Science.gov

Sample records for commercializing advanced heavy-duty

  1. Commercial Training Issues: Heavy Duty Alternative Fuel Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Douglas

    The needs and opportunities in the heavy-duty alternative fuel vehicle training arena were examined in an informal ethnographic study of the appropriateness and effectiveness of the instructional materials currently being used in such training. Interviews were conducted with eight instructors from the National Alternative Fuels Training Program…

  2. High temperature solid lubricant materials for heavy duty and advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    DellaCorte, C.; Wood, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature sterling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. The following paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis to heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

  3. High Temperature Solid Lubricant Materials for Heavy Duty and Advanced Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, C.; Wood, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature Stirling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines, and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. This paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis on heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

  4. Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Slone; Jeffrey Birkel

    2007-10-31

    The Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks program (DE-FC26-04NT42189), commonly referred to as the AES program, focused on areas that will primarily benefit fuel economy and improve heat rejection while driving over the road. The AES program objectives were to: (1) Analyze, design, build, and test a cooling system that provided a minimum of 10 percent greater heat rejection in the same frontal area with no increase in parasitic fan load. (2) Realize fuel savings with advanced power management and acceleration assist by utilizing an integrated starter/generator (ISG) and energy storage devices. (3) Quantify the effect of aerodynamic drag due to the frontal shape mandated by the area required for the cooling system. The program effort consisted of modeling and designing components for optimum fuel efficiency, completing fabrication of necessary components, integrating these components into the chassis test bed, completing controls programming, and performance testing the system both on a chassis dynamometer and on the road. Emission control measures for heavy-duty engines have resulted in increased engine heat loads, thus introducing added parasitic engine cooling loads. Truck electrification, in the form of thermal management, offers technological solutions to mitigate or even neutralize the effects of this trend. Thermal control offers opportunities to avoid increases in cooling system frontal area and forestall reduced fuel economy brought about by additional aerodynamic vehicle drag. This project explored such thermal concepts by installing a 2007 engine that is compliant with current regulations and bears additional heat rejection associated with meeting these regulations. This newer engine replaced the 2002 engine from a previous project that generated less heat rejection. Advanced power management, utilizing a continuously optimized and controlled power flow between electric components, can offer additional

  5. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  6. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  7. Fault detection in heavy duty wheels by advanced vibration processing techniques and lumped parameter modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malago`, M.; Mucchi, E.; Dalpiaz, G.

    2016-03-01

    Heavy duty wheels are used in applications such as automatic vehicles and are mainly composed of a polyurethane tread glued to a cast iron hub. In the manufacturing process, the adhesive application between tread and hub is a critical assembly phase, since it is completely made by an operator and a contamination of the bond area may happen. Furthermore, the presence of rust on the hub surface can contribute to worsen the adherence interface, reducing the operating life. In this scenario, a quality control procedure for fault detection to be used at the end of the manufacturing process has been developed. This procedure is based on vibration processing techniques and takes advantages of the results of a lumped parameter model. Indicators based on cyclostationarity can be considered as key parameters to be adopted in a monitoring test station at the end of the production line due to their not deterministic characteristics.

  8. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  9. Heavy Duty Vehicle Futures Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-05-01

    This report describes work performed for an Early Career Research and Development project. This project developed a heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) sector model to assess the factors influencing alternative fuel and efficiency technology adoption. This model builds on a Sandia light duty vehicle sector model and provides a platform for assessing potential impacts of technological advancements developed at the Combustion Research Facility. Alternative fuel and technology adoption modeling is typically developed around a small set of scenarios. This HDV sector model segments the HDV sector and parameterizes input values, such as fuel prices, efficiencies, and vehicle costs. This parameterization enables sensitivity and trade space analyses to identify the inputs that are most associated with outputs of interest, such as diesel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Thus this analysis tool enables identification of the most significant HDV sector drivers that can be used to support energy security and climate change goals.

  10. Future heavy duty trucking engine requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawhorn, L. W.; Suski, V. A.

    1985-01-01

    Developers of advanced heavy duty diesel engines are engaged in probing the opportunities presented by new materials and techniques. This process is technology driven, but there is neither assurance that the eventual users of the engines so developed will be comfortable with them nor, indeed, that those consumers will continue to exist in either the same form, or numbers as they do today. To ensure maximum payoff of research dollars, the equipment development process must consider user needs. This study defines motor carrier concerns, cost tolerances, and the engine parameters which match the future projected industry needs. The approach taken to do that is to be explained and the results presented. The material to be given comes basically from a survey of motor carrier fleets. It provides indications of the role of heavy duty vehicles in the 1998 period and their desired maintenance and engine performance parameters.

  11. Physical properties of particulate matter (PM) from late model heavy-duty diesel vehicles operating with advanced PM and NO x emission control technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Subhasis; Hu, Shaohua; Verma, Vishal; Herner, Jorn D.; Robertson, William H.; Ayala, Alberto; Sioutas, Constantinos

    Emission control technologies designed to meet the 2007 and 2010 emission standards for heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) remove effectively the non-volatile fraction of particles, but are comparatively less efficient at controlling the semi-volatile components. A collaborative study between the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the University of Southern California was initiated to investigate the physicochemical and toxicological characteristics of the semi-volatile and non-volatile particulate matter (PM) fractions from HDDV emissions. This paper reports the physical properties, including size distribution, volatility (in terms of number and mass), surface diameter, and agglomeration of particles emitted from HDDV retrofitted with advanced emission control devices. Four vehicles in combination with six after-treatment devices (V-SCRT ®, Z-SCRT ®, CRT ®, DPX, Hybrid-CCRT ®, EPF) were tested under three driving cycles: steady state (cruise), transient (urban dynamometer driving schedule, UDDS), and idle. An HDDV without any control device is served as the baseline vehicle. Substantial reduction of PM mass emissions (>90%) was accomplished for the HDDV operating with advanced emission control technologies. This reduction was not observed for particle number concentrations under cruise conditions, with the exceptions of the Hybrid-CCRT ® and EPF vehicles, which were efficient in controlling both—mass and number emissions. In general, significant nucleation mode particles (<50 nm) were formed during cruise cycles in comparison with the UDDS cycles, which emit higher PM mass in the accumulation mode. The nucleation mode particles (<50 nm) were mainly internally mixed, and evaporated considerably between 150 and 230 °C. Compared to the baseline vehicle, particles from vehicles with controls (except of the Hybrid-CCRT ®) had a higher mass specific surface area.

  12. 49 CFR 523.6 - Heavy-duty vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vehicle is any commercial medium- and heavy-duty on highway vehicle or a work truck, as defined in 49 U.S... defined in § 523.5). (3) Vehicles excluded from the definition of motor vehicle in 40 CFR 85.1703... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC...

  13. 49 CFR 523.6 - Heavy-duty vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vehicle is any commercial medium- and heavy-duty on highway vehicle or a work truck, as defined in 49 U.S... defined in § 523.5). (3) Vehicles excluded from the definition of motor vehicle in 40 CFR 85.1703. ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC...

  14. 49 CFR 523.6 - Heavy-duty vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vehicle is any commercial medium- and heavy-duty on highway vehicle or a work truck, as defined in 49 U.S... defined in § 523.5). (3) Vehicles excluded from the definition of motor vehicle in 40 CFR 85.1703. ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC...

  15. 49 CFR 523.6 - Heavy-duty vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vehicle is any commercial medium- and heavy-duty on highway vehicle or a work truck, as defined in 49 U.S... defined in § 523.5). (3) Vehicles excluded from the definition of motor vehicle in 40 CFR 85.1703. ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC...

  16. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The heavy-duty roto peen technology was being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the human factors assessment for safety and health issues. The heavy-duty roto peen allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy-duty flexible flap. The shot rivet is kept captive to the tool by mounting the roto peen in a slotted hub. The heavy-duty roto peen is designed to be used with several commercially available pieces of equipment. The equipment being used will determine the width of each pass. The equipment being used with the roto peen is then connected to a vacuum system for dust collection during scabbling. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  17. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The heavy-duty roto peen technology is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the human factors assessment for safety and health issues. The heavy-duty roto peen allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy-duty flexible flap. The shot rivet is kept captive to the tool by mounting the roto peen in a slotted hub. The heavy-duty roto peen is designed to be used with several commercially available pieces of equipment. The equipment being used will determine the width of each pass. The equipment being used with the roto peen is then connected to a vacuum system for dust collection during scabbling. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  18. Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Walkowicz, K.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses field evaluations of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles performed by NREL. The project provides medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) test results, aggregated data, and detailed analysis, including 3rd party unbiased data (data that would not normally be shared by industry in an aggregated and detailed manner). Over 5.6 million miles of advanced technology MD and HD truck data have been collected, documented, and analyzed on over 240 different vehicles since 2002. Data, analysis, and reports are shared within DOE, national laboratory partners, and industry for R&D planning and strategy. The results help guide R&D for new technology development, help define intelligent usage of newly developed technology, and help fleets/users understand all aspects of advanced technology.

  19. Heavy duty transport research needs assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-13

    As a result of the desire to decrease the dependence of the US on foreign petroleum as a transportation fuel, this report assesses the research needs to further develop heavy duty engines. The topics covered include diesel engines, alternative fuels, electric vehicle technology, gas turbine engines, and stirling cycle alternative engines. (GHH)

  20. 3M heavy duty roto peen: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The roto peen scaler allows for the selective removal of concrete substrates. The peen is a tungsten carbide shot brazed to a hardened steel rivet that is supported by a heavy duty flexible flap. The peens are coupled with a commercially available piece of equipment that is used to scabble or remove the concrete. The scabbled debris is then collected into 55 gallon drums by means of a vacuum system. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  1. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  2. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  3. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  4. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  5. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  6. 49 CFR 523.8 - Heavy-duty vocational vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heavy-duty vocational vehicle. 523.8 Section 523.8... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.8 Heavy-duty vocational vehicle. Heavy-duty vocational vehicles are vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) above 8,500...

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from heavy-duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Lisa A.; Rideout, Greg; Rosenblatt, Deborah; Hendren, Jill

    This paper summarizes greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions measurements obtained during several recent studies conducted by Environment Canada, Emissions Research and Measurement Division (ERMD). A variety of heavy-duty vehicles and engines operating on a range of different fuels including diesel, biodiesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), hythane (20% hydrogen, 80% CNG), and liquefied natural gas (LNG), and with different advanced aftertreatment technologies were studied by chassis dynamometer testing, engine dynamometer testing or on-road testing. Distance-based emission rates of CO 2, CH 4, and N 2O are reported. Fuel consumption calculated by carbon balance from measured emissions is also reported. The measurement results show, for heavy-duty diesel vehicles without aftertreatment, that while CO 2 emissions dominate, CH 4 emissions account for between 0% and 0.11% and N 2O emissions account for between 0.16% and 0.27% of the CO 2-equivalent GHG emissions. Both of the aftertreatment technologies (diesel oxidation catalyst and active regeneration diesel particle filter) studied increased N 2O emissions compared to engine out emissions while CH 4 emissions remain essentially unchanged. No effect on tailpipe GHG emissions was found with the use of up to 20% biodiesel when the engine was equipped with an oxidation catalyst. Biodiesel use did show some reductions in tailpipe GHG emissions as compared to ULSD without aftertreatment and with the use of a diesel particle filter. Natural gas and hythane also offer decreased GHG emissions (10-20%) at the tailpipe when compared with diesel. Emission factors (g L -1 fuel) for CH 4 and N 2O are suggested for heavy-duty vehicles fueled with diesel-based fuels and natural gas. These emission factors are substantially lower than those recommended for use by IPCC methodologies for developing national inventories.

  8. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  9. The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.

  10. Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory and Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    David Lyons

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this program was to quantify the emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating on alternative fuels or advanced fuel blends, often with novel engine technology or aftertreatment. In the first year of the program West Virginia University (WVU) researchers determined that a transportable chassis dynamometer emissions measurement approach was required so that fleets of trucks and buses did not need to be ferried across the nation to a fixed facility. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Translab) was designed, constructed and verified. This laboratory consisted of a chassis dynamometer semi-trailer and an analytic trailer housing a full scale exhaust dilution tunnel and sampling system which mimicked closely the system described in the Code of Federal Regulations for engine certification. The Translab was first used to quantify emissions from natural gas and methanol fueled transit buses, and a second Translab unit was constructed to satisfy research demand. Subsequent emissions measurement was performed on trucks and buses using ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuel, and biodiesel. A medium-duty chassis dynamometer was also designed and constructed to facilitate research on delivery vehicles in the 10,000 to 20,000lb range. The Translab participated in major programs to evaluate low-sulfur diesel in conjunction with passively regenerating exhaust particulate filtration technology, and substantial reductions in particulate matter were recorded. The researchers also participated in programs to evaluate emissions from advanced natural gas engines with closed loop feedback control. These natural gas engines showed substantially reduced levels of oxides of nitrogen. For all of the trucks and buses characterized, the levels of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and particulate matter were quantified, and in many cases non-regulated species such as aldehydes were also sampled. Particle size was also

  11. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 86 - Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Including Light-Duty Trucks XII Appendix XII to... Appendix XII to Part 86—Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and...

  12. Catalog of selected heavy duty transport energy management models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colello, R. G.; Boghani, A. B.; Gardella, N. C.; Gott, P. G.; Lee, W. D.; Pollak, E. C.; Teagan, W. P.; Thomas, R. G.; Snyder, C. M.; Wilson, R. P., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A catalog of energy management models for heavy duty transport systems powered by diesel engines is presented. The catalog results from a literature survey, supplemented by telephone interviews and mailed questionnaires to discover the major computer models currently used in the transportation industry in the following categories: heavy duty transport systems, which consist of highway (vehicle simulation), marine (ship simulation), rail (locomotive simulation), and pipeline (pumping station simulation); and heavy duty diesel engines, which involve models that match the intake/exhaust system to the engine, fuel efficiency, emissions, combustion chamber shape, fuel injection system, heat transfer, intake/exhaust system, operating performance, and waste heat utilization devices, i.e., turbocharger, bottoming cycle.

  13. Evolution of heavy duty engine valves - materials and design

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, S.K.; Larson, J.M.; Jenkins, L.F.; Wang, Y.

    1997-12-31

    Engine poppet valves control gas flow in internal combustion engines. The combustion event and the flow of the gases formed past the valve during the intake or exhaust portion of the combustion cycle, expose heavy duty diesel valves to high temperatures, oxidizing or corroding atmospheres and high stresses from firing and seating. This paper is a review of heavy duty diesel engine valve material and design evolution over the last fifty years in North America. The primary driving forces behind the evolution have historically been the need for improved durability and more cost effective designs. However, in recent years engine emission regulatory requirements have become an equally important influence on valve material selection and design. The paper also endeavors to predict how heavy duty diesel engine valve materials and designs may change in response to these driving forces in the foreseeable future.

  14. Heavy Duty Mechanics Apprenticeship Training, Module One. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Leslie A.; Abercrombie, Richard, Ed.

    This training manual, the second of two volumes, comprises the final three blocks in a nine-block in-service training course for apprentices working in heavy duty mechanics. Addressed in the individual blocks included in this volume are engines, basic electricity, and winches. Each block contains a section on parts theory that gives the purpose,…

  15. AUTOMOTIVE AND HEAVY-DUTY ENGINE COOLANT RECYCLING BY FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. he specific recycling units evaluated are a fleet-size unit and a portable unit, both based on the technology of chemical filtration...

  16. AUTOMOTIVE AND HEAVY-DUTY ENGINE COOLANT RECYCLING BY DISTILLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants for a facility such as the New Jersey Department of Transportation garage in Ewing, New Jersey. he specific recycling evaluated is b...

  17. Heavy duty transport research needs assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-13

    As a result of the desire to decrease the dependence of the US on foreign petroleum as a transportation fuel, this report assesses the research needs to further develop heavy duty engines. The topics covered include diesel engines, alternative fuels, electric vehicle technology, gas turbine engines, and stirling cycle alternative engines. (GHH)

  18. Heavy Duty Tireman. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColman, Don

    This training outline for heavy duty tiremen, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

  19. Heavy Duty Mechanics Apprenticeship Training, Module One. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Leslie A.; Abercrombie, Richard, Ed.

    This training manual, the first of two volumes, comprises the first six blocks in a nine-block in-service training course for apprentices working in heavy duty mechanics. Addressed in the individual blocks included in this volume are the following topics: shop equipment and practices; procedures for starting, moving, and stopping equipment; the…

  20. Impact of Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Reductions on Global Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2010-08-01

    The impact of a specified set of emissions reductions from heavy duty vehicles on climate change is calculated using the MAGICC 5.3 climate model. The integrated impact of the following emissions changes are considered: CO2, CH4, N2O, VOC, NOx, and SO2. This brief summarizes the assumptions and methods used for this calculation.

  1. DEVELOPMENT WORK FOR IMPROVED HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE MODELING CAPABILITY DATA MINING--FHWA DATASETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A heavy-duty vehicle can produce 10 to 100 times the emissions (of NOx and PM emissions especially) of a light-duty vehicle, so heavy-duty vehicle activity needs to be well characterized. Key uncertainties with the use of MOBILE6 regarding heavy-duty vehicle emissions include th...

  2. Commercialization of advanced batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, J.

    1996-11-01

    Mader and Associates has been working as a contractor for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) for the past several years. During this period it has performed various assessments of advanced battery technology as well as established the Advanced Battery Task Force. The following paper is Mader`s view of the status of battery technologies that are competing for the electric vehicle (EV) market being established by the California Air Resources Board`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate. The ZEV market is being competed for by various advanced battery technologies. And, given the likelihood of modifications to the Mandate, the most promising technologies should capture the following market share during the initial 10 years: Lead-Acid--8.4%, Nickel Metal Hydride--50.8%, Sodium Sulfur--7.8%, Lithium Ion 33.0%.

  3. Noise reduction of diesel engine for heavy duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Y.; Arai, S.

    1989-01-01

    Noise reduction of diesel engines installed in heavy duty vehicles is one of the highest priorities from the viewpoints of meeting the regulations for urban traffic noise abatement and noise reduction in the cabin for lightening fatigue with comfortable long driving. It is necessary that noise reduction measures then be applied to those causes. All noise reduction measures for the diesel engine researched for the purpose of practical use are described in this paper.

  4. HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE IN USE EMISSION PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Nylund, N; Ikonen, M; Laurikko, J

    2003-08-24

    Engines for heavy-duty vehicles are emission certified by running engines according to specified load pattern or duty cycle. In the US, the US Heavy-Duty Transient cycle has been in use already for a number of years, and Europe is, according to the requirements of the Directive 1999/96/EC gradually switching to transient-type testing. Evaluating the in-use emission performance of heavy-duty vehicles presents a problem. Taking engines out of vehicles for engine dynamometer testing is difficult and costly. In addition, engine dynamometer testing does not take into account the properties of the vehicle itself (i.e. mass, transmission etc.). It is also debatable, how well the standardized duty cycles reflect real-life -driving patterns. VTT Processes has recently commissioned a new emission laboratory for heavy-duty vehicles. The facility comprises both engine test stand and a fully transient heavy-duty chassis dynamometer. The roller diameter of the dynamometer is 2.5 meters. Regulated emissions are measured using a full-flow CVS system. The HD vehicle chassis dynamometer measurements (emissions, fuel consumption) has been granted accreditation by the Centre of Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES, Finland). A national program to generate emission data on buses has been set up for the years 2002-2004. The target is to generate emission factors for some 50 different buses representing different degree of sophistication (Euro 1 to Euro5/EEV, with and without exhaust gas aftertreatment), different fuel technologies (diesel, natural gas) and different ages (the effect of aging). The work is funded by the Metropolitan Council of Helsinki, Helsinki City Transport, The Ministry of Transport and Communications Finland and the gas company Gasum Oy. The International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles (IANGV) has opted to buy into the project. For IANGV, VTT will deliver comprehensive emission data (including particle size distribution and chemical and biological

  5. Characterization of heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenthal, Douglas H.; Zielinska, Barbara; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Gautam, Mridul; Ferguson, Donald H.; Neuroth, Gary R.; Stevens, Kathy D.

    Emissions of heavy duty diesel-powered vehicles were measured at the Phoenix Transit Yard in South Phoenix between 31 March 1992 and 25 April 1992 using the West Virginia University Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Mobile Lab). Thirteen heavy-duty trucks and buses were tested over this period. The vehicles were operated with diesel No. 2 and Jet A fuels, with and without a fuel additive, and with and without particulate control traps. The chassis dynamometer Mobile Lab tested vehicles over the Central Business District (CBD) driving cycle. Particulate matter in the diluted exhaust was sampled proportionally from a total-exhaust dilution tunnel. Emission rates and compositions of PM 2.5 particulate mass, elements, ions, bulk organic and elemental carbon, and gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were averaged for various classes of fuels and particulate matter control. Emission rates for PM 2.5 mass averaged 0.2 and 1 g mile -1 for trucks and buses with and without particulate traps, respectively. Emission rates for elemental carbon averaged 0.02 and 0.5 g mile -1 for trucks and buses with and without particulate traps, respectively. Diesel particulate exhaust was comprised mainly of organic and elemental carbon (80-90%) and sulfate (up to 14%). The new diesel source composition profiles are similar to one determined earlier in Phoenix. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons comprised no more than a few percent of the particulate organic carbon but their relative abundances may be useful for distinguishing diesel emissions from those of other combustion sources.

  6. Validation of vibration measurements for heavy duty machinery diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, A.; Barszcz, T.

    2013-07-01

    Latest development of distributed condition monitoring for heavy duty machinery has revealed a major challenge concerning reliable data acquisition. Due to frequent failures of diagnostic algorithms caused by incorrectly registered data, validation of vibration signals became a very attractive field of research. The paper shows how classical data acquisition procedures might be enhanced by implementation of signal validation methods based on both machine process parameters signals and machine vibration signals. Presented validation covers analysis of process parameters, data stability constrains and also independent and comparative validation of vibration signals. Benefits of applied techniques are illustrated on real data from a wind turbine.

  7. Speed control device for a heavy duty shaft. [solar sails for spacecraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, A. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A speed control device is characterized by a reference speed shaft spatially related to a heavy duty shaft, a drive train for driving the reference speed shaft at a constant angular velocity, a drive train for driving the heavy duty shaft at a variable angular velocity and a speed control assembly for continuously comparing the angular velocity of the heavy duty shaft with the angular velocity of the reference speed shaft. A brake assembly is connected to the heavy duty shaft and is adapted to respond to errors in the angular velocity of the heavy duty shaft in order to reduce the angular velocity of the heavy duty shaft to that of the reference speed shaft.

  8. Evolution of Westinghouse heavy-duty power generation and industrial combustion turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Scalzo, A.J.; Bannister, R.L.; DeCorso, M.; Howard, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    This paper reviews the evolution of heavy-duty power generation and industrial combustion turbines in the United States from a Westinghouse Electric Corporation perspective. Westinghouse combustion turbine genealogy began in March of 1943 when the first wholly American designed and manufactured jet engine went on test in Philadelphia, and continues today in Orlando, Florida, with the 230 MW, 501G combustion turbine. In this paper, advances in thermodynamics, materials, cooling, and unit size will be described. Many basic design features such as two-bearing rotor, cold-end drive, can-annular internal combustors, CURVIC{sup 2} clutched turbine disks, and tangential exhaust struts have endured successfully for over 40 years. Progress in turbine technology includes the clean coal technology and advanced turbine systems initiatives of the US Department of Energy.

  9. Heavy-Duty Emissions Control: Plasma-Facilitated vs Reformer-Assisted Lean NOx Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Aardahl, C; Rozmiarek, R; Rappe, K; Mendoza, D Park, P

    2003-08-24

    Progress has been made in the control of combustion processes to limit the formation of environmentally harmful species, but lean burn vehicles, such as those powered by diesel engines used for the majority of commercial trucking and off-road applications, remain a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Tighter control of the combustion process coupled with exhaust gas recirculation has brought emissions in line with 2004 targets worldwide. Additional modifications to the engine control system, somewhat limited NOx control, and PM filters will likely allow the 2007 limits to be met for the on-highway regulations for heavy-duty engines in the United States. Concern arises when the NOx emission limit of 0.2 g/bhphr set for the year 2010 is considered.

  10. 40 CFR 86.1215-85 - EPA heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) urban dynamometer driving schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false EPA heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) urban... (HDV) urban dynamometer driving schedule. (a)(1) The EPA dynamometer driving schedule for heavy-duty... HDV operation in urban areas. A second by second listing of this schedule is given in appendix I(d)...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1215-85 - EPA heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) urban dynamometer driving schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false EPA heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) urban... (HDV) urban dynamometer driving schedule. (a)(1) The EPA dynamometer driving schedule for heavy-duty... HDV operation in urban areas. A second by second listing of this schedule is given in appendix I(d)...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1215-85 - EPA heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) urban dynamometer driving schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) urban... (HDV) urban dynamometer driving schedule. (a)(1) The EPA dynamometer driving schedule for heavy-duty... HDV operation in urban areas. A second by second listing of this schedule is given in appendix I(d)...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1215-85 - EPA heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) urban dynamometer driving schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false EPA heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) urban... (HDV) urban dynamometer driving schedule. (a)(1) The EPA dynamometer driving schedule for heavy-duty... HDV operation in urban areas. A second by second listing of this schedule is given in appendix I(d)...

  14. 77 FR 34129 - Heavy-Duty Highway Program: Revisions for Emergency Vehicles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... adopting these revisions to enable fire trucks and ambulances with heavy-duty diesel engines to perform... Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements (66 FR 5001). The heavy-duty highway rule... stringent PM standards, manufacturers rely on diesel particulate filter after-treatment to clean the...

  15. 77 FR 75257 - Proposed Collection of Information: Medium- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... Truck Fleet Survey AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... medium- and heavy-duty truck fleet managers. DATES: Comments must be received within 60 days of...- and Heavy-Duty Truck Fleet Survey. Background: The Energy Independence and Security Act...

  16. 49 CFR 523.7 - Heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... heavy-duty pickup trucks or vans or spark-ignition (or gasoline) engines certified and sold as loose engines manufactured for use in heavy-duty pickup trucks or vans. See references in 40 CFR 1037.104 and 40 CFR 1037.150. Effective Date Note: At 76 FR 57491, Sept. 15, 2011, § 523.7 was added,...

  17. 78 FR 56171 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 535 RIN 2060-AR48; 2127-AL31 Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad... Exhaust emission standards for CO2, CH4, and N2O for heavy-duty vehicles at or below 14,000 pounds...

  18. 78 FR 49963 - Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad Technical Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 535 RIN 2060-AR48; 2127-AL31 Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad... adverse comment on certain elements of the Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle and Nonroad Technical Amendments... at 78 FR 36388 on June 17, 2013, and NHTSA withdraws the amendment to 49 CFR 535.5 published at 78...

  19. 40 CFR 86.004-40 - Heavy-duty engine rebuilding practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled... rebuilding practices. The provisions of this section are applicable to heavy-duty engines subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 86.004-40 - Heavy-duty engine rebuilding practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled... rebuilding practices. The provisions of this section are applicable to heavy-duty engines subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 86.004-40 - Heavy-duty engine rebuilding practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled... rebuilding practices. The provisions of this section are applicable to heavy-duty engines subject to...

  2. EVALUATION OF FUEL CELL AUXILIARY POWER UNITS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large number of heavy-duty trucks idle a significant amount. Heavy-duty line-haul truck engines idle about 30-50% of the time the engine is running. Drivers idle engines to power climate control devices (e.g., heaters and air conditioners) and sleeper compartment accessories (e...

  3. Dynamic response of heavy duty diesel engine structures

    SciTech Connect

    Anderton, D.; Ghazy, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes an investigation to identify the sources of forces which cause the vibration of different parts of the engine structure in a turbocharged heavy duty diesel engine of 2 litres/cylinder capacity. The differences in vibration response at the main bearings and on the engine outer surfaces is shown. Results of overall dynamic stiffness measurements at the main bearings indicate that the oil film has a negligible effect on the behaviour of the major vibration response. A model is put forward for an absolute prediction of the engine outer surface vibration. The model can be seen as an alternative or complement to current F.E. techniques. A comparison between predicted and measured vibration on the crankcase is presented. Predicted vibration response spectra are used to show the relative contribution of liner and bearing forces to the overall crankcase and cylinder block vibration of the engine.

  4. Urban driving cycle results of retrofitted diesel oxidation catalysts on heavy duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.F.; Rideout, G.

    1996-09-01

    This paper presents the emissions testing results of various heavy duty engines and vehicles with and without retrofitted diesel oxidation catalyst technology. 1987 Cummins L10 and 1991 DDC 6V92TA DDECII engine results over the US Heavy Duty Transient Test are presented for comparison to chassis test results. The vehicles in this study include two urban buses, two school buses and three heavy duty trucks. The Central Business District, New York Bus and New York Composite urban driving cycles have been used to evaluate baseline emissions and the catalyst performance on a heavy duty chassis dynamometer. The results demonstrate that 25--45% particulate reduction is readily achievable on a wide variety of heavy duty vehicles. Significant carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon reductions were also observed.

  5. 75 FR 81952 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... text of the preamble. The proposed regulatory text for both NHTSA and EPA is not affected. In FR Doc... Vocational Diesel Engine Standards Over the Heavy-Duty FTP Cycle Medium Model year Standard Light heavy...) Regulatory subcategory Light heavy-duty Medium heavy-duty diesel engine diesel engine. Heavy...

  6. Advanced technology commercial fuselage structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, L. B.; Smith, P. J.; Walker, T. H.; Johnson, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    Boeing's program for Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structure (ATCAS) has focused on the manufacturing and performance issues associated with a wide body commercial transport fuselage. The primary goal of ATCAS is to demonstrate cost and weight savings over a 1995 aluminum benchmark. A 31 foot section of fuselage directly behind the wing to body intersection was selected for study purposes. This paper summarizes ATCAS contract plans and review progress to date. The six year ATCAS program will study technical issues for crown, side, and keel areas of the fuselage. All structural details in these areas will be included in design studies that incorporate a design build team (DBT) approach. Manufacturing technologies will be developed for concepts deemed by the DBT to have the greatest potential for cost and weight savings. Assembly issues for large, stiff, quadrant panels will receive special attention. Supporting technologies and mechanical tests will concentrate on the major issues identified for fuselage. These include damage tolerance, pressure containment, splices, load redistribution, post-buckled structure, and durability/life. Progress to date includes DBT selection of baseline fuselage concepts; cost and weight comparisons for crown panel designs; initial panel fabrication for manufacturing and structural mechanics research; and toughened material studies related to keel panels. Initial ATCAS studies have shown that NASA's Advanced Composite Technology program goals for cost and weight savings are attainable for composite fuselage.

  7. Factors affecting heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nigel N; Kern, Justin M; Atkinson, Christopher M; Nine, Ralph D

    2002-01-01

    Societal and governmental pressures to reduce diesel exhaust emissions are reflected in the existing and projected future heavy-duty certification standards of these emissions. Various factors affect the amount of emissions produced by a heterogeneous charge diesel engine in any given situation, but these are poorly quantified in the existing literature. The parameters that most heavily affect the emissions from compression ignition engine-powered vehicles include vehicle class and weight, driving cycle, vehicle vocation, fuel type, engine exhaust aftertreatment, vehicle age, and the terrain traveled. In addition, engine control effects (such as injection timing strategies) on measured emissions can be significant. Knowing the effect of each aspect of engine and vehicle operation on the emissions from diesel engines is useful in determining methods for reducing these emissions and in assessing the need for improvement in inventory models. The effects of each of these aspects have been quantified in this paper to provide an estimate of the impact each one has on the emissions of diesel engines. PMID:15152668

  8. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-08...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  17. Demonstrating and evaluating heavy-duty alternative fuel operations

    SciTech Connect

    Peerenboom, W.

    1998-02-01

    The principal objectives of this project was to understand the effects of using an alternative fuel on a truck operating fleet through actual operation of trucks. Information to be gathered was expected to be anecdotal, as opposed to statistically viable, because the Trucking Research institute (TRI) recognized that projects could not attract enough trucks to produce statistically credible volumes of data. TRI was to collect operational data, and provide them to NREL, who would enter the data into the alternative fuels database being constructed for heavy-duty trucks at the time. NREL would also perform data analysis, with the understanding that the demonstrations were generally pre-production model engines and vehicles. Other objectives included providing information to the trucking industry on the availability of alternative fuels, developing the alternative fuels marketplace, and providing information on experience with alternative fuels. In addition to providing information to the trucking industry, an objective was for TRI to inform NREL and DOE about the industry, and give feedback on the response of the industry to developments in alternative fuels in trucking. At the outset, only small numbers of vehicles participated in most of the projects. Therefore, they had to be considered demonstrations of feasibility, rather than data gathering tests from which statistically significant conclusions might be drawn. Consequently, data gathered were expected to be useful for making estimates and obtaining valuable practical lessons. Project data and lessons learned are the subjects of separate project reports. This report concerns itself with the work of TRI in meeting the overall objectives of the TRI-NREL partnership.

  18. Materials-Enabled High-Efficiency (MEHE) Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, M.; Veliz, M.

    2011-09-30

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UTBattelle, Inc. and Caterpillar, Inc. was to improve diesel engine efficiency by incorporating advanced materials to enable higher combustion pressures and temperatures necessary for improved combustion. The project scope also included novel materials for use in advanced components and designs associated with waste-heat recovery and other concepts for improved thermal efficiency. Caterpillar initially provided ORNL with a 2004 Tier 2 C15 ACERT diesel engine (designed for on-highway use) and two 600 hp motoring dynamometers. The first year of the CRADA effort was focused on establishing a heavy-duty experimental engine research cell. First year activities included procuring, installing and commissioning the cell infrastructure. Infrastructure components consisted of intake air handling system, water tower, exhaust handling system, and cell air conditioning. Other necessary infrastructure items included the fuel delivery system and bottled gas handling to support the analytical instrumentation. The second year of the CRADA focused on commissioning the dynamometer system to enable engine experimentation. In addition to the requirements associated with the dynamometer controller, the electrical system needed a power factor correction system to maintain continuity with the electrical grid. During the second year the engine was instrumented and baseline operated to confirm performance and commission the dynamometer. The engine performance was mapped and modeled according to requirements provided by Caterpillar. This activity was further supported by a Work-for-Others project from Caterpillar to evaluate a proprietary modeling system. A second Work-for-Others activity was performed to evaluate a novel turbocharger design. This project was highly successful and may lead to new turbocharger designs for Caterpillar heavy-duty diesel engines. During the third (and final) year of the CRADA, a

  19. Idle emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles: review and recent data.

    PubMed

    Khan, A B M S; Clark, Nigel N; Thompson, Gregory J; Wayne, W Scott; Gautam, Mridul; Lyons, Donald W; Hawelti, Daniel

    2006-10-01

    Heavy-duty diesel vehicle idling consumes fuel and reduces atmospheric quality, but its restriction cannot simply be proscribed, because cab heat or air-conditioning provides essential driver comfort. A comprehensive tailpipe emissions database to describe idling impacts is not yet available. This paper presents a substantial data set that incorporates results from the West Virginia University transient engine test cell, the E-55/59 Study and the Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study. It covered 75 heavy-duty diesel engines and trucks, which were divided into two groups: vehicles with mechanical fuel injection (MFI) and vehicles with electronic fuel injection (EFI). Idle emissions of CO, hydrocarbon (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and carbon dioxide (CO2) have been reported. Idle CO2 emissions allowed the projection of fuel consumption during idling. Test-to-test variations were observed for repeat idle tests on the same vehicle because of measurement variation, accessory loads, and ambient conditions. Vehicles fitted with EFI, on average, emitted approximately 20 g/hr of CO, 6 g/hr of HC, 86 g/hr of NOx, 1 g/hr of PM, and 4636 g/hr of CO2 during idle. MFI equipped vehicles emitted approximately 35 g/hr of CO, 23 g/hr of HC, 48 g/hr of NOx, 4 g/hr of PM, and 4484 g/hr of CO2, on average, during idle. Vehicles with EFI emitted less idle CO, HC, and PM, which could be attributed to the efficient combustion and superior fuel atomization in EFI systems. Idle NOx, however, increased with EFI, which corresponds with the advancing of timing to improve idle combustion. Fuel injection management did not have any effect on CO2 and, hence, fuel consumption. Use of air conditioning without increasing engine speed increased idle CO2, NOx, PM, HC, and fuel consumption by 25% on average. When the engine speed was elevated from 600 to 1100 revolutions per minute, CO2 and NOx emissions and fuel consumption increased by >150%, whereas PM and HC emissions increased

  20. Transformation toughened ceramics for the heavy duty diesel engine technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musikant, S.; Feingold, E.; Rauch, H.; Samanta, S.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an advanced high temperature oxide structural ceramic for application to the heavy duty diesel engine. The approach is to employ transformation toughening by additions of ZrO.5HfO.5O2 solid solution to the oxide ceramics, mullite (2Al2O3S2SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3). The study is planned for three phases, each 12 months in duration. This report covers Phase 1. During this period, processing techniques were developed to incorporate the ZrO.5HfO.5O2 solid solution in the matrices while retaining the necessary metastable tetragonal phase. Modulus of rupture and of elasticity, coefficient of thermal expansion, fracture toughness by indent technique and thermal diffusivity of representative specimens were measured. In Phase 2, the process will be improved to provide higher mechanical strength and to define the techniques for scale up to component size. In Phase 3, full scale component prototypes will be fabri-]cated.

  1. [Impact of heavy-duty diesel vehicles on air quality and control of their emissions].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Wang, Bo-Guang; Tang, Da-Gang

    2011-08-01

    Through an analysis of the characteristics of diesel vehicle emissions and motor vehicle emissions inventories, this paper examines the impact of heavy-duty diesel vehicles on air quality in China as well as issues related to the control of their emissions. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Nitrogen oxides is one of the important precursors for the formation of secondary particles and ozone in the atmosphere, causing regional haze. Diesel particulate matter is a major toxic air pollutant with adverse effect on human health, and in particular, the ultrafine particles in 30-100 nm size range can pose great health risks because of its extremely small sizes. Motor vehicles have become a major source of air pollution in many metropolitan areas and city cluster in China, and among them the heavy-duty diesel vehicles are a dominant contributor of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions. Hence, controlling heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions should be a key component of an effective air quality management plan, and a number of issues related to heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions need to be addressed. PMID:22619934

  2. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Allen

    The recent natural gas boom has opened much discussion about the potential of natural gas and specifically Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the United States transportation sector. The switch from diesel to natural gas vehicles would reduce foreign dependence on oil, spur domestic economic growth, and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. LNG provides the most potential for the medium to heavy-duty vehicle market partially due to unstable oil prices and stagnant natural gas prices. As long as the abundance of unconventional gas in the United States remains cheap, fuel switching to natural gas could provide significant cost savings for long haul freight industry. Amid a growing LNG station network and ever increasing demand for freight movement, LNG heavy-duty truck sales are less than anticipated and the industry as a whole is less economic than expected. In spite of much existing and mature natural gas infrastructure, the supply chain for LNG is different and requires explicit and careful planning. This thesis proposes research to explore the claim that the largest obstacle to widespread LNG market penetration is sub-optimal infrastructure planning. No other study we are aware of has explicitly explored the LNG transportation fuel supply chain for heavy-duty freight trucks. This thesis presents a novel methodology that links a network infrastructure optimization model (represents supply side) with a vehicle stock and economic payback model (represents demand side). The model characterizes both a temporal and spatial optimization model of future LNG transportation fuel supply chains in the United States. The principal research goal is to assess the economic feasibility of the current LNG transportation fuel industry and to determine an optimal pathway to achieve ubiquitous commercialization of LNG vehicles in the heavy-duty transport sector. The results indicate that LNG is not economic as a heavy-duty truck fuel until 2030 under current market conditions

  3. Fuel Economy Improvement Potential of a Heavy Duty Truck using V2x Communication

    SciTech Connect

    LaClair, Tim J; Verma, Rajeev; Norris, Sarah; Cochran, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an intelligent driver assistance system to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty vehicles irrespective of the driving style of the driver. We specifically study the potential of V2I and V2V communications to reduce fuel consumption in heavy duty trucks. Most ITS communications today are oriented towards vehicle safety, with communications strategies and hardware that tend to focus on low latency. This has resulted in technologies emerging with a relatively limited range for the communications. For fuel economy, it is expected that most benefits will be derived with greater communications distances, at the scale of many hundred meters or several kilometers, due to the large inertia of heavy duty vehicles. It may therefore be necessary to employ different communications strategies for ITS applications aimed at fuel economy and other environmental benefits than what is used for safety applications in order to achieve the greatest benefits.

  4. The impact of mass flow and masking on the pressure drop of air filter in heavy-duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoseeinzadeh, Sepideh; Gorji-Bandpy, Mofid

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation approach to predict and evaluate the impact of the mass-flow inlet on the pressure drop of turbocharger`s air filtfer in heavy-duty diesel engine. The numerical computations were carried out using a commercial CFD program whereas the inlet area of the air filter consisted of several holes connected to a channel. After entering through the channel, the air passes among the holes and enters the air filter. The effect of masking holes and hydraulic diameter is studied and investigated on pressure drop. The results indicate that pressure drop increase with decreasing of hydraulic diameter and masking of the holes has considerable affect on the pressure drop.

  5. 40 CFR 86.004-15 - NOX plus NMHC and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR part 88 are not eligible for these programs. For manufacturers not selecting Options 1 or 2... averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines. 86.004-15 Section 86.004-15 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.004-15 NOX plus NMHC and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for...

  6. 30 CFR 72.501 - Emission limits for nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. 72.501 Section 72.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. (a) Each piece of nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment (as defined by § 75.1908(a) of this part), generator or...

  7. 30 CFR 72.501 - Emission limits for nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. 72.501 Section 72.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. (a) Each piece of nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment (as defined by § 75.1908(a) of this part), generator or...

  8. 30 CFR 72.501 - Emission limits for nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. 72.501 Section 72.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. (a) Each piece of nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment (as defined by § 75.1908(a) of this part), generator or...

  9. 30 CFR 72.501 - Emission limits for nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. 72.501 Section 72.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. (a) Each piece of nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment (as defined by § 75.1908(a) of this part), generator or...

  10. 30 CFR 72.501 - Emission limits for nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. 72.501 Section 72.501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment, generators and compressors. (a) Each piece of nonpermissible heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment (as defined by § 75.1908(a) of this part), generator or...

  11. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development for Auxiliary Power in Heavy Duty Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel T. Hennessy

    2010-06-15

    Changing economic and environmental needs of the trucking industry is driving the use of auxiliary power unit (APU) technology for over the road haul trucks. The trucking industry in the United States remains the key to the economy of the nation and one of the major changes affecting the trucking industry is the reduction of engine idling. Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC (Delphi) teamed with heavy-duty truck Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) PACCAR Incorporated (PACCAR), and Volvo Trucks North America (VTNA) to define system level requirements and develop an SOFC based APU. The project defines system level requirements, and subsequently designs and implements an optimized system architecture using an SOFC APU to demonstrate and validate that the APU will meet system level goals. The primary focus is on APUs in the range of 3-5 kW for truck idling reduction. Fuels utilized were derived from low-sulfur diesel fuel. Key areas of study and development included sulfur remediation with reformer operation; stack sensitivity testing; testing of catalyst carbon plugging and combustion start plugging; system pre-combustion; and overall system and electrical integration. This development, once fully implemented and commercialized, has the potential to significantly reduce the fuel idling Class 7/8 trucks consume. In addition, the significant amounts of NOx, CO2 and PM that are produced under these engine idling conditions will be virtually eliminated, inclusive of the noise pollution. The environmental impact will be significant with the added benefit of fuel savings and payback for the vehicle operators / owners.

  12. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines

    PubMed Central

    Khalek, Imad A.; Blanks, Matthew G.; Merritt, Patrick M.; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines’ regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially

  13. HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK TEST CYCLES: COMBINING DRIVEABILITY WITH REALISTIC ENGINE EXERCISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy-duty engine certification testing uses a cycle that is scaled to the capabilities of each engine. As such, every engine should be equally challenged by the cycle's power demands. It would seem that a chassis cycle, similarly scaled to the capabilities of each vehicle, could...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards... tank capacity of greater than 35 gallons, or which do not share a common fuel system with a...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-05 Complete... in clean-fuel vehicles as specified in 40 CFR part 88 are not eligible for this...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in clean-fuel vehicles as specified in 40 CFR part 88 are not eligible for this program... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards... tank capacity of greater than 35 gallons, or which do not share a common fuel system with a...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in clean-fuel vehicles as specified in 40 CFR part 88 are not eligible for this program... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in clean-fuel vehicles as specified in 40 CFR part 88 are not eligible for this program... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards... tank capacity of greater than 35 gallons, or which do not share a common fuel system with a...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in clean-fuel vehicles as specified in 40 CFR part 88 are not eligible for this program... VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles §...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-05 Emission standards... tank capacity of greater than 35 gallons, or which do not share a common fuel system with a...

