Science.gov

Sample records for commission twentieth water

  1. Proceedings of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission twentieth water reactor safety information meeting; Volume 2, Severe accident research, Thermal hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.J.

    1993-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twentieth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 21--23, 1992. The papers describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included 10 different papers presented by researchersfrom CEC, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Spain and Taiwan. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Lead Water Pipes and Infant Mortality at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troesken, Werner

    2008-01-01

    In 1897, about half of all American municipalities used lead pipes to distribute water. Employing data from Massachusetts, this paper compares infant death rates in cities that used lead water pipes to rates in cities that used nonlead pipes. In the average town in 1900, the use of lead pipes increased infant mortality by 25 to 50 percent.…

  3. Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Huta, L.G.

    1995-12-01

    Building managers often find that HVAC, lighting and other systems in new buildings need adjustments and modifications. The owner, architect and contractor may mistakenly assume that all of a building`s systems--architectural, mechanical, control and electrical--function according to the design intent. Thus, energy managers can optimize their building`s performance through commissioning, a process that looks for and corrects the defects in a building` operating system or design, immediately before and after it is occupied (following construction or renovation).

  4. Water Commission: No More Free Rides for Water Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Constance

    1973-01-01

    The basic message of this report is that the policy of using general tax revenue to pay for water resource development has served its purpose. What will happen if projects must be self-supporting and if planning and control are given to states and regions are unsolved problems. (DF)

  5. Tree-Ring Stable Isotopes Reveal Twentieth-Century Increases in Water-Use Efficiency of Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. in Italian and Chilean Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Lasserre, Bruno; Cherubini, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Changes in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) were investigated in Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. over the last century. We combined dendrochronological methods with dual-isotope analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced iWUE of Fagus and Nothofagus and tree growth (basal area increment, BAI) along latitudinal gradients in Italy and Chile. Post-maturation phases of the trees presented different patterns in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O, Ci (internal CO2 concentration), iWUE, and BAI. A continuous enhancement in isotope-derived iWUE was observed throughout the twentieth century, which was common to all sites and related to changes in Ca (ambient CO2 concentration) and secondarily to increases in temperature. In contrast to other studies, we observed a general increasing trend of BAI, with the exception of F. sylvatica in Aspromonte. Both iWUE and BAI were uncoupled with the estimated drought index, which is in agreement with the absence of enduring decline in tree growth. In general, δ13C and δ18O showed a weak relationship, suggesting the major influence of photosynthetic rate on Ci and δ13C, and the minor contribution of the regulation of stomatal conductance to iWUE. The substantial warming observed during the twentieth century did not result in a clear pattern of increased drought stress along these latitudinal transects, because of the variability in temporal trends of precipitation and in specific responses of populations. PMID:25398040

  6. Tree-ring stable isotopes reveal twentieth-century increases in water-use efficiency of Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. in Italian and Chilean mountains.

    PubMed

    Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Lasserre, Bruno; Cherubini, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Changes in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) were investigated in Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. over the last century. We combined dendrochronological methods with dual-isotope analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced iWUE of Fagus and Nothofagus and tree growth (basal area increment, BAI) along latitudinal gradients in Italy and Chile. Post-maturation phases of the trees presented different patterns in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O, Ci (internal CO2 concentration), iWUE, and BAI. A continuous enhancement in isotope-derived iWUE was observed throughout the twentieth century, which was common to all sites and related to changes in Ca (ambient CO2 concentration) and secondarily to increases in temperature. In contrast to other studies, we observed a general increasing trend of BAI, with the exception of F. sylvatica in Aspromonte. Both iWUE and BAI were uncoupled with the estimated drought index, which is in agreement with the absence of enduring decline in tree growth. In general, δ13C and δ18O showed a weak relationship, suggesting the major influence of photosynthetic rate on Ci and δ13C, and the minor contribution of the regulation of stomatal conductance to iWUE. The substantial warming observed during the twentieth century did not result in a clear pattern of increased drought stress along these latitudinal transects, because of the variability in temporal trends of precipitation and in specific responses of populations. PMID:25398040

  7. 78 FR 32643 - Corbett Water District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...) appurtenant facilities. The project's power would be used to offset power needs at the water treatment plant... Energy Regulatory Commission Corbett Water District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...: Original Minor License. b. Project No.: 14322-000. c. Date filed: May 14, 2013. d. Applicant: Corbett...

  8. The Boylston Professor in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ried, Paul E.

    1987-01-01

    Assesses the Boylston professorship at Harvard University, which, although originally devoted to rhetoric and oratory, has evolved in the twentieth century into a professorship of poetics and poetry. (NKA)

  9. Probabilistic reanalysis of twentieth-century sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Mitrovica, Jerry X

    2015-01-22

    Estimating and accounting for twentieth-century global mean sea level (GMSL) rise is critical to characterizing current and future human-induced sea-level change. Several previous analyses of tide gauge records--employing different methods to accommodate the spatial sparsity and temporal incompleteness of the data and to constrain the geometry of long-term sea-level change--have concluded that GMSL rose over the twentieth century at a mean rate of 1.6 to 1.9 millimetres per year. Efforts to account for this rate by summing estimates of individual contributions from glacier and ice-sheet mass loss, ocean thermal expansion, and changes in land water storage fall significantly short in the period before 1990. The failure to close the budget of GMSL during this period has led to suggestions that several contributions may have been systematically underestimated. However, the extent to which the limitations of tide gauge analyses have affected estimates of the GMSL rate of change is unclear. Here we revisit estimates of twentieth-century GMSL rise using probabilistic techniques and find a rate of GMSL rise from 1901 to 1990 of 1.2 ± 0.2 millimetres per year (90% confidence interval). Based on individual contributions tabulated in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this estimate closes the twentieth-century sea-level budget. Our analysis, which combines tide gauge records with physics-based and model-derived geometries of the various contributing signals, also indicates that GMSL rose at a rate of 3.0 ± 0.7 millimetres per year between 1993 and 2010, consistent with prior estimates from tide gauge records.The increase in rate relative to the 1901-90 trend is accordingly larger than previously thought; this revision may affect some projections of future sea-level rise. PMID:25629092

  10. Probabilistic reanalysis of twentieth-century sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, Carling C.; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E.; Mitrovica, Jerry X.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating and accounting for twentieth-century global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise is critical to characterizing current and future human-induced sea-level change. Several previous analyses of tide gauge records--employing different methods to accommodate the spatial sparsity and temporal incompleteness of the data and to constrain the geometry of long-term sea-level change--have concluded that GMSL rose over the twentieth century at a mean rate of 1.6 to 1.9 millimetres per year. Efforts to account for this rate by summing estimates of individual contributions from glacier and ice-sheet mass loss, ocean thermal expansion, and changes in land water storage fall significantly short in the period before 1990. The failure to close the budget of GMSL during this period has led to suggestions that several contributions may have been systematically underestimated. However, the extent to which the limitations of tide gauge analyses have affected estimates of the GMSL rate of change is unclear. Here we revisit estimates of twentieth-century GMSL rise using probabilistic techniques and find a rate of GMSL rise from 1901 to 1990 of 1.2 +/- 0.2 millimetres per year (90% confidence interval). Based on individual contributions tabulated in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this estimate closes the twentieth-century sea-level budget. Our analysis, which combines tide gauge records with physics-based and model-derived geometries of the various contributing signals, also indicates that GMSL rose at a rate of 3.0 +/- 0.7 millimetres per year between 1993 and 2010, consistent with prior estimates from tide gauge records. The increase in rate relative to the 1901-90 trend is accordingly larger than previously thought; this revision may affect some projections of future sea-level rise.

  11. Physics of the Twentieth Century, and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Frederick J.

    2009-05-01

    This talk is intended for a general audience. A brief history of the two primary physical theories of the twentieth century is presented, and the similarity between the late nineteenth and the early twenty-first centuries is highlighted. In particular, the past and possible future of exact solutions in general relativity are briefly described, and reasons why time is growing short are cited.

  12. Poetry at Buffalo: The Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoer, Wanda

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the Special Collections at the State University of New York at Buffalo and the role of Charles Abbott in their development. His interest and a serendipitous lack of funds have created an unusual collection containing a Twentieth Century Poetry Collection, James Joyce holographs, and rare book collections. (CHC)

  13. Twentieth-Century Art: Issues of Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Julie

    1990-01-01

    Presents lesson plans designed for secondary students that assess the role of naturalistic representation in twentieth-century art by examining the artwork of four artists: Pablo Picasso, Rene Magritte, David Smith, and Jackson Pollock. Provides background information on each illustration, and outlines discussion and art production activities for…

  14. The Constitution in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Paul L.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the development of the United States Constitution in the twentieth century up to and including the Burger Court. Contends that interpreting the Constitution is an important issue of our times. Consequently argues that we should teach students about the development of this document. (RKM)

  15. Water supply for the Nuclear Rocket Development Station at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Richard Arden

    1972-01-01

    The Nuclear Rocket Development Station, in Jackass Flats, occupies about 123 square miles in the southwestern part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nevada Test Site. Jackass Flats, an intermontane valley bordered by highlands on all sides except for a drainage outlet in the southwestern corner, has an average annual rainfall of 4 inches. Jackass Flats is underlain by alluvium, colluvium, and volcanic rocks of Cenozoic age and, at greater depth, by sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The alluvium and the colluvium lie above the saturated zone throughout nearly all of Jackass Flats. The Paleozoic sedimentary rocks contain limestone and dolomite units that are excellent water producers elsewhere ; however, these units are too deep in Jackass Flats to be economic sources of water. The only important water-producing unit known in the vicinity of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station is a welded-tuff aquifer, the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, which receives no significant recharge. This member contains about 500 feet of highly fractured rock underlying an area 11 miles long and 3 miles wide in western Jackass Flats. Permeability of the aquifer is derived mostly from joints and fractures; however, some permeability may be derived from gas bubbles in the upper part of the unit. Transmissivity, obtained from pumping tests, ranges from 68,000 to 488,000 gallons per day per foot. Volume of the saturated part of the aquifer is about 3.5 cubic miles, and the average specific yield probably ranges from 1 to 5 percent. The volume of ground water in storage is probably within the range of 37-187 billion gallons. This large amount of water should be sufficient to supply the needs of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station for many years. Water at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station is used for public supply, construction, test-cell coolant, exhaust cooling, and thermal shielding during nuclear reactor and engine testing, and washdown. Present (1967) average

  16. Commissioning dose computation models for spot scanning proton beams in water for a commercially available treatment planning system

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, X. R.; Poenisch, F.; Lii, M.; Sawakuchi, G. O.; Titt, U.; Bues, M.; Song, X.; Zhang, X.; Li, Y.; Ciangaru, G.; Li, H.; Taylor, M. B.; Suzuki, K.; Mohan, R.; Gillin, M. T.; Sahoo, N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To present our method and experience in commissioning dose models in water for spot scanning proton therapy in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: The input data required by the TPS included in-air transverse profiles and integral depth doses (IDDs). All input data were obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations that had been validated by measurements. MC-generated IDDs were converted to units of Gy mm2/MU using the measured IDDs at a depth of 2 cm employing the largest commercially available parallel-plate ionization chamber. The sensitive area of the chamber was insufficient to fully encompass the entire lateral dose deposited at depth by a pencil beam (spot). To correct for the detector size, correction factors as a function of proton energy were defined and determined using MC. The fluence of individual spots was initially modeled as a single Gaussian (SG) function and later as a double Gaussian (DG) function. The DG fluence model was introduced to account for the spot fluence due to contributions of large angle scattering from the devices within the scanning nozzle, especially from the spot profile monitor. To validate the DG fluence model, we compared calculations and measurements, including doses at the center of spread out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) as a function of nominal field size, range, and SOBP width, lateral dose profiles, and depth doses for different widths of SOBP. Dose models were validated extensively with patient treatment field-specific measurements. Results: We demonstrated that the DG fluence model is necessary for predicting the field size dependence of dose distributions. With this model, the calculated doses at the center of SOBPs as a function of nominal field size, range, and SOBP width, lateral dose profiles and depth doses for rectangular target volumes agreed well with respective measured values. With the DG fluence model for our scanning proton beam line, we successfully treated more than 500 patients from

  17. Commissioning dose computation models for spot scanning proton beams in water for a commercially available treatment planning system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, X. R.; Poenisch, F.; Lii, M.; Sawakuchi, G. O.; Titt, U.; Bues, M.; Song, X.; Zhang, X.; Li, Y.; Ciangaru, G.; Li, H.; Taylor, M. B.; Suzuki, K.; Mohan, R.; Gillin, M. T.; Sahoo, N.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: To present our method and experience in commissioning dose models in water for spot scanning proton therapy in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: The input data required by the TPS included in-air transverse profiles and integral depth doses (IDDs). All input data were obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations that had been validated by measurements. MC-generated IDDs were converted to units of Gy mm{sup 2}/MU using the measured IDDs at a depth of 2 cm employing the largest commercially available parallel-plate ionization chamber. The sensitive area of the chamber was insufficient to fully encompass the entire lateral dose deposited at depth by a pencil beam (spot). To correct for the detector size, correction factors as a function of proton energy were defined and determined using MC. The fluence of individual spots was initially modeled as a single Gaussian (SG) function and later as a double Gaussian (DG) function. The DG fluence model was introduced to account for the spot fluence due to contributions of large angle scattering from the devices within the scanning nozzle, especially from the spot profile monitor. To validate the DG fluence model, we compared calculations and measurements, including doses at the center of spread out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) as a function of nominal field size, range, and SOBP width, lateral dose profiles, and depth doses for different widths of SOBP. Dose models were validated extensively with patient treatment field-specific measurements. Results: We demonstrated that the DG fluence model is necessary for predicting the field size dependence of dose distributions. With this model, the calculated doses at the center of SOBPs as a function of nominal field size, range, and SOBP width, lateral dose profiles and depth doses for rectangular target volumes agreed well with respective measured values. With the DG fluence model for our scanning proton beam line, we successfully treated more than 500 patients

  18. Hydraulic residence time and iron removal in a wetland receiving ferruginous mine water over a 4 year period from commissioning.

    PubMed

    Kusin, F M; Jarvis, A P; Gandy, C J

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) has been conducted for the UK Coal Authority's mine water treatment wetland at Lambley, Northumberland, to determine the hydraulic performance of the wetland over a period of approximately 4 years since site commissioning. The wetland RTD was evaluated in accordance with moment analysis and modelled based on a tanks-in-series (TIS) model to yield the hydraulic characteristics of system performance. Greater hydraulic performance was seen during the second site monitoring after 21 months of site operation i.e. longer hydraulic residence time to reflect overall system hydraulic efficiency, compared to wetland performance during its early operation. Further monitoring of residence time during the third year of wetland operation indicated a slight reduction in hydraulic residence time, thus a lower system hydraulic efficiency. In contrast, performance during the fourth year of wetland operation exhibited an improved overall system hydraulic efficiency, suggesting the influence of reed growth over the lifetime of such systems on hydraulic performance. Interestingly, the same pattern was found for iron (which is the primary pollutant of concern in ferruginous mine waters) removal efficiency of the wetland system from the second to fourth year of wetland operation. This may therefore, reflect the maturity of reeds for maintaining efficient flow distribution across the wetland to retain a longer residence time and significant fractions of water involved to enhance the extent of treatment received for iron attenuation. Further monitoring will be conducted to establish whether such performance is maintained, or whether efficiency decreases over time due to accumulation of dead plant material within the wetland cells. PMID:20962411

  19. Commissioning MMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Paul; Gramling, Cheryl; Stone, John; Smith, Patrick; Reiter, Jenifer

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses commissioning of NASAs Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) Mission. The mission includes four identical spacecraft with a large, complex set of instrumentation. The planning for and execution of commissioning for this mission is described. The paper concludes by discussing lessons learned.

  20. 18 CFR 375.101 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Commission. 375.101... OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION General Provisions § 375.101 The Commission. (a) Establishment. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is an independent regulatory commission within...

  1. 18 CFR 375.101 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The Commission. 375.101... OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION General Provisions § 375.101 The Commission. (a) Establishment. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is an independent regulatory commission within...

  2. 18 CFR 375.101 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Commission. 375.101... OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION General Provisions § 375.101 The Commission. (a) Establishment. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is an independent regulatory commission within...

  3. 18 CFR 375.101 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The Commission. 375.101... OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION General Provisions § 375.101 The Commission. (a) Establishment. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is an independent regulatory commission within...

  4. 18 CFR 375.101 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Commission. 375.101... OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION General Provisions § 375.101 The Commission. (a) Establishment. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is an independent regulatory commission within...

  5. Immigration, Crime, and Incarceration in Early Twentieth-Century America

    PubMed Central

    MOEHLING, CAROLYN; PIEHL, ANNE MORRISON

    2009-01-01

    The major government commissions on immigration and crime in the early twentieth century relied on evidence that suffered from aggregation bias and the absence of accurate population data, which led them to present partial and sometimes misleading views of the immigrant-native criminality comparison. With improved data and methods, we find that in 1904, prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19, for which the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native-born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely than natives to be committed to prisons at all ages 20 and older, but this advantage disappears when one looks at commitments for violent offenses. The time series pattern reflects a growing gap between natives and immigrants at older ages, one that was driven by sharp increases in the commitment rates of the native-born, while commitment rates for the foreign-born were remarkably stable. PMID:20084827

  6. Immigration, crime, and incarceration in early twentieth-century America.

    PubMed

    Moehling, Carolyn; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2009-11-01

    The major government commissions on immigration and crime in the early twentieth century relied on evidence that suffered from aggregation bias and the absence of accurate population data, which led them to present partial and sometimes misleading views of the immigrant-native criminality comparison. With improved data and methods, we find that in 1904, prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19, for which the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native-born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely than natives to be committed to prisons at all ages 20 and older, but this advantage disappears when one looks at commitments for violent offenses. The time series pattern reflects a growing gap between natives and immigrants at older ages, one that was driven by sharp increases in the commitment rates of the native-born, while commitment rates for the foreign-born were remarkably stable. PMID:20084827

  7. Comparison of Standard Light Water Reactor Cross-Section Libraries using the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Boiling Water Reactor Benchmark Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulesza, Joel A.; Arzu Alpan, F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes a comparison of contemporary and historical light water reactor shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry cross-section libraries for a boiling water reactor calculational benchmark problem. The calculational benchmark problem was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the request of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The benchmark problem was originally evaluated by Brookhaven National Laboratory using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discrete ordinates code DORT and the BUGLE-93 cross-section library. In this paper, the Westinghouse RAPTOR-M3G three-dimensional discrete ordinates code was used. A variety of cross-section libraries were used with RAPTOR-M3G including the BUGLE93, BUGLE-96, and BUGLE-B7 cross-section libraries developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ALPAN-VII.0 developed at Westinghouse. In comparing the calculated fast reaction rates using the four aforementioned cross-section libraries in the pressure vessel capsule, for six dosimetry reaction rates, a maximum relative difference of 8% was observed. As such, it is concluded that the results calculated by RAPTOR-M3G are consistent with the benchmark and further that the different vintage BUGLE cross-section libraries investigated are largely self-consistent.

  8. Water disinfection in the mountains - state of the art recommendation paper of the Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme Medical Commission.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Thomas E A H; Schöffl, Volker; Milledge, Jim S

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides the official recommendation of the Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme (UIAA) Medical Commission to manage the problem of safe drinking water. The recommendation was accepted and authorized for publication by the Medical Commission during their annual meeting at Treplice, Tzechia, 2008. Safe water is essential for mountaineers worldwide in order to balance challenges associated with high altitude dehydration. The paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of several procedures used to procure safe drinking water in the mountains or at high altitude. Limitations or critical details, which may cause failure of the methods are mentioned systematically. We differentiate between "conventional" methods, which should be preferred because they produce safe water and "improvisation". The latter does not produce safe water but may be used if conventional methods are not available for any reason. They decrease the concentration of pathogenic microorganisms and by this they reduce the risk of enteral infection. Water filtration using a ceramic filter system or chemical disinfection is recommended as a standard method. Boiling water should be avoided because it is too fuel consuming and has the potential to increase deforestation. Generally, with regard to infections by water or food, all mountaineers should be vaccinated against hepatitis A and poliomyelitis in regions where they may be at-risk. PMID:19174294

  9. 1. MAIN ELEVATIONS, VIEW SHOWING LEFT ELEVATION WITH TWENTIETH CENTURY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. MAIN ELEVATIONS, VIEW SHOWING LEFT ELEVATION WITH TWENTIETH CENTURY REMODELING, CENTRAL ELEVATION WITH EARLY AND MID-NINETEENTH CENTURY ALTERATIONS, AND RIGHT ELEVATION WITH TWENTIETH CENTURY ALTERATIONS TO GROUND FLOOR - 160-166 Main Street, 160-166 Main Street, Annapolis, Anne Arundel County, MD

  10. [Twentieth-century Penelopes: popular culture revisited].

    PubMed

    Favaro, Cleci Eulalia

    2010-01-01

    During their settlement of the so-called Old Italian Colonies of Rio Grande do Sul, immigrants constructed a set of positive values that were to serve as an emotional support and a means of outside communication. When women immigrants embroidered images and sayings on wall hangings or kitchen towels made of rustic fabric, they helped nourish the dream of a better life, sought by all and achieved by some. The objects crafted by these twentieth-century Penelopes bear witness to a way of doing, thinking, and acting. Local museums and exhibits have fostered the recovery of old-time embroidery techniques and themes; sold at open-air markets and regional festivals, these products represent income for women whose age excludes them from the formal labor market. PMID:21461540

  11. Comparison of Standard Light Water Reactor Cross-Section Libraries using the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Pressurized Water Reactor Standard Core Loading Benchmark Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzu Alpan, F.; Kulesza, Joel A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper compares contemporary and historical light water reactor shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry cross-section libraries for a pressurized water reactor calculational benchmark problem with a standard out-in core loading. The calculational benchmark problem was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the request of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and used the Oak Ridge National Laboratory two-dimensional discrete ordinates code DORT and the BUGLE-93 cross-section library for the calculations. In this paper, a Westinghouse three-dimensional discrete ordinates code with parallel processing, the RAPTOR-M3G code was used. A variety of cross section libraries were used with RAPTOR-M3G including the BUGLE-93, BUGLE-96, and BUGLE-B7 cross-section libraries developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the broad-group ALPAN-VII.0 cross-section library developed at Westinghouse. In comparing the calculation-to-calculation reaction rates using the BUGLE-93 cross-section library at the thermal shield, pressure vessel, and cavity capsules, for eleven dosimetry reaction rates, a maximum relative difference of 5% was observed, with the exception of 65Cu(n,2n) in the pressure vessel capsule that had a 90% relative difference with respect to the reference results. It is thought that the 65Cu(n,2n) reaction rate reported in the reference for the pressure vessel capsule is not correct. In considering the libraries developed after BUGLE-93, a maximum relative difference of 12% was observed in reaction rates, with respect to the reference results, for 237Np(n,f) in the cavity capsule using BUGLE-B7.

  12. Twentieth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-26

    PREFACE The Twentieth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, dedicated to the memory of Professor Hank Ramey, was held at Stanford University on January 24-26, 1995. There were ninety-five registered participants. Participants came from six foreign countries: Japan, Mexico, England, Italy, New Zealand and Iceland. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Thirty-two papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into eleven sessions concerning: field development, modeling, well tesubore, injection, geoscience, geochemistry and field operations. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bob Fournier, Mark Walters, John Counsil, Marcelo Lippmann, Keshav Goyal, Joel Renner and Mike Shook. In addition to the technical sessions, a panel discussion was held on ''What have we learned in 20 years?'' Panel speakers included Patrick Muffler, George Frye, Alfred Truesdell and John Pritchett. The subject was further discussed by Subir Sanyal, who gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager

  13. Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    View from the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception at the downtown Houston Hyatt Regency Hotel. Scene show NASA/JSC Director Aaron Cohen talking with NASA Administrator Richard H. Truly and his wife, Cody.

  14. Redrawing the map: science in twentieth-century China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fa-ti

    2007-09-01

    This essay argues that science in twentieth-century China is a rich topic that can be productively integrated into research and teaching on the history of modern science. It identifies major issues of science in twentieth-century China and demonstrates that they can prove useful to any scholar who wishes to consider science in a comparative and trans/international context. The essay suggests two important steps for a fruitful investigation into the topic of science in twentieth-century China: first, revising the historiographic assumptions and categories that underlie much of the conventional historical narrative of modern science; and, second, breaking free from the tunnel history of national science. To illustrate these points, the essay examines a series of case studies of science in modern China and discusses the relevance of such subjects as scientific nationalism, Maoist mass science, and transnational scientific networks for the understanding of science in the twentieth-century world. PMID:17970425

  15. 212. MOUNT SINAI CHURCH OF GOD AT 530 SOUTH TWENTIETH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    212. MOUNT SINAI CHURCH OF GOD AT 530 SOUTH TWENTIETH STREET, SOUTH SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  16. [Demography and society in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Cambodia].

    PubMed

    Nepote, J

    1979-01-01

    The author analyzes the demography of Cambodia in relation to social changes in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Three phases are examined: the opening of Cambodia to the outside world and the reversal of the demographic situation in the nineteenth century; modernization and accelerated population growth in the twentieth century up to 1970; and recent events, particularly political upheavals, and the new reversal of the demographic situation PMID:12279292

  17. Turning points in twentieth-century American psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Sabshin, M

    1990-10-01

    The author examines four major turning points in twentieth-century American psychiatry, emphasizing the movement during the post-World War II period toward a psychotherapeutic/psychoanalytic approach and the emergence of biological psychiatry, neuroscience, and logical positivism during the 1970s and 1980s. He discusses the impact of Adolf Meyer during the mid-twentieth century and his ongoing influence. The final turning point involves a prediction of a late twentieth-century change, including new directions in nosology, emphasis on combined pharmacotherapeutic/psychotherapeutic treatments, efforts to create alternatives to full inpatient care, better outcome data for psychiatric treatments, and beginning resolution of major boundary problems of current practice. PMID:2205113

  18. 33 CFR 209.50 - Mississippi River Commission: Public observation of Commission meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mississippi River Commission: Public observation of Commission meetings. 209.50 Section 209.50 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.50 Mississippi River Commission: Public observation...

  19. Proceedings of the twentieth international symposium on remote sensing of environment. Volume 1-3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the Twentieth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment. The meeting was intended to promote international cooperation in research, development and application of remote sensing technology, and to stimulate an exchange of information of all aspects of this multidisciplinary field. Presentations contained herein include those concerned with the application of data collection, analysis and methodology of global environmental monitoring and research, information systems for resource management, desertification, African famine and early warning, geology and mineral resources, forestry, and rangeland resources, hydrology and water resources, ocean and coastal applications, and earth observation systems for resource and environmental assessment.

  20. Transnational Connections in Early Twentieth-Century Women Teachers' Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Using a transnational framework, this paper focuses on four graduates of Gipsy Hill Training College (GHTC) for nursery school teachers in London, United Kingdom, in the early to mid-twentieth century. Firstly, I explore GHTC's progressive ideals and highlight ways in which its principal, Lillian de Lissa, encouraged students to "think…

  1. Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception at the downtown Houston Hyatt Regency Hotel. Views include former JSC Directors Robert Gilruth and Christopher C. Kraft Jr. reminiscing with keynote speaker Walter Cronkite (39934); Apollo astronauts Tom Stafford (left) and Neil Armstrong (right) talk with former Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov (center) at the gala (39935).

  2. Mythologies and Panics: Twentieth Century Constructions of Child Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alyson

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines twentieth century social constructions of child prostitutes and child prostitution, the origins of these representations and the extent to which they have been used as metaphors for other perceived social, economic and political problems. It is important to recognise that these children have been sexually abused and that…

  3. The Constitution in the Twentieth Century: Implications for Citizenship Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Paul L.

    A major constitutional issue in the twentieth century is the extent to which the U.S. Constitution should be interpreted to fit changing times and circumstances. In the latter part of the nineteenth century, the Supreme Court dispensed a "mechanical jurisprudence" based on an "objective" interpretation of the Constitution and the "original intent"…

  4. Remapping Genre: Spanish Jaiku of the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landeira, Joy

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century a new subgenre of poetry written in Spanish, but rooted in Japanese literary tradition, began to emerge in the works of Spain's vanguard and Generation of 1927 poets and among young modernist poets in Mexico and South America. Transmitted first through France and later directly from Japan, the popularity…

  5. Educators Guide to Free Tapes, Scripts, and Transcriptions. Twentieth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittich, Walter A., Comp.

    Free audiotapes, videotapes, scripts, and transcriptions are referenced in this twentieth edition of the guide which was assembled to help teachers and librarians select materials which encourage students to inquire, discover, and develop the ideas which will enable them to contribute to society. Entries are listed under curricular areas: accident…

  6. Early Twentieth Century Responses to the Drug Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfennig, Dennis Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Describes early twentieth-century responses to the drug problem in the United States. Discusses pressure from the media and reformers to control the availability of drugs such as opium and cocaine that were widely available in over-the-counter medications. Focuses on New York State, which took the lead in enacting drug control legislation. (DK)

  7. Our Time: The Legacy of the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Tom

    2014-01-01

    We are probably only at the beginning of our understanding of a period of time that gave us a new name for an old language, "ASL," a new consciousness called "Deaf culture," a national uprising called "DPN," and a science fiction-like new technology called "VP." The two halves of the twentieth century might…

  8. 77 FR 56254 - Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision Systems/Synthetic Vision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision... of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision... of the twentieth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 213, Enhanced Flight Vision...

  9. Hydrogeology of stratified-drift aquifers and water quality in the Nashua Regional Planning Commission Area, south-central New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toppin, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nashua Regional Planning Commission area in south-central New Hampshire is a 12-community area that is experiencing increases in population and in demands for water supply. The study area is underlain by 129 sq mi (40% of the area) of stratified drift which, where sufficiently saturated and permeable, form the most productive aquifers in the area. Eight towns use the stratified-drift aquifers for municipal water supply. The saturated thickness of stratified drift in the study area ranges from 0 or < 20 ft near aquifer boundaries to more than 100 ft in the Souhegan and Merrimack River valleys. The transmissivity of stratified drift ranges from < 2,000 sq ft/day throughout much of the area to more than 8,000 sq ft/day in the communities of Amherst, Brookline, Hollis, Hudson, Litchfield, Merrimack, Milford, Nashua, and Pelham. Directions of groundwater flow are generally from valley walls to surface waters, which act as drains for the stratified drift aquifers. The estimated total yield of community water-supply systems in the study area (surface and groundwater combined) is 22 mgd (million gallons per day). Analytical modeling indicates that an additional 12 mgd could be obtained from six aquifers located in the communities of Amherst, Litchfield, Merrimack, Milford, and Pelham. Other aquifers in the area, not modeled in the study, could also provide increased amounts of water especially where yields could be augmented by induced recharge of surface water. Groundwater quality in the study area is characterized by naturally elevated levels of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). Of 32 wells sampled, 7 exceeded EPA recommended drinking water limits for both Fe and Mn, and 3 wells exceeded the Mn limit only. The average total dissolved solids concentration for 32 samples was 121 mg/L. Groundwater in the area is slightly corrosive; pH 's ranged from 5.0-7.3. Groundwater contamination has been detected at two ' Superfund ' sites in the study area located in Milford and

  10. 33 CFR 209.50 - Mississippi River Commission: Public observation of Commission meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mississippi River Commission... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.50 Mississippi River... of the Mississippi River Commission and to open all meetings of the Mississippi River Commission...

  11. 33 CFR 209.50 - Mississippi River Commission: Public observation of Commission meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mississippi River Commission... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.50 Mississippi River... of the Mississippi River Commission and to open all meetings of the Mississippi River Commission...

  12. 33 CFR 209.50 - Mississippi River Commission: Public observation of Commission meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mississippi River Commission... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.50 Mississippi River... of the Mississippi River Commission and to open all meetings of the Mississippi River Commission...

  13. 33 CFR 209.50 - Mississippi River Commission: Public observation of Commission meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mississippi River Commission... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.50 Mississippi River... of the Mississippi River Commission and to open all meetings of the Mississippi River Commission...

  14. Twentieth century increase in snowfall in coastal West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, E. R.; Hosking, J. S.; Tuckwell, R. R.; Warren, R. A.; Ludlow, E. C.

    2015-11-01

    The Amundsen Sea sector of the West Antarctic ice sheet has been losing mass in recent decades; however, long records of snow accumulation are needed to place the recent changes in context. Here we present 300 year records of snow accumulation from two ice cores drilled in Ellsworth Land, West Antarctica. The records show a dramatic increase in snow accumulation during the twentieth century, linked to a deepening of the Amundsen Sea Low (ASL), tropical sea surface temperatures, and large-scale atmospheric circulation. The observed increase in snow accumulation and interannual variability during the late twentieth century is unprecedented in the context of the past 300 years and evidence that the recent deepening of the ASL is part of a longer trend.

  15. Estimates of Missing Women in Twentieth Century China1

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W.; Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús Javier

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of “missing women” has existed throughout the twentieth century in China. Using data from five censuses, with appropriate adjustments, we estimate the numbers and percentage of missing women from the period 1900–2000. The analysis is broken down into historically important periods, and the consequences of missing women, particularly that of China’s “bare branches” are explored. Implications for Chinese society are then discussed. PMID:24255550

  16. Proceedings of the twentieth LAMPF users group meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Marinuzzi, R.

    1987-04-01

    The Twentieth Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held October 27-28, 1986, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  17. The World Commission on Dams: A fundamental step towards integrated water resources management and poverty reduction? A pilot case in the Lower Zambezi, Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scodanibbio, Lucia; Mañez, Gustavo

    The Cahora Bassa dam in the Lower Zambezi has undoubtedly brought varied economic benefits (such as hydroelectricity) to Mozambique. There is also, however, evidence of certain negative impacts that have increased the vulnerability of downstream populations. Specifically, current water management practices in the Zambezi have affected people’s livelihoods by the frequent unpredictable releases of water that wash away riverbank crops, impoverish fish stocks and fish habitat, and threaten the valuable shrimp exports. These releases have also worsened the effects of large floods, for example the floods of 2001. The ecosystem of the Zambezi delta, which is a Ramsar site, has also suffered since Cahora Bassa’s regulation. The Mozambican government is proposing to construct a new dam downstream of Cahora Bassa at Mphanda Nkuwa. In the feasibility study, there was no due consideration of rural downstream communities and their livelihoods. This has left many potentially affected people uninformed and vulnerable to the risks associated with the new development. The new dam is likely to worsen the already severe impacts of Cahora Bassa. The World Commission on Dams (WCD) developed seven strategic priorities, designed to inform all decisions related to future dam developments. These priorities follow principles of public participation, social equity, environmental sustainability, economic efficiency and accountability. The WCD proposed best-practice guidelines for both addressing existing dams and for any future ones which are planned. According to the WCD, affected communities have a right to participate in the decision to build a dam, they should be the first to benefit from the project, and the rivers on which their livelihoods are based should be protected. Stakeholder participation is one of the fundamental components of integrated water resources management (IWRM). For effective participation in dam projects, affected people need to be empowered, have access to

  18. Economic Commission Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Summarizing presentations and discussions of the Economic Commission of the International Non-Governmental Organizations Conference on Discrimination Against Indigenous Populations (1977), this report addresses: multinational corporations; the land question; and the Commission's recommended "Plan of Action". (JC)

  19. Compulsory schooling reforms, education and mortality in twentieth century Europe.

    PubMed

    Gathmann, Christina; Jürges, Hendrik; Reinhold, Steffen

    2015-02-01

    Education yields substantial non-monetary benefits, but the size of these gains is still debated. Previous studies report causal effects of education and compulsory schooling on mortality ranging anywhere from zero to large and negative. Using data from 18 compulsory schooling reforms implemented in Europe during the twentieth century, we quantify the average mortality gain and explore its dispersion across gender, time and countries. We find that more education yields small mortality reductions in the short- and long-run for men. In contrast, women seem to experience no mortality reductions from compulsory schooling reforms. PMID:24560098

  20. 18 CFR 35.31 - Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the ASC methodology set forth at 18 CFR 301.1. If the ASC is not in accord with the methodology, the... Commission under this subpart is computed in accordance with 18 CFR 35.19a. Interest on any increase ordered... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commission review....

