essential polypeptide with endo- and 3'→5' exo-ribonuclease activity, in cell cycle progression. We present several lines of evidence that perturbation of DIS3 affects microtubule (MT) localization and structure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells with a DIS3 mutant: (a) accumulate anaphase and pre-anaphase mitotic spindles; (b) exhibit spindles that are misorientated and displaced from the bud neck; (c) harbour elongated spindle-associated astral MTs; (d) have an increased G1 astral MT length and number; and (e) are hypersensitive to MT poisons. Mutations in the core exosome genes RRP4 and MTR3 and the exosome cofactor gene MTR4, but not other exosome subunit gene mutants, also elicit MT phenotypes. RNA deep sequencing analysis (RNA-seq) shows broad changes in the levels of cell cycle- and MT-related transcripts in mutant strains. Collectively, the data presented in this study suggest an evolutionarily conserved role for Dis3 in linking RNA metabolism, MTs and cell cycle progression. PMID:21919057

  7. Role of genetic mutations in folate-related enzyme genes on Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kang; Zhao, Ruizhe; Shen, Min; Ye, Jiaxin; Li, Xiao; Huang, Yuan; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Several studies showed that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes might be associated with male infertility; however, the results were still inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G mutations and the MTHFR haplotype with the risk of male infertility. Overall, a total of 37 studies were selected. Our meta-analysis showed that the MTHFR C677T mutation was a risk factor for male infertility in both azoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia patients, especially in Asian population. Men carrying the MTHFR TC haplotype were most liable to suffer infertility while those with CC haplotype had lowest risk. On the other hand, the MTHFR A1298C mutation was not related to male infertility. MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G were potential candidates in the pathogenesis of male infertility, but more case-control studies were required to avoid false-positive outcomes. All of these results were confirmed by the trial sequential analysis. Finally, our meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis proved that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes played a significant role in male infertility. PMID:26549413

  8. NTF2-like domain of Tap plays a critical role in cargo mRNA recognition and export

    PubMed Central

    Katahira, Jun; Dimitrova, Lyudmila; Imai, Yumiko; Hurt, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Metazoan Tap-p15 (also called Nxf1-Nxt1) and yeast Mex67-Mtr2 heterodimers are the general mRNA export receptors. The RNA binding activity of Tap-p15, which is essential for mRNA nuclear export, has been attributed to the amino-terminal RNA binding module of Tap consists of RNA recognition motif (RRM) and leucine-rich repeat. In this study, we identified a novel RNA interaction surface in the NTF2-like (NTF2L) domain of Tap, which is analogous to the rRNA binding platform of Mex67-Mtr2. Tap-p15 uses the three domains to tightly bind the retroviral constitutive transport element. The RNA binding through the NTF2L domain is functionally relevant as introduction of mutations in this region reduced CTE-containing mRNA export activity. In contrast, only when the RRM and NTF2L domains were mutated simultaneously, bulk poly (A)+ RNA export and in vivo poly (A)+ RNA binding activities of Tap-p15 were significantly attenuated. Moreover, an engineered human cell line harboring the NTF2L domain mutation in the NXF1 gene showed a synthetic growth phenotype and severe mRNA export defect under Aly/REF and Thoc5 depleted condition. These data suggest that Tap-p15 recognizes bulk mRNAs through combinatorial use of the distinct RNA binding domains. PMID:25628355

  9. Bell pepper endornavirus: molecular and biological properties, and occurrence in the genus Capsicum.

    PubMed

    Okada, Ryo; Kiyota, Eri; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Saha, Prasenjit; Roossinck, Marilyn J; Severin, Ake; Valverde, Rodrigo A

