Science.gov

Sample records for commercial plant volume

  1. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report.

  2. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 1-B. Commercial fusion electric plant

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E.

    1984-07-01

    Volume 1-B contains the following chapters: (1) blanket and reflector; (2) central cell shield; (3) central cell structure; (4) heat transport and energy conversion; (5) tritium systems; (6) cryogenics; (7) maintenance; (8) safety; (9) radioactivity, activation, and waste disposal; (10) instrumentation and control; (11) balance of plant; (12) plant startup and operation; (13) plant availability; (14) plant construction; and (15) economic analysis.

  3. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  4. EDS coal liquefaction process development. Phase V. EDS commercial plant study design update. Illinois coal. Volume 1. Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, W. R.

    1981-03-01

    The objectives of the Study Design Update (SDU) were to identify the technical issues facing a potential commercial-size EDS plant design; to provide a reliable basis for estimating the cost of EDS products; and to furnish research guidance to the EDS Project. The SDU consists of two distinct studies in which different processing schemes are used to produce the hydrogen and fuel gas required by the plant. These studies are referred to as the Base Case and the Market Flexibility Sensitivity Case. In the Base Case, hydrogen is generated by steam reforming of the light hydrocarbon gases produced in the plant. Fuel gas is generated by feeding the bottoms stream from the liquefaction section vacuum pipestill to a FLEXICOKING unit. In the FLEXICOKING unit reactor, the bottoms stream is converted to coke; additional liquid product is also recovered. The coke is converted to low-Btu fuel gas in the FLEXICOKING unit gasifier. In the Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case, the bottoms stream from the vacuum pipestill is split, and about half is sent to the FLEXICOKING unit for recovery of additional liquid product and production of fuel gas. The remainder of the bottoms stream is converted to hydrogen in a Partial Oxidation Unit. Hence the MFS Case does not consume light hydrocarbon gases produced and they are available for sale. The study of these two cases has demonstrated the importance of bottoms process selection to the economics and thermal efficiency of an EDS plant. Volume 1 - Main Report has been developed to be a stand-alone document. Both the Base Case and Market Flexibility Sensitivity (MFS) Case are covered. This volume includes an overview and detailed case summaries. It also covers economics, product recovery factors, material and energy balances, cost estimates and enviromental considerations.

  5. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 1-A. Commercial fusion electric plant

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E.

    1984-07-01

    Volume 1-A contains the following chapters: (1) plasma engineering, (2) magnets, (3) ecr heating systems, (4) anchor ion-cyclotron resonance heating system, (5) sloshing ion neutral beam, (6) end cell structure, (7) end plasma technology, (8) fueling, (9) startup ion cyclotron resonant heating systems, and (10) end cell radiation analysis. (MOW)

  6. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 2. Commercial fusion synfuels plant

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E.

    1984-07-01

    Volume 2 contains the following chapters: (1) synfuels; (2) physics base and parameters for TMR; (3) high-temperature two-temperature-zone blanket system for synfuel application; (4) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (5) interfacing the sulfur-iodine cycle; (6) interfacing the reactor with the thermochemical process; (7) tritium control in the blanket system; (8) the sulfur trioxide fluidized-bed composer; (9) preliminary cost estimates; and (10) fuels beyond hydrogen. (MOW)

  7. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 8. Commercial status of licensed process units. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; licensed commercial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This document demonstrates the commercial status of the process units to be used in the Tri-State Synfuels Project at Henderson, Kentucky. The basic design philosophy as established in October, 1979, was to use the commercial SASOL II/III plants as a basis. This was changed in January 1982 to a plant configuration to produce gasoline via a methanol and methanol to gasoline process. To accomplish this change the Synthol, Oil workup and Chemical Workup Units were eliminated and replaced by Methanol Synthesis and Methanol to Gasoline Units. Certain other changes to optimize the Lurgi liquids processing eliminated the Tar Distillation and Naphtha Hydrotreater Units which were replaced by the Partial Oxidation Unit. The coals to be gasified are moderately caking which necessitates the installation of stirring mechanism in the Lurgi Dry Bottom gasifier. This work is in the demonstration phase. Process licenses either have been obtained or must be obtained for a number of processes to be used in the plant. The commercial nature of these processes is discussed in detail in the tabbed sections of this document. In many cases there is a list of commercial installations at which the licensed equipment is used.

  8. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1: CDRL Item 2, pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume VII. Pilot plant cost and commercial plant cost and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1980-05-01

    Detailed cost and performance data for the proposed tower focus pilot plant and commercial plant are given. The baseline central receiver concept defined by the MDAC team consists of the following features: (A) an external receiver mounted on a tower, and located in a 360/sup 0/ array of sun-tracking heliostats which comprise the collector subsystem. (B) feedwater from the electrical power generation subsystem is pumped through a riser to the receiver, where the feedwater is converted to superheated steam in a single pass through the tubes of the receiver panels. (C) The steam from the receiver is routed through a downcomer to the ground and introduced to a turbine directly for expansion and generation of electricity, and/or to a thermal storage subsystem, where the steam is condensed in charging heat exchangers to heat a dual-medium oil and rock thermal storage unit (TSU). (D) Extended operation after daylight hours is facilitated by discharging the TSU to generate steam for feeding the admission port of the turbine. (E) Overall control of the system is provided by a master control unit, which handles the interactions between subsystems that take place during startup, shutdown, and transitions between operating modes. (WHK)

  9. Phase 1 of the First Small Power System Experiment (engineering Experiment No. 1). Volume 4: Commercial System Definition. [development and testing of a solar thermal power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The development and design of a modular solar thermal power system for application in the 1 to 10 MWe range is described. The system is used in remote utility applications, small communities, rural areas, and for industrial uses. The operational reliability, the minimum risk of failure, and the maintenance and repair characteristics are determined and the commercial system design is defined.

  10. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Agriculture - Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, W. D.; And Others

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agriculture-plant pest control category. The text discusses identification and control of insects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds of agricultural crops. Proper use of application equipment and safety…

  11. Ryazan power plant feasibility study. Volume 2. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This study was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Ryazan Power Plant Joint Stock Company to assess the feasibility of rehabilitating the Ryazan Power Plant in Novomichurinsk, Russia. The scope of this study includes reviewing plant equipment and operations as well as making recommendations for upgrade to present day plant standards. The main emphasis of the report is on boiler analysis, but also includes all equipment from coal entering the plant to electrical power leaving the plant. This is the second of two volumes and is divided into the following sections: (C) Technical - Sections 6-18; (D) Commercial; (E) Socioeconomic Considerations; (F) Conclusions.

  12. Commercial low-Btu coal-gasification plant. Feasibility study: General Refractories Company, Florence, Kentucky. Volume I. Project summary. [Wellman-Galusha

    SciTech Connect

    1981-11-01

    In response to a 1980 Department of Energy solicitation, the General Refractories Company submitted a Proposal for a feasibility study of a low Btu gasification facility for its Florence, KY plant. The proposed facility would substitute low Btu gas from a fixed bed gasifier for natural gas now used in the manufacture of insulation board. The Proposal from General Refractories was prompted by a concern over the rising costs of natural gas, and the anticipation of a severe increase in fuel costs resulting from deregulation. The proposed feasibility study is defined. The intent is to provide General Refractories with the basis upon which to determine the feasibility of incorporating such a facility in Florence. To perform the work, a Grant for which was awarded by the DOE, General Refractories selected Dravo Engineers and Contractors based upon their qualifications in the field of coal conversion, and the fact that Dravo has acquired the rights to the Wellman-Galusha technology. The LBG prices for the five-gasifier case are encouraging. Given the various natural gas forecasts available, there seems to be a reasonable possibility that the five-gasifier LBG prices will break even with natural gas prices somewhere between 1984 and 1989. General Refractories recognizes that there are many uncertainties in developing these natural gas forecasts, and if the present natural gas decontrol plan is not fully implemented some financial risks occur in undertaking the proposed gasification facility. Because of this, General Refractories has decided to wait for more substantiating evidence that natural gas prices will rise as is now being predicted.

  13. MHD channel performance for potential early commercial MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swallom, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    The commercial viability of full and part load early commercial MHD power plants is examined. The load conditions comprise a mass flow of 472 kg/sec in the channel, Rosebud coal, 34% by volume oxygen in the oxidizer preheated to 922 K, and a one percent by mass seeding with K. The full load condition is discussed in terms of a combined cycle plant with optimized electrical output by the MHD channel. Various electrical load parameters, pressure ratios, and magnetic field profiles are considered for a baseload MHD generator, with a finding that a decelerating flow rate yields slightly higher electrical output than a constant flow rate. Nominal and part load conditions are explored, with a reduced gas mass flow rate and an enriched oxygen content. An enthalpy extraction of 24.6% and an isentropic efficiency of 74.2% is predicted for nominal operation of a 526 MWe MHD generator, with higher efficiencies for part load operation.

  14. Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.; Jackson, J.O.; Haxhiu, M.A.

    1987-03-01

    This is the summary volume of a three-volume report of the Kosova coal gasification plant health effects study. The plant is of the Lurgi type and began commercial operation in 1971. The study was conducted under the auspices of the U.S.-Yugoslav Joint Board for Scientific and Technological Cooperation. It had five overall purposes: (1) Identify potential health risks in the gasification plant and provide information on possible control measures. (2) Use the experience in Kosova as a basis of judging potential health risks and avoiding potential problems at future commercial scale gasification plants in the United States and Yuogoslavia. (3) Acquire information on industrial hygiene practices at an operating commercial scale coal gasification plant. (4) Use the experience in Kosova to contribute to understanding dose-response relationships of exposure to complex organic mixtures. (5) Increase the scientific capabilities of scientists in Kosova in the areas of epidemiology and industrial hygiene. This report introduced the Kosova gasification plant and the study design and summarizes the preliminary studies of 1981 to 1983, the detailed characterization campaign of 1984, the retrospective epidemiology study, ongoing clinical studies, and the successful technology transfer. It presents conclusions and recommendations from the industrial hygiene and epidemiology studies. 18 refs.

  15. Environmental assessment for commercialization of the Mound Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-26

    In November 1993 US DOE decided to phase out operations at the Mound Plant in Miamisburg, Ohio, with the goal of releasing the site for commercial use. The broad concept is to transform the plant into an advanced manufacturing center with the main focus on commercializing products and other technology. DOE proposes to lease portions of the Mound Plant to commercial enterprises. This Environmental Impact statement has a finding of no significant impact in reference to such action.

  16. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Commercial plant feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    In order to determine the viability of any Liquids from Coal (LFC) commercial venture, TEK-KOL and its partner, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), have put together a technical and economic feasibility study for a commercial-size LFC Plant located at Zeigler Coal Holding Company`s North Rochelle Mine site. This resulting document, the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Plant: Commercial Plant Feasibility Study, includes basic plant design, capital estimates, market assessment for coproducts, operating cost assessments, and overall financial evaluation for a generic Powder River Basin based plant. This document and format closely resembles a typical Phase II study as assembled by the TEK-KOL Partnership to evaluate potential sites for LFC commercial facilities around the world.

  17. The plant cytoskeleton controls regulatory volume increase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiong; Qiao, Fei; Ismail, Ahmed; Chang, Xiaoli; Nick, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The ability to adjust cell volume is required for the adaptation to osmotic stress. Plant protoplasts can swell within seconds in response to hypoosmotic shock suggesting that membrane material is released from internal stores. Since the stability of plant membranes depends on submembraneous actin, we asked, whether this regulatory volume control depends on the cytoskeleton. As system we used two cell lines from grapevine which differ in their osmotic tolerance and observed that the cytoskeleton responded differently in these two cell lines. To quantify the ability for regulatory volume control, we used hydraulic conductivity (Lp) as readout and demonstrated a role of the cytoskeleton in protoplast swelling. Chelation of calcium, inhibition of calcium channels, or manipulation of membrane fluidity, did not significantly alter Lp, whereas direct manipulation of the cytoskeleton via specific chemical reagents, or indirectly, through the bacterial elicitor Harpin or activation of phospholipase D, was effective. By optochemical engineering of actin using a caged form of the phytohormone auxin we can break the symmetry of actin organisation resulting in a localised deformation of cell shape indicative of a locally increased Lp. We interpret our findings in terms of a model, where the submembraneous cytoskeleton controls the release of intracellular membrane stores during regulatory volume change. PMID:23660128

  18. The DOE Bioethanol Pilot Plant: A Tool for Commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.

    2000-08-31

    With funding from the DOE National Biofuels Program, NREL has constructed a fermentation pilot plant facility. The plant was explicitly designed to assist industry and outside researchers develop commercial bioprocessing technology. Companies that are exploring biofuels technologies can utilize the facilities and expertise of NREL through a variety of flexible business-venture arrangements.

  19. Use of space for development of commercial plant natural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draeger, Norman A.

    1997-01-01

    Plant experiments conducted in environments where conditions are carefully controlled reveal fundamental information about physiological processes. An important environmental parameter is gravity, the effects of which may be better understood in part through experiments conducted in space. New insights gained can be used to develop commercial plant natural products in industries such as pharmaceuticals and biocontrol.

  20. Use of space for development of commercial plant natural products

    SciTech Connect

    Draeger, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    Plant experiments conducted in environments where conditions are carefully controlled reveal fundamental information about physiological processes. An important environmental parameter is gravity, the effects of which may be better understood in part through experiments conducted in space. New insights gained can be used to develop commercial plant natural products in industries such as pharmaceuticals and biocontrol. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Commercializing plant tissue culture processes: economics, problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Sahai, O.; Knuth, M.

    1985-03-01

    Novel tissue culture techniques and a range of process schemes may be considered for commercial production of plant derived drugs, chemicals, flavors and cosmetics. Plant cell immobilization, in conjunction with strain selection and product leakage, represents a major technological advancement, with significant economic implications. Conventional batch processes produce high value products at low production capacities, whereas continuous biocatalytic processes can potentially enable production of plant derived chemicals in the $20-$25/kg price range.

  2. Solidification of low-volume power plant sludges. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, N.E.; Halverson, M.A.; Mercer, B.M.

    1981-12-01

    A literature review was conducted to obtain information on the status of hazardous waste solidification technology and application of this technology to low-volume power plant waste sludges. Because of scarcity of sludge composition data, anticipated major components were identified primarily by chemical reactions that are known to occur during treatment of specific wastewaters. Chemical and physical properties of these sludges were critically analyzed for compatibility with several types of commercially available solidification processes. The study pointed out the need for additional information on the nature of these sludges, especially leaching characteristics and the presence of substances that will interfere with solidification processes. Laboratory studies were recommended for evaluation of solidification process which have the greatest potential for converting hazardous low-volume sludges to non-hazardous waste forms.

  3. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak fusion power plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This volume contains chapters on each of the following topics: (1) radioactivity, (2) heat transport and energy conversion, (3) tritium systems, (4) electrical storage and power supplies, (5) support structure, (6) cryogenics, (7) instrumentation and control, (8) maintenance and operation, (9) balance of plant design, (10) safety and environmental analysis, (11) economic analysis, and (12) plant construction.

  4. Small solar thermal electric power plants with early commercial potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. E.; Bisantz, D. J.; Clayton, R. N.; Heiges, H. H.; Ku, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Cost-effective small solar thermal electric power plants (1- to 10-MW nominal size) offer an attractive way of helping the world meet its future energy needs. The paper describes the characteristics of a conceptual near-term plant (about 1 MW) and a potential 1990 commercial version. The basic system concept is one in which steam is generated using two-axis tracking, parabolic dish, and point-focusing collectors. The steam is transported through low-loss piping to a central steam turbine generator unit where it is converted to electricity. The plants have no energy storage and their output power level varies with the solar insolation level. This system concept, which is firmly based on state-of-the-art technology, is projected to offer one of the fastest paths for U.S. commercialization of solar thermal electric power plants through moderate technology advances and mass production.

  5. Commercial Teas Highlight Plant DNA Barcode Identification Successes and Obstacles

    PubMed Central

    Stoeckle, Mark Y.; Gamble, Catherine C.; Kirpekar, Rohan; Young, Grace; Ahmed, Selena; Little, Damon P.

    2011-01-01

    Appearance does not easily identify the dried plant fragments used to prepare teas to species. Here we test recovery of standard DNA barcodes for land plants from a large array of commercial tea products and analyze their performance in identifying tea constituents using existing databases. Most (90%) of 146 tea products yielded rbcL or matK barcodes using a standard protocol. Matching DNA identifications to listed ingredients was limited by incomplete databases for the two markers, shared or nearly identical barcodes among some species, and lack of standard common names for plant species. About 1/3 of herbal teas generated DNA identifications not found on labels. Broad scale adoption of plant DNA barcoding may require algorithms that place search results in context of standard plant names and character-based keys for distinguishing closely-related species. Demonstrating the importance of accessible plant barcoding, our findings indicate unlisted ingredients are common in herbal teas. PMID:22355561

  6. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, S.; Lehnert, D.; Daavettila, N.; Palop, E.

    1994-06-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in commercial nuclear power plant heat exchangers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  7. Safety/security interface assessments at commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, K.R.; Brown, P.J.; Norderhaug, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    The findings of the Haynes Task Force Committee (NUREG-0992) are used as the basis for defining safety/security assessment team activities at commercial nuclear power plants in NRC Region V. A safety/security interface assessment outline and the approach used for making the assessments are presented along with the composition of team members. As a result of observing simulated plant emergency conditions during scheduled emergency preparedness exercises, examining security and operational response procedures, and interviewing plant personnel, the team has identified instances where safety/security conflicts can occur. 2 refs.

  8. Introduction of the first commercial MASSAHAKE-Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ahonen, M.A.

    1995-11-01

    MASSAHAKE-method is based on integrated harvesting and multi-phased treatment of whole tree chips. The method has been under R&D-work in VTT Energy in Jyvaskyla, Finland since 1987. Main products from this method are high quality raw material for pulp industry and fuel for energy production. One important advantage in using integrated harvesting methods is that they make it possible to carry through silviculturally important first thinnings economically. Also, simultaneously a significant amount of environmentally sound wood fuels become available when using these methods. The MASSAHAKE-method consists mostly of commercially available machines, though some alternations in the original hardware have been done in order to achieve better performance with the method. The main components of the system are chipper, grinder, various sieves and finally an optical sorter. After running the whole tree chips through the process the bark content of raw material fraction is <1% with both birch and pine whole tree chips. The pulp chip yield is >60%, calculated from the chips fed to the process. The remaining 40% of the whole tree chips is considered as fuel fraction, which is suitable for most furnaces as such-no further treatment is needed. Until last year the research has mainly been done in pilot scale and active work was done in order to demonstrate the method in commercial size. Finally the investment decision of the first commercial plant was made and the construction of this plant was completed during the spring of 1995. During normal commercial functions a major research work is done in the plant. The research results will be available for existing and future plants and also the possible inadequancy of the process will be fixed and some further machine development will be done during the two year research project. In this presentation the first experience from the commercial plant and the research results achieved until the end of May 1995 will be presented.

  9. Scale-up of commercial PCFB boiler plant technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lamar, T.W.

    1993-10-01

    The DMEC-1 Demonstration Project will provide an 80 MWe commercial-scale demonstration of the Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) technology. Following confirmation of the PCFB design in the 80 MWe scale, the technology with be scaled to even larger commercial units. It is anticipated that the market for commercial scale PCFB plants will exist most predominantly in the utility and independent power producer (IPP) sectors. These customers will require the best possible plant efficiency and the lowest achievable emissions at competitive cost. This paper will describe the PCFB technology and the expected performance of a nominal 400 MWe PCFB power plant Illinois No. 6 coal was used as a representative fuel for the analysis. The description of the plant performance will be followed by a discussion of the scale-up of the major PCFB components such as the PCFB boiler, the pressure vessel, the ceramic filter, the coal/sorbent handling steam, the gas turbine, the heat recovery unit and the steam turbine, demonstrating the reasonableness of scale-up from demonstration plant to a nominal 400 MWe unit.

  10. Introduction and overall description of nuclear power plant. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Topics covered in this volume include content and purpose of booklets; how to study; producing electricity; the fossil fuel power plant; the nuclear power plant; the nuclear reactor; generating steam in a nuclear power plant; using the steam in a nuclear power plant; nuclear power station facilities; and special features of nuclear power plants.

  11. Native medicinal plants commercialized in Brazil - priorities for conservation.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Joabe Gomes; de Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2009-09-01

    A majority of the native medicinal plants that are commercialized in Brazil are harvested from natural populations. In addition to this essentially unrestrained collecting, these plants have been heavily impacted by the cutting and the fragmentation of forest formations throughout the country. Considering the limited availability of natural resources, threats to species diversity, and the necessity of conservation efforts in light of the rapid exhaustion of natural ecosystems, it is becoming exceedingly important to establish conservation priorities. The present work sought to identify the native medicinal plants harvested for industrial purposes and to establish conservation priorities for the species of highest commercial value. To that end, a survey of Brazilian industrial products that use medicinal plants was undertaken in 54 shops in the city of Recife (Pernambuco, NE Brazil). The survey noted information concerning the commercial name of the product, its plant composition and pharmaceutical presentation, therapeutic indications, as well as the laboratory that produced it. Only native species were considered. A total of 74 different native species used to produce more than 300 types of products were encountered in the present survey. Twelve species demonstrated significant versatility (Species which had the highest numbers of different therapeutic indications and body systems), and 58.33% of these plants were trees. Destructive collecting predominates (58.11%), greatly affecting taxa collected exclusively from wild populations (86.49%). The intensive use of exclusively wild species and the destructive harvesting techniques employed in gathering them create serious problems that will threaten the availability of these resources to future generations. PMID:18726244

  12. Oil shale retorting in the first commercial plants

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Three commercial projects based on oil shale mining and surface retorting are reviewed. In Colorado, Exxon and Tosco are partners in the construction of a plant which will utilize TOSCO II retorts. Nearby, Union Oil Company is constructing the first module of a large complex using its own process. Each project is described briefly, the several retorting processes are discussed, and the rationale for the retort selection in each case is considered. 8 refs.

  13. Commercial ballard PEM fuel cell natural gas power plant development

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.S.; Dunnison, D.; Cohen, R.

    1996-12-31

    The electric utility industry is in a period of rapid change. Deregulation, wholesale and retail wheeling, and corporate restructuring are forcing utilities to adopt new techniques for conducting their business. The advent of a more customer oriented service business with tailored solutions addressing such needs as power quality is a certain product of the deregulation of the electric utility industry. Distributed and dispersed power are fundamental requirements for such tailored solutions. Because of their modularity, efficiency and environmental benefits, fuel cells are a favored solution to implement distributed and dispersed power concepts. Ballard Power Systems has been working to develop and commercialize Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell power plants for stationary power markets. PEM`s capabilities of flexible operation and multiple market platforms bodes well for success in the stationary power market. Ballard`s stationary commercialization program is now in its second phase. The construction and successful operation of a 10 kW natural gas fueled, proof-of-concept power plant marked the completion of phase one. In the second phase, we are developing a 250 kW market entry power plant. This paper discusses Ballard`s power plant development plan philosophy, the benefits from this approach, and our current status.