  3. 75 FR 28820 - Notice of Public Meeting by Teleconference Concerning Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Consent Decrees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Public Meeting by Teleconference Concerning Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Consent Decrees The Department of Justice and the Environmental Protection Agency will hold a public meeting on June 14, 2010 at 3 p.m. by telephone conference. The subject...

  4. 77 FR 54384 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... and diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) prices. The derivation of the final penalties is described in a support... the public comment period related to fuel and diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) prices. The derivation of the... standard for heavy heavy-duty diesel engines. 77 FR 4736 (January 31, 2012).\\2\\ Although we did...

  5. HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE LOAD ESTIMATION: DEVELOPMENT OF VEHICLE ACTIVITY OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Heavy-Duty Vehicle Modal Emission Model (HDDV-MEM) developed by the Georgia Institute of Technology(Georgia Tech) has a capability to model link-specific second-by-second emissions using speed/accleration matrices. To estimate emissions, engine power demand calculated usin...

  6. GASEOUS AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM GASOLINE- AND DIESEL-POWERED HEAVY-DUTY TRUCKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gaseous and particulate emission rates from seven class 2B, one class 5 and six class 6 heavy-duty gasoline- and diesel-powered trucks were determined using transient chassis dynamometer test procedures. All vehicles were tested at approximately 70% of their rated gross vehicle w...

  7. ON-ROAD EMISSIONS OF PCDDS AND PCDFS FROM HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work characterized emission factors, homologue profiles, and isomer patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from on-road sampling of three heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDVS) under various conditions of city and highway drivi...

  8. Ceramic valve development for heavy-duty low heat rejection diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, K. E.; Micu, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic valves can be successfully operated in a heavy-duty diesel engine, even under extreme low heat rejection operating conditions. This paper describes the development of a silicon nitride valve from the initial design stage to actual engine testing. Supplier involvement, finite element analysis, and preliminary proof of concept demonstration testing played a significant role in this project's success.

  9. 40 CFR 86.1816-08 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1816-08 Emission standards for complete... grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen. (A)0.2 grams per mile. (B) A manufacturer may elect to include... grams per mile. (iv) Oxides of nitrogen. (A)0.4 grams per mile. (B) A manufacturer may elect to...

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION OF EMISSION CONTROLS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    While lower emissions limits that took effect in 2004 and reduced sulfur content in diesel fuels will reduce emissions from new heavy-duty engines, the existing diesel fleet, which pollutes at much higher levels, may still have a lifetime of 20 to 30 years. Fleet operators seekin...

  11. Idle emissions from medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks.

    PubMed

    Khan, A B M S; Clark, Nigel N; Gautam, Mridul; Wayne, W Scott; Thompson, Gregory J; Lyons, Donald W

    2009-03-01

    Idle emissions data from 19 medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks are presented in this paper. Emissions from these trucks were characterized using full-flow exhaust dilution as part of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Project E-55/59. Idle emissions data were not available from dedicated measurements, but were extracted from the continuous emissions data on the low-speed transient mode of the medium heavy-duty truck (MHDTLO) cycle. The four gasoline trucks produced very low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and negligible particulate matter (PM) during idle. However, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HCs) from these four trucks were approximately 285 and 153 g/hr on average, respectively. The gasoline trucks consumed substantially more fuel at an hourly rate (0.84 gal/hr) than their diesel counterparts (0.44 gal/hr) during idling. The diesel trucks, on the other hand, emitted higher NOx (79 g/hr) and comparatively higher PM (4.1 g/hr), on average, than the gasoline trucks (3.8 g/hr of NOx and 0.9 g/hr of PM, on average). Idle NOx emissions from diesel trucks were high for post-1992 model year engines, but no trends were observed for fuel consumption. Idle emissions and fuel consumption from the medium heavy-duty diesel trucks (MHDDTs) were marginally lower than those from the heavy heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDTs), previously reported in the literature. PMID:19320273

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS UNDER TRANSIENT DRIVING CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this program was to characterize heavy-duty diesel truck and bus emissions produced during transient driving cycles. In the initial phase of the program an improved road-load simulation method was developed for use in operating large trucks on a chassis dynamomet...

  13. Informal Market Survey of Training Issues: Heavy Duty Alternative Fuel Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Doug

    The needs and opportunities in the heavy-duty alternative fuel vehicle training arena were examined in an informal marketing survey. A list of 277 potential respondents was compiled from the 220 individuals in the National Alternative Fuels Training Program database and 57 names identified from journals in the field of alternative fuels. When 2…

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF ON-ROAD EMISSION FACTORS FOR HEAVY- DUTY VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an EPA project the objectives of which are to: (1) define on-road emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs); (2) assess agreement between engine and chassis dynamometers and on-road emission factors; (3) evaluate current conversion factors for dynamome...

  15. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  16. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  17. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  18. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  19. 40 CFR 86.098-10 - Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.098-10 Section 86.098-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.098-10 Emission standards for 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty... emissions from new 1998 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines shall not exceed: (i) For...

  20. Regulated and unregulated emissions from modern 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Khalek, Imad A; Blanks, Matthew G; Merritt, Patrick M; Zielinska, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established strict regulations for highway diesel engine exhaust emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to aid in meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The emission standards were phased in with stringent standards for 2007 model year (MY) heavy-duty engines (HDEs), and even more stringent NOX standards for 2010 and later model years. The Health Effects Institute, in cooperation with the Coordinating Research Council, funded by government and the private sector, designed and conducted a research program, the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), with multiple objectives, including detailed characterization of the emissions from both 2007- and 2010-compliant engines. The results from emission testing of 2007-compliant engines have already been reported in a previous publication. This paper reports the emissions testing results for three heavy-duty 2010-compliant engines intended for on-highway use. These engines were equipped with an exhaust diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), high-efficiency catalyzed diesel particle filter (DPF), urea-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst (SCR), and ammonia slip catalyst (AMOX), and were fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (~6.5 ppm sulfur). Average regulated and unregulated emissions of more than 780 chemical species were characterized in engine exhaust under transient engine operation using the Federal Test Procedure cycle and a 16-hr duty cycle representing a wide dynamic range of real-world engine operation. The 2010 engines' regulated emissions of PM, NOX, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were all well below the EPA 2010 emission standards. Moreover, the unregulated emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitroPAHs, hopanes and steranes, alcohols and organic acids, alkanes, carbonyls, dioxins and furans, inorganic ions, metals and elements, elemental carbon, and particle number were substantially (90

  1. HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE MODAL EMISSION MODEL (HDDV-MEM): VOLUME I: MODAL EMISSION MODELING FRAMEWORK; VOLUME II: MODAL COMPONENTS AND OUTPUTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research outlines a proposed Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Modal Emission Modeling Framework (HDDV-MEMF) for heavy-duty diesel-powered trucks and buses. The heavy-duty vehicle modal modules being developed under this research effort, although different, should be compatible wi...

  2. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.099-10 Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty...: 3.0 grams carbon per test. (2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §...

  3. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engine shall not exceed: (i) 20 percent..., or any naturally-aspirated diesel heavy-duty engine. For petroleum-fueled engines only, this... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of...

  4. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emission from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engine shall not exceed: (i) 20 percent..., or any naturally-aspirated diesel heavy-duty engine. For petroleum-fueled engines only, this... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of...

  5. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emission from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engine shall not exceed: (i) 20 percent..., or any naturally-aspirated diesel heavy-duty engine. For petroleum-fueled engines only, this... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of...

  6. 40 CFR 86.099-11 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emission from new 1999 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engine shall not exceed: (i) 20 percent..., or any naturally-aspirated diesel heavy-duty engine. For petroleum-fueled engines only, this... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-11 Section 86.099-11 Protection of...

  7. Evaluations of 1997 Fuel Consumption Patterns of Heavy Duty Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Santini, Danilo

    2001-08-05

    The proposed 21st Century Truck program selected three truck classes for focused analysis. On the basis of gross vehicle weight (GVW) classification, these were Class 8 (representing heavy), Class 6 (representing medium), and Class 2b (representing light). To develop and verify these selections, an evaluation of fuel use of commercial trucks was conducted, using data from the 1997 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS). Truck fuel use was analyzed by registered GVW class, and by body type.

  8. Positive displacement compounding of a heavy duty diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.

    1983-01-01

    A helical screw type positive displacement (PD) compressor and expander was considered as an alternative to the turbocharger and the power turbine in the Cummins advanced turbocompound engine. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) completed the design, layout, and performance prediction of the PD machines. The results indicate that a screw compressor-expander system is feasible up to at least 750 HP, dry operation of the rotors is feasible, cost and producibility are uncertain, and the system will yield about 4% improvement in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) over the advanced turbocompound engine.

  9. Evaluation of the potential of the Stirling engine for heavy duty application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meijer, R. J.; Ziph, B.

    1981-01-01

    A 150 hp four cylinder heavy duty Stirling engine was evaluated. The engine uses a variable stroke power control system, swashplate drive and ceramic insulation. The sensitivity of the design to engine size and heater temperature is investigated. Optimization shows that, with porous ceramics, indicated efficiencies as high as 52% can be achieved. It is shown that the gain in engine efficiency becomes insignificant when the heater temperature is raised above 200 degrees F.

  10. Review of light-duty diesel and heavy-duty diesel gasoline inspection programs.

    PubMed

    St Denis, Michael; Lindner, Jim

    2005-12-01

    Emissions from diesel vehicles and gas-powered heavy-duty vehicles are becoming a new focus of many inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs. Diesel particulate matter (PM) is increasingly becoming more recognized as an important health concern, while at the same time, the public awareness of diesel PM emissions because of their visibility have combined to increase the focus on diesel emissions in the United States. This has resulted in an increased interest by some states in including heavy-duty vehicle testing in their I/M program. This paper provides an overview of existing I/M programs focused on testing light-duty diesel vehicles, heavy-duty diesel vehicles, and heavy-duty gasoline vehicles (HDGVs). Information on 39 I/M programs in 27 different states in the United States plus 9 international inspection programs is included. Information on the status of diesel emissions technology and current test procedures is also presented. The goal is to provide useful information for air quality managers as they work to decide whether such I/M programs would be worth pursuing in their respective areas and in evaluating the emissions measurement technology to be used in the program. Testing of HDGVs is generally limited to idle testing, because dynamometer testing of these vehicles is not practical, and most were not certified on a chassis basis. Testing of diesel vehicles has mostly been limited to SAE J1667 "snap-idle" opacity testing. Cost-effective technology for measuring diesel emissions currently does not exist, and, therefore, opacity-type measurements, although not effective at reducing the pollutants of most significant health concern, will continue to be used. PMID:16408692

  11. Survey of heavy-duty diesel-engine rebuilding, reconditioning, and remanufacturing practices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the emissions impact of rebuilt, reconditioned, and remanufactured heavy-duty diesel engines sold in California. Information was collected from fleet maintenance shops, independent rebuild shops, and diesel-injection repair specialists on the frequency of improper rebuilding practices observed in the field. Data were also collected from manufacturers and regulatory agencies on the emissions impact of improper rebuilding practices.

  12. Hennepin County`s experience with heavy-duty ethanol vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    From November 1993 to October 1996, Hennepin County, which includes Minneapolis, field-tested two heavy-duty snowplow/road maintenance trucks fueled by ethanol. The overall objective of this program was to collect data from original equipment manufacturer alternative fuel heavy-duty trucks, along with comparable data from a similarly configured diesel-powered vehicle, to establish economic, emissions, performance, and durability data for the alternative fuel technology. These ethanol trucks, along with an identical third truck equipped with a diesel engine, were operated year round to maintain the Hennepin county roads. In winter, the trucks were run in 8-hour shifts plowing and hauling snow from urban and suburban roads. For the rest of the year, the three trucks were used to repair and maintain these same roads. As a result of this project, a considerable amount of data was collected on E95 fuel use, as well as maintenance, repair, emissions, and operational characteristics. Maintenance and repair costs of the E95 trucks were considerably higher primarily due to fuel filter and fuel pump issues. From an emissions standpoint, the E95 trucks emitted less particulate matter and fewer oxides of nitrogen but more carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. Overall, the E95 trucks operated as well as the diesel, as long as the fuel filters were changed frequently. This project was a success in that E95, a domestically produced fuel from a renewable energy source, was used in a heavy-duty truck application and performed the same rigorous tasks as the diesel counterparts. The drawbacks to E95 as a heavy-duty fuel take the form of higher operational costs, higher fuel costs, shorter range, and the lack of over-the-road infrastructure.

  13. Recycling of Malaysia's electric arc furnace (EAF) slag waste into heavy-duty green ceramic tile.

    PubMed

    Teo, Pao-Ter; Anasyida, Abu Seman; Basu, Projjal; Nurulakmal, Mohd Sharif

    2014-12-01

    flexural strength, lowest apparent porosity and water absorption of EAF slag based tile was attained at the composition of 40 wt.% EAF slag--30 wt.% ball clay--10 wt.% feldspar--20 wt.% silica. The properties of ceramic tile made with EAF slag waste (up to 40 wt.%), especially flexural strength are comparable to those of commercial ceramic tile and are, therefore, suitable as high flexural strength and heavy-duty green ceramic floor tile. Continuous development is currently underway to improve the properties of tile so that this recycling approach could be one of the potential effective, efficient and sustainable solutions in sustaining our nature. PMID:25242607

  14. Prediction of in-use emissions of heavy-duty diesel vehicles from engine testing.

    PubMed

    Yanowitz, Janet; Graboski, Michael S; McCormick, Robert L

    2002-01-15

    A model of a heavy-duty vehicle driveline with automatic transmission has been developed for estimating engine speed and load from vehicle speed. The model has been validated using emissions tests conducted on three diesel vehicles on a chassis dynamometer and then on the engines removed from the vehicles tested on an engine dynamometer. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions were proportional to work done by the engine. For two of the engines, the NOx/horsepower(HP) ratio was the same on the engine and on the chassis dynamometer tests. For the third engine NOx/HP was significantly higher from the chassis test, possibly due to the use of dual engine maps. The engine certification test generated consistently less particulate matter emissions on a gram per brake horsepower-hour basis than the Heavy Duty Transient and Central Business District chassis cycles. A good linear correlation (r2 = 0.97 and 0.91) was found between rates of HP increase integrated over the test cycle and PM emissions for both the chassis and the engine tests for two of the vehicles. The model also shows how small changes in vehicle speeds can lead to a doubling of load on the engine. Additionally, the model showed that it is impossible to drive a vehicle cycle equivalent to the heavy-duty engine federal test procedure on these vehicles. PMID:11827062

  15. Heavy-duty diesel engine NO{sub x} reduction with nitrogen-enriched combustion air. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, S.; Energy Systems

    2010-07-28

    The concept of engine emissions control by modifying intake combustion gas composition from that of ambient air using gas separation membranes has been developed during several programs undertaken at Argonne. These have led to the current program which is targeted at heavy-duty diesel truck engines. The specific objective is reduction of NO{sub x} emissions by the target engine to meet anticipated 2007 standards while extracting a maximum of 5 percent power loss and allowing implementation within commercial constraints of size, weight, and cost. This report includes a brief review of related past programs, describes work completed to date during the current program, and presents interim conclusions. Following a work schedule adjustment in August 2002 to accommodate problems in module procurement and data analysis, activities are now on schedule and planned work is expected to be completed in September, 2004. Currently, we believe that the stated program requirements for the target engine can be met, based upon extrapolation of the work completed. Planned project work is designed to experimentally confirm these projections and result in a specification for a module package that will meet program objectives.

  16. The AC-120: The advanced commercial transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duran, David; Griffin, Ernest; Mendoza, Saul; Nguyen, Son; Pickett, Tim; Noernberg, Clemm

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this design was to fulfill a need for a new airplane to replace the aging 100 to 150 passenger, 1500 nautical mile range aircraft such as the Douglas DC9 and Boeing 737-100 airplanes. After researching the future aircraft market, conducting extensive trade studies, and analysis on different configurations, the AC-120 Advanced Commercial Transport final design was achieved. The AC-120's main design features include the incorporation of a three lifting surface configuration which is powered by two turboprop engines. The AC-120 is an economically sensitive aircraft which meets the new FM Stage Three noise requirements, and has lower NO(x) emissions than current turbofan powered airplanes. The AC-120 also improves on its contemporaries in passenger comfort, manufacturing, and operating cost.

  17. Method for analyzing articulated torques of heavy-duty six-legged robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Hongchao; Gao, Haibo; Ding, Liang; Liu, Zhen; Deng, Zongquan

    2013-07-01

    The accuracy of an articulated torque analysis influences the comprehensive performances of heavy-duty multi-legged robots. Currently, the extremal estimation method and some complex methods are employed to calculate the articulated torques, which results in a large safety margin or a large number of calculations. To quickly obtain accurate articulated torques, an analysis method for the articulated torque is presented for an electrically driven heavy-duty six-legged robot. First, the rearmost leg that experiences the maximum normal contact force is confirmed when the robot transits a slope. Based on the ant-type and crab-type tripod gaits, the formulas of classical mechanics and MATLAB software are employed to theoretically analyze the relevant static torques of the joints. With the changes in the joint angles for the abductor joint, hip joint, and knee joint, variable tendency charts and extreme curves are obtained for the static articulated torques. Meanwhile, the maximum static articulated torques and the corresponding poses of the robot are also obtained. According to the poses of the robot under the maximum static articulated torques, ADAMS software is used to carry out a static simulation analysis. Based on the relevant simulation curves of the articulated torques, the maximum static articulated torques are acquired. A comparative analysis of the maximum static articulated torques shows that the theoretical calculation values are higher than the static simulation values, and the maximum error value is approximately 10%. The proposed method lays a foundation for quickly determining accurate articulated torques to develop heavy-duty six-legged robots.

  18. Application for certification 1982 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - Mercedes-Benz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing.

  19. Alternative fuels for low emissions and improved performance in CI and heavy duty engines

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Contents include: Limited durability of the diesel engine with a dual-fuel system on neat sunflower oil; Analysis and testing of a high-pressure micro-compressor; Spark-assisted alcohol operation in a low heat rejection engine; Combustion improvement of heavy-duty methanol engine by using autoignition system; Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels demonstration project; Vehicle fuel economy -- the Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels project; Safety and occupational hygiene results -- Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels project; Vehicle reliability and maintenance -- Clean Fleet Alternative Fuels project; Flammability tests of alcohol/gasoline vapors; Flame luminosity enhancement of neat methanol fuel by non-aromatic hydrocarbon additives; and more.

  20. Abrasion of heavy-duty coated steel pipes by sediment transport

    SciTech Connect

    Kariyazono, Yoshihisa; Miyajima, Yoshihiro; Sato, Koichi; Yamashita, Toshihiko, Yamashita; Saeki, Hiroshi

    1994-12-31

    Heavy-duty coatings are standard treatment for steel pipe piles in coastal zones to prevent corrosion. Large amounts of sand sometimes drift around piles by the action of waves. Coatings undergo abrasion by collision of sand particles. Authors carried out experiments by a large scale U-shaped tube which generated a strong oscillatory flow with sand drift and numerical analysis of collision of the particles. Authors found out the abrasion rate of pile is nearly proportional to the collision energy of the particles. Abrasion rate of polyethylene and elastic polyurethane coatings were lower than those of other materials.

  1. The heavy-duty vehicle future in the United States: A parametric analysis of technology and policy tradeoffs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2015-02-14

    Here, we present a parametric analysis of factors that can influence advanced fuel and technology deployments in U.S. Class 7–8 trucks through 2050. The analysis focuses on the competition between traditional diesel trucks, natural gas vehicles (NGVs), and ultra-efficient powertrains. Underlying the study is a vehicle choice and stock model of the U.S. heavy-duty vehicle market. Moreover, the model is segmented by vehicle class, body type, powertrain, fleet size, and operational type. We find that conventional diesel trucks will dominate the market through 2050, but NGVs could have significant market penetration depending on key technological and economic uncertainties. Compressed naturalmore » gas trucks conducting urban trips in fleets that can support private infrastructure are economically viable now and will continue to gain market share. Ultra-efficient diesel trucks, exemplified by the U.S. Department of Energy's SuperTruck program, are the preferred alternative in the long haul segment, but could compete with liquefied natural gas (LNG) trucks if the fuel price differential between LNG and diesel increases. However, the greatest impact in reducing petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions is had by investing in efficiency technologies that benefit all powertrains, especially the conventional diesels that comprise the majority of the stock, instead of incentivizing specific alternatives.« less

  2. The heavy-duty vehicle future in the United States: A parametric analysis of technology and policy tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect

    Askin, Amanda Christine; Barter, Garrett; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2015-02-14

    Here, we present a parametric analysis of factors that can influence advanced fuel and technology deployments in U.S. Class 7–8 trucks through 2050. The analysis focuses on the competition between traditional diesel trucks, natural gas vehicles (NGVs), and ultra-efficient powertrains. Underlying the study is a vehicle choice and stock model of the U.S. heavy-duty vehicle market. Moreover, the model is segmented by vehicle class, body type, powertrain, fleet size, and operational type. We find that conventional diesel trucks will dominate the market through 2050, but NGVs could have significant market penetration depending on key technological and economic uncertainties. Compressed natural gas trucks conducting urban trips in fleets that can support private infrastructure are economically viable now and will continue to gain market share. Ultra-efficient diesel trucks, exemplified by the U.S. Department of Energy's SuperTruck program, are the preferred alternative in the long haul segment, but could compete with liquefied natural gas (LNG) trucks if the fuel price differential between LNG and diesel increases. However, the greatest impact in reducing petroleum consumption and pollutant emissions is had by investing in efficiency technologies that benefit all powertrains, especially the conventional diesels that comprise the majority of the stock, instead of incentivizing specific alternatives.

  3. Emission and Performance Comparison of the Natural Gas C-Gas Plus Engine in Heavy-Duty Trucks: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lyford-Pike, E. J.

    2003-04-01

    Subcontractor report details results of on-road development and emissions characteristics of C-Gas Plus natural gas engine in Viking Freight heavy duty trucks. The objective of this project was to develop, on road and in service, a natural gas truck/bus engine (the C-Gas Plus) with higher horsepower, lower cost, and better performance and diagnostics than the previous C8.3G natural gas engine. The engine was to have an advanced engine management control system to enable implementation of proven technologies that improve engine performance and power density (hp/L). The C-Gas Plus engine was designed to meet the following objectives: (1) Higher engine ratings (280 hp and 850 ft-lb torque for the C-Gas Plus) than the C8.3G natural gas engine; (2) Lower capital cost than the C8.3G engine; and (3) Low emission standards: California Air Resources Board (CARB) low-NO{sub x} (oxides of nitrogen) (2.0 g/bhp-h) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Clean Fuel Fleet Program ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) emission certifications.

  4. Chassis dynamometer study of emissions from 21 in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Yanowitz, J.; Graboski, M.S.; Ryan, L.B.A.; Alleman, T.L.; McCormick, R.L.

    1999-01-15

    Regulated emissions from 21 in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicles were measured on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer via three driving cycles using a low-sulfur diesel fuel. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbon (THC), and PM sulfate fraction were measured. For hot start tests, emissions ranged from 0.30 to 7.43 g/mi (mean 1.96) for PM; 4.15--54.0 g/mi (mean 23.3) for NO{sub x}; 2.09--86.2 g/mi (mean 19.5) for CO; and 0.25--8.25 g/mi (mean 1.70) for THC. When emissions are converted to a g/gal basis, the effect of driving cycle is eliminated for NO{sub x} and largely eliminated for PM. Sulfate comprised less than 1% of the emitted PM for all vehicles and test cycles. A strong correlation is observed between emissions of CO and PM. Cold starting at 77 F produced an 11% increase in PM emissions. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that in-use PM emissions have decreased at a slower rate than anticipated based on the stricter engine certification test standards put into effect since 1985. NO{sub x} emissions do not decrease with model year for the vehicles tested here. Smoke opacity measurements are not well correlated with mass emissions of regulated pollutants.

  5. Quantifying in-use PM measurements for heavy duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kent C; Durbin, Thomas D; Jung, Heejung; Cocker, David R; Bishnu, Dipak; Giannelli, Robert

    2011-07-15

    Heavy duty emissions regulations have recently expanded from the laboratory to include in-use requirements. This paradigm shift to in-use testing has forced the development of portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) for particulate matter (PM). These PM measurements are not trivial for laboratory work, and are even more complex for in-use testing. This study evaluates five PM PEMS in comparison to UCR's mobile reference laboratory under in-use conditions. Three on-highway, heavy-duty trucks were selected to provide PM emissions levels from 0.1 to 0.0003 g/hp-h, with varying compositions of elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and sulfate. The on-road driving courses included segments near sea level, at elevations up to 1500 m, and coastal and desert regions. The photoacoustic measurement PEMS performed best for the non-after treatment system (ATS)-equipped engine, where the PM was mostly EC, with a linear regression slope of 0.91 and an R(2) of 0.95. The PEMS did not perform as well for the 2007 modified ATS equipped engines. The best performing PEMS showed a slope of 0.16 for the ATS-equipped engine with predominantly sulfate emissions and 0.89 for the ATS-equipped engine with predominantly OC emissions, with the next best slope at 0.45 for the predominantly OC engine. PMID:21662983

  6. Feasibility evaluation of fuel cells for selected heavy-duty transportation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, J. R.; Murray, H. S.

    1982-10-01

    A study of the feasibility of using fuel cell power plants for heavy duty transportation applications is performed. It is concluded that it will be feasible to use fuel cell technology projected as being available by 1995 to 2000 for powering 3000-hp freight locomotives and 6000-hp river boats. The fuel cell power plant is proposed as an alternative to the currently used diesel or diesel-electric system. Phosphoric acid and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells are determined to be the only applicable technologies in the desired time frame. Methanol, chemically reformed to produce hydrogen, is determined to be the most practical fuel for the applications considered. Feasibility is determined on the basis of weight and volume constraints, compatibility with existing propulsion components, and adequate performance relative to operational requirements. Simulation results show that performance goals are met and that overall energy consumption of heavy duty fuel cell power plants is lower that of diesels for the same operating conditions. Overall energy consumption is substantially improved over diesel operation for locomotives.

  7. A new deformation measurement method for heavy-duty machine tool base by multipoint distributed FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruiya; Tan, Yuegang; Liu, Yi; Zhou, Zude; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-10-01

    The deformation of machine tool base is one of main error elements of heavy-duty CNC machine tool. A new deformation measurement method for heavy-duty machine tool base by multipoint distributed FBG sensors is developed in this study. Experiment is implemented on a real moving beam gantry machine tool. 16 FBG strain sensors are installed on the side-surface of the machine tool base. Moving the machine tool column to different positions, varying strain signals are collected. The testing results show that this distributed measurement method based on FBG sensors can effectively detect the deformation of the machine tool base. The largest deflection in vertical direction (axis Z) can be 75μm. This work is of great significance to the structure optimizing of machine tool base and real-time error compensation of heavy-duty CNC machine tool.

  8. Development of LNG-Powered Heavy-Duty Trucks in Commercial Hauling

    SciTech Connect

    Detroit Diesel Corporation; Trucking Research Institute

    1998-12-03

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's development, deployment, and evaluation of alternative fuels, NREL and the Trucking Research Institute contracted with Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) to develop and operate a liquid natural gas fueled tractor powered by a DDC Series 50 prototype natural gas engine. This is the final report on the project.

  9. Technical support information for the development of heavy duty diesel vehicle rules for the California federal implementation plans. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to gather information to use in the development of technical support documentation for the preparation of regulations to control exhaust emissions from heavy duty diesel vehicles in the California Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) areas. This report identifies the State, Federal, and local regulations for reducing oxide of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. The report also identifies the various control strategies for reducing the overall NOx emissions inventory. The control strategies include both technological methods (vehicle emission control systems) as well as the types of strategies related to limiting the activity level of heavy duty diesel vehicles.

  10. Advanced Air Data Systems for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    It is possible to get a crude estimate of wind speed and direction while driving a car at night in the rain, with the motion of the raindrop reflections in the headlights providing clues about the wind. The clues are difficult to interpret, though, because of the relative motions of ground, car, air, and raindrops. More subtle interpretation is possible if the rain is replaced by fog, because the tiny droplets would follow the swirling currents of air around an illuminated object, like, for example, a walking pedestrian. Microscopic particles in the air (aerosols) are better for helping make assessments of the wind, and reflective air molecules are best of all, providing the most refined measurements. It takes a bright light to penetrate fog, so it is easy to understand how other factors, like replacing the headlights with the intensity of a searchlight, can be advantageous. This is the basic principle behind a lidar system. While a radar system transmits a pulse of radiofrequency energy and interprets the received reflections, a lidar system works in a similar fashion, substituting a near-optical laser pulse. The technique allows the measurement of relative positions and velocities between the transmitter and the air, which allows measurements of relative wind and of air temperature (because temperature is associated with high-frequency random motions on a molecular level). NASA, as well as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), have interests in this advanced lidar technology, as much of their explorative research requires the ability to measure winds and turbulent regions within the atmosphere. Lidar also shows promise for providing warning of turbulent regions within the National Airspace System to allow commercial aircraft to avoid encounters with turbulence and thereby increase the safety of the traveling public. Both agencies currently employ lidar and optical sensing for a variety of weather-related research projects, such as analyzing

  11. The Advanced Software Development and Commercialization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gallopoulos, E. . Center for Supercomputing Research and Development); Canfield, T.R.; Minkoff, M.; Mueller, C.; Plaskacz, E.; Weber, D.P.; Anderson, D.M.; Therios, I.U. ); Aslam, S.; Bramley, R.; Chen, H.-C.; Cybenko, G.; Gallopoulos, E.; Gao, H.; Malony, A.; Sameh, A. . Center for Supercomputing Research

    1990-09-01

    This is the first of a series of reports pertaining to progress in the Advanced Software Development and Commercialization Project, a joint collaborative effort between the Center for Supercomputing Research and Development of the University of Illinois and the Computing and Telecommunications Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of this work is to apply techniques of parallel computing that were pioneered by University of Illinois researchers to mature computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and structural dynamics (SD) computer codes developed at Argonne. The collaboration in this project will bring this unique combination of expertise to bear, for the first time, on industrially important problems. By so doing, it will expose the strengths and weaknesses of existing techniques for parallelizing programs and will identify those problems that need to be solved in order to enable wide spread production use of parallel computers. Secondly, the increased efficiency of the CFD and SD codes themselves will enable the simulation of larger, more accurate engineering models that involve fluid and structural dynamics. In order to realize the above two goals, we are considering two production codes that have been developed at ANL and are widely used by both industry and Universities. These are COMMIX and WHAMS-3D. The first is a computational fluid dynamics code that is used for both nuclear reactor design and safety and as a design tool for the casting industry. The second is a three-dimensional structural dynamics code used in nuclear reactor safety as well as crashworthiness studies. These codes are currently available for both sequential and vector computers only. Our main goal is to port and optimize these two codes on shared memory multiprocessors. In so doing, we shall establish a process that can be followed in optimizing other sequential or vector engineering codes for parallel processors.

  12. Idle emissions from heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles at high altitude.

    PubMed

    McCormick, R L; Graboski, M S; Alleman, T L; Yanowitz, J

    2000-11-01

    Idle emissions of total hydrocarbon (THC), CO, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) were measured from 24 heavy-duty diesel-fueled (12 trucks and 12 buses) and 4 heavy-duty compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. The volatile organic fraction (VOF) of PM and aldehyde emissions were also measured for many of the diesel vehicles. Experiments were conducted at 1609 m above sea level using a full exhaust flow dilution tunnel method identical to that used for heavy-duty engine Federal Test Procedure (FTP) testing. Diesel trucks averaged 0.170 g/min THC, 1.183 g/min CO, 1.416 g/min NOx, and 0.030 g/min PM. Diesel buses averaged 0.137 g/min THC, 1.326 g/min CO, 2.015 g/min NOx, and 0.048 g/min PM. Results are compared to idle emission factors from the MOBILE5 and PART5 inventory models. The models significantly (45-75%) overestimate emissions of THC and CO in comparison with results measured from the fleet of vehicles examined in this study. Measured NOx emissions were significantly higher (30-100%) than model predictions. For the pre-1999 (pre-consent decree) truck engines examined in this study, idle NOx emissions increased with model year with a linear fit (r2 = 0.6). PART5 nationwide fleet average emissions are within 1 order of magnitude of emissions for the group of vehicles tested in this study. Aldehyde emissions for bus idling averaged 6 mg/min. The VOF averaged 19% of total PM for buses and 49% for trucks. CNG vehicle idle emissions averaged 1.435 g/min for THC, 1.119 g/min for CO, 0.267 g/min for NOx, and 0.003 g/min for PM. The g/min PM emissions are only a small fraction of g/min PM emissions during vehicle driving. However, idle emissions of NOx, CO, and THC are significant in comparison with driving emissions. PMID:11111343

  13. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  14. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  15. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  16. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  17. 40 CFR 86.005-10 - Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... year Otto-cycle HDEs. (i) Oxides of Nitrogen plus Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NO, X + NMHC) for engines... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.005-10 Section 86.005-10 Protection of... Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.005-10 Emission standards for 2005 and later model year Otto-cycle...

  18. 40 CFR 86.004-11 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.004-11 Section 86.004-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.004-11 Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. This section applies to 2004 and later model year diesel HDEs. (a)(1) Exhaust emissions from new...

  19. 40 CFR 86.004-11 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.004-11 Section 86.004-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.004-11 Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. This section applies to 2004 and later model year diesel HDEs. (a)(1) Exhaust emissions from new...

  20. 40 CFR 86.004-11 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (b)(3) applies as specified in 40 CFR 1037.103. Evaporative emissions (total of non-oxygenated... specified in 40 CFR 1037.103. Evaporative emissions from 2004 and later model year heavy-duty vehicles... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.004-11 Section 86.004-11 Protection of...

  1. 40 CFR 86.004-11 - Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.004-11 Section 86.004-11 Protection of Environment... § 86.004-11 Emission standards for 2004 and later model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles. This section applies to 2004 and later model year diesel HDEs. (a)(1) Exhaust emissions from new...

  2. Time- and space-resolved quantitative LIF measurements of formaldehyde in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Donkerbroek, A.J.; van Vliet, A.P.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Meerts, W.L.; ter Meulen, J.J.; Somers, L.M.T.; Frijters, P.J.M.; Dam, N.J.

    2010-01-15

    Formaldehyde (CH{sub 2}O) is a characteristic species for the ignition phase of diesel-like fuels. As such, the spatio-temporal distribution of formaldehyde is an informative parameter in the study of the ignition event in internal combustion engines, especially for new combustion modes like homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). This paper presents quantitative data on the CH{sub 2}O distribution around diesel and n-heptane fuel sprays in the combustion chamber of a commercial heavy-duty diesel engine. Excitation of the 4{sub 0}{sup 1} band (355 nm) as well as the 4{sub 0}{sup 1}2{sub 0}{sup 1} band (339 nm) is applied. We use quantitative, spectrally resolved laser-induced fluorescence, calibrated by means of formalin seeding, to distinguish the contribution from CH{sub 2}O to the signal from those of other species formed early in the combustion. Typically, between 40% and 100% of the fluorescence in the wavelength range considered characteristic for formaldehyde is in fact due to other species, but the latter are also related to the early combustion. Numerical simulation of a homogeneous reactor of n-heptane and air yields concentrations that are in reasonable agreement with the measurements. Formaldehyde starts to be formed at about 2 CA (crank angle degrees) before the rise in main heat release. There appears to be a rather localised CH{sub 2}O formation zone relatively close to the injector, out of which formaldehyde is transported downstream by the fuel jet. Once the hot combustion sets in, formaldehyde quickly disappears. (author)

  3. Application for certification, 1992 model-year heavy-duty diesel engines - Mercedes Benz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines that he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  4. Application for certification, 1986 model year heavy-duty vehicles/engines - Mercedes-Benz truck

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  5. Application for certification 1984 model year heavy-duty engines - Mercedes-Benz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  6. Application for certification 1992 model year heavy-duty diesel engines - Mercedes-Benz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Each year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement or compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  7. Intelligent modified internal model control for speed control of nonlinear uncertain heavy duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Anil Kumar; Gaur, Prerna

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to control the speed of heavy duty vehicle (HDV) through angular position of throttle valve. Modified internal model control (IMC) schemes with fuzzy supervisor as an adaptive tuning are proposed to control the speed of HDV. Internal model (IM) plays a key role in design of various IMC structures with robust and adaptive features. The motivation to design an IM is to produce nearly stable performance as of the system itself. Clustering algorithm and Hankel approximation based model order reduction techniques are used for the design of suitable IM. The time domain performance specifications such as overshoot, settling time, rise time and integral error performance indices such as the integral of the absolute error and the integral of the square of error are taken into consideration for performance analysis of HDV for various uncertainties. PMID:25563057

  8. Marine vessels as substitutes for heavy-duty trucks in Great Lakes freight transportation.

    PubMed

    Comer, Bryan; Corbett, James J; Hawker, J Scott; Korfmacher, Karl; Lee, Earl E; Prokop, Chris; Winebrake, James J

    2010-07-01

    This paper applies a geospatial network optimization model to explore environmental, economic, and time-of-delivery tradeoffs associated with the application of marine vessels as substitutes for heavy-duty trucks operating in the Great Lakes region. The geospatial model integrates U.S. and Canadian highway, rail, and waterway networks to create an intermodal network and characterizes this network using temporal, economic, and environmental attributes (including emissions of carbon dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen oxides). A case study evaluates tradeoffs associated with containerized traffic flow in the Great Lakes region, demonstrating how choice of freight mode affects the environmental performance of movement of goods. These results suggest opportunities to improve the environmental performance of freight transport through infrastructure development, technology implementation, and economic incentives. PMID:20681436

  9. Fleet Evaluation and Factory Installation of Aerodynamic Heavy Duty Truck Trailers

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Jason; Salari, Kambiz; Ortega, Jason; Brown, Andrea

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of DE-EE0001552 was to develop and deploy a combination of trailer aerodynamic devices and low rolling resistance tires that reduce fuel consumption of a class 8 heavy duty tractor-trailer combination vehicle by 15%. There were 3 phases of the project: Phase 1 – Perform SAE Typed 2 track tests with multiple device combinations. Phase 2 – Conduct a fleet evaluation with selected device combination. Phase 3 – Develop the devices required to manufacture the aerodynamic trailer. All 3 phases have been completed. There is an abundance of available trailer devices on the market, and fleets and owner operators have awareness of them and are purchasing them. The products developed in conjunction with this project are at least in their second round of refinement. The fleet test undertaken showed an improvement of 5.5 – 7.8% fuel economy with the devices (This does not include tire contribution).

  10. Diesel fuel sulfur and cylinder liner wear of a heavy-duty diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, E.K.J.; Busenthuer, B.B.; Hardenberg, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    Cylinder liner wear of a heavy-duty diesel engine was measured by means of radionuclide technology to identify the combined effects of diesel fuel sulfur and coolant temperature under engine operating conditions. Higher cylinder liner wear results from increasing load and decreasing engine speed. At low cooling temperatures, i.e, during engine cold start and warm-up, any reduction of the sulfur content leads to substantially reduced wear. At normal operational coolant temperatures, however, the effect of sulfur is extremely small. At higher than normal operating temperatures, diesel fuels with very low sulfur content, e.g. 0.05%, lead to increased wear, when compared with those of usual sulfur levels of 0.3 to 0.5%.

  11. Transformation toughened ceramics for the heavy duty diesel engine technology program, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musikant, S.; Samanta, S. C.; Architetto, P.; Feingold, E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an insulating structural ceramic for application in a heavy duty adiabatic diesel engine. The approach is to employ transformation toughening (TT) by additions of zirconia-hafnia solid solution (ZHSS). The feasibility of using ZHSS as a toughening agent in mullite and alumina has been demonstrated in Phase 1 of this work. Based on Phase 1 results, a decision was made to concentrate the Phase 2 effort on process optimization of the TT mullite. A strong factor in that decision was the low thermal conductivity and high thermal shock resistance of the mullite. Results of the Phase 2 effort indicate that optimum toughening of mullite by additions of ZHSS is difficult to achieve due to apparent sensitivity to morphology. The 48 ksi room temperature modulus-of-rupture (MOR) achieved in selected specimens is approximately 50% of the original strength target. The MOR deteriorated to 34 ksi at 800 C.

  12. Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

    2005-11-01

    Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

  13. The GREET Model Expansion for Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hao; Burnham, Andrew; Wang, Michael; Hang, Wen; Vyas, Anant

    2015-05-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for a significant portion of the U.S. transportation sector’s fuel consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and air pollutant emissions. In our most recent efforts, we expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model to include life-cycle analysis of HDVs. In particular, the GREET expansion includes the fuel consumption, GHG emissions, and air pollutant emissions of a variety of conventional (i.e., diesel and/or gasoline) HDV types, including Class 8b combination long-haul freight trucks, Class 8b combination short-haul freight trucks, Class 8b dump trucks, Class 8a refuse trucks, Class 8a transit buses, Class 8a intercity buses, Class 6 school buses, Class 6 single-unit delivery trucks, Class 4 single-unit delivery trucks, and Class 2b heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans. These vehicle types were selected to represent the diversity in the U.S. HDV market, and specific weight classes and body types were chosen on the basis of their fuel consumption using the 2002 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) database. VIUS was also used to estimate the fuel consumption and payload carried for most of the HDV types. In addition, fuel economy projections from the U.S. Energy Information Administration, transit databases, and the literature were examined. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s latest Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator was employed to generate tailpipe air pollutant emissions of diesel and gasoline HDV types.

  14. 40 CFR 86.004-15 - NOX plus NMHC and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR part 88 are not eligible for these programs. For manufacturers not selecting Options 1 or 2... Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later... emission credits in a mass amount sufficient to address the shortfall. Credits may be obtained...

  15. 75 FR 68575 - Revisions To In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...: In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles, 70 FR 34594 (June 14, 2005). The program... Measurement Systems and Program Revisions, 73 FR 13441 (March 13, 2008). The in-use testing program began with... Vehicles,'' 70 FR 34624 (June 14, 2005). 2. Particulate Matter Emission Measurement Margin for...

  16. 78 FR 11804 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Kansas; Idle Reduction of Heavy-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...EPA is proposing to approve the State Implementation Plan (SIP) submitted by the State of Kansas on July 27, 2010, to add two new rules which implement restrictions on the idling of heavy duty diesel vehicles and reduce nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions at stationary sources in the Kansas portion of the Kansas City Maintenance Area for ozone. EPA is approving this revision because the......

  17. 75 FR 68448 - Revisions to In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles; Emissions Measurement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Engines and Vehicles, 70 FR 34594 (June 14, 2005). The program was amended in March 2008 to delay some of... Measurement Accuracy Margins for Portable Emission Measurement Systems and Program Revisions, 73 FR 13441... Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: In-Use Testing for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles, 70 FR...

  18. Using Extractive FTIR to Measure N2O from Medium Heavy Duty Vehicles Powered with Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to measure N2O and other pollutant gases during an evaluation of two medium heavy-duty diesel trucks equipped with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). The emissions of these trucks were characterized under a variety of oper...

  19. Semivolatile organic compound emissions from heavy-duty trucks operating on diesel and bio-diesel fuel blends

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study measured semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in particle matter (PM) emitted from three heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern after-treatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted as described by the George et al. VOC study also presented as part of this se...

  20. 75 FR 74151 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Transformation of Our Nation's Fleet of Cars And Trucks,'' Issued May 21, 2010, published at 75 FR 29399, May 26... standards for trucks based on use of hybrid powertrain technology. Similarly, we expect that the agencies... about 37 percent of these vehicles are powered by gasoline engines. Heavy-duty trucks \\5\\ have...

  1. EFFECTS OF ENGINE SPEED AND ACCESSORY LOAD ON IDLING EMISSIONS FROM HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCK ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nontrivial portion of heavy-duty vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) occurs during idling. Regulators and the environmental community are interested in curtailing truck idling emissions, but current emissions models do not characterize them ac...