    2011-11-01

    Bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) harbour a large dsRNA virus. The linear genome (14.7 kbp) of two isolates from Japanese and USA bell pepper cultivars were completely sequenced and compared. They shared extensive sequence identity and contained a single, long ORF encoding a 4815 aa protein. This polyprotein contained conserved motifs of putative viral methyltransferase (MTR), helicase 1 (Hel-1), UDP-glycosyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. This unique arrangement of conserved domains has not been reported in any of the known endornaviruses. Hence this virus, for which the name Bell pepper endornavirus (BPEV) is proposed, is a distinct species in the genus Endornavirus (family Endornaviridae). The BPEV-encoded polyprotein contains a cysteine-rich region between the MTR and Hel-1 domains, with conserved CXCC motifs shared among several endornaviruses, suggesting an additional functional domain. In agreement with general endornavirus features, BPEV contains a nick in the positive-strand RNA molecule. The virus was detected in all bell pepper cultivars tested and transmitted through seed but not by graft inoculations. Analysis of dsRNA patterns and RT-PCR using degenerate primers revealed putative variants of BPEV, or closely related species, infecting other C. annuum genotypes and three other Capsicum species (C. baccatum, C. chinense and C. frutescens). PMID:21775578

  10. A TIN2 dyskeratosis congenita mutation causes telomerase-independent telomere shortening in mice.

    PubMed

    Frescas, David; de Lange, Titia

    2014-01-15

    The progressive bone marrow failure syndrome dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is often caused by mutations in telomerase or the factors involved in telomerase biogenesis and trafficking. However, a subset of DC patients is heterozygous for mutations in the shelterin component TIN2. To determine how the TIN2-DC mutations affect telomere function, we generated mice with the equivalent of the TIN2 K280E DC allele (TIN2(DC)) by gene targeting. Whereas homozygous TIN2(DC/DC) mice were not viable, first-generation TIN2(+/DC) mice were healthy and fertile. In the second and third generations, the TIN2(+/DC) mice developed mild pancytopenia, consistent with hematopoietic dysfunction in DC, as well as diminished fecundity. Bone marrow telomeres of TIN2(+/DC) mice shortened over the generations, and immortalized TIN2(+/DC) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) showed telomere shortening with proliferation. Unexpectedly, telomere shortening was accelerated in TIN2(+/DC) mTR(-/-) mice and MEFs compared with TIN2(+/+) mTR(-/-) controls, establishing that the TIN2(DC) telomere maintenance defect was not solely due to diminished telomerase action. The TIN2(DC) allele induced mild ATR kinase signaling at telomeres and a fragile telomere phenotype, suggestive of telomere replication problems. These data suggest that this TIN2-DC mutation could induce telomeric dysfunction phenotypes in telomerase-negative somatic cells and tissues that further exacerbate the telomere maintenance problems in telomerase-positive stem cell compartments. PMID:24449270

  11. A framework for stochastic simulations and visualization of biological electron-transfer dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, C. Masato; Byun, Hye Suk; Ma, Heng; Wei, Tao; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.

    2015-08-01

    Electron transfer (ET) dictates a wide variety of energy-conversion processes in biological systems. Visualizing ET dynamics could provide key insight into understanding and possibly controlling these processes. We present a computational framework named VizBET to visualize biological ET dynamics, using an outer-membrane Mtr-Omc cytochrome complex in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as an example. Starting from X-ray crystal structures of the constituent cytochromes, molecular dynamics simulations are combined with homology modeling, protein docking, and binding free energy computations to sample the configuration of the complex as well as the change of the free energy associated with ET. This information, along with quantum-mechanical calculations of the electronic coupling, provides inputs to kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of ET dynamics in a network of heme groups within the complex. Visualization of the KMC simulation results has been implemented as a plugin to the Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD) software. VizBET has been used to reveal the nature of ET dynamics associated with novel nonequilibrium phase transitions in a candidate configuration of the Mtr-Omc complex due to electron-electron interactions.

  12. Upgrading wet granulation monitoring from hand squeeze test to mixing torque rheometry

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Walid F.; Ibrahim, Mohamed A.; Alanazi, Fars K.; Sakr, Adel A.