  14. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, S.; Katz, D.; Daavettila, N.; Lehnert, D.

    1994-03-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant pumps important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  15. Terrestrial Solar Thermal Power Plants: On the Verge of Commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, M.; Martinez, D.; Zarza, E.

    2004-12-01

    Solar Thermal Power Plants (STPP) with optical concentration technologies are important candidates for providing the bulk solar electricity needed within the next few decades, even though they still suffer from lack of dissemination and confidence among citizens, scientists and decision makers. Concentrating solar power is represented nowadays at pilot-scale and demonstration-scale by four technologies, parabolic troughs, linear Fresnel reflector systems, power towers or central receiver systems, and dish/engine systems, which are ready to start up in early commercial/demonstration plants. Even though, at present those technologies are still three times more expensive than intermediate-load fossil thermal power plants, in ten years from now, STPP may already have reduced production costs to ranges competitive. An important portion of this reduction (up to 42%) will be obtained by R&D and technology advances in materials and components, efficient integration schemes with thermodynamic cycles, highly automated control and low-cost heat storage systems.

  16. A Pilot Plant: The Fastest Path to Commercial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Considerable effort has been dedicated to determining the possible properties of a magneticconfinement fusion power plant, particularly in the U.S.1, Europe2 and Japan3. There has also been some effort to detail the development path to fusion energy, particularly in the U.S.4 Only limited attention has been given, in Japan5 and in China6, to the options for a specific device to form the bridge from the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, ITER, to commercial fusion energy. Nor has much attention been paid, since 2003, to the synergies between magnetic and inertial fusion energy development. Here we consider, at a very high level, the possibility of a Qeng ≥ 1 Pilot Plant, with linear dimensions ~ 2/3 the linear dimensions of a commercial fusion power plant, as the needed bridge. As we examine the R&D needs for such a system we find significant synergies between the needs for the development of magnetic and inertial fusion energy.

  17. COMMERCIAL UTILITY PERSPECTIVES ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring; Julius J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States need to modernize their main control rooms (MCR). Many NPPs have done partial upgrades with some success and with some challenges. The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, and in particular the Advanced Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) and Information Systems Technologies Research and Development (R&D) Pathway within LWRS, is designed to assist commercial nuclear power industry with their MCR modernization efforts. As part of this framework, a survey was issued to utility representatives of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems/Technologies (II&C) Utility Working Group to obtain their views on a range of issues related to MCR modernization, including: drivers, barriers, and technology options, and the effects these aspects will have on concepts of operations, modernization strategies, and staffing. This paper summarizes the key survey results and discusses their implications.

  18. Passenger fluid volumes measured before and after a prolonged commercial jet flight.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.; Carpentier, W. R.; Driscoll, T. B.; Lapinta, C. K.; Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.

    1972-01-01

    Interstitial and intracellular fluid volumes were calculated from measured plasma volume, extracellular volume and total body water of six subjects before and after a 24-hour commercial overseas flight. No change occurred in these spaces or in peripheral hematocrit or total serum protein concentration. The subjective feeling of dehydration and the actual swelling of the lower extremities characteristically found among passengers at the end of a long trip of this type seems to represent a shift in body fluids to the dependent portions of the body rather than water retention or a decrease in the intravascular water volume.

  19. Parametric study of prospective early commercial OCMHD power plants /PSPEC/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, C. H.; Bender, D. J.; Hnat, J. G.; Dellinger, T. C.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents a parametric study conducted to obtain the performance, economics, natural resource requirements, and environmental impact of moderate technology MHD/steam power plants that do not require development of direct-fired high-temperature air heaters. The study was divided into three base cases, each with a reference case and parametric variations. The case using recuperative air preheat in the range of 1000 F to 1300 F, combined with O2 enrichment to 42% by volume has been selected for conceptual design.

  20. Direct fuel cell power plants: the final steps to commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Donald R.

    Since the last paper presented at the Second Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, the Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has established two commercial subsidiaries, become a publically-held firm, expanded its facilities and has moved the direct fuel cell (DFC) technology and systems significantly closer to commercial readiness. The subsidiaries, the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) and Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) are perfecting their respective roles in the company's strategy to commercialize its DFC technology. FCE is the prime contractor for the Santa Clara Demonstration and is establishing the needed marketing, sales, engineering, and servicing functions. FCMC in addition to producing the stacks and stack modules for the Santa Clara demonstration plant is now upgrading its production capability and product yields, and retooling for the final stack scale-up for the commercial unit. ERC has built and operated the tallest and largest capacities-to-date carbonate fuel cell stacks as well as numerous short stacks. While most of these units were tested at ERC's Danbury, Connecticut (USA) R&D Center, others have been evaluated at other domestic and overseas facilities using a variety of fuels. ERC has supplied stacks to Elkraft and MTU for tests with natural gas, and RWE in Germany where coal-derived gas were used. Additional stack test activities have been performed by MELCO and Sanyo in Japan. Information from some of these activities is protected by ERC's license arrangements with these firms. However, permission for limited data releases will be requested to provide the Grove Conference with up-to-date results. Arguably the most dramatic demonstration of carbonate fuel cells in the utility-scale, 2 MW power plant demonstration unit, located in the City of Santa Clara, California. Construction of the unit's balance-of-plant (BOP) has been completed and the installed equipment has been operationally checked. Two of the four DFC stack sub-modules, each

  1. Plant exposure laboratory and chambers. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, C.; Pfleeger, T.

    1986-01-01

    The research is to learn the factors that control plant uptake, translocation, and metabolism of anthropogenic organic chemicals. Understanding these processes is essential to predict food contamination and environmental damage from various agricultural and industrial pollutants. Contamination of plants is only one component, but since plants are the fulcrum upon which all nourishment systems depend, understanding the ways they become contaminated is critical to prudent production, transportation, and use of organic chemicals. These efforts to identify the controlling mechanisms of these phenomena require an understanding of the physiological parameters of the plants during uptake and translocation of the extraneous chemicals. Since the chemicals of interest are toxic and studies generally include /sup 14/C as a label for monitoring chemical kinetics, containment is an important criterion. The paper describes the laboratory and support system, the exposure chambers, the computer system, and the plant hydroponic nursery built to accomplish this research.

  2. State-of-the-art commercial plant biotechnology facility (CPBF)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, W.; Bula, R.J.; Duffie, N.A.; Yetka, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The demand for highly flexible manipulation of plant growth generations and modification of specific plant processes in a controlled environment has led to the development of a Commercial Plant Biotechnology Facility (CPBF) for the International Space Station. The CPBF integrates proven ASTROCULTURE{trademark} technologies, state-of-the-art control software, and fault tolerance and recovery technologies together to increase overall system efficiency, reliability, robustness, and flexibility. An open and modular design architecture minimizes the design effort of reconfiguration/reconstruction of the facility with different dimensions and capacities. An autonomous control system with fault tolerance and recovery capability minimizes the on-orbit crew intervention which is particularly valuable for Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. A flexible user interface is provided for operators to select, define, and modify the tasks to be conducted. The CPBF consists of five major subsystems: the lighting control system; the temperature control system; the humidity control system; the fluid nutrient delivery system; and the atmosphere control system. This paper describes the general configuration of the CPBF, its capabilities, and its control architecture. It also describes its configuration for integration into an International Space Station Express Rack. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. PLANT EXPOSURE LABORATORY AND CHAMBERS. VOLUME 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research is to learn the factors which control plant uptake, translocation and metabolism of anthropogenic organic chemicals. Understanding these processes is essential to predict food contamination and environmental damage from various agricultural and industrial pollutants....

  4. Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Phase I. Process evaluation report, conceptual commercial plant

    SciTech Connect

    Eby, R.J.

    1980-05-01

    This Process Evaluation Report (PER) contains the results and recommendations of comprehensive analyses and studies which were made to optimize the ICGG Commercial Plant Baseline Process Concept for producing synthetic pipeline gas (SPG) from coal. Design studies to optimize the thermal efficiency and economic attractiveness of the COGAS Process Areas of the plant were conducted along with design studies and trade-off studies of available process subsystems to complement the COGAS Process Areas. The results, recommendations and description of the work accomplished in developing the PER are contained in six separately bound sections. Section 4 describes those trade-off studies which were made to select processes which would best complement the COGAS Process Areas and provide the most efficient and economical Commercial Plant Concept.

  5. SER-LARS, Volume 6. Instructional Materials, Teacher Made and Commercially Adapted. 1975-76 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Intermediate Unit 23, Blue Bell, PA.

    The sixth of nine volumes in the Special Education Resources Location Analysis and Retrieval System (SER-LARS), a diagnostic-prescriptive instructional data bank for teachers of handicapped children, presents an inventory of teacher-made and commercially adapted instructional materials. The instructional materials are organized by accession number…

  6. How much biomass do plant communities pack per unit volume?

    PubMed Central

    Rheault, Guillaume; Bonin, Laurianne; Roca, Irene Torrecilla; Martin, Charles A.; Desrochers, Louis; Seiferling, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground production in terrestrial plant communities is commonly expressed in amount of carbon, or biomass, per unit surface. Alternatively, expressing production per unit volume allows the comparison of communities by their fundamental capacities in packing carbon. In this work we reanalyzed published data from more than 900 plant communities across nine ecosystems to show that standing dry biomass per unit volume (biomass packing) consistently averages around 1 kg/m3 and rarely exceeds 5 kg/m3 across ecosystem types. Furthermore, we examined how empirical relationships between aboveground production and plant species richness are modified when standing biomass is expressed per unit volume rather than surface. We propose that biomass packing emphasizes species coexistence mechanisms and may be an indicator of resource use efficiency in plant communities. PMID:25802814

  7. Molecular Identification of Commercialized Medicinal Plants in Southern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Åsa; Rydberg, Anders; Abbad, Abdelaziz; Björk, Lars; Martin, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant trade is important for local livelihoods. However, many medicinal plants are difficult to identify when they are sold as roots, powders or bark. DNA barcoding involves using a short, agreed-upon region of a genome as a unique identifier for species– ideally, as a global standard. Research Question What is the functionality, efficacy and accuracy of the use of barcoding for identifying root material, using medicinal plant roots sold by herbalists in Marrakech, Morocco, as a test dataset. Methodology In total, 111 root samples were sequenced for four proposed barcode regions rpoC1, psbA-trnH, matK and ITS. Sequences were searched against a tailored reference database of Moroccan medicinal plants and their closest relatives using BLAST and Blastclust, and through inference of RAxML phylograms of the aligned market and reference samples. Principal Findings Sequencing success was high for rpoC1, psbA-trnH, and ITS, but low for matK. Searches using rpoC1 alone resulted in a number of ambiguous identifications, indicating insufficient DNA variation for accurate species-level identification. Combining rpoC1, psbA-trnH and ITS allowed the majority of the market samples to be identified to genus level. For a minority of the market samples, the barcoding identification differed significantly from previous hypotheses based on the vernacular names. Conclusions/Significance Endemic plant species are commercialized in Marrakech. Adulteration is common and this may indicate that the products are becoming locally endangered. Nevertheless the majority of the traded roots belong to species that are common and not known to be endangered. A significant conclusion from our results is that unknown samples are more difficult to identify than earlier suggested, especially if the reference sequences were obtained from different populations. A global barcoding database should therefore contain sequences from different populations of the same species to assure the

  8. Operational experience of a commercial scale plant of electron beam purification of flue gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Yoshitaka; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Konno, Yoshihide

    2000-03-01

    A commercial scale plant using electron beam irradiation was constructed to clean the flue gas from a coal fired thermal power plant at Chengdu in China. Operations began in September 1997 and the plant achieved its design performance with the satisfactory recovery of by-product fertilizer for agricultural use. Another commercial plant is now under construction at Nagoya, Japan and the operation will be started in November, 1999.

  9. Ryazan power plant feasibility study. Volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This study was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Ryazan Power Plant Joint Stock Company to assess the feasibility of rehabilitating the Ryazan Power Plant in Novomichurinsk, Russia. The scope of this study includes reviewing plant equipment and operations as well as making recommendations for upgrade to present day plant standards. The main emphasis of the report is on boiler analysis, but also includes all equipment from coal entering the plant to electrical power leaving the plant. This is the first of two volumes and is divided into the following sections: (A) Abstract; (B) Evaluation of Alternative Technologies; (C) Technical: Section 1- Coal Handling, Section 2- Feeders and Pulverizers, Section 3- Boiler, Section 4- Ash Handling, Section 5- Electrostatic Precipitator.

  10. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume II. Plant specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R. E.

    1983-12-31

    The specifications and design criteria for all plant systems and subsystems used in developing the preliminary design of Carrisa Plains 30-MWe Solar Plant are contained in this volume. The specifications have been organized according to plant systems and levels. The levels are arranged in tiers. Starting at the top tier and proceeding down, the specification levels are the plant, system, subsystem, components, and fabrication. A tab number, listed in the index, has been assigned each document to facilitate document location.

  11. Ion Exchange Media for Reduction of Liquid Radwaste in Commercial Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Yarnell, P.A.; Tavares, A.

    2008-07-01

    Ion exchange resins currently make up as much as one-half of all radioactive waste generated by commercial nuclear power plants. A major challenge is reduction of the quantity of ion exchange media requiring disposal. Although the amount of spent ion exchange resins disposed has decreased year after year, a new urgency has arisen with the pending closure of a major disposal site in 2008. This paper explores whether ion exchange resins also can be used to potentially reduce radioactive liquid waste volumes and / or limit them to Class A wastes only. Source term reduction and minimization of manpower exposure to radioactivity are other important goals. Specialty ion exchange products may help to achieve source term reduction of certain radionuclides. Some established operations, data, and process concepts are presented to address these critical issues encountered in liquid radwaste management. (authors)

  12. High-speed roller ginning in commercial gin plants in 2005 and 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous conventional roller gin stands were modified to run at high speed in commercial ginning plants in 2005 and 2006. The high-speed stands ginned both Pima and upland cotton. Results from a field test at a commercial ginning plant that compared roller ginning (including one high-speed stand) ...

  13. COAL PREPARATION PLANT COMPUTER MODEL: VOLUME I. USER DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes a steady state modeling system that simulates the performance of coal preparation plants. The system was developed originally under the technical leadership of the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the sponsorship of the EPA. The modified form described in ...

  14. Conceptual designs of advanced high-temperature desulfurization processes: Volume 1, Molten carbonate fuel cell power plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, M.G.; Boulay, R.B.; Buchanan, T.L.; Chen, H.T.; Fischer, W.H.; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Losovsky, M.L.; Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this effort is to provide conceptual commercial-scale designs, including engineering, relative cost, and economic information for high-temperature desulfurization processes. The commercial-scale processes were designed as an integral part of a nominal 100-MW(e) power plant. Two types of power plants were considered, a coal gasification molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant and an integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant. Three desulfurization processes combined with three different gasification processes were evaluated, for a total of 16 cases for the MCFC power plant. The three desulfurization processes evaluated were: METC's zinc ferrite process, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory's solid-supported molten salt process, and Institute of Gas Technology's mixed metal oxide process. Volume I of this report presents the results for the MCFC power plant.

  15. Parametric study of potential early commercial MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Three different reference power plant configurations were considered with parametric variations of the various design parameters for each plant. Two of the reference plant designs were based on the use of high temperature regenerative air preheaters separately fired by a low Btu gas produced from a coal gasifier which was integrated with the power plant. The third reference plant design was based on the use of oxygen enriched combustion air preheated to a more moderate temperature in a tubular type metallic recuperative heat exchanger which is part of the bottoming plant heat recovery system. Comparative information was developed on plant performance and economics. The highest net plant efficiency of about 45 percent was attained by the reference plant design with the use of a high temperature air preheater separately fired with the advanced entrained bed gasifier. The use of oxygen enrichment of the combustion air yielded the lowest cost of generating electricity at a slightly lower plant efficiency. Both of these two reference plant designs are identified as potentially attractive for early MHD power plant applications.

  16. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 2. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This volume contains appendices of supplementary data on waste management systems, geologic disposal, radiological standards, radiation dose calculation models, related health effects, baseline ecology, socio-economic conditions, hazard indices, comparison of defense and commercial wastes, design considerations, and wastes from thorium-based fuel cycle alternatives. (DMC)

  17. The DOE Bioethanol Plant: A Tool for Commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    2000-09-01

    This document details the pilot plant facilities available at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). With funding from the DOE National Biofuels Program, NREL constructed a fermentation pilot plant facility to test bioprocessing technologies for production of ethanol or other fuels or chemicals from cellulosic biomass.

  18. A study of a commercial MHD power plant scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashkov, S. A.; Shishkov, E. V.

    1980-07-01

    Power engineering specialists are currently interested in electrical power stations with magnetohydrodynamic generators. This paper is devoted to an investigation of one of the possible process flow diagrams of MHD electrical power plants. The structure of MHD electrical power plants, the interrelation between the aggregates, issues concerning the starting of the plant and the working of the power unit under various partial load conditions are discussed. With the availability of new theoretical and experimental data, the process flow diagrams of industrial MHD electrical power plants will naturally undergo changes. However, the methodical approach and the investigation described in this paper should retain their validity for all process flow diagrams of electrical power plants with MHD generators.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Lactobacillus species isolated from commercial ethanol plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial contamination of commercial fermentation cultures is a common and costly problem to the fuel ethanol industry. Antimicrobials such as virginiamycin (VIR) and penicillin (PEN) are frequently used to control contamination but there are little data available on the susceptibility of bacteria...

  20. Commercial second-generation PFBC plant transient model: Task 15

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.S.; Getty, R.T.; Torpey, M.R.

    1995-04-01

    The advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustor (APFBC) power plant combines an efficient gas-fired combined cycle, a low-emission PFB combustor, and a coal pyrolysis unit (carbonizer) that converts coal, America`s most plentiful fuel, into the gas turbine fuel. From an operation standpoint, the APFBC plant is similar to an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant, except that the PFBC and fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE) allow a considerable fraction of coal energy to be shunted around the gas turbine and sent directly to the steam turbine. By contrast, the fuel energy in IGCC plants and most other combined cycles is primarily delivered to the gas turbine and then to the steam turbine. Another characteristic of the APFBC plant is the interaction among three large thermal inertias--carbonizer, PFBC, and FBHE--that presents unique operational challenges for modeling and operation of this type of plant. This report describes the operating characteristics and dynamic responses of the APFBC plant and discusses the advantages and shortcomings of several alternative control strategies for the plant. In particular, interactions between PFBC, FBHE, and steam bottoming cycle are analyzed and the effect of their interactions on plant operation is discussed. The technical approach used in the study is described in Section 2. The dynamic model is introduced in Section 3 and described is detail in the appendices. Steady-state calibration and transient simulations are presented in Sections 4 and 5. The development of the operating philosophy is discussed in Section 6. Potential design changes to the dynamic model and trial control schemes are listed in Sections 7 and 8. Conclusions derived from the study are presented in Section 9.

  1. On the way to commercializing plant cell culture platform for biopharmaceuticals: present status and prospect

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Ningning

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell culture is emerging as an alternative bioproduction system for recombinant pharmaceuticals. Growing plant cells in vitro under controlled environmental conditions allows for precise control over cell growth and protein production, batch-to-batch product consistency and a production process aligned with current good manufacturing practices. With the recent US FDA approval and commercialization of the world’s first plant cell-based recombinant pharmaceutical for human use, β-glucocerebrosidase for treatment of Gaucher’s disease, a new era has come in which plant cell culture shows high potential to displace some established platform technologies in niche markets. This review updates the progress in plant cell culture processing technology, highlights recent commercial successes and discusses the challenges that must be overcome to make this platform commercially viable. PMID:25621170

  2. Prototype Commercial Coal/Oil Coprocessing Plant Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Ohio Clean Fuels (OCF) commissioned Hydrocarbon Research Inc., (HRI) in 1988--1989 to conduct a large-scale laboratory simulation of Coal-Oil Coprocessing (COPRO) in their Process Development Unit (PDU). OCF also commissioned Princeton Process Engineers (Richard M. Eccles) to provide a kinetic-model analysis of PDU and bench data to: (1) quantify the extent to which COPRO scaled-up'' from the previous simulation in bench-scale reactors; (2) assess scaleup to commercial reactors; and (3) provide OCF with consistent predictions of alternative commercial-scale operations. A Kinetic Model based on the Law of Mass Action as applied to back-mixed liquid-phase hydrogenation reactors has been successfully used to analyze COPRO bench and PDU data. The COPRO resid-conversion model permits estimation of the achievable performance in commercial reactors at alternative design or operating conditions, for a range of catalyst replacement rates. Conversions of organic sulfur, resid, and nitrogen were found to be comparable catalytic reactions following analogous decline curves with catalyst age, with the percentage conversions ranked downward in that order. For a catalyst age and operating conditions at which 90% resid conversion is obtained, corresponding conversions for organic sulfur and nitrogen are expected to be about 96% and 85%, respectively. Distillate product sulfur and nitrogen contents can be reliably estimated from the percentage conversions for organic sulfur and nitrogen for a given feed. 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Innovative Technology Reduces Power Plant Emissions - Commercialization Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde

    2004-01-01

    Emission control system development includes: (1) Development of new oxidizer scrubber system to eliminate NOx waste and produce fertilizer (2) Technology licensed and a 1 to 3 MWatt-scale prototype installed on. power plant (3) Development of method to oxidize NO. to N02 (4) Experience gained from licensing NASA technology

  4. Innovative Technology Reduces Power Plant Emissions-Commercialization Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde; Chung, Landy

    2004-01-01

    Overview of emission control system development: (1) Development of new oxidizer scrubber system to eliminate NOx waste and produce fertilizer (2) Technology licensed and a 1 to 3 MWatt-scale prototype installed on power plant (3) Development of method to oxidize NO to NO2 (4) Experience gained from licensing NASA technology.

  5. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak fusion power plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    STARFIRE is a 1200 MWe central station fusion electric power plant that utilizes a deuterium-tritium fueled tokamak reactor as a heat source. Emphasis has been placed on developing design features which will provide for simpler assembly and maintenance, and improved safety and environmental characteristics. The major features of STARFIRE include a steady-state operating mode based on continuous rf lower-hybrid current drive and auxiliary heating, solid tritium breeder material, pressurized water cooling, limiter/vacuum system for impurity control and exhaust, high tritium burnup and low vulnerable tritium inventories, superconducting EF coils outside the superconducting TF coils, fully remote maintenance, and a low-activation shield. A comprehensive conceptual design has been developed including reactor features, support facilities and a complete balance of plant. A construction schedule and cost estimate are presented, as well as study conclusions and recommendations.