  2. 77 FR 50502 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    .... \\2\\ 59 FR 36969 (July 20, 1994). \\3\\ See 62 FR 67733 (December 30, 1997). The applicable regulations... the California standard. \\4\\ See 59 FR 36969 (July 20, 1994). In order to be consistent with section... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In- Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles...

  3. 40 CFR 86.007-15 - NOX and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....8). (5) For diesel engine families, the combined number of engines certified to FELs higher than 0... percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of engines in all heavy-duty diesel engine families... diesel engine families, or generated for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle engine families are...

  4. 40 CFR 86.007-15 - NOX and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....8). (5) For diesel engine families, the combined number of engines certified to FELs higher than 0... percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of engines in all heavy-duty diesel engine families... diesel engine families, or generated for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle engine families are...

  5. 40 CFR 86.007-15 - NOX and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....8). (5) For diesel engine families, the combined number of engines certified to FELs higher than 0... percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of engines in all heavy-duty diesel engine families... diesel engine families, or generated for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle engine families are...

  6. 40 CFR 86.007-15 - NOX and particulate averaging, trading, and banking for heavy-duty engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....8). (5) For diesel engine families, the combined number of engines certified to FELs higher than 0... percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of engines in all heavy-duty diesel engine families... diesel engine families, or generated for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle engine families are...

  7. Heavy Duty Equipment Mechanic. Apprenticeship Training Standards = Mecanicien d'equipement lourd. Normes de formation en apprentissage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Skills Development, Toronto.

    These training standards for heavy duty equipment mechanics are intended to be used by apprentice/trainees, instructors, and companies in Ontario, Canada, as a blueprint for training or as a prerequisite for accreditation/certification. The training standards identify skills required for this occupation and its related training program. They are…

  8. 75 FR 39251 - Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Announcement of Public Workshop for Heavy-Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...) Technologies'' dated December 30, 2009. \\2\\ See 74 FR 57671 (November 9, 2009). II. Public Workshop: EPA is... (SCR). EPA will be reviewing its policies regarding the operation of SCR- equipped heavy-duty diesel... the SCR system) is detected. DATES: The workshop will be held on July 20, 2010 from 10 a.m. to 4...

  9. 75 FR 33565 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for New Medium- and Heavy-Duty Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Final Rule, 75 FR 25324 (May 7, 2010). In... Environmental Policy Act Regulations, 46 FR 18026 (1981) (emphasis added). NHTSA is also proposing to consider... Impact Statement for New Medium- and Heavy-Duty Fuel Efficiency Improvement Program AGENCY:...

  10. Size and composition distributions of particulate matter emissions: part 2--heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Robert, Michael A; Kleeman, Michael J; Jakober, Christopher A

    2007-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) were collected using a chassis dynamometer/dilution sampling system that employed filter-based samplers, cascade impactors, and scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements. Four diesel vehicles with different engine and emission control technologies were tested using the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) 5 mode driving cycle. Vehicles were tested using a simulated inertial weight of either 56,000 or 66,000 lb. Exhaust particles were then analyzed for total carbon, elemental carbon (EC), organic matter (OM), and water-soluble ions. HDDV fine (< or =1.8 microm aerodynamic diameter; PM1.8) and ultrafine (0.056-0.1 microm aerodynamic diameter; PM0.1) PM emission rates ranged from 181-581 mg/km and 25-72 mg/km, respectively, with the highest emission rates in both size fractions associated with the oldest vehicle tested. Older diesel vehicles produced fine and ultrafine exhaust particles with higher EC/OM ratios than newer vehicles. Transient modes produced very high EC/OM ratios whereas idle and creep modes produced very low EC/OM ratios. Calcium was the most abundant water-soluble ion with smaller amounts of magnesium, sodium, ammonium ion, and sulfate also detected. Particle mass distributions emitted during the full 5-mode HDDV tests peaked between 100-180 nm and their shapes were not a function of vehicle age. In contrast, particle mass distributions emitted during the idle and creep driving modes from the newest diesel vehicle had a peak diameter of approximately 70 nm, whereas mass distributions emitted from older vehicles had a peak diameter larger than 100 nm for both the idle and creep modes. Increasing inertial loads reduced the OM emissions, causing the residual EC emissions to shift to smaller sizes. The same HDDV tested at 56,000 and 66,000 lb had higher PM0.1 EC emissions (+22%) and lower PM0.1 OM emissions (-38%) at the higher load

  11. Analysis of heavy-duty diesel truck activity and emissions data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huai, Tao; Shah, Sandip D.; Wayne Miller, J.; Younglove, Ted; Chernich, Donald J.; Ayala, Alberto

    Despite their relatively small population, heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) are (in 2005) disproportionate contributors to the emissions inventory for oxides of nitrogen (NO x) and particulate matter (PM) due to their high individual vehicle emissions rates, lack of engine aftertreatment, and high vehicle miles traveled. Beginning in the early 1990s, heavy-duty engine manufacturers began equipping their engines with electronic sensors and controls and on-board electronic computer modules (ECMs) to manage these systems. These ECMs can collect and store both periodic and lifetime engine operation data for a variety of engine and vehicle parameters including engine speed and load, time at idle, average vehicle speed, etc. The University of California, Riverside (UCR), under a contract with the California Air Resources Board (CARB), performed data analysis of 270 ECM data sets obtained from the CARB. The results from this analysis have provided insights into engine/vehicle operation that have not been obtained from previous on-board datalogger studies since those previous studies focused on vehicle operation and did not collect engine operating data. Results indicate that HDDVs spend a considerable amount of time at high-speed cruise and at idle and that a smaller percentage of time is spent under transient engine/vehicle operation. These results are consistent with other HDDV activity studies, and provide further proof of the validity of assumptions in CARB's emission factor (EMFAC2002) model. An additional important contribution of this paper is that the evaluation of vehicle ECM data provides several advantages over traditional global positioning system (GPS) and datalogger studies: (1) ECM data is significantly cheaper than the traditional method (50 record -1 vs. ˜2000 record -1) and (2) ECM data covers vehicle operation over the entire life of the vehicle, whereas traditional surveys cover only short periods of surveillance (days, weeks, or months). It is

  12. The challenge to NOx emission control for heavy-duty diesel vehicles in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Zhang, S. J.; Li, M. L.; Ge, Y. S.; Shu, J. W.; Zhou, Y.; Xu, Y. Y.; Hu, J. N.; Liu, H.; Fu, L. X.; He, K. B.; Hao, J. M.

    2012-10-01

    China's new "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" set a target for total NOx emission reduction of 10% for the period of 2011-2015. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) have been considered a major contributor to NOx emissions in China. Beijing initiated a comprehensive vehicle test program in 2008. This program included a sub-task for measuring on-road emission profiles of hundreds of HDDVs using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS). The major finding is that neither the on-road distance-specific (g km-1) nor brake-specific (g kWh-1) NOx emission factors for diesel buses and heavy-duty diesel trucks improved in most cases as emission standards became more stringent. For example, the average NOx emission factors for Euro II, Euro III and Euro IV buses are 11.3 ± 3.3 g km-1, 12.5 ± 1.3 g km-1, and 11.8 ± 2.0 g km-1, respectively. No statistically significant difference in NOx emission factors was observed between Euro II and III buses. Even for Euro IV buses equipped with SCR systems, the NOx emission factors are similar to Euro III buses. The data regarding real-time engine performance of Euro IV buses suggest the engine certification cycles did not reflect their real-world operating conditions. These new on-road test results indicate that previous estimates of total NOx emissions for HDDV fleet may be significantly underestimated. The new estimate in total NOx emissions for the Beijing HDDV fleet in 2009 is 37.0 Gg, an increase of 45% compared to the previous study. Further, we estimate that the total NOx emissions for the national HDDV fleet in 2009 are approximately 4.0 Tg, higher by 1.0 Tg (equivalent to 18% of total NOx emissions for vehicle fleet in 2009) than that estimated in the official report. This would also result in 4% increase in estimation of national anthropogenic NOx emissions. More effective control measures (such as promotion of CNG buses and a new in-use compliance testing program) are urged to secure the goal of total NOx mitigation for the HDDV

  13. The challenge to NOx emission control for heavy-duty diesel vehicles in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Zhang, S. J.; Li, M. L.; Ge, Y. S.; Shu, J. W.; Zhou, Y.; Xu, Y. Y.; Hu, J. N.; Liu, H.; Fu, L. X.; He, K. B.; Hao, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    China's new "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" set a target for total NOx emission reduction of 10% for the period of 2011-2015. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) have been considered a major contributor to NOx emissions in China. Beijing initiated a comprehensive vehicle test program in 2008. This program included a sub-task for measuring on-road emission profiles of hundreds of HDDVs using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS). The major finding is that neither the on-road distance-specific (g km -1) nor brake-specific (g kW h-1) NOx emission factors for diesel buses and heavy-duty diesel trucks improved in most cases as emission standards became more stringent. For example, the average NOx emission factors for Euro II, Euro III and Euro IV buses are 11.3±3.3 g km-1, 12.5± 1.3 g km-1, and 11.8±2.0 g km-1, respectively. No statistically significant difference in NOx emission factors was observed between Euro II and III buses. Even for Euro IV buses equipped with SCR systems, the NOx emission factors are similar to Euro III buses. The data regarding real-time engine performance of Euro IV buses suggest the engine certification cycles did not reflect their real-world operating conditions. These new on-road test results indicate that previous estimates of total NOx emissions for HDDV fleet may be significantly underestimated. The new estimate in total NOx emissions for the Beijing HDDV fleet in 2009 is 37.0 Gg, an increase of 45% compared to the previous study. Further, we estimate that the total NOx emissions for the national HDDV fleet in 2009 are approximately 4.0 Tg, higher by 1.0 Tg (equivalent to 18% of total NOx emissions for vehicle fleet in 2009) than that estimated in the official report. This would also result in 4% increase in estimation of national anthropogenic NOx emissions. More effective control measures (such as promotion of CNG buses and a new in-use compliance testing program) are urged to secure the goal of total NOxmitigation for the HDDV fleet

  14. SCR SYSTEMS FOR HEAVY DUTY TRUCKS: PROGRESS TOWARDS MEETING EURO 4 EMISSION STANDARDS IN 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, W; Huethwohl, G; Maurer, B

    2003-08-24

    Emissions of diesel engines contain some components, which support the generation of smog and which are classified hazardous. Exhaust gas aftertreatment is a powerful tool to reduce the NOx and Particulate emissions. The NOx-emission can be reduced by the SCR technology. SCR stands for Selective Catalytic Reduction. A reduction agent has to be injected into the exhaust upstream of a catalyst. On the catalyst the NOx is reduced to N2 (Nitrogen) and H2O (Water). This catalytic process was developed in Japan about 30 years ago to reduce the NOx emission of coal-fired power plants. The first reduction agent used was anhydrous ammonia (NH3). SCR technology was used with diesel engines starting mid of the 80s. First applications were stationary operating generator-sets. In 1991 a joint development between DaimlerChrysler, MAN, IVECO and Siemens was started to use SCR technology for the reduction of heavy duty trucks. Several fleet tests demonstrated the durability of the systems. To day, SCR technology is the most promising technology to fulfill the new European Regulations EURO 4 and EURO 5 being effective Oct. 2005 and Oct. 2008. The efficient NOx reduction of the catalyst allows an engine calibration for low fuel consumption. DaimlerChrysler decided to use the SCR technology on every heavy duty truck and bus in Europe and many other truck manufacturers will introduce SCR technology to fulfill the 2005 emission regulation. The truck manufacturers in Europe agreed to use aqueous solution of Urea as reducing agent. The product is called AdBlue. AdBlue is a non toxic, non smelling liquid. The consumption is about 5% of the diesel fuel consumption to reduce the NOx emissions. A small AdBlue tank has to be installed to the vehicle. With an electronically controlled dosing system the AdBlue is injected into the exhaust. The dosing system is simple and durable. It has proven its durability during winter and summer testing as well as in fleet tests. The infrastructure for Ad

  15. Uncertainties of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon and carbonyl measurements in heavy-duty diesel emission.

    PubMed

    Mabilia, Rosanna; Cecinato, Angelo; Guerriero, Ettore; Possanzini, Massimiliano

    2006-02-01

    In this note we describe the speciated particle-phase PM2.5 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and gas-phase carbonyl emissions as collected from a heavy-duty diesel bus outfitted with an oxidation catalyst for exhaust after-treatment. The vehicle was run on a chassis dynamometer during a transient cycle test reproducing a typical city bus route (Azienda Tramviaria Municipalizzata cycle). The diluted tailpipe emissions were sampled for PAH using a 2.5 microm cut size cyclone glass fiber filter assembly, while carbonyls were absorbed onto dinitrophenyl hydrazine-coated silica cartridges. The former compounds were analysed by CGC-MS, the latter by HPLC-UV. Combining the two sets of speciation data resulting from 15 identical dynamometer tests provided a profile of both unregulated organic emissions. PAH emission rates decreased with the number of benzene fused rings. Fluoranthene and pyrene amounted to 90% of total PAHs quantified; six-ring PAHs accounted only for 0.5%. Similarly, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde accounted for approximately 80% of the total carbonyl emissions. Uncertainties of the method in the determination of individual emission factors were calculated. Statistical data processing revealed that all the measurements were quite unaffected by systematic errors and repeatability percentages did not exceed 50% for the majority of components of both groups. PMID:16524107

  16. Emissions of acrolein and other aldehydes from biodiesel-fueled heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Thomas M; Okamoto, Robert A

    2012-08-01

    Aldehyde emissions were measured from two heavy-duty trucks, namely 2000 and 2008 model year vehicles meeting different EPA emission standards. The tests were conducted on a chassis dynamometer and emissions were collected from a constant volume dilution tunnel. For the 2000 model year vehicle, four different fuels were tested, namely California ultralow sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD), soy biodiesel, animal biodiesel, and renewable diesel. All of the fuels were tested with simulated city and high speed cruise drive cycles. For the 2008 vehicle, only soy biodiesel and CARB ULSD fuels were tested. The research objective was to compare aldehyde emission rates between (1) the test fuels, (2) the drive cycles, and (3) the engine technologies. The results showed that soy biodiesel had the highest acrolein emission rates while the renewable diesel showed the lowest. The drive cycle also affected emission rates with the cruise drive cycle having lower emissions than the urban drive cycle. Lastly, the newer vehicle with the diesel particulate filter had greatly reduced carbonyl emissions compared to the other vehicles, thus demonstrating that the engine technology had a greater influence on emission rates than the fuels. PMID:22746209

  17. Wear and wear mechanism simulation of heavy-duty engine intake valve and seat inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.S.; Narasimhan, S.; Larson, J.M.; Schaefer, S.K.

    1998-02-01

    A silicon-chromium alloy frequently used for heavy-duty diesel engine intake valves was tested against eight different insert materials with a valve seat wear simulator. Wear resistance of these combinations was ranked. For each test, the valve seat temperature was controlled at approximately 510 C, the number of cycles was 864,000 (or 24 h), and the test load was 17,640 N. The combination of the silicon-chromium valve against a cast iron insert produced in the least valve seat wear, whereas a cobalt-base alloy insert produced the highest valve seat wear. In the overall valve seat recession ranking, however, the combination of the silicon-chromium valve and an iron-base chromium-nickel alloy insert had the least total seat recession, whereas the silicon-chromium valve against cobalt-base alloy, cast iron, and nickel-base alloy inserts had significant seat recession. Hardness and microstructure compatibility of valve and insert materials are believed to be significant factors in reducing valve and insert wear. The test results indicate that the mechanisms of valve seat and insert wear are a complex combination of adhesion and plastic deformation. Adhesion was confirmed by material transfer, while plastic deformation was verified by shear strain (or radial flow) and abrasion. The oxide films formed during testing also played a significant role. The prevented direct metal-to-metal contact and reduced the coefficient of friction on seat surfaces, thereby reducing adhesive and deformation-controlled wear.

  18. Emissions from heavy-duty vehicles under actual on-road driving conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Thomas D.; Johnson, Kent; Miller, J. Wayne; Maldonado, Hector; Chernich, Don

    Emission measurements of five 1996-2005 heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs), representing three engine certification levels, were made using a Mobile Emissions Laboratory under actual on-road driving conditions on surface streets and highways. The results show that emissions depend on the emission component, the age/certification of vehicle/engine, as well as driving condition. For NO x emissions, there was a trend of decreasing emissions in going from older to newer model years and certification standards. Some vehicles showed a tendency toward higher NO x emissions per mile for the higher speed events (⩾55 mph) as compared to the 40 mph cruise and the other surface street driving, while others did not show large differences between different types of driving. For particulate matter (PM), the three oldest trucks had the highest emissions for surface street driving, while the two newest trucks had the highest PM emissions for highway driving. For total hydrocarbons (THC) emissions, some vehicles showed a tendency for higher emissions for the surface street segments compared to the steady-state segments, while others showed a tendency for higher emissions for the 40 mph cruise segments compared to the highway cruise segments. CO emissions under steady-state driving conditions were relatively low (1-3 g mile -1).

  19. Piston ring coating developments for use in tomorrow`s heavy duty engines

    SciTech Connect

    Delaet, M.; Coddet, C.

    1996-12-31

    Extended life and higher performance are being required for heavy duty diesel engines which have to run more than 1 million kilometers. Reducing the amount of exhaust gas pollutants from diesel engines is now a social concern from the viewpoints of an environmental conservation, air pollution and influence on human health. In order to lower the amount of particulate emission, mainly composed of unburnt fuel and oil, it is desirable to reduce oil consumption which depends largely upon the sliding surface profiles of piston top rings. In addition to some new nitriding treatment or hard chromium plating techniques, plasma spray coatings are largely developed in Perfect Circle Europe, because of the wide range of coating materials which ensure numerous tribological properties. Powder formulations and spraying parameters are of great importance to reduce the piston ring and the liner wear, to improve the adhesive and cohesive qualities of coatings and to increase their tearing and corrosive resistances. Spraying parameters and the utilized plasma gas also play a large part in obtaining coatings of high quality and in increasing the deposition efficiency. Tests on idealized samples coupled with engine tests help to characterize the tribological behavior of some molybdenum based coatings.

  20. Effect of fuel properties on mutagenic activity in extracts of heavy-duty diesel exhaust particulate

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, R.E. )

    1990-10-01

    The effect of varying fuel properties on the emission of mutagenic materials was studied in diesel exhaust particles from a heavy duty engine run under transient speed and load conditions while using nine fuels varying in aromatics, sulfur and boiling point. Mutagenic activity of the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of the particulate was determined using the Ames Salmonella test system with strain TA98 with and without S9 activation. Increasing mutagenic activity relative to fuel consumed (mutants/lb fuel) or to engine work output (mutants/hp-h) was correlated with increasing fuel aromatics (p less than 0.05), but not with fuel sulfur. Increased fuel sulfur levels were correlated with increased amounts of SOF but with decreasing mutagenic activity of the SOF (mutants/microgram SOF) (p less than 0.05). As a result, mutants/hp-h were essentially the same for high- and low-sulfur fuels with high aromatics. No association was found between the fuels' boiling points and the mutagenic activity of the SOF. Mutagenic activity with S9 was generally lower than without, but the correlations were not changed.

  1. Effects of methanol-containing additive on emission characteristics from a heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Chao, M R; Lin, T C; Chao, H R; Chang, F H; Chen, C B

    2001-11-12

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of methanol-containing additive (MCA) on the regulated emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), as well as the unregulated carbon dioxide (CO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a diesel engine. The engine was tested on a series of diesel fuels blended with five additive levels (0, 5, 8, 10 and 15% of MCA by volume). Emissions tests were performed under both cold- and hot-start transient heavy-duty federal test procedure (HD-FTP) cycles and two selected steady-state modes. Results show that MCA addition slightly decreases PM emissions but generally increases both THC and CO emissions. Decrease in NOx emissions was found common in all MCA blends. As for unregulated emissions, CO2 emissions did not change significantly for all MCA blends, while vapor-phase and particle-associated PAHs emissions in high load and transient cycle tests were relatively low compared to the base diesel when either 5 or 8% MCA was used. This may be attributed to the lower PAHs levels in MCA blends. Finally, the particle-associated PAHs emissions also showed trends quite similar to that of the PM emissions in this study. PMID:11712594

  2. On-road emission characteristics of heavy-duty diesel vehicles in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changhong; Huang, Cheng; Jing, Qiguo; Wang, Haikun; Pan, Hansheng; Li, Li; Zhao, Jing; Dai, Yi; Huang, Haiying; Schipper, Lee; Streets, David G.

    On-road vehicle tests of nine heavy-duty diesel trucks were conducted using SEMTECH-D, an emissions measuring instrument provided by Sensors, Inc. The total length of roads for the tests was 186 km. Data were obtained for 37,255 effective driving cycles, including 17,216 on arterial roads, 15,444 on residential roads, and 4595 on highways. The impacts of speed and acceleration on fuel consumption and emissions were analyzed. Results show that trucks spend an average of 16.5% of the time in idling mode, 25.5% in acceleration mode, 27.9% in deceleration mode, and only 30.0% at cruise speed. The average emission factors of CO, total hydrocarbons (THC), and NO x for the selected vehicles are (4.96±2.90), (1.88±1.03) and (6.54±1.90) g km -1, respectively. The vehicle emission rates vary significantly with factors like speed and acceleration. The test results reflect the actual traffic situation and the current emission status of diesel trucks in Shanghai. The measurements show that low-speed conditions with frequent acceleration and deceleration, particularly in congestion conditions, are the main factors that aggravate vehicle emissions and cause high emissions of CO and THC. Alleviating congestion would significantly improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce CO and THC emissions.

  3. Human health impacts of biodiesel use in on-road heavy duty diesel vehicles in Canada.

    PubMed

    Rouleau, Mathieu; Egyed, Marika; Taylor, Brett; Chen, Jack; Samaali, Mehrez; Davignon, Didier; Morneau, Gilles

    2013-11-19

    Regulatory requirements for renewable content in diesel fuel have been adopted in Canada. Fatty acid alkyl esters, that is, biodiesel, will likely be used to meet the regulations. However, the impacts on ambient atmospheric pollutant concentrations and human health outcomes associated with the use of biodiesel fuel blends in heavy duty diesel vehicles across Canada have not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess the potential human health implications of the widespread use of biodiesel in Canada compared to those from ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD). The health impacts/benefits resulting from biodiesel use were determined with the Air Quality Benefits Assessment Tool, based on output from the AURAMS air quality modeling system and the MOBILE6.2C on-road vehicle emissions model. Scenarios included runs for ULSD and biodiesel blends with 5 and 20% of biodiesel by volume, and compared their use in 2006 and 2020. Although modeling and data limitations exist, the results of this study suggested that the use of biodiesel fuel blends compared to ULSD was expected to result in very minimal changes in air quality and health benefits/costs across Canada, and these were likely to diminish over time. PMID:24143909

  4. Evaluation of fuel consumption potential of medium and heavy duty vehicles through modeling and simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Delorme, A.; Karbowski, D.; Sharer, P.; Energy Systems

    2010-03-31

    The main objective of this report is to provide quantitative data to support the Committee in its task of establishing a report to support rulemaking on medium- and heavy-duty fuel efficiency improvement. In particular, it is of paramount importance for the Committee to base or illustrate their conclusions on established models and actual state-of-the art data. The simulations studies presented in the report have been defined and requested by the members of the National Academy committee to provide quantitative inputs to support their recommendations. As such, various technologies and usage scenarios were considered for several applications. One of the objective is to provide the results along with their associated assumptions (both vehicle and drive cycles), information generally missing from public discussions on literature search. Finally, the advantages and limitations of using simulation will be summarized. The study addresses several of the committee tasks, including: (1) Discussion of the implication of metric selection; (2) Assessing the impact of existing technologies on fuel consumption through energy balance analysis (both steady-state and standard cycles) as well as real world drive cycles; and (3) Impact of future technologies, both individually and collectively.

  5. On-road emissions of PCDDs and PCDFs from heavy duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Gullett, Brian K; Ryan, Jeffrey V

    2002-07-01

    This work characterized emission factors of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from on-road sampling of three heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under experimental conditions of city and highway driving; idling operation; high (>400 ppm) and low (<5 ppm) sulfur (S) fuels; and high mileage and rebuilt engine testing. Emission factors, homologue profiles, and isomer patterns were compared to determine whether the experimental conditions had an impact on PCDD/F emissions, or whether these conditions were uninfluential in determining a fleet-representative emission factor. For a single HDDV tested under conditions of a high mileage engine, a newly rebuilt engine, and the newly rebuilt engine with low S diesel fuel, emission factors were 0.023 (+/- 0.022), 0.008 (+/- 0.002), and 0.016 (+/- 0.013) ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/km, respectively. These results may infer some limited condition-specific differences in PCDD/F emissions, but these differences do not appear to have a significant effect on the HDDV emission factor. An older HDDV with mechanical fuel controls resulted in a single test value of 0.164 ng TEQ/km, significantly higher than all other results. Observed differences in emission factors, homologue profiles, and TEQ-related isomer patterns from this on-vehicle sampling and others' tunnel sampling suggest limitations in our present characterization of fleet PCDD/F emissions. PMID:12144283

  6. Particle emission from heavy-duty engine fuelled with blended diesel and biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Martins, Leila Droprinchinski; da Silva Júnior, Carlos Roberto; Solci, Maria Cristina; Pinto, Jurandir Pereira; Souza, Davi Zacarias; Vasconcellos, Pérola; Guarieiro, Aline Lefol Nani; Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; Sousa, Eliane Teixeira; de Andrade, Jailson B

    2012-05-01

    In this study, particulate matter (PM) were characterized from a place impacted by heavy-duty vehicles (Bus Station) fuelled with diesel/biodiesel fuel blend (B3) in the city of Londrina, Brazil. Sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations were analyzed in the samples by their association with atmospheric PM, mass size distributions and major ions (fluorite, chloride, bromide, nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, nitrite, oxalate; fumarate, formate, succinate and acetate; lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and ammonium). Results indicate that major ions represented 21.2% particulate matter mass. Nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium, respectively, presented the highest concentration levels, indicating that biodiesel may also be a significant source for these ions, especially nitrate. Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3,-cd]pyrene were the main PAH found, and a higher fraction of PAH particles was found in diameters lower than 0.25 μm in Londrina bus station. The fine and ultrafine particles were dominant among the PM evaluated, suggesting that biodiesel decreases the total PAH emission. However, it does also increase the fraction of fine and ultrafine particles when compared to diesel. PMID:21713496

  7. Limitations of rigid body descriptions for heavy-duty diesel engine vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.M.W.; Dowling, D.R.

    1999-04-01

    Internal combustion engine vibration modeling commonly relies on assuming the engine is a linearly reacting rigid body, thereby ignoring rotating, reciprocating, and nonsolid engine components. Limitations of this approach are identified from a series of experiments on a heavy-duty in-line six-cylinder Diesel engine typical of Class VIII trucks. Measurement of all three orthogonal vibration force components were made at each of three engine mounts during standard impact-excitation modal identification tests on the quiescent engine and during engine operation. The running-engine vibration forces, measured throughout the test engine load and speed operating envelope, were projected onto the quiescent-engine rigid body modes to determine the modal content and residual vibration as a function of frequency. Modal decomposition results for the running engine show that the quiescent-engine rigid body modes, with modal frequencies between 5.6 and 26.3 Hz, account for 80 percent or more of the measured engine vibration forces for all engine speeds and loads in a bandwidth from zero to 200 Hz. The likely origins of the residual vibration within this bandwidth are discussed.

  8. Clutch fill control of an automatic transmission for heavy-duty vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fei; Chen, Huiyan; Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper an integrated clutch filling phase control for gearshifts on wet clutch transmissions is developed. In a clutch-to-clutch shift of an automatic transmission, in order to obtain smooth gearshift, it should synchronize the oncoming clutch and the off-going clutch timely as well as precise pressure control for the engagement of the oncoming clutch. However, before the oncoming clutch pressure starts to increase, the initial cavity of the clutch chamber has to be filled first. The filling time and stability of the fill phase are very important for the clutch control. In order to improve the shift quality of the automatic transmission which is equipped on heavy-duty vehicles, the electro-hydraulic clutch actuation system is analysed and modelled. A new fill phase control strategy is proposed based on the system analysis as well as the control parameters are optimized according to the variation of the oil temperature and engine speed. The designed strategy is validated by a simulation work. The results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy and parameters modified method can transit the shift process from the fill phase to the torque phase effectively.

  9. A Vector Approach to Regression Analysis and Its Implications to Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, H.T.

    2001-02-14

    An alternative approach is presented for the regression of response data on predictor variables that are not logically or physically separable. The methodology is demonstrated by its application to a data set of heavy-duty diesel emissions. Because of the covariance of fuel properties, it is found advantageous to redefine the predictor variables as vectors, in which the original fuel properties are components, rather than as scalars each involving only a single fuel property. The fuel property vectors are defined in such a way that they are mathematically independent and statistically uncorrelated. Because the available data set does not allow definitive separation of vehicle and fuel effects, and because test fuels used in several of the studies may be unrealistically contrived to break the association of fuel variables, the data set is not considered adequate for development of a full-fledged emission model. Nevertheless, the data clearly show that only a few basic patterns of fuel-property variation affect emissions and that the number of these patterns is considerably less than the number of variables initially thought to be involved. These basic patterns, referred to as ''eigenfuels,'' may reflect blending practice in accordance with their relative weighting in specific circumstances. The methodology is believed to be widely applicable in a variety of contexts. It promises an end to the threat of collinearity and the frustration of attempting, often unrealistically, to separate variables that are inseparable.

  10. Cost of lower NO x emissions: Increased CO 2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Mohan; Carder, Daniel K.; Thompson, Gregory; Gautam, Mridul

    This paper highlights the effect of emissions regulations on in-use emissions from heavy-duty vehicles powered by different model year engines. More importantly, fuel economy data for pre- and post-consent decree engines are compared. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in brake-specific emissions of NO x as a result of emission regulations, and to highlight the effect these have had on brake-specific CO 2 emission; hence, fuel consumption. For this study, in-use, on-road emission measurements were collected. Test vehicles were instrumented with a portable on-board tailpipe emissions measurement system, WVU's Mobile Emissions Measurement System, and were tested on specific routes, which included a mix of highway and city driving patterns, in order to collect engine operating conditions, vehicle speed, and in-use emission rates of CO 2 and NO x. Comparison of on-road in-use emissions data suggests NO x reductions as high as 80% and 45% compared to the US Federal Test Procedure and Not-to-Exceed standards for model year 1995-2002. However, the results indicate that the fuel consumption; hence, CO 2 emissions increased by approximately 10% over the same period, when the engines were operating in the Not-to-Exceed region.

  11. Advanced emergency openings for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Explosively actuated openings in composite panels are proposed to enhance passenger survivability within commercial aircraft by providing improvements in emergency openings, fuselage venting, and fuel dump. The concept is to embed a tiny, highly stable explosive cord in the periphery of a load-carrying composite panel; on initiation of the cord, the panel is fractured to create a well-defined opening. The panel would be installed in the sides of the fuselage for passenger egress, in the top of the fuselage for smoke venting, and in the bottoms of the fuel cells for fuel dump. Described are the concerns with the use of explosive systems, safety improvements, advantages, experimental results, and recommended approach to gain acceptance and develop this concept.

  12. Commercialization of Australian advanced infrared technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redpath, John; Brown, Allen; Woods, William F.

    1995-09-01

    For several decades, the main thrust in infrared technology developments in Australia has been in two main sensor technologies: uncooled silicon chip printed bolometric sensors pioneered by DSTO's Kevin Liddiard, and precision engineered high quality Cadmium Mercury Telluride developed at DSTO under the guidance of Dr. Richard Hartley. In late 1993 a low cost infrared imaging device was developed at DSTO as a sensor for guided missiles. The combination of these three innovations made up a unique package that enabled Australian industry to break through the barriers of commercializing infrared technology. The privately owned company, R.J. Optronics Pty Ltd undertook the process of re-engineering a selection of these DSTO developments to be applicable to a wide range of infrared products. The first project was a novel infrared imager based on a Palmer scan (translated circle) mechanism. This device applies a spinning wedge and a single detector, it uses a video processor to convert the image into a standard rectangular format. Originally developed as an imaging seeker for a stand-off weapon, it is producing such high quality images at such a low cost that it is now also being adapted for a wide variety of other military and commercial applications. A technique for electronically stabilizing it has been developed which uses the inertial signals from co-mounted sensors to compensate for platform motions. This enables it to meet the requirements of aircraft, marine vessels and masthead sight applications without the use of gimbals. After tests on a three-axis motion table, several system configurations have now been successfully operated on a number of lightweight platforms, including a Cessna 172 and the Australian made Seabird Seeker aircraft.

  13. Heavy duty liquid and gaseous fuel emissions database test results from four alternative fuel configurations of the Caterpillar 3406 engine

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, D.J. )

    1990-06-01

    Through the cooperation of several organizations including the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) acting under the auspices of the Doe Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, heavy duty transient and steady-state emissions tests were conducted on four alternative fuel configurations of the Caterpillar 3406 engine. These included a diesel baseline, glow plug ignited methanol (diesel cycle), lean-burn spark ignited natural gas, and dual fuel (diesel pilot ignited natural gas). Results indicated methanol and natural gas both show excellent potential for low NOx and low particulate emissions. With these fuels however, unburned fuel emissions were much higher, especially in the dual fuel case, than the diesel baseline. Particulate emissions from the methanol and lean burn gas engines are thought to be almost entirely lube oil sourced. All of the configurations will require significant reduction in hydrocarbon and/or particulate emissions in order to meet the 1994 EPA emissions standards for heavy duty truck engines. 3 refs., 23 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. 75 FR 70237 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; California Heavy-Duty On-Highway Otto...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), pursuant to section 209(b) of the Clean Air Act (Act), is granting California its request for a waiver of Clean Air Act preemption for three sets of amendments applicable to its heavy-duty Otto-cycle engines and incomplete vehicle regulations for the 2004, 2005 through 2007, and 2008 and subsequent model year regulations. These amendments align each......

  15. Advanced metal-membrane technology-commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Edlund, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    The gasification of coal offers a potentially significant source of hydrogen for use in clean power generation and as a primary chemical feedstock. However, hydrogen derived from coal continues to be more expensive than hydrogen derived from natural gas or petroleum, due in large part to the expense of separating hydrogen from the mixture of gases produced during gasification. At Bend Research, we have been developing a novel hydrogen-permeable metal membrane that promises to be economical for hydrogen separation and purification, including the purification of hydrogen derived from gasifying coal. Furthermore, the membrane is ideally suited for use at high temperatures (200{degrees} to 500{degrees}C), making it feasible to produce pure hydrogen directly from hot gas streams. Through a partnership with Teledyne Wah Chang, we are proceeding with scale-up of prototype membrane modules and field tests to demonstrate the technology to potential users. Additionally, we are working with potential customers to estimate capital savings and operating costs for integrated systems. In this paper, we present some of the operating characteristics of the metal membrane, including its use to drive equilibrium-limited reactions toward complete conversion (e.g., the water-gas-shift reaction). We also describe our activities for commercializing this technology for a variety of applications.

  16. Influence of methane emissions and vehicle efficiency on the climate implications of heavy-duty natural gas trucks.

    PubMed

    Camuzeaux, Jonathan R; Alvarez, Ramón A; Brooks, Susanne A; Browne, Joshua B; Sterner, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    While natural gas produces lower carbon dioxide emissions than diesel during combustion, if enough methane is emitted across the fuel cycle, then switching a heavy-duty truck fleet from diesel to natural gas can produce net climate damages (more radiative forcing) for decades. Using the Technology Warming Potential methodology, we assess the climate implications of a diesel to natural gas switch in heavy-duty trucks. We consider spark ignition (SI) and high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) natural gas engines and compressed and liquefied natural gas. Given uncertainty surrounding several key assumptions and the potential for technology to evolve, results are evaluated for a range of inputs for well-to-pump natural gas loss rates, vehicle efficiency, and pump-to-wheels (in-use) methane emissions. Using reference case assumptions reflecting currently available data, we find that converting heavy-duty truck fleets leads to damages to the climate for several decades: around 70-90 years for the SI cases, and 50 years for the more efficient HPDI. Our range of results indicates that these fuel switches have the potential to produce climate benefits on all time frames, but combinations of significant well-to-wheels methane emissions reductions and natural gas vehicle efficiency improvements would be required. PMID:25986359

  17. The effect of fuel processes on heavy duty automotive diesel engine emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, E.G.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of fuel quality on exhaust emissions from 2 heavy duty diesel engines has been measured over the ECE R49 test cycle. The engines were selected to represent technologies used to meet Euro 1 and 2 emission standards (1992/93 and 1995/96); engines 1 and 2 respectively. The test fuels were prepared by a combination of processing, blending and additive treatment. When comparing the emissions from engines 1 and 2, using base line data generated on the CEC reference fuel RF73-T-90, engine technology had the major effect on emission levels. Engine 2 reduced both particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide levels by approximately 50%, with total hydrocarbon (THC) being approximately 75% lower. Oxides of nitrogen levels were similar for both engines. The variations in test fuel quality had marginal effects on emissions, with the two engines giving directionally opposite responses in some cases. For instance, there was an effect on CO and NOx but where one engine showed a reduction the other gave an increase. There were no significant changes in THC emissions from either engine when operating on any of the test fuels. When the reference fuel was hydrotreated, engine 1 showed a trend towards reduced particulate and NOx but with CO increasing. Engine 2 also showed a trend for reduced particulate levels, with an increase in NOx and no change in CO. Processing to reduce the final boiling point of the reference fuel showed a trend towards reduced particulate emissions with CO increasing on engine 1 but decreasing on engine 2.

  18. Number size distribution of particulate emissions of heavy-duty engines in real world test cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Urs; Mohr, Martin; Schweizer, Thomas; Rütter, Josef

    Five in-service engines in heavy-duty trucks complying with Euro II emission standards were measured on a dynamic engine test bench at EMPA. The particulate matter (PM) emissions of these engines were investigated by number and mass measurements. The mass of the total PM was evaluated using the standard gravimetric measurement method, the total number concentration and the number size distribution were measured by a Condensation Particle Counter (lower particle size cut-off: 7 nm) and an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (lower particle size: 32 nm), respectively. The transient test cycles used represent either driving behaviour on the road (real-world test cycles) or a type approval procedure. They are characterised by the cycle power, the average cycle power and by a parameter for the cycle dynamics. In addition, the particle number size distribution was determined at two steady-state operating modes of the engine using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. For quality control, each measurement was repeated at least three times under controlled conditions. It was found that the number size distributions as well as the total number concentration of emitted particles could be measured with a good repeatability. Total number concentration was between 9×10 11 and 1×10 13 particles/s (3×10 13-7×10 14 p/kWh) and mass concentration was between 0.09 and 0.48 g/kWh. For all transient cycles, the number mean diameter of the distributions lay typically at about 120 nm for aerodynamic particle diameter and did not vary significantly. In general, the various particle measurement devices used reveal the same trends in particle emissions. We looked at the correlation between specific gravimetric mass emission (PM) and total particle number concentration. The correlation tends to be influenced more by the different engines than by the test cycles.

  19. Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2009-02-02

    Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel-fueled trucks driving through a 1 km-long California highway tunnel in August 2006. Emission factors were based on concurrent increases in BC, PN, and CO{sub 2}B concentrations (measured at 1 Hz) that corresponded to the passage of individual HD trucks. The distributions of BC and PN emission factors from individual HD trucks are skewed, meaning that a large fraction of pollution comes from a small fraction of the in-use vehicle fleet. The highest-emitting 10% of trucks were responsible for {approx} 40% of total BC and PN emissions from all HD trucks. BC emissions were log-normally distributed with a mean emission factor of 1.7 g kg {sup -1} and maximum values of {approx} 10 g kg{sup -1}. Corresponding values for PN emission factors were 4.7 x 10{sup 15} and 4 x 10{sup 16} kg{sup -1}. There was minimal overlap among high-emitters of these two pollutants: only 1 of the 226 HD trucks measured was found to be among the highest 10% for both BC and PN. Monte Carlo resampling of the distribution of BC emission factors observed in this study revealed that uncertainties (1{sigma}) in extrapolating from a random sample of n HD trucks to a population mean emission factor ranged from {+-} 43% for n = 10 to {+-} 8% for n = 300, illustrating the importance of sufficiently large vehicle sample sizes in emissions studies. Studies with low sample sizes are also more easily biased due to misrepresentation of high-emitters. As vehicles become cleaner on average in future years, skewness of the emissions distributions will increase, and thus sample sizes needed to extrapolate reliably from a subset of vehicles to the entire in-use vehicle fleet are expected to become more of a challenge.

  20. Quantitative Effects of Vehicle Parameters on Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lijuan; Kelly, Kenneth; Walkowicz, Kevin; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-16

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluations team recently conducted chassis dynamometer tests of a class 8 conventional regional delivery truck over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), West Virginia University City (WVU City), and Composite International Truck Local and Commuter Cycle (CILCC) drive cycles. A quantitative study was conducted by analyzing the impacts of various factors on fuel consumption (FC) and fuel economy (FE) by modeling and simulating the truck using NREL's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim). Factors used in this study included vehicle weight, and the coefficients of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. The simulation results from a single parametric study revealed that FC was approximately a linear function of the weight, coefficient of aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance over various drive cycles. Among these parameters, the truck weight had the largest effect on FC. The study of the impact of two technologies on FE suggested that, depending on the circumstances, it may be more cost effective to reduce one parameter (such as coefficient of aerodynamic drag) to increase fuel economy, or it may be more beneficial to reduce another (such as the coefficient of rolling resistance). It also provided a convenient way to estimate FE by interpolating within the parameter values and extrapolating outside of them. The simulation results indicated that the FC could be reduced from 38.70 L/100 km, 50.72 L/100 km, and 38.42 L/100 km in the baseline truck to 26.78 L/100 km, 43.14 L/100 km and 29.84 L/100 km over the HHDDT, WVU City and CILCC drive cycles, respectively, when the U.S. Department of Energy's three targeted new technologies were applied simultaneously.

