Science.gov

Sample records for commercial researcher perspective

  1. Commercial researcher perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delucas, Larry

    Protein crystallography--a research tool used to study the structure of the complex building blocks of living systems--has a lot to gain from space-based research. In order to know how a protein works in the human body, researchers must understand its molecular structure. Researchers have identified 150,000 different proteins in the body, but they now know the structure of less than a third of them. The only viable technique for analyzing the structure of these proteins is x-ray diffraction of the proteins in their crystal form. The better the quality of a protein crystal, the more useful it is to researchers who are trying to delineate its structure. The microgravity environment of space allows protein crystals to grow nearly undisturbed by convection and other gravity-driven forces that cause flaws to form in them on the ground. In space, lack of convection enables protein crystals to grow more slowly than they do on Earth, and the slower a protein crystal grows, the fewer flaws it will have. Protein crystal growth experiments have already flown on 14 Space Shuttle missions. This year's USML-1 Spacelab mission included protein crystal growth experiments conducted for commercial researchers. The results of protein crystal experiments flown thus far have been larger crystals with more uniform morphologies. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (A NASA-cosponsored CCDS) currently builds flight hardware to meet researchers' needs and handles sample loading and retrieval for flight experiments. Protein crystallography enables 'rational drug design': the development of drugs that bind only with the target protein and, hence, do not cause side effects. For example, pharmaceutical companies presently are interested in developing drugs that can inhibit purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), a protein that plays a role in auto-immune diseases. To continue these kinds of investigations, researchers need a constant supply of protein crystals that are as free of flaws

  2. Commercial researcher perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucas, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Protein crystallography--a research tool used to study the structure of the complex building blocks of living systems--has a lot to gain from space-based research. In order to know how a protein works in the human body, researchers must understand its molecular structure. Researchers have identified 150,000 different proteins in the body, but they now know the structure of less than a third of them. The only viable technique for analyzing the structure of these proteins is x-ray diffraction of the proteins in their crystal form. The better the quality of a protein crystal, the more useful it is to researchers who are trying to delineate its structure. The microgravity environment of space allows protein crystals to grow nearly undisturbed by convection and other gravity-driven forces that cause flaws to form in them on the ground. In space, lack of convection enables protein crystals to grow more slowly than they do on Earth, and the slower a protein crystal grows, the fewer flaws it will have. Protein crystal growth experiments have already flown on 14 Space Shuttle missions. This year's USML-1 Spacelab mission included protein crystal growth experiments conducted for commercial researchers. The results of protein crystal experiments flown thus far have been larger crystals with more uniform morphologies. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (A NASA-cosponsored CCDS) currently builds flight hardware to meet researchers' needs and handles sample loading and retrieval for flight experiments. Protein crystallography enables 'rational drug design': the development of drugs that bind only with the target protein and, hence, do not cause side effects. For example, pharmaceutical companies presently are interested in developing drugs that can inhibit purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), a protein that plays a role in auto-immune diseases. To continue these kinds of investigations, researchers need a constant supply of protein crystals that are as free of flaws

  3. Research Collaboration and Commercialization: The PhD Candidate Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Lawrence; Kenny, Breda

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores PhD students' perceptions of their entrepreneurial and commercial capabilities, their attitude towards university supports and the extent to which they engage in external collaboration. The study concentrated on current PhD researchers at one university in Ireland as a unit of analysis and provides encouraging evidence from the…

  4. Information management for commercial aviation - A research perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Wendell R.; Abbott, Kathy H.; Jonsson, Jon E.; Boucek, George; Rogers, William H.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of flight deck information management (IM), defined as processing, controlling, and directing information, for commercial flight decks, and a research effort underway to address this problem, are discussed. The premises provided are utilized to lay the groundwork required for such research by providing a framework to describe IM problems and an avenue to follow when investigating solution concepts. The research issues presented serve to identify specific questions necessary to achieve a better understanding of the IM problem, and to provide assessments of the relative merit of various solution concepts.

  5. International space research perspectives of commercialization for German industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    A brief overview of space flight activities is presented. West German contributions to satellite mapping, communication satellites, navigation, Spacelab, diffusion under weightlessness, crystal growth in space, metal bonding, and biochemistry are described. The future of the research in the space station is analyzed.

  6. Curiosity and Commercialization: Faculty Perspectives on Sponsored Research, Academic Science and Research Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perorazio, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Given the need to compete for sponsored research funding, do university faculty believe they retain the freedom to research what is of most interest to them? The higher education literature frequently asserts that faculty research agendas are being subjugated to the demands of sponsors. An alternate perspective, from the science studies…

  7. Therapeutic Ultrasound Research And Development From An Industrial And Commercial Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Seip, Ralf

    2009-04-14

    The objective of this paper is to share the challenges and opportunities as viewed from an industrial and commercial perspective that one encounters when performing therapeutic ultrasound research, development, manufacturing, and sales activities. Research in therapeutic ultrasound has become an active field in the last decade, spurred by technological advances in the areas of transducer materials, control electronics, treatment monitoring techniques, an ever increasing number of clinical applications, and private and governmental funding opportunities. The development of devices and methods utilizing therapeutic ultrasound to cure or manage disease is being pursued by startup companies and large established companies alike, driven by the promise of profiting at many levels from this new and disruptive technology. Widespread penetration within the clinical community remains elusive, with current approaches focusing on very specific applications and niche markets. Challenges include difficulties in securing capital to develop the technology and undertake costly clinical trials, a regulatory landscape that varies from country to country, resistance from established practitioners, and difficulties in assembling a team with the right mix of technological savvy and business expertise. Success is possible and increasing, however, as evidenced by several companies, initiatives, and products with measurable benefits to the patient, clinician, and companies alike.

  8. Therapeutic Ultrasound Research And Development From An Industrial And Commercial Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seip, Ralf

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to share the challenges and opportunities as viewed from an industrial and commercial perspective that one encounters when performing therapeutic ultrasound research, development, manufacturing, and sales activities. Research in therapeutic ultrasound has become an active field in the last decade, spurred by technological advances in the areas of transducer materials, control electronics, treatment monitoring techniques, an ever increasing number of clinical applications, and private and governmental funding opportunities. The development of devices and methods utilizing therapeutic ultrasound to cure or manage disease is being pursued by startup companies and large established companies alike, driven by the promise of profiting at many levels from this new and disruptive technology. Widespread penetration within the clinical community remains elusive, with current approaches focusing on very specific applications and niche markets. Challenges include difficulties in securing capital to develop the technology and undertake costly clinical trials, a regulatory landscape that varies from country to country, resistance from established practitioners, and difficulties in assembling a team with the right mix of technological savvy and business expertise. Success is possible and increasing, however, as evidenced by several companies, initiatives, and products with measurable benefits to the patient, clinician, and companies alike.

  9. Choosing the commercially correct idea for research and development. From a telemedicine company perspective.

    PubMed

    Zeevi, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    Healthcare delivery is undergoing major changes in order to reduce spiraling costs without sacrificing the quality of care. Patients and consumers are at the center of these changes. Telemedicine is growing rapidly. It offers many advantages to different healthcare players, yet still faces many entry barriers. Medical technology companies developing telemedicine products have to consider the market needs, the customer, the product development aspect, the business model, and the long process of market penetration, in order to choose the commercially correct idea and successfully bring it to the market. PMID:15455837

  10. Cell-based therapeutics from an economic perspective: primed for a commercial success or a research sinkhole?

    PubMed

    McAllister, Todd N; Dusserre, Nathalie; Maruszewski, Marcin; L'heureux, Nicolas

    2008-11-01

    Despite widespread hype and significant investment through the late 1980s and 1990s, cell-based therapeutics have largely failed from both a clinical and financial perspective. While the early pioneers were able to create clinically efficacious products, small margins coupled with small initial indications made it impossible to produce a reasonable return on the huge initial investments that had been made to support widespread research activities. Even as US FDA clearance opened up larger markets, investor interest waned, and the crown jewels of cell-based therapeutics went bankrupt or were rescued by corporate bailout. Despite the hard lessons learned from these pioneering companies, many of today's regenerative medicine companies are supporting nearly identical strategies. It remains to be seen whether or not our proposed tenets for investment and commercialization strategy yield an economic success or whether the original model can produce a return on investment sufficient to justify the large up-front investments. Irrespective of which approach yields a success, it is critically important that more of the second-generation products establish profitability if the field is to enjoy continued investment from both public and private sectors. PMID:18947313

  11. Training Researchers To Commercialize Research Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sijde, P. C.; Cuyvers, R.

    2003-01-01

    A training course was designed to prepare researchers for research commercialization for researchers. It introduces concepts involved in the publishing of knowledge such as protection of intellectual property, spin-off companies, and working with commercial companies. (JOW)

  12. Reflections on Commercializing University Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hum, Derek

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the extent of commercialization of research in Canadian universities, explains why copyright enforcement is difficult, and discusses the benefits and disadvantages of licensing an innovation versus creating a spinoff company to exploit university discoveries. Explores issues related to sharing benefits of university discoveries. (SLD)

  13. Commercial aviation icing research requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koegeboehn, L. P.

    1981-01-01

    A short range and long range icing research program was proposed. A survey was made to various industry and goverment agencies to obtain their views of needs for commercial aviation ice protection. Through these responsed, other additional data, and Douglas Aircraft icing expertise; an assessment of the state-of-the-art of aircraft icing data and ice protection systems was made. The information was then used to formulate the icing research programs.

  14. NASA's commercial research plans and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Ray J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the primary goals of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) commercial space development plan is to encourage the development of space-based products and markets, along with the infrastructure and transportation that will support those products and markets. A three phased program has been instituted to carry out this program. The first phase utilizes government grants through the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) for space-related, industry driven research; the development of a technology data base; and the development of commercial space transportation and infrastructure. The second phase includes the development of these technologies by industry for new commercial markets, and features unique industry/government collaborations such as Joint Endeavor Agreements. The final phase will feature technical applications actually brought to the marketplace. The government's role will be to support industry required infrastructure to encourage start-up markets and industries through follow-on development agreements such as the Space Systems Development Agreement. The Office of Commercial Programs has an aggressive flight program underway on the Space Shuttle, suborbital rockets, orbital expendable launch vehicles, and the Commercial Middeck Accommodation Module with SPACEHAB Inc. The Office of Commercial Program's has been allocated 35 percent of the U.S. share of the Space Station Freedom resources for 1997 utilization. A utilization plan has been developed with the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space and has identified eleven materials processing and biotechnology payloads occupying 5 double racks in the pressurized module as well as two payloads external to the module in materials exposure and environment monitoring. The Office of Commercial Programs will rely on the Space Station Freedom to provide the long duration laboratory component for space-based commercial research.

  15. Commercial investments in Combustion research aboard ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    2000-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is working with a number of companies planning commercial combustion research to be done aboard the International Space Station (ISS). This research will be conducted in two major ISS facilities, SpaceDRUMS™ and the Fluids and Combustion Facility. SpaceDRUMS™, under development by Guigne Technologies, Ltd., of St. John's Newfoundland, is a containerless processing facility employing active acoustic sample positioning. It is capable of processing the large samples needed in commercial research and development with virtually complete vibration isolation from the space station. The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF), being developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, is a general-purpose combustion furnace designed to accommodate a wide range of scientific experiments. SpaceDRUMS™ will be the first commercial hardware to be launched to ISS. Launch is currently scheduled for UF-1 in 2001. The CCACS research to be done in SpaceDRUMS™ includes combustion synthesis of glass-ceramics and porous materials. The FCF is currently scheduled to be launched to ISS aboard UF-3 in 2002. The CCACS research to be done in the FCF includes water mist fire suppression, catalytic combustion and flame synthesis of ceramic powders. The companies currently planning to be involved in the research include Guigne International, Ltd., Technology International, Inc., Coors Ceramics Company, TDA Research, Advanced Refractory Technologies, Inc., ADA Technologies, Inc., ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Princeton Instruments, Inc., Environmental Engineering Concepts, Inc., and Solar Turbines, Inc. Together, these companies are currently investing almost $2 million in cash and in-kind annually toward the seven commercial projects within CCACS. Total private investment in CCACS research to date is over $7 million. .

  16. Lewis Research Center: Commercialization Success Stories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyward, Ann O.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center, located in Cleveland, Ohio, has a portfolio of research and technology capabilities and facilities that afford opportunities for productive partnerships with industry in a broad range of industry sectors. In response to the President's agenda in the area of technology for economic growth (Clinton/Gore 1993), the National Performance Review (1993), NASA's Agenda for Change (1994), and the needs of its customers, NASA Lewis Research Center has sought and achieved significant successes in technology transfer and commercialization. This paper discusses a sampling of Lewis Research Center's successes in this area, and lessons learned that Lewis Research Center is applying in pursuit of continuous improvement and excellence in technology transfer and commercialization.

  17. Comparative Perspectives on Literacy Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Brian V.

    Three possible directions for literacy research in the United Kingdom (UK), in terms of three comparative perspectives are (1) cross-cultural, (2) academic/practitioner, and (3) adult/school. Walter Ong's argument that with the advent of writing human consciousness and ways of thinking were altered fundamentally, underlies many of the claims for…

  18. Research needs for a commercial passenger tiltrotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unger, George; Alexander, Harold

    1991-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently completed a series of contracts and studies that examined the technology needs for a tiltrotor aircraft in commercial service as well as military missions. The commercial needs arise out of market-driven requirements that include vertiport location and design, passenger comfort levels and competitive costs. The military needs are derived from time-sensitive missions and combat effectiveness. In response to these results, NASA has decided to address the commercial needs first, recognizing that there will be eventual payoff to military missions as well. Research goals were explored in acoustics, flight dynamics, human factors and displays, dynamics and loads, propulsion, safety, and configuration design. The paper describes the development of these goals from the market requirements and the implications for possible research activities. The aircraft issues that were addressed include number of blades, advanced blade planforms, steep approach requirements and pilot-cockpit interface for civil operations.

  19. Perspectives from Dental Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Bruce J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper responds to the Institute of Medicine's 1995 report concerning the present status and future needs of dental education in the United States. It examines whether real reform is occurring at the National Institute of Dental Research, within the academic dental community, and within the practicing profession. It concludes that very little…

  20. Marketing and commercialization of computational research services.

    SciTech Connect

    Toevs, J. W.

    2001-01-01

    Physical and computational scientists and mathematicians in Russia's nuclear cities are turning their work toward generating profits from Western markets. Successful ventures require an understanding of the marketing of contract research as well as Western expectations regarding contract execution, quality, and performance. This paper will address fundamentals in business structure, marketing, and contract performance for organizations engaging in the marketing and commercialization of research services. Considerable emphasis will be placed on developing adequate communication within the organization.

  1. Commercial Space Research: Entering a New Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Mark E.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Act which established NASA included direction that NASA is to foster to the maximum extent possible the commercial use of space. In order to achieve this, NASA began establishing in 1985, Commercial Space Centers (CSCs). These centers are a consortium of industry, academia, and government. Primarily university based, the CSCs are chartered to partner with industry to help companies learn how using space can improve their bottom line. Responsibility for the Commercial Space Centers rests with the Space Product Development Office at Marshall Space Flight Center. Since the program was established in 1985, SPD has sponsored nearly 180 commercial microgravity research payloads on 30 Shuttle missions. The vast majority of these missions were on the order of 6 days. Most companies have only had on average three flight opportunities to advance their product development efforts. From the product development standpoint of an individual company only three weeks of microgravity time have been obtained to date. Of key importance to a company is the fact that this time has not been continuous. Anywhere from one to three years elapses between flights. Despite these flight constraints, the companies in the SPD program have made considerable progress. For example, over the course of the program through 1999, industry has invested over half a billion dollars in cash and in-kind. Over a dozen new product lines are in development by the industrial partners of the Commercial Space Centers. Now the companies partnered with the SPD program have a new opportunity in the International Space Station. The long duration capability provided by the Station will provide double the amount of per company average microgravity time in just the first increment. Current planning through planning increment 5 shows that commercial investment in space research should now be positioned for greater returns.

  2. Publishing in the Next Few Years: A Commercial Publisher's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, Harry J. J.

    Over the past 15 years, internet technology changed the ways of publishing tremendously. It is truly revolutionary that both fresh and historic science publications are so much easier to search and find. This revolution has not been completed and all parties involved in science publishing are continuously adjusting their activities to the new rules and opportunities. From a commercial publisher's perspective, I will extrapolate what happens today to predict what happens in the next few years with journal subscriptions, book publishing, marketing, production and other steps in the publishing process.

  3. The Development of Commercial ESCA Instrumentation: A Personal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    A study of the development of commercial electron spectroscopy of chemical analysis (ESCA) instrumentation over a span of three decades is presented. The field has also been extended significantly by use of synchrotron radiation as a bright X-ray source, which has opened new areas of research in solid-state physics, molecular biology, and many…

  4. Commercialization of Research: A Case Study of Australian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Fang

    2004-01-01

    Research commercialization is a crucial aspect of technological innovation and is a complex socio-economic and technological process. This paper explores the commercialization of university research, drawing on an empirical study of the development of research commercialization by Australian universities. The study addresses three main research…

  5. Commercial Research and Development: Power to Explore, Opportunities from Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casas, Joseph C.; Nall, Mark; Powers, C. Blake; Henderson, Robin N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    force for strengthening the commercial space activities is not only the technological advances in launch vehicle, or newer satellites, but the myriad of enabling payloads technologies that could, as a goal, result in an almost transparent facilitation to regular CD a, -n access to space and microgravity environments by the future users from the existing Earth-based research and development organizations market segments. Rather than focusing only on developing high lift performance launch vehicles and then developing payloads to fit them, the real focus from a business model perspective should to be on the customer payloads requirements, and on designing launch vehicles and platforms systems for a space transportation and facility infrastructure to support all aspects of the business model for the user market. To harness the full potential of space commercialization, new efforts need to be made to comprehensively examine all the critical business model areas for commercial research, development, and manufacturing in space so as to identify specific products and efforts; to determine how such operations must be both similar to and different from current Earth-based activities; to evaluate the enabling technological devices, processes and efforts so that like efforts can be addressed in a synergistic fashion for maximum user cost effectiveness; to delineate the services that are both needed and can be provided by such activities; and to use this information to drive design and development of space commercialization efforts and policy.

  6. COMMERCIAL UTILITY PERSPECTIVES ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring; Julius J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States need to modernize their main control rooms (MCR). Many NPPs have done partial upgrades with some success and with some challenges. The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, and in particular the Advanced Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) and Information Systems Technologies Research and Development (R&D) Pathway within LWRS, is designed to assist commercial nuclear power industry with their MCR modernization efforts. As part of this framework, a survey was issued to utility representatives of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems/Technologies (II&C) Utility Working Group to obtain their views on a range of issues related to MCR modernization, including: drivers, barriers, and technology options, and the effects these aspects will have on concepts of operations, modernization strategies, and staffing. This paper summarizes the key survey results and discusses their implications.

  7. Bioculture System Expanding ISS Capabilities for Space Biosciences Research and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Kevin Y.

    2013-01-01

    Oral presentation at the ASGSR 2013 Annual Meeting. The presentation describes the NASA Bioculture System hardware design, capabilities, enabling science research capabilities, and flight concept of operations. The presentation is part of the Enabling Technologies special session and will be presented to perspective users in both academics and commercial communities.

  8. Understanding the Environment of the Commercializing University Researcher: Cases for Commercial Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gann, James R.

    2012-01-01

    As the U.S. continues its transition from an economy based upon manufacturing to one based upon innovation, one must look at the environment of the person at the epicenter of this change: The commercializing university researcher. This investigation provides insight into the cultural and regulatory life of the commercializing researcher, with the…

  9. Industry Research and Recommendations for New Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, B.; Leach, M.; Gregory, N.; Pless, S.; Selkowitz, S.; Matthew, P.

    2014-05-01

    Researchers evaluated industry needs and developed logic models to support possible future commercial new construction research and deployment efforts that could be led or supported by DOE's Commercial Building Integration program or other national initiatives. The authors believe that these recommendations support a proposed course of action from the current state of commercial building energy efficiency to a possible long-term goal of achieving significant market penetration of cost-effective NZE buildings in all building sectors and climates by 2030.

  10. Researcher Perspectives on Class Size Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graue, Elizabeth; Rauscher, Erica

    2009-01-01

    This article applies to class size research Grant and Graue's (1999) position that reviews of research represent conversations in the academic community. By extending our understanding of the class size reduction conversation beyond published literature to the perspectives of researchers who have studied the topic, we create a review that includes…

  11. Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Literacy Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Richard, Ed.; And Others

    This collection of conference papers explores the application of a range of different disciplinary perspectives to studying literacy, drawing not only on newer linguistic and cognitive psychological orientations, but also on cultural anthropology, sociolinguistics, reader-response theory, critical theory, and poststructuralist theory. The…

  12. Organizational Adaptation and the Commercialization of Research Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooris, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    The trend toward commercialization in research universities is attributed not only to economic dependence on the commercial sector, but also to a changing interpretation of universities' role in research and service to include development of technology, technology transfer, and economic development. (MSE)

  13. Commercial Research Results from the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Mark

    2003-01-01

    As part of NASA's mission of enabling commercial opportunities in space, the Space Product Development Office has sponsored the flight of twelve commercial payloads to the International Space Station (ISS) during calendar year 2002. These twelve follow seven commercial payloads flown to the ISS during 2001. Many of these payloads, which were among the first users of this new laboratory, built upon successful commercial investigations that previously were restricted to the limited flight duration of the Space Shuttle. While the majority of early commercial use of the ISS is in the area of biotechnology, there is a significant shift towards commercial materials research over the next two years. New commercial payloads such as Space-DRUMS and Vulcan will advance commercial materials research on the ISS. Commercial flight hardware is available to the broader NASA community in order to provide benefit to the entire NASA microgravity program, and the scientific community on a space available basis and at very low cost. The first commercial operations on the ISS provides not only a needed capability to the commercial development of space program, it will also augment the science program as well.

  14. Perspectives on Communications Research: An Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Ithiel de Sola; Schiller, Herbert I.

    1981-01-01

    Scholarly exchange of perspectives and beliefs governing the thinking and work of two "productive and principled" scholars. Covers kinds of research they deem important, problems of information overload, and application to Third World Countries. (Took place at 1980 General Assembly of the International Association for Mass Communication Research,…

  15. Research in Teacher Education: International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisher, Richard P., Ed.; Wideen, Marvin F., Ed.

