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1

Common-Component Architecture (CCA) Transport Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability of large parallel computers will continue to increase and bring closer the goal of self-consistent simulation of all relevant physics in a magnetic fusion system. However, advances in computer science, physics formulations, and algorithms are also needed. The issues of language interoperability and software reuse are addressed by the CCA--www.cca-forum.org--which provides encapsulation of physics models as components with generalized functional interfaces yet maintains high performance. Improved algorithms capitalize on the slow evolution of plasma parameters for time-dependent simulation, making iterative algorithms possible for models whose mathematical structure otherwise restricts techniques. We report on the development of such iterative techniques for calculating RF heating by integrating the AORSA all-orders model within a time-dependent plasma simulation using the CCA infrastructure.

Berry, L. A.; Batchelor, D. B.; Bernholdt, D. E.; D'Azevedo, E. F.; Elwasif, W. R.; Houlberg, W. A.; Jaeger, E. F.; Khamayseh, A. K.; Kohl, J. A.; Li, S.

2004-11-01

2

The common component architecture for particle accelerator simulations.  

SciTech Connect

Synergia2 is a beam dynamics modeling and simulation application for high-energy accelerators such as the Tevatron at Fermilab and the International Linear Collider, which is now under planning and development. Synergia2 is a hybrid, multilanguage software package comprised of two separate accelerator physics packages (Synergia and MaryLie/Impact) and one high-performance computer science package (PETSc). We describe our approach to producing a set of beam dynamics-specific software components based on the Common Component Architecture specification. Among other topics, we describe particular experiences with the following tasks: using Python steering to guide the creation of interfaces and to prototype components; working with legacy Fortran codes; and an example component-based, beam dynamics simulation.

Dechow, D. R.; Norris, B.; Amundson, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Tech-X Corp; FNAL

2007-01-01

3

Combining Data Sharing with the Master-Worker Paradigm in the Common Component Architecture  

E-print Network

Combining Data Sharing with the Master-Worker Paradigm in the Common Component Architecture Gabriel. This approach is applied to the Common Component Architecture model. Its benefits are discussed using an image paradigm [3], and support for data sharing among components [4]. Communication between components

Boyer, Edmond

4

Toward a Common Component Architecture for HighPerformance Scientific Computing \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Toward a Common Component Architecture for High­Performance Scientific Computing \\Lambda Rob for interoperability among high­performance scien­ tific components. This research stems from growing recog­ nition for fast connections among components that perform numeri­ cally intensive work and for parallel collective

Utah, University of

5

Toward a Common Component Architecture for High-Performance Scientific Computing  

E-print Network

Toward a Common Component Architecture for High-Performance Scientific Computing Rob Armstrongy Abstract This paper describes work in progress to develop a stan- dard for interoperability among high among components that perform numeri- cally intensive work and for parallel collective interactions

Utah, University of

6

Toward a common component architecture for high-performance scientific computing  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes work in progress to develop a standard for interoperability among high-performance scientific components. This research stems from growing recognition that the scientific community must better manage the complexity of multidisciplinary simulations and better address scalable performance issues on parallel and distributed architectures. Driving forces are the need for fast connections among components that perform numerically intensive work and parallel collective interactions among components that use multiple processes or threads. This paper focuses on the areas we believe are most crucial for such interactions, namely an interface definition language that supports scientific abstractions for specifying component interfaces and a ports connection model for specifying component interactions.

Armstrong, R; Gannon, D; Geist, A; Katarzyna, K; Kohn, S; McInnes, L; Parker, S; Smolinski, B

1999-06-09

7

Cognitive Architecture of Common and Scientific Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cognitive architecture of concept is a specific structure consisting of the concept core, concept periphery, the semantic frame as the meaning and the sense of the concept, and the relations among all components of this structure. The model of the cognitive architecture of scientific and common concepts is a conceptual meta-model built upon Vygotsky's concept theory, Fillmore's semantic frame, semantic triangle, on widespread ideas of the structuring of conceptual systems, and the Hestenes' Modeling Theory. The method of semantic mapping of concepts flowing from the model is designed.