  1. Commissioning HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schiess, K.

    1995-12-01

    In recent years, commissioning has been viewed as a separate process that had to be specified and implemented by a specialized entity. This article discusses commissioning in the HVAC field and looks at it from an international perspective. The author has worked in Europe, South Africa (British system) and the USA. The differences between the British and the American methods of commissioning are discussed, with examples given where the American way was unsuccessful. It is the design engineer`s job to test and accept (commission) an installation after the contractor has demonstrated the performance to the satisfaction of the design engineer. Once the plant is commissioned, it is put into service.

  2. Great Plains Drought in Simulations of Twentieth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrary, R. R.; Randall, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    The Great Plains region of the United States was influenced by a number of multi-year droughts during the twentieth century. Most notable were the "Dust Bowl" drought of the 1930s and the 1950s Great Plains drought. In this study we evaluate the ability of three of the Coupled Global Climate Models (CGCMs) used in the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the IPCC to simulate Great Plains drought with the same frequency and intensity as was observed during the twentieth century. The models chosen for this study are: GFDL CM 2.0, NCAR CCSM3, and UKMO HadCM3. We find that the models accurately capture the climatology of the hydrologic cycle of the Great Plains, but that they tend to overestimate the variability in Great Plains precipitation. We also find that in each model simulation at least one long-term drought occurs over the Great Plains region during their representations 20th Century Climate. The multi-year droughts produced by the models exhibit similar magnitudes and spatial scales as was observed during the twentieth century. This study also investigates the relative roles that external forcing from the tropical Pacific and local feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere have in the initiation and perpetuation of Great Plains drought in each model. We find that cool, La Nina-like conditions in the tropical pacific are often associated with long-term drought conditions over the Great Plains in GFDL CM 2.0 and UKMO HadCM3, but there appears to be no systematic relationship between tropical Pacific SST variability and Great Plains drought in CCSM3. It is possible the strong coupling between the land surface and the atmosphere in the NCAR model causes precipitation anomalies to lock into phase over the Great Plains thereby perpetuating drought conditions. Results from this study are intended to help assess whether or not these climate models are credible for use in the assessment of future drought over the Great Plains region of the United States.

  3. Twentieth-Century Literature in the Survey and in the Special Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Lynda G.

    1980-01-01

    Provides a semester syllabus for a course in twentieth-century world literature and suggests selections to add to a world literature survey based on works of Nobel Prize winners. Includes an annotated bibliography of background information on both the literature and the philosophies of the twentieth century. (MKM)

  4. 77 FR 3029 - Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems... RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the twentieth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft...

  5. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  6. Assessment of a three-dimensional (3D) water scanning system for beam commissioning and measurements on a helical tomotherapy unit.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jean L; Ashenafi, Michael S; McDonald, Daniel G; Vanek, Kenneth N

    2015-01-01

    Beam scanning data collected on the tomotherapy linear accelerator using the TomoScanner water scanning system is primarily used to verify the golden beam profiles included in all Helical TomoTherapy treatment planning systems (TOMO TPSs). The user is not allowed to modify the beam profiles/parameters for beam modeling within the TOMO TPSs. The authors report the first feasibility study using the Blue Phantom Helix (BPH) as an alternative to the TomoScanner (TS) system. This work establishes a benchmark dataset using BPH for target commissioning and quality assurance (QA), and quantifies systematic uncertainties between TS and BPH. Reproducibility of scanning with BPH was tested by three experienced physicists taking five sets of measurements over a six-month period. BPH provides several enhancements over TS, including a 3D scanning arm, which is able to acquire necessary beam-data with one tank setup, a universal chamber mount, and the OmniPro software, which allows online data collection and analysis. Discrepancies between BPH and TS were estimated by acquiring datasets with each tank. In addition, data measured with BPH and TS was compared to the golden TOMO TPS beam data. The total systematic uncertainty, defined as the combination of scanning system and beam modeling uncertainties, was determined through numerical analysis and tabulated. OmniPro was used for all analysis to eliminate uncertainty due to different data processing algorithms. The setup reproducibility of BPH remained within 0.5 mm/0.5%. Comparing BPH, TS, and Golden TPS for PDDs beyond maximum depth, the total systematic uncertainties were within 1.4mm/2.1%. Between BPH and TPS golden data, maximum differences in the field width and penumbra of in-plane profiles were within 0.8 and 1.1 mm, respectively. Furthermore, in cross-plane profiles, the field width differences increased at depth greater than 10 cm up to 2.5 mm, and maximum penumbra uncertainties were 5.6mm and 4.6 mm from TS scanning

  7. Modern solar maximum forced late twentieth century Greenland cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobashi, T.; Box, J. E.; Vinther, B. M.; Goto-Azuma, K.; Blunier, T.; White, J. W. C.; Nakaegawa, T.; Andresen, C. S.

    2015-07-01

    The abrupt Northern Hemispheric warming at the end of the twentieth century has been attributed to an enhanced greenhouse effect. Yet Greenland and surrounding subpolar North Atlantic remained anomalously cold in 1970s to early 1990s. Here we reconstructed robust Greenland temperature records (North Greenland Ice Core Project and Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2) over the past 2100 years using argon and nitrogen isotopes in air trapped within ice cores and show that this cold anomaly was part of a recursive pattern of antiphase Greenland temperature responses to solar variability with a possible multidecadal lag. We hypothesize that high solar activity during the modern solar maximum (approximately 1950s-1980s) resulted in a cooling over Greenland and surrounding subpolar North Atlantic through the slowdown of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation with atmospheric feedback processes.

  8. Climate of Hungary in the twentieth century according to Feddema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ács, Ferenc; Breuer, Hajnalka; Skarbit, Nóra

    2015-01-01

    Feddema's (Physical Geography 26:442-466, 2005) bioclimatic classification scheme is applied to Hungary for the twentieth century using the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) data series. The method is tested in two modes. In the first, its original form is used which is suitable for global scale analysis. In the second, the criteria used in the method are slightly modified for mesoscale classification purposes. In both versions, potential evapotranspiration (PET) is calculated using McKenney and Rosenberg's (Meteorol 64:81-110, 1993) formula. We showed that McKenney and Rosenberg's formula could be applied to Hungary. According to Feddema's global scale application, local climates of the three main geographical regions, the Great Hungarian Plain, the North Hungarian Mountains, and Transdanubia, can be distinguished. However, the spatial distribution pattern within the regions is poorly reproduced, if at all. According to Feddema's mesoscale application, a picture of climatic subregions could be observed.

  9. US mobilizations in the twentieth century: Implications for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Horwich, G. )

    1989-10-01

    Four US mobilizations in the twentieth century are compared in terms of several broad macroeconomic variables and assessed in terms of policy initiatives that preceded them. World War I was the least effective in delivering war material to US troops. World War 2, the only total'' mobilization, was highly effective, though it proceeded over a four or five-year period. The buildup of the Korean War, a more limited engagement, moved with relative speed. The Vietnam mobilization was essentially a minor increment to the prewar level of defense spending. Manpower sources in all four wars are also identified. Mobilization strategies have undergone frequent modification and were not always adequate to the mobilizations they served. 3 refs., 18 tabs.

  10. THE COLLEGE COMMISSIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOOKS, JOYCE LANE

    THE HISTORIES, ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES, MODES OF OPERATION, GOALS, AND SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES OF EIGHT COLLEGE SCIENCE COMMISSIONS ARE PRESENTED. THE GOAL OF THE EIGHT COLLEGE SCIENCE COMMISSIONS IS TO BRING UNDERGRADUATE SCIENCE INSTRUCTION CLOSER TO THE RESEARCH FRONTIER, UPDATE COURSES, AND FOSTER THE SPIRIT OF INQUIRY. INTERCOMMISSION…

  11. Modeling and Reality in Early Twentieth-Century Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Suman

    2011-04-01

    Towards the end of 1913, Arnold Sommerfeld, Professor of theoretical physics at Munich University, sent a letter of congratulations to a young Niels Bohr. The Dane's now-classic trilogy of papers, which coupled Rutherford's conception of the atom with a ``planetary'' configuration of electrons, had just appeared. Sommerfeld saw the calculation of the Rydberg constant as a singular triumph and immediately spotted an opportunity to try to explain the Zeeman effect. Yet he also sounded a note of caution, confessing that he remained ``somewhat skeptical'' of atomic models in general. In this, of course, he was hardly alone. Bohr's atom was a particularly egregious example of a peculiar model, one requiring what even its creator considered ``horrid assumptions.'' Nonetheless, success bred conviction. Expanding upon Bohr's original ideas, Sommerfeld soon produced the so-called ``Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization conditions,'' using them to calculate a myriad of results. Experimental evidence, Sommerfeld argued in 1915, showed that quantised electron-paths ``correspond exactly to reality'' and possess ``real existence.'' This kind of realism would not, of course, last long. In 1925, Werner Heisenberg (earlier a student of Sommerfeld's) made scepticism about the details of the Bohr model into a methodological dictum, one later enshrined in the ``Copenhagen interpretation'' of quantum mechanics. This paper uses Sommerfeld's work from the turn of the twentieth century to the mid-1920s as a window onto a landscape involving multiple contestations over the legitimacy of atomic modelling. The surprise that greeted Heisenberg's and others' phenomenological insistences, we will see, can only be understood with reference to what should be considered a ``realist interlude'' in the history of twentieth century atomic physics, one inspired by the astonishing successes of Rutherford's and Bohr's imaginings.

  12. Jung's very twentieth-century view of myth.

    PubMed

    Segal, Robert A

    2003-11-01

    It is commonly assumed that Jung's view of myth, like his view of everything else, is best understood vis-à-vis Freud's. I argue that Jung in fact positions himself much more broadly, not merely against other psychologists of myth but more fundamentally against non-psychologists altogether. Undeniably, Jung pits his theory against Freud's, but only after pitting both his theory and Freud's against those theories that assume the subject matter of myth to be the external world rather than the human mind and that assume the function of myth to be either the explanation or the description of the external world rather than the expression of the human mind. The theorists whom Jung challenges are called 'nature mythologists', for whom myth is either a literal explanation or a symbolic description of the natural world. Which element of the natural world myth is about varies from nature mythologist to nature mythologist. The two leading nature mythologists, both of whom Jung cites, were Edward Tylor and James Frazer. Their theories epitomize the nineteenth-century approach to myth. For them, myth is the 'primitive' counterpart to science, which is entirely modern. For them, myth and science are incompatible, science is true and myth false, and myth must therefore go when science comes. Jung's rejection of the external world as the referent of myth and of explanation or description of that world as the function of myth epitomizes the twentieth-century response to nineteenth-century theories. For not merely Jung and Freud but also twentieth-century theorists generally, myth is anything but the 'primitive' counterpart to modern science. Consequently, myth and science are not rivals, so that myth need not go when science comes. PMID:14661375

  13. Commissioning of HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schiess, K.

    1995-06-01

    In recent years various presentation and discussions have taken place which looked at commissioning as a separate process that had to be specified and implemented by a specialized entity in a project. This presentation discusses commissioning in the HVAC field and looks at it from an international perspective. The author has worked in Europe, South Africa (British system) and in the USA. The differences are discussed between the British and the American methods with some examples where the American way of commissioning was unsuccessful. The conclusion is that it is the design engineer`s job to test and accept (commission) an installation after the contractor has demonstrated the performance to the satisfaction of the design engineer. Once the plant is commissioned, it is put into service.

  14. Twentieth century ENSO-related precipitation mean states in twentieth century reanalysis, reconstructed precipitation and CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Ni; Arkin, Phillip A.

    2016-07-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related precipitation during the entire twentieth century is compared among the twentieth century reanalysis (20CR), a statistically reconstructed precipitation dataset (REC) and 30 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. Empirical orthogonal functions, ENSO-related precipitation composites based on sea surface temperature (SST)-constructed ENSO index and singular value decomposition (SVD) are employed to extract ENSO-related precipitation/SST signals in each dataset. With the background trend being removed in all of the data, our results show that the REC and the 20CR resemble both in their precipitation climatology and ENSO-related precipitation results. The biases in the CMIP5 models precipitation climatology such as dry equator over the Pacific Ocean, "double-intertropical convergence zones (ITCZs)" and overly zonal Southern Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) are major reasons for lowering spatial correlations with the REC and the 20CR precipitation climatology. Two groups of CMIP5 models are built based on severity of these biases in their precipitation background and the spatial correlations of ENSO-related precipitation with the observations. Compared with the group with more severe biases in its precipitation climatology, the group with smaller biases tends to produce more ENSO-like precipitation patterns, simulate more realistic mean magnitude and seasonal variability of ENSO precipitation signals, as well as generating better ENSO-related SST/precipitation correlation patterns produced in its SVD analysis. The ENSO-related precipitation biases in the CMIP5 models over the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, as well as the equatorial Pacific, are strongly related with their precipitation climatology biases over these regions. The ENSO-related precipitation biases over the off-equator eastern Pacific Ocean are associated with both the "double-ITCZs" biases in the precipitation climatology and the ENSO

  15. 18 CFR 270.503 - Protests to the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protests to the... PROCEDURES Commission Review of Jurisdictional Agency Determinations § 270.503 Protests to the Commission. (a) Who may file. Any person may file a protest with the Commission with respect to a determination of...

  16. 18 CFR 388.106 - Requests for Commission records available in the Public Reference Room and from the Commission's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requests for Commission records available in the Public Reference Room and from the Commission's web site, http://www.ferc.gov... available in the Public Reference Room and from the Commission's web site, http://www.ferc.gov. (a)(1)...

  17. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  18. Federal Trade Commission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Press Releases Commission Actions Media Resources Consumer Finance Mergers and Competition Mobile Technology The Do Not ... Advice For Consumers Business Center Advertising & Marketing Credit & Finance Guidance Privacy & Security Selected Industries Legal Resources Business ...

  19. Commissioning the LCLS Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Akre, R.; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, Ph.; Iverson, R.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Schmerge, J.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; White, W.; Wu, J.; /SLAC

    2007-11-28

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) project presently under construction at SLAC. The injector section, from drive laser and RF photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane, was installed in fall 2006. Initial system commissioning with an electron beam was completed in August 2007, with the goal of a 1.2-micron emittance in a 1-nC bunch clearly demonstrated. The second phase of commissioning, including second bunch compressor and full linac, is planned for 2008, with FEL commissioning in 2009. We report experimental results and experience gained in the first phase of commissioning, including the photo-cathode drive laser, RF gun, photocathode, S-band and X-band RF systems, first bunch compressor, and the various beam diagnostics.

  20. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  1. Commission 53: Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Alan; Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain; Mayor, Michel; Bodenheimer, Peter; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Mardling, Rosemary; Minniti, Dante; Queloz, Didier

    2012-04-01

    Commission 53 was created at the 2006 Prague General Assembly (GA) of the IAU, in recognition of the outburst of astronomical progress in the field of extrasolar planet discovery, characterization, and theoretical work that has occurred since the discovery of the first planet in orbit around a solar-type star in 1995. Commission 53 is the logical successor to the IAU Working Group on Extrasolar Planets (WGESP), which ended its six years of existence in August 2006. The founding President of Commission 53 was Michael Mayor, in honor of his seminal contributions to this new field of astronomy. The current President is Alan Boss, the former chair of the WGESP. The current members of the Commission 53 (C53) Organizing Committee (OC) began their service in August 2009 at the conclusion of the Rio de Janeiro IAU GA.

  2. Modelling twentieth century global ocean circulation and iceberg flux at 48°N: implications for west Greenland iceberg discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilton, David J.; Bigg, Grant R.; Hanna, Edward

    2015-11-01

    We have used a coupled ocean-iceberg model to study the variation in global ocean circulation and North Atlantic iceberg flux from 1900 to 2008. The latter component of the study focused particularly on Greenland icebergs feeding into the Labrador Current and past Newfoundland. The model was forced with daily heat, freshwater and wind fluxes from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis. The reanalysis heat fluxes were shown to be offset from the, shorter, NCEP reanalysis and a grid-point correction was applied to this component of the forcing. The model produces a generally realistic ocean circulation, although with an enhanced Atlantic Meridional Overturning largely due to the forcing. The modelled iceberg flux at 48°N is well correlated with the long-term observed flux when using a modelled iceberg discharge that varies in a similar fashion to the highly variable observed flux at 48°N. From this model we infer changes in the spatial and temporal variability of iceberg calving from western Greenland. During the first third of the twentieth century the majority of modelled icebergs reaching 48°N derive from southern Greenland, while only after 1930 is the traditional perspective of a majority of such icebergs originating from Baffin Bay consistent with model results. Decadal-scale changes in the dominant regional sources are found, with oscillations between western Greenland and northern Baffin Bay. The latter origin was modelled to be most important in the last third of the twentieth century, although west Greenland sources have increased in importance in recent years. The model correctly reproduces the pronounced late spring peak in flux at 48°N for southern Greenland icebergs, but has an approximately six month offset for icebergs from Baffin Bay, most likely due to resolution issues leading to model icebergs not being delayed in shallow coastal waters, whereas in reality they may be grounded for some time or trapped in coastal sea-ice.

  3. Commission 4: Ephemerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Toshio; Kaplan, George H.; Krasinsky, George A.; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Bangert, John A.; Hohenkerk, Catherine; Lara, Martin; Pitjeva, Elena V.; Urban, Sean E.; Vondrak, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Dr. George Kaplan, the current Vice-President of the Commission was nominated to be the new President. Dr. Catherine Hohenkerk was elected to be the next Vice-President of the Commission. As for the Membership of the Organizing Committee, Dr. Vondrak stepped down and Drs William Folkner of JPL and Steve Bell of HMNAO have been added. In the below, we present summaries of the reports from various institutions presented at the business session.

  4. SPEAR3 Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Harkay, K.; Sajaev, V.; Boland, M.J.; Tan, Y.E.; Krinsky, S.; Podobedov, B.; Decking, W.; Ropert, A.; Byrd, J.M.; Robin, D.; Scarvie, T.; Steier, C.; Fedurin, M.G.; Jines, P.; Chang, H.-P.; Kuo, C.-C.; Tsai, H.-J.; Yoon, M.H.; Boge, M.; Allison, S.; Bellomo, P.; /SLAC, SSRL /SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin

    2005-05-09

    The successful commissioning of the new SPEAR3 light source at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) will be reviewed. Orbit control, beam-based alignment, and an orbit interlock were commissioned. Orbit motion was characterized as a function of frequency. The linear optics was corrected for ID focusing and coupling errors. The nonlinear optics were investigated with dynamic aperture measurements as a function of energy and tune.

  5. 77 FR 10599 - Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... conducted by the Commission on February 16, 2012; notice of which was published in 77 FR 3321, January 23... COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on March 15, 2012, in...

  6. Abrupt changes in rainfall during the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narisma, G.; Foley, J.; Licker, R.; Ramankutty, N.

    2007-12-01

    A sudden change in climate is brought about by complex interactions in the climate system, including interactions between land and atmosphere, that can give rise to strong positive feedback mechanisms. Paleoclimatic studies have shown that abrupt climate changes have happened in the geologic past. Studies of future climate change under global warming scenarios indicate the possibility of the sudden collapse of the thermohaline circulation, which will have major implications for the climate of Europe. However, abrupt climatic changes are not events of the geologic past or a computer-simulated future: they have occurred in recent history and have had serious consequences on society and the environment. The prolonged Sahel drought in the late 1960s and the Dust Bowl of the 1930s are examples of abrupt climatic changes of the twentieth century. Apart from these events, however, there has been no systematic survey of recent climate history to determine the prevalence of abrupt climatic changes. Given the potential cost of these abrupt changes, there is a need to investigate historical records for evidence of other sudden climatic changes in the more recent past. Here we analyze the Climate Research Unit global historical rainfall observations (covering the years 1901-2000) using wavelet analysis to detect regions that have undergone large, sudden decreases in rainfall. We show that in the twentieth century, aside from the Sahel and the US midwest, at least 30 regions in the world have experienced sudden climatic changes. These events are statistically significant at the 99 percent level, are persistent for at least ten years, and most have magnitudes of change that are 10 percent lower than the climatological normal (1901-2000 rainfall average). We also illustrate some of the potential consequences of these abrupt changes and show that these events had major impacts on social and environmental conditions. Interestingly, these regions of abrupt precipitation changes are

  7. On the Causes and Dynamics of the Early Twentieth Century North American Pluvial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Seager, Richard; Miller, Ron L.

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth century North American pluvial (1905-1917) was one of the most extreme wet periods of the last five hundred years and directly led to overly generous water allotments in the water-limited American West. Here we examine the causes and dynamics of the pluvial event using a combination of observation-based data sets and general circulation model (GCM) experiments. The character of the moisture surpluses during the pluvial differed by region, alternately driven by increased precipitation (the Southwest), low evaporation from cool temperatures (the Central Plains), or a combination of the two (the Pacific Northwest). Cool temperature anomalies covered much of the west and persisted through most months, part of a globally extensive period of cooler land and sea surface temperatures (SST). Circulation during boreal winter favored increased moisture import and precipitation in the southwest, while other regions and seasons were characterized by near normal or reduced precipitation. Anomalies in the mean circulation, precipitation, and SST fields are partially consistent with the relatively weak El Nino forcing during the pluvial, and also reflect the impact of positive departures in the Arctic Oscillation that occurred in ten of the thirteen pluvial winters. Differences between the reanalysis dataset, an independent statistical drought model, and GCM simulations highlight some of the remaining uncertainties in understanding the full extent of SST forcing of North American hydroclimatic variability.

  8. Tropospheric circulation during the early twentieth century Arctic warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmann, Martin; Brönnimann, Stefan; Compo, Gilbert P.

    2016-06-01

    The early twentieth century Arctic warming (ETCAW) between 1920 and 1940 is an exceptional feature of climate variability in the last century. Its warming rate was only recently matched by recent warming in the region. Unlike recent warming largely attributable to anthropogenic radiative forcing, atmospheric warming during the ETCAW was strongest in the mid-troposphere and is believed to be triggered by an exceptional case of natural climate variability. Nevertheless, ultimate mechanisms and causes for the ETCAW are still under discussion. Here we use state of the art multi-member global circulation models, reanalysis and reconstruction datasets to investigate the internal atmospheric dynamics of the ETCAW. We investigate the role of boreal winter mid-tropospheric heat transport and circulation in providing the energy for the large scale warming. Analyzing sensible heat flux components and regional differences, climate models are not able to reproduce the heat flux evolution found in reanalysis and reconstruction datasets. These datasets show an increase of stationary eddy heat flux and a decrease of transient eddy heat flux during the ETCAW. Moreover, tropospheric circulation analysis reveals the important role of both the Atlantic and the Pacific sectors in the convergence of southerly air masses into the Arctic during the warming event. Subsequently, it is suggested that the internal dynamics of the atmosphere played a major role in the formation in the ETCAW.

  9. Proceedings of the Twentieth International Microgravity Measurements Group Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    The International Microgravity Measurements Group annual meetings provide a forum for an exchange of information and ideas about various aspects of microgravity acceleration research in international microgravity research programs. These meetings are sponsored by the PI Microgravity Services (PIMS) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The twentieth MGMG meeting was held 7-9 August 2001 at the Hilton Garden Inn Hotel in Cleveland, Ohio. The 35 attendees represented NASA, other space agencies, universities, and commercial companies; eight of the attendees were international representatives from Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan, and Russia. Seventeen presentations were made on a variety of microgravity environment topics including the International Space Station (ISS), acceleration measurement and analysis results, science effects from microgravity accelerations, vibration isolation, free flyer satellites, ground testing, and microgravity outreach. Two working sessions were included in which a demonstration of ISS acceleration data processing and analyses were performed with audience participation. Contained within the minutes is the conference agenda which indicates each speaker, the title of their presentation, and the actual time of their presentation. The minutes also include the charts for each presentation which indicate the author's name(s) and affiliation. In some cases, a separate written report was submitted and has been included here.

  10. Learning from mistakes: early twentieth-century surgical practice.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Sally; Hirst, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    Archibald Watson was an Australian anatomist and surgeon who kept operating theater diaries. He made detailed notes on the work of surgeons that he observed in Britain and North America, as well as in Australia. Watson's diaries provide significant evidence that early twentieth-century surgeons did not just apply scientific knowledge produced somewhere else. They generated new surgical knowledge themselves and worked within a culture that valued innovation. Some of the surgeons observed by Watson practiced in academic centers and regularly engaged in laboratory research, but most did not. Nevertheless, it is clear that whether in Australia, Britain, or North America, the active search for improved techniques was a routine feature of the practice of full-time surgeons. In the process, they often made mistakes--or rather, they often did things with which at least some of their colleagues did not agree. Much of surgical practice was contestable. Doing things the "right" way and finding better ways to do things were overlapping categories; but it is often difficult or impossible to draw any distinction at all between doing things the "wrong" way and failed attempts at finding a better way to perform an operation. This article examines some aspects of the relationship between scientific ideas, clinical experience, contestable errors, and the generation of new knowledge through surgical practice. PMID:18669573

  11. Detection of human influence on twentieth-century precipitation trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis W; Hegerl, Gabriele C; Lambert, F Hugo; Gillett, Nathan P; Solomon, Susan; Stott, Peter A; Nozawa, Toru

    2007-07-26

    Human influence on climate has been detected in surface air temperature, sea level pressure, free atmospheric temperature, tropopause height and ocean heat content. Human-induced changes have not, however, previously been detected in precipitation at the global scale, partly because changes in precipitation in different regions cancel each other out and thereby reduce the strength of the global average signal. Models suggest that anthropogenic forcing should have caused a small increase in global mean precipitation and a latitudinal redistribution of precipitation, increasing precipitation at high latitudes, decreasing precipitation at sub-tropical latitudes, and possibly changing the distribution of precipitation within the tropics by shifting the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Here we compare observed changes in land precipitation during the twentieth century averaged over latitudinal bands with changes simulated by fourteen climate models. We show that anthropogenic forcing has had a detectable influence on observed changes in average precipitation within latitudinal bands, and that these changes cannot be explained by internal climate variability or natural forcing. We estimate that anthropogenic forcing contributed significantly to observed increases in precipitation in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, drying in the Northern Hemisphere subtropics and tropics, and moistening in the Southern Hemisphere subtropics and deep tropics. The observed changes, which are larger than estimated from model simulations, may have already had significant effects on ecosystems, agriculture and human health in regions that are sensitive to changes in precipitation, such as the Sahel. PMID:17646832

  12. Commissioning Experience of SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2007-07-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator complex consists of a 2.5 MeV H{sup -} front-end injector system, a 186 MeV normal-conducting linear accelerator, a 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, and associated beam transport lines. The linac was commissioned in five discrete runs, starting in 2002 and completed in 2005. The accumulator ring and associated beam transport lines were commissioned in two runs in January-February and April 2006. With the completed commissioning of the SNS accelerator, the facility has begun initial low-power operations. In the course of beam commissioning, most beam performance parameters and beam intensity goals have been achieved at low duty factor. A number of beam dynamics measurements have been performed, including emittance evolution, transverse coupling in the ring, beam instability thresholds, and beam distributions on the target. The commissioning results, achieved beam performance and initial operating experience of the SNS linac will be presented.

  13. Commission 42: Close Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez, Alvaro; Rucinski, Slavek; Szkody, P.; Gies, D.; Kang, Y.-W.; Linsky, J.; Livio, M.; Morrell, N.; Hilditch, R.; Nordström, B.; Ribas, I.; Sion, E.; Vrielman, S.

    2007-03-01

    The triennial report from Commission 42 covers various topics like massive binaries, contact systems, cataclysmic variables and low-mass binary stars. We try in a number of sections to provide an update on the current status of the main research areas in the field of close binaries. It is not a formal review, even complete or comprehensive, but an attempt to bring the main topics on recent research to astronomers working in other fields. References are also not comprehensive and simply added to the text to help the reader looking for deeper information on the subject. For this reason, we have chosen to include references (sometimes incomplete for ongoing work) not in a list at the end but integrated with the main text body. Complete references and additional sources can be easily obtained through web access of ADS or SIMBAD. Furthermore, the summary of papers on close-binary research contained in the Bibliography of Close Binaries (BCB) can be accessed from the web site of Commission 42. I would like to express the gratitude of the commission for the careful work of Colin Scarfe as Editor-in-Chief of BCB and Andras Holl and Attila Sragli for maintaining the web pages of the Commission within the structure of Division V. Finally, K. Olah and J. Jurcsik are gratefully acknowledged for their continued support as editors of the Information Bulletin on Variable Stars (IBVS), also accessible through the commission web page.

  14. Commissioning of CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Hutton

    1994-06-01

    Construction of the CEBAF accelerator, a 4 GeV CW recirculating linac, is virtually complete. The 338 power sources and superconducting RF cavities, which have all run above nominal operating gradient in vertical tests (average 10.7 MeV/m), are installed. All the major components of the nine recirculation arcs are installed and aligned. Pre-commissioning was performed in parallel with construction. Ninety-nine superconducting cavities were operated simultaneously at the nominal gradient of 5 MeV/m. A maximum beam current of 110 PA CW (ZOO PA design) was reached. A cryomodule with eight cavities has operated at 8 MeV/m. Commissioning of the entire machine began in May 94. Results obtained during commissioning of the two linacs and the first arc are presented. 600 MeV beam is ready to be brought to the first experimental hall meeting a DOE milestone established in 1988.

  15. ATF2 Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Seryi, A.; Christian, G.; Parker, B.; Schulte, D.; Delahaye, J.-P.; Tomas, R.; Zimmermann, F.; Wolski, A.; Elsen, E.; Sanuki, T.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Ross, M.; Wendt, M.; Takahashi, T.; Bai, S.; Gao, J.; Bolzon, B.; Geffroy, N.; Jeremie, A.; Apsimon, R.; Burrows, P.; /Oxford U., JAI /Kyoto U., Inst. Chem. Res. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Orsay, LAL /Phang Accelerator Lab /Royal Holloway, U. of London /SLAC /Daresbury /University Coll. London /Manchester U. /Univ. of Tokyo U.

    2009-10-30

    ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line that aims to focus the low-emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a beam size of about 37 nm, and at the same time to demonstrate nm beam stability, using numerous advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools. The construction has been finished at the end of 2008 and the beam commissioning of ATF2 has started in December of 2008. ATF2 is constructed and commissioned by ATF international collaborations with strong US, Asian and European participation.

  16. Sulfate Aerosol Control of Tropical Atlantic Climate over the Twentieth Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C.-Y.; Chiang, J. C. H.; Wehner, M. F.; Friedman, A. R.; Ruedy, R.

    2011-01-01

    The tropical Atlantic interhemispheric gradient in sea surface temperature significantly influences the rainfall climate of the tropical Atlantic sector, including droughts over West Africa and Northeast Brazil. This gradient exhibits a secular trend from the beginning of the twentieth century until the 1980s, with stronger warming in the south relative to the north. This trend behavior is on top of a multi-decadal variation associated with the Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation. A similar long-term forced trend is found in a multimodel ensemble of forced twentieth-century climate simulations. Through examining the distribution of the trend slopes in the multimodel twentieth-century and preindustrial models, the authors conclude that the observed trend in the gradient is unlikely to arise purely from natural variations; this study suggests that at least half the observed trend is a forced response to twentieth-century climate forcings. Further analysis using twentieth-century single-forcing runs indicates that sulfate aerosol forcing is the predominant cause of the multimodel trend. The authors conclude that anthropogenic sulfate aerosol emissions, originating predominantly from the Northern Hemisphere, may have significantly altered the tropical Atlantic rainfall climate over the twentieth century

  17. 33 CFR 23.20 - Coast Guard commission pennant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coast Guard commission pennant. 23.20 Section 23.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.20 Coast Guard commission...

  18. 33 CFR 23.20 - Coast Guard commission pennant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coast Guard commission pennant. 23.20 Section 23.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.20 Coast Guard commission...

  19. 33 CFR 23.20 - Coast Guard commission pennant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coast Guard commission pennant. 23.20 Section 23.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.20 Coast Guard commission...

  20. 33 CFR 23.20 - Coast Guard commission pennant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coast Guard commission pennant. 23.20 Section 23.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.20 Coast Guard commission...

  1. 33 CFR 23.20 - Coast Guard commission pennant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coast Guard commission pennant. 23.20 Section 23.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL DISTINCTIVE MARKINGS FOR COAST GUARD VESSELS AND AIRCRAFT § 23.20 Coast Guard commission...

  2. 18 CFR 401.89 - Action by the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action by the Commission. 401.89 Section 401.89 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Administrative and Other Hearings § 401.89 Action by...

  3. 18 CFR 401.88 - Findings, report and Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Findings, report and Commission review. 401.88 Section 401.88 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Administrative and Other Hearings §...

  4. 18 CFR 1b.8 - Requests for Commission investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requests for Commission investigations. 1b.8 Section 1b.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.8 Requests for...

  5. 18 CFR 35.27 - Authority of State commissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority of State commissions. 35.27 Section 35.27 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND...

  6. 18 CFR 270.502 - Commission review of final determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commission review of final determinations. 270.502 Section 270.502 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Commission will publish notice of the preliminary finding in the Federal Register and will post the notice...

  7. 18 CFR 270.502 - Commission review of final determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commission review of final determinations. 270.502 Section 270.502 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Commission will publish notice of the preliminary finding in the Federal Register and will post the notice...