    This book was developed in response to audience interest in a symposium sponsored by the American Educational Research Association (annual meeting, Washington, D.C., 1987). The book addresses international perspectives on research in teacher education and offers the following contributions from scholars from 12 countries: "The Role Played by…

  16. Future Perspectives of Biocybernetic Research in Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This paper describes the future perspectives of biocybernetic communication research applied to television, i.e., the measurement of the information impact of television on both individual human beings and groups in terms of energetic changes in the human body. A summary of the recent state of the art of biocybernetic research includes discussions…

  17. Expanding Perspectives on HRD Research. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on expanding perspectives in human resource development (HRD) research. "The Concept of Culture in International and Comparative HRD Research: Methodological Problems and Possible Solutions" (Alexander Ardichvili, K. Peter Kuchinke) discusses the following topics: (1) alternative approaches to…

  18. Commercial Sample Identification and Characterization Challenges in Medicinal Mushroom Research.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    A recent study published in this journal demonstrates the pitfalls faced by researchers who utilize commercial products as their test samples without proper characterization. Labeling of commercial mushroom products is often incorrect, which can lead to erroneous interpretations and conclusions. Nine of the 10 samples of commercially branded products used in the study and identified as ground mushrooms were actually grain spawn: mycelium propagated on grain. PMID:27481153

  19. Further Thoughts on Research Perspectives in Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Laura S.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes several issues concerning research in nutrition education. Examines several research perspectives such as behavior modification, social learning, information-processing, health belief, and ecological system perspectives. Suggests three areas of research directions including assessment, strategies, and evaluation. (DS)

  20. Commercial surrogacy and the commodification of children: an ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    van Niekerk, A; van Zyl, L

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this article is to establish whether there is anything intrinsically immoral about surrogacy arrangements from the perspective of the children born from such arrangements. We focus on the claim that surrogacy entails the wrongful commodification or transfer of children, thereby degrading them and disrespecting their inherent moral value as individual human beings. PMID:8523997

  1. Historical Perspectives toward Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The keynote address on which this article is based considers four stages or types of studies that qualitative researchers undertake in the field of education. The reason that I explored this focus was to illustrate the benefits and the dangers of designing studies to serve policy makers. The research that I selected sought to uncover information…

  2. Teachers' Perspectives on Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Karen; Miller, Shazia; Behrstock-Sherratt, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Based on two studies that we conducted in the Chicago metropolitan area in 2009 and 2010, we found that teachers do, in fact, use research, although they tend to seek it out under very specific conditions and circumstances. Namely, teachers tend to look for research in response to an immediate, pressing concern, such as how to best teach fractions…

  3. Teachers' Perspectives on Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drill, Karen; Miller, Shazia; Behrstock-Sherratt, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Based on two studies conducted in the Chicago metropolitan area in 2009 and 2010, we found that teachers do, in fact, use research, although they tend to seek it out under very specific conditions and circumstances. Namely, teachers tend to look to research in response to an immediate, pressing concern such as how to best teach fractions to…

  4. Qualitative perspectives in translational research.

    PubMed

    Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Doebbeling, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    The rapid uptake of qualitative approaches in translational research can be best understood in the context of recent innovations in health services research, as well as an overarching concern with improving the quality of health care. Qualitative approaches highlight the human dimension in health care by foregrounding the perceptions, experiences, and behaviors of both consumers and providers of care. As such, these methods are particularly useful for addressing the complex issues related to improving health care quality and implementing system change. This overview traces a brief history of the factors contributing to the recent and rapid growth of qualitative methods in health research in general and translational research in particular; describes the varieties of qualitative approaches employed in this research; and illustrates the utility of these approaches for variable identification, instrument development, description/explanation of patient/provider perceptions and behaviors, individual/organizational change, and theory refinement. PMID:17129338

  5. Commercial Platforms Allow Affordable Space Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    At an altitude of about 240 miles, its orbital path carries it over 90 percent of the Earth s population. It circles the Earth in continuous free fall; its crew of six and one Robonaut pass the days, experiencing 16 sunrises and 16 sunsets every 24 hours, in microgravity, an environment in which everything from bodily functions to the physical behavior of materials changes drastically from what is common on the ground. Outside its shielded confines, temperatures cycle from one extreme to the other, radiation is rampant, and atomic oxygen corrodes everything it touches. A unique feat of engineering, the International Space Station (ISS) also represents the most remarkable platform for scientific research ever devised. In 2005, anticipating the space station s potential for NASA and non-NASA scientists alike, the NASA Authorization Act designated the US segment of the ISS as a national laboratory, instructing the Agency to "increase the utilization of the ISS by other Federal entities and the private sector." With the ISS set to maintain operations through at least 2020, the station offers an unprecedented long-term access to space conditions, enabling research not previously possible. "There will be new drug discoveries, new pharmaceuticals, a better understanding of how we affect the planet and how we can maintain it," says Marybeth Edeen, the ISS National Laboratory manager, based at Johnson Space Center. The ISS, she says, represents a major example of the government s role in making such advancements possible. "The government is key in that researchers cannot afford to build the kind of infrastructure that the government can provide. But we then have to make that infrastructure available at a reasonable cost." Enter Jeff Manber, who saw in the ISS National Lab an extraordinary opportunity to advance science, education, and business in ways never before seen.

  6. MENOMINEE PERSPECTIVES ON COMMERCIAL AND SACRED TOBACCO USE

    PubMed Central

    Rouse Arndt, Leah M.; Caskey, Mark; Fossum, Jodi; Schmitt, Natasha; Davis, Amileah R.; Smith, Stevens S.; Kenote, Benjamin; Strickland, Rick; Waukau, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    The Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin has the highest smoking rate in the state. To address the resultant health disparities, the tribe conducted a qualitative pilot project to examine tobacco use. The findings indicated mainstream models of addiction did not capture the tribe’s context well; the Indigenist Stress-Coping Model was most applicable. Participants suggested that Menominee-centric ways of knowing related to commercial and sacred tobacco use should be included in all levels of prevention as a key strategy. Recommendations include primary prevention targeted specifi ally to youth, pregnant women, and adults who care for children, as well as access to commercial tobacco products. PMID:24352817

  7. Historical perspectives on lipoprotein research and methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, F.T.

    1990-03-01

    Since the early history of lipoprotein isolation and characterization dates back more than 60 years, it would be helpful to describe some of the landmarks occurring before about 1965. This document contains historical perspectives and information on lipoprotein research and methodology. 35 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Critical Perspectives on Methodology in Pedagogic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The emancipatory dimension to higher education represents one of the sector's most compelling characteristics, but it remains important to develop understanding of the sources of determination that shape practice. Drawing on critical realist perspectives, we explore generative mechanisms by which methodology in pedagogic research affects the…

  9. Researching Educational Praxis: Spectator and Participant Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmis, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes two parallel research programmes exploring educational practice/praxis. The first, including a theory of "practice architectures", aims to contribute to contemporary practice theory that views practice from the perspective of a spectator. The second aims to contribute to an emerging (practical philosophy) tradition of…

  10. Perspectives on research in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Seedat, Y K

    2009-01-01

    This is a review of my published research on hypertension over 45 years on the three main racial groups residing in KwaZulu-Natal and its main city Durban. These three groups are blacks - mainly Zulu, whites and Indians. The research focused mainly on epidemiology, determinants of the aetiology of hypertension, clinical features, varying responses to hypotensive agents among the racial groups, complications that result from hypertension and the control of hypertension. PMID:19287815

  11. Common Perspectives in Qualitative Research.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Marie

    2016-07-01

    The primary purpose of this column is to focus on several common core concepts that are foundational to qualitative research. Discussion of these concepts is at an introductory level and is designed to raise awareness and understanding of several conceptual foundations that undergird qualitative research. Because of the variety of qualitative approaches, not all concepts are relevant to every design and tradition. However, foundational aspects were selected for highlighting. PMID:27314194

  12. New Directions in Composition Research. Perspectives in Writing Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Richard, Ed.; Bridwell, Lillian S., Ed.

    This book contains 20 articles, from a wide variety of perspectives, designed to bridge the interests of researchers and teachers on the topic of current composition research. The following articles are included: "Studying the Writing Abilities of a University Freshman Class: Strategies from a Case Study" (Charles R. Cooper, with Roger Cherry,…

  13. Commercializing biomedical research through securitization techniques.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Jose-Maria; Stein, Roger M; Lo, Andrew W

    2012-10-01

    Biomedical innovation has become riskier, more expensive and more difficult to finance with traditional sources such as private and public equity. Here we propose a financial structure in which a large number of biomedical programs at various stages of development are funded by a single entity to substantially reduce the portfolio's risk. The portfolio entity can finance its activities by issuing debt, a critical advantage because a much larger pool of capital is available for investment in debt versus equity. By employing financial engineering techniques such as securitization, it can raise even greater amounts of more-patient capital. In a simulation using historical data for new molecular entities in oncology from 1990 to 2011, we find that megafunds of $5–15 billion may yield average investment returns of 8.9–11.4% for equity holders and 5–8% for 'research-backed obligation' holders, which are lower than typical venture-capital hurdle rates but attractive to pension funds, insurance companies and other large institutional investors. PMID:23023199

  14. EPA POLICY AND RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled “Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges”. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bac...

  15. Effective Practising: A Research Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhukov, Katie

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews latest research findings on practising in an attempt to encourage studio music teachers to trial new approaches. Literature shows that expert performers begin learning an instrument at an early age, and sustain and increase their deliberate practice over at least 10 years. A certain amount of practice hours is needed to achieve…

  16. Herbal Drug Regulation and Commercialization: An Indian Industry Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Padmavati

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To assess the constraints for Indian herbal drug industry with respect to manufacturing and commercialization of herbal medicines. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to obtain primary data on challenges faced during production, commercialization, and marketing approval for traditional or herbal drugs in India and abroad. Responses were collected from 150 companies by email, telephone, and in-person interviews from June 2009 to August 2010 and were analyzed to draw appropriate conclusions. Results: The survey result showed that differing regulatory requirements and the limited market in foreign countries are the major hindrances for exporting. Standardization and quality control of raw materials and herbal formulations emerged as the major challenge for Indian herbal drug manufacturing firms. Insufficient regulatory guidelines, particularly guidelines for good manufacturing practices; nonimplementation of good agricultural and collection practices; and weak implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 are considered major drawbacks for the Indian herbal industry. Conclusions: Proper implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940, development of more elaborate guidelines on quality control aspects, and development of marker-based standards are needed to produce safe and effective herbal medicines in India. Because evidence-based studies are becoming increasingly essential for establishing the safety and efficacy of herbal products in the domestic and export market, more focus should be placed on scientific and technological advancement in the field of herbal medicine. Regulatory harmonization becomes essential to mitigate the delays in commercialization across countries. PMID:23829812

  17. Situational awareness in the commercial aircraft cockpit - A cognitive perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Marilyn J.; Pew, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    A cognitive theory is presented that has relevance for the definition and assessment of situational awareness in the cockpit. The theory asserts that maintenance of situation awareness is a constructive process that demands mental resources in competition with ongoing task performance. Implications of this perspective for assessing and improving situational awareness are discussed. It is concluded that the goal of inserting advanced technology into any system is that it results in an increase in the effectiveness, timeliness, and safety with which the system's activities can be accomplished. The inherent difficulties of the multitask situation are very often compounded by the introduction of automation. To maximize situational awareness, the dynamics and capabilities of such technologies must be designed with thorough respect for the dynamics and capabilities of human information-processing.

  18. Characterization of Commercially Available Vaginal Lubricants: A Safety Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Ana Raquel; Machado, Rita M.; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José; das Neves, José; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal lubricants are widely used by women to help solve intercourse difficulties or as enhancers, but recent reports raise questions about their safety. Twelve commercially available gel products were tested for pH value, pH buffering capacity, osmolality and cytotoxicity relevant to vaginal delivery. Obtained data were analyzed in light of the recent Advisory Note by the World Health Organization (WHO) for personal lubricants to be concomitantly used with condoms. Results showed that most products do not comply with pH and osmolality recommended standards, thus posing a potential hazard. Four products presented values of osmolality around three-times higher than the maximum acceptable limit of 1200 mOsm/kg. In vitro cell testing further identified substantial cytotoxicity even at 1:100 dilutions for three products, contrasting with no significant effect of up to at least a 1:5 dilution of a Universal Placebo gel. However, no direct correlation between these last results and pH or osmolality was found, thus suggesting that the individual toxicity of specific formulation components plays an important role in the outcome of a particular product. Although further assessment is required, these results highlight potential safety issues related to the formulation of commercially available vaginal lubricants. PMID:25247884

  19. PERSPECTIVE: Translational neural engineering: multiple perspectives on bringing benchtop research into the clinical domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousche, Patrick; Schneeweis, David M.; Perreault, Eric J.; Jensen, Winnie

    2008-03-01

    A half-day forum to address a wide range of issues related to translational neural engineering was conducted at the annual meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Successful practitioners of translational neural engineering from academics, clinical medicine and industry were invited to share a diversity of perspectives and experiences on the translational process. The forum was targeted towards traditional academic researchers who may be interested in the expanded funding opportunities available for translational research that emphasizes product commercialization and clinical implementation. The seminar was funded by the NIH with support from the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. We report here a summary of the speaker viewpoints with particular focus on extracting successful strategies for engaging in or conducting translational neural engineering research. Daryl Kipke, PhD, (Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Michigan) and Molly Shoichet, PhD, (Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Toronto) gave details of their extensive experience with product commercialization while holding primary appointments in academic departments. They both encouraged strong clinical input at very early stages of research. Neurosurgeon Fady Charbel, MD, (Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Illinois at Chicago) discussed his role in product commercialization as a clinician. Todd Kuiken, MD, PhD, (Director of the Neural Engineering for Artificial Limbs at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, affiliated with Northwestern University) also a clinician, described a model of translational engineering that emphasized the development of clinically relevant technology, without a strong commercialization imperative. The clinicians emphasized the importance of communicating effectively with engineers. Representing commercial neural engineering was Doug Sheffield, PhD, (Director of New Technology at Vertis Neuroscience, Inc.) who

  20. A public health perspective on research ethics

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, D R; Miller, F G

    2006-01-01

    Ethical guidelines for conducting clinical trials have historically been based on a perceived therapeutic obligation to treat and benefit the patient‐participants. The origins of this ethical framework can be traced to the Hippocratic oath originally written to guide doctors in caring for their patients, where the overriding moral obligation of doctors is strictly to do what is best for the individual patient, irrespective of other social considerations. In contrast, although medicine focuses on the health of the person, public health is concerned with the health of the entire population, and thus, public health ethics is founded on the societal responsibility to protect and promote the health of the population as a whole. From a public health perspective, research ethics should be guided by giving due consideration to the risks and benefits to society in addition to the individual research participants. On the basis of a duty to protect the population as a whole, a fiduciary obligation to realise the social value of the research and the moral responsibility to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly across society, how a public health perspective on research ethics results in fundamental re‐assessments of the proper course of action for two salient topical issues in research ethics is shown: stopping trials early for reasons of efficacy and the conduct of research on less expensive yet less effective interventions. PMID:17145915

  1. Open science versus commercialization: a modern research conflict?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Efforts to improve research outcomes have resulted in genomic researchers being confronted with complex and seemingly contradictory instructions about how to perform their tasks. Over the past decade, there has been increasing pressure on university researchers to commercialize their work. Concurrently, they are encouraged to collaborate, share data and disseminate new knowledge quickly (that is, to adopt an open science model) in order to foster scientific progress, meet humanitarian goals, and to maximize the impact of their research. Discussion We present selected guidelines from three countries (Canada, United States, and United Kingdom) situated at the forefront of genomics to illustrate this potential policy conflict. Examining the innovation ecosystem and the messages conveyed by the different policies surveyed, we further investigate the inconsistencies between open science and commercialization policies. Summary Commercialization and open science are not necessarily irreconcilable and could instead be envisioned as complementary elements of a more holistic innovation framework. Given the exploratory nature of our study, we wish to point out the need to gather additional evidence on the coexistence of open science and commercialization policies and on its impact, both positive and negative, on genomics academic research. PMID:22369790

  2. Alternative perspectives on the sustainability of Alaska's commercial fisheries.

    PubMed

    Loring, Philip A

    2013-02-01

    Many believe commercial fisheries in Alaska (U.S.A.) are sustainability success stories, but ongoing socioeconomic problems across the state raise questions about how this sustainability is being defined and evaluated. Problems such as food insecurity and the disenfranchisement of Alaska Natives from fishing rights are well documented, yet these concerns are obscured by marketing campaigns that convey images of flourishing fishing communities and initiatives to certify Alaska's fisheries as responsibly managed. Fisheries management mandates and approaches built on such metrics and technologies as maximum sustainable yield and systems of tradable quotas actually serve to constrain, circumscribe, and marginalize some Alaskans' opportunities for effecting change in how the benefits of these fisheries are allocated. Beneath the narrative of sustainability, these management technologies perpetuate a cognitive ecological model of sustainability that is oriented to single-species outcomes, that casts people as parasites, and thus assumes the necessity of trade-offs between biological and social goals. Alternative cognitive models are available that draw metaphors from different ecological concepts such as keystone species and mutualisms. Such models, when used to inform management approaches, may improve societal outcomes in Alaska and elsewhere by promoting food security and sustainability through diversified natural resource harvest strategies that are more flexible and responsive to environmental variability and change. PMID:22988912

  3. Nde Challenges with Future Commercial Aircraft-A Boeing Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollgaard, J. R.; LaRiviere, S. G.

    2008-02-01

    Commercial aircraft have undergone revolutionary changes in design, configuration and materials. This produces new challenges to the NDE community ranging from process controls of raw materials, to testing and fabrication of structural components, to service damage assessments. As we drive NDE up the value stream, it will become imperative to understand variousprocess parameters and their relationship to product quality. NDE may play a key role in characterizing and controlling those parameters. In production, inspection has become a critical aspect in the processing of large, unitized structures. Penetrant, radiographic, and magnetic particle techniques are less applicable while ultrasonics has taken on a critical role, earlier in the build process. NDE data are acquired over large areas at rates far faster than before, creating challenges in the time required to analyze and document the data. Qualified inspectors, equipment, and techniques are essential. In the field, eddy current and shear wave ultrasonic methods, long a mainstay of aircraft maintenance, are beginning to yield to ultrasonic techniques involving C-scans and linear arrays. The building of new-generation airplanes has revealed shortcomings in existing NDE technology and in some cases enhanced the case for non-traditional methods. This paper will review Boeing's experience with NDE of advanced structures, in particular those present on the Boeing 787, and summarize the Boeing outlook for future NDE needs.

  4. Commercial Photography. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ted; Sappe', Hoyt

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of commercial photography, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train photographic technicians. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase…

  5. Commercial biobanks and genetic research: ethical and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Anderlik, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Human biological material is recognized as an important tool in research, and the demand for collections that combine samples and data is increasing. For-profit companies have assumed a leading role in assembling and managing these collections. The emergence of commercial biobanks has raised significant ethical and legal issues. The growing awareness of the importance of human biological material in research has been accompanied by a growing awareness of the deficiencies of existing archives of tissue. Commercial biobanks are attempting to position themselves as a, if not the, solution to problems that include a lack of public trust in researchers and lack of financial resources to support the prospective creation of collections that meet the highest scientific and ethical standards in the non-profit sector. Broad social and policy questions surrounding the operation of commercial biobanks have been raised however. International documents, in particular, suggest discomfort with the idea of gain from the mere transfer or exchange of human genetic material and information. Commercial involvement in the development of useful products from tissue is generally not condemned, so long as there is attention to scientific and social norms. Views on the acceptability of commercial biobanks vary. Specific issues that arise when commercial biobanks are permitted--in the areas of consent, recruitment, confidentiality, and accountability--are also relevant to the operation of public and private, non-profit biobanks. Although many uncertainties remain, consensus seems to be forming on a number of issues. For example, there appears to be agreement that blanket consent to future unspecified research uses, with no conditions, is unacceptable. Indeed, many of the leading commercial biobanks have been attentive to concerns about consent, recruitment, and confidentiality. Unfortunately, the binding nature of assurances in these areas is unclear, especially given the risk of insolvency

  6. Metabolomic applications in nutritional research: a perspective.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Aoife; Brennan, Lorraine

    2015-10-01

    Metabolomics focuses on the global study of metabolites in cells, tissues and biofluids. Analytical technologies such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and hyphenated mass spectrometry (MS) combined with advanced multivariate statistical methods allow us to study perturbations in metabolism. The close link between metabolism and nutrition has seen the application of metabolomics in nutritional research increase in recent times. Such applications can be divided into three main categories, namely (1) the area of dietary biomarker identification, (2) diet-related diseases and (3) nutritional interventions. The present perspective gives an overview of these applications and an outlook to the future. PMID:25640072

  7. "Ethics and Clinical Research" in Biographical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Henry K. Beecher (1904-1976) played an important role in the development of bioethics. His 1966 article "Ethics and Clinical Research" in the New England Journal of Medicine intensified concern about the welfare of patients participating in clinical research, and his leadership in the 1968 Harvard Ad Hoc Committee on Brain Death redefined the determination of death. Beecher deserves, and even demands, explanation and explication. This essay offers a biographical perspective on the Harvard professor. In addition to his early life and education in both Kansas and Boston, the essay explores how Beecher's experiences in World War II and in the new geopolitical realities of the Cold War shaped his views about the ethical dilemmas of clinical research. PMID:27499482

  8. Research in space commercialization, technology transfer, and communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Research and internship programs in technology transfer, space commercialization, and information and communications policy are described. The intern's activities are reviewed. On-campus research involved work on the costs of conventional telephone technology in rural areas, an investigation of the lag between the start of a research and development project and the development of new technology, using NASA patent and patent waiver data, studies of the financial impact and economic prospects of a space operation center, a study of the accuracy of expert forecasts of uncertain quantities and a report on frequency coordination in the fixed and fixed satellite services at 4 and 6 GHz.

  9. Commercial building energy use monitoring for utility load research

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a method to acquire empirical data regarding commercial building energy performance for utility load research. The method was devised and implemented for a large scale monitoring program being conducted for a federal electricity marketing and transmission agency in the Pacific Northwest states. An important feature of this method is its hierarchical approach, wherein building types, end-use loads, and key building characteristics are classified to accommodate analysis at many levels. Through this common taxonomy and measurement protocol, energy-use metering projects of varying detail and comprehensiveness can be coordinated. The procedures devised for this project have been implemented for approximately 150 buildings to date by specially trained contractors. Hence, this paper provides real-world insights of the complexity and power of end use measurements from commercial buildings to address utility load research topics. 6 refs.