    2011-01-01

    With over 50 years of research in granulation technology, however more research is required to elucidate this widely applicable technology. Wetting phenomena could influence redistribution of individual ingredients within a granule according their solubility and also could affect the drying processes. Binder selection for a particular system is quite often empirical and dependent on the skills and experience of the formulator. Hand squeeze test was and still the main way for determination of wet granulation end point, but it is subjected to individual variation. It depends mainly on operator experience, so it is not possible to be validated. Literature reveals a variety of advanced monitoring techniques following up different wet massing stages. Torque measurement has been proved to be the most reliable control method as its tight relation to mass resistance. Many reports showed successful applications of mixing torque rheometer (MTR) for monitoring the wet massing procedure and scale up in addition to some preformulation applications. MTR as a new approach allows formulators to select a liquid addition range where the granule growth behavior is more predictable. PMID:23960772

  13. CORROSION OF ALUMINUM CLAD SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL IN THE 70 TON CASK DURING TRANSFER FROM L AREA TO H-CANYON

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.

    2014-06-01

    Aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel will be transported for processing in the 70-ton nuclear fuel element cask from L Basin to H-canyon. During transport these fuels would be expected to experience high temperature aqueous corrosion from the residual L Basin water that will be present in the cask. Cladding corrosion losses during transport were calculated for material test reactor (MTR) and high flux isotope reactors (HFIR) fuels using literature and site information on aqueous corrosion at a range of time/temperature conditions. Calculations of the cladding corrosion loss were based on Arrhenius relationships developed for aluminum alloys typical of cladding material with the primary assumption that an adherent passive film does not form to retard the initial corrosion rate. For MTR fuels a cladding thickness loss of 33 % was found after 1 year in the cask with a maximum temperature of 260 {degrees}C. HFIR fuels showed a thickness loss of only 6% after 1 year at a maximum temperature of 180 {degrees}C. These losses are not expected to impact the overall confinement function of the aluminum cladding.

  14. Conversion program in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, E.B.

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  15. Nuclear mass inventory, photon dose rate and thermal decay heat of spent research reactor fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, R.B.; Matos, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    This document has been prepared to assist research reactor operators possessing spent fuel containing enriched uranium of United States origin to prepare part of the documentation necessary to ship this fuel to the United States. Data are included on the nuclear mass inventory, photon dose rate, and thermal decay heat of spent research reactor fuel assemblies. Isotopic masses of U, Np, Pu and Am that are present in spent research reactor fuel are estimated for MTR, TRIGA and DIDO-type fuel assembly types. The isotopic masses of each fuel assembly type are given as functions of U-235 burnup in the spent fuel, and of initial U-235 enrichment and U-235 mass in the fuel assembly. Photon dose rates of spent MTR, TRIGA and DIDO-type fuel assemblies are estimated for fuel assemblies with up to 80% U-235 burnup and specific power densities between 0.089 and 2.857 MW/kg[sup 235]U, and for fission product decay times of up to 20 years. Thermal decay heat loads are estimated for spent fuel based upon the fuel assembly irradiation history (average assembly power vs. elapsed time) and the spent fuel cooling time.

  16. Nuclear mass inventory, photon dose rate and thermal decay heat of spent research reactor fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, R.B.; Matos, J.E.

    1996-05-01

    As part of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel acceptance criteria, the mass of uranium and transuranic elements in spent research reactor fuel must be specified. These data are, however, not always known or readily determined. It is the purpose of this report to provide estimates of these data for some of the more common research reactor fuel assembly types. The specific types considered here are MTR, TRIGA and DIDO fuel assemblies. The degree of physical protection given to spent fuel assemblies is largely dependent upon the photon dose rate of the spent fuel material. These data also, are not always known or readily determined. Because of a self-protecting dose rate level of radiation (dose rate greater than 100 ren-x/h at I m in air), it is important to know the dose rate of spent fuel assemblies at all time. Estimates of the photon dose rate for spent MTR, TRIGA and DIDO-type fuel assemblies are given in this report.

  17. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas: Nineteenth Quarterly Progress Report (Second Quarter 2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2006-06-30

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation, and is working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, and we continue, but have as yet been unsuccessful in our attempts, to negotiate with Atmos Energy for a final test of the project demonstration unit. In the meantime, MTR has located an alternative testing opportunity and signed a contract for a demonstration plant in Rio Vista, CA. Several commercial sales have resulted from the partnership with ABB, and total sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units are now approaching $2.6 million.