Tarbek, Paul

2010-07-01

8

Parallel, Multigrid Finite Element Simulator for Fractured/Faulted and Other Complex Reservoirs based on Common Component Architecture (CCA)  

SciTech Connect

Black-oil, compositional and thermal simulators have been developed to address different physical processes in reservoir simulation. A number of different types of discretization methods have also been proposed to address issues related to representing the complex reservoir geometry. These methods are more significant for fractured reservoirs where the geometry can be particularly challenging. In this project, a general modular framework for reservoir simulation was developed, wherein the physical models were efficiently decoupled from the discretization methods. This made it possible to couple any discretization method with different physical models. Oil characterization methods are becoming increasingly sophisticated, and it is possible to construct geologically constrained models of faulted/fractured reservoirs. Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) simulation provides the option of performing multiphase calculations on spatially explicit, geologically feasible fracture sets. Multiphase DFN simulations of and sensitivity studies on a wide variety of fracture networks created using fracture creation/simulation programs was undertaken in the first part of this project. This involved creating interfaces to seamlessly convert the fracture characterization information into simulator input, grid the complex geometry, perform the simulations, and analyze and visualize results. Benchmarking and comparison with conventional simulators was also a component of this work. After demonstration of the fact that multiphase simulations can be carried out on complex fracture networks, quantitative effects of the heterogeneity of fracture properties were evaluated. Reservoirs are populated with fractures of several different scales and properties. A multiscale fracture modeling study was undertaken and the effects of heterogeneity and storage on water displacement dynamics in fractured basements were investigated. In gravity-dominated systems, more oil could be recovered at a given pore volume of injection at lower rates. However, if oil production can be continued at high water cuts, the discounted cumulative production usually favors higher production rates. The workflow developed during the project was also used to perform multiphase simulations in heterogeneous, fracture-matrix systems. Compositional and thermal-compositional simulators were developed for fractured reservoirs using the generalized framework. The thermal-compositional simulator was based on a novel 'equation-alignment' approach that helped choose the correct variables to solve depending on the number of phases present and the prescribed component partitioning. The simulators were used in steamflooding and in insitu combustion applications. The framework was constructed to be inherently parallel. The partitioning routines employed in the framework allowed generalized partitioning on highly complex fractured reservoirs and in instances when wells (incorporated in these models as line sources) were divided between two or more processors.

Milind Deo; Chung-Kan Huang; Huabing Wang

2008-08-31

9

IBM Common Cryptographic Architecture (CCA) and  

E-print Network

math functions for RSA and similar public-key cryptographic algorithms A flexible solution to your high IBM Common Cryptographic Architecture (CCA) and PKCS #11 Support Programs Custom software options while installed in application systems IBM 4758 Models 2 and 23 PCI Cryptographic Coprocessor Highlights

Ramkumar, Mahalingam

10

Common element key to multiprocessor architecture  

SciTech Connect

The described multiprocessing system uses only one kind of microprocessoras a common intelligent element in order to offer faster response with greater throughput. Unusual design features overcome some of the drawbacks which limit other multiprocessing architectures. A hierarchy of buses allows communication among the master processor, the subordinate processors, and local modules within a subordinate processors, and local modules within a subordinate processor. A flexible set of address mappings allows processors to access the distributed memory. Subordinate processors have two distinct address mappings in order to make different memory regions available on the various buses. The resulting high performance architecture is easily customised for a variety of applications.

Ang, W.S.

1981-10-01

11

A Component Architecture for High-Performance Computing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This preprint, written by researchers at Oak Ridge and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, discusses some important design decisions involved in developing a high-performance computer architecture for scientific applications. The authors introduce the Common Component Architecture and its orientation toward the general computing needs of the scientific community, as opposed to other approaches that are suitable only for specific tasks. The proposed methodology illuminates many aspects of future generations of large scale computing efforts.

Bernholdt, D. E.; Elwasif, W. R.; Epperly, T. G.; Kohl, J. S.

12

An Authorization Framework for a Grid Based Component Architecture  

E-print Network

and authorization systems. Our prototype is based on XCAT, an implementation of the Common Component Architecture computation. An implementation of the CCA specification, called XCAT [7], has been built using the same web service technology as used in OGSA. While OGSA provides a model for building Grid Services, XCAT provides

13

Component architecture of the Tecolote framework  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Tecolote Framework is used in conjunction with other libraries by several physical simulations. This paper briefly describes the design and use of Tecolote`s component architecture. A component is a C++ class that meets several requirements imposed by the framework to increase its reusability, configurability, and ease of replacement. The authors discuss both the motives for imposing these requirements upon components and the means by which a generic C++ class may be integrated into Tecolote by satisfying these requirements. They also describe the means by which these components may be combined into a physics application.