  10. Evaluating commercial weight loss programmes: an evolution in outcomes research.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, M; Greenway, F

    2004-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity has been mirrored by a parallel increase in the number of commercial weight loss programmes. Research evaluating these programmes is meagre, however, compared to the numbers treated. Reluctance of commercial weight loss programmes to meaningfully evaluate their weight loss efficacy may arise from fear that competitors will use the results against them. Evaluation of commercial weight loss programmes usually progresses from testimonials, often by famous people who were successful, to uncontrolled studies of past participants evaluated either by the programme itself or by an outside entity. The gold standard, however, is a scientifically rigorous, controlled study of the programme conducted by an independent entity. Such a study, published in a peer-reviewed journal, can gain credibility for a programme, as it did with Slim Fast, if the results are positive, or herald the end of the programme, as it was with Simeons human chorionic gonadotropin injection clinics. This review of the evolution of the evaluation process of commercial weight loss programmes leads us to conclude that consumers are likely to demand greater scientific rigour in the future, a change that will favour informed choice and discourage the practice of unrealistic advertising that raises false hopes. PMID:15458396

  11. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  12. Knowledge Building and Social Work Research: A Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCroy, Craig Winston

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses efforts to build social work research in a manner consistent with good science and research. A critical perspective is applied to examine what does not work in building knowledge and how social work research can address factors that limit knowledge building. A critical perspective is imperative to social work knowledge…

  13. Hybrid-Electric and Distributed Propulsion Technologies for Large Commercial Transports: A NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madavan, Nateri K.; Del Rosario, Ruben; Jankovsky, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Develop and demonstrate technologies that will revolutionize commercial transport aircraft propulsion and accelerate development of all-electric aircraft architectures. Enable radically different propulsion systems that can meet national environmental and fuel burn reduction goals for subsonic commercial aircraft. Focus on future large regional jets and single-aisle twin (Boeing 737- class) aircraft for greatest impact on fuel burn, noise and emissions. Research horizon is long-term but with periodic spinoff of technologies for introduction in aircraft with more- and all-electric architectures. Research aligned with new NASA Aeronautics strategic R&T thrusts in areas of transition to low-carbon propulsion and ultra-efficient commercial transports.

  14. Phosphoproteomics in translational research: a sarcoma perspective.

    PubMed

    Noujaim, J; Payne, L S; Judson, I; Jones, R L; Huang, P H

    2016-05-01

    Phosphoproteomics has been extensively used as a preclinical research tool to characterize the phosphorylated components of the cancer proteome. Advances in the field have yielded insights into new drug targets, mechanisms of disease progression and drug resistance, and biomarker discovery. However, application of this technology to clinical research has been challenging because of practical issues relating to specimen integrity and tumour heterogeneity. Beyond these limitations, phosphoproteomics has the potential to play a pivotal role in translational studies and contribute to advances in different tumour groups, including rare disease sites like sarcoma. In this review, we propose that deploying phosphoproteomic technologies in translational research may facilitate the identification of better defined predictive biomarkers for patient stratification, inform drug selection in umbrella trials and identify new combinations to overcome drug resistance. We provide an overview of current phosphoproteomic technologies, such as affinity-based assays and mass spectrometry-based approaches, and discuss their advantages and limitations. We use sarcoma as an example to illustrate the current challenges in evaluating targeted kinase therapies in clinical trials. We then highlight useful lessons from preclinical studies in sarcoma biology to demonstrate how phosphoproteomics may address some of these challenges. Finally, we conclude by offering a perspective and list the key measures required to translate and benchmark a largely preclinical technology into a useful tool for translational research. PMID:26802162

  15. Custom Mentholation of Commercial Cigarettes for Research Purposes

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Ian C.; Stanfill, Stephen B.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Turner, Douglas J.; Butler, Jenny M.; Hanft, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Hyoshin; Kroeger, Robyn R.; Brinkman, Marielle C.; Tefft, Margaret E.; Clark, Pamela I.; Buehler, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S. menthol remains the sole permitted characterizing cigarette flavor additive in part because efforts to link menthol cigarette use to increased tobacco-related disease risk have been inconclusive. To perform definitive studies, cigarettes that differ only in menthol content are required, yet these are not commercially available. We prepared research cigarettes differing only in menthol content by deposition of L-menthol vapor directly onto commercial nonmenthol cigarettes, and developed a method to measure a cigarette’s menthol and nicotine content. With our custom-mentholation technique we achieved the desired moderately high menthol content (as compared to commercial brands) of 6.7 ± 1.0 mg/g (n = 25) without perturbing the cigarettes’ nicotine content (17.7 ± 0.7 mg/g [n = 25]). We also characterized other pertinent attributes of our custom-mentholated cigarettes, including percent transmission of menthol and nicotine to mainstream smoke and the rate of loss of menthol over time during storage at room temperature. We are currently using this simple mentholation technique to investigate the differences in human exposure to selected chemicals in cigarette smoke due only to the presence of the added menthol. Our cigarettes will also aid in the elucidation of the effects of menthol on the toxicity of tobacco smoke. PMID:25621204

  16. Proposed testing protocols for commercial kitchen ventilation research

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, J.S. )

    1991-03-01

    Commercial kitchen ventilation systems significantly impact energy use and peak energy demand in foodservice establishments. However, the amount of ventilation exhaust required by different building codes and standards varies widely. Moreover, there is no industry-wide accepted testing procedure that quantifies and verifies exhaust capture and addresses the various types of cooking equipment used in commercial kitchens. This report provides a review of some requirements and practices which are currently in use. Proposals aimed at developing a more uniform approach to ventilation are discussed, including proposals for cooking and ventilation test protocols. Information obtained through a literature search and solicitation of information from cooking appliance and ventilation equipment manufacturers supports the conclusion that additional research and testing is needed to develop methods to establish ventilation requirements of commercial cooking equipment. Based on information gathered, and a meeting with industry representatives, draft test protocols were developed. The proposed protocols call for separate testing of cooking equipment and exhaust hoods. Tests of cooking equipment would be intended to characterize the effluent produced by specific equipment and cooking processes, and to facilitate equipment categorization with respect to cooking surface temperature and effluent generation rates. Using this information on cooking equipment, ventilation hoods would be tested to develop test procedures to determine ventilation requirements for specific hood and cooking equipment combinations. 12 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. Play and Literacy in Early Childhood: Research from Multiple Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen A., Ed.; Christie, James F., Ed.

    Noting that an examination of play from diverse perspectives deepens understanding and opens up new avenues for research and educational practice, this book brings together studies, research syntheses, and critical commentaries that examine play-literacy relationships from cognitive, ecological, and cultural perspectives. Each set of chapters is…

  18. Female impulsive aggression: a sleep research perspective.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Putkonen, Hanna; Sailas, Eila; Takala, Pirjo; Eronen, Markku; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-01-01

    The rate of violent crimes among girls and women appears to be increasing. One in every five female prisoners has been reported to have antisocial personality disorder. However, it has been quite unclear whether the impulsive, aggressive behaviour among women is affected by the same biological mechanisms as among men. Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Most psychiatric disorders are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep (SWS), the physiologically significant, refreshing part of sleep. Among men with antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, increased SWS has been reported, reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of human sleep patterns. In our preliminary study among medication-free, detoxified female homicidal offenders with antisocial personality disorder, the same profound abnormality in sleep architecture was found. From the perspective of sleep research, the biological correlates of severe impulsive aggression seem to share similar features in both sexes. PMID:19095304

  19. Global health research to promote social justice: a critical perspective.

    PubMed

    Bathum, Mary Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Researchers who use a critical perspective analyze the historical, political, economic, social, cultural, and gender factors that impact on the people being studied. Research is regarded as a way to promote social justice. The purpose of this article is to describe why and how a critical perspective was used in designing and implementing research with Aymara women healers in the high plains of Peru. The study is used to demonstrate the usefulness of a critical perspective in global health nursing research to promote social justice. PMID:18025866

  20. Quality assurance as a managerial innovation: a research perspective.

    PubMed

    Kaluzny, A D

    1982-01-01

    Quality assurance is defined and concepts from innovation theory are applied to the study of quality assurance programs. Two distinct although not mutually exclusive perspectives on innovation are considered--the diffusion perspective, focusing on the innovation itself and its implementation, and the adoption perspective, highlighting factors characteristic of the adoption unit (i.e., the organization or individuals within it) that facilitate or impede the adoption process. Directions for future research are suggested. PMID:7118545

  1. Evolution of Theoretical Perspectives in My Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Valerie K.

    2009-11-01

    Over the past 10 years I have been using socio-cultural theoretical perspectives to understand how people learn physics in a highly interactive, inquiry-based physics course such as Physics and Everyday Thinking [1]. As a result of using various perspectives (e.g. Distributed Cognition and Vygotsky's Theory of Concept Formation), my understanding of how these perspectives can be useful for investigating students' learning processes has changed. In this paper, I illustrate changes in my thinking about the role of socio-cultural perspectives in understanding physics learning and describe elements of my thinking that have remained fairly stable. Finally, I will discuss pitfalls in the use of certain perspectives and discuss areas that need attention in theoretical development for PER.

  2. Nanometrology and its perspectives in environmental research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-A; Seo, Jung-Kwan; Kim, Taksoo; Lee, Byung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Rapid increase in engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in many goods has raised significant concern about their environmental safety. Proper methodologies are therefore needed to conduct toxicity and exposure assessment of nanoparticles in the environment. This study reviews several analytical techniques for nanoparticles and summarizes their principles, advantages and disadvantages, reviews the state of the art, and offers the perspectives of nanometrology in relation to ENP studies. Methods Nanometrology is divided into five techniques with regard to the instrumental principle: microscopy, light scattering, spectroscopy, separation, and single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results Each analytical method has its own drawbacks, such as detection limit, ability to quantify or qualify ENPs, and matrix effects. More than two different analytical methods should be used to better characterize ENPs. Conclusions In characterizing ENPs, the researchers should understand the nanometrology and its demerits, as well as its merits, to properly interpret their experimental results. Challenges lie in the nanometrology and pretreatment of ENPs from various matrices; in the extraction without dissolution or aggregation, and concentration of ENPs to satisfy the instrumental detection limit. PMID:25384386

  3. From university research to commercial product (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathuis, Philip

    2016-03-01

    Ovizio Imaging Systems, a quantitative microscopic imaging spin-off of the Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, was founded in the beginning of 2010 by Philip Mathuis, Serge Jooris, Prof. Frank Dubois and Dr. Catherine Yourassowky. The company has launched a range of specialized microscopy instruments for quantitative imaging mainly focused on the bioprocessing and diagnostics fields within the life sciences market. During my talk I will present the story of how an idea, emerged from the research labs of the University made it to a manufactured and sold product. The talk will look at many aspects of entrepreneurship and setting up a company, finding the funding for the project, attracting people, industrialization and product design and commercialization. It will also be focused on choices one has to make during the start-up phase and methodologies that can be applied in many different settings.

  4. Clay-based polymer nanocomposites: research and commercial development.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Q H; Yu, A B; Lu, G Q; Paul, D R

    2005-10-01

    This paper reviews the recent research and development of clay-based polymer nanocomposites. Clay minerals, due to their unique layered structure, rich intercalation chemistry and availability at low cost, are promising nanoparticle reinforcements for polymers to manufacture low-cost, lightweight and high performance nanocomposites. We introduce briefly the structure, properties and surface modification of clay minerals, followed by the processing and characterization techniques of polymer nanocomposites. The enhanced and novel properties of such nanocomposites are then discussed, including mechanical, thermal, barrier, electrical conductivity, biodegradability among others. In addition, their available commercial and potential applications in automotive, packaging, coating and pigment, electrical materials, and in particular biomedical fields are highlighted. Finally, the challenges for the future are discussed in terms of processing, characterization and the mechanisms governing the behaviour of these advanced materials. PMID:16245517

  5. The Importance of Early Experiences: Clinical, Research, and Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The degree to which early adverse experiences exert long term effects on development and how much early adversity may be overcome through subsequent experiences are important mental health questions. The clinical, research and policy perspectives on these questions lead to different answers. From a clinical perspective, change is always possible,…

  6. Research Perspectives and Best Practices in Educational Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared

    2013-01-01

    With advancements in technology continuing to influence all areas of society, students in current classrooms have a different understanding and perspective of learning than the educational system has been designed to teach. Research Perspectives and Best Practices in Educational Technology Integration highlights the emerging digital age, its…

  7. The Relative Returns from Research and Teaching: A Market Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hum, Derek

    2000-01-01

    Employs a market perspective to explain why financial returns to college teaching and research are necessarily unequal. Research will receive greater rewards so long as its market reach is longer, research talent is in shorter supply, and the benefits of research can be partially appropriated by individual scholars. (Contains 13 references.) (MLH)

  8. New perspectives in gaze sensitivity research.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Gabrielle L; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-03-01

    Attending to where others are looking is thought to be of great adaptive benefit for animals when avoiding predators and interacting with group members. Many animals have been reported to respond to the gaze of others, by co-orienting their gaze with group members (gaze following) and/or responding fearfully to the gaze of predators or competitors (i.e., gaze aversion). Much of the literature has focused on the cognitive underpinnings of gaze sensitivity, namely whether animals have an understanding of the attention and visual perspectives in others. Yet there remain several unanswered questions regarding how animals learn to follow or avoid gaze and how experience may influence their behavioral responses. Many studies on the ontogeny of gaze sensitivity have shed light on how and when gaze abilities emerge and change across development, indicating the necessity to explore gaze sensitivity when animals are exposed to additional information from their environment as adults. Gaze aversion may be dependent upon experience and proximity to different predator types, other cues of predation risk, and the salience of gaze cues. Gaze following in the context of information transfer within social groups may also be dependent upon experience with group-members; therefore we propose novel means to explore the degree to which animals respond to gaze in a flexible manner, namely by inhibiting or enhancing gaze following responses. We hope this review will stimulate gaze sensitivity research to expand beyond the narrow scope of investigating underlying cognitive mechanisms, and to explore how gaze cues may function to communicate information other than attention. PMID:26582567

  9. Prescribed Commercially-Prepared Language Arts Intervention Curriculum: Illuminating a Practitioner Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabienke, Shonika

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the perceptions of a small group of Language Arts intervention teachers who have been prescribed a commercially-prepared intervention curriculum for use with their students. Written surveys and semi-structured interviews were used to gather data in pursuit of answers to the following research questions: (1) How do teachers…

  10. Utilization of commercial communications systems for space based research applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overmyer, Carolyn; Thompson, Clark

    1998-01-01

    With the increase in utilization of space for research and development activities, the need for a communication system which improves the availability of payload uplink and downlink with the ground becomes increasingly more critical. At the same time, experiment developers are experiencing a tightening of their budgets for space based research. They don't have the capability to develop a unique communication interface that requires unique software and hardware packages. They would prefer to use commercial protocols and standards available through off-the-shelf components. Also, the need for secure communication is critical to keep proprietary data from being distributed to competing organizations. In order to meet the user community needs, SPACEHAB is currently in the process of developing and testing a system designed specifically for the user community called the SPACEHAB Universal Communication System (SHUCS). The purpose of this paper is to present customer requirements, the SHUCS design approach and top level operations, terrestrial test results, and flight testing scheduled for STS-91 and -95.

  11. A Collaboration and Commercialization Model for Exascale Software Research

    SciTech Connect

    Seager, M; Gorda, B

    2009-07-21

    In the US, recent software research and development for petascale systems has been performed by two main entities: US Government funded R&D collaborations (both at Universities and at Government Labs) and Industry efforts at products. With few notable exceptions, there has been little diffusion of technology from the R&D collaborations to industrial efforts and little feedback from the industrial efforts to the US government funded R&D efforts. However, the broader community has found value in some of the R&D efforts and would like to see continued support. For the most part, support is voluntary by the development groups because the funding was only for the R&D, not ongoing support. On the other hand, industry efforts end up being funded for specific platforms and are generally proprietary and suffer from the lack of overall effort due limited private and public investment. Understanding these lessons from petascale efforts is essential for forming a coherent strategy going forward to exascale. Clearly, a different research and development and commercialization model is desired going forward.

  12. Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program -- Market Research

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Molly J.; Wang, Na

    2012-04-19

    Under contract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, HaydenTanner, LLC conducted an in-depth analysis of the potential market value of a commercial building energy asset rating program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The market research objectives were to: (1) Evaluate market interest and need for a program and tool to offer asset rating and rapidly identify potential energy efficiency measures for the commercial building sector. (2) Identify key input variables and asset rating outputs that would facilitate increased investment in energy efficiency. (3) Assess best practices and lessons learned from existing national and international energy rating programs. (4) Identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to adopt a voluntary asset rating program and, as a consequence, deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings. (5) Identify leverage factors and incentives that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a review of the relevant literature, examination of existing and emergent asset and operational rating systems, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implication of an asset label on asset valuation. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion, and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on the market need and potential value impacts of an asset labeling and diagnostic tool to encourage high-performance new buildings and building efficiency retrofit projects.

  13. An Undergraduate Student's Perspective on Geoscience Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, A.; Feeley, T.; Michelfelder, G.

    2011-12-01

    Traditionally, the roles of field experiences in geoscience teaching have come from experienced instructors and researchers with a dedicated interest in how students learn. In this presentation we provide the opposite perspective; that of an undergraduate student at the beginning of her research career. We discuss the benefits and challenges associated with the initial field work and extend our discussion to include subsequent analytical-based laboratory studies. At Montana State University we are addressing key questions related to magma generation and differentiation at three volcanoes in the Central Andes. These are Volcan Uturuncu in southwest Bolivia and the Lazufre system consisting of Lastarria volcano and Cordon del Azufre in Chile and Argentina. To address these issues students collected rock samples and mapped lava flows in the field during the past two Spring Semesters. Upon return to campus the students prepared the samples for whole rock and mineral analyses, followed by travel to and work in external laboratories analyzing and collecting high precision geochemical data. The benefits these experiences provide include the following. First, due to the localities of the field sites, students become familiar with the difficult logistics associated with planning and performing field work in remote localities. Second, in performing the field work, students gain an appreciation of scale and exposure; topics not typically addressed in standard course work. Third, through close interaction with internal and external faculty, graduate students, and professional geologists, undergraduate students build strong relationships with scientists in the area of their interests. Fourth, by acquiring and interpreting high quality field and analytical data, they learn in-depth about modern philosophies, technologies, and data in the geosciences, providing them with skills and experiences that will be of value in their future careers or graduate work. They also learn how to

  14. At-Risk Students and Thinking: Perspectives from Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presseisen, Barbara Z., Ed.

    This collection of research reports explores teaching cognitive skills to at-risk students. Focus includes the following: (1) broad issues guiding the research; (2) historical perspective; (3) student characteristics; (4) student needs; (5) research on teaching thinking and problem solving; (6) teacher training; and (7) instructional and…

  15. Research in the Black Community: A Black Psychologist's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert L.

    Much of the research conducted within the black community served primarily to promote the interests and personal gain of the researchers rather than the community. Consequently, the research proved more harmful than helpful, thereby providing no visible or appreciable payoff or benefits to the black community. Moreover, the perspectives of the…

  16. Integral Methodological Pluralism in Science Education Research: Valuing Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nancy T.; Callihan, Laurie P.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the multiple methodologies used in educational research and proposes a model that includes all of them as contributing to understanding educational contexts and research from multiple perspectives. The model, based on integral theory (Wilber in a theory of everything. Shambhala, Boston, 2000) values all forms of research as…

  17. Suborbital Research and Education Missions with Commercial Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodway, K.; Nelson, A.; Voigt, J.

    2012-12-01

    Suborbital reusable launch vehicles (sRLV) will provide low-cost, flexible, and frequent access to space. In the case of XCOR's Lynx, the vehicle design and capabilities work well for hosting specially designed experiments that can be flown with a human-tended researcher or alone with the pilot on a unique mission on a customized flight trajectory. This new manned, reusable commercial platform will allow for repeated observations with a single instrument, but without the need to refurbish the vehicle between flights. In addition, the short turn-around means a researcher can do multiple observations, measurements, or targets. The vehicle is designed for multi-mission primary and secondary payload capabilities, including: in-cockpit experiments and instrumentation testing, externally mounted experiments, upper atmospheric sampling, and microsatellite launch. This vehicle takes off horizontally from a runway and will go into a powered ascent attaining Mach 2.9 maximum airspeed. After about three minutes and at approximately 58 km (190,000 ft) the engines are shutdown and the RLV then coasts upwards. The low gravity period (at or below 0.001go) begins soon after at 3.35 minutes and the microgravity period (at or below 10-6go) starts at 4.25 minutes. At approximately four and half minutes the vehicle reaches apogee of 100 km (328, 000 ft). After reentry and a Max-G force pullout of 4 g, the Lynx touches down on the takeoff runway after approximately 30 minutes.Typical Lynx Mark II flight profile

  18. Children's Television Commercialization Survey. A Special Report from Research & Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Edward E.

    The National Association of Broadcasters conducted a mail survey of local commercial television stations to determine the levels of commercials and non-program material run in programs produced for children under the age of 12. A random selected composite week from the 1986-87 television season was used and 267 stations from a random sample…

  19. National Qualification Frameworks: Developing Research Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernie, Scott; Pilcher, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Arguments for National Qualification Frameworks (NQF) are compelling. Indeed, such frameworks are now an international phenomenon. Yet, few studies take a critical perspective and challenge the broad assumptions underpinning NQF. Arguments presented in this paper attempt to open a debate within the higher education community that draws attention…

  20. Comparative Didactic: A New Research Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colomb, Jacques

    Comparative didactic views classroom epistemologies in various disciplines from a comparativist perspective. A diagrammatic model is suggested which takes account of problems posed by different disciplines. The model puts forward four origins of school knowledge: scientific knowledge, reference knowledge, referential praxis, and expert knowledge.…

  1. A Case Study of the Impediments to the Commercialization of Research at the University of Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Vanderford, Nathan L; Marcinkowski, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The commercialization of university-based research occurs to varying degrees between academic institutions. Previous studies have found that multiple barriers can impede the effectiveness and efficiency by which academic research is commercialized. This case study was designed to better understand the impediments to research commercialization at the University of Kentucky via a survey and interview with three successful academic entrepreneurs. The study also garnered insight from the individuals as to how the commercialization process could be improved. Issues with commercialization infrastructure; a lack of emphasis, at the university level, on the importance of research commercialization; a void in an entrepreneurial culture on campus; inhibitory commercialization policies; and a lack of business and commercialization knowledge among faculty were highlighted as the most significant barriers. The research subjects also suggested that commercialization activity may generally increase if a number of factors were mitigated. Such insight can be communicated to the administrative leadership of the commercialization process at the University of Kentucky. Long term, improving university-based research commercialization will allow academic researchers to be more active and successful entrepreneurs such that intellectual property will progress more freely to the marketplace for the benefit of inventors, universities and society. PMID:26401266

  2. A Case Study of the Impediments to the Commercialization of Research at the University of Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Vanderford, Nathan L.; Marcinkowski, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The commercialization of university-based research occurs to varying degrees between academic institutions. Previous studies have found that multiple barriers can impede the effectiveness and efficiency by which academic research is commercialized. This case study was designed to better understand the impediments to research commercialization at the University of Kentucky via a survey and interview with three successful academic entrepreneurs. The study also garnered insight from the individuals as to how the commercialization process could be improved. Issues with commercialization infrastructure; a lack of emphasis, at the university level, on the importance of research commercialization; a void in an entrepreneurial culture on campus; inhibitory commercialization policies; and a lack of business and commercialization knowledge among faculty were highlighted as the most significant barriers. The research subjects also suggested that commercialization activity may generally increase if a number of factors were mitigated. Such insight can be communicated to the administrative leadership of the commercialization process at the University of Kentucky. Long term, improving university-based research commercialization will allow academic researchers to be more active and successful entrepreneurs such that intellectual property will progress more freely to the marketplace for the benefit of inventors, universities and society. PMID:26401266

  3. High speed commercial transport fuels considerations and research needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. M.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.