  18. Field Demonstration of a Membrane Process to Separate Nitrogen from Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaeid Lokhandwala

    2006-03-20

    The original proposal described the construction and operation of a 1 MMscfd treatment system to be operated at a Butcher Energy gas field in Ohio. The gas produced at this field contained 17% nitrogen. During pre-commissioning of the project, a series of well tests showed that the amount of gas in the field was significantly smaller than expected and that the nitrogen content of the wells was very high (25 to 30%). After evaluating the revised cost of the project, Butcher Energy decided that the plant would not be economical and withdrew from the project. Since that time, Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) has signed a marketing and sales partnership with ABB Lummus Global, a large multinational corporation. MTR will be working with the company's Randall Gas Technology group, a supplier of equipment and processing technology to the natural gas industry. Randall's engineering group found a new site for the project at a North Texas Exploration (NTE) gas processing plant, and we are now negotiating with Atmos Energy for a final test of the project demonstration unit. Several commercial sales have also resulted from the partnership with ABB, and sales of nitrogen/natural gas membrane separation units now total $2.3 million.

  19. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Mayaguez (Puerto Rico) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.K.; Freemerman, R.L.

    1989-11-01

    On February 6, 1987 the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the final phase of the decontamination and decommissioning of the nuclear and reactor facilities at the Center for Energy and Environmental Research (CEER), in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Bechtel National, Inc., was made the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) contractor. The goal of the project was to enable DOE to proceed with release of the CEER facility for use by the University of Puerto Rico, who was the operator. This presentation describes that project and lesson learned during its progress. The CEER facility was established in 1957 as the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center, a part of the Atoms for Peace Program. It was a nuclear training and research institution with emphasis on the needs of Latin America. It originally consisted of a 1-megawatt Materials Testing Reactor (MTR), support facilities and research laboratories. After eleven years of operation the MTR was shutdown and defueled. A 2-megawatt TRIGA reactor was installed in 1972 and operated until 1976, when it woo was shutdown. Other radioactive facilities at the center included a 10-watt homogeneous L-77 training reactor, a natural uranium graphite-moderated subcritical assembly, a 200KV particle accelerator, and a 15,000 Ci Co-60 irradiation facility. Support facilities included radiochemistry laboratories, counting rooms and two hot cells. As the emphasis shifted to non-nuclear energy technology a name change resulted in the CEER designation, and plans were started for the decontamination and decommissioning effort.

  20. Polymorphisms in folate pathway genes are not associated with somatic nondisjunction in turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Adriana Valéria Sales; dos Santos, Luana Oliveira; de Barros, Juliana Vieira; Duarte, Andrea Rezende; Araújo, Jacqueline; Muniz, Maria Tereza Cartaxo; Santos, Neide

    2015-07-01

    Folate metabolism dysfunction can lead to DNA hypomethylation and abnormal chromosomal segregation. Previous investigations of this association have produced controversial results. Here we performed a case-control study in patients with Turner syndrome (TS) to determine the effects of genetic polymorphisms of folate pathway genes as potential risk factors for somatic chromosomal nondisjunction. TS is a useful model for this investigation because patients with TS show a high frequency of chromosome mosaicism. Here we investigated the possible association of polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene with TS risk, which has been previously investigated with controversial results. We also examined the effects of MTR, RFC1, and TYMS gene polymorphisms in TS for the first time. The risk was evaluated according to allelic and genotype (independent and combined) frequencies among 70 patients with TS and 144 age-matched healthy control subjects. Polymorphism genotyping was performed by PCR, PCR-RFLP, and PCR-ASA. The polymorphisms MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C, MTR 2756A>G, RFC1 80G>A, and TYMS 2R/3R-alone or in combinations-were not associated with the risk of chromosomal aneuploidy in TS. In conclusion, our present findings did not support a link between impaired folate metabolism and abnormal chromosome segregation leading to somatic nondisjunction in TS patients. PMID:25858821