  8. Developing a Climatology of Atmospheric Rivers Impacting Greenland Using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, W. D.; Compo, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    A recent paper [Neff et al., 2014]examined the factors underlying the 2012 melt episode that covered the Greenland ice sheet and compared it with the same factors identified for the last episode in 1889, using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR: [Compo et al., 2011]). A key factor was the presence of an Atmospheric River (AR) that transported warm air from a mid-continent heat wave over the Atlantic Ocean and thence to the west coast of Greenland and then over the ice sheet. The 20CR proved quite effective in defining the structure and transport paths for both events. Although these events with wide spread melting of the ice sheet surface are extremely rare, a question remains as to the frequency of AR events and the ancillary conditions required for extensive melting of the ice sheet. Although the 20CR was effective in capturing the structure of AR events in 1889, an analysis of the northward transport of moisture off the west coast of Greenland at 850 hPa shows weaker transport prior to 1921 than after. In this study, we use time series of meridional velocity and specific humidity at 850 hPa during boreal summer months as a screening tool for high transport events. We attribute the muted representation of synoptic features to be an artifact of of sparse available stations reporting pressure along the northeast coast of Canada prior to 1921. For this reason we use different thresholds before and after 1921 to identify potential AR events. For each potential event we then examine maps of integrated water vapor between 240oW to 340oW and 20oN to 80oN to identify those with the IWV pattern characteristic of an AR. In our earlier study, we used the only station, Ilulissat, recording daily data on the west coast of Greenland corresponding to the entire1871-2012 period of the 20CR for verification of events in 1889 and 2012. In that analysis, temperatures maximized prior to each event together with light precipitation on the coast. In this study, we have used this

  9. Analysis of mid-twentieth century rainfall trends and variability over southwestern Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsubuga, F. N. W.; Olwoch, J. M.; Rautenbach, C. J. deW.; Botai, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    A methodology has been applied to investigate the spatial variability and trends existent in a mid-twentieth century climatic time series (for the period 1943-1977) recorded by 58 climatic stations in the Albert-Victoria water management area in Uganda. Data were subjected to quality checks before further processing. In the present work, temporal trends were analyzed using Mann-Kendall and linear regression methods. Heterogeneity of monthly rainfall was investigated using the precipitation concentration index (PCI). Results revealed that 53 % of stations have positive trends where 25 % are statistically significant and 45 % of stations have negative trends with 23 % being statistically significant. Very strong trends at 99 % significance level were revealed at 12 stations. Positive trends in January, February, and November at 40 stations were observed. The highest rainfall was recorded in April, while January, June, and July had the lowest rainfall. Spatial analysis results showed that stations close to Lake Victoria recorded high amounts of rainfall. Average annual coefficient of variability was 19 %, signifying low variability. Rainfall distribution is bimodal with maximums experienced in March-April-May and September-October-November seasons of the year. Analysis also revealed that PCI values showed a moderate to seasonal rainfall distribution. Spectral analysis of the time components reveals the existence of a major period around 3, 6, and 10 years. The 6- and 10-year period is a characteristic of September-October-November, March-April-May, and annual time series.

  10. Late-twentieth-century warming in Lake Tanganyika unprecedented since AD 500

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, Jessica E.; Mayes, Marc T.; Meyer, Natacha; Johnson, Christopher; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Russell, James M.

    2010-06-01

    Instrumental observations suggest that Lake Tanganyika, the largest rift lake in East Africa, has become warmer, increasingly stratified and less productive over the past 90years (refs 1,2). These trends have been attributed to anthropogenic climate change. However, it remains unclear whether the decrease in productivity is linked to the temperature rise, and whether the twentieth-century trends are anomalous within the context of longer-term variability. Here, we use the TEX86 temperature proxy, the weight per cent of biogenic silica and charcoal abundance from Lake Tanganyika sediment cores to reconstruct lake-surface temperature, productivity and regional wildfire frequency, respectively, for the past 1,500years. We detect a negative correlation between lake-surface temperature and primary productivity, and our estimates of fire frequency, and hence humidity, preclude decreased nutrient input through runoff as a cause for observed periods of low productivity. We suggest that, throughout the past 1,500years, rising lake-surface temperatures increased the stratification of the lake water column, preventing nutrient recharge from below and limiting primary productivity. Our records indicate that changes in the temperature of Lake Tanganyika in the past few decades exceed previous natural variability. We conclude that these unprecedented temperatures and a corresponding decrease in productivity can be attributed to anthropogenic global warming, with potentially important implications for the Lake Tanganyika fishery.

  11. Conservation Commissions in Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffey, Andrew J. W.

    The Conservation Foundation reported on the experience of a resource development specialist in the state of Massachusetts on the public's growing concern for environmental quality. After tracing the origins of the Massachusetts movement, the report draws upon a variety of specific state experiences to illustrate the commission's growing pains and…

  12. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM). The summaries and headnotes preceding the opinions reported herein are not to be deemed a part of those opinions or have any independent legal significance.

  13. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM). The summaries and headnotes preceding the opinions reported herein are not to be deemed a part of those opinions or have any independent legal significance.

  14. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM). The summaries and headnotes preceding the opinions reported herein are not to be deemed a part of those opinions or have any independent legal significance.

  15. SPEAR 3 Commissioning Software

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, W.J.; Portmann, G.J.; Safranek, J.A.; Terebilo, A.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-05-09

    The short SPEAR 3 startup time required precommissioned software for machine setup, beam measurements and data analysis. To accomplish this goal, we used Matlab with the Accelerator Toolbox (AT), the Channel Access Toolbox (MCA) and Middle Layer software to integrate code and streamline production. This paper outlines the software architecture, describes the Middle Layer component and provides examples from SPEAR 3 commissioning.

  16. 77 FR 28420 - Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... the notice for such hearing, which was published in 77 FR 23319, April 18, 2012. Authority: Pub. L. 91... COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on June 7, 2012, in Binghamton,...

  17. 78 FR 52601 - Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... on August 15, 2013, and identified in the notice for such hearing, which was published in 78 FR 43961... COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on September 19, 2013, in...

  18. 78 FR 12412 - Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Commission on February 14, 2013, and identified in the notice for such hearing, which was published in 78 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  19. 77 FR 70204 - Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... Commission on November 15, 2012, and identified in the notice for such hearing, which was published in 77 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  20. Authority of states of use section 401 water quality certification to deny or condition Federal Energy Regulatory Commission licenses. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, E.O.

    1994-09-01

    This thesis discusses a recent United States Supreme Court case that will have a profound influence on the licensure of hydroelectric projects and the related ability of States to protect the quality of their waters. On October 4, 1993, the Supreme Court granted a Writ of Certiorari to resolve a conflict among the state courts of last resort. This case involves two fundamental and competing national interests: the nation's thirst for cheap, dependable power versus its equally strong desire to improve the quality of its water resources. It also involves two underlying regulatory regimes that overlap and conflict with each other in some ways. This case illustrates how those two national interests and their underlying regulatory regimes cannot always be reconciled. It also demonstrates how Congress, with its muddled ways of passing legislation, can create conflicts between federal and state regulatory agencies.

  1. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 1. Investigation and evaluation of stress corrosion cracking in piping of boiling water reactor plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    IGSCC in BWR piping is occurring owing to a combination of material, environment, and stress factors, each of which can affect both the initiation of a stress-corrosion crack and the rate of its subsequent propagation. In evaluating long-term solutions to the problem, one needs to consider the effects of each of the proposed remedial actions. Mitigating actions to control IGSCC in BWR piping must be designed to alleviate one or more of the three synergistic factors: sensitized material, the convention BWR environment, and high tensile stresses. Because mitigating actions addressing each of these factors may not be fully effective under all anticipated operating conditions, mitigating actions should address two and preferably all three of the causative factors; e.g., material plus some control of water chemistry, or stress reversal plus controlled water chemistry.

  2. Commissioning the Majorana Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenqin; Majorana Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator deploys high purity germanium (HPGe) detector modules to search for neutrinoless double beta (0 νββ) decay in 76Ge. The experiment is aimed at demonstrating the technical feasibility and low backgrounds for a next generation Ge-based BBz experiment. The program of testing and commissioning the Demonstrator modules is a critical step to debug and improve the experimental apparatus, to establish and refine operational procedures, and to develop data analysis tools. In this talk, we will discuss our experience commissioning the Demonstrator modules and show how this program leads to successful data-taking. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Programs of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  3. Correction: AIDS commission.

    PubMed

    1987-11-01

    A recent article by William Booth on the President's AIDS commission (News & Comment, 16 Oct., p. 262) incorrectly states that commission member Cory SerVaas, publisher of the Saturday Evening Post, drives her AIDS Mobile around the country. SerVaas does not drive the traveling van that offers free AIDS testing. Rather, she often flies to meet it as it travels around the country, stopping at shopping malls and churches by prearrangement with local civic and religious groups. SerVaas denies saying that homosexuals are "deviants." "We have helped homosexuals for many years," she says, pointing out that although her group primarily tests people who have a low risk of being infected, such as recipients of blood transfusions and women who may become pregnant, members of high-risk groups such as homosexuals and drug addicts are not excluded. PMID:17814691

  4. Commission 42: Close Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, Slavek M.; Ribas, Ignasi; Giménez, Alvaro; Harmanec, Petr; Hilditch, Ronald W.; Kaluzny, Janusz; Niarchos, Panayiotis; Nordström, Birgitta; Oláh, Katalin; Richards, Mercedes T.; Scarfe, Colin D.; Sion, Edward M.; Torres, Guillermo; Vrielmann, Sonja

    2010-05-01

    During the commission business session, the past President presented the new Organizing Committee which was selected by the OC through a e-mail vote conducted during the months before the Rio de Janeiro General Assembly. The new OC will consist of Ignasi Ribas (President), Mercedes Richards (Vice President), and Slavek Rucinski (Past President) with the members: David Bradstreet, Petr Harmanec, Janusz Kaluzny, Joanna Mikolajewska, Ulisse Munari, Panos Niarchos, Katalin Olah, Theo Pribulla, Colin Scarfe and Guillermo Torres.

  5. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the April 1996 reporting period from the Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, the Administrative Law Judges, the Directors` Decisions, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking. Included are issuances pertaining to: (1) Yankee Nuclear Power Station, (2) Georgia Tech Research Reactor, (3) River Bend Station, (4) Millstone Unit 1, (5) Thermo-Lag fire barrier material, and (6) Louisiana Energy Services.

  6. Appalachian Regional Commission: 1987 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jack, Ed.; And Others

    The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) used its $105 million appropriation for fiscal year 1987 to support three major program areas in the 13 state region: (1) creating and retaining regional jobs; (2) assisting in construction of basic facilities, particularly water and sewer systems, in the region's 90 poorest counties; and (3) working…

  7. Proceedings of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission fifteenth water reactor safety information meeting: Volume 6, Decontamination and decommissioning, accident management, TMI-2

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A. J.

    1988-02-01

    This six-volume report contains 140 papers out of the 164 that were presented at the Fifteenth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, during the week of October 26-29, 1987. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. This report, Volume 6, discusses decontamination and decommissioning, accident management, and the Three Mile Island-2 reactor accident. Thirteen reports have been cataloged separately.

  8. 18 CFR 385.2012 - Petitions for review of Commission Orders (Rule 2012).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Commission Orders (Rule 2012). 385.2012 Section 385.2012 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Formal Requirements for Filings in Proceedings Before the Commission § 385.2012 Petitions for review of Commission Orders (Rule 2012). When a petition for review of an order issued by the Commission is filed in...

  9. 18 CFR 385.2012 - Petitions for review of Commission Orders (Rule 2012).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Commission Orders (Rule 2012). 385.2012 Section 385.2012 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Formal Requirements for Filings in Proceedings Before the Commission § 385.2012 Petitions for review of Commission Orders (Rule 2012). When a petition for review of an order issued by the Commission is filed in...

  10. 18 CFR 385.2012 - Petitions for review of Commission Orders (Rule 2012).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Commission Orders (Rule 2012). 385.2012 Section 385.2012 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Formal Requirements for Filings in Proceedings Before the Commission § 385.2012 Petitions for review of Commission Orders (Rule 2012). When a petition for review of an order issued by the Commission is filed in...

  11. 18 CFR 385.2012 - Petitions for review of Commission Orders (Rule 2012).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Commission Orders (Rule 2012). 385.2012 Section 385.2012 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Formal Requirements for Filings in Proceedings Before the Commission § 385.2012 Petitions for review of Commission Orders (Rule 2012). When a petition for review of an order issued by the Commission is filed in...

  12. Securities and Exchange Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... [Securities and Exchange Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] Part XXIII Securities and Exchange Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (SEC) SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Ch. II Regulatory Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory...

  13. Allan Brooks, naturalist and artist (1869-1946): the travails of an early twentieth century wildlife illustrator in North America.

    PubMed

    Winearls, Joan

    2008-01-01

    British by birth Allan Cyril Brooks (1869-1946) emigrated to Canada in the 1880s, and became one of the most important North American bird illustrators during the first half of the twentieth century. Brooks was one of the leading ornithologists and wildlife collectors of the time; he corresponded extensively with other ornithologists and supplied specimens to many major North American museums. From the 1890s on he hoped to support himself by painting birds and mammals, but this was not possible in Canada at that time and he was forced to turn to American sources for illustration commissions. His work can be compared with that of his contemporary, the leading American bird painter Louis Agassiz Fuertes (1874-1927), and there are striking similarities and differences in their careers. This paper discusses the work of a talented, self-taught wildlife artist working in a North American milieu, his difficulties and successes in a newly developing field, and his quest for Canadian recognition. PMID:19569391

  14. Commission 31: Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defraigne, Pascale; Manchester, Richard; Matsakis, Demetrios; Petit, Gerard; Hosokawa, Mizuhiko; Leschiutta, Sigfrid; Zhai, Zao-Cheng

    2010-05-01

    Dr R. N. Manchester and Dr M. Hosokawa have been elected as, respectively, the new President and Vice-President of the Commission for the next term, 2009-2012. Concerning the Organizing Committee (OC) Members, we welcome as new members: Felicitas Aris (BIPM, France), Philip Tuckey (LNE-SYRTE, France), Vladimir Zharov (MSU, Russia), and Shougang Zhang (NTSC, China) and we acknowledge the outgoing members: Demetrios Matsakis, Gerard Petit, Mizuhiko Hosokawa, Sigfrid Leschiutta and Zao-Cheng Zhai. P. Defraigne remains on the OC as immediate Past-President.

  15. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  16. A Guide to Building Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.

    2011-09-01

    Commissioning is the process of verifying that a building's heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems perform correctly and efficiently. Without commissioning, system and equipment problems can result in higher than necessary utility bills and unexpected and costly equipment repairs. This report reviews the benefits of commissioning, why it is a requirement for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification, and why building codes are gradually adopting commissioning activities into code.

  17. A twentieth-century reanalysis forced ocean model to reconstruct the North Atlantic climate variation during the 1920s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, W. A.; Matei, D.; Bersch, M.; Jungclaus, J. H.; Haak, H.; Lohmann, K.; Compo, G. P.; Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Marotzke, J.

    2015-04-01

    The observed North Atlantic multi-decadal variability for the period 1872-2009 is reconstructed with the Max Planck Institute ocean model, which is forced with an ensemble of the atmospheric twentieth century reanalysis. Special emphasis is put on the early part of the experiments, which includes a prominent climate variation during the 1920s. The experiments are in agreement with selected hydrographic records, indicating a transition from cold and fresh North Atlantic water properties, prior to the 1920 climate variation, towards warm and saline waters afterwards. Examining the variation reveals that sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies prior to the 1900s resemble a negative phase of North Atlantic Oscillation and associated weak winds result in a weak North Atlantic Current (NAC) and sub-polar gyre (SPG). This leads to a reduced transport of warm and saline waters into the higher latitudes. Simultaneously, Arctic freshwater release results in the accumulation of cold and fresh water properties, which cover the upper layers in the Labrador Sea and subsequently suppress convection. From the 1910s, the Arctic freshwater export is reduced, and, NAC and SPG are strengthened as a result of an increased SLP gradient over the North Atlantic. Concurrently, Labrador Sea convection and Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) increase. The intensified NAC, SPG, and AMOC redistribute sub-tropical water into the North Atlantic and Nordic Seas, thereby increasing observed and modelled temperature and salinity during the 1920s.

  18. 78 FR 32295 - Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... notice for such hearing, which was published in 78 FR 24785, April 26, 2013. Please note that the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  19. Industrial Characteristics and Employment of Older Manufacturing Workers in the Early-Twentieth-Century United States

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulhee

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how industry-specific technological, organizational, and managerial features affected the employment of old male manufacturing workers in the early twentieth-century United States. Industrial characteristics favorably related to the employment of old industrial workers include high labor productivity, less capital- and material-intensive production, short workdays, low intensity of work, high job flexibility, and formalized employment relationship. Results show that aged industrial workers were heavily concentrated in “unfavorable” industries, suggesting that the contemporary argument of “industrial scrap heap” was applicable for most of the manufacturing workers in the early twentieth century United States. PMID:26989273

  20. 76 FR 55368 - Notice of Commission Meeting and Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Commission Meeting and Public Hearing Notice is hereby given that the Delaware River... Water Resources Plan for the Delaware River Basin. Opportunities to Comment. Individuals who wish...

  1. Future of multistate regional commissions

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, M.

    1980-04-01

    Multistate regional commissions in the United States have been used since 1965. The largest program has been that of the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC). Institutional and financial barriers have been the most difficult problems encountered by the ARC and other programs (such as Title V commissions). Despite the imperfect performance of the existing regional commissions, they offer a demonstration that some improvement in governmental performance can be achieved. There is virtual unanimity among the nation's governors that this is the route for Federal state relations to follow. Also, the commission route is viewed privately as the most socially acceptable means to have a beneficial impact on government performance. (SAC)

  2. A Sociological Look at Biofuels: Ethanol in the Early Decades of the Twentieth Century and Lessons for Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a broad sociological understanding of why biofuels lost out to leaded gasoline as the fuel par excellence of the twentieth century, while drawing comparisons with biofuels today. It begins by briefly discussing the fuel-scape in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, examining the farm…

  3. Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchuk, James A.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Melrose, Donald B.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk; Harrison, Richard A.; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Peter, Hardi; Tsuneta, Saku; Vršnak, Bojan; Wang, Jing-Xiu

    Commission 10 deals with solar activity in all of its forms, ranging from the smallest nanoflares to the largest coronal mass ejections. This report reviews scientific progress over the roughly two-year period ending in the middle of 2008. This has been an exciting time in solar physics, highlighted by the launches of the Hinode and STEREO missions late in 2006. The report is reasonably comprehensive, though it is far from exhaustive. Limited space prevents the inclusion of many significant results. The report is divided into the following sections: Photosphere and chromosphere; Transition region; Corona and coronal heating; Coronal jets; flares; Coronal mass ejection initiation; Global coronal waves and shocks; Coronal dimming; The link between low coronal CME signatures and magnetic clouds; Coronal mass ejections in the heliosphere; and Coronal mass ejections and space weather. Primary authorship is indicated at the beginning of each section.

  4. Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Klimchuk, James A.; Charbonneau, Paul; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hasan, S. Sirajul; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kusano, Kanya; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Peter, Hardi; Vršnak, Bojan; Yan, Yihua

    2012-04-01

    Commission 10 of the International Astronomical Union has more than 650 members who study a wide range of activity phenomena produced by our nearest star, the Sun. Solar activity is intrinsically related to solar magnetic fields and encompasses events from the smallest energy releases (nano- or even picoflares) to the largest eruptions in the Solar System, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which propagate into the Heliosphere reaching the Earth and beyond. Solar activity is manifested in the appearance of sunspot groups or active regions, which are the principal sources of activity phenomena from the emergence of their magnetic flux through their dispersion and decay. The period 2008-2009 saw an unanticipated extended solar cycle minimum and unprecedentedly weak polar-cap and heliospheric field. Associated with that was the 2009 historical maximum in galactic cosmic rays flux since measurements begun in the middle of the 20th Century. Since then Cycle 24 has re-started solar activity producing some spectacular eruptions observed with a fleet of spacecraft and ground-based facilities. In the last triennium major advances in our knowledge and understanding of solar activity were due to continuing success of space missions as SOHO, Hinode, RHESSI and the twin STEREO spacecraft, further enriched by the breathtaking images of the solar atmosphere produced by the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) launched on 11 February 2010 in the framework of NASA's Living with a Star program. In August 2012, at the time of the IAU General Assembly in Beijing when the mandate of this Commission ends, we will be in the unique position to have for the first time a full 3-D view of the Sun and solar activity phenomena provided by the twin STEREO missions about 120 degrees behind and ahead of Earth and other spacecraft around the Earth and ground-based observatories. These new observational insights are continuously posing new questions, inspiring and advancing theoretical analysis and

  5. EMACK electromagnetic launcher commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deis, D. W.; Scherbarth, D. W.; Ferrentino, G. L.

    1984-03-01

    The Laboratory Demonstration Electromagnetic Launcher Program (EMACK) was initiated in April 1979, with the objective to design, construct, and demonstrate a complete electromagnetic launcher (EML) system capable of accelerating projectiles of substantial mass to velocities significantly greater than those achievable with conventional chemical systems. The last hardware was installed in late 1981. During February 1982, a series of five test shots was made to evaluate the system's performance. Particular attention is given to the parameters of the final, as-built hardware, and the results of the commissioning tests. The results of these tests have demonstrated the viability of the components required for large scale electromagnetic launchers. It has been shown that large projectiles with velocities significantly greater than those achievable by chemical systems can be accelerated intact.

  6. Commission 45: Spectral Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giridhar, Sunetra; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.; Eyer, Laurent; Irwin, Michael J.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Majewski, Steven; Minniti, Dante; Nordström, Birgitta

    This report gives an update of developments (since the last General Assembly at Prague) in the areas that are of relevance to the commission. In addition to numerous papers, a new monograph entitled Stellar Spectral Classification with Richard Gray and Chris Corbally as leading authors will be published by Princeton University Press as part of their Princeton Series in Astrophysics in April 2009. This book is an up-to-date and encyclopedic review of stellar spectral classification across the H-R diagram, including the traditional MK system in the blue-violet, recent extensions into the ultraviolet and infrared, the newly defined L-type and T-type spectral classes, as well as spectral classification of carbon stars, S-type stars, white dwarfs, novae, supernovae and Wolf-Rayet stars.

  7. Embodiments of Human Identity: Detecting and Interpreting Hidden Narratives in Twentieth-Century Design History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the practice and influence of design history can benefit from new forms of visual and chronological analysis. Identifies and discusses a unique phenomenon, the "historical visual narrative." Examines special instances of this phenomenon in twentieth-century design and visual culture, which are tied to the theme of the embodiment of…

  8. An Aristocracy of Talent? Describing Self and Other at an Early Twentieth-Century High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a reading of early twentieth-century government high school culture as it was expressed through a twenty-year run of one Australian high school's student-authored magazines. From its first issue the editors of "The Parramatta High School Magazine" were keen to promote its role in the making of a community. The idea that high school…

  9. Scholarly Publishing: Books, Journals, Publishers, and Libraries in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Richard E., Ed.; Newlin, Lyman W., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    In this volume, publishers, booksellers, journal dealers, and librarians share their views on libraries and publishing. While the information/knowledge transfer process in the entire span of the twentieth century was to be addressed by the contributors, the principal focus of every author was to be the last five decades in which the most profound,…

  10. 78 FR 16757 - Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twentieth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access...). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. SUMMARY... Committee 224, Airport Security Access Control Systems. DATES: The meeting will be held April 4, 2013 from...

  11. Intellectual Portraits: Politics, Professions and Identity in Twentieth-Century England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article brings together six talented women historians in twentieth-century England whose scholarly productions helped shape modern historical practice but who are little known in the canonical accounts of history-writing in the period. The author is looking to map and describe historical communities from a grounded and qualitative perspective…

  12. Progressivism, Control and Correction: Local Education Authorities and Educational Policy in Twentieth-Century England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosvenor, Ian; Myers, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Through an analysis of both education policy and knowledge creation, this article explores the historical dimensions of two key features of the "new information age." In the field of education, it documents the development of a progressive education policy in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Birmingham, UK. This policy extended access…

  13. Conceptual Revolutions in Twentieth-Century Art. NBER Working Paper No. 15073

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galenson, David

    2009-01-01

    Art critics and scholars have acknowledged the breakdown of their explanations and narratives of contemporary art in the face of what they consider the incoherent era of "pluralism" or "postmodernism" that began in the late twentieth century. This failure is in fact a result of their inability to understand the nature of the development of…

  14. The Pursuit of Sound: Aural Media, Perception, and the Composer in the Early Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biocca, Frank

    From the close of the nineteenth century and into the early part of the twentieth century, three aural technologies--the telephone, the phonograph, and the radio--were rapidly disseminated throughout the United States. These technologies brought to the population more aural information than it had ever experienced and created a new environment of…

  15. American Art Music in the Twentieth-Century: An Assessment of the Basic Information Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Alan Anthony

    This assessment of 62 reference sources that contain information on U.S. art (classical) music of the twentieth century examines the following categories of sources: (1) Pilot Sources; (2) Lexica; (3) Histories and Chronologies; (4) Gesamtausgaben, Denkmaler, and Thematic catalogs; (5) Indexes and Bibliographies of Literature; (6) Lists of Music…

  16. The Gendering of Skill and Vocationalism in Twentieth-Century Australian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Jill

    1992-01-01

    Skill is a social construct that assumes different meanings in particular historical circumstances. This paper explains how the dominant concept of skill has shifted in twentieth-century Australia from being job- and content-specific to a more generic view (embracing cognitive, technical, and operational, social, and affective skills) that…

  17. Westward Bound? Dutch Education and Cultural Transfer in the Mid-Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the transition from philosophy to psychology as the main source of inspiration for education during the mid-twentieth century in the Netherlands, situated between Germany in the east and the English-speaking world in the west. Claims have been made that educational theory in the Netherlands was dominated by German philosophy…

  18. "Are You Only an Applauder?" American Music Correspondence Schools in the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correspondence schools of music in the early twentieth century. Advertisements in widely circulated household and music periodicals and archival copies of courses from Siegel-Myers Correspondence School of Music, United States School of Music, American College of Music, and others were examined. Research…

  19. American Education in the Twentieth Century: A Documentary History. Classics in Education, No. 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazerson, Marvin, Ed.

    Excerpts from 34 documents and commentary concerning U.S. education in the twentieth century are presented. Each document represents a landmark in the development of American education. Perspectives are also provided on conditions and dilemmas still being addressed by educators today. Among the issues covered are minority education, the Depression…

  20. Singing the Nation into Being: Teaching Identity and Culture at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargeant, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the music education in the United States and the Russian Empire at the turn of the twentieth century. In both countries, music educators struggled to secure a permanent role for vocal music in the school. By comparing Russian music instruction to that in the United States, educators can better understand not…

  1. Reform Pedagogy as a National Innovation System: Early Twentieth-Century Educational Entrepreneurs in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarning, Harald

    2009-01-01

    In Norway "Pedagogikk" was institutionalised as an academic field of knowledge in the first part of the twentieth century. As a professional field of knowledge, however, pedagogy developed gradually from the 1840s, mainly through rurally based teacher seminars. In this article, relations between the progressive movement and the…

  2. Converting the Rosebud: Sicangu Lakota Catholicism in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a number of the dominant features of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Indian Catholicism on the Rosebud Reservation, focusing primarily on the Sicangu's responses to the significant differences between their traditional religious customs and the beliefs, rituals, and requirements of Catholicism. It first examines…

  3. Educational Testing as an Accountability Measure: Drawing on Twentieth-Century Danish History of Education Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ydesen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This article reveals perspectives based on experiences from twentieth-century Danish educational history by outlining contemporary, test-based accountability regime characteristics and their implications for education policy. The article introduces one such characteristic, followed by an empirical analysis of the origins and impacts of test-based…

  4. Harbingers of Feminism? Gender, Cultural Capital and Education in Mid-Twentieth-Century Rural Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sally; Brown, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a small-scale narrative study of men and women who grew up in mid-twentieth-century rural Wales, and their reminiscences regarding women and education. Although the dominant image of Wales during that era is that of a male-dominated society, all of our participants remembered influential independent women and…

  5. Harmonisation and South African Languages: Twentieth Century Debates of Homogeneity and Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heugh, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a historiographic analysis of twentieth century debates amongst agents with linguistic, missionary and ideological interest in the standardisation or harmonisation of two widely used clusters of languages in South Africa, Nguni and Sotho. The discussion illustrates how faith-based and political ideologies interact with and…

  6. Jurisprudence and Legal Philosophy in Twentieth-Century America--Major Themes and Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Martin P.

    1986-01-01

    A discussion of jurisprudence and legal philosophy examines twentieth-century developments in four areas: the relation of law and morality, the nature of legal rules and legal concepts, the nature of judicial decision making, and the relation of law to the social sciences. (Author/MSE)

  7. Teaching the French Revolution: Lessons and Imagery from Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harison, Casey

    2002-01-01

    This article considers the "myths" and negative images of the French Revolution which were fashioned in the United States by examining interpretations found in nineteenth and twentieth-century American school texts. The texts are part of the Floyd Family Collection at Indiana State University, representing books used in Indiana schools, although…

  8. Hybrid Practices Meet Nation-State Language Policies: Transcarpathia in the Twentieth Century and Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csernicskó, István; Laihonen, Petteri

    2016-01-01

    From the early twentieth century to the present day, Transcarpathia has belonged to several states: the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy, Czechoslovakia, the Hungarian Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and finally to Ukraine. The status of what counts as a minority and a majority language has changed each time the state affiliation has been changed. Based on…

  9. Benjamin Moore, Science, and Medical Planning in Early Twentieth-Century Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Gordon S.

    2008-01-01

    Benjamin Moore (1867-1922), physiologist and biochemist, was an eminent member of the British scientific and medical community in the early twentieth century. As a founder and president of the State Medical Services Association (SMSA) from its establishment in 1912 until his untimely death in 1922, Moore was a prominent medical services activist…

  10. Learning Early Twentieth-Century History through First-Person Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    For many of the students in the author's American history class, early twentieth-century American history seems far removed from their daily lives. Being first and second-generation American citizens, many of the students do not have the luxury of hearing grandparents and great-grandparents telling stories about FDR and Henry Ford. More…

  11. Joint Commission on rock properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A joint commission on Rock Properties for Petroleum Engineers (RPPE) has been established by the International Society of Rock Mechanics and the Society of Petroleum Engineers to set up data banks on the properties of sedimentary rocks encountered during drilling. Computer-based data banks of complete rock properties will be organized for sandstones (GRESA), shales (ARSHA) and carbonates (CARCA). The commission hopes to access data sources from members of the commission, private companies and the public domain.

  12. ALICE TPC commissioning results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, D. T.; Alice Tpc Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    ALICE is a dedicated heavy-ion experiment at CERN LHC aiming to study the properties of the quark-gluon plasma. A lead-lead collision might produce several 10 00 new particles. Detailed study of the event requires precise measurements of the particle tracks. A 90 m3 Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with more than 500 000 read-out pads was built as the main central barrel tracker. Collisions can be recorded at a rate of up to about 1 kHz. The front-end electronics, designed from FPGAs and custom ASICs, performs shaping, amplification, digitisation and digital filtering of the signals. The data are forwarded to DAQ via 216 1.25 Gb/s fibre-optical links. Configuration, control and monitoring is done by an embedded Linux system on the front-end electronics. Before production runs with beam, extensive commissioning using tracks from cosmics and from the laser system as well as clusters from radioactive krypton gas is needed. Extensive results have been obtained with respect to the performance of the TPC including its sub-systems.

  13. National Knowledge Commission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitroda, Sam

    2007-04-01

    India's National Knowledge Commission (NKC) established by the prime minister is focused on building institutions and infrastructure in Education, Science and Technology, Innovation etc. to meet the challenges of the knowledge economy in the 21st century and increase India's competitive advantage in the global market. India today stands poised to reap the benefits of a rapidly growing economy and a major demographic advantage, with 550 million young people below the age of 25 years, the largest in the world. The NKC is focused on five critical areas of knowledge related to access, concepts, creation, applications and services. This includes a variety of subject areas such as language, translations, libraries, networks, portals, affirmative action, distance learning, intellectual property, Entrepreneurship, application in Agriculture, health, small and medium scale industries, e-governance etc. One of the keys to this effort is to build a national broadband gigabit of networks of 500 nodes to connect universities, Libraries, Laboratories, Hospitals, Agriculture institutions etc. to share resources and collaborate on multidisciplinary activities. This presentation will introduce the NKC, discuss methodology, subject areas, specific recommendation and outline a plan to build knowledge networks and specifics on network architecture, applications, and utilities.

  14. Ozone transport commission developments

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    On September 27, 1994, the states of the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) signed an important memorandum of understanding (MOU) agreeing to develop a regional strategy for controlling stationary sources of nitrogen oxide emissions. Specifically, the states of the Ozone Transport Region, OTR, agreed to propose regulations for the control of NOx emissions from boilers and other indirect heat exchangers with a maximum gross heat input rate of at least 250 million BTU per hour. The Ozone Transport Region was divided into Inner, Outer and Northern Zones. States in the Outer Zone agreed to reduce NOx emissions by 55%. States in the Inner Zone agreed to reduce NOx emissions 65%. Facilities in both zones have the option to emit NOx at a rate no greater than 0.2 pounds per million Btu by May 1, 1999. This option provides fairness for the gas-fired plants which already have relatively low NOx emissions. Additionally, States in the Inner and Outer Zones agreed to reduce their NOx emissions by 75% or to emit NOx at a rate no greater than 0.15 pounds per million BTU by May 1, 2003. The Northern Zone States agree to reduce their rate of NOx emissions by 55% from base year levels by May 1, 2003, or to emit NOx at a rate no greater than 0.2 pounds per million BTU. As part of this MOU, States also agreed to develop a regionwide trading mechanism to provide a cost-effective mechanism for implementing the reductions.

  15. Commissioning of NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Willeke, F.

    2015-05-03

    NSLS-II, the new 3rd generation light source at BNL was designed for a brightness of 1022 photons s-1mm-2mrad-2 (0.1%BW)-1. It was constructed between 2009 and 2014. The storage ring was commissioned in April 2014 which was followed by insertion device and beamline commissioning in the fall of 2014. All ambitious design parameters of the facility have already been achieved except for commissioning the full beam intensity of 500mA which requires more RF installation. This paper reports on the results of commissioning.

  16. Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The objectives of Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications are to ensure that the design team applies commissioning concepts to the design and prepares commissioning specifications and a commission plan for inclusion in the bid construction documents.

  17. 76 FR 24081 - Notice of Commission Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Commission Determination AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice of commission determination. SUMMARY: Pursuant to authority set forth in the Susquehanna River Basin...

  18. Post Commission Final Draft: Recommendations of Interest to Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    A brief overview is presented by a blue ribbon commission on the organization of elementary/secondary education and higher education in California, funding provided to community colleges, and recommendations of the California Postsecondary Education Commission regarding postsecondary education. In addition, an outline of issues facing…

  19. Climate science: Water's past revisited to predict its future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Matthew E.

    2016-04-01

    A reconstruction of 1,200 years of water's history in the Northern Hemisphere, based on proxy data, fuels the debate about whether anthropogenic climate change affected twentieth-century precipitation. See Letter p.94

  20. Vermont Technical Education Commission Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont State Technical Education Commission, Montpelier.

    A 1968 New England Regional Commission grant to the Vermont Department of Administration financed a feasibility study for a technical college at the postsecondary level. The commission undertook two specific studies: an examination of ultimate career destinations of Vermont secondary students and a survey of Vermont industry to determine immediate…

  1. Reflections on the Gordon Commission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haertel, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background:This brief reflection on the work of the Gordon Commission calls out significant themes and implications found in the various papers authored by the commissioners and other scholars, especially those included in this special issue of Teachers College Record. Purpose: The forward-looking vision of the Gordon Commission is contrasted with…

  2. Illinois State Scholarship Commission Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Scholarship Commission, Deerfield.