  6. CLASSIFY-profiles. Final report, Volume 4: Designing energy services for commercial and industrial customers

    SciTech Connect

    Lineweber, D.; Leon, D.; Smith, S.

    1995-12-01

    In a changing marketplace, utilities will likely need to enhance their revenue streams through the introduction of nontraditional products and services in areas such as power quality, facilities management, energy management, and utility information. The report includes an overview of services in these areas followed by a definition of customer needs, design targets, and a range of acceptable performance parameters. For each area, existing problems, potential solutions, technical and service delivery questions, and vendor issues are addressed. Utility planners will find in this report much of the information needed for input into a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis, a team-oriented, decision-making approach for creating customer-driven solutions to product, service, and operational problems. However, program developers using methods other than QFD will benefit from the specific definition of performance attributes, the relative importance of each attribute, and design targets articulated in this work. Such customer preferences information should be especially useful in designing new services for larger commercial and industrial customers. Volumes 1-3 of this report define the technology needs of residential, commercial, and industrial customers as well as trade allies.

  7. Interaction of electromagnetic pulse with commercial nuclear-power-plant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Strawe, D.F.; Sandberg, S.J.; Jones, V.K.; Rensner, G.D.; Shoup, R.W.; Hanson, R.J.; Williams, C.B.

    1983-02-01

    This study examines the interaction of the electromagnetic pulse from a high altitude nuclear burst with commercial nuclear power plant systems. The potential vulnerability of systems required for safe shutdown of a specific nuclear power plant are explored. EMP signal coupling, induced plant response and component damage thresholds are established using techniques developed over several decades under Defense Nuclear Agency sponsorship. A limited test program was conducted to verify the coupling analysis technique as applied to a nuclear power plant. The results are extended, insofar as possible, to other nuclear plants.

  8. Parametric study of potential early commercial MHD power plants. Task 3: Parameter variation of plant size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    Plants with a nominal output of 200 and 500 MWe and conforming to the same design configuration as the Task II plant were investigated. This information is intended to permit an assessment of the competitiveness of first generation MHD/steam plants with conventional steam plants over the range of 200 to 1000 MWe. The results show that net plant efficiency of the MHD plant is significantly higher than a conventional steam plant of corresponding size. The cost of electricity is also less for the MHD plant over the entire plant size range. As expected, the cost differential is higher for the larger plant and decreases with plant size. Even at the 200 MWe capacity, however, the differential in COE between the MHD plant and the conventional plant is sufficient attractive to warrant serious consideration. Escalating fuel costs will enhance the competitive position of MHD plants because they can utilize the fuel more efficiently than conventional steam plants.

  9. Licensing retrofit incinerators at commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, R.L.; Edwards, C.W.; Wilson, B.

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine whether or not a backfit incinerator could be licensed under the provisions of 10 CFR Part 50.59, Gilbert Associates, Inc., with support from the Department of Energy, prepared, on a generic basis, typical engineering design information, accident analysis data and other documentation necessary to apply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a license to backfit a low-level radioactive waste incinerator in an operating nuclear power plant. The Department of Energy, serving in the role of a typical utility organization, submitted this generic report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for review and comment in a mock demonstration of the licensing process. The ultimate goal of this effort is to identify and resolve any safety issues associated with backfit incinerators so that a sufficient level of confidence in the licensability of backfit incinerators can be installed in nuclear utility management, and to encourage the industry to actually proceed with plans to install incinerators on a retrofit basis.

  10. Recent advances towards development and commercialization of plant cell culture processes for synthesis of biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sarah A.; Roberts, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    (1) Summary Plant cell culture systems were initially explored for use in commercial synthesis of several high value secondary metabolites, allowing for sustainable production that was not limited by the low yields associated with natural harvest or the high cost associated with complex chemical synthesis. Although there have been some commercial successes, most notably paclitaxel production from Taxus sp., process limitations exist with regards to low product yields and inherent production variability. A variety of strategies are being developed to overcome these limitations including elicitation strategies, in situ product removal and metabolic engineering with single genes and transcription factors. Recently, the plant cell culture production platform has been extended to pharmaceutically active heterologous proteins. Plant systems are beneficial because they are able to produce complex proteins that are properly glycosylated, folded and assembled without the risk of contamination by toxins that are associated with mammalian or microbial production systems. Additionally, plant cell culture isolates transgenic material from the environment, allows for more controllable conditions over field grown crops and promotes secretion of proteins to the medium, reducing downstream purification costs. Despite these benefits, the increase in cost of heterologous protein synthesis in plant cell culture as opposed to field grown crops is significant and therefore processes must be optimized with regards to maximizing secretion and enhancing protein stability in the cell culture media. This review discusses recent advancements in plant cell culture processing technology, focusing on progress towards overcoming the problems associated with commercialization of these production systems and highlighting recent commercial successes. PMID:22059985

  11. Comparative analysis of the conceptual design studies of potential early commercial MHD power plants (CSPEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, R. J.; Winter, J. M.; Juhasz, A. J.; Berg, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual design study of the MHD/steam plant that incorporates the use of oxygen enriched air preheated in a metallic heat exchanger as the combustor oxidant showed that this plant is the most attractive for early commercial applications. The variation of performance and cost was investigated as a function of plant size. The contractors' results for the overall efficiencies are in reasonable agreement considering the slight differences in their plant designs. NASA LeRC is reviewing cost and performance results for consistency with those of previous studies, including studies of conventional steam plants. LeRC in house efforts show that there are still many tradeoffs to be considered for these oxygen enriched plants and considerable variations can be made in channel length and level of oxygen enrichment with little change in overall plant efficiency.

  12. Comparative analysis of the conceptual design studies of potential early commercial MHD power plants (CSPEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovie, R. J.; Winter, J. M.; Juhasz, A. J.; Berg, R. D.

    A conceptual design study of the MHD/steam plant that incorporates the use of oxygen enriched air preheated in a metallic heat exchanger as the combustor oxidant showed that this plant is the most attractive for early commercial applications. The variation of performance and cost was investigated as a function of plant size. The contractors' results for the overall efficiencies are in reasonable agreement considering the slight differences in their plant designs. NASA LeRC is reviewing cost and performance results for consistency with those of previous studies, including studies of conventional steam plants. LeRC in house efforts show that there are still many tradeoffs to be considered for these oxygen enriched plants and considerable variations can be made in channel length and level of oxygen enrichment with little change in overall plant efficiency.

  13. Neutron dosimetry at commercial nuclear plants. Final report of Subtask B: dosimeter response

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, F.M.; Endres, G.W.R.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1983-03-01

    As part of a larger program to evaluate personnel neutron dosimetry at commercial nuclear power plants, this study was designed to characterize neutron dosimeter responses inside the containment structure of commercial nuclear plants. In order to characterize those responses, dosimeters were irradiated inside containment at 2 pressurized water reactors and at pipe penetrations outside the biological shield at two boiling water reactors. The reactors were operating at full power during the irradiations. Measurements were also performed with electronic instruments, the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), and portable remmeters, SNOOPY, RASCAL and PNR-4.

  14. Design, test and commercialization considerations of OTEC pilot plant riser cables

    SciTech Connect

    Garrity, T. F.; Eaton, R.; Dalton, T.; Pieroni, C.; Walsh, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    Discussion addresses riser cable system development for OTEC pilot plants transmitting power in the range of 10 to 40 MW. Specifically, design, testing and status of riser cable system development are reviewed. Further discussion encompasses unique technical, hardware and operational considerations associated with the commercialization of riser cable systems.

  15. Boll distribution and plant architecture of 14 commercial cultivars under five different irrigation regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a pressing need to identify and understand the effects of different irrigation regimes on the boll distribution, seed cotton yield, and plant architecture of commercial cultivars of cotton (Gossypium spp.). To identify the impact of different irrigation levels on the Texas High Plains 14 co...

  16. Chilling rate effects on pork loin tenderness in commercial processing plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to provide a large-scale objective comparison of pork LM tenderness and other meat quality traits between packing plants that differ in stunning method and carcass chilling rate. For each of two replicates, hogs were sourced from a single barn of a commercial fi...

  17. Campylobacter, Salmonella and E. coli on broiler carcasses from commercial plants under HIMP inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the numbers of Campylobacter and E. coli as well as the prevalence of Salmonella on broiler carcasses processed in all commercial processing plants currently being inspected under the HACCP based Inspection Models Project (HIMP) of the USDA-FSIS. In 2006...

  18. AEROSOL CHARACTERIZATION OF AMBIENT AIR NEAR A COMMERCIAL LURGI COAL GASIFICATION PLANT, KOSOVO REGION, YUGOSLAVIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air samples were collected continuously from May 14-29, 1980 to determine if the emissions from a commercial Lurgi coal gasification plant could be identified downwind of the facility. Physical, inorganic, and organic analyses were carried out on the collected aerosol sam...

  19. Bringing plant-based veterinary vaccines to market: Managing regulatory and commercial hurdles.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Jacqueline; Doshi, Ketan; Dussault, Marike; Hall, J Christopher; Holbrook, Larry; Jones, Ginny; Kaldis, Angelo; Klima, Cassidy L; Macdonald, Phil; McAllister, Tim; McLean, Michael D; Potter, Andrew; Richman, Alex; Shearer, Heather; Yarosh, Oksana; Yoo, Han Sang; Topp, Edward; Menassa, Rima

    2015-12-01

    The production of recombinant vaccines in plants may help to reduce the burden of veterinary diseases, which cause major economic losses and in some cases can affect human health. While there is abundant research in this area, a knowledge gap exists between the ability to create and evaluate plant-based products in the laboratory, and the ability to take these products on a path to commercialization. The current report, arising from a workshop sponsored by an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Co-operative Research Programme, addresses this gap by providing guidance in planning for the commercialization of plant-made vaccines for animal use. It includes relevant information on developing business plans, assessing market opportunities, manufacturing scale-up, financing, protecting and using intellectual property, and regulatory approval with a focus on Canadian regulations. PMID:26232717

  20. Airborne Salmonella and Listeria associated with Irish commercial beef, sheep and pig plants.

    PubMed

    Okraszewska-Lasica, Wioletta; Bolton, D J; Sheridan, J J; McDowell, D A

    2014-06-01

    Air samples from lairage, hide/fleece pulling or dehairing/scraping, evisceration and chilling areas in commercial beef, sheep and pig plants were examined for Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, by impaction or sedimentation onto selective (Brilliant Green Agar, BSA; Listeria Selective Agar, LSA) and non-selective (Plate Count Agar, PCA) media. Both pathogens were frequently detected in all three plants. Improved recoveries were achieved by combining sedimentation, and broth based resuscitation, suggesting cell injury. Salmonella were recovered from all three plants, with the highest counts on BGA in the pig plant. The most common serotypes were S. Typhimurium in the beef/sheep plants and S. Derby in the pig plant. Very low counts of L. monocytogenes (e.g. 2.6CFUm(2)) were detected at hide removal on LSA sedimentation plates in the beef plant. These included serogroup 1/2a-3a and 1/2b-3b-7. Pathogen counts in the three plants were generally very low, suggesting that air is unlikely to be a significant source of carcass or plant surface contamination. PMID:24598073

  1. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 17. Plant section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air

    SciTech Connect

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 17 which reports the design of Plant Section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air. The plant and instrument air system is designed to provide dry, compressed air for a multitude of uses in plant operations and maintenance. A single centrifugal air compressor provides the total plant and instrument air requirements. An air drying system reduces the dew point of the plant and instrument air. Plant Section 2500 is designed to provide air at 100/sup 0/F and 100 psig. Both plant and instrument air are dried to a -40/sup 0/F dew point. Normal plant and instrument air requirements total 1430 standard cubic feet per minute.

  2. Spatial Pattern of Verticillium dahliae Microsclerotia and Cotton Plants with Wilt Symptoms in Commercial Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiarong; Hu, Xiaoping; Xu, Xiangming

    2015-01-01

    Spatial patterns of pathogen inoculum in field soils and the resulting patterns of disease may reflect the underlying mechanisms of pathogen dispersal. This knowledge can be used to design more efficient sampling schemes for assessing diseases. Spatial patterns of Verticillium dahliae microsclerotia were characterized in commercial cotton fields through quadrat and point sampling in 1994 and 2013, respectively. Furthermore, cotton plants with wilt symptoms, caused by V. dahliae, were assessed in six commercial cotton fields in 2013. Soil samples were assayed for the density of microsclerotia (expressed as CFU g-1 of soil) using a wet-sieving plating method and a real-time quantitative PCR method for the 1994 and 2013 study, respectively. The estimated inoculum threshold for causing wilt development on individual plants varied with the three fields: ca. 1.6 CFU g-1 of soil for one field, and 7.2 CFU g-1 of soil for the other two. Both quadrat and point sampling spatial analyses showed that aggregation of V. dahliae inoculum in soils was usually not detected beyond 1.0 m. Similarly, the spatial patterns of wilted cotton plants indicated that spatial aggregation of diseased plants were only observed below the scale of 1.0 m in six commercial cotton plantations. Therefore, spatial aggregation of both V. dahliae inoculum and cotton plants with wilt symptoms is not likely to be detected above the scale of 1.0 m for most commercial cotton plantations. When designing schemes for assessing wilt inoculum and wilt development, this scale needs to be taken into consideration. PMID:26167868

  3. Commercial Art Course of Study and Teaching Guide--Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schofield, James H.

    Intended as part of a continuing commercial art program, the basic course outlined provides the high school student with a core of skills and knowledge common to many of the commercial art jobs. The first part of the course is designed to acquaint the exploratory student with some of the procedures and skills required. Units 1 through 5 cover…

  4. Solar thermal central receiver integrated commercialization analysis. Volume 2. Appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, J.F.; Bos, P.B.; Weingart, J.M.

    1986-03-01

    The report presents brief discussions on the following topics: (1) value analysis computer program; (2) levelized busbar energy cost computation; (3) electric utility avoided cost; and (4) commercial solar tax credits. Each topic is in reference to the integrated commercialization of solar thermal central receivers. (BCS)

  5. Summary and evaluation of the parametric study of potential early commercial MHD power plants (PSPEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staigner, P. J.; Abbott, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Two parallel contracted studies were conducted. Each contractor investigated three base cases and parametric variations about these base cases. Each contractor concluded that two of the base cases (a plant using separate firing of an advanced high temperature regenerative air heater with fuel from an advanced coal gasifier and a plant using an intermediate temperature metallic recuperative heat exchanger to heat oxygen enriched combustion air) were comparable in both performance and cost of electricity. The contractors differed in the level of their cost estimates with the capital cost estimates for the MHD topping cycle and the magnet subsystem in particular accounting for a significant part of the difference. The impact of the study on the decision to pursue a course which leads to an oxygen enriched plant as the first commercial MHD plant is described.

  6. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2E: Commercial equipment utility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. G. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Examination of commercial equipment technologies revealed that the functional performance requirements of space processing equipment could generally be met by state-of-the-art design practices. Thus, an apparatus could be evolved from a standard item or derived by custom design using present technologies. About 15 percent of the equipment needed has no analogous commercial base of derivation and requires special development. This equipment is involved primarily with contactless heating and position control. The derivation of payloads using commercial equipment sources provides a broad and potentially cost-effective base upon which to draw. The derivation of payload equipment from commercial technologies poses other issues beyond that of the identifiable functional performance, but preliminary results on testing of selected equipment testing appear quite favorable. During this phase of the SPA study, several aspects of commercial equipment utility were assessed and considered. These included safety, packaging and structural, power conditioning (electrical/electronic), thermal and materials of construction.

  7. Summary of inspection findings of licensee inservice testing programs at United States commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlop, A.; Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    Periodic inspections of pump and valve inservice testing (IST) programs in United States commercial nuclear power plants are performed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regional Inspectors to verify licensee regulatory compliance and licensee commitments. IST inspections are conducted using NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pumps and Valves{close_quotes} (IP 73756), which was updated on July 27, 1995. A large number of IST inspections have also been conducted using Temporary Instruction 2515/114, {open_quotes}Inspection Requirements for Generic Letter 89-04, Acceptable Inservice Testing Programs{close_quotes} (TI-2515/114), which was issued January 15, 1992. A majority of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants have had an IST inspection to either IP 73756 or TI 2515/114. This paper is intended to summarize the significant and recurring findings from a number of these inspections since January of 1990.

  8. Physicochemical and acid gelation properties of commercial UHT-treated plant-based milk substitutes and lactose free bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Uniacke-Lowe, Thérèse; O'Mahony, James A; Arendt, Elke K

    2015-02-01

    Physicochemical and acid gelation properties of UHT-treated commercial soy, oat, quinoa, rice and lactose-free bovine milks were studied. The separation profiles were determined using a LUMiSizer dispersion analyser. Soy, rice and quinoa milks formed both cream and sediment layers, while oat milk sedimented but did not cream. Bovine milk was very stable to separation while all plant milks separated at varying rates; rice and oat milks being the most unstable products. Particle sizes in plant-based milk substitutes, expressed as volume mean diameters (d4.3), ranged from 0.55μm (soy) to 2.08μm (quinoa) while the average size in bovine milk was 0.52μm. Particles of plant-based milk substitutes were significantly more polydisperse compared to those of bovine milk. Upon acidification with glucono-δ-lactone (GDL), bovine, soy and quinoa milks formed structured gels with maximum storage moduli of 262, 187 and 105Pa, respectively while oat and rice milks did not gel. In addition to soy products currently on the market, quinoa may have potential in dairy-type food applications. PMID:25172757

  9. Development of a Flexible Computerized Management Infrastructure for a Commercial Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Syed Firasat; Hajek, Brian K.; Usman, Shoaib

    2006-05-01

    The report emphasizes smooth transition from paper-based procedure systems (PBPSs) to computer-based procedure systems (CBPSs) for the existing commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. The expected advantages and of the transition are mentioned including continued, safe and efficient operation of the plants under their recently acquired or desired extended licenses. The report proposes a three-stage survey to aid in developing a national strategic plan for the transition from PBPSs to CBPSs. It also includes a comprehensive questionnaire that can be readily used for the first stage of the suggested survey.

  10. Operation results of the first commercial PFBC plant with high temperature ceramic filters

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, S.; Suga, N.

    1998-07-01

    Trial operation is now successfully underway at Tomato-Atsuma Unit No. 3 of Hokkaido Electric Power Co. (HEPCO) in Japan. This newly built 85 MWe unit is an innovative PFBC plant, which is the first commercial PFBC in Japan, and equipped with full capacity ceramic filters operated at 850 C. The high temperature ceramic filter effectively removes dusts in the hot gas and the dust loading at gas turbine inlet is much less than that of two-stage cyclones, minimizing the cost and time of gas turbine maintenance. The PFBC plant is composed of a pressurized fluidized-bed boiler, cyclones, ceramic filters, a gas turbine, a steam turbine, etc. and all of the equipment were manufactured and supplied by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI). Joint R and D program between HEPCO and MHI started 7 years ago, based on their own private funding and without any financial supports from public sectors, studying the optimum design of the first commercial PFBC aiming at environmental and economical advantages. And now fruitful results have been achieved. The commercial operation will start in March 1998 or earlier. Several troubles had been experienced during initial trial operation stage including pressure drop increase in ceramic filters. All these problems were solved one by one by the joint efforts of HEPCO and MHO. Load rejection tests, load swing tests, and automatic power control tests were successfully done in the spring of 1997. And tests with various kinds of coals are scheduled before the commercial operation.

  11. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Class and Safety Significant Commercial Grade Items (CGI) Critical Characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    THOMAS, R.J.

    2000-04-24

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for use in the Plutonium Finishing Plant as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to properly perform its safety function. There may be several manufacturers or models that meet the critical characteristics of any one item.

  12. Honey Lake Hybrid Power Plant Project. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    A technical and economic feasibility study of the engineering aspects of a hybrid wood-fired geothermal electrical generating plant is presented. The proposed plant location is in Lassen County, California, near the Wendel Amedee Known Geothermal Resource Area. This power plant uses moderate temperature geothermal fluid to augment the heat supplied from a wood waste fired boiler. This report defines major plant systems for implementation into the plant conceptual design and provides sufficient design information for development of budgetary cost estimates. Emphasis is placed on incorporation of geothermal heat into the power generation process. Plant systems are designed and selected based on economic justification and on proven performance. The culminating economic analysis provides the financial information to establish the incentives for construction of the plant. The study concludes that geothermal energy and energy from wood can be combined in a power generating plant to yield attractive project economics.

  13. EMISSIONS ASSESSMENT OF CONVENTIONAL STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS: VOLUME IV. COMMERCIAL/INSTITUTIONAL COMBUSTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report characterizes air emissions from commercial/institutional external combustion sources and reciprocating engines and is the fourth of a series of five project reports characterizing emissions from conventional combustion sources. This characterization was based on a cri...

  14. Analysis of commercial equipment and instrumentation for Spacelab payloads, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Technical results are presented of a study to investigate analytically the feasibility of using commercially available laboratory equipment and instrumentation in the spacelab in support of various experiments. The feasibility is demonstrated by the breadth of application of commercial, airborne, and military equipment to experiment equipment requirements in the spacelab, and the cost effectiveness of utilizing this class of equipment instead of custom-built aerospace equipment typical of past designs. Equipment design and specifications are discussed.

  15. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Power and distribution transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.

    1994-05-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in power and distribution transformers important to license renewal in commercial nuclear power plants. The intent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  16. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Motor control centers; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; O`Hearn, E.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) commercial nuclear power plant motor control centers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  17. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-stationary batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Shao, J.; Krencicki, G.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-03-01

    The Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant stationary batteries important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  18. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Electrical switchgear. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; Schuler, K.

    1993-07-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant electrical switchgear important to license renewal. The latent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance, to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  19. Agave salmiana Plant Communities in Central Mexico as Affected by Commercial Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Salvador, Martin; Mata-González, Ricardo; Morales Nieto, Carlos; Valdez-Cepeda, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Agave salmiana is a native plant species harvested for the commercial production of mezcal ( Agave spirits) in the highlands of central Mexico. The objective of this study was to identify vegetation changes in natural communities where A. salmiana has been differentially harvested for commercial purposes. Three plant community categories were identified in the state of Zacatecas based on their history of A. salmiana utilization: short (less than 10 years of use), moderate (about 25 years), and long (60 or more years). Species cover, composition, and density were evaluated in field surveys by use category. A gradient of vegetation structure of the communities parallels the duration of A. salmiana use. A. salmiana density was greatest (3,125 plants ha-1) in the short-use areas and less (892 plants ha-1) in the moderate-use areas, associated with markedly greater density of shrubs (200%) and Opuntia spp. (50%) in moderate-use areas. The main shrubs were Larrea tridentata, Mimosa biuncifera, Jatropha dioica and Buddleia scordioides while the main Opuntia species were Opuntia leucotricha and Opuntia robusta. A. salmiana density was least (652 plants ha-1) in the long-use areas where shrubs were less abundant but Opuntia spp. density was 25% higher than in moderate-use areas. We suggest that shrubs may increase with moderate use creating an intermediate successional stage that facilitates the establishment of Opuntia spp. Long-term Agave use is generating new plant communities dominated by Opuntia spp. (nopaleras) as a replacement of the original communities dominated by A. salmiana (magueyeras).