Zander, M.; Hall, J.; Painter, J.; O`Rourke, S.

1998-11-01

14

Component architecture in drug discovery informatics.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the characteristics of a new model of computing that has been spurred on by the Internet, known as Netcentric computing. Developments in this model led to distributed component architectures, which, although not new ideas, are now realizable with modern tools such as Enterprise Java. The application of this approach to scientific computing, particularly in pharmaceutical discovery research, is discussed and highlighted by a particular case involving the management of biological assay data. PMID:12058611

Smith, Peter M

2002-05-01

15

CAPRI : a common architecture for distributed probabilistic Internet fault diagnosis  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a new approach to root cause localization and fault diagnosis in the Internet based on a Common Architecture for Probabilistic Reasoning in the Internet (CAPRI) in which distributed, heterogeneous ...

Lee, George J. (George Janbing), 1979-

2007-01-01

16

CAPRI: A Common Architecture for Distributed Probabilistic Internet Fault Diagnosis  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a new approach to root cause localization and fault diagnosis in the Internet based on a Common Architecture for Probabilistic Reasoning in the Internet (CAPRI) in which distributed, heterogeneous ...

Lee, George J.

2007-06-04

17

Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components  

SciTech Connect

There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and maintenance support. Each product is briefly described in Appendix A. Selection of the most appropriate software package for a particular application will depend on the chosen component, system, or structure. Ongoing research will determine the most appropriate choices for a successful demonstration of PHM systems in aging NPPs.

N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

2011-08-01

18

Software Architecture: Foundation of a Software Component Marketplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a characterization of software architectures which become the foundation for the estab- lishment of marketplaces for software components. A description is made of a framework of key properties that a software architecture should exhibit to be the basis of a component marketplace. As examples of existing software component marketplaces, Unix filter and Visual Basic VBX marketplaces are

E. James Whitehead; Robbins Nenad; Medvidovic Richard; N. Taylor

1995-01-01

19

SIFT - A Component-Based Integration Architecture for Enterprise Analytics  

SciTech Connect

Architectures and technologies for enterprise application integration are relatively mature, resulting in a range of standards-based and proprietary middleware technologies. In the domain of complex analytical applications, integration architectures are not so well understood. Analytical applications such as those used in scientific discovery, emergency response, financial and intelligence analysis exert unique demands on their underlying architecture. These demands make existing integration middleware inappropriate for use in enterprise analytics environments. In this paper we describe SIFT (Scalable Information Fusion and Triage), a platform designed for integrating the various components that comprise enterprise analytics applications. SIFT exploits a common pattern for composing analytical components, and extends an existing messaging platform with dynamic configuration mechanisms and scaling capabilities. We demonstrate the use of SIFT to create a decision support platform for quality control based on large volumes of incoming delivery data. The strengths of the SIFT solution are discussed, and we conclude by describing where further work is required to create a complete solution applicable to a wide range of analytical application domains.

Thurman, David A.; Almquist, Justin P.; Gorton, Ian; Wynne, Adam S.; Chatterton, Jack

2007-02-01

20

The AstroGrid Common Execution Architecture (CEA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UK Virtual Observatory (VO) project AstroGrid (see http://www.astrogrid.org and related talks at this meeting) began in 2001 and is nearing the successful completion of its first release in December 2004. This paper describes AstroGrid's Common Execution Architecture (CEA). This is an attempt to create a reasonably small set of interfaces and schema to model how to execute a typical astronomical application within the VO. The CEA has been designed primarily to work within a web services framework, with the parameter passing mechanism layered on top of this so that the web interface for all applications is described by a single constant piece of WSDL - the differences between applications are expressed by the registry entries for each application. Within AstroGrid we have created pluggable components that can wrap legacy command-line applications, HTTP GET/POST applications and databases as CEA compliant web services, which when combined with the Astrogrid Workflow component make distributed processing within the VO a reality. See http://www.astrogrid.org/maven/docs/snapshot/applications/ for current information.

Harrison, P.; Winstanley, N.; Taylor, J. D.