    The Illinois State Scholarship Commission (ISSC) is responsible for the administration of 9 state authorized and funded financial aid programs for Illinois postsecondary students. The major programs consist of: (1) nonrepayable monetary awards, and (2) guaranteed educational loans. The purposes of the Commission's programs are to: (1) equalize…

  3. Commission 31: Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsakis, Demetrios; Defraigne, Pascale; Hosokawa, M.; Leschiutta, S.; Petit, G.; Zhai, Z.-C.

    2007-03-01

    The most intensely discussed and controversial issue in time keeping has been the proposal before the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) to redefine Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) so as to replace leap seconds by leap hours. Should this proposal be adopted, the practice of inserting leap seconds would cease after a specific date. Should the Earth's rotation continue to de-accelerate at its historical rate, the next discontinuity in UTC would be an hour inserted several centuries from now. Advocates of this proposal cite the need to synchronize satellite and other systems, such as GPS, Galileo, and GLONASS, which did not exist and were not envisioned when the current system was adopted. They note that leap second insertions can be and have been incorrectly implemented or accounted for. Such errors have to date had localized impact, but they could cause serious mishaps involving loss of life. For example, some GPS receivers have been known to fail simply because there was no leap second after a long enough interval, other GPS receivers failed because the leap second information was broadcast more than three months in advance, and some commercial software used for internet time-transfer Network Time Protocol (NTP) could either discard all data received after a leap second or interpret it as a frequency change. The ambiguity associated with the extra second could also disrupt financial accounting and certain forms of encryption. Those opposed to the proposal question the need for a change, and also point out the costs of adjusting to the proposed change and its inconvenience to amateur astronomers and others who rely upon astronomical calculations published in advance. Reports have been circulated that the cost of checking and correcting software to accommodate the new definition of UTC would be many millions of dollars for some systems. In October 2005 American Astronomical Society asked the ITU for a year's time to study the issue. This commission has

  4. Lessons in environmental health in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, M; Goldstein, B D

    1999-01-01

    Environmental health has evolved rapidly in recent decades, drawing largely on new analytic technologies, advanced data acquisition and modeling, mechanistic studies in toxicology, and the conceptual framework of risk assessment. The latter combines toxicologic and epidemiologic data with improved techniques for quantifying exposure, producing estimates of risks from environmental hazards or conditions to selected target populations. The public and governments have become increasingly concerned with environmental health and quality. The major lessons have been (a) environmental-health scientists must participate in policy debates; (b) environmental health problems are exceedingly complex and require interdisciplinary research; and (c) environmental health is a global issue. The globalization of commerce, the untested impact of international trade agreements, increased migration, and especially increased population, have profound impact on the quality as well as availability of air, water, land, and food. Global atmospheric transport of pollutants and the effect on atmosphere and climate are two examples of globalization of environmental health. PMID:10352848

  5. New perspectives on forced migration in the history of twentieth-century neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Stahnisch, Frank W; Russell, Gül

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, comprised of six articles and one commentary, reflects on the multifold dimensions of intellectual migration in the neurosciences and illustrates them by relevant case studies, biographies, and surveys from twentieth-century history of science and medicine perspectives. The special issue as a whole strives to emphasize the impact of forced migration in the neurosciences and psychiatry from an interdisciplinary perspective by, first, describing the general research topic, second, by showing how new models can be applied to the historiography and social studies of twentieth-century neuroscience, and, third, by providing a deeper understanding of the impact of European émigré researchers on emerging allied fields, such as neurogenetics, biological psychiatry, psychosomatics, and public mental health, etc. as resulting from this process at large. PMID:27388254

  6. A historical synopsis of farm animal disease and public policy in twentieth century Britain.

    PubMed

    Woods, Abigail

    2011-07-12

    The diseases suffered by British livestock, and the ways in which they were perceived and managed by farmers, vets and the state, changed considerably over the course of the twentieth century. This paper documents and analyses these changes in relation to the development of public policy. It reveals that scientific knowledge and disease demographics cannot by themselves explain the shifting boundaries of state responsibility for animal health, the diseases targeted and the preferred modes of intervention. Policies were shaped also by concerns over food security and the public's health, the state of the national and livestock economy, the interests and expertise of the veterinary profession, and prevailing agricultural policy. This paper demonstrates how, by precipitating changes to farming and trading practices, public policy could sometimes actually undermine farm animal health. Animal disease can therefore be viewed both as a stimulus to, and a consequence of, twentieth century public policy. PMID:21624915

  7. The holist tradition in twentieth century genetics. Wilhelm Johannsen's genotype concept

    PubMed Central

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    The terms ‘genotype’, ‘phenotype’ and ‘gene’ originally had a different meaning from that in the Modern Synthesis. These terms were coined in the first decade of the twentieth century by the Danish plant physiologist Wilhelm Johannsen. His bean selection experiment and his theoretical analysis of the difference between genotype and phenotype were important inputs to the formation of genetics as a well-defined special discipline. This paper shows how Johannsen's holistic genotype theory provided a platform for criticism of narrowly genocentric versions of the chromosome theory of heredity that came to dominate genetics in the middle decades of the twentieth century. Johannsen came to recognize the epoch-making importance of the work done by the Drosophila group, but he continued to insist on the incompleteness of the chromosome theory. Genes of the kind that they mapped on the chromosomes could only give a partial explanation of biological heredity and evolution. PMID:24882823

  8. The biological universe. The twentieth century extraterrestrial life debate and the limits of science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, S. J.

    Throughout the twentieth century, from the furor over Percival Lowell's claim of canals on Mars to the sophisticated Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, otherworldly life has often intrigued and occasionally consumed science and the public. Does 'biological law' reign throughout the universe? Are there other histories, religions, and philosophies outside of those on Earth? Do extraterrestrial minds ponder the mysteries of the universe? The attempts to answer these often asked questions form one of the most interesting chapters in the history of science and culture, and this is the first book to provide a rich and colorful history of those attempts during the twentieth century. Covering a broad range of topics, including the search for life in the solar system, the origins of life, UFOs, and aliens in science fiction, the author shows how the concept of extraterrestrial intelligence is a world view of its own, a 'biophysical cosmology' that seeks confirmation no less than physical views of the universe.

  9. The biological universe: the twentieth-century extraterrestrial life debate and the limits of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    Throughout the twentieth century, from the furor over Percival Lowell's claim of canals on Mars to the sophisticated Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, otherworldly life has often intrigued and occasionally consumed science and the public. Does `biological law' reign throughout the universe? Are there other histories, religions, and philosophies outside of those on Earth? Do extraterrestrial minds ponder the mysteries of the universe? The attempts toanswer these often asked questions form one of the most interesting chapters in the history of science and culture, and The Biological Universe is the first book to provide a rich and colorful history of those attempts during the twentieth century. Covering a broad range of topics, including the search for life in the solar system, the origins of life, UFOs, and aliens in science fiction, Steven J. Dick shows how the concept of extraterrestrial intelligence is a world view of its own, a `biophysical cosmology' that seeks confirmation no less than physical views of the universe.

  10. A historical synopsis of farm animal disease and public policy in twentieth century Britain

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Abigail

    2011-01-01

    The diseases suffered by British livestock, and the ways in which they were perceived and managed by farmers, vets and the state, changed considerably over the course of the twentieth century. This paper documents and analyses these changes in relation to the development of public policy. It reveals that scientific knowledge and disease demographics cannot by themselves explain the shifting boundaries of state responsibility for animal health, the diseases targeted and the preferred modes of intervention. Policies were shaped also by concerns over food security and the public's health, the state of the national and livestock economy, the interests and expertise of the veterinary profession, and prevailing agricultural policy. This paper demonstrates how, by precipitating changes to farming and trading practices, public policy could sometimes actually undermine farm animal health. Animal disease can therefore be viewed both as a stimulus to, and a consequence of, twentieth century public policy. PMID:21624915

  11. How to manage a revolution: Isaac Newton in the early twentieth century

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Imogen

    2014-01-01

    In the first half of the twentieth century, dramatic developments in physics came to be viewed as revolutionary, apparently requiring a complete overthrow of previous theories. British physicists were keen to promote quantum physics and relativity theory as exciting and new, but the rhetoric of revolution threatened science's claim to stability and its prestigious connections with Isaac Newton. This was particularly problematic in the first decades of the twentieth century, within the broader context of political turmoil, world war, and the emergence of modernist art and literature. This article examines how physicists responded to their cultural and political environment and worked to maintain disciplinary connections with Isaac Newton, emphasizing the importance of both the old and the new. In doing so they attempted to make the physics ‘revolution’ more palatable to a British public seeking a sense of permanence in a rapidly changing world.

  12. Oral history, subjectivity, and environmental reality: Occupational health histories in twentieth-century Scotland

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.; McIvor, A.

    2004-07-01

    This essay uses oral histories of dust disease in twentieth-century Scotland to illustrate the ways in which such history can illuminate how the working environment and work cultures affect workers' bodies and how workers come to terms with the ill-health caused by their employment. It emphasizes the agency of the interpreter but argues further that oral histories of dust disease in twentieth-century Scotland are simultaneously influenced by, and evidence for, material conditions. The essay explores the notion that the bodies, not just the voices of interviewees, are material testament to health-corroding work practices, cultures, and habitat. The focus is the problems caused by the inhalation of coal and asbestos dust.

  13. The wisdom of elders: Inuvialuit social memories of continuity and change in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    The Inuvialuit of the Canadian Western Arctic are no strangers to change. From the arrival of whalers ca. 1890, they underwent a century of monumental societal upheaval. Perhaps against the odds, they sustained many of their traditional socioeconomic activities and continued to follow a land-based lifestyle through much of the twentieth century. With a few notable exceptions, historical accounts of this period were written by cultural outsiders who conveyed their own perspectives on Inuvialuit culture. This paper focuses on the social memories of present-day Inuvialuit Elders who recount aspects of their lifeways throughout the twentieth century, including seasonal practices, traditional skills they maintained, and responses to the historical events that challenged their ways of living and spurred continuous change. These oral narratives form part of a larger history for succeeding generations, and a platform from which to construct contemporary identities and to negotiate a collective future. PMID:20648982

  14. Mid-twentieth-century anatomical transparencies and the depiction of three-dimensional form.

    PubMed

    Wall, Shelley

    2010-11-01

    Before the advent of digital visualization, the "anatomical transparency"--layered images of organ systems, printed on a transparent medium--flourished in the mid-twentieth century as an interactive means to represent complex anatomical relationships to medical professionals and lay audiences. This article introduces the transparency work of medical illustrators Gladys McHugh and Ernest W. Beck, situating it in the historical context of strategies to represent three-dimensional anatomical relationships using print media. PMID:20949498

  15. On the rate and causes of twentieth century sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laury; Douglas, Bruce C

    2006-04-15

    Both the rate and causes of twentieth century global sea-level rise (GSLR) have been controversial. Estimates from tide-gauges range from less than one, to more than two millimetre yr(-1). In contrast, values based on the processes mostly responsible for GSLR-mass increase (from mountain glaciers and the great high latitude ice masses) and volume increase (expansion due to ocean warming)-fall below this range. Either the gauge estimates are too high, or one (or both) of the component estimates is too low. Gauge estimates of GSLR have been in dispute for several decades because of vertical land movements, especially due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). More recently, the possibility has been raised that coastal tide-gauges measure exaggerated rates of sea-level rise because of localized ocean warming. Presented here are two approaches to a resolution of these problems. The first is morphological, based on the limiting values of observed trends of twentieth century relative sea-level rise as a function of distance from the centres of the ice loads at last glacial maximum. This observational approach, which does not depend on a geophysical model of GIA, supports values of GSLR near 2 mm yr(-1). The second approach involves an analysis of long records of tide-gauge and hydrographic (in situ temperature and salinity) observations in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. It was found that sea-level trends from tide-gauges, which reflect both mass and volume change, are 2-3 times higher than rates based on hydrographic data which reveal only volume change. These results support those studies that put the twentieth century rate near 2 mm yr(-1), thereby indicating that mass increase plays a much larger role than ocean warming in twentieth century GSLR. PMID:16537141

  16. Twentieth century climate change: Evidence from small glaciers

    PubMed Central

    Dyurgerov, Mark B.; Meier, Mark F.

    2000-01-01

    The relation between changes in modern glaciers, not including the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, and their climatic environment is investigated to shed light on paleoglacier evidence of past climate change and for projecting the effects of future climate warming on cold regions of the world. Loss of glacier volume has been more or less continuous since the 19th century, but it is not a simple adjustment to the end of an “anomalous” Little Ice Age. We address the 1961–1997 period, which provides the most observational data on volume changes. These data show trends that are highly variable with time as well as within and between regions; trends in the Arctic are consistent with global averages but are quantitatively smaller. The averaged annual volume loss is 147 mm⋅yr−1 in water equivalent, totaling 3.7 × 103 km3 over 37 yr. The time series shows a shift during the mid-1970s, followed by more rapid loss of ice volume and further acceleration in the last decade; this is consistent with climatologic data. Perhaps most significant is an increase in annual accumulation along with an increase in melting; these produce a marked increase in the annual turnover or amplitude. The rise in air temperature suggested by the temperature sensitivities of glaciers in cold regions is somewhat greater than the global average temperature rise derived largely from low altitude gauges, and the warming is accelerating. PMID:10677474

  17. 18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Box 908, Vancouver, Washington 98660; Upper Mississippi River Basin Commission, Federal Office... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false River basin commissions... RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions...

  18. 18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Box 908, Vancouver, Washington 98660; Upper Mississippi River Basin Commission, Federal Office... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true River basin commissions... RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions...

  19. 18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Box 908, Vancouver, Washington 98660; Upper Mississippi River Basin Commission, Federal Office... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false River basin commissions... RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions...

  20. 18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Box 908, Vancouver, Washington 98660; Upper Mississippi River Basin Commission, Federal Office... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false River basin commissions... RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions...

  1. 18 CFR 701.209 - River basin commissions and field committees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Box 908, Vancouver, Washington 98660; Upper Mississippi River Basin Commission, Federal Office... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false River basin commissions... RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Availability of Information § 701.209 River basin commissions...

  2. Records of Northern Mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos, occurrences in North Dakota during the twentieth century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.; Martin, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) is a common bird in the southern United States that has been expanding its breeding range into the northern United States and southern Canada. During the twentieth century, there were 128 reports of Northern Mockingbird occurrences in North Dakota, including 106 reports during the breeding season (15 April to 31 August) and 22 during the nonbreeding season (1 September to 14 April). The species has been largely absent from North Dakota from January through mid-April. Prior to the 1930s, there was only one record (1916) of the Northern Mockingbird in the state. Observations of Northern Mockingbirds in North Dakota increased markedly between the 1930s and 1990s. On average, there were 0.3 reports of mockingbirds per year in 1931-1940, 0.6 in 1941-1950, 1.1 in 1951-1960, 1.6 in 1961-1970, 2.4 in 1971-1980, 2.3 in 1981-1990, and 4.5 in 1991-2000. The species has been observed in North Dakota nearly annually since 1958. At least six reports during the twentieth century included evidence of nesting (nests or dependent young). Based on mockingbird records during the twentieth century, we designate the current status of the Northern Mockingbird in North Dakota as a rare spring migrant, rare summer visitant, casual nester, and a casual fall and winter visitant.

  3. Records of northern mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos, occurrences in North Dakota during the Twentieth Century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Igl, L.D.; Martin, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) is a common bird in the southern United States that has been expanding its breeding range into the northern United States and southern Canada. During the twentieth century, there were 128 reports of Northern Mockingbird occurrences in North Dakota, including 106 reports during the breeding season (15 April to 31 August) and 22 during the nonbreeding season (1 September to 14 April). The species has been largely absent from North Dakota from January through mid-April. Prior to the 1930s, there was only one record (1916) of the Northern Mockingbird in the state. Observations of Northern Mockingbirds in North Dakota increased markedly between the 1930s and 1990s. On average, there were 0.3 reports of mockingbirds per year in 1931-1940, 0.6 in 1941-1950, 1.1 in 1951-1960, 1.6 in 1961-1970, 2.4 in 1971-1980, 2.3 in 1981-1990, and 4.5 in 1991-2000. The species has been observed in North Dakota nearly annually since 1958. At least six reports during the twentieth century included evidence of nesting (nests or dependent young). Based on mockingbird records during the twentieth century, we designate the current status of the Northern Mockingbird in North Dakota as a rare spring migrant, rare summer visitant, casual nester, and a casual fall and winter visitant.

  4. The missing aerosol response in twentieth-century mid-latitude precipitation observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Joe M.; Lambert, F. Hugo

    2014-05-01

    Regional temperature change over the twentieth century has been strongly influenced by aerosol forcing. The aerosol effect is also expected to be pronounced on regional precipitation change. Changes in historical precipitation--for the global mean and land mean of certain regions--should be more sensitive to spatially heterogeneous aerosol forcing than greenhouse gas forcing. Here, we investigate whether regional precipitation and temperature respond predictably to a significant strengthening in mid-twentieth-century Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHML) aerosol forcing. Using the latest climate model experiments, we find that observed regional temperature changes and observed Northern Hemisphere tropical land precipitation changes are consistent with the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report aerosol forcing estimate, but observed NHML land precipitation changes show little evidence of an aerosol response. This may be a result of changes in precipitation measurement practice that increased observed precipitation totals at the same time that aerosol forcing was expected to reduce them. Investigating this inconsistency, we calculate the required increase in early-twentieth-century observed NHML land precipitation to bring this result in line with aerosol forcing. Biases greater than this calculated correction have been identified in countries within the NHML region previously, notably the former Soviet Union. These observations are frequently used as a metric for the quality of model-simulated precipitation. More homogeneity studies would be of huge benefit.

  5. American Influence on Chinese Physics Study in the Early Twentieth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Danian

    2016-01-01

    To save China from the perils she faced in the early twentieth century, the majority of the Chinese seemed to agree that it was necessary to strengthen the country by developing shiye or industry and commerce. For this purpose, they overhauled China's education system and sent a large number of students to study overseas. Many of them enrolled in American colleges, sponsored either by governmental grants or by private funds. As American physics advanced rapidly during the early twentieth century, Chinese physicists studying in top US institutions received first-class professional training. They later went on to become a main driving force in Chinese physics development. The study-in-America programs were apparently more successful than other study-overseas programs. Among other factors, the historical lessons learned from the aborted Chinese Educational Mission in the 1870s, the prevalent and long-time presence of American mission schools in China, and stable public and private funding contributed to their success. American-trained Chinese physicists not only advanced physics study in China but also played leading roles in the development of Chinese science and technology during the twentieth century. This fertile and far-reaching American influence has been embedded in all their accomplishments.

  6. Mutant utopias: evening primroses and imagined futures in early twentieth-century America.

    PubMed

    Endersby, Jim

    2013-09-01

    Hugo de Vries's mutation theory is now little more than a footnote to the history of biology, a failed theory that briefly led a few biologists astray. However, for the first quarter of the twentieth century it attracted considerable attention from both professional biologists and laypeople. De Vries's theory--together with the plant, Oenothera lamarckiana, that had supplied most of his evidence--became the focus of a surprising variety of imaginative hopes. Scientists and their various publics were fascinated by the utopian possibilities that the primrose seemed to offer, and their discussions shaped a public culture around biology that would help define the twentieth century as the "century of the gene." From a conventional history of science perspective (which, in the case of twentieth-century biology, often remains focused on the content of scientific theories and the professional communities that shaped them), the mutation theory seems unimportant. However, while De Vries's new theory of evolution ultimately failed to persuade the scientific community, it was much more important than is now realized, particularly because it helped make biology part of a wide variety of public debates. Understanding the mutation theory's story more fully suggests that we may need to rethink much of the rest of the century of the gene's history, to think less in terms of what happened in the lab and more about how biology came to function as public culture. PMID:24341261

  7. Mass and volume contributions to twentieth-century global sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laury; Douglas, Bruce C

    2004-03-25

    The rate of twentieth-century global sea level rise and its causes are the subjects of intense controversy. Most direct estimates from tide gauges give 1.5-2.0 mm yr(-1), whereas indirect estimates based on the two processes responsible for global sea level rise, namely mass and volume change, fall far below this range. Estimates of the volume increase due to ocean warming give a rate of about 0.5 mm yr(-1) (ref. 8) and the rate due to mass increase, primarily from the melting of continental ice, is thought to be even smaller. Therefore, either the tide gauge estimates are too high, as has been suggested recently, or one (or both) of the mass and volume estimates is too low. Here we present an analysis of sea level measurements at tide gauges combined with observations of temperature and salinity in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans close to the gauges. We find that gauge-determined rates of sea level rise, which encompass both mass and volume changes, are two to three times higher than the rates due to volume change derived from temperature and salinity data. Our analysis supports earlier studies that put the twentieth-century rate in the 1.5-2.0 mm yr(-1) range, but more importantly it suggests that mass increase plays a larger role than ocean warming in twentieth-century global sea level rise. PMID:15042085

  8. How commissioning affects community nursing.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jane; Horrocks, Susan; Gibbard, Emma; Harland, Lizanne; Wye, Lesley

    Community nurses have direct experience of how changes in the local health economy affect the quality of care patients receive, so it is important that they engage with commissioning to influence decisions made about the quality and direction of their service. This article seeks to demystify commissioning priorities by drawing on findings from a survey of Commissioning for Quality and Innovation indicators for community nursing conducted in England, 2014-15. The article focuses specifically on organisational goals, highlighting the impact of the Francis report and other NHS priorities on quality assessment in community nursing. PMID:26721091

  9. 77 FR 52106 - Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ...The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on September 20, 2012, in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Details concerning the matters to be addressed at the business meeting are contained in the Supplementary Information section of this...

  10. Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bisognano, Joseph J.; Bissen, M.; Bosch, R.; Efremov, M.; Eisert, D.; Fisher, M.; Green, M.; Jacobs, K.; Keil, R.; Kleman, K.; Rogers, G.; Severson, M.; Yavuz, D. D.; Legg, Robert A.; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna; Hovater, J. Curtis; Plawski, Tomasz; Powers, Thomas J.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin has completed fabrication and commissioning of a low frequency (199.6 MHz) superconducting electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility. The gun design includes active tuning and a high temperature superconducting solenoid. We will report on the status of the Wisconsin SRF electron gun program, including commissioning experience and first beam measurements.

  11. 75 FR 48661 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ...The U.S. Secretary of Education (Secretary) announces the establishment of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Equity Commission or Commission). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463, as amended; 5 U.S.C.A., Appendix 2) shall govern the Equity Commission. Purpose: The Secretary is establishing the Commission in order to collect information, analyze issues, and obtain......

  12. 11 CFR 9002.3 - Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission. 9002.3 Section 9002.3 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.3 Commission. Commission means the Federal Election Commission, 999 E Street,...

  13. 11 CFR 9032.3 - Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission. 9032.3 Section 9032.3 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.3 Commission. Commission means the Federal Election Commission, 999 E Street...

  14. 47 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization General § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Communications Commission is composed of five (5) members who are appointed by...

  15. 47 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization General § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Communications Commission is composed of five (5) members who are appointed by...

  16. 47 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization General § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Communications Commission is composed of five (5) members who are appointed by...

  17. 47 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization General § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Communications Commission is composed of five (5) members who are appointed by...

  18. Alternatives to Dam Building: Deindustrialization and the Redevelopment of Waterways in the Northeast During the Twentieth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taber, J. S.; Pompeii, B. J.; Nicoletti, C.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Northeast United States contains more dams than any other region in the country but it lacks structures on the scale of the Hoover or Bonneville dams in the American West. This work addresses why the Northeast lacks such large dams and how the pattern of small dams within the region shaped its social development. During the twentieth century, changing social and economic conditions rendered the initial purposes of many dams in the region moot, but these structures continued to influence hydrologic conditions and the provision of ecosystem services to an expanding population. The continued existence of many of these dams resulted from a worldview unable to conceive of dam removal as it did to the economic or environmental services provided by the structure. Documenting the process by which society developed alternatives to dam building in this region can contextualize the origins and contingent character of ideas about dam removal. The overarching theme in this process is the deindustrialization of the Northeast, which pitted the interests of industrial cities undergoing economic reorganization, emerging suburban communities, and growing service industries in the region. This paper considers changing attitudes toward dams as part of a four step process: (1) although the mill dams of the industrial revolution remained after electrification rendered manufacturers independent of direct water power in the early twentieth century, deindustrialization reshaped the political and legal responses to flooding by stregnthening the political and economic position of service industries and suburban residential interests; (2) the most tangible response to this development was proposed federal investment in dam building in the region between the 1930s and the 1950s; (3) political conflicts between local interests and federal proposals for dam construction slowed down the dam building process and enabled people to consider alternative strategies for flood control and power

  19. 18 CFR 388.108 - Requests for Commission records not available through the Public Reference Room (FOIA requests).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requests for Commission... Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL... person may request access to Commission records, including records maintained in electronic format,...

  20. 18 CFR 388.108 - Requests for Commission records not available through the Public Reference Room (FOIA requests).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requests for Commission... Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL... person may request access to Commission records, including records maintained in electronic format,...

  1. 18 CFR 388.108 - Requests for Commission records not available through the Public Reference Room (FOIA requests).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requests for Commission... Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL... person may request access to Commission records, including records maintained in electronic format,...

  2. Like Underground Water: The Poetry of Mid-Twentieth Century Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriyama, Naoshi, Comp.; Lueders, Edward, Comp.

    With more than 240 poems selected from 80 leading poets, this anthology is the first comprehensive collection of post-World War II Japanese poetry to survey all of the major tendencies and developments directly influenced by the war. Beginning with Nishiwaki Junzaburo (1894-1982), who studied Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot, and concluding with Osada…

  3. GREGOR telescope: start of commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmer, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Denker, C.; Solanki, S.; Balthasar, H.; Berkefeld, T.; Caligari, P.; Collados, M.; Halbgewachs, C.; Heidecke, F.; Hofmann, A.; Klvana, M.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Popow, E.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Soltau, D.; Strassmeier, K.

    2010-07-01

    With the integration of a 1-meter Cesic primary mirror the GREGOR telescope pre-commissioning started. This is the first time, that the entire light path has seen sunlight. The pre-commissioning period includes testing of the main optics, adaptive optics, cooling system, and pointing system. This time was also used to install a near-infrared grating spectro-polarimeter and a 2D-spectropolarimeter for the visible range as first-light science instruments. As soon as the final 1.5 meter primary mirror is installed, commissioning will be completed, and an extended phase of science verification will follow. In the near future, GREGOR will be equipped with a multi-conjugate adaptive optics system that is presently under development at KIS.

  4. Commission 41: History of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurshtein, Alexander A.; Nha, Il-Seong; Ruggles, Clive L. N.; DeVorkin, David H.; Dick, Wolfgang R.; Kochhar, Rajesh; Nakamura, Tsuko; Pigatto, Luisa; Stephenson, F. Richard; Warner, Brian

    2007-12-01

    On Tuesday 22 August 2006 approximately 40 people attended the Commission 41 History of Astronomy Business Meeting at the IAU XXVI General Assembly in Prague. Commission president Alex Gurshtein opened the meeting, welcoming the commission members and calling for a moment of silence for those members who passed away in the last triennium. David DeVorkin was appointed recording secretary for the meeting, with Steven Dick as the scruitineer of the ballot. A moment of silence was then observed in the memory of members departed over the last triennium, including: Jerzy Dobrzycki (Poland), Robert Duncan (Australia), Mohammad Edalati (Iran), Philip Morrison (USA), John Perdix (Australia), Neil Porter (Ireland), Gibson Reaves (USA), Brian Robinson (Australia), and Raymond E. White (USA).

  5. In Referees We Trust? Controversies over Grant Peer Review in the Late Twentieth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Melinda

    While many accounts of external refereeing assume that it has been a consistent part of science since the seventeenth century, the practice developed far more slowly and haphazardly than many observers realize, and it was not until after the Second World War that ''peer review'' became considered an essential part of scientific publishing or grant-making. This talk will explore refereeing procedures at American grant-giving organizations in the twentieth century, focusing especially on the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. The creators of the NSF and the NIH put refereeing systems in place at their foundation. However, the form and function of these systems differed from modern ''peer review'' in several important ways. At the NSF the initial purpose of the referee process was to advise the NSF program directors, not to dictate funding decisions. At the NIH, small ''study sections'' devoted to particular subjects made recommendations to the NIH leadership, which rendered final judgments. However, beginning in the 1960s a series of controversies about NIH and NSF grants placed refereeing procedures at these organizations under more intense scrutiny. These debates culminated in six days of Special Oversight Hearings into the NSF's peer review process in the summer of 1975. Following the hearings, both the NSF and NIH reformed their review processes to place more emphasis on referees' opinions about grant proposals, making peer review increasingly responsible for decision-making. These controversies illustrate that refereeing continued to undergo significant changes in form and purpose throughout the twentieth century, and further suggest that both the scientific community and the public placed increased emphasis on the role of the referee during the late twentieth century.

  6. "Do grandmas have husbands?" Generational memory and twentieth-century women's lives.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This essay uses memory in the ancient and modern sense of the "inner life of thought" to describe the formation of generational memory in a modern professional family whose twentieth-century history has been fractured by migration, war, education, and divorce. It is about the power of feeling and law, which framed the practical freedoms of twentieth-century women's lives and introduced the modern citizen in the aftermath of universal suffrage and world war. The first part of the essay emphasizes the psychic dimension of bodily feeling and drive in the formation of memory; a dimension overlooked by oral history and social movements, yet confirmed by autobiography and memoir. My granddaughter's questions provoked resistance as well as family stories, and let me observe the thought process in a child. Social history, autobiography, and personal memory confirm the common experience of everyday life reaching back through generations of London families; folklore, commerce, and family story make narratives of dreams, hopes, terrors, and events; a child's comprehension of the outside world is grasped through curiosity, imagination, and play in which bodily feeling is as powerful as speech and prohibition to make meanings that flow between inner world and external reality. The second half of the essay reflects on Joan Riviere's description of the self. Leading British psychoanalyst, translator of Freud, writing in the 1950s, Riviere's language of the inner world resonates with the liberal social ethics -- empathy, public service, common good -- which underpinned women's and human rights mid-twentieth century and the egalitarian and reproduction reforms whose universalism has been challenged since the 1970s. Negative feeling is striking in Riviere's description of the self -- fear, shame, shock, and trauma, which are confirmed in memoir and autobiography. In contrast, liberal social democratic accounts of the time idealized English character. Today, the future uncertain

  7. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  8. Melancholia before the twentieth century: fear and sorrow or partial insanity?

    PubMed

    Telles-Correia, Diogo; Marques, João Gama

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the history of psychopathology, several meanings have been assigned to the term melancholia. The main ones were related to affective disorders (fear and sadness) and abnormal beliefs. At the time of Hippocrates melancholia was regarded mainly in its affective component. Since that time, and until the eighteenth century, authors and opinions have been divided, with both aspects (affective disorders and abnormal beliefs), being valued. Finally, in the eighteenth to nineteenth centuries, with Pinel at its peak, melancholia becomes exclusively a synonym of abnormal beliefs. At the turn of the nineteenth to the twentieth century, the affective component returns as the main aspect characterizing melancholia. PMID:25691879

  9. Our Environment in Miniature: Dust and the Early Twentieth-Century Forensic Imagination

    PubMed Central

    BURNEY, IAN

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the articulation of the crime scene as a distinct space of theory and practice in the early twentieth century. In particular it focuses on the evidentiary hopes invested in what would at first seem an unpromising forensic object: dust. Ubiquitous and, to the uninitiated, characterless, dust nevertheless featured as an exemplary object of cutting-edge forensic analysis in two contemporary domains: writings of criminologists and works of detective fiction. The article considers how in these texts dust came to mark the furthest reach of a new forensic capacity they were promoting, one that drew freely upon the imagination to invest crime scene traces with meaning. PMID:23766552

  10. Migration as family strategy: rural-urban labor migration in India during the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    De Haan, A

    1997-01-01

    "The article analyzes the role of families in processes of rural-urban migration in India in the twentieth century. It shows that the continuous circular form of this migration should be explained as a consequence of rural family strategies. Already established kinship relations or marriage opportunities in the future act as a centripetal force, drawing the labor migrants back to their communities time and again. In addition, the article shows how labor migration is informed by economic and cultural considerations which determine the socioeconomic behavior of men and women." PMID:12293228

  11. Wheeler and Whitehead: Process Biology and Process Philosophy in the Early Twentieth Century.

    PubMed

    Sölch, Dennis

    2016-07-01

    The case of William Morton Wheeler and Alfred North Whitehead represents a striking example of how biologists and philosophers engaged in a common enterprise in the early twentieth century. Both challenge the notion that the living world is composed of distinct organisms. Based on his studies of the behavior of social insects, Wheeler developed a concept of superorganisms that paved the way for a theory of emergent evolution. This paper argues that Whitehead, whose relation to academic biology has been largely ignored, drew on Wheeler's findings and integrated them into a universal philosophical cosmology. PMID:27477347

  12. Pain, sympathy and the medical encounter between the mid eighteenth and the mid twentieth centuries

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Witnessing people in pain inevitably elicits anxiety in physicians and other caregivers. Physicians are often required to inflict certain types of discomforts in order to alleviate other, more destructive, pains. Accusations that physicians lacked sympathy can be heard throughout the centuries. This article explores the diverse medical responses to such claims between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries. It interrogates changing definitions of clinical sympathy. The concept of sympathy was continually being reworked for each generation of medical professional. Crucially, in this reworking, philosophers (such as Adam Smith) and physicians came into dialogue. Cultures of sympathy were understood in both physiological and metaphorical terms, and were tied to changing notions of professionalization PMID:24489439

  13. Division a Commission 8: Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Norbert; Brown, Anthony; Evans, Dafydd; Chen, Li; Gouda, Naoteru; Makarov, Valeri; Shulga, Aleksandr; Souchay, Jean; Teixeira, Rama; Unwin, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Commission 8 has regularly published triennial reports in the past and the current OC therefore voted to adopt a traditional format also for this special Legacy issue of the IAU Transactions. The outgoing President is grateful for the support of many Commission members who contributed to this report. Our contribution consists of 3 parts: 1) this introduction, providing a general overview and highlights of recent research in astrometry, 2) a summary of the astrometry business & science meeting at the 2015 IAU General Assembly, and 3) the activity report of our Commisson covering the mid-2012 to mid-2015 period.

  14. 18 CFR 401.107 - Permanent file of requests for Commission records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permanent file of requests for Commission records. 401.107 Section 401.107 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Public Access to...

  15. 18 CFR 401.101 - Policy on disclosure of Commission records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy on disclosure of Commission records. 401.101 Section 401.101 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Public Access to Records and...

  16. 18 CFR 401.90 - Appeals from final Commission action; Time for appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeals from final Commission action; Time for appeals. 401.90 Section 401.90 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Administrative and...

  17. 18 CFR 1b.17 - Appearance and practice before the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appearance and practice before the Commission. 1b.17 Section 1b.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.17...

  18. 18 CFR 2.1c - Policy statement on consultation with Indian tribes in Commission proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Policy statement on consultation with Indian tribes in Commission proceedings. 2.1c Section 2.1c Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of...