  20. Operating experience feedback report: Reliability of safety-related steam turbine-driven standby pumps. Commercial power reactors, Volume 10

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    This report documents a detailed analysis of failure initiators, causes and design features for steam turbine assemblies (turbines with their related components, such as governors and valves) which are used as drivers for standby pumps in the auxiliary feedwater systems of US commercial pressurized water reactor plants, and in the high pressure coolant injection and reactor core isolation cooling systems of US commercial boiling water reactor plants. These standby pumps provide a redundant source of water to remove reactor core heat as specified in individual plant safety analysis reports. The period of review for this report was from January 1974 through December 1990 for licensee event reports (LERS) and January 1985 through December 1990 for Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) failure data. This study confirmed the continuing validity of conclusions of earlier studies by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by the US nuclear industry that the most significant factors in failures of turbine-driven standby pumps have been the failures of the turbine-drivers and their controls. Inadequate maintenance and the use of inappropriate vendor technical information were identified as significant factors which caused recurring failures.

  1. NASA in-house Commercially Developed Space Facility (CDSF) study report. Volume 1: Concept configuration definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deryder, L. J.; Chiger, H. D.; Deryder, D. D.; Detweiler, K. N.; Dupree, R. L.; Gillespie, V. P.; Hall, J. B.; Heck, M. L.; Herrick, D. C.; Katzberg, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a NASA in-house team effort to develop a concept definition for a Commercially Developed Space Facility (CDSF) are presented. Science mission utilization definition scenarios are documented, the conceptual configuration definition system performance parameters qualified, benchmark operational scenarios developed, space shuttle interface descriptions provided, and development schedule activity was assessed with respect to the establishment of a proposed launch date.

  2. Feasibility of commercial space manufacturing, production of pharmaceuticals. Volume 3: Product data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of commercial manufacturing of pharmaceuticals in space is analyzed and the study results are presented. The chronology of the study process is discussed. The separation of serum proteins by the continuous flow electrophoresis process is investigated. The production requirements of twelve candidate products including antihemophilic factor, beta cells, erythropoietin, epidermal growth factor, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and interferon are evaluated.

  3. Evaluation of HFC-245ca for commercial use in low pressure chillers. Final report, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Keuper, E.F.

    1996-03-01

    Federal regulations banned the production of CFC-11 on January 1, 1996. HCFC-123, the only commercial alternative, will be limited to service applications after January 1, 2020 and will be eliminated from production on January 1, 2030. HFC-245ca has been identified as a potential replacement for CFC-11 in retrofit applications and for HCFC-123 in new chillers, but the marginal flammability of HFC-245ca is a major obstacle to its commercial use as a refrigerant in the United States. This report assesses the commercial viability of HFC-245ca based on its experimental performance in a direct drive low pressure centrifugal chiller exclusive of its flammability characteristics. Three different impeller diameters were tested in the chiller, with all impellers having identical discharge blade angles. Experimental work included tests in a 200 ton 3 stage direct drive chiller with 3 impeller sets properly sized for each of three refrigerants, CFC-11, HCFC-123, and HFC-245ca. The commercial viability assessment focused on both retrofit and new product performance and cost.

  4. Self-Characterization of Commercial Ultrasound Probes in Transmission Acoustic Inverse Scattering: Transducer Model and Volume Integral Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Mark; Verweij, Sacha A. M.; Moghaddam, Mahta; Carson, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    A self-contained source characterization method for commercial ultrasound probes in transmission acoustic inverse scattering is derived and experimentally tested. The method is based on modified scattered field volume integral equations that are linked to the source-scattering transducer model. The source-scattering parameters are estimated via pair-wise transducer measurements and the nonlinear inversion of an acoustic propagation model that is derived. This combination creates a formal link between the transducer characterization and the inverse scattering algorithm. The method is tested with two commercial ultrasound probes in a transmission geometry including provisions for estimating the probe locations and aligning a robotic rotator. The transducer characterization results show that the nonlinear inversion fit the measured data well. The transducer calibration and inverse scattering algorithm are tested on simple targets. Initial images show that the recovered contrasts are physically consistent with expected values. PMID:24569251

  5. Commercial-scale biotherapeutics manufacturing facility for plant-made pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Barry R; Berquist, Brian R; Bennett, Lindsay D; Kommineni, Vally J M; Munigunti, Ranjith K; White, Earl L; Wilkerson, Don C; Wong, Kah-Yat I; Ly, Lan H; Marcel, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    Rapid, large-scale manufacture of medical countermeasures can be uniquely met by the plant-made-pharmaceutical platform technology. As a participant in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Blue Angel project, the Caliber Biotherapeutics facility was designed, constructed, commissioned and released a therapeutic target (H1N1 influenza subunit vaccine) in <18 months from groundbreaking. As of 2015, this facility was one of the world's largest plant-based manufacturing facilities, with the capacity to process over 3500 kg of plant biomass per week in an automated multilevel growing environment using proprietary LED lighting. The facility can commission additional plant grow rooms that are already built to double this capacity. In addition to the commercial-scale manufacturing facility, a pilot production facility was designed based on the large-scale manufacturing specifications as a way to integrate product development and technology transfer. The primary research, development and manufacturing system employs vacuum-infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana plants grown in a fully contained, hydroponic system for transient expression of recombinant proteins. This expression platform has been linked to a downstream process system, analytical characterization, and assessment of biological activity. This integrated approach has demonstrated rapid, high-quality production of therapeutic monoclonal antibody targets, including a panel of rituximab biosimilar/biobetter molecules and antiviral antibodies against influenza and dengue fever. PMID:26387511

  6. Tritium Breeding Blanket for a Commercial Fusion Power Plant - A System Engineering Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Wayne R.

    2014-04-14

    The goal of developing a new source of electric power based on fusion has been pursued for decades. If successful, future fusion power plants will help meet growing world-wide demand for electric power. A key feature and selling point for fusion is that its fuel supply is widely distributed globally and virtually inexhaustible. Current world-wide research on fusion energy is focused on the deuterium-tritium (DT for short) fusion reaction since it will be the easiest to achieve in terms of the conditions (e.g., temperature, density and confinement time of the DT fuel) required to produce net energy. Over the past decades countless studies have examined various concepts for TBBs for both magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE). At this time, the key organizations involved are government sponsored research organizations world-wide. The near-term focus of the MFE community is on the development of TBB mock-ups to be tested on the ITER tokamak currently under construction in Caderache France. TBB concepts for IFE tend to be different from MFE primarily due to significantly different operating conditions and constraints. This report focuses on longer-term commercial power plants where the key stakeholders include: electric utilities, plant owner and operator, manufacturer, regulators, utility customers, and in-plant subsystems including the heat transfer and conversion systems, fuel processing system, plant safety systems, and the monitoring control systems.

  7. Energy use and conservation in the commercial sector: Volume 2, An application of the NBECS (Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey) commercial conditional demand model to a test case utility, San Diego Gas and Electric Company: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parti, M.; Sebald, A.V.; Farber, M.

    1988-02-01

    This report describes an investigation into the application of an enhanced conditional demand analysis (CDA) technique to the estimation and forecasting of commercial sector energy demand. The report consists of two volumes. This volume, the second, describes the application of the technique to a particular utility service area. 5 refs., 4 figs., 27 tabs.

  8. Monitoring large enrichment plants using thermal imagery from commercial satellites: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Bernstein

    2000-05-01

    Thermal imagery from commercial satellites is an interesting candidate technology for use as a verification tool for the purpose of monitoring certain types of fissile material production sites. Examples of its potential treaty applications include the Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) or a Fissile Material Production Moratorium. To help determine the capabilities and limitations of such imagery as a monitoring tool, the author has examined archived LANDSAT-5 images of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, a large US uranium-enrichment facility in Ohio. This analysis indicates that large-scale gaseous diffusion plants can very likely be recognized as operational with thermal imagery throughout most of the year in clear weather conditions. It may also be possible to identify certain other large-scale qualitative changes in operations, such as the shut-down of a single process building in a plant, by a comparison of its temperature with the temperatures of neighboring operational process buildings. However, uncertainties in the current data set prevent a definitive conclusion regarding the latter capability. This study identifies intrinsic weaknesses, including vulnerability to countermeasures, that prevent thermal imagery from satellites from being a robust standalone verification tool, even for very large enrichment plants. Nonetheless, the imagery may be useful as a trigger for an on-site inspection, to alert and train inspectors prior to an inspection, and possibly to reduce the frequency of on-site inspections required at a given site. It could have some immediate utility for monitoring the two large gaseous diffusion plants the US and the French plant at Tricastin, and possibly for determining the operational status of two gaseous diffusion plants in China as well--a total of five plants worldwide. The ease of acquisition and modest cost of thermal commercial imagery further increase its attractiveness as a verification tool. In addition to these basic

  9. Overview of commercialization of stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hooie, D.T.; Williams, M.C.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper, DOE`s efforts to assist private sector organizations to develop and commercialize stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States are discussed. The paper also provides a snapshot of the status of stationary power fuel cell development occurring in the US, addressing all fuel cell types. This paper discusses general characteristics, system configurations, and status of test units and demonstration projects. The US DOE, Morgantown Energy Technology Center is the lead center for implementing DOE`s program for fuel cells for stationary power.

  10. Commercial scale fabrication method for fabricating a gradient refractive-index rod: Overcoming volume shrinkage and chemical restrictions.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hansol; Son, Young Mok; Kim, Mu Gyeom; Ra, Byoung Joo; Park, Joon-Yong; Lee, Seung Hui; Choi, Jin Sung; Song, Min Young; Park, O Ok; Kim, Youn Cheol; Hwang, Jin Taek

    2006-10-01

    We report a fabrication method for a gradient refractive-index polymeric object from a binary comonomer system, regardless of the monomers' reactivity ratio and the molar volume criteria of gradient refractive-index development. To fabricate a large gradient refractive-index rod consisting of a methyl methacrylate and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropyl methacrylate comonomer pair that has not been used for fabrication of a copolymer gradient refractive-index rod by previous conventional methods because of chemical restrictions in molar volume and reactivity ratio difference, we use the so-called successive UV polymerization in a controlled radial volume in conjunction with an automatic refill reactor. Simultaneously and automatically, the volume shrinkage problem, an inevitable shortcoming for the fabrication of a large polymeric object in a commercial production scale, is overcome and exploited. The theoretical features of the refractive-index profile generation of this method are also compared with those of conventional methods for which the chemical restrictions of monomers are crucial for the shape of a refractive-index profile. PMID:16983409

  11. Study on utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structures, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Ostrom, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    A plan is defined for a composite wing development effort which will assist commercial transport manufacturers in reaching a level of technology readiness where the utilization of composite wing structure is a cost competitive option for a new aircraft production plan. The recommended development effort consists of two programs: a joint government/industry material development program and a wing structure development program. Both programs are described in detail.

  12. Feasibility of commercial space manufacturing, production of pharmaceuticals. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of the commercial manufacturing of pharmaceuticals in space is examined. The method of obtaining pharmaceutical company involvement, laboratory results of the separation of serum proteins by the continuous flow electrophoresis process, the selection and study of candidate products, and their production requirements is presented. Antihemophilic factor, beta cells, erythropoietin, epidermal growth factor, alpha-1-antitrypsin and interferon were studied. Production mass balances for antihemophilic factor, beta cells, and erythropoietin were compared for space verus ground operation.

  13. ASTROCULTURE(tm) Commercial Plant Growth Unit and Glove Box Insert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Wei-Jia; Lambing, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Two commercial plant investigations will be conducted during the STS-107 mission: living flower essential oil production and gene transfer. The research will be done using the ASTROCULTURE (trademark) hardware, which builds on similar experiments flown in the past on the space shuttle. This research will investigate how microgravity might affect the formation of the volatile chemical compounds - the essential oils - produced by two different types of living flowers. The flowers will be cultured in the ASTROCULTURE (trademark) plant chamber, which provides an enclosed and controlled environment. As the flowers bloom in space, they will produce essential oils, and these volatile compounds will be collected using International Flavors and Fragrance's proprietary Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) technology. The gene transfer experiment examines a newly developed transformation system to see if it operates efficiently in the microgravity environment. This research is important for the development of genetically engineered crops, also known as transgenic crops.

  14. Concepts, strategies and potentials using hypo-g and other features of the space environment for commercialization using higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    Opportunities for releasing, capturing, constructing and/or fixing the differential expressions or response potentials of the higher plant genome in the hypo-g environment for commercialization are explored. General strategies include improved plant-growing, crop and forestry production systems which conserve soil, water, labor and energy resources, and nutritional partitioning and mobilization of nutrients and synthates. Tissue and cell culture techniques of commercial potential include the growing and manipulation of cultured plant cells in vitro in a bioreactor to produce biologicals and secondary plants of economic value. The facilitation of plant breeding, the cloning of specific pathogen-free materials, the elimination of growing point or apex viruses, and the increase of plant yield are other O-g applications. The space environment may be advantageous in somatic embryogenesis, the culture of alkaloids, and the development of completely new crop plant germ plasm.

  15. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume I. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater collection system workers to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. This volume is directed primarily towards entry-level operators and the operators of ponds, package plants, or small treatment plants. Ten chapters examine the…

  16. Design and evaluation of Cities Service/Rockwell hydrogasification commercial plant

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, P.D.; Butt, N.M.; Sarma, K.R.

    1980-08-01

    This report covers a preliminary conceptual design and economic evaluation of a commercial scale plant capable of converting high-sulfur bituminous caking coal to a high-Btu pipeline quality SNG. The plant, which has a rated capacity of 250 Billion Btu per day SNG, is based on Cities Service/Rockwell hydrogasification technology. Two cases of plant design were examined to produce cost estimates accurate to +-25% in 1979 dollars. The base case, designed for moderate production of liquids (5.8% conversion of carbon to liquid product), has a cost of SNG of $4.43/MMBtu using the utility financing method (UFM) and $6.42/MMBtu using the discounted cash flow method (DCFM) of financing. The alternate case, zero liquids production, has gas costs of $5.00 (UFM) and $6.96 (DCFM). Further tests by Rockwell have indicated that 11.4% carbon conversion to liquid products (99% benzene) is possible. If the plant is scaled up to produce the same amoung of SNG with this increased yield of liquid, and if the value of the benzene produced is estimated to be $0.90 per gallon, the costs of gas for this case are $4.38/MMBtu (UFM) and $6,48/MMBtu (DCFM). If the value of benzene is taken as $2.00 per gallon, these costs become $3.14/MMBtu (UFM) and $5.23/MMBtu (DCFM). The economic assumptions involved in these calculations are detailed.

  17. Commercial Impact and Optimum Capacity Determination of Pumped Storage Hydro Plant for a Practical Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha, P. G.; Anand, S. R.; Imthias, Ahamed T. P.; Sreejith, P. S., Dr.

    2013-06-01

    This paper attempts to study the commercial impact of pumped storage hydro plant on the operation of a stressed power system. The paper further attempts to compute the optimum capacity of the pumped storage scheme that can be provided on commercial basis for a practical power system. Unlike the analysis of commercial aspects of pumped storage scheme attempted in several papers, this paper is presented from the point of view of power system management of a practical system considering the impact of the scheme on the economic operation of the system. A realistic case study is presented as the many factors that influence the pumped storage operation vary widely from one system to another. The suitability of pumped storage for the particular generation mix of a system is well explored in the paper. To substantiate the economic impact of pumped storage on the system, the problem is formulated as a short-term hydrothermal scheduling problem involving power purchase which optimizes the quantum of power to be scheduled and the duration of operation. The optimization model is formulated using an algebraic modeling language, AMPL, which is then solved using the advanced MILP solver CPLEX.

  18. Neutron dosimetry at commercial nuclear plants. Final report of Subtask C: /sup 3/He neutron spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Reece, W.D.; Tanner, J.E.

    1984-09-01

    In commercial nuclear power plants, personnel routinely enter containment for maintenance and inspections while the reactor is operating and can be exposed to intense neutron fields. The low-energy neutron fields found in reactor containment cause problems in proper interpretation of TLD-albedo dosimeters and survey instrument readings. This report describes a technique that can aid plant health physicists to improve the accuracy of personnel neutron dosimetry programs. A /sup 3/He neutron spectrometer can be used to measure neutron energy spectra and determine dose equivalent rates at work locations inside containment. Energy correction factors for TLD-albedo dosimeters can be determined from the measured spectra if the dosimeter energy response is known, or from direct measurements with dosimeters placed on phantoms at locations where the dose equivalent rate has been measured. This report describes how to assemble a spectrometer system using only commercially available components, how to use it for reactor energy spectrum measurements, and how to analyze the data and interpret the results. Both /sup 3/He and multisphere spectrometers were used to measure neutron energy spectra and dose equivalent at three PWRs and one BWR. In general, the /sup 3/He spectrometer measures higher dose equivalent rates than the multisphere spectrometer. In the energy range from 10 keV to 1 MeV, the dose equivalents measured by the /sup 3/He spectrometer and multisphere spectrometer agree within about 35% for the spectra measured.

  19. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 1 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This EIS reflects the public review of and comments offered on the draft statement. Included are descriptions of the characteristics of nuclear waste, the alternative disposal methods under consideration, and potential environmental impacts and costs of implementing these methods. Because of the programmatic nature of this document and the preliminary nature of certain design elements assumed in assessing the environmental consequences of the various alternatives, this study has been based on generic, rather than specific, systems. At such time as specific facilities are identified for particular sites, statements addressing site-specific aspects will be prepared for public review and comment.

  20. Feasibility of commercial space manufacturing, production of pharmaceuticals. Volume 2: Technical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A technical analysis on the feasibility of commercial manufacturing of pharmaceuticals in space is presented. The method of obtaining pharmaceutical company involvement, laboratory results of the separation of serum proteins by the continuous flow electrophoresis process, the selection and study of candidate products, and their production requirements is described. The candidate products are antihemophilic factor, beta cells, erythropoietin, epidermal growth factor, alpha-1-antitrypsin and interferon. Production mass balances for antihemophelic factor, beta cells, and erythropoietin were compared for space versus ground operation. A conceptual description of a multiproduct processing system for space operation is discussed. Production requirements for epidermal growth factor of alpha-1-antitrypsin and interferon are presented.

  1. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive evaluation of the fundamental Intersatellite Link (ISL) systems characteristics, potential applications of ISLs to domestic, regional, and global commercial satellite communications were identified, and their cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits quantified wherever possible. Implementation scenarios for the cost-effective communications satellite systems employing ISLs were developed for the first launch in 1993 to 1994 and widespread use of ISLs in the early 2000's. Critical technology requirements for both the microwave (60 GHz) and optical (0.85 micron) ISL implementations were identified, and their technology development programs, including schedule and cost estimates, were derived.

  2. Effect of commercially available plant-derived essential oil products on arthropod pests.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Galle, Cindy L; Keith, Stephen R; Kalscheur, Nanette A; Kemp, Kenneth E

    2009-08-01

    % mortality. In addition, the products Pest Out (cottonseed, clove, and garlic oil), Bang (Pipereaceae), and Fruit & Vegetable Insect Spray (rosemary, cinnamon, clove oil, and garlic extract) had the highest flower (transvaal daisy, Gerberajamesonii [H. Bolus ex Hook.f]) phytotoxicity ratings (> or = 4.5 of 5) among all the products. None of the plant-derived essential oil products provided sufficient control of sweetpotato whitefly B-biotype or green peach aphid 7, 14, and 21 d after application. Furthermore, the products Bug Assassin (eugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate, peppermint, and citronella oil) and Sharpshooter (sodium lauryl sulfate and clove oil) were phytotoxic to the poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch, plants. This study is one of the first to quantitatively demonstrate that commercially available plant-derived essential oil products vary in their effectiveness against certain arthropod pests stated on the label and are phytotoxic. PMID:19736770

  3. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 3. Public comments hearing board report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This volume contains written public comments and hearing board responses and reports offered on the draft statement.

  4. Precursor systems analyses of automated highway systems: Commercial vehicle and transit ahs analysis. Volume 6. Final report, September 1993-February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bottiger, F.; Chemnitz, H.D.; Doorman, J.; Franke, U.; Zimmerman, T.

    1995-03-01

    This document is the final report of the Automated Highway System (AHS). The activities of Commercial Vehicle and Transit AHS Analysis are reported on in this document. This document type is resource materials. This volume is the six in a series. There are nine other volumes in the series.

  5. Energy use and conservation in the commercial sector: Volume 1, Conditional demand analysis applied to the Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (NBECS): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parti, M.; Sebald, A.V.; Farber, M.

    1988-02-01

    This report describes an investigation into the application of an enhanced conditional demand analysis (CDA) technique to the estimation and forecasting of commercial sector energy demand. The report consists of two volumes. This volume, the first, presents the theoretical background of the procedure and applies it to a national data set. 4 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. Effect of early planting on weed suppression activity of indica and commercial U.S. rice cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indica and commercial cultivars can suppress barnyardgrass when drill-seeded into ‘warm’ soils and grown under flood-irrigation in Arkansas. Because early planting is popular with growers and considered to improve productivity and flexibility, weed suppression tests were planted in the field on Apr...

  7. Operating experience feedback report -- turbine-generator overspeed protection systems: Commercial power reactors. Volume 11

    SciTech Connect

    Ornstein, H.L.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents the results of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) review of operating experience of main turbine-generator overspeed and overspeed protection systems. It includes an indepth examination of the turbine overspeed event which occurred on November 9, 1991, at the Salem Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. It also provides information concerning actions taken by other utilities and the turbine manufacturers as a result of the Salem overspeed event. AEOD`s study reviewed operating procedures and plant practices. It noted differences between turbine manufacturer designs and recommendations for operations, maintenance, and testing, and also identified significant variations in the manner that individual plants maintain and test their turbine overspeed protection systems. AEOD`s study provides insight into the shortcomings in the design, operation, maintenance, testing, and human factors associated with turbine overspeed protection systems. Operating experience indicates that the frequency of turbine overspeed events is higher than previously thought and that the bases for demonstrating compliance with NRC`s General Design Criterion (GDC) 4, Environmental and dynamic effects design bases, may be nonconservative with respect to the assumed frequency.