  1. Diesel particle filter and fuel effects on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Matthew A; Dane, A John; Williams, Aaron; Ireland, John; Luecke, Jon; McCormick, Robert L; Voorhees, Kent J

    2010-11-01

    The impacts of biodiesel and a continuously regenerated (catalyzed) diesel particle filter (DPF) on the emissions of volatile unburned hydrocarbons, carbonyls, and particle associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH, were investigated. Experiments were conducted on a 5.9 L Cummins ISB, heavy-duty diesel engine using certification ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD, S ≤ 15 ppm), soy biodiesel (B100), and a 20% blend thereof (B20). Against the ULSD baseline, B20 and B100 reduced engine-out emissions of measured unburned volatile hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and nitro-PAH by significant percentages (40% or more for B20 and higher percentage for B100). However, emissions of benzene were unaffected by the presence of biodiesel and emissions of naphthalene actually increased for B100. This suggests that the unsaturated FAME in soy-biodiesel can react to form aromatic rings in the diesel combustion environment. Methyl acrylate and methyl 3-butanoate were observed as significant species in the exhaust for B20 and B100 and may serve as markers of the presence of biodiesel in the fuel. The DPF was highly effective at converting gaseous hydrocarbons and PM associated PAH and total nitro-PAH. However, conversion of 1-nitropyrene by the DPF was less than 50% for all fuels. Blending of biodiesel caused a slight reduction in engine-out emissions of acrolein, but otherwise had little effect on carbonyl emissions. The DPF was highly effective for conversion of carbonyls, with the exception of formaldehyde. Formaldehyde emissions were increased by the DPF for ULSD and B20. PMID:20886845

  2. Chemical speciation of PM emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with diesel particulate filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) retrofits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Subhasis; Verma, Vishal; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    Four heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) in six retrofitted configurations (CRT ®, V-SCRT ®, Z-SCRT ®, Horizon, DPX and CCRT ®) and a baseline vehicle operating without after--treatment were tested under cruise (50 mph), transient UDDS and idle driving modes. As a continuation of the work by Biswas et al. [Biswas, S., Hu, S., Verma, V., Herner, J., Robertson, W.J., Ayala, A., Sioutas, C., 2008. Physical properties of particulate matter (PM) from late model heavy-duty diesel vehicles operating with advanced emission control technologies. Atmospheric Environment 42, 5622-5634.] on particle physical parameters, this paper focuses on PM chemical characteristics (Total carbon [TC], Elemental carbon [EC], Organic Carbon [OC], ions and water-soluble organic carbon [WSOC]) for cruise and UDDS cycles only. Size-resolved PM collected by MOUDI-Nano-MOUDI was analyzed for TC, EC and OC and ions (such as sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, potassium, sodium and phosphate), while Teflon coated glass fiber filters from a high volume sampler were extracted to determine WSOC. The introduction of retrofits reduced PM mass emissions over 90% in cruise and 95% in UDDS. Similarly, significant reductions in the emission of major chemical constituents (TC, OC and EC) were achieved. Sulfate dominated PM composition in vehicle configurations (V-SCRT ®-UDDS, Z-SCRT ®-Cruise, CRT ® and DPX) with considerable nucleation mode and TC was predominant for configurations with less (Z-SCRT ®-UDDS) or insignificant (CCRT ®, Horizon) nucleation. The transient operation increases EC emissions, consistent with its higher accumulation PM mode content. In general, solubility of organic carbon is higher (average ˜5 times) for retrofitted vehicles than the baseline vehicle. The retrofitted vehicles with catalyzed filters (DPX, CCRT ®) had decreased OC solubility (WSOC/OC: 8-25%) unlike those with uncatalyzed filters (SCRT ®s, Horizon; WSOC/OC ˜ 60-100%). Ammonium was present predominantly in the

  3. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  4. Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-02

    The transportation sector accounts for approximately 65% of US petroleum consumption. Consumption for light-duty vehicles has stabilized in the last 10--15 years; however, consumption in the heavy-duty sector has continued to increase. For various reasons, the US must reduce its dependence on petroleum. One significant way is to substitute alternative fuels (natural gas, propane, alcohols, and others) in place of petroleum fuels in heavy-duty applications. Most alternative fuels have the additional benefit of reduced exhaust emissions relative to petroleum fuels, thus providing a cleaner environment. The best long-term technology for heavy-duty alternative fuel engines is the 4-stroke cycle, direct injected (DI) engine using a single fuel. This DI, single fuel approach maximizes the substitution of alternative fuel for diesel and retains the thermal efficiency and power density of the diesel engine. This report summarizes the results of the first year (Phase 1) of this contract. Phase 1 focused on developing a 4-stroke cycle, DI single fuel, alternative fuel technology that will duplicate or exceed diesel power density and thermal efficiency, while having exhaust emissions equal to or less than the diesel. Although the work is currently on a 3500 Series DING engine, the work is viewed as a basic technology development that can be applied to any engine. Phase 1 concentrated on DING engine component durability, exhaust emissions, and fuel handling system durability. Task 1 focused on identifying primary areas (e.g., ignition assist and gas injector systems) for future durability testing. In Task 2, eight mode-cycle-averaged NO{sub x} emissions were reduced from 11.8 gm/hp-hr (baseline conditions) to 2.5 gm/hp-hr (modified conditions) on a 3501 DING engine. In Task 3, a state-of-the-art fuel handling system was identified.

  5. Computer simulation of the heavy-duty turbo-compounded diesel cycle for studies of engine efficiency and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assanis, D. N.; Ekchian, J. A.; Heywood, J. B.; Replogle, K. K.

    1984-01-01

    Reductions in heat loss at appropriate points in the diesel engine which result in substantially increased exhaust enthalpy were shown. The concepts for this increased enthalpy are the turbocharged, turbocompounded diesel engine cycle. A computer simulation of the heavy duty turbocharged turbo-compounded diesel engine system was undertaken. This allows the definition of the tradeoffs which are associated with the introduction of ceramic materials in various parts of the total engine system, and the study of system optimization. The basic assumptions and the mathematical relationships used in the simulation of the model engine are described.

  6. Comparative efficiency and driving range of light- and heavy-duty vehicles powered with biomass energy stored in liquid fuels or batteries

    PubMed Central

    Laser, Mark; Lynd, Lee R.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question, “When using cellulosic biomass for vehicular transportation, which field-to-wheels pathway is more efficient: that using biofuels or that using bioelectricity?” In considering the question, the level of assumed technological maturity significantly affects the comparison, as does the intended transportation application. Results from the analysis indicate that for light-duty vehicles, over ranges typical in the United States today (e.g., 560–820 miles), field-to-wheels performance is similar, with some scenarios showing biofuel to be more efficient, and others indicating the two pathways to be essentially the same. Over the current range of heavy-duty vehicles, the field-to-wheels efficiency is higher for biofuels than for electrically powered vehicles. Accounting for technological advances and range, there is little basis to expect mature bioelectricity-powered vehicles to have greater field-to-wheels efficiency (e.g., kilometers per gigajoule biomass or per hectare) compared with mature biofuel-powered vehicles. PMID:24550477

  7. Effects of Particle Filters and Selective Catalytic Reduction on Heavy-Duty Diesel Drayage Truck Emissions at the Port of Oakland.

    PubMed

    Preble, Chelsea V; Dallmann, Timothy R; Kreisberg, Nathan M; Hering, Susanne V; Harley, Robert A; Kirchstetter, Thomas W

    2015-07-21

    Effects of fleet modernization and use of diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on heavy-duty diesel truck emissions were studied at the Port of Oakland in California. Nitrogen oxides (NOx), black carbon (BC), particle number (PN), and size distributions were measured in the exhaust plumes of ∼1400 drayage trucks. Average NOx, BC, and PN emission factors for newer engines (2010-2013 model years) equipped with both DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32%, and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than 2004-2006 engines without these technologies. Intentional oxidation of NO to NO2 for DPF regeneration increased tailpipe NO2 emissions, especially from older (1994-2006) engines with retrofit DPFs. Increased deployment of advanced controls has further skewed emission factor distributions; a small number of trucks emit a disproportionately large fraction of total BC and NOx. The fraction of DPF-equipped drayage trucks increased from 2 to 99% and the median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years between 2009 and 2013. Over this period, fleet-average BC and NOx emission factors decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. Emission changes occurred rapidly compared to what would have been observed due to natural (i.e., unforced) turnover of the Port truck fleet. These results provide a preview of more widespread emission changes expected statewide and nationally in the coming years. PMID:26083075

  8. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  9. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  10. Opportunities for Low Cost Titanium in Reduced Fuel Consumption, Improved Emissions, and Enhanced Durability Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, E.H.

    2002-07-22

    The purpose of this study was to determine which components of heavy-duty highway vehicles are candidates for the substitution of titanium materials for current materials if the cost of those Ti components is very significantly reduced from current levels. The processes which could be used to produce those low cost components were also investigated. Heavy-duty highway vehicles are defined as all trucks and busses included in Classes 2C through 8. These include heavy pickups and vans above 8,500 lbs. GVWR, through highway tractor trailers. Class 8 is characterized as being a very cyclic market, with ''normal'' year volume, such as in 2000, of approximately 240,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-7 are less cyclic, with ''normal'' i.e., year 2000, volume totaling approximately 325,000 new vehicles. Classes 3-8 are powered about 88.5% by diesel engines, and Class 2C at very roughly 83% diesel. The engine portion of the study therefore focused on diesels. Vehicle production volumes were used in estimates of the market size for candidate components.

  11. Effect of methanol-containing additive on the emission of carbonyl compounds from a heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Chao, H R; Lin, T C; Chao, M R; Chang, F H; Huang, C I; Chen, C B

    2000-03-13

    This study was aimed at determining the effect of methanol-containing additive (MCA) on the emission of carbonyl compounds (CBCs) generated from the diesel engine. For this experiment, a heavy-duty diesel engine was connected with a full flow critical flow ventri (CFV) type dilution tunnel, a Schenck GS-350 DC dynamometer, and a DC-IV control system in series. The operating conditions of the heavy-duty diesel engine for both cold-start and hot-start Transient Cycle tests and for both low-load and high-load steady-state tests were ascertained. The exhaust of CBCs collected from a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH)-coated cartridge were first converted to corresponding hydrazone derivatives, which were then solvent-eluted and analyzed by a High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC) with an ultraviolet-visible (UV) detector. When either 10% or 15% MCA was used, the emission factors of the CBCs acrolein and isovaleraldehyde increased by at least 91%. Accordingly, future studies must be done to cut down the emission of CBCs when MCA and methanol alternative fuels are used. PMID:10686377

  12. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MCMA-2003 Field Measurement Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, M.; Dunlea, E. J.; Marr, L.; Slott, R. S.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Shorter, J. H.; Worsnop, D.; Zahniser, M.; Onasch, T.; Kolb, C. E.; Rogers, T.; Knighton, B.

    2004-12-01

    On-road vehicle emissions were measured in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) as part of an intensive, five-week, field campaign held in the spring of 2003 (April 1 - May 5). Vehicle emissions measurements were made during vehicle chase experiments using the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory. The mobile lab was equipped with a large suite of state-of-the-art analytical instruments for measuring both gas and particle phase chemical components from vehicle emissions in real time. The experiment represents a real-world sample of more than 200 in-use vehicles. The results presented here focus on heavy-duty gasoline (HDGT) and heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT), although measurements included pick up trucks, colectivos (microbuses), and private automobiles as well. The use of covariance and fitting methods for individual species vs. CO2 allows the estimation of individual emission ratios in a real time plume-based analysis. The variability of emission ratios within a vehicle class and during different driving modes (acceleration, idling, etc.) are explored. Results are reported as molar emission ratios of emission gases with carbon dioxide. These and other vehicle-related emissions measured during the campaign will be presented and discussed. These types of studies are important for the development of emission inventories and their use in air quality modeling studies in urban areas.

  13. Study and Application of Acoustic Emission Testing in Fault Diagnosis of Low-Speed Heavy-Duty Gears

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lixin; Zai, Fenlou; Su, Shanbin; Wang, Huaqing; Chen, Peng; Liu, Limei

    2011-01-01

    Most present studies on the acoustic emission signals of rotating machinery are experiment-oriented, while few of them involve on-spot applications. In this study, a method of redundant second generation wavelet transform based on the principle of interpolated subdivision was developed. With this method, subdivision was not needed during the decomposition. The lengths of approximation signals and detail signals were the same as those of original ones, so the data volume was twice that of original signals; besides, the data redundancy characteristic also guaranteed the excellent analysis effect of the method. The analysis of the acoustic emission data from the faults of on-spot low-speed heavy-duty gears validated the redundant second generation wavelet transform in the processing and denoising of acoustic emission signals. Furthermore, the analysis illustrated that the acoustic emission testing could be used in the fault diagnosis of on-spot low-speed heavy-duty gears and could be a significant supplement to vibration testing diagnosis. PMID:22346592

  14. Commercial introduction of the Advanced NOxTECH system

    SciTech Connect

    Sudduth, B.C.

    1997-12-31

    NOxTECH is BACT for diesel electric generators. Emissions of NO{sub x} are reduced 95% or more with substantial concurrent reductions in CO, particulates, and ROG`s. No engine modifications or other exhaust aftertreatments can remove all criteria pollutants as effectively as NOxTECH. The NOxTECH system reliably maintains NH{sub 3} slip below 2 ppm. Unlike other emissions controls, NOxTECH does not generate hazardous by-products. The Advanced NOxTECH system reduces the size, weight, and cost for BACT emissions reductions. Based on the operation of a 150 kW prototype, NOxTECH, Inc. is quoting commercial units for diesel electric generators. Advanced NOxTECH equipment costs about half as much as SCR systems, and NO{sub x} reduction can exceed 95% with guarantees for emissions compliance.

  15. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical study was performed in order to assess relative performance and economic factors involved with alternative advanced fuel systems for future commercial aircraft operating with broadened property fuels. The DC-10-30 wide-body tri-jet aircraft and the CF6-8OX engine were used as a baseline design for the study. Three advanced systems were considered and were specifically aimed at addressing freezing point, thermal stability and lubricity fuel properties. Actual DC-10-30 routes and flight profiles were simulated by computer modeling and resulted in prediction of aircraft and engine fuel system temperatures during a nominal flight and during statistical one-day-per-year cold and hot flights. Emergency conditions were also evaluated. Fuel consumption and weight and power extraction results were obtained. An economic analysis was performed for new aircraft and systems. Advanced system means for fuel tank heating included fuel recirculation loops using engine lube heat and generator heat. Environmental control system bleed air heat was used for tank heating in a water recirculation loop. The results showed that fundamentally all of the three advanced systems are feasible but vary in their degree of compatibility with broadened-property fuel.

  16. Effects of diesel fuel combustion-modifier additives on In-cylinder soot formation in a heavy-duty Dl diesel engine.

    SciTech Connect

    Musculus, Mark P. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Dietz, Jeff

    2005-07-01

    Based on a phenomenological model of diesel combustion and pollutant-formation processes, a number of fuel additives that could potentially reduce in-cylinder soot formation by altering combustion chemistry have been identified. These fuel additives, or ''combustion modifiers'', included ethanol and ethylene glycol dimethyl ether, polyethylene glycol dinitrate (a cetane improver), succinimide (a dispersant), as well as nitromethane and another nitro-compound mixture. To better understand the chemical and physical mechanisms by which these combustion modifiers may affect soot formation in diesel engines, in-cylinder soot and diffusion flame lift-off were measured, using an optically-accessible, heavy-duty, direct-injection diesel engine. A line-of-sight laser extinction diagnostic was employed to measure the relative soot concentration within the diesel jets (''jetsoot'') as well as the rates of deposition of soot on the piston bowl-rim (''wall-soot''). An OH chemiluminescence imaging technique was utilized to measure the lift-off lengths of the diesel diffusion flames so that fresh oxygen entrainment rates could be compared among the fuels. Measurements were obtained at two operating conditions, using blends of a base commercial diesel fuel with various combinations of the fuel additives. The ethanol additive, at 10% by mass, reduced jet-soot by up to 15%, and reduced wall-soot by 30-40%. The other fuel additives also affected in-cylinder soot, but unlike the ethanol blends, changes in in-cylinder soot could be attributed solely to differences in the ignition delay. No statistically-significant differences in the diesel flame lift-off lengths were observed among any of the fuel additive formulations at the operating conditions examined in this study. Accordingly, the observed differences in in-cylinder soot among the fuel formulations cannot be attributed to differences in fresh oxygen entrainment upstream of the soot-formation zones after ignition.

  17. Effects of a zeolite-selective catalytic reduction system on comprehensive emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Gerald; Berg, Devin R; Schauer, James J

    2008-10-01

    The effects of a zeolite urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system on a comprehensive spectrum of chemical species from diesel engine emissions were investigated in this study. Representative samples were collected with a newly developed source dilution sampling system after an aging process designed to simulate atmospheric dilution and cooling conditions. Samples were analyzed with established procedures and compared between the measurements taken from a baseline heavy-duty diesel engine and also from the same engine equipped with the exhaust aftertreatment system. The results have shown significant reductions for nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organic carbon (OC) emissions. Additionally, less significant yet notable reductions were observed for particulate matter mass and metals emissions. Furthermore, the production of new species was not observed with the addition of the zeolite urea-SCR system joined with a downstream oxidation catalyst. PMID:18939772

  18. Application for certification 1987 model year heavy-duty vehicles/engines - Mercedes-Benz Truck Company, Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. They also provide information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  19. Exhaust emissions from light- and heavy-duty vehicles: chemical composition, impact of exhaust after treatment, and fuel parameters.

    PubMed Central

    Westerholm, R; Egebäck, K E

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents results from the characterization of vehicle exhaust that were obtained primarily within the Swedish Urban Air Project, "Tätortsprojektet." Exhaust emissions from both gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles have been investigated with respect to regulated pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], hydrocarbon [HC], nitrogen oxides [NOx], and particulate), unregulated pollutants, and in bioassay tests (Ames test, TCDD receptor affinity tests). Unregulated pollutants present in both the particle- and the semi-volatile phases were characterized. Special interest was focused on the impact of fuel composition on heavy-duty diesel vehicle emissions. It was confirmed that there exists a quantifiable relationship between diesel-fuel variables of the fuel blends, the chemical composition of the emissions, and their biological effects. According to the results from the multivariate analysis, the most important fuel parameters are: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content, 90% distillation point, final boiling point, specific heat, aromatic content, density, and sulfur content. PMID:7529699

  20. Pre- and post-injection flow characterization in a heavy-duty diesel engine using high-speed PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegers, R. P. C.; Luijten, C. C. M.; Dam, N. J.; de Goey, L. P. H.

    2012-09-01

    High-speed particle image velocimetry (HS-PIV) using hollow microspheres has been applied to characterize the flow in a heavy-duty diesel engine during and after fuel injection. The injection timings were varied in the range representing those used in premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) regimes, and multiple injections have been applied to investigate their influence on the flow inside the combustion chamber. By injecting into pure nitrogen, combustion is avoided and the flow can be studied long after injection. The results show a sudden change of air motion at the start of injection as a result of the air entrainment at the core of the spray. Furthermore, as expected, spray injection causes a considerable increase in the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations of the flow pattern, the more so for longer injection durations.

  1. Optimal design of an electro-hydraulic valve for heavy-duty vehicle clutch actuator with certain constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fei; Shi, Peng; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Zhang, Hui

    2016-02-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the sensitivity analysis and optimal design of a proportional solenoid valve (PSV) operated pressure reducing valve (PRV) for heavy-duty automatic transmission clutch actuators. The nonlinear electro-hydraulic valve model is developed based on fluid dynamics. In order to implement the sensitivity analysis and optimization for the PRV, the PSV model is validated by comparing the results with data obtained from a real test-bench. The sensitivity of the PSV pressure response with regard to the structural parameters is investigated by using Sobol's method. Finally, simulations and experimental investigations are performed on the optimized prototype and the results reveal that the dynamical characteristics of the valve have been improved in comparison with the original valve.

  2. Heat transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled blades for heavy-duty gas turbines.

    PubMed

    Weigand, B; Semmler, K; von Wolfersdorf, J

    2001-05-01

    The present review paper, although far from being complete, aims to give an overview about the present state of the art in the field of heat transfer technology for internal cooling of gas turbine blades. After showing some typical modern cooled blades, the different methods to enhance heat transfer in the internal passages of air-cooled blades are discussed. The complicated flows occurring in bends are described in detail, because of their increasing importance for modern cooling designs. A short review about testing of cooling design elements is given, showing the interaction of the different cooling features as well. The special focus of the present review has been put on the cooling of blades for heavy-duty gas turbines, which show several differences compared to aero-engine blades. PMID:11460627

  3. Variability of heavy duty vehicle operating mode frequencies for prediction of mobile emissions. Report for March 1995--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, C.D.; Guensler, R.; Meyer, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    The paper discusses a new geographic information system (GIS)-based modal emissions model being developed with EPA and Georgia Tech to account for vehicle load conditions that will significantly improve the spatial resolution of emissions estimates. The GIS-based modal research model employs detailed subfleet engine and emissions characteristics and the speed/acceleration profiles for vehicle activity along links in the transportation system. Composition of the vehicle subfleet affects the amount of emissions produced under various operating conditions, dependent upon the load induced by the vehicle and driver, and the physical constraints of the vehicle. The aggregate modal frequencies are compared across vehicle classes to show differences in how heavy duty vehicles are operated.

  4. Contribution of transition metals in the reactive oxygen species activity of PM emissions from retrofitted heavy-duty vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Vishal; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2010-12-01

    We assessed the contribution of water-soluble transition metals to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) from four heavy-duty vehicles in five retrofitted configurations (V-SCRT, Z-SCRT, DPX, hybrid, and school bus). A heavy-duty truck without any control device served as the baseline vehicle. Particles were collected from all vehicle-configurations on a chassis dynamometer under three driving conditions: cruise (80 km h -1), transient UDDS, and idle. A sensitive macrophage-based in vitro assay was used to determine the ROS activity of collected particles. The contribution of water-soluble transition metals in the measured activity was quantified by their removal using a Chelex ® complexation method. The study demonstrates that despite an increase in the intrinsic ROS activity (per mass basis) of exhaust PM with use of most control technologies, the overall ROS activity (expressed per km or per h) was substantially reduced for retrofitted configurations compared to the baseline vehicle. Chelex treatment of DEPs water extracts removed a substantial (≥70%) and fairly consistent fraction of the ROS activity, which ascertains the dominant role of water-soluble metals in PM-induced cellular oxidative stress. However, relatively lower removal of the activity in few vehicle-configurations (V-SCRT, DPX and school bus idle), despite a large aggregate metals removal, indicated that not all species were associated with the measured activity. A univariate regression analysis identified several transition metals (Fe, Cr, Co and Mn) as significantly correlated ( R > 0.60; p < 0.05) with the ROS activity. Multivariate linear regression model incorporating Fe, Cr and Co explained 90% of variability in ROS levels, with Fe accounting for the highest (84%) fraction of the variance.

  5. Exhaust Fine Particle and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks at the Port of Oakland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmann, T. R.; Harley, R. A.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2010-12-01

    Heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks are a source of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions as well as primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) that includes black carbon (BC) as a major component. Heavy-duty trucks contribute significantly to elevated levels of diesel particulate matter found near highways and in communities surrounding major freight-handling facilities. To reduce the air quality impact of diesel engine emissions, the California Air Resources Board has adopted new rules requiring the retrofit or replacement of in-use HD trucks. These rules take effect during 2010 at ports and railyards, and apply to all trucks operating in California by 2014. This study involves on-road measurements of PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factor distributions from individual HD trucks driving into the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay area. Measurements of exhaust plumes from individual trucks were made using a mobile laboratory equipped with fast time response (1 Hz) PM2.5, BC, NOx, and carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors. The mobile laboratory was stationed on an overpass above an arterial roadway that connects the Port to a nearby highway (I-880). The air sampling inlet was thereby located above the vertical exhaust pipes of HD diesel trucks passing by on the arterial roadway below. Fuel-specific PM2.5, BC, and NOx emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method in which concentrations of these species in an exhaust plume are normalized to CO2 concentrations. Initial field sampling was conducted in November, 2009 prior to the implementation of new emission rules. Additional emission measurements were made at the same location during June 2010 and emission factor distributions and averages will be compared.

  6. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 86 - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks X Appendix X to Part 86 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Pt. 86, App. X Appendix X to Part...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 86 - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks X Appendix X to Part 86 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Pt. 86, App. X Appendix X to Part...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 86 - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks X Appendix X to Part 86 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Pt. 86, App. X Appendix X to Part...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 86 - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks X Appendix X to Part 86 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Pt. 86, App. X Appendix X to Part 86—Sampling Plans...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 86 - Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling Plans for Selective Enforcement Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Light-Duty Trucks X Appendix X to Part 86 Protection of... AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Pt. 86, App. X Appendix X to Part...

  11. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of selective catalytic reduction control technologies for highway, nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  12. 40 CFR 86.007-11 - Emission standards and supplemental requirements for 2007 and later model year diesel heavy-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the following... this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. This is the cold-start test... to 2006 model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles, but only if the vehicle or engine bears...

  13. 40 CFR 86.099-10 - Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission standards for 1999 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.099-10 Section 86.099-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND...

  14. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Appendix I of this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. This is the cold-start... according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the following... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection...

  15. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Appendix I of this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. This is the cold-start... according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the following... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection...

  16. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Appendix I of this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. This is the cold-start... according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the following... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection...

  17. 40 CFR 86.008-10 - Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Appendix I of this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. This is the cold-start... according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the following... model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles. 86.008-10 Section 86.008-10 Protection...

  18. 40 CFR 86.007-11 - Emission standards and supplemental requirements for 2007 and later model year diesel heavy-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the following... this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. This is the cold-start test... to 2006 model year diesel heavy-duty engines and vehicles, but only if the vehicle or engine bears...

  19. Program Guide for Diesel Engine Mechanics 8742000 (IN47.060500) and Heavy Duty Truck and Bus Mechanics DIM0991 (IN47.060501).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Coll. of Education.

    This competency-based program guide provides course content information and procedures for secondary schools, postsecondary vocational schools, and community colleges in Florida that conduct programs in diesel engine mechanics and heavy duty truck and bus mechanics. The first section is on legal authority, which applies to all vocational education…

  20. 40 CFR 86.007-11 - Emission standards and supplemental requirements for 2007 and later model year diesel heavy-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. This is the cold-start test... according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the following... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and...

  1. 40 CFR 86.007-11 - Emission standards and supplemental requirements for 2007 and later model year diesel heavy-duty...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. This is the cold-start test... according to 40 CFR 1065.650. (v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the following... 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1310-2007 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system for gaseous emissions from heavy-duty diesel-fueled engines and particulate emissions from all engines. 86.1310-2007 Section 86.1310-2007 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL...

  3. Recent advances in environmental monitoring using commercial microwave links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Pinhas; Guez, Oded; Messer, Hagit; David, Noam; Harel, Oz; Eshel, Adam; Cohen, Ori

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in environmental monitoring using commercial microwave links Pinhas Alpert, H. Messer, N. David, O. Guez, O. Cohen, O. Harel, A. Eshel Tel Aviv University, Israel The propagation of electromagnetic radiation in the lower atmosphere, at centimeter wavelengths, is impaired by atmospheric conditions. Absorption and scattering of the radiation, at frequencies of tens of GHz, are directly related to the atmospheric phenomena, primarily precipitation, oxygen, mist, fog and water vapor. As was recently shown, wireless communication networks supply high resolution precipitation measurements at ground level while often being situated in flood prone areas, covering large parts of these hazardous regions. On the other hand, at present, there are no satisfactory real time flash flood warning facilities found to cope well with this phenomenon. I will exemplify the flash flood warning potential of the commercial wireless communication system for semi-arid region cases when floods occurred in the Judean desert in Israel with comparison to hydrological measurements in the Dead Sea area. In addition, I will review our recent improvements in monitoring rainfall as well as other-than-rain phenomena like, fog, dew, atmospheric moisture. References: N. David, P. Alpert, and H. Messer, "Technical Note: Novel method for water vapor monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2413-2418, 2009. A. Rayitsfeld, R. Samuels, A. Zinevich, U. Hadar and P. Alpert,"Comparison of two methodologies for long term rainfall monitoring using a commercial microwave communication system", Atmospheric Research 104-105, 119-127, 2012. N. David, O. Sendik, H. Messer and P. Alpert, "Cellular network infrastructure-the future of fog monitoring?" BAMS (Oct. issue), 1687-1698, 2015. O. Harel, David, N., Alpert, P. and Messer, H., "The potential of microwave communication networks to detect dew using the GLRT- experimental study", IEEE Journal of Selected

  4. Study and program plan for improved heavy duty gas turbine engine ceramic component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel economy in a commercially viable gas turbine engine was demonstrated through use of ceramic materials. Study results show that increased turbine inlet and generator inlet temperatures, through the use of ceramic materials, contribute the greatest amount to achieving fuel economy goals. Improved component efficiencies show significant additional gains in fuel economy.

  5. Development of high temperature liquid lubricants for low-heat rejection: Heavy duty diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiczynski, P. D.; Marolewski, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this DOE program was to develop a liquid lubricant that will allow advanced diesel engines to operate at top ring reversal temperatures approaching 500 C and sump temperatures approaching 250 C. The lubricants developed demonstrated at marginal increase in sump temperature capability, approximately 15 C, and an increase in top ring reversal temperature. A 15W-40 synthetic lubricant designated HTL-4 was the best lubricant developed in terms of stability, wear control, deposit control dispersancy, and particulate emissions.

  6. Ozone changes in response to the heavy-duty diesel truck control in the Pearl River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xin; Yuan, Zibing; Fung, J. C. H.; Xue, Jian; Li, Ying; Zheng, Junyu; Lau, A. K. H.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, restricting heavy-duty diesel trucks from driving within urban areas during the daytime is implemented in major PRD cities (e.g. Guangzhou and Shenzhen). Potential effects of this traffic control policy on spatial and temporal variations of O3 concentrations are examined by CMAQ model system. Temporal profiles of mobile source emissions are modified to reflect the emission characteristics after the control. Our results show that: (1) with the updated mobile emission profile, there is a notable improvement in O3 simulation performance for urban sites, with reductions in both the nighttime O3 overestimation (up to 25 ppb) and the daytime underestimation on O3 peak values (up to 20 ppb); (2) although the control policies are only applied in urban locations, their effects may extend to much larger downwind areas. The results from this study provide basic information that is useful in understanding the effects of mobile control policies on ambient O3 in highly developing regions of China where similar strategies have been widely implemented.

  7. Emission rates of regulated pollutants from current technology heavy-duty diesel and natural gas goods movement vehicles.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc C; Thiruvengadam, Pragalath; Pradhan, Saroj; Carder, Daniel; Kappanna, Hemanth; Gautam, Mridul; Oshinuga, Adewale; Hogo, Henry; Miyasato, Matt

    2015-04-21

    Chassis dynamometer emissions testing of 11 heavy-duty goods movement vehicles, including diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel technology, compliant with US-EPA 2010 emissions standard were conducted. Results of the study show that three-way catalyst (TWC) equipped stoichiometric natural gas vehicles emit 96% lower NOx emissions as compared to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) equipped diesel vehicles. Characteristics of drayage truck vocation, represented by the near-dock and local drayage driving cycles, were linked to high NOx emissions from diesel vehicles equipped with a SCR. Exhaust gas temperatures below 250 °C, for more than 95% duration of the local and near-dock driving cycles, resulted in minimal SCR activity. The low percentage of activity SCR over the local and near-dock cycles contributed to a brake-specific NOx emissions that were 5-7 times higher than in-use certification limit. The study also illustrated the differences between emissions rate measured from chassis dynamometer testing and prediction from the EMFAC model. The results of the study emphasize the need for model inputs relative to SCR performance as a function of driving cycle and engine operation characteristics. PMID:25826745

  8. Carbonaceous composition changes of heavy-duty diesel engine particles in relation to biodiesels, aftertreatments and engine loads.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Man-Ting; Chen, Hsun-Jung; Young, Li-Hao; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Chen, Chung-Bang

    2015-10-30

    Three biodiesels and two aftertreatments were tested on a heavy-duty diesel engine under the US FTP transient cycle and additional four steady engine loads. The objective was to examine their effects on the gaseous and particulate emissions, with emphasis given to the organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) in the total particulate matter. Negligible differences were observed between the low-sulfur (B1S50) and ultralow-sulfur (B1S10) biodiesels, whereas small reductions of OC were identified with the 10% biodiesel blend (B10). The use of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC1) showed moderate reductions of EC and particularly OC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well below unity. The use of DOC plus diesel particulate filter (DOC2+DPF) yielded substantial reductions of OC and particularly EC, resulting in the OC/EC ratio well above unity. The OC/EC ratios were substantially above unity at idle and low load, whereas below unity at medium and high load. The above changes in particulate OC and EC are discussed with respect to the fuel content, pollutant removal mechanisms and engine combustion conditions. Overall, the present study shows that the carbonaceous composition of PM could change drastically with engine load and aftertreatments, and to a lesser extent with the biodiesels under study. PMID:25974660

  9. THE EFFECTS OF BIODIESEL BLENDS AND ARCO EC-DIESEL ON EMISSIONS from LIGHT HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL VEHICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, Thomas

    2001-08-05

    Chassis dynamometer tests were performed on 7 light heavy-duty diesel trucks comparing the emissions of a California diesel fuel with emissions from 4 other fuels: ARCO EC-diesel (EC-D) and three 20% biodiesel blends (1 yellow grease and 2 soy-based). The EC-D and the yellow grease biodiesel blend both showed significant reductions in THC and CO emissions over the test vehicle fleet. EC-D also showed reductions in PM emission rates. NOx emissions were comparable for the different fuel types over the range of vehicles tested. The soy-based biodiesel blends did not show significant or consistent emissions differences over all test vehicles. Total carbon accounted for more than 70% of the PM mass for 4 of the 5 sampled vehicles. Elemental and organic carbon ratios varied significantly from vehicle-to-vehicle but showed very little fuel dependence. Inorganic species represented a smaller portion of the composite total, ranging from 0.2 to 3.3% of the total PM. Total PAH emissions ranged from approximately 1.8 mg/mi to 67.8 mg/mi over the different vehicle/fuel combinations representing between 1.6 and 3.8% of the total PM mass.

  10. Heavy duty piezoresistivity induced strain sensing natural rubber/carbon black nanocomposites reinforced with different carbon nanofillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingliang; Yuan, Tingting; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Shimei; Liu, Jingjing; Liu, Jiurong; Liu, Xinyu; Sun, Luyi; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2014-09-01

    Durable piezoresistive effects of natural rubber nanocomposites have been demonstrated, i.e., with stable and reversible electrical resistance change within the tested 3000 cycles upon applying a small compressive strain (˜16.7%) under a relatively high frequency (0.5 Hz, 2 s/cycle). This unique function was achieved for the first time by combining carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers with natural rubber composites pretreated with carbon black. Even though the combination of different carbon nanomaterials, such as graphene nanosheets and carbon nanotubes, can improve the dispersion quality of both the nanostructures in solution or in polymer matrices, this type of synergistic effect between carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers in producing stable and reversible piezoresistive effect has been rarely reported. Besides, the strong reinforcement (compressive stress at a maximum strain of 16.7% was increased from 12.6 for untreated to 18.5 MPa for the natural rubber/carbon black composites treated with a combination of 1.0 wt% carbon nanotubes and 1.0 wt% carbon nanofibers) makes the as-prepared composites promising for heavy duty pressure sensors, i.e., healthy motion monitoring of industrial machinery vibrations.

  11. On-road emission rates of PAH and n-alkane compounds from heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sandip D; Ogunyoku, Temitope A; Miller, J Wayne; Cocker, David R

    2005-07-15

    This paper presents the quantification of the emission rates of PAH and n-alkane compounds from on-road emissions testing of nine heavy-duty diesel (HDD) vehicles tested using CE-CERT's Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL) over the California Air Resources Board (ARB) Four Phase Cycle. Per mile and per CO2 emission rates of PAHs and n-alkanes were highest for operation simulating congested traffic (Creep) and lowest for cruising conditions (Cruise). Significant differences were seen in emission rates over the different phases of the cycle. Creep phase fleet average emission rates (mg mi(-1)) of PAHs and n-alkanes were approximately an order of magnitude higher than Cruise phase. This finding indicates that models must account for mode of operation when performing emissions inventory estimates. Failure to account for mode of operation can potentially lead to significant over- and underpredictions of emissions inventories (up to 20 times), especially in small geographic regions with significant amounts of HDD congestion. Howeverthe PAH and n-alkane source profiles remained relatively constant for the different modes of operation. Variability of source profiles within the vehicle fleet exceeded the variability due to different operating modes. Analysis of the relative risk associated with the compounds indicated the importance of naphthalene as a significant contributor to the risk associated with diesel exhaust. This high relative risk is driven by the magnitude of the emission rate of naphthalene in comparison to other compounds. PMID:16082957

  12. Simulated fuel economy and emissions performance during city and interstate driving for a heavy-duty hybrid truck

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C Stuart; Gao, Zhiming; Smith, David E; LaClair, Tim J; Pihl, Josh A; Edwards, Kevin Dean

    2013-01-01

    We compare simulated fuel economy and emissions for both conventional and hybrid class 8 heavy-duty diesel trucks operating over multiple urban and highway driving cycles. Both light and heavy freight loads were considered, and all simulations included full aftertreatment for NOx and particulate emissions controls. The aftertreatment components included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), urea-selective catalytic NOx reduction (SCR), and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Our simulated hybrid powertrain was configured with a pre-transmission parallel drive, with a single electric motor between the clutch and gearbox. A conventional HD truck with equivalent diesel engine and aftertreatment was also simulated for comparison. Our results indicate that hybridization can significantly increase HD fuel economy and improve emissions control in city driving. However, there is less potential hybridization benefit for HD highway driving. A major factor behind the reduced hybridization benefit for highway driving is that there are fewer opportunities to utilize regenerative breaking. Our aftertreatment simulations indicate that opportunities for passive DPF regeneration are much greater for both hybrid and conventional trucks during highway driving due to higher sustained exhaust temperatures. When passive DPF regeneration is extensively utilized, the fuel penalty for particulate control is virtually eliminated, except for the 0.4%-0.9% fuel penalty associated with the slightly higher exhaust backpressure.

  13. Total fuel-cycle analysis of heavy-duty vehicles using biofuels and natural gas-based alternative fuels.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Patrick E; Green, Erin H; Corbett, James J; Mas, Carl; Winebrake, James J

    2011-03-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) present a growing energy and environmental concern worldwide. These vehicles rely almost entirely on diesel fuel for propulsion and create problems associated with local pollution, climate change, and energy security. Given these problems and the expected global expansion of HDVs in transportation sectors, industry and governments are pursuing biofuels and natural gas as potential alternative fuels for HDVs. Using recent lifecycle datasets, this paper evaluates the energy and emissions impacts of these fuels in the HDV sector by conducting a total fuel-cycle (TFC) analysis for Class 8 HDVs for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to ultra low sulfur diesel; (2) petroleum and soyoil to biodiesel (methyl soy ester); (3) petroleum, ethanol, and oxygenate to e-diesel; (4) petroleum and natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel; (5) natural gas to compressed natural gas; and (6) natural gas to liquefied natural gas. TFC emissions are evaluated for three greenhouse gases (GHGs) (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five other pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and sulfur oxides), along with estimates of total energy and petroleum consumption associated with each of the six fuel pathways. Results show definite advantages with biodiesel and compressed natural gas for most pollutants, negligible benefits for e-diesel, and increased GHG emissions for liquefied natural gas and Fischer-Tropsch diesel (from natural gas). PMID:21416755

  14. Design and test of a new axial compressor for the Nuovo Pignone heavy-duty gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Benvenuti, E.

    1997-07-01

    This axial compressor design was primarily focused to increase the power rating of the current Nuovo Pignone PGT10 Heavy-Duty gas turbine by 10%. In addition, the new 11-stage design favorably compares with the existing 17-stage compressor in terms of simplicity and cost. By scaling the flowpath and blade geometry, the new aerodynamic design can be applied to gas turbines with different power ratings as well. The reduction in the stage number was achieved primarily through the meridional flowpath redesign. The resulting higher blade peripheral speeds achieve larger stage pressure ratios without increasing the aerodynamic loadings. Wide chord blades keep the overall length unchanged thus assuring easy integration with other existing components. The compressor performance map was extensively checked over the speed range required for two-shaft gas turbines. The prototype unit was installed on a special PGT10 gas turbine setup, that permitted the control of pressure ratio independently from the turbine matching requirements. The flowpath instrumentation included strain gages, dynamic pressure transducers, and stator vane leading edge aerodynamic probes to determine individual stage characteristics. The general blading vibratory behavior was proved fully satisfactory. With minor adjustments to the variable stator settings, the front stage aerodynamic matching was optimized and the design performance was achieved.

  15. Development of high temperature liquid lubricants for low-heat rejection heavy duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Wiczynski, T.A.; Marolewski, T.A.

    1993-03-01

    Objective was to develop a liquid lubricant that will allow advanced diesel engines to operate at top ring reversal temperatures approaching 500 C and lubricant sump temperatures approaching 250 C. Base stock screening showed that aromatic esters and diesters has the lowest deposit level, compared to polyol esters, poly-alpha-olefins, or refined mineral oil of comparable viscosity. Classical aryl and alkyl ZDP antiwear additives are ineffective in reducing wear with aromatic esters; the phosphate ester was a much better antiwear additive, and polyol esters are more amenable to ZDP treatment. Zeolites and clays were evaluated for filtration.

  16. Heavy duty gas turbine combustion tests with simulated low BTU coal gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ekstrom, T.E.; Battista, R.A.; Belisle, F.H.; Maxwell, G.P.

    1993-11-01

    This program has the objectives to: A. Parametrically determine the effects of moisture, nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents so that the combustion characteristics of many varieties of gasification product gases can be reasonably predicted without physically testing each specific gas composition. B. Determine emissions characteristics including NO, NO{sub x}, CO, levels etc. associated with each of the diluents, and C. Operate with at least two syngas compositions; DOE chosen air-blown and integrated oxygen-blown, to confirm that the combustion characteristics are in line with predictions. As a result of this program: 1. GE Engineering is now confident that the syngas fuels produced by all currently--viable coal gasifiers can be accommodated by the GE advanced (``F`` Technology) combustion system, and 2. For proposed syngas fuels with varying amounts of steam, nitrogen or CO{sub 2} diluent, the combustion and emissions characteristics can be reasonably estimated without undertaking expensive new screening tests for each different fuel.

  17. Long-term stability and properties of zirconia ceramics for heavy duty diesel engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, D. C.; Adams, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of commercially available transformation-toughened zirconia are measured. Behavior is related to the material microstructure and phase assemblage. The stability of the materials is assessed after long-term exposure appropriate for diesel engine application. Properties measured included flexure strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, creep, thermal shock, thermal expansion, internal friction, and thermal diffusivity. Stability is assessed by measuring the residual property after 1000 hr/1000C static exposure. Additionally static fatigue and thermal fatigue testing is performed. Both yttria-stabilized and magnesia-stabilized materials are compared and contrasted. The major limitations of these materials are short term loss of properties with increasing temperature as the metastable tetragonal phase becomes more stable. Fine grain yttria-stabilized material (TZP) is higher strength and has a more stable microstructure with respect to overaging phenomena. The long-term limitation of Y-TZP is excessive creep deformation. Magnesia-stabilized PSZ has relatively poor stability at elevated temperature. Overaging, decomposition, and/or destabilization effects are observed. The major limitation of Mg-PSZ is controlling unwanted phase changes at elevated temperature.

  18. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  19. Aftertreatment Technologies for Off-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, M.D.

    2008-07-15

    The objective of this program was to explore a combination of advanced injection control and urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to reduce the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from a Tier 2 off-highway diesel engine to Tier 3 emission targets while maintaining fuel efficiency. The engine used in this investigation was a 2004 4.5L John Deere PowerTechTM; this engine was not equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Under the original CRADA, the principal objective was to assess whether Tier 3 PM emission targets could be met solely by increasing the rail pressure. Although high rail pressure will lower the total PM emissions, it has a contrary effect to raise NOx emissions. To address this effect, a urea-SCR system was used to determine whether the enhanced NOx levels, associated with high rail pressure, could be reduced to Tier 3 levels. A key attraction for this approach is that it eliminates the need for a Diesel particulate filter (DPF) to remove PM emissions. The original CRADA effort was also performed using No.2 Diesel fuel having a maximum sulfur level of 500 ppm. After a few years, the CRADA scope was expanded to include exploration of advanced injection strategies to improve catalyst regeneration and to explore the influence of urea-SCR on PM formation. During this period the emission targets also shifted to meeting more stringent Tier 4 emissions for NOx and PM, and the fuel type was changed to ultra-low sulfur Diesel (ULSD) having a maximum sulfur concentration of 15 ppm. New discoveries were made regarding PM formation at high rail pressures and the influences of oxidation catalysts and urea-SCR catalysts. These results are expected to provide a pathway for lower PM and NOx emissions for both off- and on-highway applications. Industrial in-kind support was available throughout the project period. Review of the research results were carried out on a regular basis (annual reports and meetings) followed by

  20. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial engines. 3: Propulsion system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial transport engine are presented. The results of the phase 3 effort cover the requirements and objectives for future aircraft propulsion systems. These requirements reflect the results of the Task 1 and 2 efforts and serve as a baseline for future evaluations, specification development efforts, contract/purchase agreements, and operational plans for future subsonic commercial engines. This report is divided into five major sections: (1) management objectives for commercial propulsion systems, (2) performance requirements for commercial transport propulsion systems, (3) design criteria for future transport engines, (4) design requirements for powerplant packages, and (5) testing.

  1. Commercial space opportunities - Advanced concepts and technology overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, Gregory M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the status of current and future commercial space opportunities. The goal is to pioneer innovative, customer-focused space concepts and technologies, leveraged through industrial, academic, and government alliance, to ensure U.S. commercial competitiveness and preeminence in space. The strategy is to develop technologies which enable new products and processes, deploy existing technology into commercial and military products and processes, and integrate military and commercial research and production activities. Technology development areas include information infrastructure, electronics design and manufacture, health care technology, environment technology, and aeronautical technologies.