  19. 18 CFR 385.2012 - Petitions for review of Commission Orders (Rule 2012).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Petitions for review of Commission Orders (Rule 2012). 385.2012 Section 385.2012 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Formal Requirements for Filings in Proceedings Before the Commission § 385.2012 Petitions for review...

  20. 18 CFR 2.1c - Policy statement on consultation with Indian tribes in Commission proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Policy statement on consultation with Indian tribes in Commission proceedings. 2.1c Section 2.1c Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES GENERAL POLICY AND INTERPRETATIONS Statements of...

  1. 18 CFR 375.102 - Custody and authentication of Commission records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Custody and authentication of Commission records. 375.102 Section 375.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Commission, the transcripts, electronic recordings, or minutes of meetings closed to public observation,...

  2. 18 CFR 375.102 - Custody and authentication of Commission records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Custody and authentication of Commission records. 375.102 Section 375.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Commission, the transcripts, electronic recordings, or minutes of meetings closed to public observation,...

  3. 18 CFR 375.102 - Custody and authentication of Commission records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Custody and authentication of Commission records. 375.102 Section 375.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Commission, the transcripts, electronic recordings, or minutes of meetings closed to public observation,...

  4. 18 CFR 375.102 - Custody and authentication of Commission records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Custody and authentication of Commission records. 375.102 Section 375.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Commission, the transcripts, electronic recordings, or minutes of meetings closed to public observation,...

  5. 18 CFR 375.102 - Custody and authentication of Commission records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Custody and authentication of Commission records. 375.102 Section 375.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... Commission, the transcripts, electronic recordings, or minutes of meetings closed to public observation,...

  6. 18 CFR 388.112 - Requests for special treatment of documents submitted to the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requests for special treatment of documents submitted to the Commission. 388.112 Section 388.112 Conservation of Power and Water... REQUESTS § 388.112 Requests for special treatment of documents submitted to the Commission. (a) Scope....

  7. 18 CFR 388.112 - Requests for special treatment of documents submitted to the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requests for special treatment of documents submitted to the Commission. 388.112 Section 388.112 Conservation of Power and Water... REQUESTS § 388.112 Requests for special treatment of documents submitted to the Commission. (a) Scope....

  8. 16 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Trade Commission is an independent administrative agency which was organized in...

  9. 10 CFR 110.91 - Commission consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission consultations. 110.91 Section 110.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Public Participation Procedures Concerning License Applications § 110.91 Commission consultations. The Commission...

  10. Securities and Exchange Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... [The Regulatory Plan and Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions] Part XXIV Securities and Exchange Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (SEC) SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Ch. II Regulatory Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION:...

  11. 47 CFR 1.1528 - Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commission review. 1.1528 Section 1.1528... Applications § 1.1528 Commission review. Either the applicant or Bureau counsel may seek Commission review of the initial decision on the application, or the Commission may decide to review the decision on...

  12. 47 CFR 1.5004 - Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commission action. 1.5004 Section 1.5004 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Exempt Telecommunications Companies § 1.5004 Commission action. If the Commission has not issued an order granting or denying...

  13. 10 CFR 2.806 - Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission action. 2.806 Section 2.806 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Rulemaking § 2.806 Commission action. The Commission will incorporate in the notice of adoption of a regulation...

  14. 76 FR 63325 - National Indian Gaming Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Register on November 18, 2010. 75 FR 70680. The Commission's regulatory review process established a tribal... National Indian Gaming Commission AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice of no action. SUMMARY: On November 18, 2010, the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) issued a Notice of Inquiry...

  15. 16 CFR 4.15 - Commission meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission meetings. 4.15 Section 4.15... RULES § 4.15 Commission meetings. (a) In general. (1) Meetings of the Commission, as defined in 5 U.S.C... announcements of meetings. For each meeting, the Commission shall announce: (i) The time, place and...

  16. 16 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Trade Commission is an independent administrative agency which was organized in...

  17. 17 CFR 140.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Commission. 140.10 Section..., AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Functions § 140.10 The Commission. The Commission is composed of a Chairman and four other Commissioners, not more than three of whom may be members of the same...

  18. 17 CFR 140.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The Commission. 140.10 Section..., AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Functions § 140.10 The Commission. The Commission is composed of a Chairman and four other Commissioners, not more than three of whom may be members of the same...

  19. 17 CFR 140.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The Commission. 140.10 Section..., AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Functions § 140.10 The Commission. The Commission is composed of a Chairman and four other Commissioners, not more than three of whom may be members of the same...

  20. 17 CFR 140.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Commission. 140.10 Section...) ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Functions § 140.10 The Commission. The Commission is composed of a Chairman and four other Commissioners, not more than three of whom may be members of the...

  1. 17 CFR 140.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Commission. 140.10 Section..., AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Functions § 140.10 The Commission. The Commission is composed of a Chairman and four other Commissioners, not more than three of whom may be members of the same...

  2. 16 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Trade Commission is an independent administrative agency which was organized in...

  3. 47 CFR 1.1528 - Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commission review. 1.1528 Section 1.1528... Applications § 1.1528 Commission review. Either the applicant or Bureau counsel may seek Commission review of the initial decision on the application, or the Commission may decide to review the decision on...

  4. 47 CFR 1.1528 - Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commission review. 1.1528 Section 1.1528... Applications § 1.1528 Commission review. Either the applicant or Bureau counsel may seek Commission review of the initial decision on the application, or the Commission may decide to review the decision on...

  5. Cool-Water Coal Gasification Program: Environmental Monitoring Plan Commissioning Phase, final report. Volume 1. Technical report. Volume 2. Appendix A - HRSG (heat recovery steam generator) stack-testing results. Volume 3. Appendix B - analytical results. Appendix C - sampling analytical methods. Appendix D - ambient air monitoring data. Volume 4. Appendix E - quality assurance/quality control. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-11

    The Cool Water Coal Gasification Program (CWCGP) began electrical production under the terms of the Price Guarantee Commitment with the U.S. Synthetic Fuels Corporation (SFC) on June 24, 1984. An Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) approved by the SFC was initiated at that time. The Commissioning Phase, the first of four phases of the EMP, was conducted from June 24 through December 31, 1984. Sampling and analysis of compliance and supplemental parameters produced over 1100 samples and 8500 data points from 17 aqueous, ten gaseous, and four solid sampling streams. The technical report includes a description of the CWCGP process as it was operated during the Commissioning Phase, a summary of process changes that occurred during the period, their effect on the environmental monitoring effort, and details of pollution-control testing (Appendix A), data calculations (Appendix B), analytical methods and results (Appendix C), ambient-air-monitoring data (Appendix D), and quality-assurance/quality-control program results (Appendix E).

  6. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were "global" in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others. PMID:26689938

  7. The riddle of sex: biological theories of sexual difference in the early twentieth-century.

    PubMed

    Ha, Nathan Q

    2011-01-01

    At the turn of the twentieth century, biologists such as Oscar Riddle, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Frank Lillie, and Richard Goldschmidt all puzzled over the question of sexual difference, the distinction between male and female. They all offered competing explanations for the biological cause of this difference, and engaged in a fierce debate over the primacy of their respective theories. Riddle propounded a metabolic theory of sex dating from the late-nineteenth century suggesting that metabolism lay at the heart of sexual difference. Thomas Hunt Morgan insisted on the priority of chromosomes, Frank Lillie emphasized the importance of hormones, while Richard Goldschmidt supported a mixed model involving both chromosomes and hormones. In this paper, I will illustrate how the older metabolic theory of sex was displaced when those who argued for the relatively newer theories of chromosomes and hormones gradually formed an alliance that accommodated each other and excluded the metabolic theory of sex. By doing so, proponents of chromosomes and hormones established their authority over the question of sexual difference as they laid the foundations for the new disciplines of genetics and endocrinology. Their debate raised urgent questions about what constituted sexual difference, and how scientists envisioned the plasticity and controllability of this difference. These theories also had immediate political and cultural consequences at the turn of the twentieth century, especially for the eugenic and feminist movements, both of which were heavily invested in knowledge of sex and its determination, ascertainment, and command. PMID:21082219

  8. Commissioning of intensity modulated neutron radiotherapy (IMNRT)

    SciTech Connect

    Burmeister, Jay; Snyder, Michael; Spink, Robyn; Liang Liang; Bossenberger, Todd; Halford, Robert; Brandon, John; Delauter, Jonathan

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated neutron radiotherapy (IMNRT) has been developed using inhouse treatment planning and delivery systems at the Karmanos Cancer Center/Wayne State University Fast Neutron Therapy facility. The process of commissioning IMNRT for clinical use is presented here. Results of commissioning tests are provided including validation measurements using representative patient plans as well as those from the TG-119 test suite. Methods: IMNRT plans were created using the Varian Eclipse optimization algorithm and an inhouse planning system for calculation of neutron dose distributions. Tissue equivalent ionization chambers and an ionization chamber array were used for point dose and planar dose distribution comparisons with calculated values. Validation plans were delivered to water and virtual water phantoms using TG-119 measurement points and evaluation techniques. Photon and neutron doses were evaluated both inside and outside the target volume for a typical IMNRT plan to determine effects of intensity modulation on the photon dose component. Monitor unit linearity and effects of beam current and gantry angle on output were investigated, and an independent validation of neutron dosimetry was obtained. Results: While IMNRT plan quality is superior to conventional fast neutron therapy plans for clinical sites such as prostate and head and neck, it is inferior to photon IMRT for most TG-119 planning goals, particularly for complex cases. This results significantly from current limitations on the number of segments. Measured and calculated doses for 11 representative plans (six prostate/five head and neck) agreed to within -0.8 {+-} 1.4% and 5.0 {+-} 6.0% within and outside the target, respectively. Nearly all (22/24) ion chamber point measurements in the two phantom arrangements were within the respective confidence intervals for the quantity [(measured-planned)/prescription dose] derived in TG-119. Mean differences for all measurements were 0.5% (max

  9. Could a 1755-Like Tsunami Reach the French Atlantic Coastline? Constraints from Twentieth Century Observations and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allgeyer, S.; Daubord, C.; Hébert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Schindelé, F.; Madariaga, R.

    2013-09-01

    The tsunami generated by the 1 November, 1755 earthquake off the coast of Portugal affected mainly the coastlines of the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Morocco, but was also observed in some places along the North Atlantic coasts. To determine whether the event could have effected the French coastline, we conducted a study to search for signs of the tsunami in historical records from all tide gauge stations off the French Atlantic coast during the twentieth century, specifically for the 28 February, 1969 and the 26 May, 1975 tsunamis that were recorded by the Portuguese tide gauge network. Because many recordings are available in La Rochelle (located on the southwest coast of France), we focused our study on this harbor. The analysis of the tide gauge data shows no evidence for tsunamis in La Rochelle, neither in 1969 nor in 1975. To confirm this lack of tsunami signals, we used nonlinear, shallow water equations to compute the tsunami propagation to the French Atlantic coastline for both 1969 and 1975 events. Results obtained from these simulations confirm otherwise unnoticeable wave amplitudes at La Rochelle harbor. In a second step, tsunamis from three different scenarios for the 1755 earthquake were modeled to estimate the impact of such a tsunami on the French Atlantic coast, with a focus on La Rochelle harbor. A comparison of the functions of tide configuration was made in order to analyse the difference in impact. The results show that, while the harbor is poorly impacted, several areas (western part of the island of Ré and northern coast of the island of Oléron) may have experienced a moderate impact from 0.5 to 1 m, especially since the tide was high at the time of arrival, possibly causing local inundations in lowland areas.

  10. 75 FR 11166 - Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; Notice of Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission March 2,...

  11. Surrogacy commissioning fathers and HIV.

    PubMed

    Jordaan, Donrich W

    2014-01-01

    Surrogacy is not regulated by a single legal instrument only, nor is confirmation of a surrogacy agreement by the High Court an unqualified green light for the surrogacy process to proceed. In the context of the HIV status of the commissioning father, whose gametes are to be used for the conception of the child in pursuance of a surrogacy agreement, the intended in vitro fertilisation of the surrogate mother may only take place on condition that the commissioning father, and his semen, have been tested for HIV; that he has consented to his HIV status being made available to the surrogate mother, and if he is HIV-positive, that sperm washing will be used to minimise the risk of infection and that the surrogate mother has been informed of his HIV status, and given her informed consent.  PMID:24388075

  12. Commissioning: perspectives from the ground.

    PubMed

    Dawda, Paresh; True, Angelene; Wells, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    Primary Health Networks (PHNs) have been tasked with two key objectives to be achieved through commissioning. Public value aims can be achieved by developing operational capability in the context of an authorising environment. Public value will need to focus on system level outcomes from multiple perspectives, including a consumer perspective. The authorising environment will require policymakers to allow time for PHNs to mature into their role. It will require an environment of effective collaboration amongst multiple stakeholders including consumers. The operational capability will need to ensure highly competent managers and clinical leadership working in a symbiotic relationship. Although some Medicare Locals demonstrated commissioning capacity and capability, this will need to be scaled up at-pace in the new healthcare landscape in order for PHNs to optimally fulfil their roles. PMID:27469048

  13. Commissioning of the LCLS LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, H.; Akre, R.; Brachmann, A.; Decker, F.-J.; Ding, Y.; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, Ph.; Huang, Z.; Iverson, R.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Miahnahri, A.; Molloy, S.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; White, W.; Wu, J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2010-06-11

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray free electron laser project is currently under construction at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). A new injector and upgrades to the existing accelerator were installed in two phases in 2006 and 2007. We report on the commissioning of the injector, the two new bunch compressors at 250MeV and 4.3 GeV, and transverse and longitudinal beam diagnostics up to the end of the existing linac at 13.6 GeV. The commissioning of the new transfer line from the end of the linac to the undulator is scheduled to start in November 2008 and for the undulator in March 2009 with first light to be expected in July 2009.

  14. Population commission discusses international migration.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    At the 30th session of the Commission on Population and Development during February 24-28, 1997, international migration was the main topic, with special linkages between migration and development and on gender issues and the family. New and emerging issues were also considered. Members stressed the need for more reliable data on migration, the direction of migrants flows, and the characteristics of migrants. The Commission requested a task force on basic social services to hold a technical symposium of experts on international migration in 1998. Its chair, Dr. Nafis Sadik, said that migration issues should based on the reality of choice not on coercive measures or quotas. Almost half of the migrants globally are women. The Commission was given a new impetus by the International Conference on Population and Development held at Cairo in 1994. Migration pressures intensified in the second half of the 1980s and in the early 1990s, creating areas of concern: the negative impact of short-term migration on working conditions in host countries; migration pressures emanating from climatic change; the protection of migrant women and their children; the right of receiving countries to regulate access to their territory; the adverse consequences of forced migration; the situation of persons whose asylum claims have been rejected; the trafficking in women and children, prostitution and coercive adoption; and the sudden and massive arrival of refugees in need of international protection. The 1998 session of the Commission will feature the theme of health and mortality, with special emphasis on the linkages between health and development and on gender and age. PMID:12292475

  15. 7 CFR 621.43 - Interstate compacts and commissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate compacts and commissions. 621.43 Section 621.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES RIVER BASIN INVESTIGATIONS AND...

  16. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 221 - Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Form L-3 (Revised October 1975)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Commission Form L-3 (Revised October 1975) B Appendix B to Part 221 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF... 221—Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Form L-3 (Revised October 1975) terms and conditions of... set forth herein. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Form L-4 (Revised October, 1975) terms...

  17. Disinfection By-Products: Formation and Occurrence in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the twentieth century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended he...

  18. HIDDEN in PLAIN SIGHT Marketing Prescription Drugs to Consumers in the Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    Herzberg, David

    2010-01-01

    Although the public health impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising remains a subject of great controversy, such promotion is typically understood as a recent phenomenon permitted only by changes in federal regulation of print and broadcast advertising over the past two decades. But today's omnipresent ads are only the most recent chapter in a longer history of DTC pharmaceutical promotion (including the ghostwriting of popular articles, organization of public-relations events, and implicit advertising of products to consumers) stretching back over the twentieth century. We use trade literature and archival materials to examine the continuity of efforts to promote prescription drugs to consumers and to better grapple with the public health significance of contemporary pharmaceutical marketing practices. PMID:20299640

  19. How the Coast and Geodetic Survey Contributed to Twentieth Century Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theberge, A. E.

    2002-05-01

    At the turn of the Twentieth Century, the Coast and Geodetic Survey was one of the major physical science agencies in the United States Federal Government. Nautical charting, with the attendant generation of large ocean-depth data holdings, required expertise in navigation techniques, physical oceanography, and geodetic surveying. This expertise was coupled with the development of systems and methods that led to many serendipitous discoveries by the Coast and Geodetic Survey or by its collaboration with other institutions and individuals. Many of these fundamental discoveries were built upon by the American ocean science community in developing modern earth science theories as well as in improving techniques and methods of ocean exploration. This work continues today through many offices in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration that are direct descendants of the old Coast and Geodetic Survey.

  20. [Constant or break? On the relations between human genetics and eugenics in the Twentieth Century].

    PubMed

    Germann, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The history of human genetics has been a neglected topic in history of science and medicine for a long time. Only recently, have medical historians begun to pay more attention to the history of human heredity. An important research question deals with the interconnections between human genetics and eugenics. This paper addresses this question: By focusing on a Swiss case study, the investigation of the heredity of goiter, I will argue that there existed close but also ambiguous relations between heredity research and eugenics in the twentieth century. Studies on human heredity often produced evidence that challenged eugenic aims and ideas. Concurrently, however, these studies fostered visions of genetic improvement of human populations. PMID:26111842

  1. Birth Attendants and Midwifery Practice in Early Twentieth-century Derbyshire

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Summary The 1902 Midwives Act introduced training and supervision for midwives in England and Wales, outlawing uncertified-and-untrained midwives (handywomen) and phasing out certified-but-untrained (bona fide) midwives. This paper compares the numbers and practices of these two different types of birth attendant with each other, with qualified and certified midwives and with doctors in early twentieth-century Derbyshire during this period of change, and examines the spatial and social factors influencing women's choice of birth attendant. It finds that the new legislation did not entirely eliminate continuity in traditional practices and allegiance, and that both social and spatial factors governed the choice of delivery attendant, with fewer midwives available in rural areas and a surviving network of untrained bona fide midwives in mining communities. Within this spatial pattern, however, although wealthier women were more likely to have chosen a doctor or a qualified midwife, familiarity and loyalty allowed bona fide midwives to maintain their case loads.

  2. Dr. William Theodore Hodge: pioneer surgeon-apothecary in early-twentieth-century Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Kamien, Max

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 I chanced upon the lonely grave of Dr. William Theodore Hodge, buried in 1934, in the Derby Pioneer and Aboriginal Cemetery. He turned out to be the founding doctor of the practice in which I have worked for the past thirty years. Dr. Hodge migrated from England in 1896. He was the first western trained doctor to work in the Perth suburb of Claremont and in the wheat-belt town of Kellerberrin. He was an innovative and inventive modern doctor who became a legend in the Kimberley where he died tragically, on the day prior to his retirement, at the age of seventy-five. His story is illustrative of the life and medical practice of a pioneering doctor in metropolitan, rural, and remote practice in Western Australia at the end of the nineteenth and the early years of the twentieth centuries. PMID:20973339

  3. Pedigrees of madness: the study of heredity in nineteenth and early twentieth century psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Gausemeier, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the development of the statistical methods employed by psychiatrists to study heredity as a causative factor of mental diseases. It argues that psychiatric asylums and clinics were the first institutions in which human heredity became the object of systematic research. It also highlights the different concepts of heredity prevalent in the psychiatric community. The first of four parts traces how heredity became a central category of asylum statistics in the first half of the nineteenth century. The second part deals with attempts to introduce new methods of surveying in order to generate more precise data about psychopathological inheritance in the 1860s and 1870s. The third part discusses how, by the end of the nineteenth century, a widespread discontent with the results of asylum statistics led to an increasing interest in the use of family studies. Finally, the fourth part examines the impact of Mendelian theory on psychiatric statistics in the early twentieth century. PMID:26013313

  4. Under the trees: the Georgia peach and the quest for labor in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Okie, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The Georgia peach boom around the turn of the twentieth century was often hailed as a successful experiment in diversification. Peach growers, the story went, threw off the tyranny of King Cotton by pledging their allegiance to the "Queen of Fruits." This portrayal is partly true; unlike other proposed alternatives to cotton, peaches flourished in many places. But the history of the "labor problem" in the Georgia peach belt makes it clear that peach production depended on the cotton economy. Peaches required large amounts of labor only at harvest time, which came during a lull in the cotton season. Thus, for many years, growers found a ready labor supply in a rural population otherwise at loose ends. As this population relocated to cities, and as cotton farmers mechanized their operations, peach growers turned increasingly to the federal government to help shore up their workforces. PMID:21319439

  5. Feet and fabrication: footbinding and early twentieth-century rural women's labor in Shaanxi.

    PubMed

    Bossen, Laurel; Xurui, Wang; Brown, Melissa J; Gates, Hill

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth-century transformations of rural Chinese women’s work have received relatively little direct attention. By contrast, the former custom of footbinding continues to fascinate and is often used to illustrate or contest theories about Chinese women’s status. Arguing that for rural women at least, footbinding needs to be understood in relation to rural economic conditions, the authors focus on changes in textile production and in footbinding in two counties in Shaanxi province. Drawing on historical sources and their own interview data from rural women who grew up in this period, the authors find evidence that transformations in textile production undercut the custom of footbinding and contributed to its rapid demise. PMID:21966702

  6. Medical confidentiality in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: an Anglo-German comparison1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary Professional secrecy of doctors became an issue of considerable medico-legal and political debate in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in both Germany and England, although the legal preconditions for this debate were quite different in the two countries. While in Germany medical confidentiality was a legal obligation and granted in court, no such statutory recognition of doctors’ professional secrecy existed in England. This paper is a comparative analysis of medical secrecy in three key areas - divorce trials, venereal disease and abortion - in both countries. Based on sources from the period between c.1870 and 1939, our paper shows how doctors tried to define the scope of professional secrecy as an integral part of their professional honour in relation to important matters of public health. PMID:21077462

  7. Challenges in the Twentieth Century and Beyond: Computer codes and data

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, B.L.

    1995-12-01

    The second half of the twentieth century has seen major changes in computer architecture. In the early fifties to the early seventies, the word ``computes`` demanded reverence, respect and even fear. Computers, then, were almost ``untouchable``. Today, computers have become the mainstreams of communication on the rapidly expanding communication highways. They have become necessities of life. With the computers came the establishment of information centers -- tasked with the dissemination of newly developed computer codes and generated data. The Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) was founded in 1962 as a valuable resource for programs and cross section data concerned with the effects of radiation. Through the years, RSIC has collected computer codes developed for the early machines (IBM 360, DEC PDP-10, CDC 660, UNIVAC 1100), to the more modern and powerful desktops (Pentium based Personal Computers, UNIX workstations like the IBM RISC 6000, DEC Alpha, SUN) and supercomputers (Cray XMP, Cray YMP, Cray C90, IBM SP2).

  8. First Engineering Commissioning of EAST Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yuanxi; Li, Jiangang; Weng, Peide; EAST Team

    2006-05-01

    Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is the first fully superconducting tokamak. The first commissioning started on Feb. 1st of 2006 and finished on March 30th of 2006 at the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It consists of leakage testing at both room temperature and low temperature, pumping down, cooling down all coils, current leads, bus bar and the thermal shielding, exciting all the coils, measuring magnetic configuration and warming up the magnets. The electromagnetic, thermal hydraulic and mechanical performance of EAST Toroidal Field (TF) and Poloidal Field (PF) magnets have also been tested. All sub-systems, including pumping system, cryogenic system, PF& TF power supply systems, magnet instrumentation system, quench detection and protection system, water cooling system, data acquisition system, main control system, plasma control system (PCS), interlock and safety system have been successfully tested.

  9. Global Precipitation Measurement Mission Launch and Commissioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Nikesha; Deweese, Keith; Vess, Missie; Welter, Gary; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    During launch and early operation of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, the Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) analysis team encountered four main on orbit anomalies. These include: (1) unexpected shock from Solar Array deployment, (2) momentum buildup from the Magnetic Torquer Bars (MTBs) phasing errors, (3) transition into Safehold due to albedo-induced Course Sun Sensor (CSS) anomaly, and (4) a flight software error that could cause a Safehold transition due to a Star Tracker occultation. This paper will discuss ways GNC engineers identified and tracked down the root causes. Flight data and GNC on board models will be shown to illustrate how each of these anomalies were investigated and mitigated before causing any harm to the spacecraft. On May 29, 2014, GPM was handed over to the Mission Flight Operations Team after a successful commissioning period. Currently, GPM is operating nominally on orbit, collecting meaningful scientific data that will significantly improve our understanding of the Earth's climate and water cycle.

  10. Building Baluchitherium and Indricotherium: imperial and international networks in early-twentieth century paleontology.

    PubMed

    Manias, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Over the first decades of the twentieth century, the fragmentary remains of a huge prehistoric ungulate were unearthed in scientific expeditions in India, Turkestan and Mongolia. Following channels of formal and informal empire, these were transported to collections in Britain, Russia and the United States. While striking and of immense size, the bones proved extremely difficult to interpret. Alternately naming the creature Paraceratherium, Baluchitherium and Indricotherium, paleontologists Clive Forster-Cooper, Alexei Borissiak and Henry Fairfield Osborn struggled over the reconstruction of this gigantic fossil mammal. However, despite these problems, shared work on the creature served as a focus for collaboration and exchange rather than rivalry between these three scientific communities. Not only did the initial interpretation and analysis depend on pre-existing connections between British and American paleontological institutions, but the need for comparative material, recognition and contacts brought British and American scholars into communication and exchange with their counterparts in the Soviet Union. This article examines these processes. It first uses these excavations as a comparative case-study of different manifestations of colonial science in this period, examining how scholars in the Britain, the Russian Empire and the United States used formal and informal colonial links to Asia to pursue new research. It then moves to examine how the common problem of reconstructing this giant animal drew metropolitan scientific communities together, at least for a time. The construction of the Baluchitherium and Indricotherium illustrates the drives to expand research both imperially and internationally in the early-twentieth century, but also the continual problems in resources, institutionalization, transport and communication that could run up against scientific work. PMID:25537636

  11. Climate change in Hungary during the twentieth century according to Feddema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Hajnalka; Ács, Ferenc; Skarbit, Nóra

    2015-11-01

    Climate change in Hungary during the twentieth century is analyzed using Feddema's original scheme suitable for global scale applications (F-GS) and Feddema's fine-tuned scheme designed for Hungarian applications (F-HU). Input data of precipitation (P) and air temperature (T) are taken from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) TS 1.2 database constructing P-T data referring to three 30-year periods (1901-1930, 1941-1970, 1971-2000) and two 50-year periods (1901-1950, 1951-2000). The method and data organizational effects are compared using these schemes and data sets. The results show that the evaluation of the climate change process depends much more on the methodological rather than on data organizational effects. Methodical fine-tuning effects considerably improved the spatial distribution, while the organization of data improved the insight into the dynamic of the processes. According to F-GS, there is no climate change on 76.7 % of Hungarian territory. According to F-HU, such areas amount to only 38.5 %. The main climate change process for F-GS is drying, while for F-HU drying and warming beside either drying or warming. For both models, the most climate change affected areas are characterized by higher altitudes, such as in the Mecsek and Villány Mountains (geographical region Transdanubia), in the Bükk Mountains (geographical region North Hungarian Mountains), and in the region of the so-called Danube Bend. The spatially most realistic climate description is obtained by using F-HU and the 30-year data sets. It is to be noted that Köppen's, Holdridge's, and Thornthwaite's methods are less suitable than F-HU for representing the process of climate change in Hungary in the twentieth century.

  12. Fault interaction and stress triggering of twentieth century earthquakes in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollitz, Fred; Vergnolle, Mathilde; Calais, Eric

    2003-10-01

    A cluster of exceptionally large earthquakes in the interior of Asia occurred from 1905 to 1967: the 1905 M7.9 Tsetserleg and M8.4 Bolnai earthquakes, the 1931 M8.0 Fu Yun earthquake, the 1957 M8.1 Gobi-Altai earthquake, and the 1967 M7.1 Mogod earthquake (sequence). Each of the larger (M ≥ 8) earthquakes involved strike-slip faulting averaging more than 5 m and rupture lengths of several hundred kilometers. Available geologic data indicate that recurrence intervals on the major source faults are several thousands of years and distances of about 400 km separate the respective rupture areas. We propose that the occurrences of these and many smaller earthquakes are related and controlled to a large extent by stress changes generated by the compounded static deformation of the preceding earthquakes and subsequent viscoelastic relaxation of the lower crust and upper mantle beneath Mongolia. We employ a spherically layered viscoelastic model constrained by the 1994-2002 GPS velocity field in western Mongolia [, 2003]. Using the succession of twentieth century earthquakes as sources of deformation, we then analyze the time-dependent change in Coulomb failure stress (Δσf). At remote interaction distances, static Δσf values are small. However, modeled postseismic stress changes typically accumulate to several tenths of a bar over time intervals of decades. Almost all significant twentieth century regional earthquakes (M ≥ 6) with well-constrained fault geometry lie in positive Δσf lobes of magnitude about +0.5 bar. Our results suggest that significant stress transfer is possible among continental faults separated by hundreds of kilometers and on timescales of decades.

  13. Three twentieth-century multiauthored neurological handbooks--a historical analysis and bibliometric comparison.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Peter J; Stahnisch, Frank W

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of neurology as a separate specialty from internal medicine and psychiatry took several decades, starting at the end of the nineteenth century. This can be adequately reconstructed by focusing on the establishment of specialized journals, societies, university chairs, the invention and application of specific instruments, medical practices, and certainly also the publication of pivotal textbooks in the field. Particularly around 1900, the German-speaking countries played an integral role in this process. In this article, one aspect is extensively explored, notably the publication (in the twentieth century) of three comprehensive and influential multivolume and multiauthor handbooks entirely devoted to neurology. All available volumes of Max Lewandowsky's Handbuch der Neurologie (1910-1914) and the Handbuch der Neurologie (1935-1937) of Oswald Bumke and Otfrid Foerster were analyzed. The handbooks were then compared with Pierre Vinken's and George Bruyn's Handbook of Clinical Neurology (1968-2002). Over the span of nearly a century these publications became ever more comprehensive and developed into a global, encompassing project as is reflected in the increasing number of foreign authors. Whereas the first two handbooks were published mainly in German, "Vinken & Bruyn" was eventually published entirely in English, indicating the general changes in the scientific language of neurology after World War II. Distinctions include the uniformity of the series, manner of editorial involvement, thematic comprehensiveness, inclusion of volume editors in "Vinken & Bruyn," and the provision of index volumes. The increasing use of authorities in various neurological subspecialties is an important factor by which these handbooks contrast with many compact neurological textbooks that were available at the time. For historiographical purposes, the three neurological handbooks considered here were important sources for the general study of the history of medicine and

  14. Three Twentieth-Century Multiauthored Neurological Handbooks – A Historical Analysis and Bibliometric Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Peter J.; Stahnisch, Frank W.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of neurology as a separate specialty from internal medicine and psychiatry took several decades, starting at the end of the nineteenth century. This can be adequately reconstructed by focusing on the establishment of specialized journals, societies, university chairs, the invention and application of specific instruments, medical practices, and certainly also the publication of pivotal textbooks in the field. Particularly around 1900, the German-speaking countries played an integral role in this process. In this article, one aspect is extensively explored, notably the publication (in the twentieth century) of three comprehensive and influential multivolume and multiauthor handbooks entirely devoted to neurology. All available volumes of Max Lewandowsky's Handbuch der Neurologie (1910–1914) and the Handbuch der Neurologie (1935–1937) of Oswald Bumke and Otfrid Foerster were analyzed. The handbooks were then compared with Pierre Vinken's and George Bruyn's Handbook of Clinical Neurology (1968–2002). Over the span of nearly a century these publications became ever more comprehensive and developed into a global, encompassing project as is reflected in the increasing number of foreign authors. Whereas the first two handbooks were published mainly in German, “Vinken & Bruyn” was eventually published entirely in English, indicating the general changes in the scientific language of neurology after World War II. Distinctions include the uniformity of the series, manner of editorial involvement, thematic comprehensiveness, inclusion of volume editors in “Vinken & Bruyn,” and the provision of index volumes. The increasing use of authorities in various neurological subspecialties is an important factor by which these handbooks contrast with many compact neurological textbooks that were available at the time. For historiographical purposes, the three neurological handbooks considered here were important sources for the general study of the history of

  15. Sunspot numbers, interplanetary magnetic field, and cosmic ray intensity at earth: Nexus for the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.

    2013-12-01

    The pivotal role played by the interplanetary magnetic field (B) in modulating galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity in the heliosphere is described. We show that the inverse correlation observed by Forbush (1958) between GCRs and sunspot numbers (SSNs) is reflected in high correlation between SSNs and B (cc = 0.94). The SSN data are available since 1700 and the derived B data since 1835. The paleo-cosmic ray data are available for several millennia in the form of 10Be radionuclide sequestered in polar ice. The data of the ion chambers (ICs) at the Cheltenham-Fredericksburg-Yakutsk (CFY) sites are combined to create a data string for 1937-1988. In turn, these data are used to extend the measurements of the low energy GCR ions (>0.1 GeV) at balloon altitudes at high latitudes in Russia to 1937. These data are then correlated to B and the fit parameters are used to extend the low energy ion data to 1900, creating the instrumental era GCR time series for the twentieth century. The derived GCR time series is compared to 10Be measured at two sites in Greenland, namely Dye 3 and NGRIP for 1900-2000 to check the internal consistency of datasets for the long-term trend. We find that the annual mean rate (%) for 1965 at NGRIP is an outlier. We replace it with the mean of 1964 and 1965 rates and construct a new re-normalized time series at NGIP, improving the agreement with the derived instrumental era GCR time series for the twentieth century as well. This should encourage its use by heliophysics community for varied applications.

  16. The Martians of Science - Five Physicists Who Changed the Twentieth Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargittai, István

    2006-07-01

    If science has the equivalent of a Bloomsbury group, it is the five men born at the turn of the twentieth century in Budapest: Theodore von Kármán, Leo Szilard, Eugene Wigner, John von Neumann, and Edward Teller. From Hungary to Germany to the United States, they remained friends and continued to work together and influence each other throughout their lives. As a result, their work was integral to some of the most important scientific and political developments of the twentieth century. They were an extraordinary group of talents: Wigner won a Nobel Prize in theoretical physics; Szilard was the first to see that a chain reaction based on neutrons was possible, initiated the Manhattan Project, but left physics to try to restrict nuclear arms; von Neumann could solve difficult problems in his head and developed the modern computer for more complex problems; von Kármán became the first director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, providing the scientific basis for the U.S. Air Force; and Teller was the father of the hydrogen bomb, whose name is now synonymous with the controversial "Star Wars" initiative of the 1980s. Each was fiercely opinionated, politically active, and fought against all forms of totalitarianism. István Hargittai, as a young Hungarian physical chemist, was able to get to know some of these great men in their later years, and the depth of information and human interest in The Martians of Science is the result of his personal relationships with the subjects, their families, and their contemporaries.