  8. Neutron dosimetry at commercial nuclear plants. Annual report of Subtask D: TEPC feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, F.M.; Endres, G.W.R.; McDonald, J.C.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1984-06-01

    This study was designed to observe the feasibility of the use by NRC licensees of the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) system as a neutron monitoring instrument. Laboratory tissue equivalent proportional counters were irradiated using /sup 252/Cf sources at NBS and PNL and were irradiated inside containment of four operating nuclear power plants (two boiling water reactors and two pressurized water reactors). On the average, neutron dose-equivalent rates determined using the TEPC were 1.05 times the calculated dose-equivalent rates for the bare and moderated /sup 252/Cf sources and 0.86 times the dose-equivalent rates determined using the multispheres inside containment of nuclear power plants. Further, neutron dose equivalent rates determined using portable remmeters were an average of 1.71 times the dose equivalent determined using the multispheres inside the containment of nuclear power plants. It was observed that while electronic noise from temperature and vibrational effects inside containment prohibited an adequate measure of absorbed dose from gammas, the measurement of neutron absorbed dose was unaffected by these environmental parameters. It is recommended that for use inside containment at nuclear power plants: (1) the laboratory scale TEPC is the superior technique for accurate determination of neutron dose equivalent, (2) for remmeters similar to the one evaluated in this study, neutron dose equivalent response should be corrected to account for dependence of response on neutron energy or the remmeters should be calibrated using a moderated neutron source, and (3) at present, the TEPC should not be used to measure absorbed dose from gammas. Upon the advent of a proven miniaturized TEPC, this instrument may prove to be a desirable replacement for current portable neutron monitoring devices for the determination of dose equivalent inside containment of commercial nuclear power plants.

  9. Study on utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structures. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Ostrom, R. B.; Cardinale, S. V.

    1978-01-01

    The effort required by commercial transport manufacturers to accomplish the transition from current construction materials and practices to extensive use of composites in aircraft wings was investigated. The engineering and manufacturing disciplines which normally participate in the design, development, and production of an aircraft were employed to ensure that all of the factors that would enter a decision to commit to production of a composite wing structure were addressed. A conceptual design of an advanced technology reduced energy aircraft provided the framework for identifying and investigating unique design aspects. A plan development effort defined the essential technology needs and formulated approaches for effecting the required wing development. The wing development program plans, resource needs, and recommendations are summarized.

  10. UWB EMI To Aircraft Radios: Field Evaluation on Operational Commercial Transport Airplanes. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oria, A. J. (Editor); Ely, Jay J.; Martin, Warren L.; Shaver, Timothy W.; Fuller, Gerald L.; Zimmerman, John; Fuschino, Robert L.; Larsen, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrawideband (UWB) transmitters may soon be integrated into a wide variety of portable electronic devices (PEDs) that passengers routinely carry on board commercial airplanes. Airlines and the FAA will have difficulty controlling passenger use of UWB transmitters during flights with current airline policies and existing wireless product standards. The aeronautical community is concerned as to whether evolving FCC UWB rules are adequate to protect legacy and emerging aeronautical radio systems from electromagnetic interference (EMI) from emerging UWB products. To address these concerns, the NASA Office of Space Communications and Chief Spectrum Managers assembled a multidisciplinary team from NASA LaRC, NASA JPL, NASA ARC, FAA, United Airlines, Sky West Airlines, and Eagles Wings Inc. to carry out a comprehensive series of tests aimed at determining the nature and extent of any EMI to aeronautical communication and navigation systems from UWB devices meeting FCCapproved and proposed levels for unlicensed handheld transmitters.

  11. Results from study of potential early commercial MHD power plants and from recent ETF design work. [Engineering Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.; Westra, L.; Zar, J.; Morgan, W.; Bozzuto, C.

    1980-01-01

    The study deals with different 'moderate technology' entry-level commercial MHD power plants. Two of the reference plants are based on combustion of coal with air preheated in a high-temperature regenerative air heater separately fired with a low-BTU gas produced in a gasifier integrated with the power plant. The third reference plant design is based on the use of oxygen enriched combustion air. Performance calculations show that an overall power plant efficiency of the order of 44% can be reached with the use of oxygen enrichment.

  12. Effect of site on growth of hybrid poplar clones planted on a commercial scale

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Two-, four-, and five-year height growth of Populus hybrids were measured over a full range of USDA Soil Conservation Service natural and altered soil drainage and texture classes on fields planted by Packaging Corporation of America using intensive culture. Five clonal trials with 40 clones each were examined for 4-year height growth and were analyzed for effects of site, clone and site by clone interaction. Substantial soil variability became an important factor on the previously-planted sites and had to be considered in the statistical analysis. Ten clones with the best 4-year height growth were identified. Four- and five-year height growth of several of the most promising clones from the clonal trials were then examined over a range of soil/site conditions in commercial-size plantations using a tillage plus herbicide management system. Two-year growth was evaluated using a no-till system. Height growth under both management systems significantly decreased on sites other than those with the most optimum conditions for agricultural crops. Using the results from the clonal trials and the two tillage system studies, soil/site factors which affected establishment and early growth of hybrid popular plantings were summarized and outlined in detail, and a practical field guide was formulated for evaluating the potential of agricultural fields for the intensive culture of hybrid poplars.

  13. Assessment of cattle welfare at a commercial slaughter plant in the northwest of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Leyva, Iván G; Barreras-Serrano, Alberto; Pérez-Linares, Cristina; Sánchez-López, Eduardo; María, Gustavo A; Figueroa-Saavedra, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    Slaughter plants have been undergoing radical transformations in recent years due to the need to increase efficiency and incorporate new technologies for the improvement of the infrastructure, animal welfare, and product quality. The aim of this study was to assess the cattle welfare status during the unloading, lairage, stunning, bleeding and quantify bruising incidence at a commercial slaughter plant in the northwest of Mexico. We monitored 8,118 cattle during the unloading, lairage, stunning, bleeding, and carcass bruise incidence. Our results showed that in the unloading stage, 2% of the cattle vocalized, 5% were prodded with an electric goad, and 4% either slipped or fell. In the lairage stage, 12% of the animals vocalized, 80% prodded with an electric goad, and 8% of the animals slipped or fell. In the stunning stage, 10% of the animals vocalized, 67% prodded with an electric goad, and 15% of the animals slipped or fell. Ninety-five percent of the animals were stunned with a single shot, and 51% of the animals were effectively desensitized. Ninety-two percent of the carcasses had some type of bruise. Although the slaughter plant had adequate infrastructure and stringent operational standards, in all of the stages except unloading handling had an impact on the welfare of the animals being slaughtered. PMID:21789548

  14. Small hydro plant development program. Volume 1: Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    The technical and economical feasibility of using pump (turbine) induction motor (generator) packages in lieu of standardized turbogenerator units in small hydro development projects was investigated. Turbine mode performance of pumps was simulated by a computer model and selected packages covering a major part of the head flow power range were compared to equivalent standardized turbogenerator units. Topics covered include: small hydro plant sizes and existing equipment; pump types and sizes; selection of generating equipment; performance evaluations of pump turbines and generators; and an economic evaluation of pump turbine induction motor (generator) equipment.

  15. Automated library systems and document tracking systems: Commercial software alternatives: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.T.; Tarrant, P.M.

    1989-02-01

    Automated Library Systems (ALS) have become complex and powerful applications, and they are increasingly selected as appropriate solutions to the challenge of tracking reports and other documents within organizations. The present ALS prototype at the Pacific Missile Testing Center (PMTC) at Point Mugu, California, was developed in-house and has been in existence for some time. However, with an expected change in the present computing environment on which the ALS presently resides (UNIVAC 1100), a discussion of the features of potential commercial software alternatives was requested. The purpose of this study was to provide an information base of presently available software systems that are similar in operation or capabilities to the present ALS at PMTC. A future step will entail review of this data and begin a selection process. Various Automated Library Systems and Automated Records Management Systems were profiled to allow comparison of their features to the present system. A bibliography of selected readings was provided to assist the PMTC in its initial effort to assess future needs. 26 refs.

  16. Power plant performance monitoring and improvement. Volume 1. Boiler optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Crim, H.G.

    1986-02-01

    The boiler portion of RP1681/2153 deals with the development of procedures for determining the optimum fireside operating conditions in a coal fired power plant and the development of instrumentation and monitoring systems for achieving the resulting improvements in heat rate. This annual report describes the rsults of the project for the period beginning in October, 1982. A computer code was developed which takes information on the plant and calculates heat rate as a function of parameters such as excess air and steam flow rate. Computational results obtained to date for Potomac Electric Power Company's Morgantown Unit No. 2 show that the net unit heat rate is a very sensitive function of grind size of the coal, level of excess air and exit gas temperature. The theoretical calculations suggest that by optimizing these three parameters, improvements in net unit heat rate of the order of 100 Btu/Kwh may be possible at Morgantown. An intrumentation assessment was carried out. Preparations are underway for boiler tests.

  17. Standard technical specifications, Westinghouse Plants: Specifications. Volume 1, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This NUREG contains the improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Westinghouse plants. Revision 1 incorporates the cumulative changes to Revision 0, which was published in September 1992. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, specifically the Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG), NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993 (58 FR 39132). Licensees are encouraged to upgrade their technical specifications consistent with those criteria and conforming, to the extent practical and consistent with the licensing basis for the facility, to Revision 1 to the improved STS. The Commission continues to place the highest priority on requests for complete conversions to the improved STS. Licensees adopting portions of the improved STS to existing technical specifications should adopt all related requirements, as applicable, to achieve a high degree of standardization and consistency.

  18. Coupled generator and combustor performance calculations for potential early commercial MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellinger, T. C.; Hnat, J. G.; Marston, C. H.

    1979-01-01

    A parametric study of the performance of the MHD generator and combustor components of potential early commercial open-cycle MHD/steam power plants is presented. Consideration is given to the effects of air heater system concept, MHD combustor type, coal type, thermal input power, oxygen enrichment of the combustion, subsonic and supersonic generator flow and magnetic field strength on coupled generator and combustor performance. The best performance is found to be attained with a 3000 F, indirectly fired air heater, no oxygen enrichment, Illinois no. 6 coal, a two-stage cyclone combustor with 85% slag rejection, a subsonic generator, and a magnetic field configuration yielding a constant transverse electric field of 4 kV/m. Results indicate that optimum net MHD generator power is generally compressor-power-limited rather than electric-stress-limited, with optimum net power a relatively weak function of operating pressure.

  19. Antibacterial activity of commercially available plant-derived essential oils against oral pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bardají, D K R; Reis, E B; Medeiros, T C T; Lucarini, R; Crotti, A E M; Martins, C H G

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated the antibacterial activity of 15 commercially available plant-derived essential oils (EOs) against a panel of oral pathogens. The broth microdilution method afforded the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the assayed EOs. The EO obtained from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Lauraceae) (CZ-EO) displayed moderate activity against Fusobacterium nucleatum (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL), Actinomyces naeslundii (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL), Prevotella nigrescens (MIC and MBC = 125 μg/mL) and Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 200 μg/mL; MBC = 400 μg/mL). (Z)-isosafrole (85.3%) was the main chemical component of this oil. We did not detect cinnamaldehyde, previously described as the major constituent of CZ-EO, in specimens collected in other countries. PMID:26165725

  20. Characterization of syngas produced from MSW gasification at commercial-scale ENERGOS Plants.

    PubMed

    del Alamo, G; Hart, A; Grimshaw, A; Lundstrøm, P

    2012-10-01

    Characterization of the syngas produced in the gasification process has been performed at commercial-scale Energy-from-Waste plants under various conditions of lambda value and syngas temperature. The lambda value from the gasification process is here defined as the ratio of the gasification air to the total stoichiometric air for complete combustion of the fuel input. Evaluation of the syngas calorific value has been performed by three different methods, i.e., estimation of the syngas calorific value from continuous in-line process measurements by mass and energy conservation equations, measurement of the syngas composition based on gas chromatography and calculation of the Gross Calorific Value from the measured composition, and direct continuous measurement of the calorific value using based on gas calorimeter. PMID:22704001

  1. Safeguards Guidance for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities – International Safeguards Requirements for Uranium Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Philip Casey Durst; Scott DeMuth; Brent McGinnis; Michael Whitaker; James Morgan

    2010-04-01

    For the past two years, the United States National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243), has sponsored the Safeguards-by-Design Project, through which it is hoped new nuclear facilities will be designed and constructed worldwide more amenable to nuclear safeguards. In the course of this project it was recognized that commercial designer/builders of nuclear facilities are not always aware of, or understand, the relevant domestic and international safeguards requirements, especially the latter as implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). To help commercial designer/builders better understand these requirements, a report was prepared by the Safeguards-by-Design Project Team that articulated and interpreted the international nuclear safeguards requirements for the initial case of uranium enrichment plants. The following paper summarizes the subject report, the specific requirements, where they originate, and the implications for design and construction. It also briefly summarizes the established best design and operating practices that designer/builder/operators have implemented for currently meeting these requirements. In preparing the subject report, it is recognized that the best practices are continually evolving as the designer/builder/operators and IAEA consider even more effective and efficient means for meeting the safeguards requirements and objectives.

  2. Inhibition of Fungal Plant Pathogens by Synergistic Action of Chito-Oligosaccharides and Commercially Available Fungicides

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Hafizur; Shovan, Latifur Rahman; Hjeljord, Linda Gordon; Aam, Berit Bjugan; Eijsink, Vincent G. H.; Sørlie, Morten; Tronsmo, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan is a linear heteropolymer consisting of β 1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and D-glucosamine (GlcN). We have compared the antifungal activity of chitosan with DPn (average degree of polymerization) 206 and FA (fraction of acetylation) 0.15 and of enzymatically produced chito-oligosaccharides (CHOS) of different DPn alone and in combination with commercially available synthetic fungicides, against Botrytis cinerea, the causative agent of gray mold in numerous fruit and vegetable crops. CHOS with DPn in the range of 15–40 had the greatest anti-fungal activity. The combination of CHOS and low dosages of synthetic fungicides showed synergistic effects on antifungal activity in both in vitro and in vivo assays. Our study shows that CHOS enhance the activity of commercially available fungicides. Thus, addition of CHOS, available as a nontoxic byproduct of the shellfish industry, may reduce the amounts of fungicides that are needed to control plant diseases. PMID:24770723

  3. MOLCARE development towards MCFC commercial power plants based on 500 kW standard modules

    SciTech Connect

    Torazza, A.; Dufour, A.; Perfumo, A.; Ricerche, A.; Gegundez, J.; Sanson, F.; Moreno, A.

    1998-07-01

    Fuel cells technologies for stationary applications are expected to play a remarkable role in the field of next decade energy production systems ranging from some hundreds kW to some MW. The interest in using fuel cells to produce electric energy comes from the advantages that fuel cells offer in terms of high efficiency, good behavior at base and partial load, very low emissions, modularity (easy adjustment of plant capacity to power-demand increase), and reduced time to be spent for plant erection. At least four types of fuel cells can be considered suitable for stationary applications. With reference to their electrolyte they can be classified as: Polymeric Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC) and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). Each of them works at a temperature level that is depending on the type of electrolyte. From a general point of view all the fuel cell technologies present, at various extents, the above listed advantages. Nevertheless specific features of each fuel cell type suggest to identify a specific field of application for each type of solution, in order to stress the potential advantages of any technology and minimize its possible drawbacks. Anyway the different level of maturity for the various fuel cell technologies does not allow an homogeneous comparison of technical and economical key parameters. PAFCs, due to their present commercial availability and operation experience, are well outlined in terms of performance and costs; on the contrary with regard to the other technologies--PEMFC, MCFC and SOFC--which are still under development, their commercialization is expected within a period of 7 to 13 years according to single technology maturity level (MCFC level seems to be more ready), kind of application, competitors, environmental constraints, etc.

  4. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1991. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.F.

    1992-10-01

    This two-part report is published annually. It reflects the results of an environmental monitoring program designed to quantify potential increases in the concentration of contaminants and potential doses to the resident human population from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). PGDP`s overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP`s neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, to reduce the generation of waste, and to minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials. Environmental-monitoring systems at PGDP include emission-monitoring networks for airborne and aqueous discharges, groundwater monitoring, solid waste characterization, and ambient-sampling networks for air, surface water, groundwater, vegetation, food crops, fish, wildlife, soil, and surface stream sediments.

  5. The spill prevention, control, and countermeasures (SPCC) plan for the Y-12 Plant. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This spill prevention, control and countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is divided into two volumes. Volume I addresses Y-12`s compliance with regulations pertinent to the content of SPCC Plans. Volume II is the SPCC Hazardous Material Storage Data Base, a detailed tabulation of facility-specific information and data on potential spill sources at the Y-12 Plant. Volume I follows the basic format and subject sequence specified in 40 CFR 112.7. This sequence is prefaced by three additional chapters, including this introduction and brief discussions of the Y-12 Plant`s background/environmental setting and potential spill source categories. Two additional chapters on containers and container storage areas and PCB and PCB storage for disposal facilities are inserted into the required sequence. The following required subjects are covered in this volume: Spill history, site drainage; secondary containment/diversion structures and equipment; contingency plans; notification and spill response procedures; facility drainage; bulk storage tanks; facility transfer operations, pumping, and in-plant processes; transfer stations (facility tank cars/tank tracks); inspections and records; security, and personnel, training, and spill prevention procedures.

  6. Summary and evaluation of the conceptual design study of a potential early commercial MHD power plant (CSPEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staiger, P. J.; Penko, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    The conceptual design study of a potential early commercial MHD power plant (CSPEC) is described and the results are summarized. Each of two contractors did a conceptual design of an approximtely 1000 MWe open-cycle MHD/steam plant with oxygen enriched combustion air preheated to an intermediate temperatue in a metallic heat exchanger. The contractors were close in their overall plant efficiency estimates but differed in their capital cost and cost of electricity estimates, primarily because of differences in balance-of-plant material, contingency, and operating and maintenance cost estimates. One contractor concluded that its MHD plant design compared favorably in cost of electricity with conventional coal-fired steam plants. The other contractor is making such a comparison as part of a follow-on study. Each contractor did a preliminary investigation of part-load performance and plant availability. The results of NASA studies investigating the effect of plant size and oxidizer preheat temperature on the performance of CSPEC-type MHD plants are also described. The efficiency of a 1000 MWe plant is about three points higher than of a 200 MWe plant. Preheating to 1600 F gives an efficiency about one and one-half points higher than preheating to 800 F for all plant sizes. For each plant size and preheat temperature there is an oxidizer enrichment level and MHD generator length that gives the highest plant efficiency.

  7. Granular-bed and ceramic candle filters in commercial plants: A comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.B.; Haas, J.C.; Eshelman, M.B.

    1993-04-01

    Advanced coal fired power cycles require the removal of coal ash at high temperature and pressure. Granular-bed and ceramic candle filters can be used for this service. Conceptual designs for commercial size applications are made for each type of filter. The filters are incorporated in the design of a Foster Wheeler 450 MWe second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plant which contains a pressurized fluidized combustor and carbonizer. In a second application, the inters are incorporated in the design of a 100 MWe KRW (air) gasifier based power plant. The candle filter design is state of the art as determined from the open literature with an effort to minimize the cost. The granular-bed filter design is based on test work performed at high temperature and low pressure, tests at New York University performed at high pressure and temperate, and new analysis used to simplify the scale up of the filter and reduce overall cost. The incorporation of chemically reactive granites in the granular-bed filter for the removal of additional coal derived contaminants such as alkali or sulfur is considered. The conceptual designs of the granular-bed inter and the ceramic candle filter are compared in terms of the cost of electricity, capital cost, and operating and maintenance costs for each application.

  8. IDENTIFICATION CHALLENGES IN EXAMINATION OF COMMERCIAL PLANT MATERIAL OF PSYCHOTRIA VIRIDIS.

    PubMed

    Kowalczuk, Anna P; Łozak, Anna; Bachliński, Robert; Duszyński, Anna; Sakowska, Joanna; Zjawiony, Jordan K

    2015-01-01

    Psychoria viridis (chacruna) is a hallucinogenic plant with psychoactive properties associated with the presence of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). This species is primarily known as an ingredient of the beverage Ayahuasca, but dry leaves are also smoked by recreational users. The plant is controlled in Poland and France and its proper identification poses many challenges due to the fact that genus Psychotria is relatively large and there are other species that are easily confused with chacruna. The aim of the present work was to develop an effective authentication procedure for the dried and shredded leaves of P. viridis, to be used in comparison of chemical and botanical characteristics of its commercial products. Dried leaves of P. viridis originating from Brazil, Peru and Hawaii were purchased from Internet providers. For DMT identification, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been elaborated, validated and applied. In order to clarify the existing differences among samples, chemometric methods have been used. Botanical features and the gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS) chromatograms have been analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Our studies revealed significant variety among plant material marketed as P. viridis. Grouping of samples based on their micromorphology features and GC-MS results did not correspond well with the presence of DMT. Based on our results an indisputable identification of dried specimens as P. viridis is very problematic. It is necessary to postulate changes in legislation regarding regulation of P. viridis and replace it with DMT as controlled substance. PMID:26647632

  9. Traceback identification of plant components in commercial compound feed through an oligonucleotide microarray based on tubulin intron polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Ponzoni, Elena; Morello, Laura; Gianì, Silvia; Breviario, Diego

    2014-11-01

    According to EU Regulations, all components of commercial compound feed need to be declared on the label. Effective protection against fraud requires severe controls based on accurate analytical methods to ascertain what is declared by the producers. The aim of this work was to develop an oligonucleotide microarray for the molecular recognition of multiple plant components in commercial feeds. We tested the potential of the highly polymorphic first intron sequences from members of the plant β-tubulin gene family as a target for plant DNA identification. 23 oligonucleotide capture probes, targeting species-specific intron sequences, were assembled within a low density microarray for the identification of 10 plant species, selected from among those most commonly used in cattle feed formulation. The ability of the array to detect specific components in complex flour blends and in compound feed was evaluated. PMID:24874359

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 2, Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-03-25

    This report is a compilation of geotechnical data presented as plots for each active instrument installed in the underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) through June 30, 2006. A summary of the geotechnical analyses that were performed using the enclosed data is provided in Volume 1 of the Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR).

  11. Educational Plant Survey, Dade County Schools, April/May 1992. Volume I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    Findings of a survey of educational plants in Dade County, Florida, are presented in this document. The survey's purpose is to aid in formulating plans for housing the educational activities of district students and staff. Volume 1 contains facilities lists for elementary, middle, and high schools; vocational technical centers; exceptional…

  12. Standard technical specifications General Electric plants, BWR/6. Volume 1, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/6 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.10 of the improved STS.

  13. Standard technical specifications: General Electric plants, BWR/4. Volume 1, Revision 1: Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/4 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.10 of the improved STS.

  14. Standard technical specifications: Combustion engineering plants. Volume 1, Revision 1: Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for Combustion Engineering Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS.