  2. Effects of particulate oxidation catalyst on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics from heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiangyu; Ge, Yunshan; Ma, Chaochen; Tan, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) on unregulated pollutant emission and toxicity characteristics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), soot, soluble organic fractions (SOF) and sulphate emissions emitted from a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted with a POC were investigated on a diesel bench. The particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust was collected by Teflon membrane, and the PAHs and VOCs were analysed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The results indicate that the POC exhibits good performance on the emission control of VOCs, PAHs and PM. The POC and the diesel particulate filters (DPF) both show a good performance on reducing the VOCs emission. Though the brake-specific emission (BSE) reductions of the total PAHs by the POC were lower than those by the DPF, the POC still removed almost more than 50% of the total PAHs emission. After the engine was retrofitted with the POC, the reductions of the PM mass, SOF and soot emissions were 45.2-89.0%, 7.8-97.7% and 41.7-93.3%, respectively. The sulphate emissions decreased at low and medium loads, whereas at high load, the results were contrary. The PAHs emissions were decreased by 32.4-69.1%, and the contributions of the PAH compounds were affected by the POC, as well as by load level. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) of PAHs emissions were reduced by 35.9-97.6% with the POC. The VOCs emissions were reduced by 21.8-94.1% with the POC, and the reduction was more evident under high load. PMID:25424012

  3. The effect of federal fuel sulfur regulations on in-use fleets: on-road heavy-duty source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jason P; Kittelson, David B; Watts, Winthrop F

    2009-07-15

    From 2002 to 2007 fuel sulfur content in the Minneapolis/St Paul area decreased from about 325 ppm S to <15 ppm S as a result of EPA regulations. We hypothesized that the reduction in fuel sulfur would result in a reduction of fuel specific heavy duty (HD) particle number emissions for the on-road diesel fleet. Fuel specific emissions were estimated by collecting on-road aerosol data, and exploiting the difference in the relative volumes of HD and light duty (LD) traffic on the roadway. Fuel-specific particle number emissions for HD vehicles were measured to be 9.1 +/- 6.6 x 10(15) and 3.2 +/- 2.8 x 10(15) particles/kg of fuel burned, in 2006 and 2007, respectively, a reduction of 65%. In an earlier study in 2002 particle number emissions for the in-use HD fleet were 4.2 +/- 0.6 x 10(15) particles/km compared to the current measurements of 2.8 +/- 2.1 x 10(15) and 9.9 +/- 8.7 x 10(14) particles/km in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The HD particle mass emission standard remained unchanged from 1994 through 2006 and few 2007 HD vehicles were on the road at the time of this study so the decreases in number observed emissions are more likely due to reductions in the sulfur content of the fuel than to changes in engine and aftertreatment design. PMID:19708366

  4. Comparison of life cycle greenhouse gases from natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fan; Jaramillo, Paulina; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-06-16

    The low-cost and abundant supply of shale gas in the United States has increased the interest in using natural gas for transportation. We compare the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different natural gas pathways for medium and heavy-duty vehicles (MHDVs). For Class 8 tractor-trailers and refuse trucks, none of the natural gas pathways provide emissions reductions per unit of freight-distance moved compared to diesel trucks. When compared to the petroleum-based fuels currently used in these vehicles, CNG and centrally produced LNG increase emissions by 0-3% and 2-13%, respectively, for Class 8 trucks. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) powered with natural gas-produced electricity are the only fuel-technology combination that achieves emission reductions for Class 8 transit buses (31% reduction compared to the petroleum-fueled vehicles). For non-Class 8 trucks (pick-up trucks, parcel delivery trucks, and box trucks), BEVs reduce emissions significantly (31-40%) compared to their diesel or gasoline counterparts. CNG and propane achieve relatively smaller emissions reductions (0-6% and 19%, respectively, compared to the petroleum-based fuels), while other natural gas pathways increase emissions for non-Class 8 MHDVs. While using natural gas to fuel electric vehicles could achieve large emission reductions for medium-duty trucks, the results suggest there are no great opportunities to achieve large emission reductions for Class 8 trucks through natural gas pathways with current technologies. There are strategies to reduce the carbon footprint of using natural gas for MHDVs, ranging from increasing vehicle fuel efficiency, reducing life cycle methane leakage rate, to achieving the same payloads and cargo volumes as conventional diesel trucks. PMID:25938939

  5. Chemical characterization of PM2.5 emitted from on-road heavy-duty diesel trucks in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingzhi; Yao, Zhiliang; Shen, Xianbao; Liu, Huan; He, Kebin

    2015-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) are gaining more attention because of their contribution to NOX and PM2.5 emissions. To evaluate their contribution to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), not only their emission factors, but also their source profile is required. We conducted on-road emissions tests to characterize the PM2.5 emission, documenting per second mass emission rates from in-use HDDTs in China, using portable emissions measurement systems. The average PM2.5 emission factors for pre-EURO and EURO 1 HDDTs were 1.104 g/km and 0.822 g/km, equivalent to 6.106 g/kg and 3.132 g/kg based on fuel consumption. Element carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) were the major components: EC accounted for 45-65% of PM2.5 for pre-EURO HDDTs and 36-69% for EURO 1 HDDTs, while the OC fraction for pre-EURO and EURO 1 HDDTs ranged from 20 to 31% and 19-31%, respectively. Thus, the average EC emission factors for pre-EURO and EURO 1 HDDTs were 0.667 g/km and 0.502 g/km, showing that implementation of tighter emission standards resulted in a 25% EC output reduction from pre-EURO to EURO 1 vehicles. Sulfate, comprising about 1% of PM2.5 mass, is still an abundant species in PM2.5 from HDDTs because of the high sulfur content in diesel fuel in China. Using these data, we updated national PM2.5 emission profiles for pre-EURO and EURO 1 HDDTs.

  6. Joint measurements of black carbon and particle mass for heavy-duty diesel vehicles using a portable emission measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xuan; Wu, Ye; Zhang, Shaojun; Baldauf, Richard W.; Zhang, K. Max; Hu, Jingnan; Li, Zhenhua; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2016-09-01

    The black carbon (BC) emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) is an important source of urban atmospheric pollution and creates strong climate-forcing impacts. The emission ratio of BC to total particle mass (PM) (i.e., BC/PM ratio) is an essential variable used to estimate total BC emissions from historical PM data; however, these ratios have not been measured using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) in order to obtain real-world measurements over a wide range of driving conditions. In this study, we developed a PEMS platform by integrating two Aethalometers and an electric low pressure impactor to realize the joint measurement of real-world BC and PM emissions for ten HDDVs in China. Test results showed that the average BC/PM ratio for five HDDVs equipped with mechanical fuel injection (MI) engines was 0.43 ± 0.06, significantly lower (P < 0.05) than another five HDDVs equipped with electronically-controlled fuel injection (EI) engines (0.56 ± 0.12). Traffic conditions also affected the BC/PM ratios with higher ratios on freeway routes than on local roads. Furthermore, higher ratios were observed for HDDVs equipped with EI engines than for the MI engines for the highway and local road routes. With an operating mode binning approach, we observed that the instantaneous BC/PM ratios of EI engine vehicles were above those of the MI engine vehicles in all operating modes except for the braking mode (i.e., Bin 0). Therefore, the complex impacts from engine technology and traffic conditions on BC/PM ratios should be carefully considered when estimating real-world BC emissions from HDDVs based on overall PM emissions data.

  7. Quantifying on-road emissions from gasoline-powered motor vehicles: accounting for the presence of medium- and heavy-duty diesel trucks.

    PubMed

    Dallmann, Timothy R; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; DeMartini, Steven J; Harley, Robert A

    2013-12-01

    Vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic aerosol (OA), and black carbon (BC) were measured at the Caldecott tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Measurements were made in bore 2 of the tunnel, where light-duty (LD) vehicles accounted for >99% of total traffic and heavy-duty trucks were not allowed. Prior emission studies conducted in North America have often assumed that route- or weekend-specific prohibitions on heavy-duty truck traffic imply that diesel contributions to pollutant concentrations measured in on-road settings can be neglected. However, as light-duty vehicle emissions have declined, this assumption can lead to biased results, especially for pollutants such as NOx, OA, and BC, for which diesel-engine emission rates are high compared to corresponding values for gasoline engines. In this study, diesel vehicles (mostly medium-duty delivery trucks with two axles and six tires) accounted for <1% of all vehicles observed in the tunnel but were nevertheless responsible for (18 ± 3)%, (22 ± 6)%, and (45 ± 8)% of measured NOx, OA, and BC concentrations. Fleet-average OA and BC emission factors for light-duty vehicles are, respectively, 10 and 50 times lower than for heavy-duty diesel trucks. Using measured emission factors from this study and publicly available data on taxable fuel sales, as of 2010, LD gasoline vehicles were estimated to be responsible for 85%, 18%, 18%, and 6% of emissions of CO, NOx, OA, and BC, respectively, from on-road motor vehicles in the United States. PMID:24215572

  8. 77 FR 19030 - Automated Commercial Environment Required for the Transmission of Advance Ocean and Rail Cargo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Automated Commercial Environment Required for the Transmission... recently completed the testing of the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) for the transmission of..., rail or truck. See Required Advance Electronic ] Presentation of Cargo Information, 68 FR...

  9. Recent advances in environmental monitoring using commercial microwave links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Pinhas; David, Noam; Messer-Yaron, Hagit; Samuels, Rana

    2013-04-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic radiation in the lower atmosphere, at centimeter wavelengths, is impaired by atmospheric conditions. Absorption and scattering of the radiation, at frequencies of tens of GHz, are directly related to the atmospheric phenomena, primarily precipitation, oxygen, mist, fog and water vapor. As we have recently shown, commercial wireless communication networks supply high resolution precipitation measurements at ground level while often being situated in flood prone areas, covering large parts of these hazardous regions. On the other hand, at present, there are no satisfactory real time flash flood warning facilities found to cope well with this phenomenon. I will exemplify the flash flood warning potential of the commercial wireless communication system for two different semi-arid region cases when floods occurred in the Judean desert and in the northern Negev in Israel. In addition, I will review our recent improvements in monitoring rainfall as well as other-than-rain phenomena like, atmospheric moisture. Special focus on fog monitoring potential will be discussed. This research was supported by THE ISRAEL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (grant No. 173/08) and the PROCEMA VI coordinated by H. Kunstmann. The research was also supported by the by the United States- Israel BINATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (BSF, Grant No. 2010342). References: N. David, P. Alpert, and H. Messer, "Technical Note: Novel method for water vapour monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2413-2418, 2009. A. Rayitsfeld, R. Samuels, A. Zinevich, U. Hadar and P. Alpert,"Comparison of two methodologies for long term rainfall monitoring using a commercial microwave communication system", Atmospheric Research 104-105, 119-127, 2012. N. David, P. Alpert, and H. Messer, "Novel method for fog monitoring using cellular networks infrastructures", Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss, 5, 5725-5752, 2012.

  10. Simultaneous determination of carbonyls and NO2 in exhausts of heavy-duty diesel trucks and transit buses by HPLC following 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine cartridge collection.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shida; Graham, Lisa; Shen, Ling; Zhou, Xianliang; Lanni, Thomas

    2004-11-15

    A method combining 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) cartridge sampling and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis has been used for the measurement of carbonyl and NO2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks and transit buses. The reaction of NO2 with DNPH allows for the simultaneous and unambiguous determination of NO2 and carbonyl concentrations in exhaust samples. The potential coelution of the NO2-DNPH derivative with the formaldehyde-DNPH derivative under certain chromatographic conditions was investigated. Successful separation of these two species was achieved allowing for simultaneous determination of carbonyls and NO2 in the exhaust samples collected from heavy-duty diesel (HDD) trucks and diesel, diesel/electric hybrid, diesel equipped with the continuously regenerating technology (CRT) particle traps, and compressed natural gas (CNG) transit buses tested over various drive cycles. Elevated NO2 emissions from CRT-equipped buses were observed. The NO2/NOx volume ratios for HDD trucks and transit buses are discussed. A comparison of the DNPH derivatization with HPLC/UV-visible detection method with a chemiluminescence analyzer method for NO2 measurement is presented for a limited number of diesel/CRT and CNG buses. PMID:15573595

  11. Comparison of the particle size distribution of heavy-duty diesel exhaust using a dilution tailpipe sampler and an in-plume sampler during on-road operation.

    PubMed

    Brown, J E; Clayton, M J; Harris, D B; King, F G

    2000-08-01

    Originally constructed to develop gaseous emission factors for heavy-duty diesel trucks, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility has been modified to incorporate particle measurement instrumentation. An electrical low-pressure impactor designed to continuously measure and record size distribution data was used to monitor the particle size distribution of heavy-duty diesel truck exhaust. For this study, which involved a high-mileage (900,000 mi) truck running at full load, samples were collected by two different methods. One sample was obtained directly from the exhaust stack using an adaptation of the University of Minnesota's air-ejector-based mini-dilution sampler. The second sample was pulled from the plume just above the enclosed trailer, at a point approximately 11 m from the exhaust discharge. Typical dilution ratios of about 300:1 were obtained for both the dilution and plume sampling systems. Hundreds of particle size distributions were obtained at each sampling location. These were compared both selectively and cumulatively to evaluate the performance of the dilution system in simulating real-world exhaust plumes. The data show that, in its current residence-time configuration, the dilution system imposes a statistically significant bias toward smaller particles, with substantially more nanoparticles being collected than from the plume sample. PMID:11002602

  12. Real-world emission factors for antimony and other brake wear related trace elements: size-segregated values for light and heavy duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Lienemann, Peter; Hill, Matthias; Figi, Renato; Richard, Agnes; Furger, Markus; Rickers, Karen; Falkenberg, Gerald; Zhao, Yongjing; Cliff, Steven S; Prevot, Andre S H; Baltensperger, Urs; Buchmann, Brigitte; Gehrig, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Hourly trace element measurements were performed in an urban street canyon and next to an interurban freeway in Switzerland during more than one month each, deploying a rotating drum impactor (RDI) and subsequent sample analysis by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF). Antimony and other brake wear associated elements were detected in three particle size ranges (2.5-10, 1-2.5, and 0.1-1 microm). The hourly measurements revealed that the effect of resuspended road dust has to be taken into account for the calculation of vehicle emission factors. Individual values for light and heavy duty vehicles were obtained for stop-and-go traffic in the urban street canyon. Mass based brake wear emissions were predominantly found in the coarse particle fraction. For antimony, determined emission factors were 11 +/- 7 and 86 +/- 42 microg km(-1) vehicle(-1) for light and heavy duty vehicles, respectively. Antimony emissions along the interurban freeway with free-flowing traffic were significantly lower. Relative patterns for brake wear related elements were very similar for both considered locations. Beside vehicle type specific brake wear emissions, road dust resuspension was found to be a dominant contributor of antimony in the street canyon. PMID:19924925

  13. Update on major commercial advancement by ammonia FGD

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, W.

    1999-07-01

    Extensive use of wet scrubbing processes since the 1970s has presented challenging problems, particularly in high-sulfur coal applications, a service most common in the US, eastern Europe and parts of Asia. For thirty years plant Owners have sought commercial availability and introduction of FGD processes that minimize operating and maintenance costs, complications and compromises. This continues, internationally, to be an important goal for the electric power industry. Moreover, markets for usable, high quality gypsum from commonly applied, wet lime/limestone FGD operation have become saturated in major areas by this rapidly growing, powerplant-byproduct output. Important system design and operational progress, particularly via German firms in the early 1990s, has made a major success of lime-using dry scrubbers of the circulating-fluid-bed type. However, lacking a sulfurous byproduct that is commercially salable in major markets, this process design may not be broadly applicable in large, worldwide powerplants. This paper describes the technical and environmental aspects of ammonia FGD; economics; wet ammonia FGD; dry ammonia FGD; the role of a substantially growing ammonium sulfate supply in worldwide agriculture; and extent of worldwide byproduct market.

  14. Adaptation of commercial microscopes for advanced imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brideau, Craig; Poon, Kelvin; Stys, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Today's commercially available microscopes offer a wide array of options to accommodate common imaging experiments. Occasionally, an experimental goal will require an unusual light source, filter, or even irregular sample that is not compatible with existing equipment. In these situations the ability to modify an existing microscopy platform with custom accessories can greatly extend its utility and allow for experiments not possible with stock equipment. Light source conditioning/manipulation such as polarization, beam diameter or even custom source filtering can easily be added with bulk components. Custom and after-market detectors can be added to external ports using optical construction hardware and adapters. This paper will present various examples of modifications carried out on commercial microscopes to address both atypical imaging modalities and research needs. Violet and near-ultraviolet source adaptation, custom detection filtering, and laser beam conditioning and control modifications will be demonstrated. The availability of basic `building block' parts will be discussed with respect to user safety, construction strategies, and ease of use.

  15. Ultrafine PM emissions from natural gas, oxidation-catalyst diesel, and particle-trap diesel heavy-duty transit buses.

    PubMed

    Holmén, Britt A; Ayala, Alberto

    2002-12-01

    This paper addresses how current technologies effective for reducing PM emissions of heavy-duty engines may affect the physical characteristics of the particles emitted. Three in-use transit bus configurations were compared in terms of submicron particle size distributions using simultaneous SMPS measurements under two dilution conditions, a minidiluter and the legislated constant volume sampler (CVS). The compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled and diesel particulate filter (DPF)-equipped diesel configurations are two "green" alternatives to conventional diesel engines. The CNG bus in this study did not have an oxidation catalyst whereas the diesel configurations (with and without particulate filter) employed catalysts. The DPF was a continuously regenerating trap (CRT). Particle size distributions were collected between 6 and 237 nm using 2-minute SMPS scans during idle and 55 mph steady-state cruise operation. Average particle size distributions collected during idle operation of the diesel baseline bus operating on ultralow sulfur fuel showed evidence for nanoparticle growth under CVS dilution conditions relative to the minidiluter. The CRT effectively reduced both accumulation and nuclei mode concentrations by factors of 10-100 except under CVS dilution conditions where nuclei mode concentrations were measured during 55 mph steady-state cruise that exceeded baseline diesel concentrations. The CVS data suggest some variability in trap performance. The CNG bus had accumulation mode concentrations 10-100x lower than the diesel baseline but often displayed large nuclei modes, especially under CVS dilution conditions. Partly this may be explained by the lack of an oxidation catalyst on the CNG, but differences between the minidiluter and CVS size distributions suggest that dilution ratio, temperature-related wall interactions, and differences in tunnel background between the diluters contributed to creating nanoparticle concentrations that sometimes exceeded diesel

  16. Fan Atomized Burner design advances & commercial development progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, B.; Butcher, T.A.

    1996-07-01

    As a part of the Oil Heat Research and Development program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has an on-going interest in advanced combustion technologies. This interest is aimed at: improving the initial efficiency of heating equipment, reducing long term fouling and efficiency degradation, reducing air pollutant emissions, and providing practical low-firing rate technologies which may lead to new, high efficiency oil-fired appliances. The Fan-Atomized Burner (FAB) technology is being developed at BNL as part of this general goal. The Fan-Atomized Burner uses a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle in place of the high pressure nozzle used in conventional burners. Because it is air-atomized the burner can operate at low firing rates without the small passages and reliability concerns of low input pressure nozzles. Because it uses a low pressure nozzle the burner can use a fan in place of the small compressor used in other air-atomized burner designs. High initial efficiency of heating equipment is achieved because the burner can operate at very low excess air levels. These low excess air levels also reduce the formation of sulfuric acid in flames. Sulfuric acid is responsible for scaling and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces.

  17. Effects of Particle Filters and Accelerated Engine Replacement on Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Emissions of Black Carbon, Nitrogen Oxides, and Ultrafine Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchstetter, T.; Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; DeMartini, S. J.; Tang, N. W.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Diesel particle filters have become widely used in the United States since the introduction in 2007 of a more stringent exhaust particulate matter emission standard for new heavy-duty diesel vehicle engines. California has instituted additional regulations requiring retrofit or replacement of older in-use engines to accelerate emission reductions and air quality improvements. This presentation summarizes pollutant emission changes measured over several field campaigns at the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay Area associated with diesel particulate filter use and accelerated modernization of the heavy-duty truck fleet. Pollutants in the exhaust plumes of hundreds of heavy-duty trucks en route to the Port were measured in 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2013. Ultrafine particle number, black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were measured at a frequency ≤ 1 Hz and normalized to measured carbon dioxide concentrations to quantify fuel-based emission factors (grams of pollutant emitted per kilogram of diesel consumed). The size distribution of particles in truck exhaust plumes was also measured at 1 Hz. In the two most recent campaigns, emissions were linked on a truck-by-truck basis to installed emission control equipment via the matching of transcribed license plates to a Port truck database. Accelerated replacement of older engines with newer engines and retrofit of trucks with diesel particle filters reduced fleet-average emissions of BC and NOx. Preliminary results from the two most recent field campaigns indicate that trucks without diesel particle filters emit 4 times more BC than filter-equipped trucks. Diesel particle filters increase emissions of NO2, however, and filter-equipped trucks have NO2/NOx ratios that are 4 to 7 times greater than trucks without filters. Preliminary findings related to particle size distribution indicate that (a) most trucks emitted particles characterized by a single mode of approximately

  18. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 1: Engine design study assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial tranport engine are presented. The results of the phase 1 study effort cover the following areas: (1) statement of an airline's major objectives for future transport engines, (2) airline's method of evaluating engine proposals, (3) description of an optimum engine for a long range subsonic commercial transport including installation and critical design features, (4) discussion of engine performance problems and experience with performance degradation, (5) trends in engine and pod prices with increasing technology and objectives for the future, (6) discussion of the research objectives for composites, reversers, advanced components, engine control systems, and devices to reduce the impact of engine stall, and (7) discussion of the airline objectives for noise and pollution reduction.

  19. Advanced Automotive Fuels Research, Development, and Commercialization Cluster (OH)

    SciTech Connect

    Linkous, Clovis; Hripko, Michael; Abraham, Martin; Balendiran, Ganesaratnam; Hunter, Allen; Lovelace-Cameron, Sherri; Mette, Howard; Price, Douglas; Walker, Gary; Wang, Ruigang

    2013-08-31

    enzymes are generally not available commercially, however, and those that are can be quite expensive. Accordingly, the genes responsible for enzyme synthesis were inserted into other microorganisms in order to accelerate enzyme production. This was demonstrated for two of the required enzymes in the overall series. In the MOF project, a number of new MOF compounds were synthesized and characterized, as well as some common MOFs well-known for their adsorption properties. Selectivity for specific gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} was demonstrated, although it was seen that water vapor would frequently act as an interferent. This work underscored the need to test MOF compounds under real world conditions, i.e., room temperature and above instead of liquid N{sub 2} temperature, and testing adsorption using blends of gases instead of pure components. In the solar membrane project, thin films of CdTe and WO{sub 3} were applied to steel substrates and used as p-type and n-type semiconductors, respectively, in the production of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. Testing with {sup 2}H and {sup 18}O isotopically labeled water enabled substantiation of net water-splitting.

  20. Characteristics of particle number and mass emissions during heavy-duty diesel truck parked active DPF regeneration in an ambient air dilution tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seungju; Quiros, David C.; Dwyer, Harry A.; Collins, John F.; Burnitzki, Mark; Chernich, Donald; Herner, Jorn D.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel particle number and mass emissions were measured during parked active regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPF) in two heavy-duty diesel trucks: one equipped with a DPF and one equipped with a DPF + SCR (selective catalytic reduction), and compliant with the 2007 and 2010 emission standards, respectively. The emission measurements were conducted using an ambient air dilution tunnel. During parked active regeneration, particulate matter (PM) mass emissions measured from a 2007 technology truck were significantly higher than the emissions from a 2010 technology truck. Particle number emissions from both trucks were dominated by nucleation mode particles having a diameter less than 50 nm; nucleation mode particles were orders of magnitude higher than accumulation mode particles having a diameter greater than 50 nm. Accumulation mode particles contributed 77.8 %-95.8 % of the 2007 truck PM mass, but only 7.3 %-28.2 % of the 2010 truck PM mass.

  1. Characterization of polar polycyclic aromatic compounds in a heavy-duty diesel exhaust particulate by capillary column gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bayona, J.M.; Markides, K.E.; Lee, M.L.

    1988-12-01

    Polar normal-phase HPLC fractions of a heavy-duty diesel exhaust particulate, a National Bureau of Standards (NBS) standard reference material (SRM) 1650, were analyzed by capillary column GC coupled to both low- and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) using electron impact (EI) and negative ion chemical ionization (NICI). Over 80 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), belonging to many different chemical classes (anhydrides, carboxaldehydes, diazaarenes, cyclic imides, nitrohydroxy-PAC, nitroaza-PAC, nitrodiaza-PAC, nitrolactones, and quinones) were tentatively identified. Ten of them were positively identified by comparison of retention times with authentic standards. Among them, phenazine and phthalic anhydride were positively identified for the first time in diesel exhaust particulates. In addition, cyclic imides and their alkylated derivatives were tentatively identified for the first time. Other novel polar chemical classes of PAC were evidenced by MICI MS using a direct-insertion probe.

  2. Real-world emissions of carbonyl compounds from in-use heavy-duty diesel trucks and diesel Back-Up Generators (BUGs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Aniket A.; Shah, Sandip D.; Zhu, Xiaona; Miller, J. Wayne; Cocker, David R.

    Emissions of carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein are of interest to the scientific and regulatory communities due to their suspected or likely impacts on human health. The present work investigates emissions of carbonyl compounds from nine Class 8 heavy-duty diesel (HDD) tractors and also from nine diesel-powered backup generators (BUGs); the former were chosen because of their ubiquity as an emission source, and the latter because of their proximity to centers of human activity. The HDD tractors were operated on the ARB 4-Mode heavy heavy-duty diesel truck (HHDDT) driving cycle, while the BUGs were operated on the ISO 8178 Type D2 5-mode steady-state cycle and sampled using a mobile emissions laboratory (UCR MEL) equipped with a full-scale dilution tunnel. Samples were analyzed using the SAE930142 (Auto/Oil) method for 11 aldehydes, from formaldehyde to hexanaldehyde, and 2 ketones (acetone and methyl ethyl ketone). Although absolute carbonyl emissions varied widely by BUG, the relative contributions of the different carbonyls were similar (e.g., median: 56% for formaldehyde). A slight increasing trend with engine load was observed for relative formaldehyde contribution, but not for acetaldehyde contribution, for the BUGs. On-road per-mile carbonyl emission factors were a strong function of operating mode of the ARB HHDDT cycle, and found to decrease in the order Creep>Transient>Cruise. This order is qualitatively similar to emission factors for PAHs and n-alkanes determined for the same set of Class 8 diesel tractors in an earlier work. In general, relative carbonyl contributions for the HDD tractors were similar to those for BUGs (e.g., median: 54% for formaldehyde). These results indicate that while engine operating mode and application appear to exert a strong influence on the total absolute mass emission rate of the carbonyls measured, they do not appear to exert as strong an influence on the relative mass emission rates of

  3. Microgravity polymer and crystal growth at the Advanced Materials Center for the Commercial Development of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, Lisa A.

    1990-01-01

    The microgravity research programs currently conducted by the Advanced Materials Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) are briefly reviewed. Polymer processing in space, which constitutes the most active microgravity program at the Advanced Materials CCDS, is conducted in three areas: membrane processing, multiphase composite behavior, and plasma polymerization. Current work in microgravity crystal growth is discussed with particular reference to the development of the Zeolite Crystal Growth facility.

  4. COMPARISON OF THE PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL EXHAUST USING A DILUTION TAIL-PIPE SAMPLER AND IN-PLUME SAMPLER DURING ON-ROAD OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper compares the particle size distribution of heavy-duty diesel exhaust using a dilution tail-pipe sampler and an in-plume sampler during on-road operation. EPA's On-road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, modified to incorporate particle measurement instrumentat...

  5. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of alternative or reformulated liquid fuels, fuel additives, fuel emulsions, and lubricants for highway and nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Environmental Technology Verification Program test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR P...

  6. Advanced Controls and Communications for Demand Response andEnergy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Hansen, David

    2006-01-17

    Commercial buildings account for a large portion of summer peak demand. Research results show that there is significant potential to reduce peak demand in commercial buildings through advanced control technologies and strategies. However, a better understanding of commercial building's contribution to peak demand and the use of energy management and control systems is required to develop this demand response resource to its full potential. This paper discusses recent research results and new opportunities for advanced building control systems to provide demand response (DR) to improve electricity markets and reduce electric grid problems. The main focus of this paper is the role of new and existing control systems for HVAC and lighting in commercial buildings. A demand-side management framework from building operations perspective with three main features: daily energy efficiency, daily peak load management and event driven, dynamic demand response is presented. A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide potential in commercial buildings is outlined. Case studies involving energy management and control systems and DR savings opportunities are presented. The paper also describes results from three years of research in California to automate DR in buildings. Case study results and research on advanced buildings systems in New York are also presented.

  7. An airline study of advanced technology requirements for advanced high speed commercial transport engines. 2: Engine preliminary design assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    The advanced technology requirements for an advanced high speed commercial transport engine are presented. The results of the phase 2 study effort cover the following areas: (1) general review of preliminary engine designs suggested for a future aircraft, (2) presentation of a long range view of airline propulsion system objectives and the research programs in noise, pollution, and design which must be undertaken to achieve the goals presented, (3) review of the impact of propulsion system unreliability and unscheduled maintenance on cost of operation, (4) discussion of the reliability and maintainability requirements and guarantees for future engines.

  8. Development of next generation 1500C class advanced combustion turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, S.; Tskuda, Y.; Akita, E.; Tomita, Y.

    1998-07-01

    The full load test run of the 501G combustion turbine has just finished at Takasago combined cycle plant in MHI, Japan. The 501G has power output of 230MW at turbine inlet temperature of 1,500 C and can achieve combined net efficiency of 52%. The NO{sub x} level proved to be less than 25 ppm. The 501G and 701G1 combustion turbines are large heavy-duty single shaft combustion turbines which combine the proven reliability and efficiency of the F series with the latest low NO{sub x} combustion technology and the state-of-the-art cooling technique. As the full load test run has proved, it is a highly advanced designed turbine with documented high temperature, low NO{sub x} and high efficiency. This combined with time proven design concepts has created a new powerful combustion turbine, which will satisfy the large combustion turbine power generation needs for the next decades. The 501G turbine is the 60Hz, 3,600 rpm heavy duty combustion turbine rated at 230MW at a turbine inlet of 1,500 C fired on natural gas fuel. The combined cycle net efficiency is 58%. Verification tests for various components have been conducted through the last 3 years and since February '97 a full scale-full load test is being performed to verify the high performance, reliability and maintainability. The 701G1 is a 3,000 rpm combustion turbine designed for the 50 Hz power generation utilities and industrial service. The first 701G1 gas turbine is expected to begin commercial operation in 1999 in Tohoku Electric Power Co. Higashi Nilgata Power Plant No.4, in Japan. This paper describes the features of the next generation 1,500 C class advanced combustion turbines. Aerodynamic, cooling and mechanical design improvement is discussed along with the evolutionary changes based on time proven design concepts.

  9. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel

    2013-12-31

    The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.

  10. Emissions of toxic pollutants from compressed natural gas and low sulfur diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested over multiple driving cycles.

    PubMed

    Kado, Norman Y; Okamoto, Robert A; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Kobayashi, Reiko; Ayala, Alberto; Gebel, Michael E; Rieger, Paul L; Maddox, Christine; Zafonte, Leo

    2005-10-01

    The number of heavy-duty vehicles using alternative fuels such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and new low-sulfur diesel fuel formulations and equipped with after-treatment devices are projected to increase. However, few peer-reviewed studies have characterized the emissions of particulate matter (PM) and other toxic compounds from these vehicles. In this study, chemical and biological analyses were used to characterize the identifiable toxic air pollutants emitted from both CNG and low-sulfur-diesel-fueled heavy-duty transit buses tested on a chassis dynamometer over three transient driving cycles and a steady-state cruise condition. The CNG bus had no after-treatment, and the diesel bus was tested first equipped with an oxidation catalyst (OC) and then with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Emissions were analyzed for PM, volatile organic compounds (VOCs; determined on-site), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and mutagenic activity. The 2000 model year CNG-fueled vehicle had the highest emissions of 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and carbonyls (e.g., formaldehyde) of the three vehicle configurations tested in this study. The 1998 model year diesel bus equipped with an OC and fueled with low-sulfur diesel had the highest emission rates of PM and PAHs. The highest specific mutagenic activities (revertants/microg PM, or potency) and the highest mutagen emission rates (revertants/mi) were from the CNG bus in strain TA98 tested over the New York Bus (NYB) driving cycle. The 1998 model year diesel bus with DPF had the lowest VOCs, PAH, and mutagenic activity emission. In general, the NYB driving cycle had the highest emission rates (g/mi), and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) had the lowest emission rates for all toxics tested over the three transient test cycles investigated. Also, transient emissions were, in general, higher than steady-state emissions. The emissions of toxic compounds from an in-use CNG transit bus (without an oxidation

  11. Impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel on emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases on a 2000 heavy duty diesel truck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Kwangsam; Biswas, Subhasis; Robertson, William; Sahay, Keshav; Okamoto, Robert; Mitchell, Alexander; Lemieux, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    As part of a broad evaluation of the environmental impacts of biodiesel and renewable diesel as alternative motor fuels and fuel blends in California, the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) Heavy-duty Diesel Emission Testing Laboratory conducted chassis dynamometer exhaust emission measurements on in-use heavy-heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDT). The results presented here detail the impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels and fuel blends as compared to CARB ULSD on particulate matter (PM), regulated gases, and two greenhouse gases emissions from a HHDDT with a 2000 C15 Caterpillar engine with no exhaust after treatment devices. This vehicle was tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and the cruise portion of the California HHDDT driving schedule. Three neat blend stocks (soy-based and animal-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesels, and a renewable diesel) and CARB-certified ultra-low sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD) along with their 20% and 50% blends (blended with CARB ULSD) were tested. The effects of blend level on emission characteristics were discussed on g·km-1 basis. The results showed that PM, total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were dependent on driving cycles, showing higher emissions for the UDDS cycles with medium load than the highway cruise cycle with high load on per km basis. When comparing CARB ULSD to biodiesels and renewable diesel blends, it was observed that the PM, THC, and CO emissions decreased with increasing blend levels regardless of the driving cycles. Note that biodiesel blends showed higher degree of emission reductions for PM, THC, and CO than renewable diesel blends. Both biodiesels and renewable diesel blends effectively reduced PM emissions, mainly due to reduction in elemental carbon emissions (EC), however no readily apparent reductions in organic carbon (OC) emissions were observed. When compared to CARB ULSD, soy- and animal-based biodiesel blends showed statistically

  12. Advances in commercial, mode-locked vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempler, Nils; Lubeigt, Walter; Bialkowski, Bartlomiej; Hamilton, Craig J.; Maker, Gareth T.; Malcolm, Graeme P. A.

    2016-03-01

    In launching the Dragonfly, M Squared Lasers has successfully commercialized recent advances in mode-locked vertical external cavity surface emitting laser technologies operating between 920 nm - 1050 nm. This paper will describe the latest advances in the development of a new generation of Dragonfly lasers. The improved system has been engineered to utilise low-cost semiconductor gain media and integrated diode pumping, whilst exhibiting minimal footprint, diffraction limited beam quality and low intrinsic noise. Early experiments have resulted in pulses with 540mW of average output power and 150fs of duration at 200MHz pulse repetition frequency.

  13. The role of big data and advanced analytics in drug discovery, development, and commercialization.

    PubMed

    Szlezák, N; Evers, M; Wang, J; Pérez, L

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, few ideas have captured the imagination of health-care practitioners as much as the advent of "big data" and the advanced analytical methods and technologies used to interpret it-it is a trend seen as having the potential to revolutionize biology, medicine, and health care.(1,2,3) As new types of data and tools become available, a unique opportunity is emerging for smarter and more effective discovery, development, and commercialization of innovative biopharmaceutical drugs. PMID:24642713

  14. Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, G.B.; DelVecchio, K.A.; Hays, W.J.; Hiltner, J.D.; Nagaraj, R.; Emmer, C.

    2000-03-02

    This report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of this contract. The authors completed four tasks under this phase of the subcontract. (1) They developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a 3500 direct injected natural gas (DING) engine gas injection/combustion system and used it to identify DING ignition/combustion system improvements. The results were a 20% improvement in efficiency compared to Phase 1 testing. (2) The authors designed and procured the components for a 3126 DING engine (300 hp) and finished assembling it. During preliminary testing, the engine ran successfully at low loads for approximately 2 hours before injector tip and check failures terminated the test. The problems are solvable; however, this phase of the program was terminated. (3) They developed a Decision & Risk Analysis model to compare DING engine technology with various other engine technologies in a number of commercial applications. The model shows the most likely commercial applications for DING technology and can also be used to identify the sensitivity of variables that impact commercial viability. (4) MVE, Inc., completed a preliminary design concept study that examines the major design issues involved in making a reliable and durable 3,000 psi LNG pump. A primary concern is the life of pump seals and piston rings. Plans for the next phase of this program (Phase 3) have been put on indefinite hold. Caterpillar has decided not to fund further DING work at this time due to limited current market potential for the DING engine. However, based on results from this program, the authors believe that DI natural gas technology is viable for allowing a natural gas-fueled engine to achieve diesel power density and thermal efficiency for both the near and long terms.

  15. The new Mercedes-Benz OM 904 LA light heavy-duty diesel engine for class 6 trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Schittler, M.; Bergmann, H.; Flathmann, K.

    1996-09-01

    As part of a comprehensive strategic product initiative the most important commercial vehicle manufacturer--Mercedes-Benz AG--is step by step renewing its entire product range. This primarily refers to the heart of the vehicles--the engine. After the OM 457 LA, which was developed together with DDC for the special American market demands and which is produced and sold in the US by DDC under the label Series 55, has had its premiere in Freightliner`s Century Class, the OM 904 LA will now follow in the light commercial vehicle class. This engine has a completely new concept of a direct-injection, highly sophisticated turbocharged four-cylinder in-line engine with air-to-air intercooler, whose main characteristics can be outlined by the terms multi-valve technology, high-pressure injection via unit pumps and electronic engine control. This small engine has several interesting features, which--up to now--were only known from class 8 engines. In addition to fulfilling increased customer demands with regard to long service life, easy maintenance, reliability and economy, great attention was paid during the design of the engine to not only fulfill the global regulations, but also account for sufficient potential to comply with further aggravations to be expected. The most important design features and the attained engine ratings are indicated and explained in detail.

  16. Caterpillar 3406 spark-ignited natural-gas-engine emissions on EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) heavy-duty transient test cycle. Topical report, March-December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, D.J.; Gladden, J.R.; Endicott, D.L.; Cull, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    The emissions of a lean-burn natural-gas-fueled 3406 spark-ignited engine were determined on the EPA transient emission cycle for heavy-duty vehicle engines. The engine was rated at 350 hp at 1800 rpm. The engine was a minimally modified generator-set engine developed under the same GRI contract and was not optimized for truck applications or transient emissions. Transient emissions in g/hp-hr were 4.1 NOx, 9.2 total hydrocarbons, 0.84 non-methane hydrocarbons, 3.2 CO, 0.42 aldehydes, and 0.60 particulates. Steady-state emissions were also measured. The results indicate lean-burn spark-ignited engine technology is a promising approach to meeting 1994 EPA truck-engine-emission standards. NOx and CO standards can be readily met. Hydrocarbon emissions exceed the standard in the engine as presently configured but are believed to be controllable by improved air/fuel ratio control, combustion-system modification and/or an oxidation catalyst. The particulates were primarily from the lubricating oil and should be controllable with piston ring and valve-seal improvements and/or an oxidation catalyst.

  17. Genotoxicity assessment of particulate matter emitted from heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles using the in vivo Vicia faba L. micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Albertina X R; Cotelle, Sylvie; Millet, Maurice; Somensi, Cleder A; Wagner, Theodoro M; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2016-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particulate matter (PM) can have an impact on the environment due to its chemical constitution. A large number of substances such as organic compounds, sulfates, nitrogen derivatives and metals are adsorbed to the particles and desorption of these contaminants could promote genotoxic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo genotoxicity profile of diesel exhaust PM from heavy-duty engines. Extracts were obtained through leaching with pure water and chemical extraction using three organic solvents (dichloromethane, hexane, and acetone). The in vivo Vicia faba micronucleus test (ISO 29200 protocol) was used to assess the environmental impact of the samples collected from diesel exhaust PM. The solid diesel PM (soot) dissolved in water, and the different extracts, showed positive results for micronucleus formation. After the addition of EDTA, the aqueous extracts did not show a genotoxic effect. The absence of metals in the organic solvent extract indicated that organic compounds also had a genotoxic effect, which was not observed for a similar sample cleaned in a C18 column. Thus, considering the ecological importance of higher plants in relation to ecosystems (in contrast to Salmonella spp., which are commonly used in mutagenicity studies), the Vicia micronucleus test was demonstrated to be appropriate for complementing prokaryotic or in vitro tests on diesel exhaust particulate matter included in risk assessments. PMID:26866755

  18. A new alternative paraffinic-palmbiodiesel fuel for reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Liu, Shou-Heng; Chen, Yan-Min; Wu, Tzi-Yi

    2011-01-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs) fuelled with paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends have been rarely addressed in the literature. A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) was used to analyze 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results indicate that the main species of PCDD/Fs were OCDD (octachlorinated debenzo-p-dioxin) and OCDF (octachlorodibenzofuran), and they accounted for 40-50% of the total PCDD/Fs for all test fuels. Paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends decreased PCDD/Fs by 86.1-88.9%, toxic PCDD/Fs by 91.9-93.0%, THC (total hydrocarbons) by 13.6-23.3%, CO (carbon monoxide) by 27.2-28.3%, and PM (particulate matter) by 21.3-34.2%. Using biodiesel blends, particularly BP9505 or BP8020, instead of premium diesel fuel (PDF) significantly reduced emissions of both PCDD/Fs and traditional pollutants. Using BP9505 (95vol% paraffinic fuel+5vol% palmbiodiesel) and BP8020 instead of PDF can decrease PCDD/F emissions by 5.93 and 5.99gI-TEQyear(-1) in Taiwan, respectively. PMID:20855167

  19. On-road comparison of a portable emission measurement system with a mobile reference laboratory for a heavy-duty diesel vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. C.; Durbin, T. D.; Cocker, D. R.; Miller, W. J.; Bishnu, D. K.; Maldonado, H.; Moynahan, N.; Ensfield, C.; Laroo, C. A.

    On-road comparisons were made between a mobile emissions laboratory (MEL) meeting federal standards and a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). These comparisons were made over different conditions; including road grade, vibration, altitude, electric fields, and humidity with the PEMS mounted inside and outside of the tractor's cab. Brake-specific emissions were calculated to explore error differences between the MEL and PEMS during the Not-To-Exceed (NTE) engine operating zone. The PEMS brake-specific NOx (bsNOx) NTE emissions were biased high relative to the MEL and, in general, were about 8% of the 2007 in-use NTE NO x standard of 2.68 g kW -1 h -1 (2.0 g hp -1 h -1). The bsCO 2 emissions for the PEMS were also consistently biased high relative to the MEL, with an average deviation of +4% ± 2%. NMHC and CO emissions were very low and typically less than 1% of the NTE threshold. This research was part of a comprehensive program to determine the "allowance" when PEMS are used for in-use compliance testing of heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs).

  20. Simulation of high-altitude effects on heavy-duty diesel emissions. Final report, 31 October 1988-30 September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Human, D.M.; Ullman, T.L.

    1989-09-01

    Exhaust emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines operating at high altitude are of concern. EPA and Colorado Department of Health sponsored the project to characterize regulated and selected unregulated emissions from a naturally-aspirated Caterpillar 3208 and a turbocharged Cummins NTC-350 diesel engine at both low and simulated high altitude conditions (about 6000 ft). Emissions testing was performed over cold- and hot-start transient cycles as well as selected steady-state modes. Additionally, the turbocharged engine was operated with mechanically variable and fixed retarded fuel injection timing to represent normal and malfunction conditions, respectively. High altitude operation generally reduced NOx emissions approximately 10% for both engines. Average composite transient emissions of HC, CO, particulate matter, and aldehydes measured at high altitude for the naturally-aspirated engine were 2 to 4 times the levels noted for low altitude conditions. The same emission constituents from the turbocharged engine at high altitude with normal timing were 1.2 to 2 times the low altitude levels, but were 2 to 4 times the low altitude levels with malfunction timing.