  17. A Sudden Transition: Household Changes for Middle Aged U.S. Women in the Twentieth Century

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Emily R.; Gratton, Brian; Gutmann, Myron

    2012-01-01

    Between 1900 and 1990, the percentage of U.S. white women aged 40–69 living with a child of their own fell from 63% to 27%, with three fourths of that change occurring between 1940 and 1960. Historical census data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series and longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics allow an historical and contemporary examination of co-residence patterns among these women. Analysis reveals three eras: a system of co-residence in the early twentieth century, a sudden transition toward separate households at mid century, and the maintenance of that separate household system thereafter. The scholarly literature features cultural, demographic, and economic explanations for the long-term decline in co-residence, but has given little attention to the rapid mid-century shift. Analysis of IPUMS data confirms the long-term effects of declines in mortality and fertility, and concomitant declines in the age of mothers at last birth, but also points to a sharp drop in the age of children at marriage in the mid-twentieth century. These factors raised the potential for the formation of separate households, but this historical era was also a propitious one for separation: income gains for young workers were unprecedented, the labor force participation of married women rose, and immigration fell. Analysis of PSID data from 1968 to 2009 confirms the salience of children’s socioeconomic circumstances—particularly their marriage and employment prospects but also the increasing availability of higher education—in maintaining the separate household system. While the data analyzed allow only inferences about cultural factors, the resiliency of the new household system, even in periods of economic decline, suggests that it is now likely buttressed by strong normative views. PMID:22962507

  18. Heritage and Observatories in Brazil at the Turn of the Twentieth Century: an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granato, Marcus

    The first systematic asronomical observations in the southern hemisphere were in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, in the short period of Dutch rule in the region (1637-1644). Later, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, there were three observatories on Brazilian soil: Imperial Observatório do Rio de Janeiro, Observatório da Escola Politecnica, both in Rio de Janeiro and Observatório Central, in the southern city of Porto Alegre. The first was created by Imperial decree by D. Pedro I, on 15 October 1827, while the second, linked to Universidade do Brasil, was established on 5 July 1881. The third was planned in 1889, but only inaugurated on 24 January 1908 as part of the Escola de Engenharia. All three institutions exist to this day, and their scientific instruments of historical value are included in cultural heritage preservation projects. The largest collection of this kind of objects is at Museu de Astronomia e Ciéncias Afins (MAST), most of whose 2000 artefacts come from the Imperial Observatory (today the National Observatory). Many of them were produced in Germany by manufacturers such as Gustav Heyde, Carl Zeiss, Askania-Werke, Carl Bamberg and Max Kohl. The buildings of the Observatório Central (1921) and Observatório Nacional (1921) are listed by federal and state heritage protection agencies, particularly because they were purpose built for astronomical research and have architectural features typical of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that have not been altered over the years.

  19. 77 FR 74181 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meeting related to the transmission planning activities of ISO New England Inc.: NEPOOL...

  20. 78 FR 36183 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meeting related to the transmission planning activities of the South Carolina Regional...

  1. 77 FR 11531 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meeting related to the transmission planning activities of the Midwest Independent Transmission...

  2. 78 FR 4406 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meeting related to the transmission planning activities of the South Carolina Regional...

  3. 78 FR 36770 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following stakeholder meeting related to the transmission planning activities of PJM Interconnection,...

  4. 77 FR 59184 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives ] notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meeting related to the transmission planning activities of the Southern Company Services, Inc.:...

  5. 78 FR 32386 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meeting related to the transmission planning activities of the Southern Company Services,...

  6. 77 FR 63308 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meeting related to the transmission planning activities of the Southern Company Services,...

  7. 78 FR 24193 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following joint stakeholder meeting related to the transmission planning activities of PJM Interconnection,...

  8. 78 FR 28839 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following joint stakeholder meeting related to the transmission planning activities of PJM Interconnection,...

  9. 77 FR 73645 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meeting related to the transmission planning activities of the Southern Company Services,...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meeting related to the transmission planning activities of the Southern Company Services, Inc.:...

  11. 78 FR 21927 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meeting related to the ] transmission planning activities of the Southern Company Services,...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following joint stakeholder meeting related to the transmission planning activities of PJM Interconnection,...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following joint stakeholder meeting related to the transmission planning activities of PJM Interconnection,...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following joint stakeholder meeting related to the transmission planning activities of PJM Interconnection,...

  15. 77 FR 21978 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the...

  16. 75 FR 41451 - Commission Agenda and Priorities; Notice of Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Commission Agenda and Priorities; Notice of Hearing AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice of public hearing. SUMMARY: The Consumer Product Safety Commission (``Commission'')...

  17. 75 FR 52799 - Notice of Public Hearing and Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Public Hearing and Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice of public hearing and Commission meeting. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission...

  18. 75 FR 72857 - Notice of Public Hearing and Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Public Hearing and Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice of public hearing and Commission meeting. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission...

  19. A New Teacher for a New Nation? Teacher Education, "English", and Schooling in Early Twentieth-Century Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Bill; Reid, Jo-Anne

    2012-01-01

    The late nineteenth-century expansion of public schooling in Australia from an initial focus on the elementary phase to post-primary provision, and then to a more systematic secondary education over the early to mid-twentieth century, went hand in hand with the emergence of new populations of children and young people--a new constituency. In turn,…

  20. The Democratic School and the Pedagogy of Janusz Korczak: A Model of Early Twentieth Century Reform in Modern Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Liba H.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the history and pedagogy of Janusz Korczak within the context of his contemporary early Twentieth-Century European Innovative Educators which include Maria Montessori, Homer Lane, A.S. Neill, and Anton Semyonovitch Makarenko. The pedagogies of the aforementioned are compared and contrasted within the literature.

  1. Educational Ideas in Geography Education in Sweden during the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries: The Relationship between Maps and Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennerdal, Pontus

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of the geography education of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Sweden are typically offered to contrast with current ideas in geography education, and the content of geography textbooks is the focus of this comparison. The role of maps and visual pedagogy are ignored, and the educational ideas developed from regional…

  2. "Strong Mothers Make Strong Children": Sports, Eugenics and Nationalism in Brazil at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goellner, Silvana Vilodre; Votre, Sebastiao Josue; Pinheiro, Maria Claudia Brandao

    2012-01-01

    Based on post-structural feminist and gender studies, the present article analyses the importance given to the practice of physical education, sports and exercise as part of the national policy to strengthen the Caucasian-Brazilian population at the beginning of the twentieth century, emphasising the priority made of the White female body as the…

  3. Regional Chains Driving Growth of for Profit Child Care Sector: Twentieth Annual Status Report on for Profit Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author highlights two main efforts in line with the historic twentieth annual status report on for profit child care. These includes: (1) adding new players in the "Exchanged Top 40" list; and (2) focusing on regional chains, organizations providing early childhood services in more than 20 locations in two or more states. The…

  4. Translation, Hybridization, and Modernization: John Dewey and Children's Literature in Early Twentieth Century China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xu

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines how John Dewey's child-centered educational philosophy was adopted and adapted in the early twentieth century in China to create a Chinese children's literature. Chinese intellectuals applied Dewey's educational philosophy, which values children's interests and needs, to formulate a new concept of modern…

  5. Chemistry and Chemical Education through Text and Image: Analysis of Twentieth Century Textbooks Used in Brazilian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza, Karina Ap F. D.; Porto, Paulo Alves

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that textbooks give literary expression to cultural and ideological values of a nation or group, we propose the analysis of chemistry textbooks used in Brazilian universities throughout the twentieth century. We analyzed iconographic and textual aspects of 31 textbooks which had significant diffusion in the context of Brazilian…

  6. Counter-Memory and Race: An Examination of African American Scholars' Challenges to Early Twentieth Century K-12 Historical Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how African American scholars during the early twentieth century employed the genre of curriculum writing to challenge existing discourses of race. Drawing from the findings of a qualitative document analysis of textbooks created by Carter G. Woodson and Charles H. Wesley, this article illustrates how these authors used texts…

  7. Citizenship in Scottish Schools: The Evolution of Education for Citizenship from the Late Twentieth Century to the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn, Pamela; Arnott, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the purposes of citizenship education and the forms it has taken in Scotland in the closing decades of the twentieth century and the start of the twenty-first. Education has played a key role in defining Scottish identity. It is argued that there was, and continues to be in Scotland, a "Scottish myth" about the purpose of…

  8. Public Expenditure on Education and Economic Growth in the USA in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Earlier studies of France, Germany and the UK suggest that a common framework exists to explain the relationship between public expenditure on education and economic growth in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This article shows that while a similar relationship exists in the USA, US policies were particularly committed to the educational…

  9. Population Growth in New Hampshire during the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Studies in New England Geography, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobart, Christine L.

    This paper traces the shifts in New Hampshire's state and county population during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, focusing on the growth of urban centers and industry. From 1790 to 1840 most of New Hampshire's population growth was agricultural despite the beginnings of industrialization and urbanization. These processes greatly…

  10. The Teacher's Voice: A Social History of Teaching in Twentieth-century America. Studies in Curriculum History Series: 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altenbaugh, Richard J., Ed.

    This collection of essays presents narratives describing the role of classroom teachers in the development of public education in 20th century United States. Following a preface, the book is organized into four parts. The first part, Women's Work, includes "Having a Purpose in Life: Western Women Teachers in the Twentieth Century" (Courtney Ann…

  11. From Science to Citizenship: An Analysis of Twentieth-Century Trends in Corporate Rhetoric on Employee Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micari, Marina

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the rhetoric of employee training in two US management trade journals, Personnel and Management Review, from 1920 to 2000. A discussion of forces that have influenced US employee development theory and practice throughout the twentieth century is followed by findings of a thematic analysis of the trade journal…

  12. "El destierro de los Chinos": Popular Perspectives on Chinese-Mexican Intermarriage in the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Robert Chao

    2007-01-01

    This essay examines Chinese-Mexican interracial marriage during the early twentieth century through the lens of Mexican popular culture. Comedy, poetry, cartoons, and musical recordings of the time portrayed these marriages as relationships of abuse, slavery, and neglect, and rejected the offspring of such unions as subhuman and unworthy of full…

  13. Those Who Served: Report of the Twentieth Century Fund Task Force on Policies Toward Veterans. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taussig, Michael K.

    Veterans' policies and programs are examined by a task force of the Twentieth Century Fund. Part 1, the report of the task force, includes sections on the rationale for veterans benefits, recommendations for further benefits and programs, and a dissenting opinion by one task force member. Recommendations are summarized into five basic areas: (1)…

  14. Embedding the New Science of Research: The Organised Culture of Scottish Educational Research in the Mid-Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin; Deary, Ian J.; Bartholomew, David J.; Brett, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Educational research was established in the early decades of the twentieth century in many parts of Europe. The early years were the crucial years as they established dominant forms of inquiry, pioneer sites, and related artefacts, the tools and texts. This paper focuses on the early growth of research culture in education in Scotland, its…

  15. Commissioning New Construction at Emory University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robin

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the process of "commissioning" for effectively maintaining and verifying new construction needs for campus facilities on a continuous improvement basis. The Emory University facility management program illustrates how to develop and manage a building commissioning process. (GR)

  16. Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site

    ScienceCinema

    Paul Saueressig

    2010-09-01

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

  17. Twentieth-century atmospheric river activity along the west coasts of Europe and North America: algorithm formulation, reanalysis uncertainty and links to atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brands, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; San-Martín, D.

    2016-04-01

    A new atmospheric-river detection and tracking scheme based on the magnitude and direction of integrated water vapour transport is presented and applied separately over 13 regions located along the west coasts of Europe (including North Africa) and North America. Four distinct reanalyses are considered, two of which cover the entire twentieth-century: NOAA-CIRES Twentieth Century Reanalysis v2 (NOAA-20C) and ECMWF ERA-20C. Calculations are done separately for the OND and JFM-season and, for comparison with previous studies, for the ONDJFM-season as a whole. Comparing the AR-counts from NOAA-20C and ERA-20C with a running 31-year window looping through 1900-2010 reveals differences in the climatological mean and inter-annual variability which, at the start of the twentieth-century, are much more pronounced in western North America than in Europe. Correlating European AR-counts with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) reveals a pattern reminiscent of the well-know precipitation dipole which is stable throughout the entire century. A similar analysis linking western North American AR-counts to the North Pacific index (NPI) is hampered by the aforementioned poor reanalysis agreement at the start of the century. During the second half of the twentieth-century, the strength of the NPI-link considerably varies with time in British Columbia and the Gulf of Alaska. Considering the period 1950-2010, AR-counts are then associated with other relevant large-scale circulation indices such as the East Atlantic, Scandinavian, Pacific-North American and West Pacific patterns (EA, SCAND, PNA and WP). Along the Atlantic coastline of the Iberian Peninsula and France, the EA-link is stronger than the NAO-link if the OND season is considered and the SCAND-link found in northern Europe is significant during both seasons. Along the west coast of North America, teleconnections are generally stronger during JFM in which case the NPI-link is significant in any of the five considered

  18. Division J Commission 28: Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, John S.; Davies, Roger L.; Courteau, Stéphane; Dekel, Avishai; Franx, Marijn; Jog, Chanda J.; Jogee, Sardha; Nakai, Naomasa; Rubio, Monica; Tacconi, Linda; Terlevich, Elena

    2016-04-01

    IAU Commission 28 (IAU C28: Galaxies) was founded in the late 1930s at which time it had only a small membership (see the historical notes by Sadler et al. 2007). When C28 ended its existence in 2015 there were well over 1000 members on its books. The membership had grown to the point where the effort to keep track of active participants had become a major task. During the C28s tenure 27 IAU Symposia have been devoted to galaxies, the third highest number (Mickaelian 2014)

  19. Commissioning Instrument for the GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, S.; Sánchez, B.; Bringas, V.; Espejo, C.; Flores, R.; Chapa, O.; Lara, G.; Chavolla, A.; Anguiano, G.; Arciniega, S.; Dorantes, A.; González, J. L.; Montoya, J. M.; Toral, R.; Hernández, H.; Nava, R.; Devaney, N.; Castro, J.; Cavaller-Marqués, L.

    2005-12-01

    During the GTC integration phase, the Commissioning Instrument (CI) will be a diagnostic tool for performance verification. The CI features four operation modes: imaging, pupil imaging, Curvature WFS, and high resolution Shack-Hartmann WFS. This instrument was built by the Instituto de Astronomía UNAM and the Centro de Ingeniería y Desarrollo Industrial (CIDESI) under GRANTECAN contract after a public bid. In this paper we made a general instrument overview and we show some of the performance final results obtained when the Factory Acceptance tests previous to its transport to La Palma.

  20. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1989-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the Commission. This is the first of an annual publication for the general use of the NRC staff and is available to the public. The Digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  1. Bioethics commission to review gene patenting

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenburg, L.

    1995-12-01

    In October, in an unexpected development, U.S. President Bill Clinton created a national ethics advisory board, the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC, Washington, DC), to study both research ethics and the management and use of genetic information. Of particular interest to biotechnology companies and researchers is the fact that the commission`s brief encompasses issues about human gene patenting, a subject not contained in earlier proposals for the commission.

  2. 77 FR 31605 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ...This notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of an up- coming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the functions of the Commission. Notice of this meeting is required by section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) and is intended to notify the public of their opportunity to...

  3. 76 FR 41233 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. ACTION... meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the functions of... Center Plaza, 550 12th Street, SW., Washington, DC 20202 in the auditorium (room 10026). FOR...

  4. 46 CFR 502.161 - Commission's files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commission's files. 502.161 Section 502.161 Shipping...; Presiding Officers; Evidence § 502.161 Commission's files. Where any matter contained in a tariff, report, or other document on file with the Commission is offered in evidence, such document need not...

  5. 78 FR 44927 - 101st Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ARCTIC RESEARCH COMMISSION 101st Commission Meeting Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Arctic Research Commission will hold its... presentations concerning Arctic research activities The focus of the meeting will be Arctic research...

  6. 39 CFR 3060.42 - Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commission review. 3060.42 Section 3060.42 Postal... COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.42 Commission review. (a) Interested persons shall be provided an... documentation. (b) The Commission will review the calculation of the assumed Federal income tax...

  7. 10 CFR 110.40 - Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commission review. 110.40 Section 110.40 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Review of License Applications § 110.40 Commission review. (a) Immediately after receipt of a license application for an...

  8. 76 FR 55424 - CFC-50 Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...The U.S. Office of Personnel Management announces the establishment of the CFC-50 Advisory Commission. The Commission shall advise the Director of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) on strengthening the integrity, the operation and effectiveness of the Combined Federal Campaign (CFC) to ensure its continued growth and success. The Commission is an advisory committee composed of......

  9. 76 FR 27034 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION... upcoming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes...

  10. 76 FR 62394 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION...-coming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes...

  11. 47 CFR 1.425 - Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commission action. 1.425 Section 1.425... Proceedings § 1.425 Commission action. The Commission will consider all relevant comments and material of record before taking final action in a rulemaking proceeding and will issue a decision incorporating...

  12. 10 CFR 2.1331 - Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission action. 2.1331 Section 2.1331 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Procedures for Hearings on License Transfer Applications § 2.1331 Commission action. (a) Upon completion of...

  13. 10 CFR 110.113 - Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission action. 110.113 Section 110.113 Energy NUCLEAR... Commission action. (a) Upon completion of a hearing, the Commission will issue a written opinion including... hearing issues; and (4) Take other action, as appropriate....

  14. 75 FR 18469 - April 2010 Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ...; ] EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform April 2010...), the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform announces the following meeting: Name: National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform April 2010 Meeting. Time and Date: Tuesday,...

  15. 77 FR 39560 - International Joint Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... International Joint Commission International Joint Commission Invites Public Comment on Upper Great Lakes Report The International Joint Commission (IJC) announced today that it is inviting public comment on the final report of its International Upper Great Lakes Study Board, Lake Superior Regulation:...

  16. The Truman Commission's Vision of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Philo A.

    2007-01-01

    Looking back over three centuries of American higher education, one can see both strengths and weaknesses in the changing attitudes toward teaching goals. In this article, the author discusses the Truman Commission's (President Harry Truman appointed the higher education commission in July 1946, and charged the commission members to examine…

  17. 39 CFR 3060.42 - Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commission review. 3060.42 Section 3060.42 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND TAX RULES FOR THE THEORETICAL COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.42 Commission review. (a) Interested persons shall be provided...

  18. 17 CFR 200.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... President pursuant to the provisions of section 3 of Reorganization Plan No. 10 of 1950 (3 CFR, 1949-1953... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Commission. 200.10 Section... The Commission. The Commission is composed of five members, not more than three of whom may be...

  19. 45 CFR 2101.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Commission. 2101.10 Section 2101.10 Public... ORGANIZATION General Organization § 2101.10 The Commission. The Commission is composed of seven members, each of whom is appointed by the President and serves for a period of four years or until his or...

  20. 16 CFR 1000.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The Commission. 1000.1 Section 1000.1....1 The Commission. (a) The Consumer Product Safety Commission is an independent regulatory agency formed on May 14, 1973, under the provisions of the Consumer Product Safety Act (Pub. L. 92-573, 86...

  1. 16 CFR 1000.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Commission. 1000.1 Section 1000.1....1 The Commission. (a) The Consumer Product Safety Commission is an independent regulatory agency formed on May 14, 1973, under the provisions of the Consumer Product Safety Act (Pub. L. 92-573, 86...

  2. 17 CFR 200.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... President pursuant to the provisions of section 3 of Reorganization Plan No. 10 of 1950 (3 CFR, 1949-1953... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Commission. 200.10 Section... The Commission. The Commission is composed of five members, not more than three of whom may be...

  3. 17 CFR 200.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... President pursuant to the provisions of section 3 of Reorganization Plan No. 10 of 1950 (3 CFR, 1949-1953... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The Commission. 200.10 Section... The Commission. The Commission is composed of five members, not more than three of whom may be...

  4. 45 CFR 2101.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Commission. 2101.10 Section 2101.10 Public... ORGANIZATION General Organization § 2101.10 The Commission. The Commission is composed of seven members, each of whom is appointed by the President and serves for a period of four years or until his or...

  5. 45 CFR 2101.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Commission. 2101.10 Section 2101.10 Public... ORGANIZATION General Organization § 2101.10 The Commission. The Commission is composed of seven members, each of whom is appointed by the President and serves for a period of four years or until his or...

  6. 17 CFR 200.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... President pursuant to the provisions of section 3 of Reorganization Plan No. 10 of 1950 (3 CFR, 1949-1953... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The Commission. 200.10 Section... The Commission. The Commission is composed of five members, not more than three of whom may be...

  7. 17 CFR 200.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... President pursuant to the provisions of section 3 of Reorganization Plan No. 10 of 1950 (3 CFR, 1949-1953... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Commission. 200.10 Section... The Commission. The Commission is composed of five members, not more than three of whom may be...

  8. 16 CFR 1000.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The Commission. 1000.1 Section 1000.1....1 The Commission. (a) The Consumer Product Safety Commission is an independent regulatory agency formed on May 14, 1973, under the provisions of the Consumer Product Safety Act (Pub. L. 92-573, 86...

  9. 16 CFR 1000.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The Commission. 1000.1 Section 1000.1....1 The Commission. (a) The Consumer Product Safety Commission is an independent regulatory agency formed on May 14, 1973, under the provisions of the Consumer Product Safety Act (Pub. L. 92-573, 86...

  10. 17 CFR 200.63 - Commission opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commission opinions. 200.63 Section 200.63 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.63 Commission opinions. The...

  11. 29 CFR 2204.309 - Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the judge's decision on the fee application, and the Commission may grant such petitions for review or... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commission review. 2204.309 Section 2204.309 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION...

  12. 29 CFR 2204.309 - Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the judge's decision on the fee application, and the Commission may grant such petitions for review or... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commission review. 2204.309 Section 2204.309 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION...

  13. 29 CFR 2704.308 - Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commission review. 2704.308 Section 2704.308 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF... § 2704.308 Commission review. (a) Either the applicant or the Secretary of Labor may seek review by...

  14. 29 CFR 2704.308 - Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commission review. 2704.308 Section 2704.308 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF... § 2704.308 Commission review. (a) Either the applicant or the Secretary of Labor may seek review by...

  15. 29 CFR 2704.308 - Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commission review. 2704.308 Section 2704.308 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF... § 2704.308 Commission review. (a) Either the applicant or the Secretary of Labor may seek review by...

  16. 29 CFR 2204.309 - Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the judge's decision on the fee application, and the Commission may grant such petitions for review or... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commission review. 2204.309 Section 2204.309 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION...

  17. 29 CFR 2204.309 - Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the judge's decision on the fee application, and the Commission may grant such petitions for review or... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commission review. 2204.309 Section 2204.309 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION...

  18. 29 CFR 2204.309 - Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the judge's decision on the fee application, and the Commission may grant such petitions for review or... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commission review. 2204.309 Section 2204.309 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION...

  19. 29 CFR 2704.308 - Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commission review. 2704.308 Section 2704.308 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF... § 2704.308 Commission review. (a) Either the applicant or the Secretary of Labor may seek review by...

  20. 29 CFR 2704.308 - Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commission review. 2704.308 Section 2704.308 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF... § 2704.308 Commission review. (a) Either the applicant or the Secretary of Labor may seek review by...

  1. 10 CFR 1.11 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.11 The Commission. (a) The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, composed of five members, one of whom is designated by the... of the licensing and regulatory process, as mandated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as...

  2. 10 CFR 1.11 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.11 The Commission. (a) The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, composed of five members, one of whom is designated by the... of the licensing and regulatory process, as mandated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as...

  3. 10 CFR 1.11 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.11 The Commission. (a) The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, composed of five members, one of whom is designated by the... of the licensing and regulatory process, as mandated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as...

  4. 10 CFR 1.11 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.11 The Commission. (a) The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, composed of five members, one of whom is designated by the... of the licensing and regulatory process, as mandated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as...

  5. 10 CFR 1.11 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.11 The Commission. (a) The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, composed of five members, one of whom is designated by the... of the licensing and regulatory process, as mandated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as...

  6. Iowa College Student Aid Commission Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Rachel A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive case study was to trace the policy production process of a state agency, the Iowa College Student Aid Commission (Commission), to its function today. This case study relied on a review of federal and state statutes, a news article search, biennium reports of the Commission, and information obtained from the…

  7. The Commission on Magnet® Recognition.

    PubMed

    Moran, Janice W

    2016-09-01

    The American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) Commission on Magnet® Recognition is a voluntary governing body that oversees the Magnet Recognition Program®. Commission members are appointed by the ANCC Board of Directors and are expert representatives from various sectors of the nursing community. In addition, 1 commission member represents public consumers. PMID:27556648

  8. 17 CFR 200.63 - Commission opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Commission opinions. 200.63 Section 200.63 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.63 Commission opinions. The...

  9. 17 CFR 200.63 - Commission opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commission opinions. 200.63 Section 200.63 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.63 Commission opinions. The...

  10. 17 CFR 200.63 - Commission opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commission opinions. 200.63 Section 200.63 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.63 Commission opinions. The...

  11. 17 CFR 200.63 - Commission opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commission opinions. 200.63 Section 200.63 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.63 Commission opinions. The...

  12. 75 FR 7411 - Schedule of Water Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Schedule of Water Charges AGENCY: Delaware River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice... Regulations--Water Supply Charges to revise the schedule of water charges. DATES: The Commission will hold a... the subject line ``Schedule of Water Charges.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT: Please contact...

  13. 10 CFR 150.16 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports. 150.16 Section 150.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED REGULATORY AUTHORITY IN AGREEMENT STATES AND IN OFFSHORE WATERS UNDER SECTION 274 Continued...

  14. 18 CFR 706.413 - Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. 706.413 Section 706.413 Conservation of Power and Water... Financial Interests § 706.413 Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. A statement of employment and financial interest is not required under this part from Chairmen of River Basin...

  15. 10 CFR 150.16 - Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission to Commission of nuclear material transaction reports. 150.16 Section 150.16 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXEMPTIONS AND CONTINUED REGULATORY AUTHORITY IN AGREEMENT STATES AND IN OFFSHORE WATERS UNDER SECTION 274 Continued...

  16. 18 CFR 706.413 - Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. 706.413 Section 706.413 Conservation of Power and Water... Financial Interests § 706.413 Submission of statements by River Basin Commission Chairmen. A statement of employment and financial interest is not required under this part from Chairmen of River Basin...

  17. 18 CFR 2.1c - Policy statement on consultation with Indian tribes in Commission proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (3) Is filed with the Secretary of the Commission. See generally 18 CFR 2.19. Statements of General... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Policy statement on consultation with Indian tribes in Commission proceedings. 2.1c Section 2.1c Conservation of Power and...

  18. 18 CFR 2.1c - Policy statement on consultation with Indian tribes in Commission proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (3) Is filed with the Secretary of the Commission. See generally 18 CFR 2.19. Statements of General... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Policy statement on consultation with Indian tribes in Commission proceedings. 2.1c Section 2.1c Conservation of Power and...

  19. Beyond Commissioning: The Role of Automation

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2005-02-01

    This article takes a brief look at the benefits of commissioning and describes a vision of the future where most of the objectives of commissioning will be accomplished automatically by capabilities built into the building systems themselves. Commissioning will become an activity that's performed continuously rather than periodically, and only repairs requiring replacement or overhaul of equipment will require manual intervention. The article then identifies some of the technologies that will be needed to realize this vision and ends with a call for all involved in the enterprise of building commissioning and automation to embrace and dedicate themselves to a future of automated commissioning.

  20. 77 FR 41877 - International Joint Commission; International Joint Commission To Hold Public Hearings on Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... International Joint Commission; International Joint Commission To Hold Public Hearings on Lake Osoyoos The International Joint Commission (IJC) is inviting the public to comment on recommendations for the renewal of its... of the International Joint Commission's Osoyoos Lake Order now posted on the IJC Web site at...

  1. Commissioning neuropsychiatry services: barriers and lessons.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Rahul; Rickards, Hugh; Agrawal, Niruj

    2015-12-01

    Aims and method Previous studies have shown variations in commissioning of neuropsychiatry services and this makes access to neuropsychiatric services a post-code lottery. In this survey, we approached all mental health and neuropsychiatric service commissioners within London to map current funding and commissioning arrangements, and explored perceived barriers to neuropsychiatric service commissioning. Results 83% of commissioners within London responded. There was significant variability between neuropsychiatric services commissioned through the mental health stream. Contracting arrangements were variable. Lack of earmarked fund for neuropsychiatry and disjointed funding stream for such services were identified by commissioners as a barrier, as was the critical mass of neuropsychiatric cases. Clinical implications Neuropsychiatric service development continues to be hindered by lack of clear commissioning process. Strategic drive is needed to promote more equitable neuropsychiatric services. National or regional commissioning covering a large population will provide a better model for neuropsychiatric services to be commissioned. PMID:26755989

  2. Commissioning neuropsychiatry services: barriers and lessons

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Rahul; Rickards, Hugh; Agrawal, Niruj

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method Previous studies have shown variations in commissioning of neuropsychiatry services and this makes access to neuropsychiatric services a post-code lottery. In this survey, we approached all mental health and neuropsychiatric service commissioners within London to map current funding and commissioning arrangements, and explored perceived barriers to neuropsychiatric service commissioning. Results 83% of commissioners within London responded. There was significant variability between neuropsychiatric services commissioned through the mental health stream. Contracting arrangements were variable. Lack of earmarked fund for neuropsychiatry and disjointed funding stream for such services were identified by commissioners as a barrier, as was the critical mass of neuropsychiatric cases. Clinical implications Neuropsychiatric service development continues to be hindered by lack of clear commissioning process. Strategic drive is needed to promote more equitable neuropsychiatric services. National or regional commissioning covering a large population will provide a better model for neuropsychiatric services to be commissioned. PMID:26755989

  3. Commission 19: Rotation of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezinski, Aleksander; Ma, Chopo; Dehant, Véronique; Defraigne, Pascale; Dickey, Jean O.; Huang, Cheng-Li; Souchay, Jean; Vondrák, Jan; Charlot, Patrick; Richter, Bernd; Schuh, Harald

    The Commission supports and coordinates scientific investigations in the Earth rotation and related reference frames. Several changes had been introduced to the structure of Commission 19 since the IAU XXVI General Assembly in Prague, 2006. The Organizing Committee of Commission 19 has been substantially reduced. It consists now of six ex-officio members, the Commission president, vice-president, past president and representatives from the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS), International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), and five members at-large who are nominated by the OC, selected by the Commission members and elected by the IAU GA for a maximum of two terms. The modified terms of reference of Commission 19, the list of members and other details can be found at the Commission website .

  4. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  5. The commissioning of FTS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdElazim, Sherif

    Despite that over half the energy emitted by the universe falls in the sub-millimetre wavelength region, and the fact that sub-millimetre astronomy enables the study of star formation, it remains an unexplored field. This is due to the low transmittance of the atmosphere and the complexity of the instrumentation. However, recent advances in technology have resulted in instruments that can explore this waveband. One such instrument, FTS-2, is a Fourier transform spectrometer that has been developed for use with a new bolometric camera SCUBA-2. FTS-2 will provide wide field imaging spectroscopy at sub-millimetre wavelengths. This thesis presents the current performance of FTS-2 based on the results obtained from commissioning. As with the application with any new technology, unforeseen issues emerged. The thesis identifies several issues and introduces potential solutions. Although limited astronomical data were obtained, spectra of Venus have been analysed, and provide an indication of the potential of FTS-2.

  6. RHIC Spin Flipper Commissioning Status

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, M.; Meot, F.; Dawson, C.; Oddo, P.; Pai, C.; Pile, P.; Makdisi, Y.; Meng, W.; Roser, T.

    2010-05-23

    The commissioning of the RHIC spin flipper in the RHIC Blue ring during the RHIC polarized proton run in 2009 showed the detrimental effects of global vertical coherent betatron oscillation induced by the 2-AC dipole plus 4-DC dipole configuration. This global orbital coherent oscillation of the RHIC beam in the Blue ring in the presence of collision modulated the beam-beam interaction between the two RHIC beams and affected Yellow beam polarization. The experimental data at injection with different spin tunes by changing the snake current also demonstrated that it was not possible to induce a single isolated spin resonance with the global vertical coherent betatron oscillation excited by the two AC dipoles. Hence, a new design was proposed to eliminate the coherent vertical betatron oscillation outside the spin flipper by adding three additional AC dipoles. This paper presents the experimental results as well as the new design.

  7. Division A Commission 31: Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, Mizuhiko; Arias, Elisa Felicitas; Manchester, Richard; Tuckey, Philip; Matsakis, Demetrios; Zhang, Shougang; Zharov, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Time is an essential element of fundamental astronomy. In recent years there have been many time-related issues, in scientific and technological aspects as well as in conventions and definitions. At the Commission 31 (Time) business meeting at the XXIX General Assembly, recent progress and many topics, including Pulsar Time Scales WG and Future UTC WG activities, were reviewed and discussed. In this report, we will review the progress of these topics in the past three years. There are many remarkable topics, such as Time scales, Atomic clock development, Time transfer, Future UTC and future redefinition of the second. Among them, scientific highlights are the progress of pulsar time scales and the optical frequency standards. On the other hand, as the social convention, change in the definition of UTC and the second is important.

  8. Orion: a commissioned user facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treadwell, P. A.; Allan, P.; Cann, N.; Danson, C.; Duffield, S.; Elsmere, S.; Edwards, R.; Egan, D.; Girling, M.; Gumbrell, E.; Harvey, E.; Hill, M.; Hillier, D.; Hoarty, D.; Hobbs, L.; Hopps, N.; Hussey, D.; Oades, K.; James, S.; Norman, M.; Palmer, J.; Parker, S.; Winter, D.; Bett, T.

    2013-05-01

    The Orion Laser Facility at AWE in the UK consists of ten nanosecond beamlines and two sub-picosecond beamlines. The nanosecond beamlines each nominally deliver 500 J at 351 nm in a 1 ns square temporal profile, but can also deliver a user-definable temporal profile with durations between 0.1 ns and 5 ns. The sub-picosecond beamlines each nominally deliver 500 J at 1053 nm in a 500 fs pulse, with a peak irradiance of greater than 1021 W/cm2. One of the sub-picosecond beamlines can also be frequency-converted to deliver 100 J at 527 nm in a 500 fs pulse, although this is at half the aperture of the 1053 nm beam. Commissioning of all twelve beamlines has been completed, including the 527 nm sub-picosecond option. An overview of the design of the Orion beamlines will be presented, along with a summary of the commissioning and subsequent performance data. The design of Orion was underwritten by running various computer simulations of the beamlines. Work is now underway to validate these simulations against real system data, with the aim of creating predictive models of beamline performance. These predictive models will enable the user's experimental requirements to be critically assessed ahead of time, and will ultimately be used to determine key system settings and parameters. The facility is now conducting high energy density physics experiments. A capability experiment has already been conducted that demonstrates that Orion can generate plasmas at several million Kelvin and several times solid density. From March 2013 15% of the facility operating time will be given over to external academic users in addition to collaborative experiments with AWE scientists.