  15. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume II. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater collection system workers to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. This volume emphasizes material needed by intermediate-level operators and stresses the operation and maintenance of conventional treatment plants. This volume…

  16. Fire protection of safe shutdown capability at commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, K.

    1993-07-01

    The comprehensive industrial safety standards and codes that exist today have evolved from lessons learned through past experience, research results, and improvements in technological capabilities. The current requirements for fire safety features of commercial nuclear power stations operated in the US are a notable example of this practice. Although fire protection has always been an important design requirement, from the aftermath of a serious fire that occurred in 1975 at the Browns Ferry plant, it was learned that the life safety and property protection concerns of the major fire insurance underwriters may not sufficiently encompass nuclear safety issues, particularly with regard to the potential for fire damage to result in the common mode failure of redundant trains of systems, and components important to the safe shutdown of the reactor. Following its investigations into the Browns Ferry fire, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) promulgated guidance documents, which ultimately developed into mandatory regulations, necessary to assure the implementation of a fire protection program that would address nuclear safety concerns. The new criteria that evolved, contain prescriptive design features, as well as personnel and administrative requirements the Commission determined to be necessary to provide a defense-in-depth level of protection against the hazards of fire and its associated effects on safety related equipment. These criteria are primarily contained in Appendix R of Title 10 to the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50). Since 1983, various members of the Department of Nuclear Energy (DNE) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have provided technical assistance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of its evaluations of fire protection features implemented at commercial nuclear power stations operated in the US. This paper presents a discussion of the insights gained by the author during his active participation in this area.

  17. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 2, Technical basis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume, Volume 2, contains the technical basis for the 1992 PA. Specifically, it describes the conceptual basis for consequence modeling and the PA methodology, including the selection of scenarios for analysis, the determination of scenario probabilities, and the estimation of scenario consequences using a Monte Carlo technique and a linked system of computational models. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume I contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the EPA`s Environmental Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses related to the preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191B. Volume 5 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance. Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6.

  18. COMMERCIAL APPLICATION OF PLASMA MASS SEPARATION IN THE ARCHIMEDES FILTER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlfeld, C.E.; Gilleland, J.G.; Wagoner, J.D.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the commercial application of an innovative plasma mass separator called the Archimedes Filter to a pre-treatment plant that can be integrated into the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford and Savannah River Sites to significantly enhance the treatment of radioactive high-level waste. The output of the Archimedes Filter is completely compatible with existing waste immobilization processes such as vitrification and requires no new waste form to be developed. A full-geometric-scale Demonstration Filter Unit (DEMO) has been constructed and is undergoing initial testing at the Archimedes Technology Group Development Facilities in San Diego. Some of the technology and engineering development is being performed by other organizations in collaboration with Archimedes. The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing the plasma calcination technology and all of the associated systems for AFP feed preparation. Two Russian institutes are involved in the development of the ICP torch and injector system. The Remote System Group (UT-Battelle) at ORNL is developing the remote maintenance system for the filter units. Conceptual design of the Archimedes Filter Plant (AFP) is being developed concurrently with the DEMO testing program. The AFP mission is to significantly reduce the cost and accelerate the rate of vitrification of high-level waste by separating low activity waste from the sludge removed from underground storage tanks. Mass separation is accomplished by vaporizing the sludge feed and injecting it into a partially ionized, neutral plasma. In a single pass, heavy ions are deposited near the center of the filter and light mass ions are transported by the plasma to the ends of the cylindrically-shaped vacuum vessel. Responding to the DOE programs for cost reduction and cleanup acceleration, the AFP Project is planned on an expeditious schedule that executes all phases of the project with private sector funding. The initial AFP

  19. Assessment of H-Coal process developments: impact on the performance and economics of a proposed commercial plant

    SciTech Connect

    Talib, A.; Gray, D.; Neuworth, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report assesses the performance of the H-Coal process, a catalytic direct liquefaction process, at a process development and large pilot-plant scale of operation. The assessment focused on the evaluation of operating results from selected long-term successful process development unit (PDU) and pilot plant runs made on Illinois No. 6 coal. The pilot plant has largely duplicated the product yield structure obtained during the PDU runs. Also, the quality of products, particularly liquid products, produced during the pilot plant run is quite comparable to that produced during the PDU runs. This confirms the scalability of the H-Coal ebullated-bed reactor system from a PDU-scale, 3 tons of coal per day, to a large pilot scale, 220 tons of coal per day, plant. The minor product yield differences, such as higher yields of C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/, and naphtha fractions, and lower yields of distillate oils obtained during pilot plant runs as compared to the PDU runs, will not impact the projected technical and economic performance of a first-of-a-kind commercial H-Coal plant. Thus, the process yield and operating data collected during the PDU operations provided an adequate basis for projecting the technical and economic performance of the proposed H-Coal commercial plant. 18 references, 9 figures, 56 tables.

  20. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  1. Baseline designs of moored and grazing 40-MW OTEC pilot plants. Volume A. Detailed report

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.F.; Richards, D.

    1980-06-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of the Johns Hopkins University has engineered baseline designs of two types of floating Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) pilot plants. Both designs feature floating concrete hull structures that house up to 40 MW/sub e/(net) of OTEC power systems. One plant is designed for moored operation at an island site, and uses underwater cables to transmit electric power to a shore-based utility company. The other plant is self-propelled and cruises slowly through tropical waters, using the OTEC electric power to produce an energy-intensive product onboard, where it is stored for later transshipment to market. The work is documented in two volumes. This volume is the Detailed Report, which develops the design rationale, summarizes important calculations, outlines areas for future work, and presents a study of system costs.

  2. Characterization of Salmonella enterica isolates from turkeys in commercial processing plants for resistance to antibiotics, disinfectants, and a growth promoter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from turkeys in commercial processing plants were characterized for susceptibility to antibiotics, disinfectants, disinfectant components, and the organoarsenical growth promotant 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid (3-NHPAA) and its metabolites NaAsO2 (As[III])...

  3. Engineering the use of green plants to reduce produced water disposal volume.

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchman, R.; Mollock, G. N.; Negri, M. C.; Settle, T.

    1998-01-29

    In 1990, the Laboratory began an investigation into biological approaches for the reduction of water produced from oil and gas wells. In the spring of 1995, the Company began an on-site experiment at an oil/gas lease in Oklahoma using one of these approaches. The process, known as phytoremediation, utilizes the ability of certain salt tolerant plants to draw the produced water through their roots, transpire the water from their leaves, and thereby reduce overall water disposal volumes and costs. At the Company experimental site, produced water flows through a trough where green plants (primarily cordgrass) have been planted in pea gravel. The produced water is drawn into the plant through its roots, evapotranspirates and deposits a salt residue on the plant leaves. The plant leaves are then harvested and used by a local rancher as cattle feed. The produced water is tested to assure it contains nothing harmful to cattle. In 1996, the Company set up another trough to compare evaporation rates using plants versus using an open container without plants. Data taken during all four seasons (water flow rate, temperature, pH, and conductivity) have shown that using plants to evapotranspirate produced water is safe, more cost effective than traditional methods and is environmentally sound.

  4. In Situ Solidification and Encapsulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plant, DOE and DOD Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.; Werner, P.; Jensen, C.

    2006-07-01

    This paper looks at applications of Advanced Polymer Solidification (APS TM) for stabilization of ion exchange media, as well as application of the related Vinyl Ester Resin In Situ (VERI{sup TM}) process for encapsulation of filters, irradiated hardware and other large-scale objects. The documented uses include projects at US commercial nuclear sites and DOE/DOD facilities, and extensive work in the UK for impregnation of filters for waste form stabilization. We detail ongoing enhancements to the process, including modification of liner internals for better containment of fines during solidification, and improved fill head configuration to reduce the tendency of sluiced resin beads to adhere to the underside of the fill head. We also report on experience with stabilization of (n,p) Energy, Inc.'s PRC-01 and Purolite's 501P resins. Updates are provided on the tensile creep analysis testing being conducted to permit application of the APS{sup TM} system for encapsulation, and on the continued full-scale application of the technology at Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP). Finally, we offer a brief analysis of the potential impact that loss of access to the Barnwell, SC facility will have on future treatment and on-site storage of Class B and C wastes. (authors)

  5. Effect of food plants on the volume of repellent secretion obtained in adult Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae).

    PubMed

    Idowu, A B; Idowu, O A

    2001-06-01

    The volume of secretion obtained from adult Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) was influenced by the type of food plants. Insects fed on leaves of cassava Manihot esculenta, bitter leaves Vernonia amygdalina, and a mixture of M. esculenta and Acalypha wilkesiana gave a good volume of secretion while Chromolaena odorata, Elaeis guinensis, Aspilia africana and Citrus sinensis did not favour secretion production. No significant difference was recorded in the volume of secretion obtained from Z. variegatus from the two seasons irrespective of the food plant. Similarly, food plants gave no significant difference on the volume of secretion between the two seasons. PMID:11935920

  6. Evaluation of operational safety at Babcock and Wilcox Plants: Volume 2, Thermal-hydraulic results

    SciTech Connect

    Wheatley, P.D.; Davis, C.B.; Callow, R.A.; Fletcher, C.D.; Dobbe, C.A.; Beelman, R.J.

    1987-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a research program to develop a methodology to assess the operational performance of Babcock and Wilcox plants and to apply this methodology on a trial basis. The methodology developed for analyzing Babcock and Wilcox plants integrated methods used in both thermal-hydraulics and human factors and compared results with information used in the assessment of risk. The integrated methodology involved an evaluation of a selected plant for each pressurized water reactor vendor during a limited number of transients. A plant was selected to represent each vendor, and three transients were identified for analysis. The plants were Oconee Unit 1 for Babcock and Wilcox, H.B. Robinson Unit 2 for Westinghouse, and Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 for Combustion Engineering. The three transients were a complete loss of all feedwater, a small-break loss-of-coolant accident, and a steam-generator overfill with auxiliary feedwater. Included in the integrated methodology was an assessment of the thermal-hydraulic behavior, including event timing, of the plants during the three transients. Thermal-hydraulic results are presented in this volume (Volume 2) of the report. 26 refs., 30 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Development of whole-building energy design targets for commercial buildings: Phase 1, Planning: Volume 2, Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Crawley, D.B.; Briggs, R.S.; Jones, J.W.; Seaton, W.W.; Kaufman, J.E.; Deringer, J.J.; Kennett, E.W.

    1987-08-01

    This is the second volume of the Phase 1 report and discusses the 10 tasks performed in Phase 1. The objective of this research is to develop a methodology for setting energy design targets to provide voluntary guidelines for the buildings industry. The whole-building energy targets project is being conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to encourage the construction of energy-efficient buildings by informing designers and owners about cost-effective goals for energy use in new commercial buildings. The outcome of this research will be a flexible methodology for setting such targets. The tasks are listed and discussed in this report as follows: Task 1 - Develop Detailed Project Goals and Objectives; Task 2 - Establish Buildings-Industry Liaison; Task 3 - Develop Approaches to the Energy Targets Model, Building Operations, and Climate; Task 4 - Develop an Approach for Treating Economic Considerations; Task 5 - Develop an Approach for Treating Energy Sources; Task 6 - Collect Energy-Use Data; Task 7 - Survey Energy Expert Opinion; Task 8 - Evaluation Procedure Specification and Integration; Task 9 - Phase 1 Report Development; and Task 10 - Phase 1 Review Planning.

  8. Technical/commercial feasibility study of the production of fuel-grade ethanol from corn: 100-million-gallon-per-year production facility in Myrtle Grove, Louisiana. Volume one. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-31

    This Executive Summary is Volume I of 7 volumes of a detailed feasibility study for a 100 million gallon/year Power Alcohol plant using corn as feedstock to be constructed in the vicinity of Belle Chaise, Louisiana, adjacent to an existing grain elevator complex. The proposed plant will ultimately have the capability to produce 100 million gallons/year of anhydrous alcohol from an estimated 40 million bushels of corn and will be designed so as to allow construction in modules of 25 million gallons each. Alcohol produced at this plant is intended essentially for use as a gasoline octane booster, a motor fuel in gasoline/alcohol blends and as a chemical feedstock. In addition, the plant will produce a number of by-products, each of which has existing commercial markets; namely, 236,400 tons of CO/sub 2/ 237,600 tons of Protein Meal Mixture (40.2% Protein) or 124,000 tons of Gluten Meal (41% Protein), 20,000 tons of yeast, 68,400 tons of Corn Bran, 89,600 tons of Corn Germ Cake and 4,584,000 gallons of Corn Oil (food grade).

  9. Application technology progress report: Evaluation of PM-10 commercial inlets and development of an inlet for new Rocky Flats Plant surveillance air sampler, January 1986-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, G.; Deitesfeld, C.A. (ed.0

    1987-09-10

    Work during 1986 was concerned with developing a new PM-10 inlet for use at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), Golden, Colorado. The commercial units that we evaluated did not allow for recovery of the >10-..mu..m dust fraction as may be required by EPA and DOE for nuclear installations. One of them, the Wedding PM-10 Inlet, did not meet the PM-10 cut-point requirement, because of the build-up of vegetative fibers in the cyclone type separator. Therefore, we developed a new PM-10 inlet (patent applied for) to meet our needs, and especially one that is adaptable to our existing 60 surveillance air samplers at minimum cost. The inlet utilizes a modified slotted impactor design. This device is directly adaptable to existing EPA high-volume samplers. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Threatened and endangered species evaluation for 75 licensed commercial nuclear power generating plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended, and related implementing regulations of the jurisdictional federal agencies, the U.S. Departments of Commerce and Interior, at 50 CFR Part 17. 1, et seq., require that federal agencies ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out under their jurisdiction is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any threatened or endangered species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitats for such species. The issuance and maintenance of a federal license, such as a construction permit or operating license issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a commercial nuclear power generating facility is a federal action under the jurisdiction of a federal agency, and is therefore subject to the provisions of the ESA. The U.S. Department of the Interior (through the Fish and Wildlife Service), and the U.S. Department of Commerce, share responsibility for administration of the ESA. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) deals with species that inhabit marine environments and anadromous fish, while the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is responsible for terrestrial and freshwater species and migratory birds. A species (or other distinct taxonomic unit such as subspecies, variety, and for vertebrates, distinct population units) may be classified for protection as `endangered` when it is in danger of extinction within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A `threatened` classification is provided to those animals and plants likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of their ranges. As of February 1997, there were about 1067 species listed under the ESA in the United States. Additionally there were approximately 125 species currently proposed for listing as threatened or endangered, and another 183 species considered to be candidates for formal listing proposals.

  11. Plant heat cycles, vessel internal arrangement, and auxiliary systems. Volume five

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume covers nuclear power plant heat cycles (type of nuclear power cycles, power cycle refinements, BWR/PWR power cycle, BWR/PWR reactor coolant system), reactor vessel internal arrangement (reactor vessel features, BWR/PWR reactor vessel and internals, BWR/PWR reactor core), reactor auxiliary systems (purpose of reactor auxiliary systems, PWR and BWR reactor auxiliary systems, PWR and BWR control rod drive mechanisms).

  12. Results from conceptual design study of potential early commercial MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hals, F.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.; Westra, L.; Zar, J.; Morgan, W.; Bozzuto, C.

    1981-06-01

    This paper presents conceptual design information for a potential early MHD power plant developed in the second phase of a joint study of such plants. Conceptual designs of plant components and equipment with performance, operational characteristics and costs are reported on. Plant economics and overall performance including full and part load operation are reviewed. Environmental aspects and the methods incorporated in plant design for emission control of sulfur and nitrogen oxides are reviewed. Results from reliability/availability analysis conducted are also included.

  13. Results from conceptual design study of potential early commercial MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.; Westra, L.; Zar, J.; Morgan, W.; Bozzuto, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents conceptual design information for a potential early MHD power plant developed in the second phase of a joint study of such plants. Conceptual designs of plant components and equipment with performance, operational characteristics and costs are reported on. Plant economics and overall performance including full and part load operation are reviewed. Environmental aspects and the methods incorporated in plant design for emission control of sulfur and nitrogen oxides are reviewed. Results from reliability/availability analysis conducted are also included.

  14. Commercialization of the 2.8MW DFC plant: This is it!

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, D.R.; Serfass, J.

    1996-12-31

    ERC`s carbonate-based Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) program continues to be a model for the transition from R&D to commercial viability. While the ultimate conclusion, that of commercial product introduction and sales, remains just ahead, the public/private sector cooperative programs in place are effectively advancing the program to its planned completion. The five-year market development program with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG), a utility-led buyers group, remains strong despite the uncertainty of impacts associated with the changing electric utility industry. Starting in 1996, these buyers may initiate advanced orders for the first commercial units as called for in our program`s commercialization plan and schedule.

  15. Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of the ``Survey of Strong Motion Earthquake Effects on Thermal Power Plants in California with Emphasis on Piping Systems`` contains Appendices which detail the detail design and seismic response of several power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes. The particular plants considered include the Ormond Beach, Long Beach and Seal Beach, Burbank, El Centro, Glendale, Humboldt Bay, Kem Valley, Pasadena and Valley power plants. Included is a typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical piping and support installations for the plants surveyed. Detailed piping support spacing data are also included.

  16. System Evaluation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of a Commercial-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-11-01

    Results of a system evaluation and lifecycle cost analysis are presented for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) central hydrogen production plant. The plant design relies on grid electricity to power the electrolysis process and system components, and industrial natural gas to provide process heat. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate the reference central plant design capable of producing 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen. The HYSYS software performs mass and energy balances across all components to allow optimization of the design using a detailed process flow sheet and realistic operating conditions specified by the analyst. The lifecycle cost analysis was performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes Microsoft Excel spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. The results of the lifecycle analyses indicate that for a 10% internal rate of return, a large central commercial-scale hydrogen production plant can produce 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen at an average cost of $2.68/kg. When the cost of carbon sequestration is taken into account, the average cost of hydrogen production increases by $0.40/kg to $3.08/kg.

  17. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3: Appendix BIR Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (WTWBIR) establishes a methodology for grouping wastes of similar physical and chemical properties, from across the US Department of Energy (DOE) transuranic (TRU) waste system, into a series of ``waste profiles`` that can be used as the basis for waste form discussions with regulatory agencies. The majority of this document reports TRU waste inventories of DOE defense sites. An appendix is included which provides estimates of commercial TRU waste from the West Valley Demonstration Project. The WIPP baseline inventory is estimated using waste streams identified by the DOE TRU waste generator/storage sites, supplemented by information from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) and the 1994 Integrated Data Base (IDB). The sites provided and/or authorized all information in the Waste Stream Profiles except the EPA (hazardous waste) codes for the mixed inventories. These codes were taken from the MWIR (if a WTWBIR mixed waste stream was not in MWIR, the sites were consulted). The IDB was used to generate the WIPP radionuclide inventory. Each waste stream is defined in a waste stream profile and has been assigned a waste matrix code (WMC) by the DOE TRU waste generator/storage site. Waste stream profiles with WMCs that have similar physical and chemical properties can be combined into a waste matrix code group (WMCG), which is then documented in a site-specific waste profile for each TRU waste generator/storage site that contains waste streams in that particular WMCG.

  18. Scale-up of Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial Launch

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, Mark A

    2014-08-27

    on the high levelized economic cost of the process relative to the manufacture of CF from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor fibers. The capital required to sulfonate the fibers adds a significant cost to the process due to the need for investment in a sulfuric acid recovery plant. This high additional capital over the capital for a PAN based CF plant, reduces the levelized economic cost to slightly advantaged over PAN based CF. The sulfonation-desulfonation stabilization route failed to meet the Dow’s return on investment criterion and the cost advantage target set forth for the DOE project. The DOE and Dow decided to halt spending on the project until a new PO fiber stabilization process could be identified that met the DOE physical properties standard and the levelized economic cost constraints of Dow. When the new technology was developed, then award DE-EE0005760 would be re-started with the same goals of the development of a market development plant capable of producing CF at 4 kg/h with the properties that met or exceed those set forth by the Department of Energy Vehicles Technology standard. Progress on the development of the new process has been slow and thus has delayed the scale up project. Dow’s efforts to date have not progressed to the point of demonstrating a commercially-viable process for production of low cost CF from PO precursors for Dow’s rigorous economic constraints. After extensive discussions within Dow and consultation with DOE’s Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams, Dow has decided to proceed with the formal recommendation to terminate subject project. DOE’s AMO Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams agreed with the termination of the project.

  19. Threatened and Endangered Species Evaluation for Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2004-01-15

    &E species take, consultations, and evaluations of potential effects of operation on T&E species. This search recovered a total of approximately 100 documents from 13 sites. Sites that were in the relicensing or decommissioning processes were excluded from the ADAMS search. In general the ADAMS search did not reveal any serious deficiencies or compliance problems. The most notable finds were reports of takes of green sea turtles at Diablo Canyon. While these events were reported to both the NRC and to NOAA Fisheries, no record of interaction between the two federal agencies was found. Species potentially present at each site were determined via querying the Geographical, Environmental, and Siting Information System (GEn&SIS) database developed for the NRC by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results of these queries were compared against the 1997 review, and in the cases of sites that were in the relicensing process, with the results of those site specific evaluations. A total of 452 T&E species were identified as potentially occurring near one or more of the operating commercial nuclear power generating plants. Information about each of these species was gathered to support an assessment of the probability of occurrence at each of the reactor sites. Based on the assessments of which species are potentially affected at each site, and the information gathered through the ADAMS search, each site was assigned a priority value for follow-up evaluations. The priority listing did not include any sites that had entered the relicensing process, those where the licensee has indicated that they intend to enter the relicensing process before the end of 2005, or those that have entered the decommissioning process. Of the 39 remaining sites, those that were identified as the highest priority for follow-on evaluations are: Diablo Canyon, San Onofre, Crystal River, Harris, and Vogtle, followed by South Texas, Palo Verde, Salem, and Cooper.

  20. Power plant performance monitoring and improvement. Volume 3. Power plant performance instrumentation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Crim, H.G.; Westcott, J.C.; de Mello, R.W.; Brandon, R.E.; Parkinson, D.W.; Czuba, J.S.

    1986-02-01

    PEPCO's Morgantown Unit 2 and the PJM system control center are serving as the test facilities for this project. This first phase of the project utilizes currently (or soon to be) available instrumentation for monitoring and analyzing plant and system performance on a continuous basis. The overall approach is to demonstrate in one facility all sensors, monitoring devices, and necessary computer hardware and software for on-line performance monitoring and dispatch purposes. Significant developments include turbine packing leakage measurement, condenser back-pressure measurement, power cycle testing, and studies of the application of advanced instrumentation to system dispatch.