  1. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Young, Li-Hao; Liou, Yi-Jyun; Cheng, Man-Ting; Lu, Jau-Huai; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chen, Chung-Bang; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2012-01-15

    Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of submicrometer particles that degrade air quality and human health. This study examines the number emission characteristics of 10-1000 nm nonvolatile particles from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with various waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (B2, B10 and B20), engine loads (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and a diesel oxidation catalyst plus diesel particulate filter (DOC+DPF) under steady modes. For a given load, the total particle number concentrations (N(TOT)) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N(TOT) and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N(TOT) at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC+DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N(TOT) post the DOC+DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of ≈ 10(4)cm(-3). This implies that, without concurrent reductions of semivolatile materials, the formation of semivolatile nucleation mode particles post the after treatment is highly favored. PMID:22119306

  2. High-resolution diffraction for residual stress determination in the NiCrMoV wheel of an axial compressor for a heavy-duty gas turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogante, M.; Török, G.; Ceschini, G. F.; Tognarelli, L.; Füzesy, I.; Rosta, L.

    2004-07-01

    The wheel of an axial compressor for a heavy-duty gas turbine has been investigated for residual stresses (RS) evaluation of the teeth-section where SANS measurements have previously been performed. Such a component can contain internal RS, either due to the manufacturing process, or to the operating cycles fatigue. The constitutive material is a NiCrMoV steel to ASTM A 471 (type 2) norms (equivalent to B50A420B10); this material is usually adopted in the manufacturing of forged components for gas turbines. Internal radial and hoop RS have been determined, whose values are under the limit of 200kPa. Hoop RS, in general, resulted in higher value than the radial ones. The present experiment represents a particularly important step in the RS determination for gas turbine components, since the measurements reveal that the fatigue of the wheel is also a lifetime limiting factor although, in the same technological field, the available data in the actual neutron techniques literature mainly concern turbine buckets.

  3. Propulsion system studies for an advanced high subsonic, long range jet commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Propulsion system characteristics for a long range, high subsonic (Mach 0.90 - 0.98), jet commercial transport aircraft are studied to identify the most desirable cycle and engine configuration and to assess the payoff of advanced engine technologies applicable to the time frame of the late 1970s to the mid 1980s. An engine parametric study phase examines major cycle trends on the basis of aircraft economics. This is followed by the preliminary design of two advanced mixed exhaust turbofan engines pointed at two different technology levels (1970 and 1985 commercial certification for engines No. 1 and No. 2, respectively). The economic penalties of environmental constraints - noise and exhaust emissions - are assessed. The highest specific thrust engine (lowest bypass ratio for a given core technology) achievable with a single-stage fan yields the best economics for a Mach 0.95 - 0.98 aircraft and can meet the noise objectives specified, but with significant economic penalties. Advanced technologies which would allow high temperature and cycle pressure ratios to be used effectively are shown to provide significant improvement in mission performance which can partially offset the economic penalties incurred to meet lower noise goals. Advanced technology needs are identified; and, in particular, the initiation of an integrated fan and inlet aero/acoustic program is recommended.

  4. An analysis of cost effective incentives for initial commercial deployment of advanced clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, D.F.

    1997-12-31

    This analysis evaluates the incentives necessary to introduce commercial scale Advanced Clean Coal Technologies, specifically Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) powerplants. The incentives required to support the initial introduction of these systems are based on competitive busbar electricity costs with natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, in baseload service. A federal government price guarantee program for up to 10 Advanced Clean Coal Technology powerplants, 5 each ICGCC and PFBC systems is recommended in order to establish the commercial viability of these systems by 2010. By utilizing a decreasing incentives approach as the technologies mature (plants 1--5 of each type), and considering the additional federal government benefits of these plants versus natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, federal government net financial exposure is minimized. Annual net incentive outlays of approximately 150 million annually over a 20 year period could be necessary. Based on increased demand for Advanced Clean Coal Technologies beyond 2010, the federal government would be revenue neutral within 10 years of the incentives program completion.

  5. Recent advances towards development and commercialization of plant cell culture processes for synthesis of biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sarah A.; Roberts, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    (1) Summary Plant cell culture systems were initially explored for use in commercial synthesis of several high value secondary metabolites, allowing for sustainable production that was not limited by the low yields associated with natural harvest or the high cost associated with complex chemical synthesis. Although there have been some commercial successes, most notably paclitaxel production from Taxus sp., process limitations exist with regards to low product yields and inherent production variability. A variety of strategies are being developed to overcome these limitations including elicitation strategies, in situ product removal and metabolic engineering with single genes and transcription factors. Recently, the plant cell culture production platform has been extended to pharmaceutically active heterologous proteins. Plant systems are beneficial because they are able to produce complex proteins that are properly glycosylated, folded and assembled without the risk of contamination by toxins that are associated with mammalian or microbial production systems. Additionally, plant cell culture isolates transgenic material from the environment, allows for more controllable conditions over field grown crops and promotes secretion of proteins to the medium, reducing downstream purification costs. Despite these benefits, the increase in cost of heterologous protein synthesis in plant cell culture as opposed to field grown crops is significant and therefore processes must be optimized with regards to maximizing secretion and enhancing protein stability in the cell culture media. This review discusses recent advancements in plant cell culture processing technology, focusing on progress towards overcoming the problems associated with commercialization of these production systems and highlighting recent commercial successes. PMID:22059985

  6. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft and engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Versaw, E. F.; Brewer, G. D.; Byers, W. D.; Fogg, H. W.; Hanks, D. E.; Chirivella, J.

    1983-01-01

    The impact on a commercial transport aircraft of using fuels which have relaxed property limits relative to current commercial jet fuel was assessed. The methodology of the study is outlined, fuel properties are discussed, and the effect of the relaxation of fuel properties analyzed. Advanced fuel system component designs that permit the satisfactory use of fuel with the candidate relaxed properties in the subject aircraft are described. The two fuel properties considered in detail are freezing point and thermal stability. Three candidate fuel system concepts were selected and evaluated in terms of performance, cost, weight, safety, and maintainability. A fuel system that incorporates insulation and electrical heating elements on fuel tank lower surfaces was found to be most cost effective for the long term.

  7. A study on the utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the technology and data needed to support the introduction of advanced composite materials in the wing structure of future production aircraft. The study accomplished the following: (1) definition of acceptance factors, (2) identification of technology issues, (3) evaluation of six candidate wing structures, (4) evaluation of five program options, (5) definition of a composite wing technology development plan, (6) identification of full-scale tests, (7) estimation of program costs for the total development plan, (8) forecast of future utilization of composites in commercial transport aircraft and (9) identification of critical technologies for timely program planning.

  8. A study on the utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structure: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The overall wing study objectives are to study and plan the effort by commercial transport aircraft manufacturers to accomplish the transition from current conventional materials and practices to extensive use of advanced composites in wings of aircraft that will enter service in the 1985-1990 time period. Specific wing study objectives are to define the technology and data needed to support an aircraft manufacturer's commitment to utilize composites primary wing structure in future production aircraft and to develop plans for a composite wing technology program which will provide the needed technology and data.

  9. Evaluation of a commercial AdvancedTCA board management controller solution (IPMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, J.; Bobillier, V.; Haas, S.; Joos, M.; Vasey, F.

    2016-02-01

    The MicroTCA (MTCA) and AdvancedTCA (ATCA) industry standards have been selected as the hardware platform for the upgrade of the electronic systems of some of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . In this context, the electronics support group for experiments at CERN is running a project to perform technical evaluations of MTCA and ATCA equipment. As part of this activity, a commercial solution for an Intelligent Platform Management Controller (IPMC), an essential component of any ATCA blade design, is being evaluated. We validated the supported IPMC features, checked the interoperability and adapted the reference design for use on an existing ATCA carrier board.

  10. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  11. Gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty engine equipped with SCR aftertreatment system and fuelled with diesel and biodiesel: assessment of pollutant dispersion and health risk.

    PubMed

    Tadano, Yara S; Borillo, Guilherme C; Godoi, Ana Flávia L; Cichon, Amanda; Silva, Thiago O B; Valebona, Fábio B; Errera, Marcelo R; Penteado Neto, Renato A; Rempel, Dennis; Martin, Lucas; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Godoi, Ricardo H M

    2014-12-01

    The changes in the composition of fuels in combination with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems bring new insights into the emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The major goal of our study was to quantify NOx, NO, NO2, NH3 and N2O emissions from a four-cylinder diesel engine operated with diesel and a blend of 20% soybean biodiesel. Exhaust fume samples were collected from bench dynamometer tests using a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with SCR. The target gases were quantified by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The use of biodiesel blend presented lower concentrations in the exhaust fumes than using ultra-low sulfur diesel. NOx and NO concentrations were 68% to 93% lower in all experiments using SCR, when compared to no exhaust aftertreatment. All fuels increased NH3 and N2O emission due to SCR, a precursor secondary aerosol, and major greenhouse gas, respectively. An AERMOD dispersion model analysis was performed on each compound results for the City of Curitiba, assumed to have a bus fleet equipped with diesel engines and SCR system, in winter and summer seasons. The health risks of the target gases were assessed using the Risk Assessment Information System For 1-h exposure of NH3, considering the use of low sulfur diesel in buses equipped with SCR, the results indicated low risk to develop a chronic non-cancer disease. The NOx and NO emissions were the lowest when SCR was used; however, it yielded the highest NH3 concentration. The current results have paramount importance, mainly for countries that have not yet adopted the Euro V emission standards like China, India, Australia, or Russia, as well as those already adopting it. These findings are equally important for government agencies to alert the need of improvements in aftertreatment technologies to reduce pollutants emissions. PMID:25217745

  12. Real-world PM, NO x, CO, and ultrafine particle emission factors for military non-road heavy duty diesel vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dongzi; Nussbaum, Nicholas J.; Kuhns, Hampden D.; Chang, M.-C. Oliver; Sodeman, David; Moosmüller, Hans; Watson, John G.

    2011-05-01

    Training on US military bases involves nonroad diesel vehicles with emissions that can affect base personnel, nearby communities, and attainment of air quality standards. Nonroad diesel engines contribute 44% of diesel PM and 12% of total NO x emissions from mobile sources nationwide. Although military sector fuel use accounts for only ≈0.4% of distillate fuel use in US, emissions factors measured for these engines improve the representation of the relatively small (as compared to onroad sources) database of nonroad emission factors. Heavy-duty multi-axle, all-wheel drive military trucks are not compatible with regular single-axle dynamometers and their emissions cannot be measured under standard laboratory conditions. We have developed a novel in-plume technique to measure in-use emissions from vehicles with elevated stack. Real-world gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emission factors (EFs) from ten 7-ton 6-wheel drive trucks and two 8-wheel drive heavy tactical Logistics Vehicle System (LVS) vehicles were measured using in-plume sampling. The EFs of these trucks are comparable to those of onroad trucks while the PM EFs of 2-stroke LVS are ≈10 times higher than those of onroad vehicles. Lower EC/PM ratio was observed for LVS compared with MTVR. PM number emission factors were 5.9 × 10 14 particles km -1 for the trucks and 2.5 × 10 16 particles km -1 for the LVSs, three orders of magnitude higher than the proposed European Union standard of 6 × 10 11 particles km -1. The EFs sampled can be extended to engines used in the broader nonroad sector including agriculture and mining and used as inputs to the NONROAD model.

  13. Very High Fuel Economy, Heavy Duty, Constant Speed, Truck Engine Optimized Via Unique Energy Recovery Turbines and Facilitated High Efficiency Continuously Variable Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect

    Bahman Habibzadeh

    2010-01-31

    The project began under a corporative agreement between Mack Trucks, Inc and the Department of Energy starting from September 1, 2005. The major objective of the four year project is to demonstrate a 10% efficiency gain by operating a Volvo 13 Litre heavy-duty diesel engine at a constant or narrow speed and coupled to a continuously variable transmission. The simulation work on the Constant Speed Engine started on October 1st. The initial simulations are aimed to give a basic engine model for the VTEC vehicle simulations. Compressor and turbine maps are based upon existing maps and/or qualified, realistic estimations. The reference engine is a MD 13 US07 475 Hp. Phase I was completed in May 2006 which determined that an increase in fuel efficiency for the engine of 10.5% over the OICA cycle, and 8.2% over a road cycle was possible. The net increase in fuel efficiency would be 5% when coupled to a CVT and operated over simulated highway conditions. In Phase II an economic analysis was performed on the engine with turbocompound (TC) and a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). The system was analyzed to determine the payback time needed for the added cost of the TC and CVT system. The analysis was performed by considering two different production scenarios of 10,000 and 60,000 units annually. The cost estimate includes the turbocharger, the turbocompound unit, the interstage duct diffuser and installation details, the modifications necessary on the engine and the CVT. Even with the cheapest fuel and the lowest improvement, the pay back time is only slightly more than 12 months. A gear train is necessary between the engine crankshaft and turbocompound unit. This is considered to be relatively straight forward with no design problems.

  14. Characterization of particle- and vapor-phase organic fraction emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with a particle trap and regeneration controls

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, S.T.; Gratz, L.D.; Leddy, D.G.; Johnson, J.H. )

    1993-07-01

    The effects of a ceramic particle trap on the chemical and biological character of the exhaust from a heavy-duty diesel engine have been studied during steady-state operation and during periods of trap regeneration. Phase I of this project involved developing and refining the methods using a Caterpillar 3208 engine, and Phase II involved more detailed experiments with a Cummins LTA10-300 engine, which met Federal 1988 particulate matter standards, and a ceramic particle trap with built-in regeneration controls. During the Phase I experiments, samples wee collected at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)* steady-state mode 4 (50% load at intermediate speed). Varying the dilution ratio to obtain a constant filter-face temperature resulted in less variability in total particulate matter (TPM), particle-associated soluble organic fraction (SOF), solids (SOL), and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels than sampling with a constant dilution ratio and allowing filter-face temperature to vary. A modified microsuspension Ames assay detected mutagenicity in the SOF samples, and in the semivolatile organic fraction extracted from XAD-2 resin (XAD-2 resin organic component, XOC) with at least 10 times less sample mass than the standard plate incorporation assay. Measurement techniques for PAH and nitro-PAH in the SOF and XOC also were developed during this portion of the project. For the Phase II work, two EPA steady-state rated speed modes were selected: mode 11 (25% load) and mode 9 (75% load). With or without the trap, filter-face temperatures were kept at 45 degrees +/- 2 degrees C, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels less than 5 parts per million (ppm), and sampling times less than 60 minutes. Particle sizes were determined using an electrical aerosol analyzer. Similar sampling methods were used when the trap was regenerated, except that a separate dilution tunnel and sampling system was designed and built to collect all of the regeneration emissions.

  15. Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.

    PubMed

    Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns. PMID:21126058

  16. Emissions of organic aerosol mass, black carbon, particle number, and regulated and unregulated gases from scooters and light and heavy duty vehicles with different fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirico, R.; Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Giechaskiel, B.; Heringa, M. F.; Elsasser, M.; Martini, G.; Manfredi, U.; Streibel, T.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Astorga, C.; Baltensperger, U.; Prevot, A. S. H.

    2014-06-01

    A sampling campaign with seven different types of vehicles was conducted in 2009 at the vehicle test facilities of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy). The vehicles chosen were representative of some categories circulating in Europe and were fueled either with standard gasoline or diesel and some with blends of rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel. The aim of this work was to improve the knowledge about the emission factors of gas phase and particle-associated regulated and unregulated species from vehicle exhaust. Unregulated species such as black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (OA) content, particle number (PN), monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and a~selection of unregulated gaseous compounds, including nitrous acid (N2O), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and methane (CH4), were measured in real time with a suite of instruments including a high-resolution aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer, a resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Diesel vehicles, without particle filters, featured the highest values for particle number, followed by gasoline vehicles and scooters. The particles from diesel and gasoline vehicles were mostly made of BC with a low fraction of OA, while the particles from the scooters were mainly composed of OA. Scooters were characterized by super high emissions factors for OA, which were orders of magnitude higher than for the other vehicles. The heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) featured the highest nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, while the scooters had the highest emissions for total hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds due to the unburned and partially burned gasoline and lubricant oil mixture. Generally, vehicles fuelled with biodiesel blends showed lower emission factors of OA and total aromatics than those from the standard fuels

  17. 40 CFR 1037.615 - Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies. 1037.615 Section 1037.615 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Special Compliance Provisions § 1037.615 Hybrid vehicles...

  18. 40 CFR 1037.615 - Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies. 1037.615 Section 1037.615 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Special Compliance Provisions § 1037.615 Hybrid vehicles...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 credits for advanced technology vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1866-12 CO2 credits for advanced... carbon-related exhaust emissions under § 600.512 of this chapter. Full size pickup trucks eligible for... nominal storage capacity of electricity when operated on the highway fuel economy test...

  20. 40 CFR 1037.615 - Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hybrid vehicles and other advanced technologies. 1037.615 Section 1037.615 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Special Compliance Provisions § 1037.615 Hybrid vehicles...

  1. Advancing Commercialization of Algal Biofuels Through Increased Biomass Productivity and Technology Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xuemei; Sabarsky, Martin

    2013-09-30

    Cellana is a leading developer of algae-based bioproducts, and its pre-commercial production of marine microalgae takes place at Cellana?s Kona Demonstration Facility (KDF) in Hawaii. KDF is housing more than 70 high-performing algal strains for different bioproducts, of which over 30 have been grown outside at scale. So far, Cellana has produced more than 10 metric tons of algal biomass for the development of biofuels, animal feed, and high-value nutraceuticals. Cellana?s ALDUO algal cultivation technology allows Cellana to grow non-extremophile algal strains at large scale with no contamination disruptions. Cellana?s research and production at KDF have addressed three major areas that are crucial for the commercialization of algal biofuels: yield improvement, cost reduction, and the overall economics. Commercially acceptable solutions have been developed and tested for major factors limiting areal productivity of algal biomass and lipids based on years of R&D work conducted at KDF. Improved biomass and lipid productivity were achieved through strain improvement, culture management strategies (e.g., alleviation of self-shading, de-oxygenation, and efficient CO2 delivery), and technical advancement in downstream harvesting technology. Cost reduction was achieved through optimized CO2 delivery system, flue gas utilization technology, and energy-efficient harvesting technology. Improved overall economics was achieved through a holistic approach by integration of high-value co-products in the process, in addition to yield improvements and cost reductions.

  2. Heavy-duty mechanical sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleberry, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Modular sequential mechanism allows output stroke angle and location of start/stop points to be pre-programmed. Output torques are higher than typical Geneva mechanisms, are constant throughout cycle, and have a moment equal to that of power source.

  3. Study on utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structures. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Ostrom, R. B.; Cardinale, S. V.

    1978-01-01

    The effort required by commercial transport manufacturers to accomplish the transition from current construction materials and practices to extensive use of composites in aircraft wings was investigated. The engineering and manufacturing disciplines which normally participate in the design, development, and production of an aircraft were employed to ensure that all of the factors that would enter a decision to commit to production of a composite wing structure were addressed. A conceptual design of an advanced technology reduced energy aircraft provided the framework for identifying and investigating unique design aspects. A plan development effort defined the essential technology needs and formulated approaches for effecting the required wing development. The wing development program plans, resource needs, and recommendations are summarized.

  4. A study of engine variable geometry systems for an advanced high subsonic long range commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compagnon, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Several variable geometry high Mach inlet concepts, aimed at meeting a system noise objective of 15 EPNdB below FAR part 36, for a long range, Mach 0.9 advanced commercial transport are assessed and compared to a fixed geometry inlet with multiple splitters. The effects of a variable exhaust nozzle (mixed exhaust engine) on noise, inlet geometry requirements, and economics are also presented. The best variable geometry inlet configuration identified is a variable cowl design which relies on a high throat Mach number for additional inlet noise suppression only at takeoff, and depends entirely on inlet wall treatment for noise suppression at approach power. Relative economic penalties as a function of noise level are also presented.

  5. Advances in commercial application of gamma radiation in tropical fruits at Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabato, S. F.; Silva, J. M.; Cruz, J. N.; Broisler, P. O.; Rela, P. R.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.

    2009-07-01

    All regions of Brazil are potential areas for growing tropical fruits. As this country is already a great producer and exporter of tropical fruits, ionizing radiation has been the subject of studies in many commodities. An important project has been carried out to increase the commercial use of gamma radiation in our country. Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN)-CNEN/SP together with field producers in northeast region and partners like International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), CIC, Empresa Brasileira Pesquisa na Agricultura (EMBRAPA) joined to demonstrate this technology, its application and commercial feasibility. The objective of this study is to show advances in feasibility demonstrate the quality of the irradiated fruits in an international consignment from Brazil to Canada. In this work, Tommy Atkins mangoes harvested in northeast region of Brazil were sent to Canada. The fruits were treated in a gamma irradiation facility at doses 0.4 and 1.0 kGy. The control group was submitted to hydrothermal treatment (46 °C for 110 min). The fruits were stored at 11 °C for 10 days until the international transportation and kept at an environmental condition (22 °C) for 12 days, where their physical-chemical and sensorial properties were evaluated. The financial part of the feasibility study covers the scope of the investment, including the net working capital and production costs.

  6. Changing the academic culture: Valuing patents and commercialization toward tenure and career advancement

    PubMed Central

    Sanberg, Paul R.; Gharib, Morteza; Harker, Patrick T.; Kaler, Eric W.; Marchase, Richard B.; Sands, Timothy D.; Arshadi, Nasser; Sarkar, Sudeep

    2014-01-01

    There is national and international recognition of the importance of innovation, technology transfer, and entrepreneurship for sustained economic revival. With the decline of industrial research laboratories in the United States, research universities are being asked to play a central role in our knowledge-centered economy by the technology transfer of their discoveries, innovations, and inventions. In response to this challenge, innovation ecologies at and around universities are starting to change. However, the change has been slow and limited. The authors believe this can be attributed partially to a lack of change in incentives for the central stakeholder, the faculty member. The authors have taken the position that universities should expand their criteria to treat patents, licensing, and commercialization activity by faculty as an important consideration for merit, tenure, and career advancement, along with publishing, teaching, and service. This position is placed in a historical context with a look at the history of tenure in the United States, patents, and licensing at universities, the current status of university tenure and career advancement processes, and models for the future. PMID:24778248

  7. Changing the academic culture: valuing patents and commercialization toward tenure and career advancement.

    PubMed

    Sanberg, Paul R; Gharib, Morteza; Harker, Patrick T; Kaler, Eric W; Marchase, Richard B; Sands, Timothy D; Arshadi, Nasser; Sarkar, Sudeep

    2014-05-01

    There is national and international recognition of the importance of innovation, technology transfer, and entrepreneurship for sustained economic revival. With the decline of industrial research laboratories in the United States, research universities are being asked to play a central role in our knowledge-centered economy by the technology transfer of their discoveries, innovations, and inventions. In response to this challenge, innovation ecologies at and around universities are starting to change. However, the change has been slow and limited. The authors believe this can be attributed partially to a lack of change in incentives for the central stakeholder, the faculty member. The authors have taken the position that universities should expand their criteria to treat patents, licensing, and commercialization activity by faculty as an important consideration for merit, tenure, and career advancement, along with publishing, teaching, and service. This position is placed in a historical context with a look at the history of tenure in the United States, patents, and licensing at universities, the current status of university tenure and career advancement processes, and models for the future. PMID:24778248

  8. Utility Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) technology readiness testing and pre-commercialization demonstration. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-09

    This report covers the period April--June, 1996 for the utility advanced turbine systems (ATS) technical readiness testing and pre-commercial demonstration program. The topics of the report include NEPA information, ATS engine design, integrated program plan, closed loop cooling, thin wall casting development, rotor air sealing development, compressor aerodynamic development, turbine aerodynamic development, phase 3 advanced air sealing development, active tip clearance control, combustion system development, ceramic ring segment, advanced thermal barrier coating development, steam cooling effects, directionally solidified blade development, single crystal blade development program, advanced vane alloy development, blade and vane life prediction, nickel based alloy rotor, and plans for the next reporting period.

  9. The Cascaded Humidified Advanced Turbine (CHAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Nakhamkin, M.; Swensen, E.C.; Wilson, J.M.; Gaul, G.; Polsky, M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper introduces the Cascaded Humidified Advanced Turbine (CHAT) plant, a gas turbine based power generation plant utilizing intercooling, reheat, and humidification. It is based upon the integration of an existing heavy duty gas turbine with an additional shaft comprising industrial compressors and high pressure expander. CHAT capitalizes on the latest proven gas turbine technology, which, combined with a sophisticated thermal cycle configuration, results in substantial improvement in gas turbine efficiency, compared to a simple cycle, while still maintaining typical advantages and merits of a combustion turbine plant. Built with a commercial combustion turbine and available industrial compressors and expanders, the CHAT plant does not require extensive product development and testing. As a result, the CHAT power plant can be offered with specific capital costs up to 20 percent lower than the combined cycle plant, and with competing efficiency. Compared to a combined cycle plant, the CHAT plant offers lower emissions (due to air humidification) and other significant operating advantages with regard to start-up time and costs, better efficiency at part load, lower power degradation at higher ambient temperatures, and simpler operations and maintenance due to elimination of the complexities and costs associated with steam production. The CHAT plant also integrates very effectively with coal gasification and particularly well with the water quench design. This feature has been discussed in previous publications.

  10. Fleet test evaluation of fully formulated heavy-duty coolant technology maintained with a delayed-release filter compared with coolant inhibited with a nitrited organic acid technology: An interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Aroyan, S.S.; Eaton, E.R.

    1999-08-01

    This paper is a controlled extended service interval (ESI) study of the comparative behaviors of a nitrite/borate/low-silicate, low total dissolved solids (TDS) coolant maintained with delayed-release filters, and an organic acid inhibited coolant technology in heavy-duty engines. It reports both laboratory and fleet test data from 66 trucks, powered with different makes of heavy-duty diesel engines. The engines were cooled with three different types of inhibitors and two different glycol base (ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) coolants for an initial period exceeding two years and 500,000 km (300,000 miles). The data reported include chemical depletion rates, periodic coolant chemical analyses, and engine/cooling system reliability experience. The ongoing test will continue for approximately five years and a 1.6 million km (1 million miles) duration. Thirteen trucks were retained as controls, operating with ASTM D 4985 specification (GM-6038 type) coolant maintained with a standard ASTM D 57542 supplemental coolant additive (SCA). Engines produced by Caterpillar, Detroit Diesel Corp., Cummins Engine Co., and Mack Trucks are included in the test mix.

  11. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used − rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. Results High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than

  12. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Sokhey, Jack; Martens, Steve; Alonso, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and Stanford University, herein presents results from the "N+2 Supersonic Validations" contract s initial 22 month phase, addressing the NASA solicitation "Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018 to 2020 Period." This report version adds documentation of an additional three month low boom test task. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies. These capabilities aspired to produce a viable supersonic vehicle design with environmental and performance characteristics. Supersonic testing of both airframe and propulsion technologies (including LM3: 97-023 low boom testing and April-June nozzle acoustic testing) verified LM s supersonic low-boom design methodologies and both GE and RRLW's nozzle technologies for future implementation. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA s Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system-level solutions capable of overcoming the environmental and performance/efficiency barriers to practical supersonic flight. NASA proposed "Initial Environmental Targets and Performance Goals for Future Supersonic Civil Aircraft". The LM N+2 studies are built upon LM s prior N+3 100 passenger design studies. The LM N+2 program addresses low boom design and methodology validations with wind tunnel testing, performance and efficiency goals with system level analysis, and low noise validations with two nozzle (GE and RRLW) acoustic tests.

  13. An advanced Ka band phased array communication system at commercial frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, Lawrence; Kacpura, Thomas; Kershner, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    The Glenn Research Center (GRC) Direct Data Distribution (D3) project will demonstrate an advanced, high-performance communication system that transmits information from a technology payload carried by the Space Shuttle in low-Earth orbit (LEO) to a small receiving terminal on the Earth. The Shuttle-based communications package will utilize a solid-state, Ka-band phased array antenna that electronically steers the 19.05 Ghz RF signal toward a low-cost, tracking ground terminal, thereby providing agile, vibration-free, electronic steering at reduced size and weight with increased reliability. The project will also demonstrate new digital modulation and processing technology that will allow transmission of user/platform data at rates up to 1200 Mbits per second. This capability will enable the management of the substantially increased amounts of data to be collected from the International Space Station (ISS) or other LEO platforms directly to NASA field centers, principal investigators, or into the commercial terrestrial communications network. .

  14. Advances toward commercialization of a new generation of low cost (O)LED-based dissolved oxygen and bioanalyte monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alex; Cai, Yuankun; Vengasandra, Srikanth; Shinar, Ruth; Shinar, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    Recent advances toward commercialization of a new generation of low-cost LED- and OLED-based monitors for dissolved oxygen (DO), and multiple (bio)analytes such as glucose, lactate, alcohol, and cholesterol are described. The design of the DO monitors, which contain no optical fibers, filters, mirrors, or lens, is significantly simpler and consequently lower-cost than that of commercial LED-based DO monitors. The multiple (bio)analyte monitors are based on a DO monitor and the oxidase enzyme specific to each analyte. The potential advantages and disadvantages of the OLED- vs LED-based monitors is also discussed.

  15. How Past Loss of Control Accidents May Inform Safety Cases for Advanced Control Systems on Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes five loss of control accidents involving commercial aircraft, and derives from those accidents three principles to consider when developing a potential safety case for an advanced flight control system for commercial aircraft. One, among the foundational evidence needed to support a safety case is the availability to the control system of accurate and timely information about the status and health of relevant systems and components. Two, an essential argument to be sustained in the safety case is that pilots are provided with adequate information about the control system to enable them to understand the capabilities that it provides. Three, another essential argument is that the advanced control system will not perform less safely than a good pilot.

  16. Degradation of a commercial textile biocide with advanced oxidation processes and ozone.

    PubMed

    Arslan-Alaton, Idil

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of significant amounts of biocidal finishing agents in the environment as a consequence of intensive textile finishing activities has become a subject of major public health concern and scientific interest only recently. In the present study, the treatment efficiency of selected, well-known advanced oxidation processes (Fenton, Photo-Fenton, TiO(2)/UV-A, TiO(2)/UV-A/H(2)O(2)) and ozone was compared for the degradation and detoxification of a commercial textile biocide formulation containing a 2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether as the active ingredient. The aqueous biocide solution was prepared to mimic typical effluent originating from the antimicrobial finishing operation (BOD(5,o) < or =5 mg/L; COD(o)=200 mg/L; DOC(o) (dissolved organic carbon)=58 mg/L; AOX(o) (adsorbable organic halogens)=48 mg/L; LC(50,o) (lethal concentration causing 50% death or immobilization in Daphnia magna)=8% v/v). Ozonation experiments were conducted at different ozone doses (500-900 mg/h) and initial pH (7-12) to assess the effect of ozonation on degradation (COD, DOC removal), dearomatization (UV(280) and UV(254) abatement), dechlorination (AOX removal) and detoxification (changes in LC(50)). For the Fenton experiments, the effect of varying ferrous iron catalyst concentrations and UV-A light irradiation (the Photo-Fenton process) was examined. In the heterogenous photocatalytic experiments, Degussa P25-type TiO(2) was used as the catalyst and the effect of reaction pH (3, 7 and 12) and H(2)O(2) addition on the photocatalytic treatment efficiency was examined. Although in the photochemical (i.e. Photo-Fenton, TiO(2)/UV-A and TiO(2)/UV-A/H(2)O(2)) experiments appreciably higher COD and DOC removal efficiencies were obtained, ozonation appeared to be equally effective to achieve dearomatization (UV(280) abatement) at all studied reaction pH. During ozonation of the textile biocide effluent, AOX abatement proceeded significantly faster than dearomatization and was

  17. Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development Program, final report - tasks 4-14

    SciTech Connect

    Kaushal, T.S.; Weber, K.E.

    1994-11-01

    The Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program is a multi-year, multi-phase effort to develop and demonstrate the critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection (LHR) engine concept for the long-haul, heavy-duty truck market. The ADECD Program has been partitioned into two phases. The first phase, Phase 1, was completed in 1986, resulting in definition of the Advanced Diesel Reference Engine (ADRE)III. The second phase, Phase 11/111, examines the feasibility of the ADRE concepts for application to the on-highway diesel engine. Phase 11/111 is currently underway. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies. The work has been performed by the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) under Contract DEN3-329 with the NASA Lewis Research Center, who provide project management and technical direction.

  18. First, do no harm: the role of defibrillators and advanced medical care in commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    McKenas, D K

    1997-05-01

    Primum non nocere-First, do no harm. How often have we as physicians and health care providers heard those words? We at American Airlines did not wish to put even one person in harm's way by not having care available to save a life in a remote commercial aviation environment. The decision was purely a business decision of the AMR corporation, who always keeps the welfare of the customer at the fore. It may not be the right choice for the entire commercial aviation industry under an FAA mandate. We know that we will save lives of persons traveling on American Airlines with this program. If the 'ripple' that we have started expands to affect the practices of other commercial air carriers in the domestic United States, American's reward will be a great one-to know that the lives of many people will be saved because one air carrier has taken the first step. PMID:9143743

  19. Two new advanced forms of spectrometry for space and commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    Reagentless ultraviolet absorption spectrometry (UVAS) and Liquid Atomic Emission Spectrometry (LAES) represent new forms of spectrometry with extensive potential in both space and commercial applications. Originally developed under KSC sponsorship for monitoring nutrient solutions for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), both UVAS and LAES have extensive analytical capabilities for both organic and inorganic chemical compounds. Both forms of instrumentation involve the use of remote fiber optic probes and real-time measurements for on-line process monitoring. Commercial applications exist primarily in environmental analysis and for process control in the chemical, pulp and paper, food processing, metal plating, and water/wastewater treatment industries.

  20. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  1. Study on utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structures, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Ostrom, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    A plan is defined for a composite wing development effort which will assist commercial transport manufacturers in reaching a level of technology readiness where the utilization of composite wing structure is a cost competitive option for a new aircraft production plan. The recommended development effort consists of two programs: a joint government/industry material development program and a wing structure development program. Both programs are described in detail.

  2. The BioDyn facility on ISS: Advancing biomaterial production in microgravity for commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Niki; Wessling, Francis; Deuser, Mark; Anderson, C. D.; Lewis, Marian

    1999-01-01

    The primary goals of the BioDyn program are to foster use of the microgravity environment for commercial production of bio-materials from cells, and to develop services and processes for obtaining these materials through space processing. The scope of products includes commercial bio-molecules such as cytokines, other cell growth regulatory proteins, hormones, monoclonal antibodies and enzymes; transplantable cells or tissues which can be improved by low-G processes, or which cannot be obtained through standard processes in earth gravity; agriculture biotechnology products from plant cells; microencapsulation for diabetes treatment; and factors regulating cellular aging. To facilitate BioDyn's commercial science driven goals, hardware designed for ISS incorporates the flexibility for interchange between the different ISS facilities including the glovebox, various thermal units and centrifuges. By providing a permanent research facility, ISS is the critical space-based platform required by scientists for carrying out the long-term experiments necessary for developing bio-molecules and tissues using several cell culture modalities including suspension and anchorage-dependent cell types.

  3. Heavy-Duty Stoichiometric Compression Ignition Engine with Improved Fuel Economy over Alternative Technologies for Meeting 2010 On-Highway Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby J. Baumgard; Richard E. Winsor

    2009-12-31

    The objectives of the reported work were: to apply the stoichiometric compression ignition (SCI) concept to a 9.0 liter diesel engine; to obtain engine-out NO{sub x} and PM exhaust emissions so that the engine can meet 2010 on-highway emission standards by applying a three-way catalyst for NO{sub x} control and a particulate filter for PM control; and to simulate an optimize the engine and air system to approach 50% thermal efficiency using variable valve actuation and electric turbo compounding. The work demonstrated that an advanced diesel engine can be operated at stoichiometric conditions with reasonable particulate and NOx emissions at full power and peak torque conditions; calculated that the SCI engine will operate at 42% brake thermal efficiency without advanced hardware, turbocompounding, or waste heat recovery; and determined that EGR is not necessary for this advanced concept engine, and this greatly simplifies the concept.

  4. A study of rapid engine response systems for an advanced high subsonic, long range commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, J. H.; Bennett, G. W.; Derosier, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    A dynamic model representing the characteristics of an advanced technology study engine (1985 certification time period) was constructed and programmed on an analogue/digital computer. This model was then exercised to study and evaluate a large number of techniques, singly and in combination, to improve engine response. Several effective methods to reduce engine accelerating time are identified.

  5. ‘Oorja’ in India: Assessing a large-scale commercial distribution of advanced biomass stoves to households

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Mark C.; Phadke, Himani; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Shrimali, Gireesh; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2015-01-01

    Replacing traditional stoves with advanced alternatives that burn more cleanly has the potential to ameliorate major health problems associated with indoor air pollution in developing countries. With a few exceptions, large government and charitable programs to distribute advanced stoves have not had the desired impact. Commercially-based distributions that seek cost recovery and even profits might plausibly do better, both because they encourage distributors to supply and promote products that people want and because they are based around properly-incentivized supply chains that could more be scalable, sustainable, and replicable. The sale in India of over 400,000 “Oorja” stoves to households from 2006 onwards represents the largest commercially-based distribution of a gasification-type advanced biomass stove. BP's Emerging Consumer Markets (ECM) division and then successor company First Energy sold this stove and the pelletized biomass fuel on which it operates. We assess the success of this effort and the role its commercial aspect played in outcomes using a survey of 998 households in areas of Maharashtra and Karnataka where the stove was sold as well as detailed interviews with BP and First Energy staff. Statistical models based on this data indicate that Oorja purchase rates were significantly influenced by the intensity of Oorja marketing in a region as well as by pre-existing stove mix among households. The highest rate of adoption came from LPG-using households for which Oorja's pelletized biomass fuel reduced costs. Smoke- and health-related messages from Oorja marketing did not significantly influence the purchase decision, although they did appear to affect household perceptions about smoke. By the time of our survey, only 9% of households that purchased Oorja were still using the stove, the result in large part of difficulties First Energy encountered in developing a viable supply chain around low-cost procurement of “agricultural waste” to

  6. Cost-Effective Fabrication Routes for the Production of Quantum Well Structures and Recovery of Waste Heat from Heavy Duty Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Willigan, Rhonda

    2009-09-30

    The primary objectives of Phase I were: (a) carry out cost, performance and system level models, (b) quantify the cost benefits of cathodic arc and heterogeneous nanocomposites over sputtered material, (c) evaluate the expected power output of the proposed thermoelectric materials and predict the efficiency and power output of an integrated TE module, (d) define market acceptance criteria by engaging Caterpillar's truck OEMs, potential customers and dealers and identify high-level criteria for a waste heat thermoelectric generator (TEG), (e) identify potential TEG concepts, and (f) establish cost/kWatt targets as well as a breakdown of subsystem component cost targets for the commercially viable TEG.

  7. Characterization of particle and vapor-phase organic fraction emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with a particle trap and regeneration controls. Research report, July 1987-April 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bagley, S.T.; Gratz, L.D.; Leddy, D.G.; Johnson, J.H.

    1993-07-01

    The effect of a particle trap on the emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine was examined. The total particles (TPM), the particle-associated soluble organic fraction (SOF), the semivolatile organic fraction (XOC), and the sulfate-containing solid fraction (SOL) from the exhaust were collected during: (1) operation under 25% and 75% load, and (2) during trap regeneration. Particle sizes were determined and bacterial mutagenicity and 12 biologically active polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAH) were measured in the SOF and XOC. The trap reduced the TPM, SOF, and SOL by approximately 90%. Although total particle volume was decreased, trap use increased the number of smaller particles. Mutagenicity in the TPM and SOF also was diminished by about 90%, reflecting a decrease in the PAH and nitro-PAH. NOx, was not changed at any load, but hydrocarbon, XOC, and sulfate were reduced by 45-80% only at 75% load. PAH and nitro-PAH in the XOC were generally not affected by trap use. However, the trap reduced XOC-associated mutagenicity to undetectable levels. There was difficulty in measuring emissions from trap regeneration tests because it was difficult to determine when the regeneration was completed. The short regeneration period produced higher concentrations of TPM and SOF, but these were small relative to average emission concentrations over the entire trap loading and regeneration period.

  8. Characterization of debris/concrete interactions for advanced research reactor and commercial BWR severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, C.R.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Greene, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    The core concrete interaction (CCI) is an important phase of any severe accident where the reactor vessel has failed and core debris is relocated onto the containment basemat. In recent calculations performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), CCI has been studied for severe accidents occurring in a commercial Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and in a high-power density Department of Energy (DOE) research reactor that is currently in the conceptual design stage. Because of differences in the debris decay heating level, core debris composition and inventory, and containment design, the characteristics of the resulting CCI and containment response are different for the two reactor types. Furthermore, proper selection of the basemat concrete type and the provision of an overlying water pool are found to be significant CCI mitigating factors for the research reactor and thus constitute important design considerations for any future reactor type. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Advancement in shampoo (a dermal care product): preparation methods, patents and commercial utility.

    PubMed

    Deeksha; Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod K

    2014-01-01

    Shampoo is a cleaning aid for hair and is the most evolving beauty products in the present scenario. Today's shampoo products are of great importance as they provide cleaning of hair with the benefits of conditioning, smoothing and good health of hair i.e. dandruff, dirt, grease and lice free hair. Various types of shampoos depending upon function, nature of ingredient, and their special effects are elaborated in this study. Generally shampoos are evaluated in terms of physical appearance, detergency, surface tension, foam quality, pH, viscosity, and percent of solid content, flow property, dirt dispersion, cleaning action, stability and wetting time. The attention should be paid at its patent portion which attracts towards itself as it provides wide knowledge related to shampoo. This article reviews the various aspects of shampoo in terms of preparation methods, various patents and commercial value. PMID:24433548

  10. Technological advances in CO2 conversion electro-biorefinery: A step toward commercialization.

    PubMed

    ElMekawy, Ahmed; Hegab, Hanaa M; Mohanakrishna, Gunda; Elbaz, Ashraf F; Bulut, Metin; Pant, Deepak

    2016-09-01

    The global atmospheric warming due to increased emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) has attracted great attention in the last two decades. Although different CO2 capture and storage platforms have been proposed, the utilization of captured CO2 from industrial plants is progressively prevalent strategy due to concerns about the safety of terrestrial and aquatic CO2 storage. Two utilization forms were proposed, direct utilization of CO2 and conversion of CO2 to chemicals and energy products. The latter strategy includes the bioelectrochemical techniques in which electricity can be used as an energy source for the microbial catalytic production of fuels and other organic products from CO2. This approach is a potential technique in which CO2 emissions are not only reduced, but it also produce more value-added products. This review article highlights the different methodologies for the bioelectrochemical utilization of CO2, with distinctive focus on the potential opportunities for the commercialization of these techniques. PMID:27020396

  11. Flight service evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component on commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The development and flight evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component is presented. The recommended concept for the covers is graphite-epoxy hats bonded to a graphite-epoxy skin. The hat flare-out has been eliminated, instead the hat is continuous into the joint. The recommended concept for the spars is graphite-epoxy caps and a hybrid of Kevlar-49 and graphite-epoxy in the spar web. The spar cap, spar web stiffeners for attaching the ribs, and intermediate stiffeners are planned to be fabricated as a unit. Access hole in the web will be reinforced with a donut type, zero degree graphite-epoxy wound reinforcement. The miniwich design concept in the upper three ribs originally proposed is changed to a graphite-epoxy stiffened solid laminate design concept. The recommended configuration for the lower seven ribs remains as graphite-epoxy caps with aluminum cruciform diagonals. The indicated weight saving for the current advanced composite vertical fin configuration is 20.2% including a 24 lb growth allowance. The project production cost saving is approximately 1% based on a cumulative average of 250 aircraft and including only material, production labor, and quality assurance costs.

  12. Development of selected advanced aerodynamics and active control concepts for commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    Work done under the Energy Efficient Transport project in the field of advanced aerodynamics and active controls is summarized. The project task selections focused on the following: the investigation of long-duct nacelle shape variation on interference drag; the investigation of the adequacy of a simple control law for the elastic modes of a wing; the development of the aerodynamic technology at cruise and low speed of high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings of high performance; and the development of winglets for a second-generation jet transport. All the tasks involved analysis and substantial wind tunnel testing. The winglet program also included flight evaluation. It is considered that the technology base has been built for the application of high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings and for the use of winglets on second-generation transports.

  13. Optimization of engines for a commercial Mach 0.98 transport using advanced turbine cooling methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, G. A.; Whitlow, J. B., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of an advanced technology airplane using supercritical aerodynamics. Cruise Mach number was 0.98 at 40,000 feet altitude with a payload of 60,000 pounds and a range of 3000 nautical miles. Separate-flow turbofans were examined parametrically to determine the effect of sea-level-static design turbine-inlet-temperature and noise on takeoff gross weight (TOGW) assuming full-film turbine cooling. The optimum turbine inlet temperature was 2650 F. Two-stage-fan engines, with cruise fan pressure ratio of 2.25, achieved a noise goal of 103.5 EPNdB with todays noise technology while one-stage-fan engines, achieved a noise goal of 98 EPNdB. The take-off gross weight penalty to use the one-stage fan was 6.2 percent.