  9. Search for invisible nucleon decay in SNO + during commissioning phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulter, Ian; SNO+ Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The SNO + experiment aims to explore several topics in neutrino physics, including neutrinoless double beta decay and low energy solar neutrinos. For its initial commissioning phase, SNO + will fill its inner vessel with light water and run to evaluate the performance of the detector and electronics. During this water-fill phase, it will have a unique sensitivity to certain modes of invisible nucleon decay, where the nucleon decays to a mode in which the decay products are not detected, e.g. to 3 neutrinos. With just a couple of months of water running, SNO + is expected to set an improved model independent limit on the current bounds.

  10. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Generations. A history of physics in the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-03-01

    Physics has a long history, but more physics has been discovered in the twentieth century than in all previous eras together. That in itself would be a sufficient justification for a history of physics in the twentieth century, but the end of the previous century also marked a discontinuity, from Newtonian classical physics to relativity and quantum mechanics. If any single event marks the start of the process it is the discovery of x-rays in 1895, and Kragh's century spans from about 1895 to about 1995. It is, of course, too much for a single volume, even a large one, and Kragh recognizes from the outset that he has to be selective and concentrate on those subjects that define twentieth-century physics. For the early part of the century the author relies on carefully chosen secondary sources, to avoid the near-impossible task of absorbing a multitude of original papers. The recent period is more difficult, and the sources are articles, reviews, and the recollections of physicists. The book is in three main sections, roughly to the end of World War I, to the end of World War II, and up to 1995, plus a retrospective summary. It deals with more than just discoveries in physics, looking also at physicists and institutions, and at their interactions with the rest of society. The broad outlines of many discoveries are often known to physicists who have no special interest in history, and Kragh is careful to point out where these conventional accounts are inadequate. The first chapters set the scene at the end of the nineteenth century, acknowledging that there was a belief that all the grand underlying principles had been established, but also pointing out that there was a ferment of attempts to reinterpret physics in terms of concepts like vortices and hyperspaces. The history begins with the mould-breaking discoveries of x-rays, radioactivity and the electron. The chapters that follow look at theories about atomic structure, and at quantum physics, relativity and

  11. Probabilistic precipitation and temperature downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis over France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillouet, Laurie; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Sauquet, Eric; Graff, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    This work proposes a daily high-resolution probabilistic reconstruction of precipitation and temperature fields in France over the 1871-2012 period built on the NOAA Twentieth Century global extended atmospheric reanalysis (20CR). The objective is to fill in the spatial and temporal data gaps in surface observations in order to improve our knowledge on the local-scale climate variability from the late nineteenth century onwards. The SANDHY (Stepwise ANalogue Downscaling method for HYdrology) statistical downscaling method, initially developed for quantitative precipitation forecast, is used here to bridge the scale gap between large-scale 20CR predictors and local-scale predictands from the Safran high-resolution near-surface reanalysis, available from 1958 onwards only. SANDHY provides a daily ensemble of 125 analogue dates over the 1871-2012 period for 608 climatically homogeneous zones paving France. Large precipitation biases in intermediary seasons are shown to occur in regions with high seasonal asymmetry like the Mediterranean. Moreover, winter and summer temperatures are respectively over- and under-estimated over the whole of France. Two analogue subselection methods are therefore developed with the aim of keeping the structure of the SANDHY method unchanged while reducing those seasonal biases. The calendar selection keeps the analogues closest to the target calendar day. The stepwise selection applies two new analogy steps based on similarity of the sea surface temperature (SST) and the large-scale 2 m temperature (T). Comparisons to the Safran reanalysis over 1959-2007 and to homogenized series over the whole twentieth century show that biases in the interannual cycle of precipitation and temperature are reduced with both methods. The stepwise subselection moreover leads to a large improvement of interannual correlation and reduction of errors in seasonal temperature time series. When the calendar subselection is an easily applicable method suitable in

  12. Twentieth-century astronomical heritage: the case of the Brazilian National Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboza, Christina Helena

    2015-08-01

    The National Observatory of Brazil was created in 1827. It was initially focused on the practical teaching of Astronomy to the students of military and naval academies. Since the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century it was installed over the ruins of a Jesuit church located in the center of Rio de Janeiro, capital of the Brazilian Empire.Due to the constant complaints of its successive directors, the search for a new site to house the Observatory began in 1911. The new headquarters of the institution were located on the hill of São Januário, a little further but still around the city center of Rio de Janeiro. Its inauguration took place in 1921.The main building of the new Observatory was based on one of the Brazilian pavilions of the Turin Exhibition of 1911, and its architecture can be characterized as eclectic. The pavilions intended to house the many telescopes were scattered in a large wooded area. Since 1985 all these facilities are protected by the Federal government, as a consequence of the same initiative that gave birth to the Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences, which has the custody also of the Observatory’s former instruments, furniture, and documents.Although built in the early twentieth century the National Observatory new facilities reveal astronomical practices typical of the previous century. One of its most important activities was the determination of the legal time, a task that justifies its location in the urban environment. It was also responsible for the organization of expeditions destined to determine the geographical positions of railroads and the borders of Brazil. For this reason, the Museum of Astronomy has currently more than 3,000 portable instruments. Moreover, these instruments belong to the domain of Astronomy, but also to Geodesy, Meteorology, Electricity. Due to the creation of the Museum of Astronomy, this rich collection is now open to public visitation, and has become the object of scholarly

  13. Probabilistic precipitation and temperature downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis over France

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Caillouet, Laurie; Vidal, Jean -Philippe; Sauquet, Eric; Graff, Benjamin

    2016-03-16

    In this study, this work proposes a daily high-resolution probabilistic reconstruction of precipitation and temperature fields in France over the 1871–2012 period built on the NOAA Twentieth Century global extended atmospheric reanalysis (20CR). The objective is to fill in the spatial and temporal data gaps in surface observations in order to improve our knowledge on the local-scale climate variability from the late nineteenth century onwards. The SANDHY (Stepwise ANalogue Downscaling method for HYdrology) statistical downscaling method, initially developed for quantitative precipitation forecast, is used here to bridge the scale gap between large-scale 20CR predictors and local-scale predictands from the Safranmore » high-resolution near-surface reanalysis, available from 1958 onwards only. SANDHY provides a daily ensemble of 125 analogue dates over the 1871–2012 period for 608 climatically homogeneous zones paving France. Large precipitation biases in intermediary seasons are shown to occur in regions with high seasonal asymmetry like the Mediterranean. Moreover, winter and summer temperatures are respectively over- and under-estimated over the whole of France. Two analogue subselection methods are therefore developed with the aim of keeping the structure of the SANDHY method unchanged while reducing those seasonal biases. The calendar selection keeps the analogues closest to the target calendar day. The stepwise selection applies two new analogy steps based on similarity of the sea surface temperature (SST) and the large-scale 2 m temperature (T). Comparisons to the Safran reanalysis over 1959–2007 and to homogenized series over the whole twentieth century show that biases in the interannual cycle of precipitation and temperature are reduced with both methods. The stepwise subselection moreover leads to a large improvement of interannual correlation and reduction of errors in seasonal temperature time series. When the calendar subselection is an easily

  14. Sustainable Water Management & Satellite Remote Sensing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eutrophication assessment frameworks such as the Australian National Water Quality Management Strategy, Oslo Paris (OSPAR) Commission Common Procedure, Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union, Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) from the European Commission, ...

  15. 18 CFR 366.3 - Exemption from Commission access to books and records; waivers of accounting, record-retention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption from Commission access to books and records; waivers of accounting, record-retention, and reporting requirements. 366.3 Section 366.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE...

  16. 18 CFR 33.11 - Commission procedures for the consideration of applications under section 203 of the FPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commission procedures... of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATIONS UNDER FEDERAL POWER ACT SECTION 203 § 33.11...

  17. 18 CFR 388.108 - Requests for Commission records not available through the Public Reference Room (FOIA requests).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requests for Commission records not available through the Public Reference Room (FOIA requests). 388.108 Section 388.108 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  18. Creeping, drinking, dying: the cinematic portal and the microscopic world of the twentieth-century cell.

    PubMed

    Landecker, Hannah

    2011-09-01

    Film scholars have long posed the question of the specificity of the film medium and the apparatus of cinema, asking what is unique to cinema, how it constrains and enables filmmakers and audiences in particular ways that other media do not. This question has rarely been considered in relation to scientific film, and here it is posed within the specific context of cell biology: What does the use oftime-based media such as film coupled with the microscope allow scientists to experience that other visualization practices do not? Examining three episodes in the twentieth-century study of the cell, this article argues that the apparatus ofmicrocinematography constitutes what might be thought of as a technical portal to another world, a door that determines the experience of the world that lies on the other side of it. In this case, the design of apparatuses to capture time-lapsed images enabled the acceleration of cellular time, bringing it into the realm of human perception and experience. Further, the experience of the cellular temporal world was part of a distinct kind of cell biology, one that was focused on behavior rather than structure, focused on the relation between cells, and between the cell and its milieu rather than on cell-intrinsic features such as chromosomes or organelles. As such, the instruments and technical design of the microcinematographic apparatus may be understood as a kind of materialized epistemology, the history of which can elucidate how cinema was and is used to produce scientific knowledge. PMID:21995222

  19. Aerosol induced reduction in modeled precipitation in China in the late twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin

    2015-04-01

    We examine ensembles of transient (1870 - 2005) sensitivity experiments with the global climate model ECHAM5-HAM with particular focus on aerosol induced reduction of precipitation in eastern China in the late twentieth century. In the model employed, the microphysics of stratiform clouds directly couples to aerosols, but not the microphysics of convective clouds. Increasing anthropogenic aerosol emissions in the model result in a reduction of precipitation that is mostly stronger than what is observed. Only in summer increasing aerosol emissions can improve the agreement between modeled and observed trends. The modeled drying is dominated by a decrease in convective precipitation. For the fraction of convective to total precipitation we find a decrease of about 4% to 6% per decade (2% for stratiform precipitation). These percentages are robust against model resolution. Not robust against model resolution are trends of precipitation anomalies (total, convective, or stratiform), which tend to be stronger for lower model resolution. Regarding the relative importance of different aerosols, our simulations suggest sulfate to be more relevant for the precipitation reduction than black and organic carbon.

  20. Using the Twentieth Century Reanalysis to assess climate variability for the European wind industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bett, Philip E.; Thornton, Hazel E.; Clark, Robin T.

    2015-09-01

    We characterise the long-term variability of European near-surface wind speeds using 142 years of data from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR), and consider the potential of such long-baseline climate data sets for wind energy applications. The low resolution of the 20CR would severely restrict its use on its own for wind farm site-screening. We therefore perform a simple statistical calibration to link it to the higher-resolution ERA-Interim data set (ERAI), such that the adjusted 20CR data has the same wind speed distribution at each location as ERAI during their common period. Using this corrected 20CR data set, wind speeds and variability are characterised in terms of the long-term mean, standard deviation and corresponding trends. Many regions of interest show extremely weak trends on century timescales, but contain large multidecadal variability. Since reanalyses such as ERAI are often used to provide the background climatology for wind farm site assessments, but contain only a few decades of data, our results can be used as a way of incorporating decadal-scale wind climate variability into such studies, allowing investment risks for wind farms to be reduced.

  1. Statistically derived contributions of diverse human influences to twentieth-century temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Francisco; Perron, Pierre; Martínez-López, Benjamín

    2013-12-01

    The warming of the climate system is unequivocal as evidenced by an increase in global temperatures by 0.8°C over the past century. However, the attribution of the observed warming to human activities remains less clear, particularly because of the apparent slow-down in warming since the late 1990s. Here we analyse radiative forcing and temperature time series with state-of-the-art statistical methods to address this question without climate model simulations. We show that long-term trends in total radiative forcing and temperatures have largely been determined by atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, and modulated by other radiative factors. We identify a pronounced increase in the growth rates of both temperatures and radiative forcing around 1960, which marks the onset of sustained global warming. Our analyses also reveal a contribution of human interventions to two periods when global warming slowed down. Our statistical analysis suggests that the reduction in the emissions of ozone-depleting substances under the Montreal Protocol, as well as a reduction in methane emissions, contributed to the lower rate of warming since the 1990s. Furthermore, we identify a contribution from the two world wars and the Great Depression to the documented cooling in the mid-twentieth century, through lower carbon dioxide emissions. We conclude that reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are effective in slowing the rate of warming in the short term.

  2. The fire ant wars. Nature and science in the pesticide controversies of the late twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Buhs, Joshua Blu

    2002-09-01

    This essay uses an approach borrowed from environmental history to investigate the interaction of science and nature in a late twentieth-century controversy. This debate, over the proper response to fire ants that had been imported into the American South accidentally and then spread across the region, pitted Rachel Carson and loosely federated groups of conservationists, scientists, and citizens against the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The analysis falls into three sections: an examination of the natural history of the ants; an examination of the views of the competing factions; and an examination of how those views, transformed into action, affected the natural world. Both sides saw the ants in terms of a constellation of beliefs about the relationship between nature, science, and democracy. As various ideas were put into play, they interacted with the natural history of the insects in unexpected ways--and with consequences for the cultural authority of the antagonists. Combining insights from the history of science and environmental history helps explain how scientists gain and lose cultural authority and, more fundamentally, allows for an examination of how nature can be integrated into the history of science. PMID:12592885

  3. Economic performance and public concerns about social class in twentieth-century books.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunsong; Yan, Fei

    2016-09-01

    What is the association between macroeconomic conditions and public perceptions of social class? Applying a novel approach based on the Google Books N-gram corpus, this study addresses the relationship between public concerns about social class and economic conditions throughout the twentieth century. The usage of class-related words/phrases, or "literary references to class," in American English-language books is related to US economic performance and income inequality. The findings of this study demonstrate that economic conditions play a significant role in literary references to class throughout the century, whereas income inequality does not. Similar results are obtained from further analyses using alternative measures of class concerns as well as different corpora of English Fiction and the New York Times. We add to the social class literature by showing that the long-term temporal dynamics of an economy can be exhibited by aggregate class concerns. The application of massive culture-wide content analysis using data of unprecedented size also represents a contribution to the literature. PMID:27480370

  4. Vinken and Bruyn's Handbook of Clinical Neurology. A witness of late-twentieth century neurological progress.

    PubMed

    Koehler, P J; Jennekens, F G I

    2008-01-01

    Vinken and Bruyn's Handbook of Clinical Neurology (HCN) is best characterized as an encyclopedia. In this paper we describe the origin, production, and reception of HCN. Data were gathered from a literature search, by screening of HCN-volumes, interviewing key-role persons and a study of an HCN-archive. The initiative for HCN was taken by two Excerpta Medica staff members, the one a strategist with expertise in information systems, the other a gifted neurologist with an expert knowledge of who is who in the world of neurological literature. Within a period of 38 years, 2799 authors, 28 volume editors, the two initiators, and a third chief editor for the American continent described the whole of neurology in 1909 chapters on all together 46,025 pages (excluding index volumes). HCN was sold mainly to medical institutes in affluent countries. A digital version of the revised edition was proposed by the editors but refused by the publisher for commercial reasons. HCN was in general well received by book reviewers. The main criticisms concerned the price of the volumes, lack of editorial control, inadequacy of indexes, and lack of cross references. HCN offers unrivalled information on the state of the art of the clinical neurosciences in the second half of the twentieth century. In addition, it contains extensive reviews of the history of neurological diseases in the volumes of the original edition. PMID:18161596

  5. Between two worlds: Yamanouchi Shigeo and eugenics in early twentieth-century Japan.

    PubMed

    Otsubo, Sumiko

    2005-04-01

    This paper explores the eugenic through of Yamanouchi Shigeo (1876-1973), who was trained in plant cytology under the tutelage of botanist and eugenicist John Coulter (1851-1928) in the USA, and later become one of the early and important popularizers of eugenic ideas in Japan. His career demonstrates a direct link between Japanese and US eugenics. Despite his academic training and research at various internationally renowned institutions, numerous publications, and longevity, his life has received little scholarly attention. By the early twentieth century, most biologists in Japan, as in the USA, began accepting Mendelian evolutionary theory and rejecting the Lamarckian notion of inheritance of acquire characteristics. However, Yamanouchi Shigeo's eugenic view represents a paradox: he was a mendelian cytologist sympathetic to Lamarckism. Was his 'nurture'-oriented eugenic view unscientific? is that why he was largely ignored in the history of botany in Japan? This study attempts to answer these questions and to analyse the origins and distinct features of Yamanouchi's eugenic ideas by situating Yamanouchi's eugenic through historically and culturally. After examining his scientific papers, popular writings, and documents of various organizations to which he belonged, I argue that Yamanouchi's 'softer' (or less biologically deterministic) perspective may have reflected the Japanese desire to catch up with the dominant 'race' by using eugenics without accepting permanent inferior status. PMID:15789487

  6. The effect of aerosols and sea surface temperature on China's climate over the late twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Focusing on China in the second half of the twentieth century, we examine the relative role of aerosols and prescribed, observation based sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for the evolution of surface solar radiation (SSR), surface air temperature (SAT), and precipitation in ensembles of transient (1870 - 2005) sensitivity experiments with the global climate model ECHAM5-HAM. Observations and simulations with transient SSTs and aerosol emissions agree reasonably well in eastern China in terms of SSR dimming (-6 +/- 2 W/m2/decade, 1960 - 2000), statistically non-significant JJA SAT trend (1950 - 2000), and drying in JJA from 1950 to 1990 (-2.5% to -3.5% per decade, essentially via reduction of convective precipitation). Other major observed features are not reproduce by the model, e.g. precipitation increase in the 1990s in the Yangtze valley, the strong warming in winter in northern parts of China and Mongolia, or SSR dimming in western China. For the model results, SO2 emissions are more relevant than emissions of black and organic carbon. Aerosol effects are less pronounced at higher model resolution. Transient SSTs are found to be crucial for decadal scale SAT variability over land, especially the strong warming in the 1990s, and, via SST forced reduction of cloud cover, for the ceasing of SSR dimming around the year 2000. Unforced cloud variability leads to relevant scatter (up to +/- 2 W/m2/decade) of modeled SSR trends at individual observation sites.

  7. Private lives, public records: illegitimacy and the birth certificate in twentieth-century Britain.

    PubMed

    Durbach, Nadja

    2014-01-01

    In the early decades of the twentieth century, as the British government expanded its social programs, and private charities and co-operative associations began to offer more benefits, birth certificates became essential to the bureaucratic process of establishing both age and identity. But every time a birth certificate was produced, it made the private circumstances of an individual's birth public knowledge. For those born out of wedlock, handing over these certificates was often stigmatizing at a time when illegitimacy remained for many a shameful family secret. When the government finally introduced an abbreviated birth certificate in 1947, which documented name, sex, and birth date without reference to parentage, they were responding to long-standing concerns both within and beyond the state bureaucracy about the tension inherent in keeping public records about people's private lives. The emergence of the short form birth certificate is thus part of a much larger human story that can help us to map significant shifts in the relationship between the individual citizen and the modern state in the information age. PMID:24988697

  8. Antarctic station-based seasonal pressure reconstructions since 1905: 2. Variability and trends during the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogt, Ryan L.; Jones, Julie M.; Goergens, Chad A.; Jones, Megan E.; Witte, Grant A.; Lee, Ming Yueng

    2016-03-01

    The Antarctic seasonal station-based pressure reconstructions evaluated in our companion paper are evaluated here to provide additional knowledge on Antarctic pressure variability during the twentieth century. In the period from 1905 to 1956, we find that the Hadley Centre gridded sea level pressure data set compared the best with our reconstructions, perhaps due to similar methods to estimate pressure without direct observations. The primary focus on the twentieth century Antarctic pressure variability was in summer and winter, as these were the seasons with the highest reconstruction skill. In summer, there is considerable interannual variability that was spatially uniform across all of Antarctica. Notable high pressure anomalies were found in the summers of 1911/1912 and 1925/1926; both summers correspond to negative phases of the Southern Annular Mode as well as El Niño events in the tropical Pacific. In addition, negative summer pressure trends during the last ~40 years across all of Antarctica are unique in the context of 30 year trends throughout the entire twentieth century, suggesting a strong component of anthropogenic forcing on the recent summer trends. In contrast, mean winter pressure is less variable from year to year during the early twentieth century, and there is less similarity between the pressure variations along the Antarctic Peninsula compared to the rest of the continent. No significant pressure trends were found consistently across all Antarctica (although some significant regional trends can be identified), and low-frequency, multidecadal-scale variability appears to dominate the historical pressure variations in this season.

  9. Twentieth-century global-mean sea level rise: Is the whole greater than the sum of the parts?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregory, J.M.; White, N.J.; Church, J.A.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Box, J.E.; Van den Broeke, M.R.; Cogley, J.G.; Fettweis, X.; Hanna, E.; Huybrechts, P.; Konikow, L.F.; Leclercq, P.W.; Marzeion, B.; Oerlemans, J.; Tamisiea, M.E.; Wada, Y.; Wake, L.M.; Van de Wal, R.S.W.

    2013-01-01

    Confidence in projections of global-mean sea level rise (GMSLR) depends on an ability to account for GMSLR during the twentieth century. There are contributions from ocean thermal expansion, mass loss from glaciers and ice sheets, groundwater extraction, and reservoir impoundment. Progress has been made toward solving the “enigma” of twentieth-century GMSLR, which is that the observed GMSLR has previously been found to exceed the sum of estimated contributions, especially for the earlier decades. The authors propose the following: thermal expansion simulated by climate models may previously have been underestimated because of their not including volcanic forcing in their control state; the rate of glacier mass loss was larger than previously estimated and was not smaller in the first half than in the second half of the century; the Greenland ice sheet could have made a positive contribution throughout the century; and groundwater depletion and reservoir impoundment, which are of opposite sign, may have been approximately equal in magnitude. It is possible to reconstruct the time series of GMSLR from the quantified contributions, apart from a constant residual term, which is small enough to be explained as a long-term contribution from the Antarctic ice sheet. The reconstructions account for the observation that the rate of GMSLR was not much larger during the last 50 years than during the twentieth century as a whole, despite the increasing anthropogenic forcing. Semiempirical methods for projecting GMSLR depend on the existence of a relationship between global climate change and the rate of GMSLR, but the implication of the authors' closure of the budget is that such a relationship is weak or absent during the twentieth century.

  10. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shopping Tips Food Safety Common Questions Learn More Water Printer-friendly It’s important for your body to have plenty of fluids each day. Water helps you digest food, absorb nutrients from food, ...

  11. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... water (like a lake) or to groundwater (the fresh water found under the Earth’s surface that supplies wells ... Too much harmful algae (say: AL-jay) in freshwater or seawater can make beaches unsafe for people. ...

  12. SNS BEAM COMMISSIONING TOOLS AND EXPERIENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P; Galambos, John D

    2008-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) successfully met the primary construction project completion milestones in April 2006. An important ingredient of this successful commissioning was the development and use of software tools. With the increasing digitalization of beam diagnostics and increasing complexity of Integrated Control Systems of large accelerators, the need for high level software tools is critical for smooth commissioning. At SNS a special Java based infrastructure called XAL was prepared for beam commissioning. XAL provides a hierarchal view of the accelerator, is data base configured, and includes a physics model of the beam. This infrastructure and individual applications development along with a historical time line of the SNS commissioning will be discussed.

  13. 77 FR 50492 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meetings related to the transmission planning activities of the Midwest Independent Transmission System...

  14. 77 FR 73645 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meetings related to the transmission planning activities of the Midwest Independent Transmission System...

  15. 77 FR 38045 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meetings related to the transmission planning activities of the Midwest Independent Transmission System...

  16. 77 FR 28869 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meeting related to the transmission planning activities of the Southern Company Services, Inc.: 2012...

  17. 77 FR 31004 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meetings related to the transmission planning activities of the Midwest Independent Transmission System...

  18. 77 FR 47620 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meetings related to the transmission planning activities of the PJM Interconnection, LLC (PJM): PJM...

  19. 77 FR 3764 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meeting related to the transmission planning activities of the Midwest Independent Transmission System...

  20. 77 FR 42300 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meetings related to the transmission planning activities of the Midwest Independent Transmission System...

  1. 77 FR 64983 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meetings related to the transmission planning activities of the Midwest Independent Transmission System...

  2. 77 FR 16221 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meetings related to the transmission planning activities of the Midwest Independent Transmission System...

  3. 76 FR 76157 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meetings related to the transmission planning activities of the Midwest Independent Transmission System...

  4. 77 FR 58376 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meetings related to the transmission planning activities of the Midwest Independent Transmission System...

  5. 77 FR 38046 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meeting related to the transmission planning activities of the Southern Company Services, Inc.: 2012...

  6. 77 FR 34034 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meetings related to the transmission planning activities of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP):...

  7. 76 FR 60820 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meeting related to the transmission planning activities of the Midwest Independent Transmission System...

  8. 77 FR 37665 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meeting related to the transmission planning activities of the North Carolina Transmission Planning...

  9. 77 FR 40606 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meetings related to the transmission planning activities of the Midwest Independent Transmission System...

  10. 77 FR 6556 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meeting related to the transmission planning activities of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP):...

  11. 77 FR 21765 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following meeting related to the transmission planning activities of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP):...

  12. 78 FR 44165 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Enforcement policy; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is...

  13. 77 FR 24485 - Notice of Commission Staff Attendance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby gives notice that members of the Commission's staff may attend the following...

  14. 77 FR 45594 - San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Area Regional Water Quality Control Board advised that they had no plans to send comments. The Office... would use the existing Crystal Springs Pipelines (CSPL1 and CSPL2), which ultimately deliver water from the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission's Water Supply and Treatment Divisions...

  15. 76 FR 10233 - Schedule of Water Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... amendments appeared in the Federal Register on February 19, 2010 (75 FR 7411), as well as in the Delaware... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 420 Schedule of Water Charges AGENCY: Delaware River Basin Commission. ACTION: Final...--Water Supply Charges. Accordingly, the Commission's water charging rates for consumptive use and...

  16. 78 FR 58985 - Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Proposed Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water Quality Criteria for pH AGENCY: Delaware River Basin Commission. ACTION: Proposed... on proposed amendments to the Commission's Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and...

  17. Global Precipitation Measurement Mission Launch and Commissioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Nikesha; DeWeese, Keith; Vess, Melissa; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Welter, Gary

    2015-01-01

    During launch and early operation of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) analysis team encountered four main on-orbit anomalies. These include: (1) unexpected shock from Solar Array deployment, (2) momentum buildup from the Magnetic Torquer Bars (MTBs) phasing errors, (3) transition into Safehold due to albedo induced Course Sun Sensor (CSS) anomaly, and (4) a flight software error that could cause a Safehold transition due to a Star Tracker occultation. This paper will discuss ways GN&C engineers identified the anomalies and tracked down the root causes. Flight data and GN&C on-board models will be shown to illustrate how each of these anomalies were investigated and mitigated before causing any harm to the spacecraft. On May 29, 2014, GPM was handed over to the Mission Flight Operations Team after a successful commissioning period. Currently, GPM is operating nominally on orbit, collecting meaningful scientific data that will significantly improve our understanding of the Earth's climate and water cycle.

  18. Monitoring and Commissioning Verification Algorithms for CHP Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Jiang, Wei

    2008-03-31

    This document provides the algorithms for CHP system performance monitoring and commissioning verification (CxV). It starts by presenting system-level and component-level performance metrics, followed by descriptions of algorithms for performance monitoring and commissioning verification, using the metric presented earlier. Verification of commissioning is accomplished essentially by comparing actual measured performance to benchmarks for performance provided by the system integrator and/or component manufacturers. The results of these comparisons are then automatically interpreted to provide conclusions regarding whether the CHP system and its components have been properly commissioned and where problems are found, guidance is provided for corrections. A discussion of uncertainty handling is then provided, which is followed by a description of how simulations models can be used to generate data for testing the algorithms. A model is described for simulating a CHP system consisting of a micro-turbine, an exhaust-gas heat recovery unit that produces hot water, a absorption chiller and a cooling tower. The process for using this model for generating data for testing the algorithms for a selected set of faults is described. The next section applies the algorithms developed to CHP laboratory and field data to illustrate their use. The report then concludes with a discussion of the need for laboratory testing of the algorithms on a physical CHP systems and identification of the recommended next steps.

  19. Twentieth century constraints on sea level change and earthquake deformation at Macquarie Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Christopher; Burgette, Reed; Tregoning, Paul; White, Neil; Hunter, John; Coleman, Richard; Handsworth, Roger; Brolsma, Henk

    2010-08-01

    Through the combination of rare historical sea level observations collected during Sir Douglas Mawson's 1911-1914 Australasian Antarctic Expedition (AAE), together with modern sea level data, space geodetic estimates of crustal displacement and modelling of coseismic and post-seismic earthquake deformation, we present a contemporary analysis to constrain sea level and land level change over the twentieth century at Macquarie Island (54°30'S, 158°57'E). We combine 9 months of 1912-1913 sea level data with intermediate observations in 1969-1971, 1982 and 1998-2007 to estimate sea level rise relative to the land at +4.8 +/- 0.6 mm yr-1. Combined with estimates of global mean sea level rise, this value supports the geologically surprising notion of land subsidence, conflicting with longer term geological evidence that suggests uplift at ~0.8 mm yr-1 over the last 400-300 Kyr. We investigate the current tectonic evolution of the Island through analysis of Global Positioning System (GPS) solutions that utilize data over the period 2000-2009. Importantly, this provides an opportunity to refine the source parameters of the Mw ~8.0 great earthquake of 2004 December 23 using estimates of coseismic displacements at regional GPS sites. We use the estimated earthquake source and GPS observations of four years of post-seismic deformation at Macquarie Island to infer the rheology of the oceanic upper mantle. We find that an asthenosphere bounded by stronger material above and below is required to produce the observed post-seismic deformation, particularly in the vertical component. Assuming a Maxwell rheology, the best fit is given by an asthenospheric viscosity of 3×1019 Pa s. The inferred rheology determined from the 2004 earthquake is used to model long period post-seismic deformation from Mw ~8.0 earthquakes of 1989 and 1924. The 1924 earthquake is the closest of the three great earthquakes to Macquarie Island, and our modelling suggests that the majority of the vertical

  20. [Pain and anesthesiology : aspects of the development of modern pain therapy in the twentieth century].

    PubMed

    Witte, W

    2011-06-01

    The connection between the development of anesthesiology and pain therapy in the twentieth century is close. The optimistic idea to overcome pain by using general anesthesia derives from the nineteenth century. Treatment of nonsurgical pain remained in the background for a long time and innovations in pain medicine did not improve the insufficient care for patients with postoperative pain. Therapy of chronic pain was mainly surgical and the extreme of this surgical approach was psychosurgery. In the years following World War II leucotomy and lobotomy were established as methods to separate the psychological processing of pain from the experience of pain. Meanwhile, the French "pain surgeon" René Leriche elaborated a theory of pain where chronic pain was no longer seen as a symptom but as a "douleur-maladie", a pain disease. His theory was considered on various occasions but did not gain acceptance before the 1950s. Research in anesthesiology, such as that conducted by the American scientist Henry Beecher separated psyche and physiology with respect to pathological pain. This was contrasted by the approach of clinical anesthesia to pain therapy, which was based on regional anesthesia. The first "pain clinics" were "nerve block clinics". John Bonica, a regional anesthesiologist, extended the framework of pain therapy by introducing multidisciplinary teamwork into the therapy of chronic pain. From today's viewpoint his 1953 monograph The Management of Chronic Pain is a milestone in the development of modern pain therapy. However, Bonica's work did not attain major importance until 1960 when he was appointed to a newly established chair. Gradually, chronic pain was recognized as an independent illness and differentiated as such from acute pain. In 1965 the gate control theory by Melzack and Wall offered a possible explanation for the mechanisms of chronic pain. By the end of the 1970s the spectrum was extended to the biopsychosocial approach which was foremost

  1. 17 CFR 201.57 - Commission review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Regulations Pertaining to the Equal Access to Justice Act § 201.57 Commission review. In accordance with the procedures set forth in 17 CFR 201.410 and 201.411, either the applicant or counsel for the Office or... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commission review....

  2. Appalachian Regional Commission Annual Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    In fiscal year 2001, the Appalachian Regional Commission invested $63.6 million in 469 economic and human development (nonhighway) projects and $389.6 million in highway projects in Appalachia. The Commission launched a new initiative to promote the development of telecommunications infrastructure, especially in distressed counties. The Commission…

  3. The Civil Rights Commission Must Persist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Gerald A.

    2007-01-01

    Columnist George Will and others have questioned the continuing need for a federal civil rights commission, because civil rights protections have been on the books since 1964. The chairman of the Commission, Gerald Reynolds, here responds that practitioners of critical legal theory, advocates of the Akaka-Secession bill, some proponents of…

  4. Federal Trade Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... No. 12866 ``Regulatory Planning and Review'' of September 30, 1993, 58 FR 51735 (Oct. 4, 1993). Since... Final Rule, which the Commission issued jointly with the Federal Reserve on January 15, 2010 (75 FR 2724... Regulatory Plan narrative. 74 FR 64137, 64366. The Commission has also responded to the optional...

  5. 77 FR 67637 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. ACTION... Federal Official, Equity and Excellence Commission, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue...

  6. 77 FR 484 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION..., Equity and Excellence Commission, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW, Washington,...

  7. Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Preservation and Access Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    The Commission on Preservation and Access was established to foster and support collaboration among libraries and allied organizations in order to ensure the preservation of the published and documentary records in all formats and to provide enhanced access to scholarly information. The Commission's newsletter keeps preservation and access…

  8. Setting up Blue Ribbon Commissions. Issuegram 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaich, Robert; And Others

    Options and suggestions for setting up successful study commissions were gathered from 10 commissions that had recommended revisions of state educational policy on a variety of issues. Composed of respected citizens from across the state, each task force was created by the governor or legislature for a fixed duration. Some recommendations for…

  9. CCRIS: Carnegie Commission Reports Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavin, Mary Jo

    The Carnegie Commission Reports Information System (CCRIS) attempts to make the findings of the 22 Commission reports (published by McGraw Hill Book Company) more readily available to the academic community. CCRIS consists of an explanatory text of 16 pages introducing the reader to a set of 1500 edge-notched McBee cards. Each card contains a…

  10. 76 FR 53159 - CFC-50 Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... MANAGEMENT CFC-50 Commission Meeting AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Establishment of..., 2011, at the time and location shown below. The Commission shall advise the Director of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) on strengthening the integrity, the operation and effectiveness of...

  11. 76 FR 72452 - CFC-50 Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... MANAGEMENT CFC-50 Commission AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Establishment of advisory... time and location shown below. The Commission shall advise the Director of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) on strengthening the integrity, the operation and effectiveness of the Combined...

  12. Wyoming Community College Commission Annual Report, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Wyoming Community College Commission (WCCC) serves the system of Wyoming's seven community colleges. Wyoming's seven community colleges provide affordable, accessible and lifelong education. The Wyoming Community College Commission supports the colleges through advocacy, coordination and collaboration. In partnership with the colleges, the…

  13. Commission 25: Stellar Photometry and Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Peter; Milone, Eugene; Landolt, Arlo; Jordi, Carme; Mironov, Aleksey; Shenbang, Qian; Schmidt, Edward; Sterken, Christiaan

    2010-05-01

    The Business Meeting for Commission 25 was held on the 6th of August 2009. The meeting was chaired by Dr Eugene Milone, Vice President for the 2006-2009 triennium, and incoming President for the 2009-2011 triennium. Dr Milone presented an apology from the President of the Commission, Dr Peter Martinez, who was unable to attend the meeting.