  1. Fungus gnats, Bradysia spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae), and other arthropods in commercial bagged soilless growing media and rooted plant plugs.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Zaborski, Edmond R

    2004-04-01

    Fungus gnats, Bradysia spp., in greenhouses cause economic losses to horticultural producers by damaging young root systems during plant propagation, by spreading soilborne diseases, and by reducing the marketability of the crop. In a greenhouse cage study, our observations suggested that bagged soilless growing media or rooted plant plugs from wholesale distributors may be sources for the introduction of fungus gnats into commercial greenhouse facilities. To evaluate these possibilities, carefully collected samples of bagged soilless growing media stored in the greenhouse, as well as bagged soilless growing media and rooted plant plugs delivered from midwestern wholesale distributors, were incubated under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Fungus gnats emerged from soilless media stored in the greenhouse, soilless media delivered from wholesale distributors, and from rooted plant plugs delivered from wholesale distributors. These results demonstrate that pasteurization of even bagged soilless media may be essential to effectively managing greenhouse populations of fungus gnats. However, pasteurization is not an option for responding to contamination of rooted plant plugs. Preliminary evidence is provided that application of entomopathogenic nematodes may offer potential as a method for managing fungus gnats in plant plugs, so long as treatment is early. Other arthropods found contaminating soilless media and rooted plant plugs included the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Collembola, Acari, Formicidae, Staphylinidae, Psychodidae, and other Diptera. PMID:15154474

  2. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  3. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 1: Final summary report; Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  4. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 1: Transmittal documents; Executive summary; Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described.

  5. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Stroinski, M.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already, experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  6. Parametric study of potential early commercial power plants Task 3-A MHD cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development of costs for an MHD Power Plant and the comparison of these costs to a conventional coal fired power plant are reported. The program is divided into three activities: (1) code of accounts review; (2) MHD pulverized coal power plant cost comparison; (3) operating and maintenance cost estimates. The scope of each NASA code of account item was defined to assure that the recently completed Task 3 capital cost estimates are consistent with the code of account scope. Improvement confidence in MHD plant capital cost estimates by identifying comparability with conventional pulverized coal fired (PCF) power plant systems is undertaken. The basis for estimating the MHD plant operating and maintenance costs of electricity is verified.

  7. Colonization of a Newly Constructed Commercial Chicken Further Processing Plant with Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was undertaken to determine potential sources of Listeria monocytogenes in a newly constructed chicken further processing plant and document the eventual colonization of the facility by this pathogen. To ascertain the colonization status of the plant, floor drains were sampled after a pr...

  8. PROCEEDINGS OF THE STATIONARY SOURCE COMBUSTION SYMPOSIUM (3RD). VOLUME I. UTILITY, INDUSTRIAL, COMMERCIAL, AND RESIDENTIAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ;Contents: Small industrial, commercial, residential systems--(Evaluation of emissions and control technology for industrial stoker boilers, Field tests of industrial stoker fired boilers for emission control, Guidelines for adjustment of residential gas burners for low emissions...

  9. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  10. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 3: Appendix F through I

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  11. Effect of Planting Date on Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Contamination in Commercial Corn Hybrids in Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (maize, Zea mays L.) in the southeastern USA is susceptible to infection by several toxigenic fungi, particularly Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium species, resulting in contamination of the harvested kernels with aflatoxins and fumonisins, respectively. In theory, the development of commercial ...

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT, VOLUME II. APPENDICES F-J: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-RTP-236b Kinsey*, J.S. Characterization of Mercury Emissions at a Chlor-alkali Plant, Volume II. Appendices F-J. 01/28/2002 The report gives results of a characterization of mercury (Hg) emissions at a chlor-alkali plant. Up to 160 short tons (146 Mg) of Hg is consume...

  13. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

  14. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - tanks and pools

    SciTech Connect

    Blocker, E.; Smith, S.; Philpot, L.; Conley, J.

    1996-02-01

    Continued operation of nuclear power plants for periods that extend beyond their original 40-year license period is a desirable option for many U.S. utilities. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of operating license renewals is necessary before continued operation becomes a reality. Effective aging management for plant components is important to reliability and safety, regardless of current plant age or extended life expectations. However, the NRC requires that aging evaluations be performed and the effectiveness of aging management programs be demonstrated for components considered within the scope of license renewal before granting approval for operation beyond 40 years. Both the NRC and the utility want assurance that plant components will be highly reliable during both the current license term and throughout the extended operating period. In addition, effective aging management must be demonstrated to support Maintenance Rule (10 CFR 50.65) activities.

  15. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: an organizational overview. Volume 1. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. A model is introduced for the purposes of organizing the literature review and showing key relationships among identified organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety. Volume I of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety.

  16. An Assessment of the Risks Presented by the Use of Carbon Fiber Composites in Commercial Aviation. Volume 1: Final Report. Volume 2: Supporting Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalelkar, A. S.; Fiksel, J.; Raj, P. P. K.; Rosenfield, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Carbon fiber (CF) composites are being used to an increasing extent in commercial aircraft, due to their excellent structural properties. Since carbon fibers are highly conductive, a potential risk was identified in the event that an aircraft with CF composite structures is involved in an accidental fire. If carbon fibers are released from the fire, they could disperse in the atmosphere and eventually cause damaging short circuits in electronic equipment at remote locations. This phenomenon could conceivably result in economic losses. The purpose of this study was to assess the risks presented to the nation as a whole by the use of CF composites in commercial aircraft, in terms of the potential economic losses from air carrier accidents.

  17. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part A, Remedial action

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part A of Volume 3 and contains the Remedial Action section.

  18. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Characterization; robotics/automation

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate theses problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part B of Volume 3 and contains the Characterization and Robotics/Automation sections.

  19. Ethnobotanical investigation of traditional medicinal plants commercialized in the markets of Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh; Joharchi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: An ethnobotanical survey on the medicinal plant species marketed in Mashhad city, northeastern Iran, was conducted in order to document traditional medicinal knowledge and application of medicinal plants. Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken between 2011 and 2012. The indigenous knowledge of traditional healers used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by family name followed by botanical name, vernacular name, part used, folk use, and recipe. Correct identification was made with the help of the various Floras and different herbal literature at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH). Results: The present investigation reported medicinal information for about 269 species, belonging to 87 vascular plant families and one fungus family. The most important family was Lamiaceae with 26 species, followed by Asteraceae with 23, Fabaceae with 20, and Apiaceae with 19. Herbal medicine uses reported by herbalists was classified into 132 different uses which show significant results to treat a wide spectrum of human ailments. Plants sold at the market were mostly used for digestive system disorders, respiratory problems, urological troubles, nervous system disorders, skin problems, and gynecological ailments. Conclusion: This survey showed that although people in study area have access to modern medical facilities, a lot of them still continue to depend on medicinal plants for the treatment of healthcare problems. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants which provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies. PMID:25050282

  20. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff`s evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements.

  1. Comparing chemical and biological control strategies for twospotted spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in commercial greenhouse production of bedding plants.

    PubMed

    Opit, George P; Perret, Jamis; Holt, Kiffnie; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C; Williams, Kimberly A

    2009-02-01

    Efficacy, costs, and impact on crop salability of various biological and chemical control strategies for Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) were evaluated on mixed plantings of impatiens, Impatiens wallerana Hook.f (Ericales: Balsaminaceae), and ivy geranium, Pelargonium peltatum (1.) L'Hér. Ex Aiton (Geraniales: Geraniaceae), cultivars in commercial greenhouses. Chemical control consisting of the miticide bifenazate (Floramite) was compared with two biological control strategies using the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Treatments were 1) a single, early application of bifenazate; 2) a single, early release of predatory mites at a 1:4 predator:pest ratio based on leaf samples to estimate pest density; 3) a weekly release of predatory mites at numbers based on the area covered by the crop; and 4) an untreated control. T. urticae populations were monitored for 3 wk after the earliest treatment. When plants were ready for market, their salability was estimated. Bifenazate and density-based P. persimilis treatments effectively reduced T. urticae numbers starting 1 wk after plants had been treated, whereas the scheduled, area-based P. persimilis treatment had little or no effect. The percentage of flats that could be sold at the highest market wholesale price ranged from 15 to 33%, 44 to 86%, 84 to 95%, and 92 to 100%, in the control, weekly area-based P. persimilis, bifenazate, and single density-based P. persimilis treatments, respectively. We have shown that in commercial greenhouse production of herbaceous ornamental bedding plants, estimating pest density to determine the appropriate number of predators to release is as effective and offers nearly the same economic benefit as prophylactic use of pesticides. PMID:19253653

  2. A confirmatory research approach to the measurement of EMI/RFI in commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.

    1995-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants. While it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA`s Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported.

  3. A confirmatory research approach to the measurement of EMI/RFI in commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.

    1995-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting confirmatory research on the measurement of electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) in nuclear power plants while it makes a good beginning, the currently available research data are not sufficient to characterize the EMI/RFI environment of the typical nuclear plant. Data collected over several weeks at each of several observation points are required to meet this need. To collect the required data, several approaches are examined, the most promising of which is the relatively new technology of application specific spectral receivers. While several spectral receiver designs have been described in the literature, none is well suited for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. This paper describes the development of two receivers specifically designed for nuclear power plant EMI/RFI surveys. One receiver surveys electric fields between 5 MHz and 8 GHz, while the other surveys magnetic fields between 305 Hz and 5 MHz. The results of field tests at TVA`s Bull Run Fossil Plant are reported.

  4. Farm and cooperative alcohol plant study: technical and economic assessment as a commercial venture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing motor fuel grade (MFG) ethanol in smaller plants amenable to a farm or cooperative operation. Several parameters are explored as follows: six agricultural locations; three plant sizes of 90,000, 300,000, and 900,000 gallons per year; five feedstocks; ethanol proof levels of 190 and 199; and byproduct distillers grains either as whole stillage or prepared by various degrees of drying. Plants were assumed to operate only 6000 hours per year (sugar beets only 3600 hours) because of limitations of time (or beet feedstock). Locally available boiler fuels were chosen. Simplified processing was identified so as to be realistically within the time and experience available to a farmer-operator. The most attractive case used Indiana corn in a 900,000 gallon plant making 190 proof ethanol, and selling whole stillage (no dewatering or drying). Plant investment for this best case as well as several option combinations is given. The selling price of the best case 190 proof ethanol at 20% IROR was $1.79 based on $2.70 corn.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COMMERCIAL BOILER FIRED WITH A COAL/WASTE PLASTIC MIXTURE. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emissions testing and laboratory analyses of a stoker-fired commercial boiler firing a coal/waste plastic mixture. In one test, the unit fired its typical coal fuel; in the other, shredded waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) beverage b...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF A COMMERCIAL BOILER FIRED WITH A COAL/WASTE PLASTIC MIXTURE. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emissions testing and laboratory analyses of a stoker-fired commercial boiler firing a coal/waste plastic mixture. In one test, the unit fired its typical coal fuel; in the other, shredded waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) beverage b...

  7. Research report on development of sweet sorghum as an energy crop. Volume II. Commercialization studies to US Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, T.A.; Scantland, D.A.; Woodford, P.G.; Gordon, W.A.; Kresovich, S.; Arthur, M.F.; Jackson, D.R.; Lipinsky, E.S.

    1980-07-31

    The following are discussed: economic and agronomic implications of commercial growers' sweet sorghum field tests, economics of sweet sorghum production, marketing and market organization concepts, and the effect of water availability upon potential increased production of sugar crops in Southern Florida and the Texas Rio Grande Valley. (MHR)

  8. Status of commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, M.

    1987-01-01

    A technology development and commercial feasibility evaluation is presented for phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) applicable to electric utility operations. The correction of identified design deficiencies in the control card and water treatment subsystems is projected to be able to substantially increase average powerplant availability from the 63 percent achieved in recent field tests of a PAFC system. Current development work is proceeding under NASA research contracts at the output levels of a multimegawatt facility for electric utility use, a multikilowatt on-site integrated energy generation facility, and advanced electrocatalysts applicable to PAFCs.

  9. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 4: Appendix BIR Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-31

    This report consists of the waste stream profile for the WIPP transuranic waste baseline inventory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The following assumptions/modifications were made by the WTWBIR team in developing the LL waste stream profiles: since only current volumes were provided by LL, the final form volumes were assumed to be the same as the current volumes; the WTWBIR team had to assign identification numbers (IDs) to those LL waste streams not given an identifier by the site, the assigned identification numbers are consistent with the site reported numbers; LL Final Waste Form Groups were modified to be consistent with the nomenclature used in the WTWBID, these changes included word and spelling changes, the assigned Final Waste Form Groups are consistent with the information provided by LL; the volumes for the year 1993 were changed from an annual rate of generation (m{sup 3}/year) to a cumulative value (m{sup 3}).

  10. NASA Historical Data Book. Volume 6; NASA Space Applications, Aeronautics and Space Research and Technology, Tracking and Data Acquisition/Support Operations, Commercial Programs and

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumerman, Judy A.

    2000-01-01

    This sixth volume of the NASA Historical Data Book is a continuation of those earlier efforts. This fundamental reference tool presents information, much of it statistical, documenting the development of several critical areas of NASA responsibility for the period between 1979 and 1988. This volume includes detailed information on the space applications effort, the development and operation of aeronautics and space research and technology programs, tracking and data acquisition/space operations, commercial programs, facilities and installations, personnel, and finances and procurement during this era. Special thanks are owed to the student research assistants who gathered and input much of the tabular material-a particularly tedious undertaking. There are numerous people at NASA associated with historical study, technical information, and the mechanics of publishing who helped in myriad ways in the preparation of this historical data book.

  11. Development of whole-building energy design targets for commercial buildings: Phase 1, Planning: Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crawley, D.B.; Briggs, R.S.; Jones, J.W.; Seaton, W.W.; Kaufman, J.E.; Deringer, J.J.; Kennett, E.W.

    1987-04-01

    This report describes background research for preparation of a plan for development of whole-building energy targets for new commercial buildings. The lead laboratory for this program is the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A wide variety of expertise and resources from industry, academia, other government entities, and other DOE laboratories are used in planning, reviewing and conducting research activities. Cooperative and complementary research development, and technology transfer activities with other interested organizations are actively pursued.

  12. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 1: Main Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Sydney J

    2008-03-01

    A phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) process was conducted for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) design. This design (in the conceptual stage) is a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) that generates both electricity and process heat for hydrogen production. Expert panels identified safety-relevant phenomena, ranked their importance, and assessed the knowledge levels in the areas of accidents and thermal fluids, fission-product transport and dose, high-temperature materials, graphite, and process heat for hydrogen production. This main report summarizes and documents the process and scope of the reviews, noting the major activities and conclusions. The identified phenomena, analyses, rationales, and associated ratings of the phenomena, plus a summary of each panel's findings, are presented. Individual panel reports for these areas are provided as attached volumes to this main report and provide considerably more detail about each panel's deliberations as well as a more complete listing of the phenomena that were evaluated.

  13. Feasibility study for a 10-MM-GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume 1. Process and plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    An investigation was performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing and operating a geothermally heated, biomass, motor fuel alcohol plant at Brady's Hot Springs. The results of the study are positive, showing that a plant of innovative, yet proven design can be built to adapt current commerical fermentation-distillation technology to the application of geothermal heat energy. The specific method of heat production from the Brady's Hot Spring wells has been successful for some time at an onion drying plant. Further development of the geothermal resource to add the capacity needed for an ethanol plant is found to be feasible for a plant sized to produce 10 million gallons of motor fuel grade ethanol per year. A very adequate supply of feedgrains is found to be available for use in the plant without impact on the local or regional feedgrain market. The effect of diverting supplies from the animal feedlots in Northern Nevada and California will be mitigated by the by-product output of high-protein feed supplements that the plant will produce. The plant will have a favorable impact on the local farming economies of Fallon, Lovelock, Winnemucca and Elko, Nevada. It will make a positive and significant socioeconomic contribution to Churchill County, providing direct employment for an additional 61 persons. Environmental impact will be negligible, involving mostly a moderate increase in local truck traffic and railroad siding activity. The report is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 deals with the technical design aspects of the plant. The second volume addresses the issue of expanded geothermal heat production at Brady's Hot Springs, goes into the details of feedstock supply economics, and looks at the markets for the plant's primary ethanol product, and the markets for its feed supplement by-products. The report concludes with an analysis of the economic viability of the proposed project.

  14. Data base on dose reduction research projects for nuclear power plants. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Yu, C.K.; Roecklein, A.K.

    1994-05-01

    This is the fifth volume in a series of reports that provide information on dose reduction research and health physics technology or nuclear power plants. The information is taken from two of several databases maintained by Brookhaven National Laboratory`s ALARA Center for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The research section of the report covers dose reduction projects that are in the experimental or developmental phase. It includes topics such as steam generator degradation, decontamination, robotics, improvements in reactor materials, and inspection techniques. The section on health physics technology discusses dose reduction efforts that are in place or in the process of being implemented at nuclear power plants. A total of 105 new or updated projects are described. All project abstracts from this report are available to nuclear industry professionals with access to a fax machine through the ACEFAX system or a computer with a modem and the proper communications software through the ACE system. Detailed descriptions of how to access all the databases electronically are in the appendices of the report.

  15. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 6, Federally endangered species, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The Endangered Species Act requires that Federal agencies use their authorities to conduct programs for the conservation of endangered and threatened species and to ensure that agency actions do not jeopardize the continued existence of or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat of protected species. Those Federally endangered or threatened species that occur on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) include the American alligator, the red-cockaded woodpecker, the shortnose sturgeon, the wood stork, and the bald eagle. Of these species, the alligator, sturgeon, wood stork, and the bald eagle are likely to be affected directly and/or indirectly by the intake or release of cooling water at the SRP. 81 refs., 76 figs., 35 tabs.

  16. Ohio Clean Fuels, Inc. , prototype commercial coal/oil co-processing plant project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This report discusses the economics of coal as a source of domestic petroleum products and clean power production. The following topics are discussed: Economic incentives for the use of coal; applications of coal/oil coprocessing including (a) integration with a refinery; (b) cost reduction technique for alternate new supplies of oil; (c) power production meeting acid rain controls and comparative economics of copro powered facilities vs conventional power plant technology; costs of non-conventional supplies of crude and costs of coprocessing compared with offshore conventional oil. 10 refs., 1 fig., 20 tabs.

  17. Preliminary energy sector assessments of Jamaica. Volume III: renewable energy. Part I: solar energy - commercial and industrial

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This study concerns commercial and industrial solar applications, specifically solar water heating and solar air cooling. The study finds that solar domestic water heating and boiler make-up water preheating are technically feasible and, depending on the displaced energy source (electrical or various fuel types), economically justified; and that solar hot water installations could displace the equivalent of 189,842 barrels of fuel oil per year. However, solar cooling requires high performance collectors not currently manufactured in Jamaica, and feasibility studies indicate that solar cooling in the near term is not economically justified.

  18. Optimizing the Design of Chilled Water Plants in Large Commercial Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeland, Dante'E.

    The design of chilled water plants has a very large impact on building energy use and energy operating costs. This thesis proposes procedures and analysis techniques for energy efficiency design of chilled water plants. The approach that leads to optimal design variables can achieve a significant saving in cooling cost. The optimal variables include piping sizing, chilled water temperature difference, and chilled water supply temperature. The objective function is the total cooling energy cost. The proposed design method depends on detailed cooling load analysis, head and energy calculations, and an optimization solver. The pump head calculations including piping, all fittings, valves, and devices are achieved by using the Darcy-Weisbach Equation and given flow parameters. The energy calculations are done by using generic chiller, fan, and pump models. The method is tested on an existing four-story building located in Greensboro, NC, equipped with a packaged water-cooled chiller. A whole building energy simulation model is used to generate the hourly cooling loads and then the optimal design variables are found to minimize the total energy cost. The testing results show this approach will achieve better results than rules-of-thumb or traditional design procedures. The cooling energy saving could be up to 10% depending on particular projects.

  19. Small capacity, low cost (Ni-H2) design concept for commercial, military, and higher-volume aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, James R.; Cook, William D.; Smith, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Nickel Hydrogen (Ni/H2) batteries have become the technology of choice for both commercial and defense related satellites in geosynchronous orbits. Their use for low earth orbit (LEO) applications is not as advanced, but seems just as inevitable because of their inherent advantages over nickel cadmium batteries. These include superior energy density, longer cycle life, and better tolerance to over-charge and reversal. Ni/H2 cells have the added advantage in both construction and operation of not presenting the environmental possibility of cadmium pollution. Unfortunately, but necessarily, the design of these cells has been driven to high cost by the sophistication of the satellites and their uses. Now, using most of the same concepts but less costly materials and techniques, a low cost, small cell design was developed. Combined with the concept of the common pressure vessel, this new design promises to be ideal for the small-sat and commercial markets which, increasingly, are calling for large numbers of less expensive satellites.

  20. Evaluating R and D options under uncertainty. Volume 2. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion commercialization strategies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Borison, A.B.; Judd, B.R.; Morris, P.A.; Walters, E.C.

    1981-08-01

    This study developed and demonstrated a quantitative framework for analyzing commercialization decisions for emerging electrical power generation technologies. The framework addresses the general question of when to freeze a design for commercialization. The framework was developed to help evaluate the benefits of continuing the development of two different designs for atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) boilers. EPRI staff participated actively in specifying the scope of the analysis and in providing technical information on the two designs. The framework was demonstrated using this information, supplemented with probabilistic judgments by EPRI staff about possible outcomes from the pilot and demonstration stages of development. Based on the technical data and judgments supplied by EPRI staff, the analysis shows a net benefit for proceeding with the development of two designs. Extensive sensitivity analysis shows this result holds over a broad range of input data. The insight behind this result is the value of using a second design as a hedge against an unfavorable outcome with the first design. The degree to which other power generation technologies could serve as a hedge for a single AFBC design was not considered explicitly in the analysis.

  1. Expediting the commercial disposal option: Low-level radioactive waste shipments from the Mound Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, S.; Rothman, R.

    1995-12-31

    In April, Envirocare of Utah, Inc., successfully commenced operation of its mixed waste treatment operation. A mixed waste which was (a) radioactive, (b) listed as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and (c) prohibited from land disposal was treated using Envirocare`s full-scale Mixed Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment system involved application of chemical fixation/stabilization technologies to reduce the leachability of the waste to meet applicable concentration-based RCRA treatment standards. In 1988, Envirocare became the first licensed facility for the disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material. In 1990, Envirocare received a RCRA Part B permit for commercial mixed waste storage and disposal. In 1994, Envirocare was awarded a contract for the disposal of DOE mixed wastes. Envirocare`s RCRA Part B permit allows for the receipt, storage, treatment, and disposal of mixed wastes that do not meet the land-disposal treatment standards of 40 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) 268. Envirocare has successfully received, managed, and disposed of naturally occurring radioactive material, low-activity radioactive waste, and mixed waste from government and private generators.