  14. Computer vision-based technologies and commercial best practices for the advancement of the motion imagery tradecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Marja; Capel, David; Srinivasan, James

    2014-06-01

    Motion imagery capabilities within the Department of Defense/Intelligence Community (DoD/IC) have advanced significantly over the last decade, attempting to meet continuously growing data collection, video processing and analytical demands in operationally challenging environments. The motion imagery tradecraft has evolved accordingly, enabling teams of analysts to effectively exploit data and generate intelligence reports across multiple phases in structured Full Motion Video (FMV) Processing Exploitation and Dissemination (PED) cells. Yet now the operational requirements are drastically changing. The exponential growth in motion imagery data continues, but to this the community adds multi-INT data, interoperability with existing and emerging systems, expanded data access, nontraditional users, collaboration, automation, and support for ad hoc configurations beyond the current FMV PED cells. To break from the legacy system lifecycle, we look towards a technology application and commercial adoption model course which will meet these future Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) challenges. In this paper, we explore the application of cutting edge computer vision technology to meet existing FMV PED shortfalls and address future capability gaps. For example, real-time georegistration services developed from computer-vision-based feature tracking, multiple-view geometry, and statistical methods allow the fusion of motion imagery with other georeferenced information sources - providing unparalleled situational awareness. We then describe how these motion imagery capabilities may be readily deployed in a dynamically integrated analytical environment; employing an extensible framework, leveraging scalable enterprise-wide infrastructure and following commercial best practices.

  15. Degradation of the commercial surfactant nonylphenol ethoxylate by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Salatiel Wohlmuth; Klauck, Cláudia Regina; Siqueira, Marco Antônio; Bernardes, Andréa Moura

    2015-01-23

    Four different oxidation process, namely direct photolysis (DP) and three advanced oxidation processes (heterogeneous photocatalysis - HP, eletrochemical oxidation - EO and photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation - PEO) were applied in the treatment of wastewater containing nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPnEO). The objective of this work was to determine which treatment would be the best option in terms of degradation of NPnEO without the subsequent generation of toxic compounds. In order to investigate the degradation of the surfactant, the processes were compared in terms of UV/Vis spectrum, mineralization (total organic carbon), reaction kinetics, energy efficiency and phytotoxicity. A solution containing NPnEO was prepared as a surrogate of the degreasing wastewater, was used in the processes. The results showed that the photo-assisted processes degrade the surfactant, producing biodegradable intermediates in the reaction. On the other hand, the electrochemical process influences the mineralization of the surfactant. The process of PEO carried out with a 250W lamp and a current density of 10mA/cm(2) showed the best results in terms of degradation, mineralization, reaction kinetics and energy consumption, in addition to not presenting phytotoxicity. Based on this information, this process can be a viable alternative for treating wastewater containing NPnEO, avoiding the contamination of water resources. PMID:25262384

  16. A Study of the Utilization of Advanced Composites in Fuselage Structures of Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, D. J.; Sumida, P. T.; Bunin, B. L.; Janicki, G. S.; Walker, J. V.; Fox, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the technology and data needed to support the introduction of advanced composites in the future production of fuselage structure in large transport aircraft. Fuselage structures of six candidate airplanes were evaluated for the baseline component. The MD-100 was selected on the basis of its representation of 1990s fuselage structure, an available data base, its impact on the schedule and cost of the development program, and its availability and suitability for flight service evaluation. Acceptance criteria were defined, technology issues were identified, and a composite fuselage technology development plan, including full-scale tests, was identified. The plan was based on composite materials to be available in the mid to late 1980s. Program resources required to develop composite fuselage technology are estimated at a rough order of magnitude to be 877 man-years exclusive of the bird strike and impact dynamic test components. A conceptual composite fuselage was designed, retaining the basic MD-100 structural arrangement for doors, windows, wing, wheel wells, cockpit enclosure, major bulkheads, etc., resulting in a 32 percent weight savings.

  17. Nanosuspensions in drug delivery: recent advances, patent scenarios, and commercialization aspects.

    PubMed

    Chavhan, Sandip S; Petkar, Kailash C; Sawant, Krutika K

    2011-01-01

    The interest in the preparation and application of nanometer-sized materials is increasing due to their tremendous potential as a drug delivery system with wide range of applications. Recently, nanoscale systems have received much interest as a way to resolve solubility issues because of their cost-effectiveness and technical simplicity compared to liposomes and other colloidal drug carriers. Nanosuspensions have proven to be a better alternative over other approaches currently available for improving bioavailability of number of drugs with low solubility. Nanosuspensions have been extensively developed for a wide range of drugs and have been evaluated for in vitro and in vivo applications by various routes: parenteral, oral, pulmonary, topical. They have also been used for drug targeting. Different preparation methods for nanosuspensions and their application are being reported and patented. In fact, the number of products based on nanosuspension in the market and under clinical study is higher than that of other nanotechnology-based applications. This article reviews the research and recent advances in formulation, characterization, application of nanosuspensions as well as patents on nanosuspension methods. PMID:22077201

  18. Optimization of engines for a commercial Mach 0.85 transport using advanced turbine cooling methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    A parametric study was made of a group of separate-flow-turbofan engines for use in advanced technology airplanes designed for a cruise Mach number of 0.85 at 40,000 feet. The three-engined airplanes were sized to carry 200 passengers 3000 nautical miles. Supercritical aerodynamics were assumed. Film-cooled turbines were used and sea-level-static turbine-rotor-inlet temperature was always 2600 F. The optimum cycle depends on the noise goal assumed. Without a noise goal the best fan pressure ratio (FPR) is about 1.90. At noise goals of FAR 36, -10 EPNdb, and -20 EPNdb, the best FPR's are 1.85, 1.76, and 1.70, respectively, at cruise. The take-off FPR's are progressively less than the cruise value as the noise goal approaches -20 EPNdb. The penalties in take-off gross weight incurred were 8.5, 19, and 64 percent at goals of FAR 36, -10 EPNdb, and -20 EPNdb, respectively.

  19. In-vehicle measurement of ultrafine particles on compressed natural gas, conventional diesel, and oxidation-catalyst diesel heavy-duty transit buses.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Davyda; Jones, Steven; Lalor, Melinda

    2007-02-01

    Many metropolitan transit authorities are considering upgrading transit bus fleets to decrease ambient criteria pollutant levels. Advancements in engine and fuel technology have lead to a generation of lower-emission buses in a variety of fuel types. Dynamometer tests show substantial reductions in particulate mass emissions for younger buses (<10 years) over older models, but particle number reduction has not been verified in the research. Recent studies suggest that particle number is a more important factor than particle mass in determining health effects. In-vehicle particle number concentration measurements on conventional diesel, oxidation-catalyst diesel and compressed natural gas transit buses are compared to estimate relative in-vehicle particulate exposures. Two primary consistencies are observed from the data: the CNG buses have average particle count concentrations near the average concentrations for the oxidation-catalyst diesel buses, and the conventional diesel buses have average particle count concentrations approximately three to four times greater than the CNG buses. Particle number concentrations are also noticeably affected by bus idling behavior and ventilation options, such as, window position and air conditioning. PMID:17219245

  20. Utility Advanced Turbine Systems Program (ATS) Technical Readiness Testing and Pre-Commercial Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Siemens Westinghouse

    2000-12-31

    The objective of the ATS program is to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Specific performance targets have been set using natural gas as the primary fuel: {lg_bullet} System efficiency that will exceed 60%(lower heating value basis) on natural gas for large scale utility turbine systems; for industrial applications, systems that will result in a 15% improvement in heat rate compared to currently available gas turbine systems. {lg_bullet} An environmentally superior system that will not require the use of post combustion emissions controls under full load operating conditions. {lg_bullet} Busbar energy costs that are 10% less than current state-of-the-art turbine systems, while meeting the same environmental requirements. {lg_bullet} Fuel-flexible designs that will operate on natural gas but are capable of being adapted to operate on coal-derived or biomass fuels. {lg_bullet} Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) that is equivalent to the current turbine systems. {lg_bullet} Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals. {lg_bullet} Commercial systems that will enter the market in the year 2000. In Phase I of the ATS program, Siemens Westinghouse found that efficiency significantly increases when the traditional combined-cycle power plant is reconfigured with closed-loop steam cooling of the hot gas path. Phase II activities involved the development of a 318MW natural gas fired turbine conceptual design with the flexibility to burn coal-derived and biomass fuels. Phases I and II of the ATS program have been completed. Phase III, the current phase, completes the research and development activities and develops hardware specifications from the Phase II conceptual design. This report summarizes Phase III extension activities for a three month period. Additional details may be

  1. Utility Advanced Turbine Systems Program (ATS) Technical Readiness Testing and Pre-Commercial Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Siemens Westinghouse

    2001-09-30

    The objective of the ATS program is to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Specific performance targets have been set using natural gas as the primary fuel: (1) System efficiency that will exceed 60% (lower heating value basis) on natural gas for large scale utility turbine systems; for industrial applications, systems that will result in a 15% improvement in heat rate compared to currently available gas turbine systems. (2) An environmentally superior system that will not require the use of post combustion emissions controls under full load operating conditions. (3) Busbar energy costs that are 10% less than current state-of-the-art turbine systems, while meeting the same environmental requirements. (4) Fuel-flexible designs that will operate on natural gas but are capable of being adapted to operate on coal-derived or biomass fuels. (5) Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) that is equivalent to the current turbine systems. (6) Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals. (7) Commercial systems that will enter the market in the year 2000. In Phase I of the ATS program, Siemens Westinghouse found that efficiency significantly increases when the traditional combined-cycle power plant is reconfigured with closed-loop steam cooling of the hot gas path. Phase II activities involved the development of a 318MW natural gas fired turbine conceptual design with the flexibility to burn coal-derived and biomass fuels. Phases I and II of the ATS program have been completed. Phase III, the current phase, completes the research and development activities and develops hardware specifications from the Phase II conceptual design. This report summarizes Phase III Extension activities for a three month period. Additional details may be found in monthly technical progress reports covering the

  2. Utility Advanced Turbine Systems Program (ATS) Technical Readiness Testing and Pre-Commercial Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Siemens Westinghouse

    2001-06-30

    The objective of the ATS program is to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Specific performance targets have been set using natural gas as the primary fuel: {lg_bullet} System efficiency that will exceed 60%(lower heating value basis) on natural gas for large scale utility turbine systems; for industrial applications, systems that will result in a 15% improvement in heat rate compared to currently available gas turbine systems. {lg_bullet} An environmentally superior system that will not require the use of post combustion emissions controls under full load operating conditions. {lg_bullet} Busbar energy costs that are 10% less than current state-of-the-art turbine systems, while meeting the same environmental requirements. {lg_bullet} Fuel-flexible designs that will operate on natural gas but are capable of being adapted to operate on coal-derived or biomass fuels. {lg_bullet} Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) that is equivalent to the current turbine systems. {lg_bullet} Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals. {lg_bullet} Commercial systems that will enter the market in the year 2000. In Phase I of the ATS program, Siemens Westinghouse found that efficiency significantly increases when the traditional combined-cycle power plant is reconfigured with closed-loop steam cooling of the hot gas path. Phase II activities involved the development of a 318MW natural gas fired turbine conceptual design with the flexibility to burn coal-derived and biomass fuels. Phases I and II of the ATS program have been completed. Phase III, the current phase, completes the research and development activities and develops hardware specifications from the Phase II conceptual design. This report summarizes Phase III Extension activities for a three-month period. Additional details may be

  3. Commercial-Scale Performance Predictions for High-Temperature Electrolysis Plants Coupled to Three Advanced Reactor Types

    SciTech Connect

    M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2007-09-01

    This report presents results of system analyses that have been developed to assess the hydrogen production performance of commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plants driven by three different advanced reactor – power-cycle combinations: a high-temperature helium cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle, a supercritical CO2-cooled reactor coupled to a direct recompression cycle, and a sodium-cooled fast reactor coupled to a Rankine cycle. The system analyses were performed using UniSim software. The work described in this report represents a refinement of previous analyses in that the process flow diagrams include realistic representations of the three advanced reactors directly coupled to the power cycles and integrated with the high-temperature electrolysis process loops. In addition, this report includes parametric studies in which the performance of each HTE concept is determined over a wide range of operating conditions. Results of the study indicate that overall thermal-to- hydrogen production efficiencies (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) in the 45 - 50% range can be achieved at reasonable production rates with the high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept, 42 - 44% with the supercritical CO2-cooled reactor and about 33 - 34% with the sodium-cooled reactor.

  4. Technical Readiness and Gaps Analysis of Commercial Optical Materials and Measurement Systems for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Qiao, Hong; Andersen, Eric S.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bliss, Mary; Cannon, Bret D.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Mendoza, Albert; Sheen, David M.

    2013-08-06

    This report intends to support Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap and industry stakeholders by evaluating optical-based instrumentation and control (I&C) concepts for advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. These advanced designs will require innovative thinking in terms of engineering approaches, materials integration, and I&C concepts to realize their eventual viability and deployability. The primary goals of this report include: 1. Establish preliminary I&C needs, performance requirements, and possible gaps for AdvSMR designs based on best available published design data. 2. Document commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) optical sensors, components, and materials in terms of their technical readiness to support essential AdvSMR in-vessel I&C systems. 3. Identify technology gaps by comparing the in-vessel monitoring requirements and environmental constraints to COTS optical sensor and materials performance specifications. 4. Outline a future research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program plan that addresses these gaps and develops optical-based I&C systems that enhance the viability of future AdvSMR designs. The development of clean, affordable, safe, and proliferation-resistant nuclear power is a key goal that is documented in the Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. This roadmap outlines RD&D activities intended to overcome technical, economic, and other barriers, which currently limit advances in nuclear energy. These activities will ensure that nuclear energy remains a viable component to this nation’s energy security.

  5. UTILITY ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS (ATS) TECHNOLOGY READINESS TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed, including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer conflation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which was to have been sited and operated in Phase 4 but will now be sited and operated commercially by GE. This change has resulted from DOE's request to GE for deletion of Phase 4 in favor of a restructured Phase 3 (as Phase 3R) to include full speed, no load (FSNL) testing of the 7H gas turbine. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. The objective of this task is to design 7H and 9H compressor rotor and stator structures with the goal of achieving high efficiency at lower cost and greater durability by applying proven GE Power Systems (GEPS) heavy-duty use design practices. The designs will be based on the GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE) CF6-80C2 compressor. Transient and steady-state thermo-mechanical stress analyses will be run to ensure compliance with GEPS life standards. Drawings will be prepared for forgings, castings, machining, and instrumentation for full speed, no load (FSNL) tests of the first unit on both 9H and 7H applications.

  6. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced system concepts applicable to small industrial and commercial markets. Topical report, Level 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ake, T.R.; Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.

    1992-09-01

    As part of an overall strategy to promote FBC coal combustion and to improve the marketability of the eastern coals, the US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Research Center awarded a three level contract to Riley Stoker Corporation to develop advanced Multi Solids Fluidized Bed (MSFB) boiler designs. The first level of this contract targeted the small package boiler (10,000--50,000 lb/hr steam) and industrial size boiler (75,000--150,000 lb/hr steam) markets. Two representative sizes, 30,000 lb/hr and 110,000 lb/hr of steam, were selected for the two categories for a detailed technical and economic evaluation. Technically, both the designs showed promise, however, the advanced industrial design was favored on economic considerations. It was thus selected for further study in the second level of the contract. Results of this Level-2 effort, presented in this report, consisted of testing the design concept in Riley`s 4.4 MBtu/hr pilot MSFB facility located at Riley Research Center in Worcester, Mass. The design and economics of the proof of concept facility developed in Level-1 of the contract were then revised in accordance with the findings of the pilot test program. A host site for commercial demonstration in Level-3 of the contract was also secured. It was determined that co-firing coal in combination with paper de-inking sludge will broaden the applicability of the design beyond conventional markets. International Paper (IP), the largest paper company in the world, is willing to participate in this part of the program. IP has offered its Hammermill operation at Lockhaven, Pa, site of a future paper de-inking plant, for the proof of concept installation. This plant will go in operation in 1994. It is recommended that METC proceed to the commercial demonstration of the design developed. The approach necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer while meeting the objectives of this program is presented along with a recommended plan of action.

  7. 41 CFR 302-10.300 - May I receive an advance of funds when a commercial carrier transports the mobile home?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of funds when a commercial carrier transports the mobile home? 302-10.300 Section 302-10.300 Public... STORAGE OF PROPERTY 10-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION OF MOBILE HOMES AND BOATS USED AS A PRIMARY RESIDENCE... mobile home? Yes, you may receive an advance of funds when you are responsible for arranging and paying...

  8. 41 CFR 302-10.300 - May I receive an advance of funds when a commercial carrier transports the mobile home?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of funds when a commercial carrier transports the mobile home? 302-10.300 Section 302-10.300 Public... STORAGE OF PROPERTY 10-ALLOWANCES FOR TRANSPORTATION OF MOBILE HOMES AND BOATS USED AS A PRIMARY RESIDENCE... mobile home? Yes, you may receive an advance of funds when you are responsible for arranging and paying...

  9. 10,000 hours commercial operating experience with advanced-design, reflux circulating fluid bed scrubbing employing slaked lime reagent

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, R.E.; Huckriede, B.W.

    1995-06-01

    Details are presented of design, operating and maintenance experience with a commercial installation in Germany of a circulating fluid bed scrubber of advanced design (Reflux Circulating Fluid Bed Scrubber utilizing slaked lime slurry) retrofitted to a pulverized coal fired, 220 t/h, steam generating boiler, including problems encountered, corrections made and resulting technical improvements achieved. This state-of-the-art process design technology is described to highlight newly demonstrated innovative features that include cost effective means for minimizing amount of purchase of hydrated lime, at the same time substantially decreasing reagent cost. Other key details included are system effectiveness in achieving very high lime-utilization (free lime concentration in the residue below 1 %); means for by-product (residue) utilization; very high operational availability since initial startup in May 1993; SO{sub 2} removal efficiency up to 97 %; and optimization of process economics through efforts for simplification of system operation and maintenance; and attractiveness in cost-effectively meeting diverse environmental pollution control objectives in varied, worldwide, FGD applications.

  10. HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL FINE PM EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine PM emissions from diesel powered vehicles continues to be a concern for those responsible for implementating the PM-2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Diesel generated PM is nanometer in size, incorporates a number of toxic air pollutants (including carcinog...

  11. Quick-Connect Heavy-Duty Fastener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    Attaching device combines fast connection and disconnection with high strength. T-shaped stud engages groove in receptacle after one-quarter turn. Further turning tightens nut on receptacle. Like quarter-turn attaching devices, connected and disconnected quickly. Like threaded devices, adjusted to desired preload, withstand high loads, and accommodate wide range of grip lengths.

  12. Super Heavy-Duty Door Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the new generation of durable school-door hardware and innovations that can resist everyday abuse. Concluding comments address cross-corridor door innovations that can help doorways more easily accommodate the passage of oversized items, and classroom door locking systems. (GR)

  13. Heavy-Duty Rescue Straps For Coveralls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waddell, Henry M.

    1988-01-01

    New type of strap on coveralls helps rescuers lift victims of industrial accidents. Made of heavy twill. New material, 1 in. wide and has breaking strength of 600 lb, sewn to coveralls with polyester thread in box "X" stitching. Reinforcing nylon webbing, 1 3/4 in. wide sewn with strap at attachment points.

  14. Lightweight Composite Materials for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pruez, Jacky; Shoukry, Samir; Williams, Gergis; Shoukry, Mark

    2013-08-31

    The main objective of this project is to develop, analyze and validate data, methodologies and tools that support widespread applications of automotive lightweighting technologies. Two underlying principles are guiding the research efforts towards this objective: • Seamless integration between the lightweight materials selected for certain vehicle systems, cost-effective methods for their design and manufacturing, and practical means to enhance their durability while reducing their Life-Cycle-Costs (LCC). • Smooth migration of the experience and findings accumulated so far at WVU in the areas of designing with lightweight materials, innovative joining concepts and durability predictions, from applications to the area of weight savings for heavy vehicle systems and hydrogen storage tanks, to lightweighting applications of selected systems or assemblies in light–duty vehicles.

  15. Energy 101: Heavy Duty Vehicle Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-14

    Although Class 8 Trucks only make up 4% of the vehicles on the road, they use about 20% of the nation's transportation fuel. In this video, learn how new fuel-efficient technologies are making our country's big rigs quieter, less polluting, more energy-efficient, and less expensive to operate over time.

  16. Evaluating the Impact of Road Grade on Simulated Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy Using Real-World Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lopp, Sean; Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-13

    Commercial vehicle fuel economy is known to vary significantly with both positive and negative road grade. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating at highway speeds require incrementally larger amounts of energy to pull heavy payloads up inclines as road grade increases. Non-hybrid vehicles are then unable to recapture energy on descent and lose energy through friction braking. While the on-road effects of road grade are well understood, the majority of standard commercial vehicle drive cycles feature no climb or descent requirements. Additionally, existing literature offers a limited number of sources that attempt to estimate the on-road energy implications of road grade in the medium- and heavy-duty space. This study uses real-world commercial vehicle drive cycles from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to simulate the effects of road grade on fuel economy across a range of vocations, operating conditions, and locations. Drive-cycles are matched with vocation-specific vehicle models and simulated with and without grade. Fuel use due to grade is presented, and variation in fuel consumption due to drive cycle and vehicle characteristics is explored through graphical and statistical comparison. The results of this study suggest that road grade accounts for 1%-9% of fuel use in commercial vehicles on average and up to 40% on select routes.

  17. HYDROGEN COMMERCIALIZATION: TRANSPORTATION FUEL FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    SciTech Connect

    APOLONIO DEL TORO

    2008-05-27

    Since 1999, SunLine Transit Agency has worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to develop and test hydrogen infrastructure, fuel cell buses, a heavy-duty fuel cell truck, a fuel cell neighborhood electric vehicle, fuel cell golf carts and internal combustion engine buses operating on a mixture of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG). SunLine has cultivated a rich history of testing and demonstrating equipment for leading industry manufacturers in a pre-commercial environment. Visitors to SunLine's "Clean Fuels Mall" from around the world have included government delegations and agencies, international journalists and media, industry leaders and experts and environmental and educational groups.

  18. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  19. Transportation engine commercialization at Ballard Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, N.C.; Howard, P.F.

    1996-12-31

    Ballard is adapting its leading fuel cell technology for transit bus engines in three phases. In the first phase, completed in 1993, Ballard developed and demonstrated a 125 HP fuel cell engine in a 32-foot light duty transit bus. This was the world`s first zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) powered completely by PEM fuel cells. The bus is a reliable, smooth performing vehicle that clearly established the viability of Ballard Fuel Cells for zero-emission transit bus operation. In the second phase, completed in 1995, Ballard refined its fuel cell technology, building a 275 HP fuel cell engine for a 40-foot heavy duty transit bus. The fuel cell engine fits in the existing engine compartment and meets the performance of a combustion powered vehicle, but with no pollution. In the third phase, small fleets of ZEV buses will be tested with Chicago Transit Authority and BC Transit. These test fleets will provide the performance, cost and reliability data necessary for commercial production. Commercial production of Ballard`s environmentally clean engines will begin in the 1998-1999 timeframe.

  20. Final Report for the Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2030 to 2035 Period, N+3 Supersonic Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Norstrud, Nicole; Stelmack, Marc; Skoch, Craig

    2010-01-01

    The N+3 Final Report documents the work and progress made by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics in response to the NASA sponsored program "N+3 NRA Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2030 to 2035 Period." The key technical objective of this effort was to generate promising supersonic concepts for the 2030 to 2035 timeframe and to develop plans for maturing the technologies required to make those concepts a reality. The N+3 program is aligned with NASA's Supersonic Project and is focused on providing alternative system-level solutions capable of overcoming the efficiency, environmental, and performance barriers to practical supersonic flight

  1. Field and laboratory evaluations of commercial and next–generation alumina-forming austenitic foil for advanced recuperators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pint, Bruce A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Brady, Michael P.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Ruan, Bo; Robert D. McKeirnan, Jr.

    2016-07-19

    Alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) steels represent a new class of corrosion- and creep-resistant austenitic steels designed to enable higher temperature recuperators. Field trials are in progress for commercially rolled foil with widths over 39 cm. The first trial completed 3000 hrs in a microturbine recuperator with an elevated turbine inlet temperature and showed limited degradation. A longer microturbine trial is in progress. A third exposure in a larger turbine has passed 16,000 hrs. Furthermore, to reduce alloy cost and address foil fabrication issues with the initial AFA composition, several new AFA compositions are being evaluated in creep and laboratory oxidation testingmore » at 650–800 °C and the results compared to commercially fabricated AFA foil and conventional recuperator foil performance.« less

  2. Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgenstern, John; Buonanno, Michael; Yao, Jixian; Murugappan, Mugam; Paliath, Umesh; Cheung, Lawrence; Malcevic, Ivan; Ramakrishnan, Kishore; Pastouchenko, Nikolai; Wood, Trevor; Martens, Steve; Viars, Phil; Tersmette, Trevor; Lee, Jason; Simmons, Ron; Plybon, David; Alonso, Juan; Palacios, Francisco; Lukaczyk, Trent; Carrier, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (LM), working in conjunction with General Electric Global Research (GE GR) and Stanford University, executed a 19 month program responsive to the NASA sponsored "N+2 Supersonic Validation: Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transports Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Period" contract. The key technical objective of this effort was to validate integrated airframe and propulsion technologies and design methodologies necessary to realize a supersonic vehicle capable of meeting the N+2 environmental and performance goals. The N+2 program is aligned with NASA's Supersonic Project and is focused on providing system level solutions capable of overcoming the efficiency, environmental, and performance barriers to practical supersonic flight. The N+2 environmental and performance goals are outlined in the technical paper, AIAA-2014-2138 (Ref. 1) along with the validated N+2 Phase 2 results. Our Phase 2 efforts built upon our Phase 1 studies (Ref. 2) and successfully demonstrated the ability to design and test realistic configurations capable of shaped sonic booms over the width of the sonic boom carpet. Developing a shaped boom configuration capable of meeting the N+2 shaped boom targets is a key goal for the N+2 program. During the LM Phase 1 effort, LM successfully designed and tested a shaped boom trijet configuration (1021) capable of achieving 85 PLdB under track (forward and aft shock) and up to 28 deg off-track at Mach 1.6. In Phase 2 we developed a refined configuration (1044-2) that extended the under 85 PLdB sonic boom level over the entire carpet of 52 deg off-track at a cruise Mach number of 1.7. Further, the loudness level of the configuration throughout operational conditions calculates to an average of 79 PLdB. These calculations rely on propagation employing Burger's (sBOOM) rounding methodology, and there are indications that the configuration average loudness would actually be 75 PLdB. We also added

  3. Commercially developed mixed-signal CMOS process features for application in advanced ROICs in 0.18μm technology node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar-Roy, Arjun; Hurwitz, Paul; Mann, Richard; Qamar, Yasir; Chaudhry, Samir; Zwingman, Robert; Howard, David; Racanelli, Marco

    2012-06-01

    Increasingly complex specifications for next-generation focal plane arrays (FPAs) require smaller pixels, larger array sizes, reduced power consumption and lower cost. We have previously reported on the favorable features available in the commercially available TowerJazz CA18 0.18μm mixed-signal CMOS technology platform for advanced read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) applications. In his paper, new devices in development for commercial purposes and which may have applications in advanced ROICs are reported. First, results of buried-channel 3.3V field effect transistors (FETs) are detailed. The buried-channel pFETs show flicker (1/f) noise reductions of ~5X in comparison to surface-channel pFETs along with a significant reduction of the body constant parameter. The buried-channel nFETs show ~2X reduction of 1/f noise versus surface-channel nFETs. Additional reduced threshold voltage nFETs and pFETs are also described. Second, a high-density capacitor solution with a four-stacked linear (metal-insulator-metal) MIM capacitor having capacitance density of 8fF/μm2 is reported. Additional stacking with MOS capacitor in a 5V tolerant process results in >50fC/μm2 charge density. Finally, one-time programmable (OTP) and multi-time programmable (MTP) non-volatile memory options in the CA18 technology platform are outlined.

  4. Advanced characterization study of commercial conversion and electrocoating structures on magnesium alloys AZ31B and ZE10A

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brady, Michael P.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Song, Guang -Ling; Kitchen, Kris; Davis, Bruce; Thompson, J. K.; Unocic, K. A.; Elsentriecy, H. H.

    2016-03-31

    The local metal-coating interface microstructure and chemistry formed on commercial magnesium alloys Mg–3Al–1Zn (AZ31B) and Mg–1Zn–0.25Zr–<0.5Nd (ZE10A, ZEK100 type) were analyzed as-chemical conversion coated with a commercial hexafluoro-titanate/zirconate type + organic polymer based treatment (Bonderite® 5200) and a commercial hexafluoro-zirconate type + trivalent chromium Cr3 + type treatment (Surtec® 650), and after the same conversion coatings followed by electrocoating with an epoxy based coating, Cathoguard® 525. Characterization techniques included scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cross-section scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Corrosion behavior was assessed in room temperature saturated aqueous Mg(OH)2 solution with 1 wt.% NaCl. Themore » goal of the effort was to assess the degree to which substrate alloy additions become enriched in the conversion coating, and how the conversion coating was impacted by subsequent electrocoating. Key findings included the enrichment of Al from AZ31B and Zr from ZE10A, respectively, into the conversion coating, with moderate corrosion resistance benefits for AZ31B when Al was incorporated. Varying degrees of increased porosity and modification of the initial conversion coating chemistry at the metal-coating interface were observed after electrocoating. These changes were postulated to result in degraded electrocoating protectiveness. As a result, these observations highlight the challenges of coating Mg, and the need to tailor electrocoating in light of potential degradation of the initial as-conversion coated Mg alloy surface.« less

  5. Utility advanced turbine systems (ATS) technology readiness testing and pre-commercial demonstration. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which will be sited and operated in Phase 4. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown. This report summarizes work accomplished in 1Q97.

  6. Utility Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) technology readiness testing and pre-commercialization demonstration. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which will be sited and operated in Phase 4. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue.

  7. Utility advanced turbine systems (ATS) technology readiness testing and pre-commercial demonstration. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detail design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which will be sited and operated in Phase 4. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. A schematic of the GE H machine is shown. This report summarizes work accomplished in 2Q97.

  8. Flight service evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component on commercial transport aircraft. Phase 1: Engineering development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ary, A.; Axtell, C.; Fogg, L.; Jackson, A.; James, A. M.; Mosesian, B.; Vanderwier, J.; Vanhamersveld, J.

    1976-01-01

    The empennage component selected for this program is the vertical fin box of the L-1011 aircraft. The box structure extends from the fuselage production joint to the tip rib and includes the front and rear spars. Various design options were evaluated to arrive at a configuration which would offer the highest potential for satisfying program objectives. The preferred configuration selected consists of a hat-stiffened cover with molded integrally stiffened spars, aluminum trussed composite ribs, and composite miniwich web ribs with integrally molded caps. Material screening tests were performed to select an advanced composite material system for the Advanced Composite Vertical Fin (ACFV) that would meet the program requirements from the standpoint of quality, reproducibility, and cost. Preliminary weight and cost analysis were made, targets established, and tracking plans developed. These include FAA certification, ancillary test program, quality control, and structural integrity control plans.

  9. Launch Vehicles Based on Advanced Hybrid Rocket Motors: An Enabling Technology for the Commercial Small and Micro Satellite Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabeyoglu, Arif; Tuncer, Onur; Inalhan, Gokhan

    2016-07-01

    Mankind is relient on chemical propulsion systems for space access. Nevertheless, this has been a stagnant area in terms of technological development and the technology base has not changed much almost for the past forty years. This poses a vicious circle for launch applications such that high launch costs constrain the demand and low launch freqencies drive costs higher. This also has been a key limiting factor for small and micro satellites that are geared towards planetary science. Rather this be because of the launch frequencies or the costs, the access of small and micro satellites to orbit has been limited. With today's technology it is not possible to escape this circle. However the emergence of cost effective and high performance propulsion systems such as advanced hybrid rockets can decrease launch costs by almost an order or magnitude. This paper briefly introduces the timeline and research challenges that were overcome during the development of advanced hybrid LOX/paraffin based rockets. Experimental studies demonstrated effectiveness of these advanced hybrid rockets which incorporate fast burning parafin based fuels, advanced yet simple internal balistic design and carbon composite winding/fuel casting technology that enables the rocket motor to be built from inside out. A feasibility scenario is studied using these rocket motors as building blocks for a modular launch vehicle capable of delivering micro satellites into low earth orbit. In addition, the building block rocket motor can be used further solar system missions providing the ability to do standalone small and micro satellite missions to planets within the solar system. This enabling technology therefore offers a viable alternative in order to escape the viscous that has plagued the space launch industry and that has limited the small and micro satellite delivery for planetary science.

  10. Advanced biofuel production by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Nicolaas A; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-06-01

    Replacement of conventional transportation fuels with biofuels will require production of compounds that can cover the complete fuel spectrum, ranging from gasoline to kerosene. Advanced biofuels are expected to play an important role in replacing fossil fuels because they have improved properties compared with ethanol and some of these may have the energy density required for use in heavy duty vehicles, ships, and aviation. Moreover, advanced biofuels can be used as drop-in fuels in existing internal combustion engines. The yeast cell factory Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be turned into a producer of higher alcohols (1-butanol and isobutanol), sesquiterpenes (farnesene and bisabolene), and fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel), and here we discusses progress in metabolic engineering of S. cerevisiae for production of these advanced biofuels. PMID:23628723

  11. TEST/QA PLAN FOR THE VERIFICATION TESTING OF ALTERNATIVES OR REFORMULATED LIQUID FUELS, FUEL ADDITIVES, FUEL EMULSONS, AND LUBRICANTS FOR HIGHWAY AND NONROAD USE HEAVY DUTY DIESEL ENGINES AND LIGHT DUTY GASOLINE ENGINES AND VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established the Environmental Technology Verification Program to accelerate the development and commercialization of improved environmental technology through third party verification and reporting of product performance. Research Triangl...

  12. A maintenance model for k-out-of-n subsystems aboard a fleet of advanced commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Proposed highly reliable fault-tolerant reconfigurable digital control systems for a future generation of commercial aircraft consist of several k-out-of-n subsystems. Each of these flight-critical subsystems will consist of n identical components, k of which must be functioning properly in order for the aircraft to be dispatched. Failed components are recoverable; they are repaired in a shop. Spares are inventoried at a main base where they may be substituted for failed components on planes during layovers. Penalties are assessed when failure of a k-out-of-n subsystem causes a dispatch cancellation or delay. A maintenance model for a fleet of aircraft with such control systems is presented. The goals are to demonstrate economic feasibility and to optimize.

  13. N plus 3 Advanced Concept Studies for Supersonic Commercial Transport Aircraft Entering Service in the 2030-2035 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welge, H. Robert; Bonet, John; Magee, Todd; Tompkins, Daniel; Britt, Terry R.; Nelson, Chet; Miller, Gregory; Stenson, Douglas; Staubach, J. Brent; Bala, Naushir; Duge, Robert; OBrien, Mark; Cedoz, Robert; Barlow, Andrew; Martins, Steve; Viars, Phil; Rasheed, Adam; Kirby, Michelle; Raczynski, Chris; Roughen, Kevin; Doyle, Steven; Alston, Katherine; Page, Juliet; Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Boeing, with Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Rolls-Royce, M4 Engineering, Wyle Laboratories and Georgia Institute of Technology, conducted a study of supersonic commercial aircraft concepts and enabling technologies for the year 2030-2035 timeframe. The work defined the market and environmental/regulatory conditions that could evolve by the 2030/35 time period, from which vehicle performance goals were derived. Relevant vehicle concepts and technologies are identified that are anticipated to meet these performance and environmental goals. A series of multidisciplinary analyses trade studies considering vehicle sizing, mission performance and environmental conformity determined the appropriate concepts. Combinations of enabling technologies and the required technology performance levels needed to meet the desired goals were identified. Several high priority technologies are described in detail, including roadmaps with risk assessments that outline objectives, key technology challenges, detailed tasks and schedules and demonstrations that need to be performed. A representative configuration is provided for reference purposes, along with associated performance estimates based on these key technologies.

  14. Recent advances in near-surface moisture monitoring using commercial microwave links in Tel-Aviv University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Pinhas; David, Noam; Messer, Hagit

    2015-04-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic radiation in the lower atmosphere, at centimeter wavelengths, is impaired by atmospheric conditions. Absorption and scattering of the radiation, at frequencies of tens of GHz, are directly related to the atmospheric phenomena, primarily precipitation, oxygen, mist, fog and water vapor. As was recently shown, wireless communication networks supply high resolution precipitation measurements at ground level while often being situated in flood prone areas, covering large parts of these hazardous regions. On the other hand, at present, there are no satisfactory real time flash flood warning facilities found to cope well with this phenomenon. I will exemplify the flash flood warning potential of the commercial wireless communication system for two different semi-arid region cases when floods occurred in the Judean desert and in the northern Negev in Israel. In addition, I will review our recent improvements in monitoring rainfall as well as other-than-rain phenomena like, atmospheric moisture. Special focus on fog monitoring potential will be highlighted. References: N. David, O. Sendik, H. Messer and P. Alpert, "Cellular network infrastructure- the future of fog monitoring?", BAMS, (in press, 2015). N. David, P. Alpert and H. Messer, "The potential of cellular network infrastructures for sudden rainfall monitoring in dry climate regions", Atmospheric Research, 131, 13-21, 2013.

  15. Advances in our understanding of the global diversity and distribution of Hematodinium spp. - significant pathogens of commercially exploited crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Small, Hamish J

    2012-06-01

    Hematodinium species are parasitic dinoflagellates known to infect a growing number of marine crustacean genera from around the world, many of which support important commercial fisheries. Affected hosts undergo dramatic pathological alterations to their organs, tissues and hemolymph. There are no known control measures for this disease. Economically important wild fished hosts known to be susceptible to Hematodinium spp. include Tanner crabs Chionoecetes bairdi and snow crabs Chionoecetes opilio in the Northeast Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, blue crabs Callinectes sapidus from the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States, and Norway lobsters Nephrops norvegicus and Edible crabs Cancer pagurus from European waters. In recent years, several farmed aquatic crustaceans in China have also been negatively impacted by Hematodinium-associated diseases, likely representing an emerging issue for that expanding industry. Molecular sequence data indicates that there are two species, Hematodinium perezi, and a second species, currently unnamed, infecting hosts from the Northern Hemisphere. Three subtly different H. perezi genotypes have been identified infecting hosts from different geographical locations: the English Channel, the eastern seaboard of the United States and Gulf of Mexico, and eastern China. Genotypic variability between isolates of the Hematodinium sp. infecting hosts from the North Atlantic and North Pacific has also been reported, though it is unclear whether there is any correlation with host or location. Identification of Hematodinium species (and genotypes of H. perezi) is largely dependent upon geographical location, rather than host species. However this is not exclusive, as both Hematodinium species can be found infecting multiple species from same location, as is the case in the English Channel. PMID:22433998

  16. Utility Advanced Turbine Systems program (ATS) technical readiness testing and pre-commercial demonstration. First quarterly report, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Brushwood, J.

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the ATS program is to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally-superior and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Specific performance targets have been set using natural gas as the primary fuel: (1) System efficiency that will exceed 60% (lower heating value basis) on natural gas for large scale utility turbine systems; for industrial applications, systems that will result in a 15% improvement in heat rate compared to currently available gas turbine systems. (2) An environmentally superior system that will not require the use of post combustion emissions controls under full load operating conditions. (3) Busbar energy costs that are 10% less than current state-of-the-art turbine systems, while meeting the same environmental requirements. (4) Fuel-flexible designs that will operate on natural gas but are capable of being adapted to operate on coal-derived or biomass fuels. (5) Reliability- Availability-Maintainability (RAM) that is equivalent to the current turbine systems. (6) Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals. (7) Commercial systems that will enter the market in the year 2000. In Phase 1 of the ATS program, Westinghouse found that efficiency significantly increases when the traditional combined-cycle power plant is re-configured with closed- loop steam cooling of the hot gas path. Phase II activities involved the development of a 318MW natural gas fired turbine conceptual design with the flexibility to bum coal-derived and biomass fuels. Phases I and II of the ATS program have been completed. Phase III, the current phase, completes the research and development activities and develops hardware specifications from the Phase II conceptual design. Future Phase IV activities consist of manufacturing, constructing,

  17. Flight tests of advanced 3D-PFD with commercial flat-panel avionics displays and EGPWS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gang; Feyereisen, Thea; Gannon, Aaron; Wilson, Blake; Schmitt, John; Wyatt, Sandy; Engels, Jary

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes flight trials of Honeywell Advanced 3D Primary Flight Display System. The system employs a large-format flat-panel avionics display presently used in Honeywell PRIMUS EPIC flight-deck products and is coupled to an on-board EGPWS system. The heads-down primary flight display consists of dynamic primary-flight attitude information, flight-path and approach symbology similar to Honeywell HUD2020 heads-up displays, and a synthetic 3D perspective-view terrain environment generated with Honeywell"s EGPWS terrain data. Numerous flights are conducted on-board Honeywell Citation V aircraft and significant amount of pilot feedback are collected with portion of the data summarized in this paper. The system development is aimed at leveraging several well-established avionics components (HUD, EGPWS, large-format displays) in order to produce an integrated system that significantly reduces pilot workload, increases overall situation awareness, and is more beneficial to flight operations than achievable with separated systems.

  18. Interview. The story of Advanced BioHealing: commercializing bioengineered tissue products. Mr Tozer speaks to Emily Culme-Seymour, Assistant Commissioning Editor.

    PubMed

    Tozer, Dean

    2011-03-01

    Dean Tozer is Senior Vice President at Advanced BioHealing, Inc. (ABH), overseeing marketing, corporate development, government affairs, product development, various regulatory functions and international expansion. After completing his Bachelor of Commerce from Saint Mary's University in Halifax, Canada, Mr Tozer spent 10 years in the global pharmaceutical industry, primarily with G.D. Searle (a division of Monsanto) where he had a wide variety of roles in Global Marketing, Sales, Business Redesign, and Accounting and Finance. Mr Tozer then worked as a consultant to the biopharmaceutical industry, assisting start-up organizations in developing commercial strategies for both pharmaceutical products and biomedical devices, prior to joining ABH in March 2006 as Vice President of Marketing & Corporate Development. In addition to his leadership role at ABH, Mr Tozer currently serves as an officer and board member for the Alliance for Regenerative Medicine, a Washington DC-based organization formed to advance regenerative medicine by representing and supporting the community of companies, academic research institutions, patient advocacy groups, foundations, and other organizations before the Congress, federal agencies and the general public. PMID:21391848

  19. Vehicle Data for Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) and Hybrid Fuel Vehicles (HEVs) from the Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFCD)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The AFDC provides search capabilities for many different models of both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. Engine and transmission type, fuel and class, fuel economy and emission certification are some of the facts available. The search will also help users locate dealers in their areas and do cost analyses. Information on alternative fuel vehicles and on advanced technology vehicles, along with calculators, resale and conversion information, links to incentives and programs such as Clean Cities, and dozens of fact sheets and publications make this section of the AFDC a valuable resource for car buyers.

  20. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly progress report, December 1, 1995--February 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the overall program status of the General Electric Advanced Gas Turbine Development program, and reports progress on three main task areas. The program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70-MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology, utilizing a new air cooling methodology; and (2) a 200-MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced GE heavy-duty machine, utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. The emphasis for the industrial system is placed on cycle design and low emission combustion. For the utility system, the focus is on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling while achieving low emission combustion. The three tasks included in this progress report are on: conversion to a coal-fueled advanced turbine system, integrated program plan, and design and test of critical components. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Can currently available advanced combustion biomass cook-stoves provide health relevant exposure reductions? Results from initial assessment of select commercial models in India.