    1989-01-01

    NASA is currently evaluating the potential of incorporating High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft in the commercial fleet in the beginning of the 21st century. NASA sponsored HSCT enabling studies currently underway with airframers and engine manufacturers, are addressing a broad range of technical, environmental, economic, and related issues. Supersonic cruise speeds for these aircraft were originally focused in the Mach 2 to 5 range. At these flight speeds, both jet fuels and liquid methane were considered potential fuel candidates. For the year 2000 to 2010, cruise Mach numbers of 2 to 3+ are projected for aircraft fuel with thermally stable liquid jet fuels. For 2015 and beyond, liquid methane fueled aircraft cruising at Mach numbers of 4+ may be viable candidates. Operation at supersonic speeds will be much more severe than those encountered at subsonic flight. One of the most critical problems is the potential deterioration of the fuel due to the high temperature environment. HSCT fuels will not only be required to provide the energy necessary for flight, but will also be subject to aerodynamic heating and, will be required to serve as the primary heat sink for cooling the engine and airframe. To define fuel problems for high speed flight, a fuels workshop was conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center. The purpose of the workshop was to gather experts on aviation fuels, airframe fuel systems, airport infrastructure, and combustion systems to discuss high speed fuel alternatives, fuel supply scenarios, increased thermal stability approaches and measurements, safety considerations, and to provide directional guidance for future R and D efforts. Subsequent follow-up studies defined airport infrastructure impacts of high speed fuel candidates. The results of these activities are summarized. In addition, an initial case study using modified in-house refinery simulation model Gordian code (1) is briefly discussed. This code can be used to simulate different

  4. Moving beyond Utilitarian Perspectives of Infant Participation in Participatory Research: Film-Mediated Research Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwick, Sheena; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on Thomas, Whybrow and Scharber's four participatory perspectives, this paper describes and complicates endeavours to move beyond utilitarian perspectives of infant participation in participatory research. It proposes that film-mediated encounters between researchers and infants have the potential to be more than sites that privilege…

  5. Advanced Space Propulsion: A Research Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron; Cole, John; Rodgers, Steve; Sackheim, Bob

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on spacecraft propulsion research. The organizational and management principals needed for the research are stated. The presentation recommends a space propulsion research program. It also states some of the factors which drive research in the field, as well as the desired goals, objectives, and focus of the research.

  6. Disciplinary Perspectives on Higher Education and Research. Report No. 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Group for the Study of Higher Education and Research Policy.

    The contributions of various disciplines to the field of higher education and research studies are discussed in 10 seminar papers, which also review Burton R. Clark's work, "The Higher Education System: Academic Organization in Cross-National Perspective." Titles and authors are as follows: "Internal and External Regulatives in Research and Higher…

  7. Philosophical Foundations and Current Theoretical Perspectives in Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broido, Ellen M.; Manning, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between the philosophy, theory, and methods of different research paradigms is explored in this article. Specific theoretical perspectives, critical theory, postmodernism, critical race theory, queer theory, and feminist theory are explored in the context of their political values and implications for qualitative research.…

  8. Designs for Emerging Order in Qualitative Research: An Alternative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Daiyo; Pothier, Yvonne

    As an alternative to traditional methodology in education research, an approach transcending the distinction between quantitative and qualitative perspectives is suggested. Emerging insights in qualitative research can be enhanced by beginning with the phenomenon of emerging order. The theory of Dissipative Structures suggests that research…

  9. International Relations. International Perspectives on Higher Education Research. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Malcolm, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This is the third volume of International Perspectives on Higher Education Research, a series which aims to feature something of the variety of research being undertaken into higher education systems and issues outside of North America. The theme of this volume is International Relations, or how students, academics, universities and higher…

  10. A Survey of the Barriers Associated with Academic-based Cancer Research Commercialization

    PubMed Central

    Vanderford, Nathan L.; Weiss, L. Todd; Weiss, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    Commercialization within the academic setting is associated with many challenges and barriers. Previous studies investigating these challenges/barriers have, in general, broadly focused on multiple disciplines and, oftentimes, several institutions simultaneously. The goal of the study presented here was to analyze a range of barriers that may be broadly associated with commercializing academic-based cancer research. This goal was addressed via a study of the barriers associated with cancer research commercialization at the University of Kentucky (UK). To this end, a research instrument in the form of an electronic survey was developed. General demographic information was collected on study participants and two research questions were addressed: 1) What are the general barriers inhibiting cancer research commercialization at UK? and 2) Would mitigation of the barriers potentially enhance faculty engagement in commercialization activities? Descriptive and statistical analysis of the data reveal that multiple barriers likely inhibit cancer research commercialization at UK with expense, time, infrastructure, and lack of industry partnerships being among the most commonly cited factors. The potential alleviation of these factors in addition to revised University policies/procedures, risk mitigation, more emphasis on commercialization by academia research field, and increased information on how to commercialize significantly correlated with the potential for increased commercialization activity. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression modeling demonstrated that research commercialization would incrementally increase as barriers to the process are removed and that PhD-holding respondents and respondents in commercialization-supportive research fields would be more likely to commercialize their research upon barrier removal. Overall, as with other disciplines, these data suggest that for innovations derived from academic cancer-research to move more effectively and

  11. Perspectives on Writing: Research, Theory, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina, Ed.; Squire, James R., Ed.

    Providing a foundation in which researchers may build future research and theory and in which teachers may design more effective classroom practice, this book presents 12 essays that bring together the contributions of researchers and teacher-scholars to present the significant theory and research related to the writing process. The book is…

  12. Integral methodological pluralism in science education research: valuing multiple perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Nancy T.; Callihan, Laurie P.

    2013-09-01

    This article examines the multiple methodologies used in educational research and proposes a model that includes all of them as contributing to understanding educational contexts and research from multiple perspectives. The model, based on integral theory (Wilber in a theory of everything. Shambhala, Boston, 2000) values all forms of research as true, but partial. Consideration of objective (exterior) forms of research and data and subjective (interior) forms of research and data are further divided into individual and collective domains. Taking this categorization system one step further reveals eight indigenous perspectives that form a framework for considering research methodologies. Each perspective has unique questions, data sources, methods and quality criteria designed to reveal what is "true" from that view. As science educators who guide our students' research, this framework offers a useful guide to explain differences in types of research, the purpose and validity of each. It allows professional science educators to appreciate multiple forms of research while maintaining rigorous quality criteria. Use of this framework can also help avoid problems of imposing quality criteria of one methodology on research data and questions gathered using another methodology. This model is explored using the second author's dissertation research. Finally a decision chart is provided to use with those who are starting inquiries to guide their thinking and choice of appropriate methodologies to use when conducting research.

  13. Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Ram; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Tremendous advances in remote sensing technology and computing power over the last few decades are now providing scientists with the opportunity to investigate, measure, and model environmental patterns and processes with increasing confidence. Such advances are being pursued by the Nebraska Remote Sensing Facility, which consists of approximately 30 faculty members and is very competitive with other institutions in the depth of the work that is accomplished. The development of this facility targeted at applications, commercialization, and education programs in the area of precision agriculture provides a unique opportunity. This critical area is within the scope of NASA goals and objectives of NASA s Applications, Technology Transfer, Commercialization, and Education Division and the Earth Science Enterprise. This innovative integration of Aerospace (Aeronautics) Technology Enterprise applications with other NASA enterprises serves as a model of cross-enterprise transfer of science with specific commercial applications.

  14. Understanding Qualitative Research: A School Nurse Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    More school nurses are engaging in the generation of research, and their studies increasingly are using qualitative methods to describe various areas of practice. This article provides an overview of 4 major qualitative methods: ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historical research. Examples of school nursing research studies that…

  15. Ethics in Clinical Research: The Indian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sanmukhani, J.; Tripathi, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    Ethics in clinical research focuses largely on identifying and implementing the acceptable conditions for exposure of some individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of society at large. Ethical guidelines for clinical research were formulated only after discovery of inhumane behaviour with participants during research experiments. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code laying ethical principles for clinical research. With increasing research all over, World Health Organization formulated guidelines in the form of Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. The US laid down its guidelines for ethical principles in the Belmont Report after discovery of the Tuskegee's Syphilis study. The Indian Council of Medical Research has laid down the ‘Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Subjects’ in the year 2000 which were revised in 2006. It gives twelve general principles to be followed by all biomedical researchers working in the country. The Ethics Committee stands as the bridge between the researcher and the ethical guidelines of the country. The basic responsibility of the Ethics Committee is to ensure an independent, competent and timely review of all ethical aspects of the project proposals received in order to safeguard the dignity, rights, safety and well-being of all actual or potential research participants. A well-documented informed consent process is the hallmark of any ethical research work. Informed consent respects individual's autonomy, to participate or not to participate in research. Concepts of vulnerable populations, therapeutic misconception and post trial access hold special importance in ethical conduct of research, especially in developing countries like India, where most of the research participants are uneducated and economically backward. PMID:22303053

  16. Ethics in clinical research: the Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sanmukhani, J; Tripathi, C B

    2011-03-01

    Ethics in clinical research focuses largely on identifying and implementing the acceptable conditions for exposure of some individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of society at large. Ethical guidelines for clinical research were formulated only after discovery of inhumane behaviour with participants during research experiments. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code laying ethical principles for clinical research. With increasing research all over, World Health Organization formulated guidelines in the form of Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. The US laid down its guidelines for ethical principles in the Belmont Report after discovery of the Tuskegee's Syphilis study. The Indian Council of Medical Research has laid down the 'Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Subjects' in the year 2000 which were revised in 2006. It gives twelve general principles to be followed by all biomedical researchers working in the country. The Ethics Committee stands as the bridge between the researcher and the ethical guidelines of the country. The basic responsibility of the Ethics Committee is to ensure an independent, competent and timely review of all ethical aspects of the project proposals received in order to safeguard the dignity, rights, safety and well-being of all actual or potential research participants. A well-documented informed consent process is the hallmark of any ethical research work. Informed consent respects individual's autonomy, to participate or not to participate in research. Concepts of vulnerable populations, therapeutic misconception and post trial access hold special importance in ethical conduct of research, especially in developing countries like India, where most of the research participants are uneducated and economically backward. PMID:22303053

  17. Returning a Research Participant's Genomic Results to Relatives: Perspectives from Managers of Two Distinct Research Biobanks.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Gloria M; Van Ness, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Research biobanks are heterogeneous and exist to manage diverse biosample types with the goal of facilitating and serving biomedical discovery. The perspectives of biobank managers are reviewed, and the perspectives of two biobank directors, one with experience in institutional biobanks and the other with national cooperative group banks, are presented. Most research biobanks are not designed, nor do they have the resources, to return research results and incidental findings to participants or their families. PMID:26479561

  18. Perspectives of clinician and biomedical scientists on interdisciplinary health research

    PubMed Central

    Laberge, Suzanne; Albert, Mathieu; Hodges, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Interdisciplinary health research is a priority of many funding agencies. We surveyed clinician and biomedical scientists about their views on the value and funding of interdisciplinary health research. Methods We conducted semistructured interviews with 31 biomedical and 30 clinician scientists. The scientists were selected from the 2000–2006 membership lists of peer-review committees of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. We investigated respondents’ perspectives on the assumption that collaboration across disciplines adds value to health research. We also investigated their perspectives on funding agencies’ growing support of interdisciplinary research. Results The 61 respondents expressed a wide variety of perspectives on the value of interdisciplinary health research, ranging from full agreement (22) to complete disagreement (11) that it adds value; many presented qualified viewpoints (28). More than one-quarter viewed funding agencies’ growing support of interdisciplinary research as appropriate. Most (44) felt that the level of support was unwarranted. Arguments included the belief that current support leads to the creation of artificial teams and that a top-down process of imposing interdisciplinary structures on teams constrains scientists’ freedom. On both issues we found contrasting trends between the clinician and the biomedical scientists. Interpretation Despite having some positive views about the value of interdisciplinary research, scientists, especially biomedical scientists, expressed reservations about the growing support of interdisciplinary research. PMID:19901042

  19. A German Perspective on Security Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, Klaus; Hiller, Daniel; Leismann, Tobias; Drees, Birgit

    Prior to 2007, there was no coherent federal approach to conceptualise and fund security research in Germany. This changed with the initiation of the national program for civil security research, managed by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). Over the course of only four years a continuous build-up of national capacities on civil security was established to better protect German citizens, commodities and infrastructures against terrorism, organised crime and the effects of man-made and natural disasters.

  20. Clinical research informatics: a conceptual perspective

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Chunhua

    2012-01-01

    Clinical research informatics is the rapidly evolving sub-discipline within biomedical informatics that focuses on developing new informatics theories, tools, and solutions to accelerate the full translational continuum: basic research to clinical trials (T1), clinical trials to academic health center practice (T2), diffusion and implementation to community practice (T3), and ‘real world’ outcomes (T4). We present a conceptual model based on an informatics-enabled clinical research workflow, integration across heterogeneous data sources, and core informatics tools and platforms. We use this conceptual model to highlight 18 new articles in the JAMIA special issue on clinical research informatics. PMID:22523344

  1. Commercial combustion research aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    1999-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) is planning a number of combustion experiments to be done on the International Space Station (ISS). These experiments will be conducted in two ISS facilities, the SpaceDRUMS™ Acoustic Levitation Furnace (ALF) and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) portion of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The experiments are part of ongoing commercial projects involving flame synthesis of ceramic powders, catalytic combustion, water mist fire suppression, glass-ceramics for fiber and other applications and porous ceramics for bone replacements, filters and catalyst supports. Ground- and parabolic aircraft-based experiments are currently underway to verify the scientific bases and to test prototype flight hardware. The projects have strong external support.

  2. “Snake-oil,” “quack medicine,” and “industrially cultured organisms:” biovalue and the commercialization of human microbiome research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Continued advances in human microbiome research and technologies raise a number of ethical, legal, and social challenges. These challenges are associated not only with the conduct of the research, but also with broader implications, such as the production and distribution of commercial products promising maintenance or restoration of good physical health and disease prevention. In this article, we document several ethical, legal, and social challenges associated with the commercialization of human microbiome research, focusing particularly on how this research is mobilized within economic markets for new public health uses. Methods We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews (2009–2010) with 63 scientists, researchers, and National Institutes of Health project leaders (“investigators”) involved with human microbiome research. Interviews explored a range of ethical, legal, and social dimensions of human microbiome research, including investigators’ perspectives on commercialization. Using thematic content analysis, we identified and analyzed emergent themes and patterns. Results Investigators discussed the commercialization of human microbiome research in terms of (1) commercialization, probiotics, and issues of safety, (2) public awareness of the benefits and risks of dietary supplements, and (3) regulation. Conclusion The prevailing theme of ethical, legal, social concern focused on the need to find a balance between the marketplace, scientific research, and the public’s health. The themes we identified are intended to serve as points for discussions about the relationship between scientific research and the manufacture and distribution of over-the-counter dietary supplements in the United States. PMID:23110633

  3. Researching Early Childhood Education: European Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Tricia, Ed.

    At a time when crucial questions concerning the nature of early childhood and early childhood education are being increasingly examined worldwide, an exploration of the issues, priorities, and methodologies of research in early childhood education may provide valuable material for debate. This book focuses on research in early childhood education…

  4. Researching Native Education: An Ethnomethodological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothe, J. Peter

    1982-01-01

    Outlines an alternative research method to capture the dynamics of local situations and accompanying interactions by describing sense-making in classrooms and the community and defining ethnomethodology and interpretation followed by a discussion of a case study and its usefulness to Indian education research. (ERB)

  5. Different Research Markets: A Disciplinary Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylijoki, Oili-Helena; Lyytinen, Anu; Marttila, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon the notions of academic capitalism and the transformation of academic research from traditional academic orientation into market orientation, the paper sets out to empirically scrutinize the changing nature of academic research, focusing especially on disciplinary differences. The paper is based on a survey of heads of departments and…

  6. Education Research and Reform: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Tommy M., Ed.; Tuijnman, Albert C., Ed.

    The role of governments in the operation of education research and development systems is under critical scrutiny throughout the developed world. The introductory chapter presents the main themes of a seminar held in 1992 and outlines challenges for further work. The next 10 chapters focus on education research and development issues: (1)…

  7. Adult Educational Research: Perspectives on a Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, Robert C.

    1983-01-01

    Examines a technique for data collection in adult education research that lends itself to conditions in which organizations are viewed as community. Outlines procedures for participant-observation research. (Availability: Dept. of Adult Education, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506) (SK)

  8. Post Colonial Perspectives on Education Policy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Westhuizen, Gert J.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the role and contribution of policy research in contexts of social transformation. With reference to education transformation policies in post-apartheid South Africa, the argument is developed that research studies vary in their contribution to change, as a function of the paradigmatic assumptions and methodological…

  9. Research on Vocational Behavior: The Singapore Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Esther

    1998-01-01

    This review of vocational psychology research in Singapore, 1985 to 1997, addresses career development, interests, sex stereotypes, work values, job satisfaction, and home/family influence. The review shows an increase in research on school-aged populations and a need to study the vocational behavior of the work force. (SK)

  10. Perspectives of Research on Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmberg, Borje

    The history of research on distance education was studied. Major research done on distance education in such diverse areas as the United States, Venezuela, and Europe was analyzed. It was discovered that the earliest attempts to develop theories of distance education were mainly concerned with identifying its very concept. Like most educational…

  11. Draft Plan for Characterizing Commercial Data Products in Support of Earth Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Terrie, Greg; Berglund, Judith

    2006-01-01

    This presentation introduces a draft plan for characterizing commercial data products for Earth science research. The general approach to the commercial product verification and validation includes focused selection of a readily available commercial remote sensing products that support Earth science research. Ongoing product verification and characterization will question whether the product meets specifications and will examine its fundamental properties, potential and limitations. Validation will encourage product evaluation for specific science research and applications. Specific commercial products included in the characterization plan include high-spatial-resolution multispectral (HSMS) imagery and LIDAR data products. Future efforts in this process will include briefing NASA headquarters and modifying plans based on feedback, increased engagement with the science community and refinement of details, coordination with commercial vendors and The Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) for HSMS satellite acquisitions, acquiring waveform LIDAR data and performing verification and validation.

  12. Perspective: a systems approach to diabetes research.

    PubMed

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg; Sonderegger, Bernhard; Kaput, Jim

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial and arise from complex interactions between genetic makeup and environment, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a collection of sub-phenotypes resulting in high fasting glucose. The underlying gene-environment interactions that produce these classes of T2DM are imperfectly characterized. Based on assessments of the complexity of T2DM, we propose a systems biology approach to advance the understanding of origin, onset, development, prevention, and treatment of this complex disease. This systems-based strategy is based on new study design principles and the integrated application of omics technologies: we pursue longitudinal studies in which each subject is analyzed at both homeostasis and after (healthy and safe) challenges. Each enrolled subject functions thereby as their own case and control and this design avoids assigning the subjects a priori to case and control groups based on limited phenotyping. Analyses at different time points along this longitudinal investigation are performed with a comprehensive set of omics platforms. These data sets are generated in a biological context, rather than biochemical compound class-driven manner, which we term "systems omics." PMID:24187547

  13. Perspective: a systems approach to diabetes research

    PubMed Central

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J.; Hager, Jörg; Sonderegger, Bernhard; Kaput, Jim

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial and arise from complex interactions between genetic makeup and environment, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a collection of sub-phenotypes resulting in high fasting glucose. The underlying gene–environment interactions that produce these classes of T2DM are imperfectly characterized. Based on assessments of the complexity of T2DM, we propose a systems biology approach to advance the understanding of origin, onset, development, prevention, and treatment of this complex disease. This systems-based strategy is based on new study design principles and the integrated application of omics technologies: we pursue longitudinal studies in which each subject is analyzed at both homeostasis and after (healthy and safe) challenges. Each enrolled subject functions thereby as their own case and control and this design avoids assigning the subjects a priori to case and control groups based on limited phenotyping. Analyses at different time points along this longitudinal investigation are performed with a comprehensive set of omics platforms. These data sets are generated in a biological context, rather than biochemical compound class-driven manner, which we term “systems omics.” PMID:24187547

  14. Research Methodology on Language Development from a Complex Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Cameron, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Changes to research methodology motivated by the adoption of a complexity theory perspective on language development are considered. The dynamic, nonlinear, and open nature of complex systems, together with their tendency toward self-organization and interaction across levels and timescales, requires changes in traditional views of the functions…

  15. International Multidisciplinary Research and Education: A Mountain Geography Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Collaborative international research projects represent excellent opportunities for students to obtain unique and life-altering educational experiences. Dynamic interactions with people from a variety of countries, institutions, and departments, in diverse situations, provides students with new perspectives, encourages them to operate in a…

  16. Researching Children's Musical Culture: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, M.

    2010-01-01

    When she was invited to present a keynote address at the Exeter Conference, the author was asked to offer "a particular perspective on a field of research within music education or a related domain". Given her interest in the related disciplines of sociology and ethnomusicology, and acknowledging the centrality of children's music making in the…

  17. Journal Editing and Ethical Research Practice: Perspectives of Journal Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell-Moon, Holly; Anderson, Nicole; Bretag, Tracey; Burke, Anthony; Grieshaber, Sue; Lambert, Anthony; Saltmarsh, David; Yelland, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    This article offers perspectives from academics with recent journal editing experience on a range of ethical issues and dilemmas that regularly pose challenges for those in editorial roles. Each contributing author has provided commentary and reflection on a select topic that was identified in the research literature concerning academic publishing…

  18. Sociocultural Research on Mathematics Education: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atweh, Bill, Ed.; Forgasz, Helen, Ed.; Nebres, Ben, Ed.