  2. Comparison of the Insecticidal Characteristics of Commercially Available Plant Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Norris, Edmund J; Gross, Aaron D; Dunphy, Brendan M; Bessette, Steven; Bartholomay, Lyric; Coats, Joel R

    2015-09-01

    Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae are two mosquito species that represent significant threats to global public health as vectors of Dengue virus and malaria parasites, respectively. Although mosquito populations have been effectively controlled through the use of synthetic insecticides, the emergence of widespread insecticide-resistance in wild mosquito populations is a strong motivation to explore new insecticidal chemistries. For these studies, Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae were treated with commercially available plant essential oils via topical application. The relative toxicity of each essential oil was determined, as measured by the 24-h LD(50) and percentage knockdown at 1 h, as compared with a variety of synthetic pyrethroids. For Ae. aegypti, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼1,700-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid, bifenthrin. For An. gambiae, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼685-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid. A wide variety of toxicities were observed among the essential oils screened. Also, plant essential oils were analyzed via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the major components in each of the samples screened in this study. While the toxicities of these plant essential oils were demonstrated to be lower than those of the synthetic pyrethroids tested, the large amount of GC/MS data and bioactivity data for each essential oil presented in this study will serve as a valuable resource for future studies exploring the insecticidal quality of plant essential oils. PMID:26336230

  3. Precursor systems analyses of automated highway systems. Commercial and transit AHS analysis. Volume 7. Final report, 9 September 1993-30 October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The program described by the eight-volume report, a resource materials document type, identified the issues and risks associated with the potential design, development, and operation of an Automated Highway System (AHS), a highway system that utilizes limited access roadways and provides `hands off` driving. The AHS effort was conducted by a team formed and directed by the Calspan Advanced Technology Center. Primary Team members included Calspan, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Dunn Engineering Associates, and Princeton University. Supporting members of the team were BMW, New York Thruway Authority, New York State Department of Transportation, Massachusetts Department of Transportation, the New Jersey Department of Transportation, Boston Research, Vitro Corporation, and Michael P. Walsh of Walsh Associates. The 17 task reports (A through P plus Representative Systems Configurations) are organized into 8 volumes. This volume describes Commercial and Transit AHS Analysis (Task F.) This task was performed as two independent and parallel efforts. Parsons Brinckerhoff performed the work reported in the main body of the report and Appendix A. That work was supervised by Marvin Gersten and supported by Jeanine Jankowski, both of Parsons Brinckerhoff. A separate and parallel analysis, performed by Prinecton University, appears as Appendix B (with its own Executive Summary). The work was developed by Alain Kornhauser.

  4. Turbofan Volume Dynamics Model for Investigations of Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic Effects in a Supersonic Commercial Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Kopasakis, George; Lemon, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    A turbofan simulation has been developed for use in aero-propulso-servo-elastic coupling studies, on supersonic vehicles. A one-dimensional lumped volume approach is used whereby each component (fan, high-pressure compressor, combustor, etc.) is represented as a single volume using characteristic performance maps and conservation equations for continuity, momentum and energy. The simulation is developed in the MATLAB/SIMULINK (The MathWorks, Inc.) environment in order to facilitate controls development, and ease of integration with a future aero-servo-elastic vehicle model being developed at NASA Langley. The complete simulation demonstrated steady state results that closely match a proposed engine suitable for a supersonic business jet at the cruise condition. Preliminary investigation of the transient simulation revealed expected trends for fuel flow disturbances as well as upstream pressure disturbances. A framework for system identification enables development of linear models for controller design. Utilizing this framework, a transfer function modeling an upstream pressure disturbance s impacts on the engine speed is developed as an illustrative case of the system identification. This work will eventually enable an overall vehicle aero-propulso-servo-elastic model

  5. Failure mode analysis for lime/limestone FGD system. Volume III. Plant profiles. Part 1 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, S.M.; Rosenberg, H.S.; Nilsson, L.I.O.; Oxley, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    This volume contains plant profiles for: Petersburg 3; Hawthorn 3, 4; La Cygne 1; Jeffry 1, 2; Lawrence 4, 5; Green River 1-3; Cane Run 4, 5; Mill Creek 1, 3; Paddy's Run 6; Clay Boswell 4; Milton R. Young 2; Pleasants 1, 2; and Colstrip 1, 2. (DLC)

  6. Standard Technical Specifications General Electric plants, BWR/4: Bases (Sections 2.0-3.3). Volume 2, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for General Electric BWR/4 Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved ST or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume I contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. This document, Volume 2, contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1-3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4-3.10 of the improved STS.

  7. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

  8. Utilities and offsites design baseline. Outside Battery Limits Facility 6000 tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1984-05-25

    Volume 2 contains flowsheets and equipment specifications for the following parts of the plant: cooling water systems, process water supply, potable water supply, nitrogen system, compressed air system, flares, incinerators, fuels and interconnecting systems (pipes). The instrumentation requirements are included. (LTN)

  9. Growth of bedding plants in commercial potting substrate amended with vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Bachman, G R; Metzger, J D

    2008-05-01

    Vermicompost has been promoted as a viable alternative container media component for the horticulture industry. The purpose of this research was to investigate the use of vermicompost at different points in the production cycle of tomato, marigold, pepper, and cornflower. The incorporation of vermicompost of pig manure origin into germination media up to 20% v/v enhanced shoot and root weight, leaf area, and shoot:root ratios of both tomato and French marigold seedlings; however amendment with vermicompost had little influence on pepper and cornflower seedling growth. Moreover there was no effect on the germination of seed of any species. When seedlings of tomato, French marigold, and cornflower were transplanted into 6-cell packs there was greater plant growth in media amended with vermicompost compared to the control media, and the greatest growth when vermicompost was amended into both the germination and transplant media. This effect was increased when seedlings in the transplant media were irrigated with water containing fertilizer. PMID:17689243

  10. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1989. Volume 11

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1989. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 14 person-rem to a low of 0.005 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 1.2 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 84 person-rem for the 140 million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the Appendix I design objectives.

  11. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1992. Volume 14

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1992. Fifty-year dose commitments for a 1-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teenager, and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses, which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I, design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 3.7 person-rem to a low of 0.0015 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 0.66 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 47 person-rem for the 130-million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the 10 CFR 50, Appendix I, design objectives.

  12. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1991. Volume 13

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1995-04-01

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1991. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teenager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix 1 design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 22 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 1.2 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 88 person-rem for the 130 million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the Appendix 1 design objectives.

  13. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1982. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1986-06-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1982. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 51 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 30 person-rem to a low of 0.007 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 130 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 6 x 10/sup -7/ mrem to a high of 0.06 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  14. Low-severity catalytic two-stage liquefaction process: Illinois coal conceptual commercial plant design and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, L.M.; Comolli, A.G.; Popper, G.A.; Wang, C.; Wilson, G.

    1988-09-01

    Hydrocarbon Research, Inc. (HRI) is conducting a program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate a Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. This program which runs through 1987, is a continuation of an earlier DOE sponsored program (1983--1985) at HRI to develop a new technology concept for CTSL. The earlier program included bench-scale testing of improved operating conditions for the CTSL Process on Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal and Wyoming sub-bituminous coal, and engineering screening studies to identify the economic incentive for CTSL over the single-stage H-Coal/reg sign/ Process for Illinois No. 6 coal. In the current program these engineering screening studies are extended to deep-cleaned Illinois coal and use of heavy recycle. The results from this comparison will be used as a guide for future experiments with respect to selection of coal feedstocks and areas for further process optimization. A preliminary design for CTSL of Illinois deep-cleaned coal was developed based on demonstrated bench-scale performance in Run No. 227-47(I-27), and from HRI's design experience on the Breckinridge Project and H-Coal/reg sign/ Process pilot plant operations at Catlettsburg. Complete conceptual commercial plant designs were developed for a grassroots facility using HRI's Process Planning Model. Product costs were calculated and economic sensitivities analyzed. 14 refs., 11 figs., 49 tabs.

  15. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: perspectives for organizational assessment. Volume 2. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Nadel, M.V.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.; Kerwin, N.; Kennedy, J.K. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. Volume 1 of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety. The six chapters of this volume discuss the major elements in our general approach to safety in the nuclear industry. The chapters include information on organizational design and safety; organizational governance; utility environment and safety related outcomes; assessments by selected federal agencies; review of data sources in the nuclear power industry; and existing safety indicators.

  16. Enumeration of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in Environmental Farm Samples and Processing Plant Carcass Rinses from Commercial Broiler Chicken Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Stephan G.; Law, Bibiana F.; Mild, Rita M.; Hofacre, Charles L.; Singer, Randall S.

    2013-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the prevalences and loads of Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in farm and processing plant samples collected from 55 commercial broiler chicken flocks. Environmental samples were collected from broiler houses within 48 h before slaughter, and carcass rinses were performed on birds from the same flocks at 4 different stages of processing. Salmonella was detected in farm samples of 50 (90.9%) flocks and in processing samples of 52 (94.5%) flocks. Campylobacter was detected in farm samples of 35 (63.6%) flocks and in processing samples of 48 (87.3%) flocks. There was a significant positive relationship between environmental farm samples and processing plant carcass rinses with respect to both Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalences and loads. Campylobacter loads were significantly higher than Salmonella loads, and the correlations between samples collected from the same flocks were higher for Campylobacter than they were for Salmonella. Boot socks were the most sensitive sample type for detection of Salmonella on the farm, whereas litter samples had the strongest association with Salmonella loads in pre- and postchill carcass rinses. Boot socks, drag swabs, and fecal samples all had similar sensitivities for detecting Campylobacter on the farm, and all were more strongly associated with Campylobacter loads in carcass rinses than were litter samples. Farm samples explained a greater proportion of the variability in carcass rinse prevalences and loads for Campylobacter than they did for Salmonella. Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalences and loads both decreased significantly as birds progressed through the processing plant. PMID:23624481

  17. Study of domestic social and economic impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) commercial development. Volume I. Economic impacts

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-22

    This analysis identifies the economic impacts associated with OTEC development and quantifies them at the national, regional, and industry levels. It focuses on the effects on the United States' economy of the domestic development and utilization of twenty-five and fifty 400 MWe OTEC power plants by the year 2000. The methodology employed was characteristic of economic impact analysis. After conducting a literature review, a likely future OTEC scenario was developed on the basis of technological, siting, and materials requirements parameters. These parameters were used to identify the industries affected by OTEC development; an economic profile was constructed for each of these industries. These profiles established an industrial baseline from which the direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts of OTEC implementation could be estimated. Each stage of this analysis is summarized; and the economic impacts are addressed. The methodology employed in estimating the impacts is described.

  18. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1996: Twenty-ninth annual report. Volume 18

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.L.; Hagemeyer, D.

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 1996 annual reports submitted by six of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Since there are no geologic repositories for high level waste currently licensed, only six categories will be considered in this report. Annual reports for 1996 were received from a total of 300 NRC licensees, of which 109 were operators of nuclear power reactors in commercial operation. Compilations of the reports submitted by the 300 licensees indicated that 138,310 individuals were monitored, 75,139 of whom received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 21,755 person-cSv (person-rem){sup 2} which represents a 13% decrease from the 1995 value. The number of workers receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in the average measurable dose of 0.29 cSv (rem) for 1996. The average measurable dose is defined to be the total collective dose (TEDE) divided by the number of workers receiving a measurable dose. These figures have been adjusted to account for transient reactor workers. Analyses of transient worker data indicate that 22,348 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient workers by multiple licensees. In 1996, the average measurable dose calculated from reported was 0.24 cSv (rem). The corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose of 0.29 cSv (rem).

  19. Volume-averaged SAR in adult and child head models when using mobile phones: a computational study with detailed CAD-based models of commercial mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Keshvari, Jafar; Heikkilä, Teemu

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies comparing SAR difference in the head of children and adults used highly simplified generic models or half-wave dipole antennas. The objective of this study was to investigate the SAR difference in the head of children and adults using realistic EMF sources based on CAD models of commercial mobile phones. Four MRI-based head phantoms were used in the study. CAD models of Nokia 8310 and 6630 mobile phones were used as exposure sources. Commercially available FDTD software was used for the SAR calculations. SAR values were simulated at frequencies 900 MHz and 1747 MHz for Nokia 8310, and 900 MHz, 1747 MHz and 1950 MHz for Nokia 6630. The main finding of this study was that the SAR distribution/variation in the head models highly depends on the structure of the antenna and phone model, which suggests that the type of the exposure source is the main parameter in EMF exposure studies to be focused on. Although the previous findings regarding significant role of the anatomy of the head, phone position, frequency, local tissue inhomogeneity and tissue composition specifically in the exposed area on SAR difference were confirmed, the SAR values and SAR distributions caused by generic source models cannot be extrapolated to the real device exposures. The general conclusion is that from a volume averaged SAR point of view, no systematic differences between child and adult heads were found. PMID:22005524

  20. Operating the plant, quality assurance, and the job of the operating staff, Volume Twelve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Subject matter includes operating the plant (the role of the operator, the control room, plant technical specifications, plant operating procedures, initial startup program, BWR/PWR plant startup, BWR/PWR steady state power operation, BWR/PWR transient operation, emergency operation), quality assurance (what is quality, what is quality control, quality assurance includes quality control, government regulation and quality assurance, administrative controls for nuclear power plants, the necessity of reviews and audits, practical quality assurance), and the job of the operating staff (the plant operating staff, plant safety, first aid and resuscitation, general plant hazards, personnel protective equipment, handling chemicals, handling compressed gas, equipment repair and maintenance, communicating with others.

  1. Evaluation of the applicability of nonlinear programming algorithms to a typical commercial process flow-sheeting simulator (Volumes I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    An efficient methodology for using commercial flowsheeting programs with advanced mathematical programming algorithms was developed for the optimization of operating plants. The methodology was demonstrated and validated using ChemShare Corporation's DESIGN/2000 simulation of the Freeport Chemical Company's plant for sulfuric acid manufacture and three nonlinear programming techniques: successive linear programming, successive quadratic programming, and the generalized reduced-gradient method. The application of this methodology begins with the development of a feasible base-case simulation. Partial derivatives of the economic model and constraint equations are computed using fully converged simulations. This information is used to formulate an optimization problem that can be solved with the NLP algorithms giving improved values of the economic model. A line search is constructed through the point found from the nonlinear programming algorithm to find the best feasible point to repeat the procedure. The procedure is repeated using the ChemShare simulation program and the NLP code until convergence criteria are met. This method was applied to three flowsheeting problems; a plant-scale-contact sulfuric acid process model, a packed-bed-reactor design model, and an adiabatic-flash problem.

  2. Strategy for fossil plant life extension at Boston Edison Company's Mystic Unit 6: Volume 1, Summary of methodology: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zimbone, R.A.; Flaherty, P.A.; Guilfoyle, C.J.; Presnak, R.G.

    1987-04-01

    This report provides a summary of the evaluation results of a study conducted by the Boston Edison Company (BECo) project team at the Mystic Station. This evaluation of Unit 6 at Mystic made use of the guidelines prepared by the BECo team. These guidelines for generation planning, economic analysis, and technical assessment are provided in Volume 2 of this report. These guidelines reflect the project team expertise in the area of life extension along with the incorporation of lessons learned from the Mystic Unit 6 study. The summary provided in Volume 1 is based on detailed technical evaluations and economic evaluations provided in the following individual reports on the boiler, turbine-generator, and balance-of-plant components: Combustion Engineering, Inc., Life Extension/Cycling Study (dated January 1986); General Electric Company, Life Extension Engineering Evaluation, Operational and Component Recommendations (dated February 1986); General Electric Company, Life Extension Supplementary Data (dated February 1986); Sargent and Lundy, Fossil Plant Life Extension, Evaluation of Balance-of-Plant Components and Systems, Parts A and B (dated May 1986). These volumes are quite extensive and have been retained by BECo. Volume 1 provides a summary of the results.

  3. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1992; Twenty-fifth annual report, Volume 14

    SciTech Connect

    Raddatz, C.T.; Hagemeyer, D.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the occupational radiation exposure information that has been reported to the NRC`s Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) by nuclear power facilities and certain other categories of NRC licensees during the years 1969 through 1992. The bulk of the data presented in the report was obtained from annual radiation exposure reports submitted in accordance with the requirements of 10CFR20.407 and the technical specifications of nuclear power plants. Data on workers terminating their employment at certain NRC licensed facilities were obtained from reports submitted pursuant to 10CFR20.408. The 1992 annual reports submitted by about 364 licensees indicated that approximately 204,365 individuals were monitored, 183,927 of whom were monitored by nuclear power facilities. They incurred an average individual dose of 0.16 rem (cSv) and an average measurable dose of about 0.30 (cSv). Termination radiation exposure reports were analyzed to reveal that about 74,566 individuals completed their employment with one or more of the 364 covered licensees during 1992. Some 71,846 of these individuals terminated from power reactor facilities, and about 9,724 of them were considered to be transient workers who received an average dose of 0.50 rem (cSv).

  4. Study of domestic social and economic impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) commercial development. Volume II. Industry profiles

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-22

    Econoimc profiles of the industries most affected by the construction, deployment, and operation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) powerplants are presented. Six industries which will contribute materials and/or components to the construction of OTEC plants have been identified and are profiled here. These industries are: steel industry, concrete industry, titanium metal industry, fabricated structural metals industry, fiber glass-reinforced plastics industry, and electrical transmission cable industry. The economic profiles for these industries detail the industry's history, its financial and economic characteristics, its technological and production traits, resource constraints that might impede its operation, and its relation to OTEC. Some of the historical data collected and described in the profile include output, value of shipments, number of firms, prices, employment, imports and exports, and supply-demand forecasts. For most of the profiled industries, data from 1958 through 1980 were examined. In addition, profiles are included on the sectors of the economy which will actualy construct, deploy, and supply the OTEC platforms.

  5. Adaptation of a commercially available 200 kW natural gas fuel cell power plant for operation on a hydrogen rich gas stream

    SciTech Connect

    Maston, V.A.

    1997-12-01

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has designed a hydrogen fueled fuel cell power plant based on a modification of its standard natural gas fueled PC25{trademark} C fuel cell power plant. The natural gas fueled PC25 C is a 200 kW, fuel cell power plant that is commercially available. The program to accomplish the fuel change involved deleting the natural gas processing elements, designing a new fuel pretreatment subsystem, modifying the water and thermal management subsystem, developing a hydrogen burner to combust unconsumed hydrogen, and modifying the control system. Additionally, the required modifications to the manufacturing and assembly procedures necessary to allow the hydrogen fueled power plant to be manufactured in conjunction with the on-going production of the standard PC25 C power plants were identified. This work establishes the design and manufacturing plan for the 200 kW hydrogen fueled PC25 power plant.

  6. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1988. Volume 10

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1988. Fifty-year commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 71 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 16 person-rem to a low of 0.0011 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 1.1 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 75 person-rem for the 150 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year).

  7. Capital and operating cost estimates. Volume I. Preliminary design and assessment of a 12,500 BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant. [Grace C-M-G Plant, Henderson County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    This Deliverable No. 18b - Capital and Operating Cost Estimates includes a detailed presentation of the 12,500 BPD coal-to-methanol-to-gasoline plant from the standpoint of capital, preoperations, start-up and operations cost estimation. The base capital cost estimate in June 1982 dollars was prepared by the Ralph M. Parsons Company under the direction of Grace. The escalated capital cost estimate as well as separate estimates for preoperations, startup and operations activities were developed by Grace. The deliverable consists of four volumes. Volume I contains details of methodology used in developing the capital cost estimate, summary information on a base June 1982 capital cost, details of the escalated capital cost estimate and separate sections devoted to preoperations, start-up, and operations cost. The base estimate is supported by detailed information in Volumes II, III and IV. The degree of detail for some units was constrained due to proprietary data. Attempts have been made to exhibit the estimating methodology by including data on individual equipment pricing. Proprietary details are available for inspection upon execution of nondisclosure and/or secrecy agreements with the licensors to whom the data is proprietary. Details of factoring certain pieces of equipment and/or entire modules or units from the 50,000 BPD capital estimate are also included. In the case of the escalated capital estimate, Grace has chosen to include a sensitivity analysis which allows for ready assessment of impacts of escalation rates (inflation), contingency allowances and the construction interest financing rates on the escalated capital cost. Each of the estimates associated with bringing the plant to commercial production rates has as a basis the schedule and engineering documentation found in Deliverable No. 14b - Process Engineering and Mechanical Design Report, No. 28b - Staffing Plans, No. 31b - Construction Plan, and No. 33b - Startup and Operation Plan.

  8. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovars Heidelberg and Kentucky in the scalder water of a commercial poultry processing plant in the southeastern United States.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of Salmonella enterica present in the water of scalder and chiller tanks from a commercial chicken processing plant in the southeaster United States. Three liters of scald and chill water were aseptically sampled three times daily for three consec...

  9. Plant Science. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 24, Numbers 3 and 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, John Kevin

    This document consists of two separately published guides for a course on plant science: an instructor's guide and a student's reference manual. Each part consists of eight lessons and cover the following topics: (1) importance of plants; (2) classification of plants; (3) plant growth factors; (4) weeds, diseases, insects; (5) germination; (6)…

  10. Seasonal occurrence and molecular diversity of clostridia species spores along cheesemaking streams of 5 commercial dairy plants.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Jorge; González, Marcela J; Olivera, Jorge A; Burgueño, Juan A; Juliano, Pablo; Fox, Edward M; Reginensi, Stella M

    2016-05-01

    Five commercial dairy plants were monitored over a 17-mo period to determine the seasonal occurrence of Clostridium spores in streams from the cheesemaking process. Every 2 mo, samples of raw milk (RM), separated cream (SC), pasteurized and standardized vat milk (PSVM), PSVM + lysozyme (PSVM+L), and manufactured cheese aged for 60 to 90 d were processed for analysis. Molecular diversity of the main species identified was determined using repetitive element palindromic PCR. The mean anaerobic spore counts (μ ± SE) were 3.16±0.054, 3.00±0.054, 2.89±0.059, and 2.03±0.054 log10 most probable number/L for RM, PSVM, PSVM+L, and SC, respectively. Although spore counts did not differ between dairy plants, seasonal variation was observed; spore counts of RM, PSVM, and PSVM+L were higher during winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) months, but no seasonal variation was seen in SC counts. The most frequently isolated species was Clostridium tyrobutyricum, ranging from 50 to 58.3% of isolates from milk and cream samples. Clostridium sporogenes was the second most common species identified (16.7-21.1%); Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium butyricum were also found, although at lower prevalence (7.9-13.2%). Analysis of the C. tyrobutyricum and C. sporogenes population structure through repetitive element palindromic PCR indicated a high diversity, with unique isolates found in each positive sample. The occurrence of Clostridia spores in incoming streams to cheesemaking was most prominent in the winter and summer seasons, with higher prevalence of C. tyrobutyricum in the months of June and August. PMID:26923043