    PubMed

    Sambandam, Sankar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ghosh, Santu; Sadasivam, Arulselvan; Madhav, Satish; Ramasamy, Rengaraj; Samanta, Maitreya; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Rehman, Hafeez; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2015-03-01

    Household air pollution from use of solid fuels is a major contributor to the national burden of disease in India. Currently available models of advanced combustion biomass cook-stoves (ACS) report significantly higher efficiencies and lower emissions in the laboratory when compared to traditional cook-stoves, but relatively little is known about household level exposure reductions, achieved under routine conditions of use. We report results from initial field assessments of six commercial ACS models from the states of Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh in India. We monitored 72 households (divided into six arms to each receive an ACS model) for 24-h kitchen area concentrations of PM2.5 and CO before and (1-6 months) after installation of the new stove together with detailed information on fixed and time-varying household characteristics. Detailed surveys collected information on user perceptions regarding acceptability for routine use. While the median percent reductions in 24-h PM2.5 and CO concentrations ranged from 2 to 71% and 10-66%, respectively, concentrations consistently exceeded WHO air quality guideline values across all models raising questions regarding the health relevance of such reductions. Most models were perceived to be sub-optimally designed for routine use often resulting in inappropriate and inadequate levels of use. Household concentration reductions also run the risk of being compromised by high ambient backgrounds from community level solid-fuel use and contributions from surrounding fossil fuel sources. Results indicate that achieving health relevant exposure reductions in solid-fuel using households will require integration of emissions reductions with ease of use and adoption at community scale, in cook-stove technologies. Imminent efforts are also needed to accelerate the progress towards cleaner fuels. PMID:25293811

  2. Advanced turbine systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, September 1 - November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Achieving the advanced turbine system goals of 60% efficiency, 8 ppmvd NOx, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system: the turbine inlet temperature must increase, although this will lead to increased NOx emission. Improved coating and materials along with creative combustor design can result in solutions. The program is focused on two specific products: a 70 MW class industrial gas turbine based on GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling methodology, and a 200 MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced GE heavy duty machines utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. This report reports on tasks 3-8 for the industrial ATS and the utility ATS. Some impingement heat transfer results are given.

  3. Advanced Materials Development Program: Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines program plan, 1983--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The purpose of the Ceramic Technology for Advanced Heat Engines (CTAHE) Project is the development of an industrial technology base capable of providing reliable and cost-effective high temperature ceramic components for application in advanced heat engines. There is a deliberate emphasis on industrial'' in the purpose statement. The project is intended to support the US ceramic and engine industries by providing the needed ceramic materials technology. The heat engine programs have goals of component development and proof-of-concept. The CTAHE Project is aimed at developing generic basic ceramic technology and does not involve specific engine designs and components. The materials research and development efforts in the CTAHE Project are focused on the needs and general requirements of the advanced gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The CTAHE Project supports the DOE Office of Transportation Systems' heat engine programs, Advanced Turbine Technology Applications (ATTAP) and Heavy Duty Transport (HDT) by providing the basic technology required for development of reliable and cost-effective ceramic components. The heat engine programs provide the iterative component design, fabrication, and test development logic. 103 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. MOVES2014: Heavy-duty Vehicle Emissions Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report updates MOVES methods for evaluating current HD diesel NOx emission rates based on comparisons to independent data from EPA’s IUVP and Houston drayage programs. The report also details methods/assumptions made for HD gasoline HC, CO and NOx emission rates using reduct...

  5. HEAVY-DUTY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS MODEL (GEM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Class 2b-8 vocational truck manufacturers and Class 7/8 tractor manufacturers would be subject to vehicle-based fuel economy and emission standards that would use a truck simulation model to evaluate the impact of the truck tires and/or tractor cab design on vehicle compliance wi...

  6. PARTICLE TRAP EFFECTS ON HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL ENGINE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ceramic trap used in this study was highly effective in reducing particle emissions in the diesel exhaust; the weight of emitted particles and their associated chemicals in the filtered exhaust was reduced by over 90% under the two different work loads. As a consequence...

  7. Commercialization of the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Allan H.

    1992-01-01

    Traces the growth of the Internet from its beginnings as the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency's ARPAnet. Discusses key issues facing network service providers including: acceptable use policies, liability exposure, the integration of research and production networks, the commercialization of the networks, and the need for global planning.…

  8. Commercial Crew Program CCiCap Partners

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Commercial Crew Program and its newest Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) partners are embracing the American spirit as they advance their integrated rocket and spacecraft design...

  9. Photonics in advanced process control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundqvist, Stefan H.; Andersson, Torbjoern; Grimbrandt, Jan

    1999-02-01

    A measurement system optimized for process control in the industrial environment has been developed and successfully commercialized. The system comprises a central unit, which contains all sensitive electronic and electro-optic parts. Fiber optics is used to transport the probing laser light to the measuring points in the process. Extremely rugged sensor heads are used to interface to the harsh industrial environment. Adaptation to the different applications is solely made up by changing the type of sensor head used. Six different process control applications will be presented. Ammonia slip monitoring in the NO(subscript x4/ reduction process in power stations, waste incinerators and heavy-duty diesel engines. Measurement of water vapor and oxygen in municipal waste to energy plants. Monitoring of oxygen and the thermodynamic gas temperature in steel pellets manufacturing. Monitoring HF reduction in a dry scrubber and HF emission from a pot room. Experiences of CO emission peak monitoring to protect electro filter in a chemical waste incinerator. Finally, we will describe measurements of HCI in the raw gas to access the calorific value of waste and to optimize bag-house filter operation.

  10. Natural Gas for Advanced Dual-Fuel Combustion Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Nicholas Ryan

    Natural gas fuels represent the next evolution of low-carbon energy feedstocks powering human activity worldwide. The internal combustion engine, the energy conversion device widely used by society for more than one century, is capable of utilizing advanced combustion strategies in pursuit of ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions. Yet many emerging advanced combustion strategies depend upon traditional petroleum-based fuels for their operation. In this research the use of natural gas, namely methane, is applied to both conventional and advanced dual-fuel combustion strategies. In the first part of this work both computational and experimental studies are undertaken to examine the viability of utilizing methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel in reactivity controlled compression ignition, a leading advanced dual-fuel combustion strategy. As a result, methane is shown to be capable of significantly extending the load limits for dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition in both light- and heavy-duty engines. In the second part of this work heavy-duty single-cylinder engine experiments are performed to research the performance of both conventional dual-fuel (diesel pilot ignition) and advanced dual-fuel (reactivity controlled compression ignition) combustion strategies using methane as the premixed low reactivity fuel. Both strategies are strongly influenced by equivalence ratio; diesel pilot ignition offers best performance at higher equivalence ratios and higher premixed methane ratios, whereas reactivity controlled compression ignition offers superior performance at lower equivalence ratios and lower premixed methane ratios. In the third part of this work experiments are performed in order to determine the dominant mode of heat release for both dual-fuel combustion strategies. By studying the dual-fuel homogeneous charge compression ignition and single-fuel spark ignition, strategies representative of autoignition and flame propagation

  11. Commercial Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Phil McAlister delivers a presentation by the Commercial Crew (CC) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to...

  12. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the use of composite components in commercial aircraft. NASA has been active in sponsoring flight service programs with advanced composites for the last 10 years, with 2.5 million total composite component hours accumulated since 1970 on commercial transports and helicopters with no significant degradation in residual strength of composite components. Design, inspection, and maintenance procedures have been developed; a major NASA/US industry technology program has been developed to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites.

  13. Commercialization of nickel and iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1996-12-31

    Metallurgists are taught that intermetallics are brittle phases and should be avoided in alloys of commercial interest. This education is so deeply rooted that irrespective of significant advances made in ductilization of aluminides,the road to their acceptance commercialization is extremely difficult. This paper identifies the requirements for commercialization of any new alloys and reports the activities carried out to commercialize Ni and Fe aluminides. The paper also identifies areas which meet the current commercialization requirements and areas needing additional effort.

  14. Utility Advanced Turbine System (ATS) technology readiness testing and pre-commercial demonstration -- Phase 3. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detailed design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which will be sited and operated in Phase 4. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance, reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue. This report summarizes work accomplished during the period 2Q96.

  15. Utility Advanced Turbine System (ATS) technology readiness testing and pre-commercial demonstration phase 3. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The overall objective of the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) Phase 3 Cooperative Agreement between GE and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the development of the GE 7H and 9H combined cycle power systems. The major effort will be expended on detailed design. Validation of critical components and technologies will be performed including: hot gas path component testing, sub-scale compressor testing, steam purity test trials, and rotational heat transfer confirmation testing. Processes will be developed to support the manufacture of the first system, which will be sited and operated in Phase 4. Technology enhancements that are not required for the first machine design but will be critical for future ATS advances in performance reliability, and costs will be initiated. Long-term tests of materials to confirm design life predictions will continue.

  16. Advanced lubrication systems and materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, S.

    1998-05-07

    This report described the work conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology under an interagency agreement signed in September 1992 between DOE and NIST for 5 years. The interagency agreement envisions continual funding from DOE to support the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine technologies in terms of lubrication, friction, and wear control encountered in the development of advanced transportation technologies. However, in 1994, the DOE office of transportation technologies was reorganized and the tribology program was dissolved. The work at NIST therefore continued at a low level without further funding from DOE. The work continued to support transportation technologies in the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine development. Under this program, significant progress has been made in advancing the state of the art of lubrication technology for advanced engine research and development. Some of the highlights are: (1) developed an advanced high temperature liquid lubricant capable of sustaining high temperatures in a prototype heat engine; (2) developed a novel liquid lubricant which potentially could lower the emission of heavy duty diesel engines; (3) developed lubricant chemistries for ceramics used in the heat engines; (4) developed application maps for ceramic lubricant chemistry combinations for design purpose; and (5) developed novel test methods to screen lubricant chemistries for automotive air-conditioning compressors lubricated by R-134a (Freon substitute). Most of these findings have been reported to the DOE program office through Argonne National Laboratory who manages the overall program. A list of those reports and a copy of the report submitted to the Argonne National Laboratory is attached in Appendix A. Additional reports have also been submitted separately to DOE program managers. These are attached in Appendix B.

  17. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  18. Commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Togai, Masaki

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on commercial applications of fuzzy logic in Japan are presented. Topics covered include: suitable application area of fuzzy theory; characteristics of fuzzy control; fuzzy closed-loop controller; Mitsubishi heavy air conditioner; predictive fuzzy control; the Sendai subway system; automatic transmission; fuzzy logic-based command system for antilock braking system; fuzzy feed-forward controller; and fuzzy auto-tuning system.

  19. Short communication: Effect of commercial or depurinized milk diet on plasma advanced oxidation protein products, cardiovascular markers, and bone marrow CD34+ stem cell potential in rat experimental hyperuricemia.

    PubMed

    Kocic, Gordana; Sokolovic, Dusan; Jevtovic, Tatjana; Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Veljkovic, Andrej; Kocic, Hristina; Stojanovic, Svetlana; Jovanovic, Aneta; Jovanovic, Jelena; Zivkovic, Petar

    2014-11-01

    Cardiovascular repair and myocardial contractility may be improved by migration of bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) and their delivery to the site of injury, a process known as BMSC homing. The aim of our study was to examine the dietary effect of a newly patented depurinized milk (DP) that is almost free of uric acid and purine and pyrimidine compounds compared with a standard commercial 1.5% fat UHT milk diet or allopurinol therapy in rat experimental hyperuricemia. Bone marrow stem cell potential (BMCD34(+), CD34-postive bone marrow cells), plasma oxidative stress parameters [advanced oxidation protein products, AOPP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)], myocardial damage markers [creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)], plasma cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were investigated. The DP milk diet significantly increased the number of BMCD34(+) stem cells compared with commercial UHT milk. Allopurinol given alone also increased the number of BMCD34(+). Hyperuricemia caused a significant increase in all plasma enzyme markers for myocardial damage (CPK, LDH, and AST). A cardioprotective effect was achieved with allopurinol but almost equally with DP milk and more than with commercial milk. Regarding plasma AOPP, TBARS, and cholesterol levels, the most effective treatment was DP milk. In conclusion, the protective role of a milk diet on cardiovascular function may be enhanced through the new depurinized milk diet, which may improve cardiovascular system function via increased bone marrow stem cell regenerative potential, decreased plasma oxidative stress parameters, and decreased levels of myocardial damage markers and cholesterol. New dairy technology strategies focused on eliminating harmful milk compounds should be completely nontoxic. Novel milk products should be tested for their ability to improve tissue repair and function. PMID:25218755

  20. Advanced oxidation of the commercial nonionic surfactant octylphenol polyethoxylate Triton™ X-45 by the persulfate/UV-C process: effect of operating parameters and kinetic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Olmez-Hanci, Tugba; Genç, Bora; Dursun, Duygu

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the potential use of a sulfate radical (SO·−4)-based photochemical oxidation process to treat the commercial nonionic surfactant octylphenol polyethoxylate (OPPE) Triton™ X-45. For this purpose, the effect of initial S2O2−8 (0–5.0 mM) and OPPE (10–100 mg/L) concentrations on OPPE and its organic carbon content (TOC) removal were investigated at an initial reaction pH of 6.5. Results indicated that very fast OPPE degradation (100%) accompanied with high TOC abatement rates (90%) could be achieved for 10 and 20 mg/L aqueous OPPE at elevated S2O2−8 concentrations (≥2.5 mM). S2O2−8/UV-C treatment was still capable of complete OPPE removal up to an initial concentration of 40 mg/L in the presence of 2.5 mM S2O2−8. On the other hand, TOC removal efficiencies dropped down to only 40% under the same reaction conditions. S2O2−8/UV-C oxidation of OPPE was also compared with the relatively well-known and established H2O2/UV-C oxidation process. Treatment results showed that the performance of S2O2−8/UV-C was comparable to that of H2O2/UV-C oxidation for the degradation and mineralization of OPPE. In order to elucidate the relative reactivity and selectivity of SO·−4 and HO·, bimolecular reaction rate coefficients of OPPE with SO·−4 and HO· were determined by employing competition kinetics with aqueous phenol (47 μM) selected as the reference compound. The pseudo-first-order abatement rate coefficient obtained for OPPE during S2O2−8/UV-C oxidation (0.044 min−1) was found to be significantly lower than that calculated for phenol (0.397 min−1). In the case of H2O2/UV-C oxidation however, similar pseudo-first-order abatement rate coefficients were obtained for both OPPE (0.087 min−1) and phenol (0.140 min−1). From the kinetic study, second-order reaction rate coefficients for OPPE with SO·−4 and HO· were determined as 9.8 × 108 M−1 s−1 and 4.1 × 109 M−1 s−1, respectively. The kinetic study also revealed

  1. Advanced oxidation of the commercial nonionic surfactant octylphenol polyethoxylate TritonTM X-45 by the persulfate/UV-C process: effect of operating parameters and kinetic evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Olmez-Hanci, Tugba; Genc, Bora; Dursun, Duygu

    2013-03-01

    This study explored the potential use of a sulfate radical (SO4●-)-based photochemical oxidation process to treat the commercial nonionic surfactant octylphenol polyethoxylate (OPPE) TritonTMX-45. For this purpose, the effect of initial S2O82- (0-5.0 mM) and OPPE (10-100 mg/L) concentrations on OPPE and its organic carbon content (TOC) removal were investigated at an initial reaction pH of 6.5. Results indicated that very fast OPPE degradation (100%) accompanied with high TOC abatement rates (90%) could be achieved for 10 and 20 mg/L aqueous OPPE at elevated S2O82- concentrations (>2.5 mM). S2O82-/UV-C treatment was still capable of complete OPPE removal up to an initial concentration of 40 mg/L in the presence of 2.5 mM S2O82-. On the other hand, TOC removal efficiencies dropped down to only 40% under the same reaction conditions. S2O82-/UV-C oxidation of OPPE was also compared with the relatively well-known and established H2O2/UV-C oxidation process. Treatment results showed that the performance of S2O82-/UV-C was comparable to that of H2O2/UV-C oxidation for the degradation and mineralization of OPPE. In order to elucidate the relative reactivity and selectivity of SO4●- and HO●, bimolecular reaction rate coefficients of OPPE with SO4●- and HO● were determined by employing competition kinetics with aqueous phenol (47 M) selected as the reference compound. The first-order abatement rate coefficient obtained for OPPE during S2O82-/UV-C oxidation (0.044 min-1) was found to be significantly lower than that calculated for phenol (0.397 min-1). In the case of H2O2/UV-C oxidation however, similar first-order abatement rate coefficients were obtained for both OPPE (0.087 min-1) and phenol (0.140 min-1). Second-order reaction rate coefficients for OPPE with SO4●- and HO● were determined as 9.8108 M-1s-1 and 4.1109 M-1s-1, respectively. The kinetic study also revealed that the selectivity of SO4●- was found to be significantly higher than that of

  2. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Flight experience gained with numerous composite aircraft structures is discussed. Both commercial transports and helicopters are included. Design concepts with significant mass savings and appropriate inspection and maintenance procedures are among the factors considered. Also, a major NASA/U.S. industry technology program to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites is described, including preliminary results. Ground and flight environmental effects on the composite materials used in the flight service programs are also discussed.

  3. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  4. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-31

    Achieving the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) goals of 60% efficiency, single-digit NO{sub x}, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NO{sub x} emission. Improved coatings and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. GE`s view of the market, in conjunction with the industrial and utility objectives, requires the development of Advanced Gas Turbine Systems which encompass two potential products: a new aeroderivative combined-cycle system for the industrial market, and a combined-cycle system for the utility sector that is based on an advanced frame machine. The GE Advanced Gas Turbine Development program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70 MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling methodology; (2) a 200 MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced Ge heavy-duty machine utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. Both of these activities required the identification and resolution of technical issues critical to achieving ATS goals. The emphasis for the industrial ATS was placed upon innovative cycle design and low emission combustion. The emphasis for the utility ATS was placed on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling, while utilizing demonstrated and planned improvements in low emission combustion. Significant overlap in the development programs will allow common technologies to be applied to both products. GE Power Systems is solely responsible for offering GE products for the industrial and utility markets.

  5. Commercial LANDSAT?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Private industry should assume responsibility either for the United States' land satellite (LANDSAT) system or for both the land and the weather satellite systems, recommends the Land Remote Sensing Satellite Advisory Committee. The committee (Eos, June 29, 1982, p. 553), composed of representatives from academia, industry, and government, has a working group that is evaluating the potential for commercialization of remote sensing satellites.The recommendations call for industry ownership or operation of either or both of the remote sensing systems, but only up to and including the holding of raw, unprocessed data. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) currently operates LANDSAT but will be relinquishing its responsibility to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) on January 31. NOAA already operates the U.S. civilian weather satellite service, which includes the NOAA-5, NOAA-6, and the Geostationary Operational Environmental (GOES) satellites (Eos, June 2, 1981, p. 522).

  6. Commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  7. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial aircraft manufacturers are making production commitments to composite structure for future aircraft and modifications to current production aircraft. Flight service programs with advanced composites sponsored by NASA during the past 10 years are described. Approximately 2.5 million total composite component flight hours have been accumulated since 1970 on both commercial transports and helicopters. Design concepts with significant mass savings were developed, appropriate inspection and maintenance procedures were established, and satisfactory service was achieved for the various composite components. A major NASA/U.S. industry technology program to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites was undertaken. Ground and flight environmental effects on the composite materials used in the flight service programs supplement the flight service evaluation.

  8. Commercial development of advanced PFBC technology

    SciTech Connect

    McClung, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    In the 1970s, the coal-fired power generation industry recognized that the declining price of electricity over the previous five decades was coming to an end. Maximum use had been made of existing cycle efficiencies and scale-up. As researchers looked for a new approach, the focus shifted from the fully developed Rankine cycle to a new array of coal-fired plants using combined-cycle technology. Now, coal-fired combined-cycle plants are being introduced that shift power production to the Brayton cycle. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) are two technologies at the forefront of this approach. The PFBC approach burns coal in a fluidized bed combustor at elevated pressure. The plant generates electricity from a gas turbine (expanding the hot, pressurized products of combustion) in addition to the conventional steam (bottoming) cycle. Such a plant can achieve thermal efficiencies of about 40 percent and have a levelized busbar cost below any competing coal-based technology. In addition to the economic benefits, the {open_quotes}built-in{close_quotes} feature of environmental control (SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}) in the combustion process eliminates the need for external gas cleanup such as scrubbers. A PFBC can burn a wider range of coals than a pulverized-coal-fired (PCF) boiler and is simpler to operate and maintain than an IGCC power plant.

  9. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  10. Advanced jack up rig breaking U.S. construction drought

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, P.

    1997-03-10

    A new heavy duty jack up, due in mid-1998, will be able to simultaneously drill and produce wells in harsher environments and deeper water than current jack ups in the worldwide fleet. Rowan Cos. Inc.`s Gorilla V is the only mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) currently under construction in the US. Two more enhanced Gorilla design rigs are planned before the year 2000. The enhanced Gorilla class jack up represents the most technologically advanced jack up unit constructed to date. The rigs are structurally designed to meet year-round weather challenges in the harshest geographical environments. Rising demand for drilling rigs, coupled with a dwindling fleet, is generating supply shortages around the world, particularly at the high-specification end of the market. Even increasing the historical retirement age from 20 to 25 years, rig attrition continues at a level of about 18 rigs per year. Apart from the jack up market per se, however, Rowan`s strategy in designing and building enhanced Gorillas is to improve existing jack up drilling technology and offer the versatility to operate as a drilling unit, a mobile production unit, or both simultaneously in either open water locations or alongside existing platforms. The paper discusses the market for these heavy jack-ups, the use of one on the Cohasset project in Nova Scotia, the Gorilla V and enhanced Gorillas, geographical range of use, and MOPU economics.

  11. 40 CFR 86.1866-12 - CO2 credits for advanced technology vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1866-12 CO2 credits...

  12. Aerocapacitor commercialization plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-12

    The purpose of the Power-One Aerocapacitor Commercialization Plan is to communicate to members of management and to all employees the overall objectives of the corporation. Power-One, Inc., has participated in a US Federal Government Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), entitled {open_quotes}Advanced Power Conversion based on the Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}: the project is a group effort, with Lawrence Livermore National Labs, GenCorp/Aerojet, PolyStor Corp. (a start-up company), and Power-One forming the consortium. The expected resulting technology is the {open_quotes}Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}, which possesses much higher performance levels than the usual capacitors on the market today. Power-One hopes to incorporate the Aerocapacitor into some of its products, hence enhancing their performance, as well as market privately-labeled aerocapacitors through its distribution channels. This document describes the details of Power-One`s plan to bring to market and commercialize the Aerocapacitor and Aerocapacitor-based products. This plan was formulated while Power-One was part of the Oerocap project. It has since pulled out of this project. What is presented in this plan is the work which was developed prior to the business decision to terminate this work.

  13. MPRS (URBOT) commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccimaro, Donny; Baker, William; Hamilton, Ian; Heikkila, Leif; Renick, Joel

    2003-09-01

    The Man Portable Robotic System (MPRS) project objective was to build and deliver hardened robotic systems to the U.S. Army"s 10 Mountain Division in Fort Drum, New York. The system, specifically designed for tunnel and sewer reconnaissance, was equipped with visual and audio sensors that allowed the Army engineers to detect trip wires and booby traps before personnel entered a potentially hostile environment. The MPRS system has shown to be useful in government and military supported field exercises, but the system has yet to reach the hands of civilian users. Potential users in Law Enforcement and Border Patrol have shown a strong interest in the system, but robotic costs were thought to be prohibitive for law enforcement budgets. Through the Center for Commercialization of Advanced Technology (CCAT) program, an attempt will be made to commercialize the MPRS. This included a detailed market analysis performed to verify the market viability of the technologies. Hence, the first step in this phase is to fully define the marketability of proposed technologies in terms of actual market size, pricing and cost factors, competitive risks and/or advantages, and other key factors used to develop marketing and business plans.

  14. 30 GHz Commercial Satellite Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Ponchak, George E.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's research and development work in satellite communications for the past 10 years has included a major technology thrust aimed at opening the Ka frequency band to commercial exploitation. This has included the development and testing of advanced system network architectures, on-board switching and processing, multibeam and phased array antennas, and satellite and ground terminal RF and digital hardware. Development work in system hardware has focused on critical components including power amplifiers, satellite IF switch matrices, low noise receivers, baseband processors, and high data rate bandwidth efficient modems. This paper describes NASA's work in developing and testing 30 GHz low noise satellite receivers for commercial space communications uplink applications. Frequencies allotted for fixed service commercial satellite communications in the Ka band are 27.5 - 30.0 GHz for uplink transmission and 17.7 - 20.2 GHz for downlink transmission. The relatively large 2.5 GHz bandwidth lends itself to wideband, high data rate digital transmission applications.

  15. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  16. Commercializing medical technology

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880’s, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930’s–1970’s) because the German scientists fled Hitler’s government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980’s. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain

  17. Commercial Electric Vehicle (EV) Development and Manufacturing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Leeve, Dion

    2014-06-30

    , valuable insights and lessons into this all-electric vehicle propulsion were gained during the performance of this effort and can be revisited when battery chemistry and technology advance to the point of more suitable economic viability. Additionally, another goal of the ARRA act and this specific grant was to manufacture the product in the, at that time, economically depressed Northwest Indiana area. Navistar chose a location in Wakarusa, Indiana which fulfilled this requirement. Navistar was and continues to be committed to alternative fuel and propulsion options as an industry leader in the medium and heavy duty truck industry.

  18. The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The ADvanced SEParation (ADSEP) commercial payload is making use of major advances in separation technology: The Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE); the Micorencapsulation experiment; and the Hemoglobin Separation Experiment (HSE). Using ADSEP, commercial researchers will attempt to determine the partition coefficients for model particles in a two-phase system. With this information, researchers can develop a higher resolution, more effective cell isolation procedure that can be used for many different types of research and for improved health care. The advanced separation technology is already being made available for use in ground-based laboratories.

  19. Unconventional Reservoirs: Ideas to Commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    There is no shortage of coal, oil, and natural gas in the world. What are sometimes in short supply are fresh ideas. Scientific innovation combined with continued advances in drilling and completion technology revitalized the natural gas industry in North America by making production from shale economic. Similar advances are now happening in shale oil. The convergence of ideas and technology has created a commercial environment in which unconventional reservoirs could supply natural gas to the North American consumer for 50 years or more. And, although not as far along in terms of resource development, oil from the Eagle Ford and Bakken Shales and the oil sands in Alberta could have a similar impact. Without advanced horizontal drilling, geosteering, staged hydraulic-fracture stimulation, synthetic and natural proppants, evolution of hydraulic fluid chemistry, and high-end monitoring and simulation, many of these plays would not exist. Yet drilling and completion technology cannot stand alone. Also required for success are creative thinking, favorable economics, and a tolerance for risk by operators. Current understanding and completion practices will leave upwards of 80% of oil and natural gas in the shale reservoirs. The opportunity to enhance recovery through advanced reservoir understanding and imaging, as well as through recompletions and infill drilling, is considerable. The path from ideas to commercialization will continue to provide economic results in unconventional reservoirs.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 86 - Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Including Light-Duty Trucks Table 1—Compliance Level Determination Using the Primary PCA Sampling Plan Compliance level 2 PCA test sample size.1 24 15 25 15 26 16 27 17 28 17 29 18 30 18 31 19 32 20 33...—Values of K for the Reduced Fixed PCA Sampling Plan Value of K Sample size: 3 1.602 4 1.114 5 0.895 6...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 86 - Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Including Light-Duty Trucks Table 1—Compliance Level Determination Using the Primary PCA Sampling Plan Compliance level 2 PCA test sample size.1 24 15 25 15 26 16 27 17 28 17 29 18 30 18 31 19 32 20 33...—Values of K for the Reduced Fixed PCA Sampling Plan Value of K Sample size: 3 1.602 4 1.114 5 0.895 6...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 86 - Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Including Light-Duty Trucks Table 1—Compliance Level Determination Using the Primary PCA Sampling Plan Compliance level 2 PCA test sample size.1 24 15 25 15 26 16 27 17 28 17 29 18 30 18 31 19 32 20 33 20 34 21...—Values of K for the Reduced Fixed PCA Sampling Plan Value of K Sample size: 3 1.602 4 1.114 5 0.895 6...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix Xii to Part 86 - Tables for Production Compliance Auditing of Heavy-Duty Engines and Heavy-Duty Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Vehicles, Including Light-Duty Trucks Table 1—Compliance Level Determination Using the Primary PCA Sampling Plan Compliance level 2 PCA test sample size.1 24 15 25 15 26 16 27 17 28 17 29 18 30 18 31 19 32 20 33...—Values of K for the Reduced Fixed PCA Sampling Plan Value of K Sample size: 3 1.602 4 1.114 5 0.895 6...

  4. Rotating Liner Engine: Improving Efficiency of Heavy Duty Diesels by Significant Friction Reduction, and Extending the Life of Heavy Duty Engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Dardalis, Dimitrios

    2013-12-31

    This report describes the work on converting a 4 cylinder Cummins ISB engine into a single cylinder Rotating Liner Engine functioning prototype that can be used to measure the friction benefits of rotating the cylinder liner in a high pressure compression ignition engine. A similar baseline engine was also prepared, and preliminary testing was done. Even though the fabrication of the single cylinder prototype was behind schedule due to machine shop delays, the fundamental soundness of the design elements are proven, and the engine has successfully functioned. However, the testing approach of the two engines, as envisioned by the original proposal, proved impossible due to torsional vibration resonance caused by the single active piston. A new approach for proper testing has been proposed,

  5. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  6. Thermochromism in Commercial Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Mary Anne; Leblanc, Monique

    1999-09-01

    Many commercial products change color with a change of temperature. How do they do it? The processes responsible for the two major categories of commercial thermochromic coloring agents are presented, along with a description of applications of thermochromic materials.

  7. Space America's commercial space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, N. H.

    1984-01-01

    Space America prepared a private sector land observing space system which includes a sensor system with eight spectral channels configured for stereoscopic data acquisition of four stereo pairs, a spacecraft bus with active three-axis stabilization, a ground station for data acquisition, preprocessing and retransmission. The land observing system is a component of Space America's end-to-end system for Earth resources management, monitoring and exploration. In the context of the Federal Government's program of commercialization of the US land remote sensing program, Space America's space system is characteristic of US industry's use of advanced technology and of commercial, entrepreneurial management. Well before the issuance of the Request for Proposals for Transfer of the United States Land Remote Sensing Program to the Private Sector by the US Department of Commerce, Space Services, Inc., the managing venturer of Space America, used private funds to develop and manage its sub-orbital launch of its Conestoga launch vehicle.

  8. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, the commercial application of existing aeronautics and space technology, and expanded commercial access to available NASA capabilities and services. The progress NASA has made in carrying out its new assignment is highlighted.

  9. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  10. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  11. Commercialism in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kirstin

    2001-01-01

    This document gives voice to concerns raised by critics and supporters of commercialism in schools and provides brief descriptions of several important resources on this topic. "Commercial Activities in School" (U.S. General Accounting Office) reports on the nature and frequency of commercial activities in public schools, as well as the laws and…

  12. COMMERCIAL FOODS, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DORNFIELD, BLANCHE E.

    THE UNDERSTANDING AND MASTERY OF FUNDAMENTAL MATHEMATICS IS A NECESSARY PART OF COMMERCIAL FOODS WORK. THIS STUDENT HANDBOOK WAS DESIGNED TO ACCOMPANY A COMMERCIAL FOODS COURSE AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL FOR STUDENTS WITH APPROPRIATE APTITUDES AND COMMERCIAL FOOD SERVICE GOALS. THE MATERIAL, TESTED IN VARIOUS INTERESTED CLASSROOMS, WAS PREPARED BY…

  13. Session: CSP Advanced Systems: Optical Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.

    2008-04-01

    The Optical Materials project description is to characterize advanced reflector, perform accelerated and outdoor testing of commercial and experimental reflector materials, and provide industry support.

  14. Application of a Tractive Energy Analysis to Quantify the Benefits of Advanced Efficiency Technologies Using Characteristic Drive Cycle Data

    SciTech Connect

    LaClair, Tim J

    2012-01-01

    Accurately predicting the fuel savings that can be achieved with the implementation of various technologies developed for fuel efficiency can be very challenging, particularly when considering combinations of technologies. Differences in the usage of highway vehicles can strongly influence the benefits realized with any given technology, which makes generalizations about fuel savings inappropriate for different vehicle applications. A model has been developed to estimate the potential for reducing fuel consumption when advanced efficiency technologies, or combinations of these technologies, are employed on highway vehicles, particularly medium- and heavy-duty trucks. The approach is based on a tractive energy analysis applied to drive cycles representative of the vehicle usage, and the analysis specifically accounts for individual energy loss factors that characterize the technologies of interest. This tractive energy evaluation is demonstrated by analyzing measured drive cycles from a long-haul trucking fleet and the results of an assessment of the fuel savings potential for combinations of technologies are presented. The results of this research will enable more reliable estimates of the fuel savings benefits that can be realized with particular technologies and technology combinations for individual trucking applications so that decision makers can make informed investment decisions for the implementation of advanced efficiency technologies.

  15. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University

    SciTech Connect

    Nigle N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students have addressed topics such as hybrid modeling, construction of a hybrid sport utility vehicle (in conjunction with the FutureTruck program), a MEMS-based sensor, on-board data acquisition for hybrid design optimization, linear engine design and engine emissions. Courses have been developed in Hybrid Vehicle Design, Mobile Source Powerplants, Advanced Vehicle Propulsion, Power Electronics for Automotive Applications and Sensors for Automotive Applications, and have been responsible for 396 hours of graduate student coursework. The GATE program also enhanced the WVU participation in the U.S. Department of Energy Student Design Competitions, in particular FutureTruck and Challenge X. The GATE support for hybrid vehicle technology enhanced understanding of hybrid vehicle design and testing at WVU and encouraged the development of a research agenda in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. As a result, WVU has now completed three programs in hybrid transit bus emissions characterization, and WVU faculty are leading the Transportation Research Board effort to define life cycle costs for hybrid transit buses. Research and enrollment records show that approximately 100 graduate students have benefited substantially from the hybrid vehicle GATE program at WVU.

  16. Advanced deep sea diving equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danesi, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Design requirements are generated for a deep sea heavy duty diving system to equip salvage divers with equipment and tools that permit work of the same quality and in times approaching that done on the surface. The system consists of a helmet, a recirculator for removing carbon dioxide, and the diver's dress. The diver controls the inlet flow by the recirculatory control valve and is able to change closed cycle operation to open cycle if malfunction occurs. Proper function of the scrubber in the recirculator minimizes temperature and humidity effects as it filters the returning air.

  17. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  18. Lunar Commercialization Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

  19. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development. Quarterly report, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Achieving the advanced turbine system goals of 60% efficiency, 8 ppmvd NOx and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NOx emission. Improved costing and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. The GE Advanced Gas Turbine Development program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70 MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling methodology; (2) a 200 MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced GE heavy duty machines utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. Both of these activities require the identification and resolution of technical issues critical to achieving Advanced Turbine System (ATS) goals. The emphasis for the industrial ATS will be placed upon innovative cycle design and low emission combustion. The emphasis for the utility ATS will be placed upon innovative cycle design and low emission combustion. The emphasis for the utility ATS will be placed on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling while utilizing demonstrated and planned improvements in low emissions combustion. Significant overlap in the development programs will allow common technologies to be applied to both products. GE`s Industrial and Power Systems is solely responsible for offering Ge products for the industrial and utility markets. The GE ATS program will be managed fully by this organization with core engine technology being supplied by GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE) and fundamental studies supporting both product developments being conducted by GE Corporate Research and Development (CRD).

  20. Commercial fertilizers 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.; Montgomery, M.H.

    1991-12-01

    This document contains consumption data for commercial fertilizers in the USA for 1991. Graphical information on the consumption by class is given for the nation. State by state data for consumption of several types of commercial fertilizers are presented. Only numerical data is included.

  1. Commercialism in Intercollegiate Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delany, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the history of intercollegiate athletics and the evolution of commercialization in college sports, particularly through television. Argues that few Division I programs could be self-sufficient; the issue is the degree to which sports are commercialized for revenue, and the challenge to balance schools' needs, private sector interests, and…

  2. Commercialism@Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Morales, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    The Center for the Analysis of Commercialism in Schools found that the number of press citations from 1990 to 2000 discussing seven types of commercializing activities (program sponsorship, exclusive agreements, incentive programs, appropriation of space, sponsored educational materials, electronic marketing, privatization, and fund raising)…

  3. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  4. 49 CFR 535.1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and commercial medium-duty and heavy-duty on-highway vehicles (hereafter referenced as heavy-duty... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration regarding their efforts to reduce the fuel consumption...

  5. Environmental assessment for commercialization of the Mound Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-26

    In November 1993 US DOE decided to phase out operations at the Mound Plant in Miamisburg, Ohio, with the goal of releasing the site for commercial use. The broad concept is to transform the plant into an advanced manufacturing center with the main focus on commercializing products and other technology. DOE proposes to lease portions of the Mound Plant to commercial enterprises. This Environmental Impact statement has a finding of no significant impact in reference to such action.

  6. Commercial communications technology on the digital battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalomiris, Vasilios E.; Hafer, Tom

    1996-06-01

    To meet its objectives of winning the information ware and digitizing the battlefield, the U.S. Army must leverage advances in commercial technology. The Department of Defense has adopted a new approach to acquiring and fielding systems in response to economic realities and the need to incorporate rapidly advancing commercial technology into Army systems. This approach calls for the evaluation of commercial breakthroughs in a laboratory environment followed by evaluation by the user in a warfighting experiment. The most promising products are then transitioned to a program executive officer/project manager for accelerated acquisition and fielding. The U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM) Research, Development and Engineering Center Space & Terrestrial Communications Directorate is working with the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) to study the applicability of personal communications systems and related technologies for Army applications. The results of this cooperative effort were demonstrated in 1995 through the use of the trunked Land Mobile Radio (LMR) during field exercises. This paper will describe the joint CECOM/ARPA programs that sponsor the evaluation of commercial technologies, characteristics of the LMR and the details of its interface with the legacy systems, and current plans for further experimentation/evaluation.

  7. Flux Observations of Carbon from an Airborne Laboratory (FOCAL): Using Advances in Spectroscopy, Turbulent Wind Measurements, and Small, Commercial Aircraft to Create Eddy Covariance Flux Maps from the Air.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayres, D. S.; Allen, N.; Healy, C. E.; Munster, J. B.; Rivero, M.; Tuozzolo, C.; Wilkerson, J.; Dobosy, R.; Dumas, E. J.; Heuer, M.; Kochendorfer, J.; Meyers, T. P.; Baker, B.; Langford, J.; Anderson, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade improvements in high-sensitivity, cavity-enhanced spectroscopic techniques have allowed for near-real time acquisition of atmospherically important gases at rates fast enough for use in eddy covariance. We report on the development of a suite of spectrometers capable of in situ measurements of the carbon-13 isotopologues of methane and carbon dioxide at high acquisition rates (10 Hz). Coupled with a mature airborne turbulence probe and a small, economical, commercial aircraft flying at 10 m above the surface FOCAL provides region scale surface fluxes of these important greenhouse gases. We describe the instrumentation, with emphasis on how new technology is changing the way these types of measurements can be made. FOCAL was first flown over the North Slope of Alaska in August, 2013. We will present a regional view of methane and carbon dioxide fluxes over parts of the North Slope as well as comparisons to traditional eddy covariance methods.

  8. Subsonic aerodynamic characteristic of semispan commercial transport model with wing-mounted advanced ducted propeller operating in reverse thrust. [conducted in the Langley 14 by 22 foot subsonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applin, Zachary T.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Gile, Brenda E.; Quinto, P. Frank

    1994-01-01

    A test was conducted in the Langley 14 by 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel to determine the effect of the reverse-thrust flow field of a wing-mounted advanced ducted propeller on the aerodynamic characteristics of a semispan subsonic high-lift transport model. The advanced ducted propeller (ADP) model was mounted separately in position alongside the wing so that only the aerodynamic interference of the propeller and nacelle affected the aerodynamic performance of the transport model. Mach numbers ranged from 0.14 to 0.26; corresponding Reynolds numbers ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 x 10(exp 6). The reverse-thrust flow field of the ADP shielded a portion of the wing from the free-stream airflow and reduced both lift and drag. The reduction in lift and drag was a function of ADP rotational speed and free-stream velocity. Test results included ground effects data for the transport model and ADP configuration. The ground plane caused a beneficial increase in drag and an undesirable slight increase in lift. The ADP and transport model performance in ground effect was similar to performance trends observed for out of ground effect. The test results form a comprehensive data set that supports the application of the ADP engine and airplane concept on the next generation of advanced subsonic transports. Before this investigation, the engine application was predicted to have detrimental ground effect characteristics. Ground effect test measurements indicated no critical problems and were the first step in proving the viability of this engine and airplane configuration.

  9. Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny C. Servo, Ph.D.

    2004-07-12

    In order to fulfill the objective of Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), the Department of Energy funds an initiative referred to as the Commercialization Assistance Program (CAP). The over-arching purpose of the CAP is to facilitate transition of the SBIR-funded technology to Phase III defined as private sector investment or receipt of non-sbir dollars to further the commercialization of the technology. Phase III also includes increased sales. This report summarizes the stages involved in the implementation of the Commercialization Assistance Program, a program which has been most successful in fulfilling its objectives.

  10. Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  11. 40 CFR 86.004-40 - Heavy-duty engine rebuilding practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks... time of rebuild, a listing of work performed on the engine and emissions-related control components... signals responded to and reset, and work performed under paragraph (d) of this section. (1) Parties...

  12. 40 CFR 86.004-40 - Heavy-duty engine rebuilding practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks... time of rebuild, a listing of work performed on the engine and emissions-related control components... signals responded to and reset, and work performed under paragraph (d) of this section. (1) Parties...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1816-18 - Emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light.... Greenhouse gas emission standards are specified in § 86.1818 for MDPVs and in 40 CFR 1037.104 for other HDV... hybrid electric vehicles) as described in 40 CFR part 1066, subpart F, except that these procedures...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1816-05 - Emission standards for complete heavy-duty vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light... tank capacity of greater than 35 gallons, or which do not share a common fuel system with a...

  15. 77 FR 4736 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... eligibility of emission standards for nonconformance penalties in any given model year (50 FR 35374, August 30... FR 51464, August 8, 2002) established NCPs for the 2004 and later model year NO X standard for heavy..., 2001 (66 FR 5001), and first applied in the 2007 model year. However, because of phase-in...

  16. Progress in reducing aerodynamic drag for higher efficiency of heavy duty trucks (class 7-8)

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Heineck, J T; Leonard, A; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Rutledge, W; Salari, K; Storms, B

    1999-04-01

    This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. In addition, greater use of newly developed computational tools holds promise for reducing the number of prototype tests, for cutting manufacturing costs, and for reducing overall time to market. Experimental verification and validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California. Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology using state-of-the-art techniques, with the intention of implementing more complex methods in the future.

  17. Progress in Reducing Aerodynamic Drag for Higher Efficiency of Heavy Duty Trucks (Class 7-8)

    SciTech Connect

    Rose McCallen; Richard Couch; Juliana Hsu; Fred Browand; Mustapha Hammache; Anthony Leonard; Mark Brady; Kambiz Salari; Walter Rutledge; James Ross; Bruce Storms; J.T. Heineck; David Driver; James Bell; Gregory Zilliac

    1999-12-31

    This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. In addition, greater use of newly developed computational tools holds promise for reducing the number of prototype tests, for cutting manufacturing costs, and for reducing overall time to market. Experimental verification and validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California. Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology using state-of-the-art techniques, with the intention of implementing more complex methods in the future.

  18. 77 FR 34149 - Heavy-Duty Highway Program: Revisions for Emergency Vehicles and SCR Maintenance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... a chemical reductant that usually contains urea and is known as diesel exhaust fluid (DEF). The DEF.... Diesel Exhaust Fluid Provisions C. Nonroad Equipment Used Temporarily in Emergency Service II. Statutory... Maintenance and Maintenance Interval for Replacement of Diesel Exhaust Fluid A. Background B....

  19. HEAVY DUTY DIESEL FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF ON-ROAD MEASUREMENT CAPABILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses EPA's On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility, which has been collecting real-world gaseous emissions data for the past 6 years. It has recently undergone extensive modifications to enhance its particulate matter (PM) measurement capabilities, with...

  20. EMISSION INVENTORIES TO SUPPORT OTAQ RULEMAKING ON HEAVY-DUTY NONROAD DIESEL ENGINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product will be a set of historical and projected emission inventories. The projected inventories will represent a number of alternative regulatory scenarios. Inventories will be in the form required by CMAQ/Models-3 and other air quality models, and will be accompanied by n...