    This book, based on research on sociocultural aspects of mathematics education, presents contemporary and international perspectives on social justice and equity issues that impact mathematics education. In particular, it highlights the importance of three interacting and powerful factors--gender, social, and cultural dimensions. The book is…

  19. Translational Research from an Informatics Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Turley, James P.; Smith, Jack W.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and translational research (CTR) is an essential part of a sustainable global health system. Informatics is now recognized as an important en-abler of CTR and informaticians are increasingly called upon to help CTR efforts. The US National Institutes of Health mandated biomedical informatics activity as part of its new national CTR grant initiative, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Traditionally, translational re-search was defined as the translation of laboratory discoveries to patient care (bench to bedside). We argue, however, that there are many other kinds of translational research. Indeed, translational re-search requires the translation of knowledge dis-covered in one domain to another domain and is therefore an information-based activity. In this panel, we will expand upon this view of translational research and present three different examples of translation to illustrate the point: 1) bench to bedside, 2) Earth to space and 3) academia to community. We will conclude with a discussion of our local translational research efforts that draw on each of the three examples.

  20. [Health services research--from the Health Research Council's perspective].

    PubMed

    Adler, Guido

    2006-01-01

    As early as 1994, the Health Research Council of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research started activities to outline a strategic concept for health services research in Germany. The Health Research Council set the stage for the initiation of a common funding program on health services research of the statutory health insurance funds, the Federal Ministry for Education and Research and the Federal Ministry of Health. This funding program has provided an important stimulus to health services research in Germany. Moreover, it has promoted the involvement and responsibility of the statutory health insurance funds in health services research. In future the funding program will be continued and additionally involve pension insurance funds as well as private health insurance funds. In addition to this special funding program there is a need for a coordinated approach to the further development of health services research in Germany--a common task for both research and funding organizations in health research. PMID:17175754

  1. Perspectives on Research and Scholarship in Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Ben W.; Donovan, Timothy R.

    As a follow-up to the successful book "Eight Approaches to Teaching Composition," this collection of 13 original essays presents the major research and scholarship in the related fields that are shaping the theory and practice of composition studies. Each chapter defines a special area of study, assesses its published literature from the…

  2. Research Review: An International Perspective on Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Leara

    1994-01-01

    Finds, in studies on magazines published outside the United States, little linking of data to theory; little research on how to disseminate ideas; and a void in many areas of magazine publishing, for example, looking at magazines as vehicles for sociological study, examining content categories, and investigating types of specialized magazines. (SR)

  3. The Biosocial Perspective and Environmental Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backes, David

    1995-01-01

    Argues that research in environmental communication should look at communication-related linkages between society and the environment, and that biosocial theory presents a useful conceptual framework. Suggests five empirical generalizations about mass communication's possible roles in the interactions between people and the environment, drawn from…

  4. Research in space commercialization, technology transfer, and communications, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, D. A.; Agnew, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    Spectrum management, models for evaluating communication systems, the communications regulatory environment, expert prediction and consensus, remote sensing, and manned space operations research are discussed.

  5. Potential Commercial Applications from Combustion and Fire Research in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Lyons, Valerie J.

    1996-01-01

    The near-zero (microgravity) environment of orbiting spacecraft minimizes buoyant flows, greatly simplifying combustion processes and isolating important phenomena ordinarily concealed by the overwhelming gravity-driven forces and flows. Fundamental combustion understanding - the focus to date of the NASA microgravity-combustion program - has greatly benefited from analyses and experiments conducted in the microgravity environment. Because of the economic and commercial importance of combustion in practice, there is strong motivation to seek wider applications for the microgravity-combustion findings. This paper reviews selected technology developments to illustrate some emerging applications. Topics cover improved fire-safety technology in spacecraft and terrestrial systems, innovative combustor designs for aerospace and ground propulsion, applied sensors and controls for combustion processes, and self-sustaining synthesis techniques for advanced materials.

  6. Current clinical research in orthodontics: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, Sheldon

    2006-10-01

    This essay explores briefly the approach of the Craniofacial Research Instrumentation Laboratory to the systematic and rigorous investigation of the usual outcome of orthodontic treatment in the practices of experienced clinicians. CRIL's goal is to produce a shareable electronic database of reliable, valid, and representative data on clinical practice as an aid in the production of an improved environment for truly evidence-based orthodontic treatment. PMID:17087398

  7. Water demand management research: A psychological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Sally; Fielding, Kelly

    2010-05-01

    The availability of fresh water for human consumption is a critical global issue and one that will be exacerbated by the impacts of climate change. Water demand management has an important role to play in reducing the vulnerability of freshwater supplies to climate change impacts. In this paper, we argue that the field of psychology and environmental psychology in particular can make a vital contribution in understanding further the drivers of residential water demand. A growing body of literature in environmental psychology has examined the determinants of water conservation behavior, and this research has many potential applications for water demand policy. In this paper we offer a review of current psychological research that examines the five broad causes of residential water conservation behaviors: attitudes, beliefs, habits or routines, personal capabilities, and contextual factors. We assess how psychologists have studied water conservation behavior to date, identify shortcomings, and indicate how this research can be used to further promote residential water conservation and to inform evidence-based policy and practice.

  8. What Is Effective Research Leadership? a Research-Informed Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Drawing upon findings from a UK-based and -funded study of academic leadership provided by (full) professors, this article focuses on research leadership as perceived by those on the receiving end of it. Research leadership is defined as the influence of one or more people on the research-related behaviour, attitudes or intellectual capacity of…

  9. Making research matter: a civil society perspective on health research.

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, David; Labonte, Ronald; Baum, Fran; Chopra, Mickey

    2004-01-01

    Complex global public health challenges such as the rapidly widening health inequalities, and unprecedented emergencies such as the pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) demand a reappraisal of existing priorities in health policies, expenditure and research. Research can assist in mounting an effective response, but will require increased emphasis on health determinants at both the national and global levels, as well as health systems research and broad-based and effective public health initiatives. Civil society organizations (CSOs) are already at the forefront of such research. We suggest that there are at least three ways in which the participation of CSOs in research can be increased: namely, influencing commissioning and priority-setting; becoming involved in the review process and in conducting research; and through formal partnerships between communities and universities that link CSOs with academic researchers. PMID:15643797

  10. [Perspectives on researches in disaster psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Tomita, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    After experiencing the catastrophic Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster in 2011, Tohoku University founded the International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) in April, 2012. IRIDeS, comprising 7 divisions and 36 laboratories with broad areas of specialization, from the humanities to natural sciences, aims to become a global center for the study of disasters and disaster mitigation, learning from and building upon past lessons in disaster management from Japan and around the world. In IRIDeS, the Department of Disaster Psychiatry is in charge of dealing with issues related to disaster psychiatry, including the psychosocial impact of disasters. Now, at more than 2 and a half years after the catastrophic disaster, the psychological impact actually seems to be getting stronger and wider, whereas the memory of the disaster seems to be waning in other areas of the country. In such a situation, where a number of problems need to be resolved, what can/should we do as psychiatrists? On the other hand, other natural disasters, such as storms and floods, have kept hitting Japan, and catastrophes seem to strike somewhere in the world every year. In addition, we need to prepare for the possibility of a Nankai Trough Quake and an earthquake directly hitting the Tokyo area, which may occur sometime in the future. Considering the situation, we need to establish an education system for disaster psychiatry, and proceed with research to collect useful information to prepare for coming disasters. The aim of our department is to integrate multi-faceted basic and clinical research approaches to investigate the following topics: 1) to identify social, psychological, and biological factors involved in the pathophysiology of and recovery from disaster-related mental health problems; 2) to develop systems for disaster prevention, disaster response, and recovery, considering disaster-related psychiatric and psychological issues; 3) to develop useful tools for the

  11. Performing research in pregnancy: Challenges and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Rebecca I; Kimball, Alexa B

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous barriers to conducting clinical research in pregnancy, including ethical considerations, logistical difficulties, and federal regulations. Due to these challenges, there is a paucity of data on the safe and appropriate use of dermatologic therapies in pregnancy, even for easily accessed over-the-counter topical products, as well as for commonly prescribed medications. Given the lack of human safety data, the Food and Drug Administration pregnancy labeling system previously placed a high priority on animal data but was recently revised to highlight human data and pregnancy registries. The latter can provide prospective observational data on medication use in pregnant women, while avoiding many of the pitfalls of conducting clinical trials in this population; nevertheless, registry enrollment for dermatologic drugs remains low. Dermatologists must increase awareness of pregnancy registries and encourage patient enrollment to close this knowledge gap. PMID:27265080

  12. Pharmacological caspase inhibitors: research towards therapeutic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kudelova, J; Fleischmannova, J; Adamova, E; Matalova, E

    2015-08-01

    Caspases are key molecules of apoptosis and the inflammatory response. Up-regulation of the caspase cascade contributes to human pathologies such as neurodegenerative and immune disorders. Thus, blocking the excessive apoptosis by pharmacological inhibitors seems promising for therapeutic interventions in such diseases. Caspase inhibitors, both natural and artificial, have been used as research tools and have helped to define the role of the individual caspases in apoptosis and in non-apoptotic processes. Moreover, some caspase inhibitors have demonstrated their therapeutic efficiency in the reduction of cell death and inflammation in animal models of human diseases. However, no drug based on caspase inhibition has been approved on the market until now. Thus, the development of therapeutic approaches that specifically target caspases remains a great challenge and is now the focus of intense biological and clinical interest. Here, we provide a brief review of recent knowledge about pharmacological caspase inhibitors with special focus on their proposed clinical applications. PMID:26348072

  13. Sharing Research Data to Improve Public Health: A Funder Perspective.

    PubMed

    Carr, David; Littler, Katherine

    2015-07-01

    Through the Public Health Research Data Forum, global health research funders are working together to increase the availability of public health and epidemiology research data in ways that are equitable, ethical, and efficient. The Wellcome Trust funded the research reported in this special edition as a first step toward building an evidence base on the perspectives of research stakeholders in low- and middle-income countries on the benefits and challenges of sharing health research data. We hope this work will make a key contribution to discussions aimed at creating policy frameworks for data access at local, national, and regional levels that are sensitive to different contexts and ensure the benefits to research and health are realized in an equitable manner. PMID:26297752

  14. Translational neural engineering: multiple perspectives on bringing benchtop research into the clinical domain.

    PubMed

    Rousche, Patrick; Schneeweis, David M; Perreault, Eric J; Jensen, Winnie

    2008-03-01

    A half-day forum to address a wide range of issues related to translational neural engineering was conducted at the annual meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Successful practitioners of translational neural engineering from academics, clinical medicine and industry were invited to share a diversity of perspectives and experiences on the translational process. The forum was targeted towards traditional academic researchers who may be interested in the expanded funding opportunities available for translational research that emphasizes product commercialization and clinical implementation. The seminar was funded by the NIH with support from the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. We report here a summary of the speaker viewpoints with particular focus on extracting successful strategies for engaging in or conducting translational neural engineering research. Daryl Kipke, PhD, (Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Michigan) and Molly Shoichet, PhD, (Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Toronto) gave details of their extensive experience with product commercialization while holding primary appointments in academic departments. They both encouraged strong clinical input at very early stages of research. Neurosurgeon Fady Charbel, MD, (Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Illinois at Chicago) discussed his role in product commercialization as a clinician. Todd Kuiken, MD, PhD, (Director of the Neural Engineering for Artificial Limbs at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, affiliated with Northwestern University) also a clinician, described a model of translational engineering that emphasized the development of clinically relevant technology, without a strong commercialization imperative. The clinicians emphasized the importance of communicating effectively with engineers. Representing commercial neural engineering was Doug Sheffield, PhD, (Director of New Technology at Vertis Neuroscience, Inc.) who

  15. An Organizational Perspective to the Creation of the Research Field.

    PubMed

    Talamo, Alessandra; Mellini, Barbara; Camilli, Marco; Ventura, Stefano; Di Lucchio, Loredana

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the paper is to contribute to the definition and analysis of the "access to the field" (Feldman et al. 2003) through an inter-organizational perspective. The paper discusses a case study on the access of a researcher to a hospital department where both organizations and actors are shown as actively constructing the research site. Both researcher and participants are described in terms of work organizations originally engaged in parallel systems of activity. Dynamics of negotiation "tied" the different actors' activities in a new activity system where researcher and participants concur to the effectiveness of both organizations (i.e., the research and the hospital ward). An Activity Theory perspective (Leont'ev 1978) is used with the aim of focusing the analysis on the activities in charge to the different actors. The approach adopted introduces the idea that, from the outset, research is made possible by a process of co-construction that works through the development of a completely new and shared work space arising around the encounter between researchers and participants. It is the balance between improvised actions and the co-creation of "boundary objects" (Star and Griesemer 1989), which makes interlacement possible between the two activity systems. The concept of "knotworking" (Engeström 2007a) is adopted to interpret specific actions by both organizations and actors intended to build a knot of activities whereby the new research system takes place. PMID:26563158

  16. The relevance of research to policy formulation: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Kingdon, T

    1993-01-01

    This paper puts the role of research into perspective in the policy-making context. It points out that there are differing 'policy' goals of government and the use of research might be vital for one element, e.g. health policy, but of lesser significance in, say, international policy. The paper then goes on to describe case studies of where research has had a major impact on government decision making in Australia in the past 2 years, notably in the area of proposed changes to the marketing and sale of alcoholic beverages. PMID:8453346

  17. A European Perspective on Security Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liem, Khoen; Hiller, Daniel; Castex, Christoph

    Tackling the complexity and interdependence of today's security environment in the globalized world of the 21st century is an everlasting challenge. Whereas the end of the Cold War presented a caesura of global dimension for the political and economic architecture and a realignment of power distribution and international relations between former adversaries, September 11th of 2001 may be seen as another caesura. Since then, specifically among countries of the Western hemisphere, traditional security paradigms and theories have been critically questioned and the different security cultures and perceptions have resulted in diverse security and defence policies as well as in security research efforts of individual countries. Consensus, it seems, exists on the question of what the threats are that our modern interconnected societies are facing. Whether looking at international terrorism, organized crime, climate change, the illegal trafficking of goods and people or naturally caused catastrophes, these phenomena all have in common that they are in most cases of transnational nature. Formerly existing dividing lines between internal and external security continue to fade, presenting an enormous challenge for those in charge of designing security policy and even more so for the various institutions safeguarding European security. That is why dissent often revolves around the question on how to get hold of these complex problems. Geographic location, cultural background, ethical make-up of society as well as relations with neighbouring countries are all important aspects to be considered when assessing the security culture and policy of individual countries.

  18. Advances in Mycotoxin Research: Public Health Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause serious adverse effects in different organs including the liver, kidney, and immune system in humans. These toxic secondary metabolites are produced by filamentous fungi mainly in the genus Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium. It is challenging to control the formation of mycotoxins due to the worldwide occurrence of these fungi in food and the environment. In addition to raw agricultural commodities, mycotoxins tend to remain in finished food products as they may not be destroyed by conventional processing techniques. Hence, much of our concern is directed to chronic health effects through long-term exposure to one or multiple mycotoxins from contaminated foods. Ideally risk assessment requires a comprehensive data, including toxicological and epidemiological studies as well as surveillance and exposure assessment. Setting of regulatory limits for mycotoxins is considered necessary to protect human health from mycotoxin exposure. Although advances in analytical techniques provide basic yet critical tool in regulation as well as all aspects of scientific research, it has been acknowledged that different forms of mycotoxins such as analogs and conjugated mycotoxins may constitute a significant source of dietary exposure. Further studies should be warranted to correlate mycotoxin exposure and human health possibly via identification and validation of suitable biomarkers. PMID:26565730

  19. Commercializing Intellectual Properties at Major Research Universities: Income Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heathington, K. W.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study of the income distribution permitted from patent and copyright policies of major U.S. research institutions revealed wide variation in distribution patterns and policies, within and between patent and copyright incomes, but little information about the impact of recent federal patent legislation. (MSE)

  20. 75 FR 14476 - Commercialization of University Research Request for Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... with start-ups and other small businesses. State and local governments also provide resources to promote new business development. Despite these resources, too many technologies fail to cross the... this early-stage research and also provides funding and incentives to entrepreneurial businesses...

  1. Commercialization of University Research for Technology-Based Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, W. Ker

    2011-01-01

    This empirical study investigates the hypothesized relationship between US federally funded university research and development (R&D) and its resulting economic impact, as measured by the level of licensing revenue generated by US universities. The author also examines the key operating statistics of the top-ten licensing income-producing…

  2. Commercial Scholarship: Spinning Physics Research into a Business Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Orville

    2013-03-01

    The American Institute of Physics' Center for History of Physics has conducted a three year NSF funded study of physicist entrepreneurs during which we interviewed 140 physicists who have founded ninety-one startups. Forty of those companies have spun research out of twenty-some universities. Startups spun out of university research tend to be technology push companies, creating new potentially disruptive technologies for which markets do not yet clearly exist, in contrast to market pull companies founded to address innovations responding to market demands. This paper addresses the unique issues found in university spinout companies and their responses to them. While technology push companies are generally considered to be higher risk compared to market pull companies, the university spinouts in our study had a higher rate of both SBIR and venture capital funding than did the market pull companies in our study.

  3. [Progress in research of reasons for women engaging in commercial sex].

    PubMed

    Du, Yihui; Wang, Zhiping; Fu, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    With the development of economy, increase of cultural exchanges and changes of people's ideology in China, the number of female sex workers (FSWs) increased rapidly under the influence of various social factors. The diverse motivations for women engaging in commercial sex have been observed. Foreign researchers have conducted some surveys of factors associated with female commercial sex, while few such studies were conducted among FSWs in China. This paper summarizes the progress in the research of reasons for women engaging in commercial sex both at home and abroad to provide evidence for future study. PMID:26822661

  4. Advanced Automotive Fuels Research, Development, and Commercialization Cluster (OH)

    SciTech Connect

    Linkous, Clovis; Hripko, Michael; Abraham, Martin; Balendiran, Ganesaratnam; Hunter, Allen; Lovelace-Cameron, Sherri; Mette, Howard; Price, Douglas; Walker, Gary; Wang, Ruigang

    2013-08-31

    enzymes are generally not available commercially, however, and those that are can be quite expensive. Accordingly, the genes responsible for enzyme synthesis were inserted into other microorganisms in order to accelerate enzyme production. This was demonstrated for two of the required enzymes in the overall series. In the MOF project, a number of new MOF compounds were synthesized and characterized, as well as some common MOFs well-known for their adsorption properties. Selectivity for specific gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} was demonstrated, although it was seen that water vapor would frequently act as an interferent. This work underscored the need to test MOF compounds under real world conditions, i.e., room temperature and above instead of liquid N{sub 2} temperature, and testing adsorption using blends of gases instead of pure components. In the solar membrane project, thin films of CdTe and WO{sub 3} were applied to steel substrates and used as p-type and n-type semiconductors, respectively, in the production of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. Testing with {sup 2}H and {sup 18}O isotopically labeled water enabled substantiation of net water-splitting.

  5. Mapping a Research Agenda for Home Care Safety: Perspectives from Researchers, Providers, and Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be…

  6. Commercial free flyer satellites and orbital re-entry/recovery systems for low cost microgravity research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassanto, John M.; Hobbs, Robert B.; Bem, Michael B.

    2001-02-01

    Part of the next generation network of Space Transportation Systems will include unmanned, autonomous ``Free Flyer'' satellites with ground-controlled re-entry and recovery systems for low-cost biomedical and microgravity research. A commercial space requirement for the launch, LEO deployment and orbital recovery of low-cost research satellites will be an important function of spaceport operations and technology development in the next decade. Free flyer satellites will effectively complement the capabilities of intermittent manned Shuttle/SpaceHab missions and more sophisticated, long-duration, manned Mir and International Space Station missions. The USCORP initiative has been developed by ITA, Inc. to provide a commercially owned and operated orbital free flyer satellite and re-entry/recovery system to support microgravity, biomedical and life sciences research. The next generation low-cost, commercially viable orbital platform for microgravity research will depend on the application of existing technologies with flight-proven systems. This approach will ensure the operational reliability and low costs that will be required for commercial unmanned research missions. These commercial flight systems will be launched, remotely operated on orbit, and recovered from commercial spaceports utilizing next-generation advanced spaceport technologies and capabilities. .

  7. Moving Research to Patient Applications through Commercialization: Understanding and Evaluating the Role of Intellectual Property

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The advancement of research from discovery to the delivery of medical care can be limited without the support of industry to sponsor its continued development. Federal government financial support is generally crucial in early-stage development through funding from the NIH, National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies; however, government support generally stops shortly after basic research discoveries have been reported. Much of the cessation of financial support derives from the government's regulatory responsibilities, as sponsoring the commercialization of a product conflicts with regulation of the approval for clinical use of a drug or device. Furthermore, differences in goals, resources, and flexibility render government, as compared with private industry, inefficient and less responsive to market demands with regard to stream-lining the development of and enhancing the quality of products and services offered. Thus, industry and private investment provide the bridge that converts new discoveries into healthcare products that are available to consumers and patients. This conversion occurs through commercialization, which involves both high risks and high rewards. Taking advantage of the commercialization option for research development requires an understanding of the technology transfer process. This article reviews 5 topics: 1) industry motivation to invest in academic research; 2) institutional considerations in partnering with industry; 3) academia's interactions with inventors in the commercialization process; 4) the research institution's route to commercialization, and 5) the role of intellectual property and commercialization in the advancement of healthcare. PMID:20353687

  8. Conflict of Interest in Research--The Clinician Scientist's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kong, Nicole H Y; Chow, Pierce K H

    2013-11-01

    Conflict of interest (COI) in research represents situations that pose risks of undue influence on scientific objectivity and judgment because of secondary interests. This is complex but is inherent to biomedical research. The role of a clinician scientist can be conflicted when scientific objectivity is perceived to compete with scientific success (publications, grants), partiality to patients (clinical trials), obligations to colleagues (allowing poor scholarship to pass), research sponsors (industry), and financial gains (patents, royalties). While there are many ways which COIs can occur in research, COI mitigations remain reliable. Collaborations between investigators and industry are valuable to the development of novel therapies and undue discouragement of these relationships may inadvertently harm the advancement of healthcare. As a result, proper management of COI is fundamental and crucial to the maintenance of long-term, mutually beneficial relationships between industry and academia. The nature of COI in research and methods of mitigation are discussed from the perspective of a clinician scientist. PMID:24356664

  9. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephen C.; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. PMID:26011903

  10. Structural dynamics technology research in NASA: Perspective on future needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The perspective of a NASA ad hoc study group on future research needs in structural dynamics within the aerospace industry is presented. The common aspects of the design process across the industry are identified and the role of structural dynamics is established through a discussion of various design considerations having their basis in structural dynamics. The specific structural dynamics issues involved are identified and assessed as to their current technological status and trends. Projections of future requirements based on this assessment are made and areas of research to meet them are identified.