  14. Commissioning MMS: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Paul; Gramling, Cheryl; Reiter, Jennifer; Smith, Patrick; Stone, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses commissioning of NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) Mission. The mission includes four identical spacecraft with a large, complex set of instrumentation. The planning for and execution of commissioning for this mission is described. The paper concludes by discussing lessons learned.

  15. Commission 12: Solar Radiation and Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauzzi, Gianna; Shchukina, Nataliya; Kosovichev, Alexander; Bianda, Michele; Brandenburg, Axel; Chou, Dean-Yi; Dasso, Sergio; Ding, Ming-De; Jefferies, Stuart; Krivova, Natalie; Kuznetsov, Vladimir D.; Moreno-Insertis, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Commission 12 of the International Astronomical Union encompasses investigations of the internal structure and dynamics of the Sun, the quiet solar atmosphere, solar radiation and its variability, and the nature of relatively stable magnetic structures like sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network. The Commission sees participation of over 300 scientists worldwide.

  16. Evidence for an increase in the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere in the late twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newland, Mike; Martinerie, Patricia; Witrant, Emmanuel; Helmig, Detlev; Worton, David; Hogan, Chris; Sturges, Bill; Reeves, Claire

    2016-04-01

    The hydroxyl radical, OH, is the dominant sink for the majority of trace gases in the troposphere. Thus, it plays a major role in controlling atmospheric chemical composition. However despite this importance there remains much uncertainty as to whether concentrations of OH have changed in the background atmosphere in recent decades. It has previously been reported that recent levels of OH in the troposphere (1997-2008) are well buffered against changes in atmospheric composition (Montzka et al., 2011). We present two independent records that suggest that there was a significant increase in concentrations of the OH radical in the northern hemisphere during the last two decades of the twentieth century. Measurements from Greenland firn air of the changing ratios of n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane and iso-pentane were compared using a photochemical clock method. Using these changing ratios we calculate an increase in the chemical processing of the air (i.e. [OH].t) between 1980 and 2000. Assuming t to be constant this provides a semi-quantitative historic record of OH concentrations. Furthermore, measurements of three alkyl nitrates (also from Greenland firn air), secondary oxidation products of the alkanes, suggest an increase in the [NO]/[HO2] ratio in the background atmosphere. This could be indicative of increasing NOx concentrations during this period, which would be consistent with increasing [OH]. These two records are further corroborated by comparison with the long term trend in increasing ozone mixing ratios from background European sites. Knowledge of historic changes to the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere is fundamental to understanding the atmospheric records of trace gases and to determining historic trace gas emissions using top-down approaches. The results presented here have profound implications for our understanding of atmospheric composition in the past, the present and for predicting the future evolution of the atmosphere.

  17. Changing relationships between smoking and psychiatric disorders across twentieth century birth cohorts: clinical and research implications.

    PubMed

    Talati, A; Keyes, K M; Hasin, D S

    2016-04-01

    As the risks of tobacco use become recognized and smoking becomes stigmatized, new smokers may be increasingly driven to smoke by biological or genetic vulnerabilities rather than social desirability. Given that genetic risk for deviant proneness is shared across other psychiatric and addictive disorders, we predicted that as rates of smoking decreased through the latter half of the twentieth century, associations between smoking and psychopathology would increase. Participants (N=25 412) from a large US study-the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, NESARC-were interviewed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule - DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV) and classified into one of five birth cohort decades (1940s to 1980s) and three smoking history (nonsmokers, never-dependent smokers and ever-dependent smokers) groups. We found that the prevalence of smoking decreased across the five birth cohorts, but associations of smoking with drug and AUDs, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder and antisocial personality disorder, each increased monotonically in more recently born cohorts, even after adjusting for concurrent demographic and socioeconomic changes. For drug and AUDs, increases were observed among smokers both with and without a history of nicotine dependence; for other outcomes, increases were entirely driven by nicotine-dependent smokers. Findings suggest that smokers in more recent cohorts have disproportionately high psychiatric vulnerability, and may benefit from greater mental health screenings. Differentiating between casual and dependent smokers may further help prioritize those at greatest risk. Researchers should also be aware of potential variation in psychiatric comorbidity based on cohort of birth when defining groups of smokers, to minimize confounding. PMID:26809837

  18. Metal Construction Toys of the Early Twentieth Century: Their Astronomical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumstay, K. S.

    2004-12-01

    During the early twentieth century several toy manufacturers around the globe introduced construction toys in the form of sets of metal parts which could be assembled into a variety of models. The two most successful were the Erector Set, introduced in the United States by A.C. Gilbert in 1913, and the Meccano Set, patented in 1901 in England by Frank Hornby. Whereas the Erector Set never developed beyond being a child's toy, Hornby envisioned his Meccano system as providing a way to teach principles of mechanical engineering to young schoolboys. Indeed, his sets were first marketed under the name "Mechanics Made Easy", and were endorsed by Dr. H.S. Hele-Shaw, Head of the Engineering Department at Liverpool University. Popularity of the new Meccano sets spread throughout the world, spawning the formation of numerous amateur societies composed of adolescent boys and an increasing number of adult hobbyists. The variety of parts increased during the first third of the century, and increasingly sophisticated models were constructed and exhibited in competitive events. Among these were several clocks of remarkable accuracy, and at least one equatorial mounting for a small astronomical telescope. At the same time, many university science and engineering departments found these interchangeable metal parts invaluable in the construction of experimental apparatus. In 1934 a small-scale replica of Vannevar Bush's Differential Analyzer was constructed at the University of Manchester, and used for many years to perform mathematical computations. The introduction in 1928 of a flanged ring with 73 (a sub-multiple of 365) teeth allowed for construction of accurate orreries and astronomical clocks. The most remarkable of these was the Astronomical Clock constructed in the period 1924-1932 by M. Alexandre Rahm of Paris.

  19. Urania in the Marketplace: Astronomical Imagery in Early Twentieth-Century Advertizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    The pages of popular magazines such as Sky and Telescope and Astronomy are filled with advertisements for telescopes and other equipment. However, during the past century astronomical imagery has been widely used to promote distinctly non-astronomical products and services. One of the earliest and most famous examples is the 1893 Chicago newspaper advertisement for Kirk's Soap, which was inspired by the opening of the Yerkes Observatory. A survey of popular magazines published in America during the first half of the twentieth century suggests that these advertisements fall into four categories: 1) Astronomy is universally regarded as an exact and precise science. Manufacturers of mechanical devices may employ images of telescopes or astronomers at work to suggest that their products meet these same standards of quality. This was primarily the case with makers of automobiles and automotive products, although the Longines Watch Company ran an extensive series of ads featuring observatories. 2) The heavens induce a sense of wonder in most people, and advertisers may locate their products in an a celestial setting to give them an otherworldly flavor. 3) Astronomical observatories themselves are viewed as exotic settings, and have provided backgrounds for automotive and travel ads. They may also appear in advertisements for products used in their construction. 4) Finally, newsworthy astronomical events will inspire advertisers to associate their products with that event, in order to capitalize upon the publicity. This was particularly true in the case of the 1910 passage of Halley's Comet and the 1948 opening of the 200-inch Hale telescope at Mt. Palomar. Examples of magazine advertisements from each category are presented for comparison. This work was supported by a faculty development grant from Valdosta State University.

  20. Twentieth century increase of atmospheric ammonia recorded in Mount Everest ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Shichang; Mayewski, Paul A.; Qin, Dahe; Yan, Yuping; Zhang, Dongqi; Hou, Shugui; Ren, Jiawen

    2002-11-01

    An NH4+ record covering the period A.D. 1845-1997 was reconstructed using an 80.4 m ice core from East Rongbuk Glacier at an elevation of 6450 m on the northern slope of Mount Everest. Variations in NH4+ are characterized by a dramatic increase since the 1950s. The highest NH4+ concentrations occur in the 1980s. They are about twofold more than those in the first half of twentieth century. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis on the eight major ion (Na+, K+, Mg2+, NH4+, Ca2+, NO3-, SO42- and Cl-) series from this core indicates that NH4+ is loaded mainly on EOF3 (60% of NH4+ variance), suggesting that NH4+ has a unique signature. Instrumental sea level pressure (SLP) and regional temperatures are used to explore the relationship between NH4+ variations and both atmospheric circulation and natural source strength over Asia. Higher NH4+ concentrations are associated with an enhanced winter Mongolian High and a deepened summer Mongolian Low. A positive relationship also exists between NH4+ concentrations and regional temperature changes of the GIS Box 36 (Indian subcontinent), indicating that an increase in temperature may contribute to the strengthening of natural ammonia emissions (e.g., from plants and soils). A close positive correlation between NH4+ and acidic species (SO42- plus NO3-) concentrations suggests that a portion of the increase in NH4+ concentrations could be contributed by enhanced atmospheric acidification. Anthropogenic ammonia emissions from enhanced agricultural activities and energy consumption over Asia in concert with population increase since the 1950s appear also to be a significant factor in the dramatic increase of NH4+ concentrations during the last few decades.

  1. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT CAMPAIGN OF THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    SciTech Connect

    F.P. Burke; S.D. Brandes; D.C. McCoy; R.A. Winschel; D. Gray; G. Tomlinson

    2001-07-01

    Following the petroleum price and supply disruptions of 1973, the U.S. government began a substantial program to fund the development of alternative fuels. Direct coal liquefaction was one of the potential routes to alternative fuels. The direct coal liquefaction program was funded at substantial levels through 1982, and at much lower levels thereafter. Those processes that were of most interest during this period were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels. By 1999, U.S. government funding for the development of direct coal liquefaction ended. Now that the end of this campaign has arrived, it is appropriate to summarize the process learnings derived from it. This report is a summary of the process learnings derived from the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development campaign of the late twentieth century. The report concentrates on those process development programs that were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels and were largely funded by DOE and its predecessors in response to the petroleum supply and price disruptions of the 1970s. The report is structured as chapters written by different authors on most of the major individual DOE-funded process development programs. The focus of the report is process learnings, as opposed to, say, fundamental coal liquefaction science or equipment design. As detailed in the overview (Chapter 2), DOE's direct coal liquefaction campaign made substantial progress in improving the process yields and the quality of the distillate product. Much of the progress was made after termination by 1983 of the major demonstration programs of the ''first generation'' (SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS) processes.

  2. A Chronology of Annual-Mean Effective Radii of Stratospheric Aerosols from Volcanic Eruptions During the Twentieth Century as Derived From Ground-based Spectral Extinction Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strothers, Richard B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Stratospheric extinction can be derived from ground-based spectral photometric observations of the Sun and other stars (as well as from satellite and aircraft measurements, available since 1979), and is found to increase after large volcanic eruptions. This increased extinction shows a characteristic wavelength dependence that gives information about the chemical composition and the effective (or area weighted mean) radius of the particles responsible for it. Known to be tiny aerosols constituted of sulfuric acid in a water solution, the stratospheric particles at midlatitudes exhibit a remarkable uniformity of their column-averaged effective radii r(sub eff) in the first few months after the eruption. Considering the seven largest eruptions of the twentieth century, r(sub eff) at this phase of peak aerosol abundance is approx. 0.3 micrometers in all cases. A year later, r(sub eff) either has remained about the same size (almost certainly in the case of the Katmai eruption of 1912) or has increased to approx. 0.5 micrometers (definitely so for the Pinatubo eruption of 1991). The reasons for this divergence in aerosol growth are unknown.

  3. A Practical Guide for Commissioning Existing Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Haasl, T.

    1999-05-11

    Although this guide focuses on the retrocommissioning process and its advantages, all three types of commissioning--retrocommissioning, commissioning, and recommissioning--play an equally important role in ensuring that buildings perform efficiently and provide comfortable, safe, and productive work environments for owners and occupants. For new construction and retrofit projects, commissioning should be incorporated early, during design, and last throughout the length of the project. For buildings that were never commissioned, the retrocommissioning process can yield a wealth of cost-saving opportunities while enhancing a building's environment. Finally, once a building is commissioned or retrocommissioned, incorporating recommissioning into the organization's O and M program (by periodically reapplying the original diagnostic testing and checklist procedures) helps ensure that cost savings and other benefits gained from the original process persist over time.

  4. A Practical Guide for Commissioning Existing Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Haasl, T.; Sharp, T.

    1999-04-01

    Although this guide focuses on the retrocommissioning process and its advantages, all three types of commissioning--retrocommissioning, commissioning, and recommissioning--play an equally important role in ensuring that buildings perform efficiently and provide comfortable, safe, and productive work environments for owners and occupants. For new construction and retrofit projects, commissioning should be incorporated early, during design, and last throughout the length of the project. For buildings that were never commissioned, the retrocommissioning process can yield a wealth of cost-saving opportunities while enhancing a building's environment. Finally, once a building is commissioned or retrocommissioned, incorporating recommissioning into the organization's O and M program (by periodically reapplying the original diagnostic testing and checklist procedures) helps ensure that cost savings and other benefits gained from the original process persist over time.

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Quantum Generations. A history of physics in the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-03-01

    Physics has a long history, but more physics has been discovered in the twentieth century than in all previous eras together. That in itself would be a sufficient justification for a history of physics in the twentieth century, but the end of the previous century also marked a discontinuity, from Newtonian classical physics to relativity and quantum mechanics. If any single event marks the start of the process it is the discovery of x-rays in 1895, and Kragh's century spans from about 1895 to about 1995. It is, of course, too much for a single volume, even a large one, and Kragh recognizes from the outset that he has to be selective and concentrate on those subjects that define twentieth-century physics. For the early part of the century the author relies on carefully chosen secondary sources, to avoid the near-impossible task of absorbing a multitude of original papers. The recent period is more difficult, and the sources are articles, reviews, and the recollections of physicists. The book is in three main sections, roughly to the end of World War I, to the end of World War II, and up to 1995, plus a retrospective summary. It deals with more than just discoveries in physics, looking also at physicists and institutions, and at their interactions with the rest of society. The broad outlines of many discoveries are often known to physicists who have no special interest in history, and Kragh is careful to point out where these conventional accounts are inadequate. The first chapters set the scene at the end of the nineteenth century, acknowledging that there was a belief that all the grand underlying principles had been established, but also pointing out that there was a ferment of attempts to reinterpret physics in terms of concepts like vortices and hyperspaces. The history begins with the mould-breaking discoveries of x-rays, radioactivity and the electron. The chapters that follow look at theories about atomic structure, and at quantum physics, relativity and

  6. Intensified pluvial conditions during the twentieth century in the inland Heihe River Basin in arid northwestern China over the past millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Chun; Yang, Bao; Burchardt, Iris; Hu, Xiaoli; Kang, Xingcheng

    2010-06-01

    Past streamflow variability is of special significance in the inland river basin, i.e., the Heihe River Basin in arid northwestern China, where water shortage is a serious environmental and social problem. However, the current knowledge of issues related to regional water resources management and long-term planning and management is limited by the lack of long-term hydro-meteorological records. Here we present a 1009-year annual streamflow (August-July) reconstruction for the upstream of the Heihe River in the arid northwestern China based on a well-replicated Qilian juniper ( Sabina przewalskii Kom.) ring-width chronology. This reconstruction accounts for 46.9% of the observed instrumental streamflow variance during the period 1958-2006. Considerable multidecadal to centennial flow variations below and above the long-term average are displayed in the millennium streamflow reconstruction. These periods 1012-1053, 1104-1212, 1259-1352, 1442-1499, 1593-1739 and 1789-1884 are noteworthy for the persistence of low-level river flow, and for the fact that these low streamflow events are not found in the observed instrumental hydrological record during the recent 50 years. The 20th century witnessed intensified pluvial conditions in the upstream of the Heihe River in the arid northwestern China in the context of the last millennium. Comparison with other long-term hydrological reconstructions indicates that the intensification of the hydrological cycle in the twentieth century from different regions could be attributable to regional to large-scale temperature increase during this time. Furthermore, from a practical perspective, the streamflow reconstruction can serve as a robust database for the government to work out more scientific and more reasonable water allocation alternatives for the Heihe River Basin in arid northwestern China.

  7. Automated Commissioning for Lower-cost, Widely Deployed Building Commissioning of the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2011-08-16

    This chapter takes a brief look at the benefits of commissioning and describes a vision of the future where most of the objectives of commissioning will be accomplished automatically by capabilities built into the building systems themselves. Commissioning will become an activity that is performed continuously rather than periodically, and only repairs requiring replacement or overhaul of equipment will require manual intervention. This chapter then identifies some of the technologies that will be needed to realize this vision and ends with a call for all involved in the enterprise of building commissioning and automation to embrace and dedicate themselves to a future of automated commissioning.

  8. Instrumented home energy rating and commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-05-01

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify deficiencies or to correct them. Solving this problem requires field performance evaluations using appropriate and agreed upon procedures in the form of a new process called residential commissioning. The purpose of this project is to develop and document these procedures and to demonstrate the value that applying them could provide in both new and existing California houses. This project has four specific objectives: to develop metrics and diagnostics for assessing house performance, to provide information on the potential benefits of commissioning using a whole-house approach, to develop programmatic guidelines for commissioning, and to conduct outreach efforts to transfer project results to industry stakeholders. The primary outcomes from this project are the development of residential commissioning guidelines and the analytical confirmation that there are significant potential benefits associated with commissioning California houses, particularly existing ones. In addition, we have made substantial advances in understanding the accuracy and usability of diagnostics for commissioning houses. In some cases, we have been able to work with equipment manufacturers to improve these aspects of their diagnostic tools. These outcomes provide a solid foundation on which to build a residential commissioning program in California. We expect that a concerted effort will be necessary to integrate such a program with existing building industry efforts and to demonstrate its use in the field.

  9. The Pepper Commission Report and the response.

    PubMed

    1990-01-01

    The recommendations of the "Pepper Commission" [the Bipartisan Commission on Comprehensive Health Care] on health care policy reform (see box on page 20) would cost an estimated $66 billion to implement. As a result, many in Congress already have declared the Pepper report to be politically nonviable. Nevertheless, Commission Chairman John D. Rockefeller IV intends to pursue legislative activity on the report. Recently, Rockefeller said that the Commission's majority recommendations likely will be offered in Congress as one large bill--with the option to break out some of its features for individual consideration. For example, Rockefeller said he will try this year to enact the Commission's recommendations to improve health care coverage for pregnant women and children--as well as suggestions for reform in the health insurance industry. The West Virginia senator said he believes these two proposals will cost about $3.5 billion in new federal funds. The basics of the plan, and the political obstacles facing its enactment, were discussed by several members of the Pepper Commission during the press conference at which the recommendations were unveiled. FAHS Review covered that press conference, and below we reprint excerpts from a tape transcription of the remarks of several Commission members. PMID:10113210

  10. Commissioned Review. Carbon: freshwater plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Sandquist, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    δ13C values for freshwater aquatic plant matter varies from −11 to −50‰ and is not a clear indicator of photosynthetic pathway as in terrestrial plants. Several factors affect δ13C of aquatic plant matter. These include: (1) The δ13C signature of the source carbon has been observed to range from +1‰ for HCO3− derived from limestone to −30‰ for CO2 derived from respiration. (2) Some plants assimilate HCO3−, which is –7 to –11‰ less negative than CO2. (3) C3, C4, and CAM photosynthetic pathways are present in aquatic plants. (4) Diffusional resistances are orders of magnitude greater in the aquatic environment than in the aerial environment. The greater viscosity of water acts to reduce mixing of the carbon pool in the boundary layer with that of the bulk solution. In effect, many aquatic plants draw from a finite carbon pool, and as in terrestrial plants growing in a closed system, biochemical discrimination is reduced. In standing water, this factor results in most aquatic plants having a δ13C value similar to the source carbon. Using Farquhar's equation and other physiological data, it is possible to use δ13C values to evaluate various parameters affecting photosynthesis, such as limitations imposed by CO2 diffusion and carbon source.

  11. Division G Commission 42: Close Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Mercedes T.; Pribulla, Theodor; Ribas, Ignasi; Bradstreet, David H.; Dreschsel, Horst; Maceroni, Carla; Mikolajewska, Joanna; Munari, Ulisse; Prsa, Andrej; Scharfe, Colin; Southworth, John; Trimble, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    Commission 42 began life as Photometric Double Stars in 1948 at the 7th General Assembly in Zurich, under the presidency of Zdenek Kopal. As early as 1961, then General Secretary Lukas Plaut recommended a merger between C42 and C26, Double Stars, one of the original 32 commissions going back to 1919-22 (first president Aitken, assistant director at Lick). C42 became Close Binary Stars in 1970, at the 14th GA in Brighton (the first one I attended). Table 1 shows the presidents of C42, and vice presidents, from when the office started, through the history of the Commission.

  12. Forced and unforced variability of twentieth century North American droughts and pluvials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Cook, Edward R.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Seager, Richard; Miller, Ron L.

    2011-09-01

    Research on the forcing of drought and pluvial events over North America is dominated by general circulation model experiments that often have operational limitations (e.g., computational expense, ability to simulate relevant processes, etc). We use a statistically based modeling approach to investigate sea surface temperature (SST) forcing of the twentieth century pluvial (1905-1917) and drought (1932-1939, 1948-1957, 1998-2002) events. A principal component (PC) analysis of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from the North American Drought Atlas separates the drought variability into five leading modes accounting for 62% of the underlying variance. Over the full period spanning these events (1900-2005), the first three PCs significantly correlate with SSTs in the equatorial Pacific (PC 1), North Pacific (PC 2), and North Atlantic (PC 3), with spatial patterns (as defined by the empirical orthogonal functions) consistent with our understanding of North American drought responses to SST forcing. We use a large ensemble statistical modeling approach to determine how successfully we can reproduce these drought/pluvial events using these three modes of variability. Using Pacific forcing only (PCs 1-2), we are able to reproduce the 1948-1957 drought and 1905-1917 pluvial above a 95% random noise threshold in over 90% of the ensemble members; the addition of Atlantic forcing (PCs 1-2-3) provides only marginal improvement. For the 1998-2002 drought, Pacific forcing reproduces the drought above noise in over 65% of the ensemble members, with the addition of Atlantic forcing increasing the number passing to over 80%. The severity of the drought, however, is underestimated in the ensemble median, suggesting this drought intensity can only be achieved through internal variability or other processes. Pacific only forcing does a poor job of reproducing the 1932-1939 drought pattern in the ensemble median, and less than one third of ensemble members exceed the noise threshold

  13. Biography of a technology: North America's power grid through the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, Julie A.

    North Americans are among the world's most intense consumers of electricity. The vast majority in the United States and Canada access power from a network of transmission lines that stretch from the East Coast to the West Coast and from Canada to the Mexican Baja. This network, known as the largest interconnected machine in the world, evolved during the first two thirds of the twentieth century. With the very first link-ups occurring at the end of the 1890s, a wide variety of public and private utilities extended power lines to reach markets, access and manage energy resources, balance loads, realize economies of scale, provide backup power, and achieve economic stability. In 1967, utility managers and the Bureau of Reclamation connected the expansive eastern and western power pools to create the North American grid. Unlike other power grids around the world, built by single, centrally controlled entities, this large technological system emerged as the result of multiple decisions across eighty-five years of development, and negotiations for control at the economic, political, and technological levels. This dissertation describes the process of building the North American grid and the paradoxes the resulting system represents. While the grid functions as a single machine moving electricity across the continent, it is owned by many independent entities. Smooth operations suggest that the grid is a unified system; however, it operates under shared management and divided authority. In addition, although a single power network seems the logical outcome of electrification, in fact it was assembled through aggregation, not planning. Interconnections intentionally increase the robustness of individual sub-networks, yet the system itself is fragile, as demonstrated by major cascading power outages. Finally, the transmission network facilitates increased use of energy resources and consumption of power, but at certain points in the past, it also served as a technology of

  14. Forced and Unforced Variability of Twentieth Century North American Droughts and Pluvials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Cook, Edward R.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Seager, Richard; Miller, Ron L.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the forcing of drought and pluvial events over North America is dominated by general circulation model experiments that often have operational limitations (e.g., computational expense, ability to simulate relevant processes, etc). We use a statistically based modeling approach to investigate sea surface temperature (SST) forcing of the twentieth century pluvial (1905-1917) and drought (1932-1939, 1948-1957, 1998-2002) events. A principal component (PC) analysis of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) from the North American Drought Atlas separates the drought variability into five leading modes accounting for 62% of the underlying variance. Over the full period spanning these events (1900-2005), the first three PCs significantly correlate with SSTs in the equatorial Pacific (PC 1), North Pacific (PC 2), and North Atlantic (PC 3), with spatial patterns (as defined by the empirical orthogonal functions) consistent with our understanding of North American drought responses to SST forcing. We use a large ensemble statistical modeling approach to determine how successfully we can reproduce these drought/pluvial events using these three modes of variability. Using Pacific forcing only (PCs 1-2), we are able to reproduce the 1948-1957 drought and 1905-1917 pluvial above a 95% random noise threshold in over 90% of the ensemble members; the addition of Atlantic forcing (PCs 1-2-3) provides only marginal improvement. For the 1998-2002 drought, Pacific forcing reproduces the drought above noise in over 65% of the ensemble members, with the addition of Atlantic forcing increasing the number passing to over 80%. The severity of the drought, however, is underestimated in the ensemble median, suggesting this drought intensity can only be achieved through internal variability or other processes. Pacific only forcing does a poor job of reproducing the 1932-1939 drought pattern in the ensemble median, and less than one third of ensemble members exceed the noise threshold

  15. Early ship-based upper-air data and comparison with the Twentieth Century Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brönnimann, S.; Compo, G. P.; Spadin, R.; Allan, R.; Adam, W.

    2011-03-01

    Extension of 3-D atmospheric data products back into the past is desirable for a wide range of applications. Historical upper-air data are important in this endeavour, particularly in the maritime regions of the tropics and the southern hemisphere, where observations are extremely sparse. Here we present newly digitized and re-evaluated early ship-based upper-air data from two cruises: (1) kite and registering balloon profiles from onboard the ship SMS Planet on a cruise from Europe around South Africa and across the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific in 1906/1907, and (2) ship-based radiosonde data from onboard the MS Schwabenland on a cruise from Europe across the Atlantic to Antarctica and back in 1938/1939. We describe the data and provide estimations of the errors. We compare the data with a recent reanalysis (the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project, 20CR, Compo et al., 2011) that provides global 3-D data back to the 19th century based on an assimilation of surface pressure data only (plus monthly mean sea-surface temperatures). In cruise (1), the agreement is generally good, but large temperature differences appear during a period with a strong inversion. In cruise (2), after a subset of the data are corrected, close agreement between observations and 20CR is found for geopotential height (GPH) and temperature notwithstanding a likely cold bias of 20CR at the tropopause level. Results are considerably worse for relative humidity, which was reportedly inaccurately measured. Note that comparing 20CR, which has limited skill in the tropical regions, with measurements from ships in remote regions made under sometimes difficult conditions can be considered a worst case assessment. In view of that fact, the anomaly correlations for temperature of 0.3-0.6 in the lower troposphere in cruise (1) and of 0.5-0.7 for tropospheric temperature and GPH in cruise (2) are considered as promising results. Moreover, they are consistent with the error estimations. The results

  16. Early ship-based upper-air data and comparison with the Twentieth Century Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brönnimann, S.; Compo, G. P.; Spadin, R.; Allan, R.; Adam, W.

    2010-11-01

    Extension of 3-D atmospheric data products back into the past is desirable for a wide range of applications. Historical upper-air data are important in this endeavour, particularly in the maritime regions of the tropics and the southern hemisphere, where observations are extremely sparse. Here we present newly digitized and re-evaluated early ship-based upper-air data from two cruises: (1) kite and registering balloon profiles from onboard the ship SMS Planet on a cruise from Europe around South Africa and across the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific in 1906/1907, and (2) ship-based radiosonde data from onboard the MS Schwabenland on a cruise from Europe across the Atlantic to Antarctica and back in 1938/1939. We describe the data and provide estimations of the errors. We compare the data with a recent reanalysis (the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project, 20CR, Compo et al., 2010) that provides global 3-D data back to the 19th century based on an assimilation of surface pressure data only (plus monthly mean sea-surface temperatures). In cruise (1), the agreement is generally good, but large temperature differences appear during a period with a strong inversion. In cruise (2), after a correction to a subset of data, a good agreement between observations and 20CR is found for geopotential height (GPH) and temperature except for a likely cold bias of 20CR at the tropopause level. Results are considerably worse for relative humidity, which was reportedly inaccurately measured. Note that comparing 20CR, which has limited skill in the tropical regions, with measurements form ships in remote regions made under sometimes difficult conditions can be considered a worst case assessment. In view of that fact, the anomaly correlations for temperature of 0.3-0.6 in the lower troposphere in cruise (1) and of 0.5-0.7 for tropospheric temperature and GPH in cruise (2) are considered as promising results. Moreover, they are consistent with the error estimations. However, more work

  17. Bruised witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the performance of early twentieth-century English forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Burney, Ian; Pemberton, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the status, apparatus and character of forensic pathology in the inter-war period, with a special emphasis on the 'people's pathologist', Bernard Spilsbury. The broad expert and public profile of forensic pathology, of which Spilsbury was the most prominent contemporary representative, will be outlined and discussed. In so doing, close attention will be paid to the courtroom strategies by which he and other experts translated their isolated post-mortem encounters with the dead body into effective testimony. Pathologists built a high-profile practice that transfixed the popular, legal and scientific imagination, and this article also explores, through the celebrated 1925 murder trial of Norman Thorne, how Spilsbury's courtroom performance focused critical attention on the practices of pathology itself, which threatened to destabilise the status of forensic pathology. In particular, the Thorne case raised questions about the interrelation between bruising and putrefaction as sources of interpretative anxiety. Here, the question of practice is vital, especially in understanding how Spilsbury's findings clashed with those of rival pathologists whose autopsies centred on a corpse that had undergone further putrefactive changes and that had thereby mutated as an evidentiary object. Examining how pathologists dealt with interpretative problems raised by the instability of their core investigative object enables an analysis of the ways in which pathological investigation of homicide was inflected with a series of conceptual, professional and cultural difficulties stemming in significant ways from the materiality of the corpse itself. This article presents early findings of a larger study of twentieth-century English homicide investigation which focuses on the interaction between two dominant forensic regimes: the first, outlined in part here, is a body-centred forensics, associated with the lone, 'celebrity' pathologist, his scalpel and the mortuary

  18. Probabilistic precipitation and temperature downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis over France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillouet, L.; Vidal, J.-P.; Sauquet, E.; Graff, B.

    2015-09-01

    This work proposes a daily high-resolution probabilistic reconstruction of precipitation and temperature fields in France over the 1871-2012 period built on the NOAA Twentieth Century global extended atmospheric reanalysis (20CR). The objective is to fill in the spatial and temporal data gaps in surface observations in order to improve our knowledge on the local-scale climate variability from the late 19th century onwards. The SANDHY (Stepwise ANalogue Downscaling method for HYdrology) statistical downscaling method, initially developed for quantitative precipitation forecast, is used here to bridge the scale gap between large-scale 20CR predictors and local-scale predictands from the SAFRAN high-resolution near-surface reanalysis, available from 1958 onwards only. SANDHY provides a daily ensemble of 125 analogues dates over the 1871-2012 period for 608 climatically homogeneous zones paving France. Large precipitation biases in intermediary seasons are shown to occur in regions with high seasonal asymmetry like the Mediterranean. Moreover, winter and summer temperatures are respectively over- and under-estimated over the whole of France. Two analogue subselection methods are therefore developed with the aim of keeping unchanged the structure of the SANDHY method while reducing those seasonal biases. The calendar selection keeps the closest analogue dates in the year for each target date. The stepwise selection applies two new analogy steps based on similarity of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and the large-scale Two-metre Temperature (T2m). Comparisons to the SAFRAN reanalysis over 1959-2007 and to homogenized series over the whole 20th century show that biases in the interannual cycle of precipitation and temperature are reduced with both methods. The stepwise subselection moreover leads to a large improvement of interannual correlation and reduction of errors in seasonal temperature time series. When the calendar subselection is an easily applicable method

  19. Bruised Witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the Performance of Early Twentieth-Century English Forensic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    BURNEY, IAN; PEMBERTON, NEIL

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the status, apparatus and character of forensic pathology in the inter-war period, with a special emphasis on the ‘people’s pathologist’, Bernard Spilsbury. The broad expert and public profile of forensic pathology, of which Spilsbury was the most prominent contemporary representative, will be outlined and discussed. In so doing, close attention will be paid to the courtroom strategies by which he and other experts translated their isolated post-mortem encounters with the dead body into effective testimony. Pathologists built a high-profile practice that transfixed the popular, legal and scientific imagination, and this article also explores, through the celebrated 1925 murder trial of Norman Thorne, how Spilsbury’s courtroom performance focused critical attention on the practices of pathology itself, which threatened to destabilise the status of forensic pathology. In particular, the Thorne case raised questions about the interrelation between bruising and putrefaction as sources of interpretative anxiety. Here, the question of practice is vital, especially in understanding how Spilsbury’s findings clashed with those of rival pathologists whose autopsies centred on a corpse that had undergone further putrefactive changes and that had thereby mutated as an evidentiary object. Examining how pathologists dealt with interpretative problems raised by the instability of their core investigative object enables an analysis of the ways in which pathological investigation of homicide was inflected with a series of conceptual, professional and cultural difficulties stemming in significant ways from the materiality of the corpse itself. This article presents early findings of a larger study of twentieth-century English homicide investigation which focuses on the interaction between two dominant forensic regimes: the first, outlined in part here, is a body-centred forensics, associated with the lone, ‘celebrity’ pathologist, his scalpel and

  20. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: United States energy security, oil politics, and petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaubouef, Bruce Andre

    The history of U.S. petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century, including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, provides a case study of the economic and political aspects of national security, and shows the ways in which the American political economy influences national security. One key problem plagued federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals throughout the twentieth century. In a political economy which traditionally placed strong emphasis upon the sanctity of private property and free markets, could the government develop an emergency petroleum reserve policy despite opposition from the private sector? Previous literature on the SPR and oil-stockpiling programs has largely disregarded the historical perspective, focusing instead upon econometric models, suggesting future oil-stockpiling policy options. This study will also make conclusions about the future of governmental oil-stockpiling policies, particularly with regard to the SPR program, but it will do so informed by a systematic history of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse in the twentieth century. Through a study of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse, one can see how the American political economy of oil and energy changed over the twentieth century. As petroleum became crucial to the military and then economic security of the United States, the federal government sought to develop emergency petroleum reserves first for the military, then for the civilian economy. But while the American petroleum industry could deliver the energy "goods" to American energy consumers at a reasonable price, the companies reigned supreme in the political equation. While that was true, federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals conflicted with and were overwhelmed by the historic American tradition of individual economic and private property rights. The depletion of American petroleum reserves changed that political equation, and the ensuing energy crises of the 1970s not only