  11. Relational agency from a teacher as researcher perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Shequana

    2015-09-01

    This essay responds to a selection of ideas and theoretical frameworks Sharada Gade uses to conduct her study. The ideas raised by Sharada are placed in the context of the changes and experiences taking place in today's public school system. Her ideas also provide new insights into the construct of relational agency in accordance with expansive learning activity from a teacher as researcher perspective. The purpose of this response is to shed light on the collaboration that needs to exist between teachers and researchers as curriculum is designed and implemented.

  12. Participatory Research in North America; A Perspective on Participatory Research in Latin America; Participatory Research in Southern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaventa, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The authors present perspectives on the employment of participatory research techniques in three areas: (1) North America (Gaventa); (2) Latin America (de Souza); and (3) Southern Europe (Orefice). Discussion focuses on participatory research strategies for popular groups, purposes and considerations regarding participatory research, and the role…

  13. Acquiring Research-grade ALSM Data in the Commercial Marketplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugerud, R. A.; Harding, D. J.; Latypov, D.; Martinez, D.; Routh, S.; Ziegler, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Puget Sound Lidar Consortium, working with TerraPoint, LLC, has procured a large volume of ALSM (topographic lidar) data for scientific research. Research-grade ALSM data can be characterized by their completeness, density, and accuracy. Complete data include-at a minimum-X, Y, Z, time, and classification (ground, vegetation, structure, blunder) for each laser reflection. Off-nadir angle and return number for multiple returns are also useful. We began with a pulse density of 1/sq m, and after limited experiments still find this density satisfactory in the dense second-growth forests of western Washington. Lower pulse densities would have produced unacceptably limited sampling in forested areas and aliased some topographic features. Higher pulse densities do not produce markedly better topographic models, in part because of limitations of reproducibility between the overlapping survey swaths used to achieve higher density. Our experience in a variety of forest types demonstrates that the fraction of pulses that produce ground returns varies with vegetation cover, laser beam divergence, laser power, and detector sensitivity, but have not quantified this relationship. The most significant operational limits on vertical accuracy of ALSM appear to be instrument calibration and the accuracy with which returns are classified as ground or vegetation. TerraPoint has recently implemented in-situ calibration using overlapping swaths (Latypov and Zosse, 2002, see http://www.terrapoint.com/News_damirACSM_ASPRS2002.html). On the consumer side, we routinely perform a similar overlap analysis to produce maps of relative Z error between swaths; we find that in bare, low-slope regions the in-situ calibration has reduced this internal Z error to 6-10 cm RMSE. Comparison with independent ground control points commonly illuminates inconsistencies in how GPS heights have been reduced to orthometric heights. Once these inconsistencies are resolved, it appears that the internal errors

  14. Technology Commercialization Effects on the Conduct of Research in Higher Education

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Joshua B.; Campbell, Eric G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of technology commercialization on researcher practice and productivity at U.S. universities. Using data drawn from licensing contract documents and databases of university-industry linkages and faculty research output, the study findings suggest that the common practice of licensing technologies exclusively to singular firms may have a dampening effect on faculty inventor propensity to conduct published research and to collaborate with others on research. Furthermore, faculty who are more actively engaged in patenting may be less likely to collaborate with outsiders on research while faculty at public universities may experience particularly strong norms to engage in commercialization vis-à-vis traditional routes to research dissemination. These circumstances appear to be hindering innovation via the traditional mechanisms (research publication and collaboration), questioning the success of policymaking to date for the purpose of speeding the movement of research from the lab bench to society. PMID:22427717

  15. Ocean Research - Perspectives from an international Ocean Research Coordination Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Jay; Williams, Albert, III

    2013-04-01

    The need for improved coordination in ocean observations is more urgent now given the issues of climate change, sustainable food sources and increased need for energy. Ocean researchers must work across disciplines to provide policy makers with clear and understandable assessments of the state of the ocean. With advances in technology, not only in observation, but also communication and computer science, we are in a new era where we can answer questions asked over the last 100 years at the time and space scales that are relevant. Programs like GLOBEC moved us forward but we are still challenged by the disciplinary divide. Interdisciplinary problem solving must be addressed not only by the exchange of data between the many sides, but through levels where questions require day-to-day collaboration. A National Science Foundation-funded Research Coordination Network (RCN) is addressing approaches for improving interdisciplinary research capabilities in the ocean sciences. During the last year, the RCN had a working group for Open Data led by John Orcutt, Peter Pissierssens and Albert Williams III. The teams has focused on three areas: 1. Data and Information formats and standards; 2. Data access models (including IPR, business models for open data, data policies,...); 3. Data publishing, data citation. There has been a significant trend toward free and open access to data in the last few years. In 2007, the US announced that Landsat data would be available at no charge. Float data from the US (NDBC), JCOMM and OceanSites offer web-based access. The IODE is developing its Ocean Data Portal giving immediate and free access to ocean data. However, from the aspect of long-term collaborations across communities, this global trend is less robust than might appear at the surface. While there are many standard data formats for data exchange, there is not yet widespread uniformity in their adoption. Use of standard data formats can be encouraged in several ways: sponsors of

  16. Researching pharmacist managerial capability: philosophical perspectives and paradigms of inquiry.

    PubMed

    Woods, Phillip; Gapp, Rod; King, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    In successful community pharmacy business enterprises suitably responsive actions to meet ever-increasing change require capable pharmacy managers who readily learn and adapt. Capability as a concept is generally understood to be the ability of a manager to identify and act to solve unfamiliar problems in unfamiliar situations. Capability is characterized by adaptability and flexibility. However, different understandings of the concept 'capability' and what it means to be 'capable' are indirect and incomplete. This paper aims to clarify current theories regarding the concept of 'capability' at the level of the individual, and through this to make more explicit what is known about the phenomenon, but more particularly, how we know what we know. The analysis includes the concept of 'competence' because explanations of capability include competence, and the two concepts are not clearly separated in the literature. By probing the epistemological origins of current theory concerning both concepts, the limiting taken for granted assumptions are revealed. Assumptions about context and time, and the psychological theory through which individuals are assumed to perceive, know and learn, are illuminated. The analysis, in connection with the literature, shows how the interpretive philosophic research approach may reveal a different and useful theoretical perspective for explaining capability as a dynamic performance. It is suggested that such a perspective may narrow the gap between the theory of capability and its practice. The interpretive perspective holds potential to reveal how capability, as performed by successful community pharmacy managers, might be further researched and strengthened. This paper supports the challenging suggestion that pharmacy social research needs to rebalance the dominance of purely empirical research by exploring interpretive methodologies to better understand human actions and relations in the context of pharmacy. PMID:25169620

  17. Risk and resistance perspectives in translation-oriented etiology research.

    PubMed

    Vanyukov, Michael M; Tarter, Ralph E; Conway, Kevin P; Kirillova, Galina P; Chandler, Redonna K; Daley, Dennis C

    2016-03-01

    Risk for a disorder and the mechanisms that determine its elevation, risk factors, are the focus of medical research. Targeting risk factors should serve the goal of prevention and treatment intervention. Risk, however, is but one of the aspects of liability to a disorder, a latent trait that encompasses effects of all factors leading to or from the diagnostic threshold. The coequal but opposite aspect of liability is resistance to a disorder. The factors that increase resistance and thus enable prevention or recovery may differ from those that elevate risk. Accordingly, there are nontrivial differences between research perspectives that focus on risk and on resistance. This article shows how this distinction translates into goals and methods of research and practice, from the choice of potential mechanisms tested to the results sought in intervention. The resistance concept also differs from those of "resilience" and "protective factors," subsuming but not limited to them. The implications of the concept are discussed using substance use disorder as an example and substantiate the need for biomedical research and its translation to shift to the resistance perspective. PMID:27012252

  18. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Zogg, Robert; Goetzler, William; Ahlfeldt, Christopher; Hiraiwa, Hirokazu; Sathe, Amul; Sutherland, Timothy

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  19. Research on the Implementation of the NASA Joint Sponsored Research Program and other Innovative Mechanism for Commercializing NASA Funded Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, Karen Risa

    1997-01-01

    A goal of the ERAST Program is the commercial application of technology resulting from the work if the ERAST Alliance. This goal is sufficiently primary to be called out in the recitals section of the ERAST Joint Sponsored Research Agreement. In support of this goal, two activities described below were commenced in 1996 to assess and explore commercial applications of UAV technologies relevant to the ERAST Alliance.

  20. Technology Commercialization Effects on the Conduct of Research in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Joshua B.; Campbell, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of technology commercialization on researcher practice and productivity at U.S. universities. Using data drawn from licensing contract documents and databases of university-industry linkages and faculty research output, the study findings suggest that the common practice of licensing…

  1. Stem cell research funding policies and dynamic innovation: a survey of open access and commercialization requirements.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Maroussia; Kim, Jihyun Rosel; Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Plomer, Aurora; Joly, Yann

    2014-08-01

    This article compares and contrasts the pressures of both open access data sharing and commercialization policies in the context of publicly funded embryonic stem cell research (SCR). First, normative guidelines of international SCR organizations were examined. We then examined SCR funding guidelines and the project evaluation criteria of major funding organizations in the EU, the United Kingdom (UK), Spain, Canada and the United States. Our survey of policies revealed subtle pressures to commercialize research that include: increased funding availability for commercialization opportunities, assistance for obtaining intellectual property rights (IPRs) and legislation mandating commercialization. In lieu of open access models, funders are increasingly opting for limited sharing models or "protected commons" models that make the research available to researchers within the same region or those receiving the same funding. Meanwhile, there still is need for funding agencies to clarify and standardize terms such as "non-profit organizations" and "for-profit research," as more universities are pursuing for-profit or commercial opportunities. PMID:24676713

  2. Research, Perspectives, and Recommendations on Implementing the Flipped Classroom.

    PubMed

    Rotellar, Cristina; Cain, Jeff

    2016-03-25

    Flipped or inverted classrooms have become increasingly popular, and sometimes controversial, within higher education. Many educators have touted the potential benefits of this model and initial research regarding implementation has been primarily positive. The rationale behind the flipped classroom methodology is to increase student engagement with content, increase and improve faculty contact time with students, and enhance learning. This paper presents a summary of primary literature regarding flipped classrooms, discusses concerns and unanswered questions from both a student and faculty member perspective, and offers recommendations regarding implementation. PMID:27073287

  3. Research, Perspectives, and Recommendations on Implementing the Flipped Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Rotellar, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Flipped or inverted classrooms have become increasingly popular, and sometimes controversial, within higher education. Many educators have touted the potential benefits of this model and initial research regarding implementation has been primarily positive. The rationale behind the flipped classroom methodology is to increase student engagement with content, increase and improve faculty contact time with students, and enhance learning. This paper presents a summary of primary literature regarding flipped classrooms, discusses concerns and unanswered questions from both a student and faculty member perspective, and offers recommendations regarding implementation. PMID:27073287

  4. Whither Ribosome Structure and Dynamics Research? (A Perspective).

    PubMed

    Frank, Joachim

    2016-09-11

    As high-resolution cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of ribosomes proliferate, at resolutions that allow atomic interactions to be visualized, this article attempts to give a perspective on the way research on ribosome structure and dynamics may be headed, and particularly the new opportunities we have gained through recent advances in cryo-EM. It is pointed out that single-molecule FRET and cryo-EM form natural complements in the characterization of ribosome dynamics and transitions among equilibrating states of in vitro translational systems. PMID:27178840

  5. Perspectives of Egyptian Research Ethics Committees Regarding Their Effective Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Matar, Amal; Silverman, Henry

    2013-01-01

    The recent increase in research in the Middle East has been associated with the establishment of research ethics committees (RECs). Our aim was to obtain perspectives of RECs regarding the challenges that impede their effective functioning. We conducted in-depth interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. We transcribed and analyzed the interviews to uncover major themes and subthemes. We identified the following themes: membership composition; training needs of members; availability of human and capital resources; role of the national government; concerns with the informed consent process; government scrutiny of research; investigator-related issues; and concerns with transfer of biological samples to other countries. Our interview study revealed several barriers that need to be considered by appropriate stakeholders to enhance adequate functioning of RECs. PMID:23485669

  6. Research Reproducibility in Geosciences: Current Landscape, Practices and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, An

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility of research can gauge the validity of its findings. Yet currently we lack understanding of how much of a problem research reproducibility is in geosciences. We developed an online survey on faculty and graduate students in geosciences, and received 136 responses from research institutions and universities in Americas, Asia, Europe and other parts of the world. This survey examined (1) the current state of research reproducibility in geosciences by asking researchers' experiences with unsuccessful replication work, and what obstacles that lead to their replication failures; (2) the current reproducibility practices in community by asking what efforts researchers made to try to reproduce other's work and make their own work reproducible, and what the underlying factors that contribute to irreproducibility are; (3) the perspectives on reproducibility by collecting researcher's thoughts and opinions on this issue. The survey result indicated that nearly 80% of respondents who had ever reproduced a published study had failed at least one time in reproducing. Only one third of the respondents received helpful feedbacks when they contacted the authors of a published study for data, code, or other information. The primary factors that lead to unsuccessful replication attempts are insufficient details of instructions in published literature, and inaccessibility of data, code and tools needed in the study. Our findings suggest a remarkable lack of research reproducibility in geoscience. Changing the incentive mechanism in academia, as well as developing policies and tools that facilitate open data and code sharing are the promising ways for geosciences community to alleviate this reproducibility problem.

  7. 76 FR 52954 - Workshop: Advancing Research on Mixtures; New Perspectives and Approaches for Predicting Adverse...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Workshop: Advancing Research on Mixtures; New Perspectives and Approaches for Predicting... ``Advancing Research on Mixtures: New Perspectives and Approaches for Predicting Adverse Human Health Effects... Research and Training, NIEHS, P.O. Box 12233, MD K3-04, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (telephone)...

  8. Collaboration between Special Educators and General Educators: The Perspective of a Researcher Turned Teacher-Researcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhiller, Noell

    This paper reports findings of a study examining the nature of collaboration between special educators and general educators in two elementary schools. In addition, personal perspectives are presented on the linkages between conducting research and gaining experiences as a special educator at one of the elementary schools the year following…

  9. Changing Perspectives: Exploring a pedagogy to examine other perspectives about stem cell research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Bev; Mora, Helen A.; Bay, Jacquie L.

    2012-03-01

    This study explores how teachers developed and critically evaluated a range of teaching strategies that could support the discussion of a socio-scientific issue (SSI) that had the potential to be controversial. The issue was stem cell research and six New Zealand teachers of senior biology students (grades 12/13) took part in an action research project that was situational, collaborative and self-evaluative. The focus of the research was to identify communication barriers that interfered with classroom discussion and how teachers could help students cross cultural borders when they discussed SSIs that were outside their life worlds. The barriers to communication were access to relevant science knowledge, religion, language, an inability to question issues and cultural expectations of girls. Teachers trialled and adapted two discussion strategies, 'Drawing the Line' and 'Diamond Ranking' that provided a vehicle for their students to explore and discuss this issue from a range of perspectives. These discussion strategies enabled their students to take part in a dialogue where reciprocal conversation could occur because they had opportunities not only to explore their own perspectives but also other people's viewpoints.

  10. A Perspective on NASA Ames Air Traffic Management Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Jeffery A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes past and present air-traffic-management research at NASA Ames Research Center. The descriptions emerge from the perspective of a technical manager who supervised the majority of this research for the last four years. Past research contributions built a foundation for calculating accurate flight trajectories to enable efficient airspace management in time. That foundation led to two predominant research activities that continue to this day - one in automatically separating aircraft and the other in optimizing traffic flows. Today s national airspace uses many of the applications resulting from research at Ames. These applications include the nationwide deployment of the Traffic Management Advisor, new procedures enabling continuous descent arrivals, cooperation with industry to permit more direct flights to downstream way-points, a surface management system in use by two cargo carriers, and software to evaluate how well flights conform to national traffic management initiatives. The paper concludes with suggestions for prioritized research in the upcoming years. These priorities include: enabling more first-look operational evaluations, improving conflict detection and resolution for climbing or descending aircraft, and focusing additional attention on the underpinning safety critical items such as a reliable datalink.

  11. Becoming allies: Combining social science and technological perspectives to improve energy research and policy making

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, Rick; Moezzi, Mithra

    2002-07-01

    Within the energy research community, social sciences tends to be viewed fairly narrowly, often as simply a marketing tool to change the behavior of consumers and decision makers, and to ''attack market barriers''. As we see it, social sciences, which draws on sociology, psychology, political science, business administration, and other academic disciplines, is capable of far more. A social science perspective can re-align questions in ways that can lead to the development of technologies and technology policy that are much stronger and potentially more successful than they would be otherwise. In most energy policies governing commercial buildings, the prevailing R and D directives are firmly rooted in a technology framework, one that is generally more quantitative and evaluative than that fostered by the social sciences. To illustrate how social science thinking would approach the goal of achieving high energy performance in the commercial building sector, they focus on the US Department of Energy's Roadmap for commercial buildings (DOE 2000) as a starting point. By ''deconstructing'' the four strategies provided by the Roadmap, they set the stage for proposing a closer partnership between advocates of technology-based and social science-based approaches.

  12. Accreditation of human research protection program: An Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bairy, K. L.; Pereira, Pratibha

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing number of clinical trials being placed in India, it is the collective responsibility of the Investigator sites, Government, Ethics Committees, and Sponsors to ensure that the trial subjects are protected from risks these studies can have, that subjects are duly compensated, and credible data generated. Most importantly, each institution/hospital should have a strong Human Research Protection Program to safe guard the trial subjects. In order to look at research with a comprehensive objective approach, there is a need for a formal auditing and review system by a recognized body. As of now, only the sponsors are monitoring/auditing their respective trials; however, there is an increasing need to perform a more detailed review and assessment of processes of the institution and the Ethics Committee. This challenge can be addressed by going for accreditation by a reputed association that encompasses-the institutions, the ethics committees, and researcher/research staff. Starting their journey for the accreditation process in late 2010, Kasturba Medical College and Hospital [KMC], Manipal, and Manipal Hospital Bangalore [MHB] received full Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs (AAHRPP) accreditation in Dec 2011—a first in India. This article delves into the steps involved in applying for AAHRPP accreditation from an Indian Perspective, the challenges, advantages, and testimonials from the two hospitals on the application experience and how the accreditation has improved the Human Research Protection Program at these hospitals. PMID:22701825

  13. Fascia Research from a Clinician/Scientist's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Findley, Thomas W

    2011-01-01

    The upcoming Third International Fascia Research Congress will have much exciting information for the clinician, as well as for the clinical and basic science researcher. This paper provides a perspective from a clinician/scientist, including the fascial network of body-wide connections between and within individual cells, and sharing of loads between muscle and fascia. Basic studies of fibroblast cell shape show the impact of manual therapy, acupuncture, and yoga-like stretching at the cellular level. Advances in scientific equipment have made it possible to study a layer of hyaluronan fluid, which allows sliding between deep fascia and muscle. Collagen fibers within fascia affect both blood flow to muscles and lymphatic fluid flow. PMID:22211151

  14. Fascia Research from a Clinician/Scientist’s Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Findley, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    The upcoming Third International Fascia Research Congress will have much exciting information for the clinician, as well as for the clinical and basic science researcher. This paper provides a perspective from a clinician/scientist, including the fascial network of body-wide connections between and within individual cells, and sharing of loads between muscle and fascia. Basic studies of fibroblast cell shape show the impact of manual therapy, acupuncture, and yoga-like stretching at the cellular level. Advances in scientific equipment have made it possible to study a layer of hyaluronan fluid, which allows sliding between deep fascia and muscle. Collagen fibers within fascia affect both blood flow to muscles and lymphatic fluid flow. PMID:22211151

  15. Insect-resistant genetically modified rice in China: from research to commercialization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mao; Shelton, Anthony; Ye, Gong-yin

    2011-01-01

    From the first insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) rice transformation in 1989 in China to October 2009 when the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture issued biosafety certificates for commercial production of two cry1Ab/Ac Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) lines, China made a great leap forward from IRGM rice basic research to potential commercialization of the world's first IRGM rice. Research has been conducted on developing IRGM rice, assessing its environmental and food safety impacts, and evaluating its socioeconomic consequences. Laboratory and field tests have confirmed that these two Bt rice lines can provide effective and economic control of the lepidopteran complex on rice with less risk to the environment than present practices. Commercializing these Bt plants, while developing other GM plants that address the broader complex of insects and other pests, will need to be done within a comprehensive integrated pest management program to ensure the food security of China and the world. PMID:20868281

  16. Mentoring and Research Capacity-Building Experiences: Acculturating to Research From the Perspective of the Trainee

    PubMed Central

    Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2009-01-01

    We participated in the Collaborative HIV Prevention in Minority Communities Program, which was designed to support ethnic minority researchers in improving their HIV-prevention research skills. Here we share our experiences as trainees, as well as the effect this program has had on our research careers. We liken the process of securing funding for our research to that of acculturation: we had to learn a new culture while retaining our own identity and membership in ethnic minority communities. We also discuss the importance of mentorship from the perspective of the trainee and reflect on our learning and skills acquisition process. PMID:19246665

  17. Sociological and Communication-Theoretical Perspectives on the Commercialization of the Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2013-01-01

    Both self-organization and organization are important for the further development of the sciences: the two dynamics condition and enable each other. Commercial and public considerations can interact and "interpenetrate" in historical organization; different codes of communication are then "recombined". However,…

  18. A future perspective on technological obsolescenceat NASA, Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    The present research effort was the first phase of a study to forecast whether technological obsolescence will be a problem for the engineers, scientists, and technicians at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). There were four goals of the research: to review the literature on technological obsolescence; to determine through interviews of division chiefs and branch heads Langley's perspective on future technological obsolescence; to begin making contacts with outside industries to find out how they view the possibility of technological obsolescence; and to make preliminary recommendations for dealing with the problem. A complete description of the findings of this research can be reviewed in a technical report in preparation. The following are a small subset of the key findings of the study: NASA's centers and divisions vary in their missions and because of this, in their capability to control obsolescence; research-oriented organizations within NASA are believed by respondents to keep up to date more than the project-oriented organizations; asked what are the signs of a professional's technological obsolescence, respondents had a variety of responses; top performing scientists were viewed as continuous learners, keeping up to date by a variety of means; when asked what incentives were available to aerospace technologists for keeping up to data, respondents specified a number of ideas; respondents identified many obstacles to professionals' keeping up to date in the future; and most respondents expressed some concern for the future of the professionals at NASA vis a vis the issue of professional obsolescence.

  19. Culture as a variable in health research: perspectives and caveats.

    PubMed

    Al-Bannay, Hana; Jarus, Tal; Jongbloed, Lyn; Yazigi, Maya; Dean, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    To augment the rigor of health promotion research, this perspective article describes how cultural factors impact the outcomes of health promotion studies either intentionally or unintentionally. It proposes ways in which these factors can be addressed or controlled in designing studies and interpreting their results. We describe how variation within and across cultures can be considered within a study, e.g. the conceptualization of research questions or hypotheses, and the methodology including sampling, surveys and interviews. We provide multiple examples of how culture influences the interpretation of study findings. Inadequately accounting or controlling for cultural variations in health promotion studies, whether they are planned or unplanned, can lead to incomplete research questions, incomplete data gathering, spurious results and limited generalizability of the findings. In health promotion research, factors related to culture and cultural variations need to be considered, acknowledged or controlled irrespective of the purpose of the study, to maximize the reliability, validity and generalizability of study findings. These issues are particularly relevant in contemporary health promotion research focusing on global lifestyle-related conditions where cultural factors have a pivotal role and warrant being understood. PMID:23424161

  20. 9 CFR 93.104 - Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND...

  1. 9 CFR 93.104 - Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND...

  2. Science and Television Commercials: Adding Relevance to the Research Methodology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    Contends that research methodology courses can be relevant to issues outside of psychology and describes a method which relates the course to consumer problems. Students use experimental methodology to test claims made in television commercials advertising deodorant, bathroom tissues, and soft drinks. (KC)

  3. Multiple perspectives on symptom interpretation in primary care research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessment and management of symptoms is a main task in primary care. Symptoms may be defined as 'any subjective evidence of a health problem as perceived by the patient’. In other words, symptoms do not appear as such; symptoms are rather the result of an interpretation process. We aim to discuss different perspectives on symptom interpretation as presented in the disciplines of biomedicine, psychology and anthropology and the possible implications for our understanding of research on symptoms in relation to prevalence and diagnosis in the general population and in primary care. Discussion Symptom experiences are embedded in a complex interplay between biological, psychological and cultural factors. From a biomedical perspective, symptoms are seen as possible indicators of disease and are characterized by parameters related to seriousness (e.g. appearance, severity, impact and temporal aspects). However, such symptom characteristics are rarely unambiguous, but merely indicate disease probability. In addition, the GP’s interpretation of presenting symptoms will also be influenced by other factors. From a psychological perspective, factors affecting interpretation are in focus (e.g. internal frame of reference, attention to sensations, illness perception and susceptibility to suggestion). These individual factors cannot stand alone either, but are influenced by the surroundings. Anthropological research suggests that personal experiences and culture form a continuous feedback relationship which influence when and how sensations are understood as symptoms of disease and acted upon. Summary The different approaches to symptom interpretation imply that we need to be cautious and conscious when interpreting survey findings that are based on symptom prevalence in the general population or in primary care. These findings will reflect a variety of interpretations of sensations, which are not equivalent to expressions of underlying disease. Furthermore, if

  4. Sociological and Communication-Theoretical Perspectives on the Commercialization of the Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2013-10-01

    Both self-organization and organization are important for the further development of the sciences: the two dynamics condition and enable each other. Commercial and public considerations can interact and "interpenetrate" in historical organization; different codes of communication are then "recombined". However, self-organization in the symbolically generalized codes of communication can be expected to operate at the global level. The Triple Helix model allows for both a neo-institutional appreciation in terms of historical networks of university-industry-government relations and a neo-evolutionary interpretation in terms of three functions: (1) novelty production, (2) wealth generation, and (3) political control. Using this model, one can appreciate both subdynamics. The mutual information in three dimensions enables us to measure the trade-off between organization and self-organization as a possible synergy. The question of optimization between commercial and public interests in the different sciences can thus be made empirical.

  5. Commercial applications and scientific research requirements for thermal-infrared observations of terrestrial surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, Samuel N.; Taranik, James V.; Laporte, Daniel; Putnam, Evelyn S. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    In the spring of 1986 the EOSAT Company and NASA Headquarters organized a workshop to consider: (1) the potential value of space-acquired multiband thermal remote sensing in terrestrial research and commercial applications, and (2) the scientific and technological requirements for conducting such observations from the LANDSAT platform. The workshop defined the instrument characteristics of three types of sensors that would be needed to expand the use of thermal information for Earth observation and new commercial opportunities. The panels from two disciplines, geology and evapotranspiration/botany, along with the instrument panel, presented their recommendations to the workshop. The findings of these meetings are presented.

  6. [Research and educational activities through perspective of pharmacognosy].

    PubMed

    Ito, Michiho

    2010-05-01

    The research field of pharmacognosy covers a wide variety of subjects based on a knowledge of natural medicines and extends its influence in all surrounding directions. Pharmacognosy itself is generally regarded as one of the branches of pharmaceutical science although the processes to achieve the objectives are not always analytical as are other branches in this field. The extraordinarily long history and broad view provide researchers opportunities to conduct unique projects which can enhance the perspective of the subject in the future. Fieldwork is one feature of scientific research and is viewed as more valuable to projects in pharmacognosy than to those in other fields of pharmaceutical sciences. The frame of my research has been formed around fieldwork; projects targeted are achieved based on information and samples gathered through this means, and further studies are suggested by the ideas obtained. Some of the results and experiences gathered in these projects are described in this article for discussion of the future image of the pharmacognosial field. PMID:20460865

  7. It's all about relationships: A qualitative study of health researchers' perspectives of conducting interdisciplinary health research

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Kalpana M; Dolovich, Lisa; Brazil, Kevin; Raina, Parminder

    2008-01-01

    Background Interdisciplinary research has been promoted as an optimal research paradigm in the health sciences, yet little is known about how researchers experience interdisciplinarity in practice. This study sought to determine how interdisciplinary research was conceptualized and operationalized from the researcher's perspective and to better understand how best to facilitate interdisciplinary research success. Methods Key informant interviews were conducted with health researchers with expertise or experience in conducting interdisciplinary research. Interviews were completed either in person or over the telephone using a semi-structured interview guide. Data collection occurred simultaneously with data analysis so that emerging themes could be explored in subsequent interviews. A content analysis approach was used. Results Nineteen researchers took part in this study. Interdisciplinary research was conceptualized disparately between participants, and there was modest attention towards operationalization of interdisciplinary research. There was one overriding theme, "It's all about relationships", that emerged from the data. Within this theme, there were four related subthemes: 1) Involvement in interdisciplinary research; 2) Why do I do interdisciplinary research?; 3) Managing and fostering interdisciplinary relationships; and 4) The prickly side to interdisciplinary research. Together, these themes suggest that the choice to conduct interdisciplinary research, though often driven by the research question, is highly influenced by interpersonal and relationship-related factors. In addition, researchers preferred to engage in interdisciplinary research with those that they had already established relationships and where their role in the research process was clearly articulated. A focus on relationship building was seen as a strong facilitator of interdisciplinary success. Conclusion Many health researchers experienced mixed reactions towards their involvement in

  8. Piaget and Egocentrism: A Perspective on Recent Developmental Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Reviews some recent studies of visual perspective taking which preserve many features of the Piagetian three-mountain task, discusses the generality and particularity of children's perspective-taking abilities, and briefly comments on the relationship between perspective taking and social experience. (RH)

  9. High Density Electroencephalography in Sleep Research: Potential, Problems, Future Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Huber, Reto

    2012-01-01

    High density EEG (hdEEG) during sleep combines the superior temporal resolution of EEG recordings with high spatial resolution. Thus, this method allows a topographical analysis of sleep EEG activity and thereby fosters the shift from a global view of sleep to a local one. HdEEG allowed to investigate sleep rhythms in terms of their characteristic behavior (e.g., the traveling of slow waves) and in terms of their relationship to cortical functioning (e.g., consciousness and cognitive abilities). Moreover, recent studies successfully demonstrated that hdEEG can be used to study brain functioning in neurological and neuro-developmental disorders, and to evaluate therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the potential, the problems, and future perspective of hdEEG in sleep research. PMID:22593753

  10. Evolution of natural risk: research framework and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufschmidt, G.; Crozier, M.; Glade, T.

    2005-05-01

    This study presents a conceptual framework for addressing temporal variation in natural risk. Numerous former natural risk analyses and investigations have demonstrated that time and related changes have a crucial influence on risk. For natural hazards, time becomes a factor for a number of reasons. Using the example of landslides to illustrate this point, it is shown that: 1. landslide history is important in determining probability of occurrence, 2. the significance of catchment variables in explaining landslide susceptibility is dependent on the time scale chosen, 3. the observer's perception of the geosystem's state changes with different time spans, and 4. the system's sensitivity varies with time. Natural hazards are not isolated events but complex features that are connected with the social system. Similarly, elements at risk and their vulnerability are highly dynamic through time, an aspect that is not sufficiently acknowledged in research. Since natural risk is an amalgam of hazard and vulnerability, its temporal behaviour has to be considered as well. Identifying these changes and their underlying processes contributes to a better understanding of natural risk today and in the future. However, no dynamic models for natural risks are currently available. Dynamic behaviour of factors affecting risk is likely to create increasing connectivity and complexity. This demands a broad approach to natural risk, since the concept of risk encapsulates aspects of many disciplines and has suffered from single-discipline approaches in the past. In New Zealand, dramatic environmental and social change has occurred in a relatively short period of time, graphically demonstrating the temporal variability of the geosystem and the social system. To understand these changes and subsequent interactions between both systems, a holistic perspective is needed. This contribution reviews available frameworks, demonstrates the need for further concepts, and gives research

  11. Waste-heat research, development, demonstration and commercialization plan: Rankine-cycle bottoming systems. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Organic and binary Rankine cycle (ORC) technology as potentially broad applications in recovering and converting waste heat to the useful energy form of electricity. ORC systems are particularly suited for recovering medium-grade exhaust heat (200 to 1000/sup 0/F), a form of waste energy released primarily in the generation of electricity and in industrial processes. Therefore, a Waste Heat Research, Development, Demonstration and Commercialization Plan (RDD and C Plan) has been formulated. The objective of the plan is to achieve significant market penetration of ORC technology by 1985. To accomplish this commercialization objective, the plan is structured around three key strategic elements: demonstration of technically and economically attractive ORC systems that meet the specific needs of commercial waste heat markets; stimulation of the demand for ORC products in these markets; and promotion of the development of a competitive industry to serve ORC markets efficiently. The development of this plan and ERDA's role in its implementation are discussed.

  12. Research Participation as Work: Comparing the Perspectives of Researchers and Economically Marginalized Populations

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    We examined the historical and regulatory framework of research with human participants in the United States, and described some possible unintended consequences of this framework in the context of paying young injection drug users for their time participating in behavioral and medical research. We drew upon our own experiences while conducting a long-running epidemiological study of hepatitis C virus infection. We found that existing ethical and regulatory framings of research participation may lead to injustices from the perspectives of research participants. We propose considering research participation as a specialized form of work and the use of community advisory boards to facilitate discussion about appropriate compensation for research participation among economically marginalized populations. PMID:22594754

  13. Authentic research projects: Students' perspectives on the process, ownership, and benefits of doing research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Warren

    2005-11-01

    Authentic research projects are one type of inquiry activity as defined by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1993) and are a core component in science education reform movements. The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' perspectives of an authentic research project. The context for this study was a local Science and Engineering Fair (SEF) that involved students from a Metro-Atlanta public high school. This study provided information about this type of activity from the student's perspective, an emic viewpoint. In this qualitative study, demographic information was used for the purposeful selection of fourteen students making up the study sample. In this descriptive ethnography, data were collected via an open-ended survey, three individual interviews, a web log, and a group interview. Interviews were audio taped and conducted according to the protocol established by Lincoln and Guba (1998). Transcripts of the interviews, web logs, and survey responses were coded and analyzed by the constant comparative method as described by Glaser and Strauss (1965). Reliability and validity were achieved through member checks and triangulation. Using Gowin's Vee diagram (1981) as a theoretical framework for analysis, themes emerged describing the students' research experience. The themes included the students' initial reactions, difficulty getting started, accepting ownership of their project, growing interest, acknowledged benefits of the research experience, and a reflective look back at their experience. Overall, students described the authentic research experience as a worthwhile activity. The implications of the study are two-fold. At the practitioner level, teachers should engage students in research, but should do so in a manner that maximizes authenticity. Examples may include having students present a formal prospectus and work with a scientist mentor. For Science Educators in teacher preparation programs, there should be an

  14. Traffic model for commercial payloads in the Materials Experiment Assembly (MEA). [market research in commercial space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tietzel, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    One hundred individuals representing universities, technical institutes, government agencies, and industrial facilities were surveyed to determine potential commercial use of a self-contained, automated assembly for the space processing of materials during frequent shuttle flights for the 1981 to 1987 period. The approach used and the results of the study are summarized. A time time-phased projection (traffic model) of commercial usage of the materials experiment assembly is provided.

  15. Commercial and industrial applications of color ink jet: a technological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunand, Alain

    1996-03-01

    In just 5 years, color ink-jet has become the dominant technology for printing color images and graphics in the office and home markets. In commercial printing, the traditional printing processes are being influenced by new digital techniques. Color ink-jet proofing, and concepts such as computer to film/plate or digital processes are contributing to the evolution of the industry. In industrial color printing, the penetration of digital techniques is just beginning. All widely used conventional contact printing technologies involve mechanical printing forms including plates, screens or engraved cylinders. Such forms, which need to be newly created and set up for each job, increase costs. In our era of fast changing customer demands, growing needs for customization, and increasing use of digital exchange of information, the commercial and industrial printing markets represent an enormous potential for digital printing technologies. The adoption characteristics for the use of color ink-jet in these industries are discussed. Examples of color ink-jet applications in the fields of billboard printing, floor/wall covering decoration, and textile printing are described. The requirements on print quality, productivity, reliability, substrate compatibility, and color lead to the consideration of various types of ink-jet technologies. Key technical enabling factors and directions for future improvements are presented.

  16. Researcher Perspectives on Publication and Peer Review of Data

    PubMed Central

    Kratz, John Ernest; Strasser, Carly

    2015-01-01

    Data “publication” seeks to appropriate the prestige of authorship in the peer-reviewed literature to reward researchers who create useful and well-documented datasets. The scholarly communication community has embraced data publication as an incentive to document and share data. But, numerous new and ongoing experiments in implementation have not yet resolved what a data publication should be, when data should be peer-reviewed, or how data peer review should work. While researchers have been surveyed extensively regarding data management and sharing, their perceptions and expectations of data publication are largely unknown. To bring this important yet neglected perspective into the conversation, we surveyed ∼ 250 researchers across the sciences and social sciences– asking what expectations“data publication” raises and what features would be useful to evaluate the trustworthiness, evaluate the impact, and enhance the prestige of a data publication. We found that researcher expectations of data publication center on availability, generally through an open database or repository. Few respondents expected published data to be peer-reviewed, but peer-reviewed data enjoyed much greater trust and prestige. The importance of adequate metadata was acknowledged, in that almost all respondents expected data peer review to include evaluation of the data’s documentation. Formal citation in the reference list was affirmed by most respondents as the proper way to credit dataset creators. Citation count was viewed as the most useful measure of impact, but download count was seen as nearly as valuable. These results offer practical guidance for data publishers seeking to meet researcher expectations and enhance the value of published data. PMID:25706992

  17. Researcher perspectives on publication and peer review of data.

    PubMed

    Kratz, John Ernest; Strasser, Carly

    2015-01-01

    Data "publication" seeks to appropriate the prestige of authorship in the peer-reviewed literature to reward researchers who create useful and well-documented datasets. The scholarly communication community has embraced data publication as an incentive to document and share data. But, numerous new and ongoing experiments in implementation have not yet resolved what a data publication should be, when data should be peer-reviewed, or how data peer review should work. While researchers have been surveyed extensively regarding data management and sharing, their perceptions and expectations of data publication are largely unknown. To bring this important yet neglected perspective into the conversation, we surveyed ∼ 250 researchers across the sciences and social sciences- asking what expectations"data publication" raises and what features would be useful to evaluate the trustworthiness, evaluate the impact, and enhance the prestige of a data publication. We found that researcher expectations of data publication center on availability, generally through an open database or repository. Few respondents expected published data to be peer-reviewed, but peer-reviewed data enjoyed much greater trust and prestige. The importance of adequate metadata was acknowledged, in that almost all respondents expected data peer review to include evaluation of the data's documentation. Formal citation in the reference list was affirmed by most respondents as the proper way to credit dataset creators. Citation count was viewed as the most useful measure of impact, but download count was seen as nearly as valuable. These results offer practical guidance for data publishers seeking to meet researcher expectations and enhance the value of published data. PMID:25706992

  18. Mapping a research agenda for home care safety: perspectives from researchers, providers, and decision makers.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be described; consequently, gaining insight from various stakeholders about safety issues relevant to the home care sector is necessary in order to inform strategic directions for future research. To begin to map a research agenda, a three-part environmental scan was conducted: (a) a pilot study with home care recipients and providers; (b) key informant interviews with researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers; and (c) a review of literature in three topic areas. Only the results of the key informant interviews are reported here. PMID:24650672

  19. Karma, reincarnation, and medicine: Hindu perspectives on biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Janis Faye; Sharp, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Prior to the completion of the Human Genome Project, bioethicists and other academics debated the impact of this new genetic information on medicine, health care, group identification, and peoples' lives. A major issue is the potential for unintended and intended adverse consequences to groups and individuals. When conducting research in, for instance, American Indian and Alaskan native (AI/AN) populations, political, cultural, religious and historical issues must be considered. Among African Americans, the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment is a reminder of racism and discrimination in this country. The goal of the current study is to understand reasons for participating, or not, in genetic research such as the HapMap project and other genetic/medical research from the perspective of the Indian American community in Houston, Texas. In this article, we report on a topic central to this discussion among Indian Americans: karma and reincarnation. Both concepts are important beliefs when considering the body and what should happen to it. Karma and reincarnation are also important considerations in participation in medical and genetic research because, according to karma, what is done to the body can affect future existences and the health of future descendants. Such views of genetic and medical research are culturally mediated. Spiritual beliefs about the body, tissue, and fluids and what happens to them when separated from the body can influence ideas about the utility and acceptability of genetic research and thereby affect the recruitment process. Within this community it is understood that genetic and environmental factors contribute to complex diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer; and acknowledgment of the significance of environmental stressors in the production of disease. A commitment to service, i.e. "betterment of humanity," karmic beliefs, and targeting environmental stressors could be prominent avenues for public health campaigns in this

  20. NASA's Flight Opportunities Program: Matching Suborbital Research Payload Demand with Commercial Flight Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mains, R.; Maclise, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Flight Opportunities Program (FOP) is designed to solicit, select and oversee the upgrade of research technology payloads to readiness status for integration onboard a range of commercial flight platforms including; parabolic aircraft, high-altitude balloons, and suborbital launch vehicles. Two key Program goals are: to identify, demonstrate and support research technology maturation of value to future NASA missions in space-like environments, and help stimulate the availability of new low-cost, frequent access to space by funding commercial flights. FOP is one of four key elements of a new suborbital endeavor that also includes: the research payload provider community, the flight service providers, and the spaceport service providers. Ongoing collaboration and coordination between them as well as within the FOP is essential, since there are 8 commercial flight providers on contract, with 5 of them now actively seeking flight payloads. The challenge of matching the readiness to fly of both payloads and flight platforms will be described and strategies for optimizing this presented. Ideally, a pipeline of payloads will be available to ensure that flight platforms can be optimally filled with compatible payloads. However, payloads need to fly soon after they are ready in order to conserve project resources and advance technologies. Several design and interface strategies will be described that can support efficient payload processing and help to optimize these matching challenges. The fundamental driver for payload proposal submission to the FOP is understandably the perceived return on investment to the research payload providers from participation. These projected benefits are most easily understood when a candidate researcher is able to review results from flight of a payload similar to what they might propose. To this end, an analysis of recent FOP research payload proposal categories will be presented along with top-level accomplishments from recent FOP

  1. The commercialization of human body parts: a reappraisal from a Protestant perspective.

    PubMed

    Torcello, L; Wear, S

    2000-08-01

    The idea of a market in human organs has traditionally met with widespread and emphatic rejection from both secular and religious fronts alike. However, as numerous human beings continue to suffer an uncertain fate on transplant waiting lists, voices are beginning to emerge that are willing at least to explore the option of human organ sales. Anyone who argues for such a option must contend, however, with what seem to be largely emotional rejections of the idea. Often it seems that rebuffs offered on a secular ground are rooted in nothing more than vague discomforts. We suspect that these discomforts are often based in religious sentiments that have wound their way into the fabric of secular America. Therefore, in order to contribute further to those voices heard in favor of human organ sales, it is worthwhile to show that from a religious perspective, it is just as possible to affirm the appropriateness of human organ sales as it is from a secular basis. Since Protestantism has historically had a powerful influence in American society it is a proper starting point for such an investigation. PMID:12171075

  2. Short-haul CTOL aircraft research. [on reduced energy for commercial air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the reduced energy for commercial air transportation studies on air transportation energy efficiency improvement alternatives are reviewed along with subsequent design studies of advanced turboprop powered transport aircraft. The application of this research to short-haul transportation is discussed. The results of several recent turboprop aircraft design are included. The potential fuel savings and cost savings for advanced turboprop aircraft appear substantial, particularly at shorter ranges.

  3. Ethical issues in clinical neuroscience research: a patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Perry D; Herman, Linda; Jedlinski, Sheryl; Willocks, Peggy; Wittekind, Paula

    2007-07-01

    A patient-centered paradigm for clinical research and medical care is presented as a solution to the problem of declining innovation and increasing costs and development time in the pipeline for new therapies. Fundamental differences in values and motivations among scientists, clinicians, industry sponsor, and patients in neurotherapeutics provide a framework for analysis of ethical conflicts and the loss of public confidence in medical research. Parkinson advocates' views on clinical trial participation, perceived risks and benefits, placebo controls, and sham surgery are presented. These views reflect the sense of urgency and the unique perspective that comes from living with this progressive, debilitating condition full time. A patient-centered paradigm that includes authentic voices of patients as collaborators at every stage of development will help to resolve conflicts, build trust, recruit trial participants, and accelerate new therapies. Key elements are adaptive clinical trial methods and the development of information technology for the assessment of outcomes and surveillance of safety over the life cycle of a medical product. Supported by the Parkinson's Disease Foundation, the Parkinson Pipeline Project is a grassroots group of Parkinson's patients whose goal is to represent an authentic voice for patients in the treatment development process. This group promotes education and communication between members of the Parkinson's community and active stakeholders in medical research, industry, and regulatory agencies. Its members are an example of a new breed of knowledgeable consumers, armed with first-hand access to research findings and reinforced by on-line connections to like-minded peers throughout the world. PMID:17599719

  4. [International clinical trials: perspectives of clinical research coordinators].

    PubMed

    Aotani, Eriko

    2007-02-01

    There are several different task roles among the co-medicals who are involved in international clinical trials (ICTs). In this review article, several issues related with ICTs from the view point of clinical research coordinators (CRCs) will be discussed. The discussions include interview results from eight CRCs of four institutions who have been involved in ICTs, current status of education for co-medicals in the field of ICTs, and future perspectives of ICTs from the CRC's view point. The following topics are especially focused in the discussion. 1) It is necessary to establish the infra-structure for free discussion among the ICT team so that opinions of co-medicals as the operation managers of the participating institutions can be openly shared and importantly taken into account. 2) It is also important for co-medicals to conduct research studies to clarify the problems in the current ICT support systems. 3) Lastly, the significance of early involvement of CRCs into the ICT protocol development must be emphasized, because the quality of protocols will be better improved by the practical insight of CRCs, and consequently, the accomplishment of the ICT, such as the speed and the data quality, may be accelerated. PMID:17301551

  5. Overview of Microgravity Combustion Research at NASA Lewis Research Center and its Potential Commercial Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie; Friedman, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The near-zero (microgravity) environment of orbiting spacecraft minimizes buoyant flows, greatly simplifying combustion processes and isolating important phenomena ordinarily concealed by the overwhelming gravity-driven forces and flows. Fundamental combustion understanding has greatly benefited from analyses and experiments conducted in the microgravity environment. Because of the economic and commercial importance of combustion in practice, there is strong motivation to seek wider applications for the microgravity-combustion findings. This paper reviews selected technology developments to illustrate some emerging applications. Topics cover improved fire-safety technology in spacecraft and terrestrial systems, innovative combustor designs for aerospace and ground propulsion, applied sensors and controls for combustion processes, and self-sustaining synthesis techniques for advanced materials.

  6. Sleep and cognitive (memory) function: research and clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Roth, T; Costa e Silva, J A; Chase, M H

    2001-09-01

    The field of memory and sleep is controversial and extremely interesting, and the relationships between thought processes, i.e. cognition and sleep, have recently been examined in a variety of clinical and basic research settings, as well as being the object of intense interest by the general public. For example, there are data which demonstrate that insomnia, as well as specific sleep disorders, can have a negative impact on sleep cognition as well as affect daytime patterns of cognitive functioning. Thus, sleep, disturbed sleep and the lack of sleep appear to affect cognitive and memory functions. An International Workshop dealing with Sleep and Cognitive Function: Research and Clinical Perspectives was convened in Cancún, Mexico, 1-4 March 1999 under the auspices of the World Health Organization Worldwide Project on Sleep and Health and the World Federation of Sleep Research Societies. A great number of areas of intersection between sleep and cognitive function were examined during the course of the Workshop, such as aging, cognition and sleep and the dream process and sleep. The results of these discussions are included in a WHO publication (WHO Doc.: MSD/MBD/00.8). In the present report we concentrate on presenting a summary of a coherent set of data which examine memory consolidation during sleep and the impact of insomnia on cognitive functions. Based upon these data, a review of memory and drug effects that are sleep-related, and an examination of the relationship between hypnotics and cognitive function are included. Finally, a summary of recommendations of the Workshop participants is presented. PMID:14592387

  7. [Development and perspectives of gerontological research: the sample case of housing research].

    PubMed

    Wahl, H-W

    2005-04-01

    The present work addresses the historical development of environmental gerontology and housing research. Emphasis is placed on the development of ecological perspectives in gerontology as a research program, its scientific reception and acknowledgment in gerontology, the unfolding of housing-related theories and housing studies. Furthermore, the situation in Germany is juxtaposed against the situation in the US. As is found, between the 1930s and 1960 housing research gained substantial importance predominantly in the US as a consequence of the emergence of the field of social gerontology. There was however not much theoretical impetus from housing research on social and behavioral gerontology at large. In the time period between the 1960s and the mid 1980s many large-scale studies focused on housing in old age. At the same time, grand theories related to housing were introduced with the Ecological Theory of Aging (Lawton) as its flagship conception, able to have an impact on gerontology and its research guiding fundamental ideas (person-environment view of aging). Germany's social and behavioral gerontology saw during this time period the profound discussion of, as was frequently said, social-ecological approaches, while empirical studies tended to concentrate on institutions for the aged. Since the beginning of the 1990s dementia-related themes have largely been taken over as a driving force of North American housing research. In some contrast, gerontological housing research in Germany has strongly addressed the diversity of aging in the private household situation. In conclusion, housing research was important for gerontology in terms of the promotion of a person-environment perspective of aging on the conceptual and empirical level. This function should continue into the future. PMID:15868351

  8. Insider-Outsider Perspective: Revisiting the Conceptual Framework of Research Methodology in Language Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakata, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    The present paper discusses three types of research perspective on the insider-outsider continuum: outsider research, (insider's) outsider research, and insider research. It examines the essential features of the insider-outsider distinction with reference to categories such as researcher, students, classroom context, contribution, control of…

  9. Developing collaborative approaches to international research: Perspectives of new global health researchers

    PubMed Central

    Godoy-Ruiz, Paula; Cole, Donald C.; Lenters, Lindsey; McKenzie, Kwame

    2016-01-01

    Within a global context of growing health inequities, the fostering of partnerships and collaborative research have been promoted as playing a critical role in tackling health inequities and health system problems worldwide. Since 2004, the Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) has facilitated annual Summer Institutes for new global health researchers aimed at strengthening global health research competencies and partnerships among participants. We sought to explore CCGHR Summer Institute alumni perspectives on the Summer Institute experience, particularly on the individual research pairings of Canadian and low- and middle-income countries researchers that have characterised the program. The results reveal that the Summer Institute offered an enriching learning opportunity for participants and worked to further their collaborative projects through providing dedicated one-on-one time with their international research partner, feedback from colleagues from around the world and mentorship by more senior researchers. Positive individual relationships among researchers, as well as the existence of institutional collaborations, employer and funding support, and agendas of local and national politicians were factors that have influenced the ongoing collaboration of partners. There is a need to more fully examine the interplay between individual and institutional-level collaborations, as well as their social and political contexts. PMID:25642809

  10. Perspectives of biotechnologies based on dormancy phenomenon for space researches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, V.; Sychev, V.; Layus, D.; Levinsky, M.; Novikova, N.; Zakhodnova, T.

    Long term space missions will require a renewable source of food and an efficient method to recycle oxygen Plants especially aquatic micro algae provide an obvious solution to these problems However long duration plant growth and reproduction in space that is necessary for transportation of a control ecological life support system CELSS from Earth to other planets are problematic The introduction of heterotrophs in space CELSS is a more formidable problem as the absence of gravity creates additional difficulties for their life Dormancy phenomenon protected a great many animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions within a special resting phases of life cycle lasting from months up to hundred years This phenomenon can be quite perspective as a tool to overcome difficulties with CELSS transportation in space missions Cryptobiotic stages of microbes fungi unicellular algae and protists can survive in open space conditions that is important for interplanetary quarantine and biological security inside spacecraft Searching for life outside the Earth at such planet like Mars with extremely variable environment should be oriented on dormancy as crucial phases of a life cycle in such organisms Five major research programs aimed on study dormancy phenomenon for exobiology purposes and creation of new biotechnologies are discussed List of species candidate components of CELSS with dormancy in their life cycle used in space experiments at the Russian segment of International Space Station now includes 26 species from bacteria to fish The

  11. Fog Research: A Review of Past Achievements and Future Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultepe, I.; Tardif, R.; Michaelides, S. C.; Cermak, J.; Bott, A.; Bendix, J.; Müller, M. D.; Pagowski, M.; Hansen, B.; Ellrod, G.; Jacobs, W.; Toth, G.; Cober, S. G.

    2007-06-01

    The scientific community that includes meteorologists, physical scientists, engineers, medical doctors, biologists, and environmentalists has shown interest in a better understanding of fog for years because of its effects on, directly or indirectly, the daily life of human beings. The total economic losses associated with the impact of the presence of fog on aviation, marine and land transportation can be comparable to those of tornadoes or, in some cases, winter storms and hurricanes. The number of articles including the word ``fog'' in Journals of American Meteorological Society alone was found to be about 4700, indicating that there is substantial interest in this subject. In spite of this extensive body of work, our ability to accurately forecast/nowcast fog remains limited due to our incomplete understanding of the fog processes over various time and space scales. Fog processes involve droplet microphysics, aerosol chemistry, radiation, turbulence, large/small-scale dynamics, and surface conditions (e.g., partaining to the presence of ice, snow, liquid, plants, and various types of soil). This review paper summarizes past achievements related to the understanding of fog formation, development and decay, and in this respect, the analysis of observations and the development of forecasting models and remote sensing methods are discussed in detail. Finally, future perspectives for fog-related research are highlighted.

  12. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Robert

    2014-04-01

    In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Global Endometrial Ablation vs. Hysterectomy for Treatment of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: US Commercial and Medicaid Payer Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lenhart, Gregory M.; Bonafede, Machaon M.; Lukes, Andrea S.; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cost-effectiveness modeling studies of global endometrial ablation (GEA) for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) from a US perspective are lacking. The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of GEA vs. hysterectomy for treatment of AUB in the United States from both commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives. The study team developed a 1-, 3-, and 5-year semi-Markov decision-analytic model to simulate 2 hypothetical patient cohorts of women with AUB—1 treated with GEA and the other with hysterectomy. Clinical and economic data (including treatment patterns, health care resource utilization, direct costs, and productivity costs) came from analyses of commercial and Medicaid claims databases. Analysis results show that cost savings with simultaneous reduction in treatment complications and fewer days lost from work are achieved with GEA versus hysterectomy over almost all time horizons and under both the commercial payer and Medicaid perspectives. Cost-effectiveness metrics also favor GEA over hysterectomy from both the commercial payer and Medicaid payer perspectives—evidence strongly supporting the clinical-economic value about GEA versus hysterectomy. Results will interest clinicians, health care payers, and self-insured employers striving for cost-effective AUB treatments. (Population Health Management 2015;18:373–382) PMID:25714906

  14. Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) 2009 Expedition Crew Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cusack, Stacy; Ferrone, Kristine; Garvin, Christy; Kramer, W. Vernon; Palaia, Joseph, IV; Shiro, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS), located on the rim of the Haughton Crater on Devon Island in the Canadian Arctic, is a simulated Mars habitat that provides operational constraints similar to those which will be faced by future human explorers on Mars. In July 2009, a six-member crew inhabited the isolated habitation module and conducted the twelfth FMARS mission. The crew members conducted frequent EVA operations wearing mock space suits to conduct field experiments under realistic Mars-like conditions. Their scientific campaign spanned a wide range of disciplines and included many firsts for Mars analog research. Among these are the first use of a Class IV medical laser during a Mars simulation, helping to relieve crew stress injuries during the mission. Also employed for the first time in a Mars simulation at FMARS, a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) was used by the space-suited explorers, aiding them in their search for mineral resources. Sites identified by the UAV were then visited by geologists who conducted physical geologic sampling. For the first time, explorers in spacesuits deployed passive seismic equipment to monitor earthquake activity and characterize the planet's interior. They also conducted the first geophysical electromagnetic survey as analog Mars pioneers to search for water and characterize geological features under the surface. The crew collected hydrated minerals and attempted to produce drinkable water from the rocks. A variety of equipment was field tested as well, including new cameras that automatically geotag photos, data-recording GPS units, a tele-presence rover (operated from Florida), as well as MIT-developed mission planning software. As plans develop to return to the Moon and go on to Mars, analog facilities like FMARS can provide significant benefit to NASA and other organizations as they prepare for robust human space exploration. The authors will present preliminary results from these studies as well as their

  15. The Competition for Industry Research Funding: How Satisfied Are University Commercial Research Clients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Troy

    2009-01-01

    Constrained public funding for universities and the emphasis placed on university-industry interactions mean that universities are increasingly required to compete for industrial funds for research. This in turn means that universities need to develop a customer service culture in order to be competitive and attractive to industry. Many studies…

  16. Researching Mathematical Experience from the Perspective of an Empathic Second-Person Observer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Martina L.; Simmt, Elaine S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the implications of adopting (and developing the capacities necessary to adopt) an empathic second-person research perspective. Such a perspective aims to mediate participants' access to their own experience, thereby providing a rich source of first-person data as well as a powerful pedagogical tool. Working within the…

  17. Academic Librarians and Research: A Study of Canadian Library Administrator Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Selinda Adelle; Jacobs, Heidi L. M.; Cornwall, Dayna

    2013-01-01

    Within the literature exploring the role of research in academic librarianship, very little attention has been paid to the perspectives of upper library administrators. This perspective is critical because library administrators play a key role in hiring, evaluating, supporting, promoting, and tenuring professional librarians. As a way of bringing…

  18. Advancing Health Marketing Research and Policy Recommendations by Incorporating Source Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Michael; Guadagno, Marie; Champlin, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Communication researchers, recognizing the message sent is not necessarily the same as the message received, have incorporated the perspective of advertising professionals into the study of advertising effects. Health marketing research could similarly benefit from incorporating this largely absent perspective into the academic and policy debate surrounding the impact of advertising on health issues ranging from obesity to alcohol use. This commentary serves as a call to action to stakeholders in this academic and policy debate: focus on the perspective of advertising professionals to enrich health marketing and public health research in which advertising is the delivery vehicle for health messages. PMID:26368300

  19. Research Problems in Developing Giftedness: A Worldwide Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passow, A. Harry; Schiff, Jacob H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes world perspectives on gifted education, focusing on definitions, identification procedures, and attitudes. It then examines key areas in gifted education that require further clarification and rigorous examination. (Author/JDD)

  20. Understanding Undergraduate Research Experiences from the Student Perspective: A Phenomenological Study of a Summer Student Research Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, John; Holcomb, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Undergraduate research programs are becoming more prevalent, but research on the processes and outcomes is limited and deals largely with perceptions of student learning gains. This paper adds to the literature by describing undergraduate research activities from the student perspective. A phenomenological approach was used to analyze journals…

  1. Intentionality and Developing Researcher Competence on a UK Master's Course: An Ecological Perspective on Research Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelma, Juup; Fay, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an ecological perspective on the developing researcher competence of participants in the research education component of a professionally oriented master's course. There is a particular focus on the intentionality (as in "purpose") of the participants' research education activity. The data used to develop…

  2. An overview of NASA research related to the aging commercial transport fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.; Heyman, Joseph S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the research activities of the NASA Airframe Structural Integrity Program for the aging commercial transport fleet. Advanced analysis methods are under development to predict the fatigue crack growth in complex built-up shell structures. Innovative nondestructive examination technologies are under development to provide large area inspection capability to detect corrosion, disbonds, and fatigue cracks. The ultimate goal of this interdisciplinary program is to develop and transfer advanced technology to the airline operators and airframe manufacturers. The program is being conducted cooperatively with the FAA and the U.S. industry.

  3. Office of Commercial Programs' research activities for Space Station Freedom utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fountain, James A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Office of Commercial Programs (OCP) is to encourage, enable, and help implement space research which meets the needs of the U.S. industrial sector. This is done mainly through seventeen Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS's) which are located throughout the United States. The CCDS's are composed of members from U.S. companies, universities, and other government agencies. These Centers are presently engaged in industrial research in space using a variety of carriers to reach low Earth orbit. One of the goals is to produce a body of experience and knowledge that will allow U.S. industrial entities to make informed decisions regarding their participation in commercial space endeavors. A total of 32 items of payload hardware were built to date. These payloads have flown in space a total of 73 times. The carriers range from the KC-135 parabolic aircraft and expendable launch vehicles to the Space Shuttle. This range of carriers allows the experimenter to evolve payloads in complexity and cost by progressively extending the time in microgravity. They can start with a few seconds in the parabolic aircraft and go to several minutes on the rocket flights, before they progress to the complexities of manned flight on the Shuttle. Next year, two new capabilities will become available: COMET, an expendable-vehicle-launched experiment capsule that can carry experiments aloft for thirty days; and SPACEHAB, a new Shuttle borne module which will greatly add to the capability to accommodate small payloads. All of these commercial research activities and carrier capabilities are preparing the OCP to evolve those experiments that prove successful to Space Station Freedom. OCP and the CCDS's are actively involved in Space Station design and utilization planning and have proposed a set of experiments to be launched in 1996 and 1997. These experiments are to be conducted both internal and external to Space Station Freedom and will

  4. Reconstruction of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina: a research perspective.

    PubMed

    Kates, R W; Colten, C E; Laska, S; Leatherman, S P

    2006-10-01

    Four propositions drawn from 60 years of natural hazard and reconstruction research provide a comparative and historical perspective on the reconstruction of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. Decisions taken over its 288-year history that have made New Orleans so vulnerable to Katrina reflect a long-term pattern of societal response to hazard events--reducing consequences to relatively frequent events, and increasing vulnerability to very large and rare events. Thus Katrina's consequences for New Orleans were truly catastrophic--accounting for most of the estimated 1,570 deaths of Louisiana residents and $40-50 billion in monetary losses. A comparative sequence and timing of recovery provides a calendar of historical experience against which to gauge progress in reconstruction. Using this calendar, the emergency post-disaster period appears to be longer in duration than that of any other studied disaster. The restoration period, the time taken to restore urban services for the smaller population, is in keeping with or ahead of historical experience. The effort to reconstruct the physical environment and urban infrastructure is likely to take 8-11 years. Conflicting policy goals for reconstruction of rapid recovery, safety, betterment, and equity are already evident. Actions taken demonstrate the rush to rebuild the familiar in contrast to planning efforts that emphasize betterment. Because disasters tend to accelerate existing economic, social, and political trends, the large losses in housing, population, and employment after Katrina are likely to persist and, at best, only partly recover. However, the possibility of breaking free of this gloomy trajectory is feasible and has some historical precedent. PMID:17003119

  5. Reconstruction of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina: A research perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kates, R. W.; Colten, C. E.; Laska, S.; Leatherman, S. P.

    2006-01-01

    Four propositions drawn from 60 years of natural hazard and reconstruction research provide a comparative and historical perspective on the reconstruction of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. Decisions taken over its 288-year history that have made New Orleans so vulnerable to Katrina reflect a long-term pattern of societal response to hazard events—reducing consequences to relatively frequent events, and increasing vulnerability to very large and rare events. Thus Katrina's consequences for New Orleans were truly catastrophic—accounting for most of the estimated 1,570 deaths of Louisiana residents and $40–50 billion in monetary losses. A comparative sequence and timing of recovery provides a calendar of historical experience against which to gauge progress in reconstruction. Using this calendar, the emergency postdisaster period appears to be longer in duration than that of any other studied disaster. The restoration period, the time taken to restore urban services for the smaller population, is in keeping with or ahead of historical experience. The effort to reconstruct the physical environment and urban infrastructure is likely to take 8–11 years. Conflicting policy goals for reconstruction of rapid recovery, safety, betterment, and equity are already evident. Actions taken demonstrate the rush to rebuild the familiar in contrast to planning efforts that emphasize betterment. Because disasters tend to accelerate existing economic, social, and political trends, the large losses in housing, population, and employment after Katrina are likely to persist and, at best, only partly recover. However, the possibility of breaking free of this gloomy trajectory is feasible and has some historical precedent. PMID:17003119

  6. Flight researh at NASA Ames Research Center: A test pilot's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, G. Warren

    1987-01-01

    In 1976 NASA elected to assign responsibility for each of the various flight regimes to individual research centers. The NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, California was designated lead center for vertical and short takeoff and landing, V/STOL research. The three most recent flight research airplanes being flown at the center are discussed from the test pilot's perspective: the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft; the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft; and the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft.

  7. DRR research beyond commercial off-the-shelf OCR software: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaofan

    2005-01-01

    After decades of research, Optical Character Recognition (OCR) has entered into a relatively mature stage. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) OCR software packages have become powerful tools in Document Recognition and Retrieval (DRR) applications. One question naturally arises: What areas are left for new DRR research beyond COTS OCR software? There are many discussions around it in recent conferences. This paper attempts to address this question through a systematic survey of recently reported DRR projects as well as our own Digital Content Re-Mastering (DCRM) research at HP Labs. This survey has shown that custom DRR research is still in great need for better accuracy and reliability, complementary contents, or downstream information retrieval. Several concrete observations are also made on the basis of this survey: First, the basic character/word recognition is mostly taken on by COTS software, with a few exceptions. Second, system-level research with regard to reliability and guaranteed accuracy can seldom be replaced by COTS software. Third, document-level structure understanding still has much room to expand. Fourth, post-OCR information retrieval also has many challenging research topics.

  8. DRR research beyond commercial off-the-shelf OCR software: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiaofan

    2004-12-01

    After decades of research, Optical Character Recognition (OCR) has entered into a relatively mature stage. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) OCR software packages have become powerful tools in Document Recognition and Retrieval (DRR) applications. One question naturally arises: What areas are left for new DRR research beyond COTS OCR software? There are many discussions around it in recent conferences. This paper attempts to address this question through a systematic survey of recently reported DRR projects as well as our own Digital Content Re-Mastering (DCRM) research at HP Labs. This survey has shown that custom DRR research is still in great need for better accuracy and reliability, complementary contents, or downstream information retrieval. Several concrete observations are also made on the basis of this survey: First, the basic character/word recognition is mostly taken on by COTS software, with a few exceptions. Second, system-level research with regard to reliability and guaranteed accuracy can seldom be replaced by COTS software. Third, document-level structure understanding still has much room to expand. Fourth, post-OCR information retrieval also has many challenging research topics.

  9. Strategic Planning vs. Disjointed Incrementalism: An Institutional Research Perspective. SAIR Conference Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Paul M.; And Others

    Strategic planning in higher education is discussed from the perspective of institutional research. Attention is directed to: institutional mission, institutional assessment, institutional leadership, environmental assessment, market analysis, and competitive position. Strategic planning merges incrementalism, which focuses on flexibility,…

  10. Characterization of debris/concrete interactions for advanced research reactor and commercial BWR severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, C.R.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Greene, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    The core concrete interaction (CCI) is an important phase of any severe accident where the reactor vessel has failed and core debris is relocated onto the containment basemat. In recent calculations performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), CCI has been studied for severe accidents occurring in a commercial Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and in a high-power density Department of Energy (DOE) research reactor that is currently in the conceptual design stage. Because of differences in the debris decay heating level, core debris composition and inventory, and containment design, the characteristics of the resulting CCI and containment response are different for the two reactor types. Furthermore, proper selection of the basemat concrete type and the provision of an overlying water pool are found to be significant CCI mitigating factors for the research reactor and thus constitute important design considerations for any future reactor type. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.