2005-12-01

21

System Development Using the Integrating Component Architectures Process  

E-print Network

with COTS products. The Integrating Component Architectures Process (ICAP) outlines a process that includes predicting interoperability conflicts among independent components, COTS included, based on architectural and more cost-effective maintenance and migration of legacy systems, as well as the use of COTS products

Gamble, R. F.

22

New architectures support for ALMA common software: lessons learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a distributed control framework based on CORBA that provides communication between distributed pieces of software. Because of its size and complexity it provides its own compilation system, a mix of several technologies. The current ACS compilation process depends on specific tools, compilers, code generation, and a strict dependency model induced by the large number of software components. This document presents a summary of several porting and compatibility attempts at using ACS on platforms other than the officially supported one. A porting of ACS to the Microsoft Windows Platform and to the ARM processor architecture were attempted, with different grades of success. Also, support for LINUX-PREEMPT (a set of real-time patches for the Linux kernel) using a new design for real-time services was implemented. These efforts were integrated with the ACS building and compilation system, while others were included in its design. Lessons learned in this process are presented, and a general approach is extracted from them.

Menay, Camilo E.; Zamora, Gabriel A.; Tobar, Rodrigo J.; Avarias, Jorge A.; Dahl-skog, Kevin R.; von Brand, Horst H.; Chiozzi, Gianluca

2010-07-01

23

C.Sc. 131: Systems Architecture -2006 Assembling the Components  

E-print Network

rate. · Clock signals are used to synchronise the components. C.Sc. 131: Systems Architecture - 2006 cell contains 22 bits, cells addressed as 0 .. 1023. · Contents of micro memory can be accessed.Sc. 131: Systems Architecture - 2006 Features: Main Memory · Each cell contains 16 bits, cells addressed

Cheverst, Keith

24

ARCHITECTURE AND MAIN HARDWARE COMPONENTS OF THE FEL CONTROL SYSTEM  

E-print Network

ARCHITECTURE AND MAIN HARDWARE COMPONENTS OF THE FEL CONTROL SYSTEM E.N. Dementiev, V.R. Kozak, E characteristics of different communications standards used in the FEL control system are given as well as the reasons for choosing certain standards. Main issues of the future development of the control system

Kozak, Victor R.

25

Component Architectures and Web-Based Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Web has caught the attention of many educators as an efficient communication medium and content delivery system. But we feel there is another aspect of the Web that has not been given the attention it deserves. We call this aspect of the Web its "component architecture." Briefly it means that on the Web one can develop very complex

Ferdig, Richard E.; Mishra, Punya; Zhao, Yong

2004-01-01

26

Optimal Design of Hierarchic Components Platform under Hybrid Modular Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platform-based product family has been proven an effective strategy to economically provide wide market coverage. However, two practical platform design issues need to be properly handled: (1) commonized components require over-design of features that drives capability waste and additional costs with regard to the lower end product variants, and (2) commonization pattern of components is constrained by couplings of the

Yan Ling Cai; Andrew Y. C. Nee; Wen Feng Lu

2009-01-01

27

Comparing G matrices: are common principal components informative?  

PubMed Central

Common principal components (CPC) analysis is a technique for assessing whether variance-covariance matrices from different populations have similar structure. One potential application is to compare additive genetic variance-covariance matrices, G. In this article, the conditions under which G matrices are expected to have common PCs are derived for a two-locus, two-allele model and the model of constrained pleiotropy. The theory demonstrates that whether G matrices are expected to have common PCs is largely determined by whether pleiotropic effects have a modular organization. If two (or more) populations have modules and these modules have the same direction, the G matrices have a common PC, regardless of allele frequencies. In the absence of modules, common PCs exist only for very restricted combinations of allele frequencies. Together, these two results imply that, when populations are evolving, common PCs are expected only when the populations have modules in common. These results have two implications: (1) In general, G matrices will not have common PCs, and (2) when they do, these PCs indicate common modular organization. The interpretation of common PCs identified for estimates of G matrices is discussed in light of these results. PMID:14504246

Mezey, Jason G; Houle, David

2003-01-01

28

Common and Cluster-Specific Simultaneous Component Analysis  

PubMed Central

In many fields of research, so-called multiblock data are collected, i.e., data containing multivariate observations that are nested within higher-level research units (e.g., inhabitants of different countries). Each higher-level unit (e.g., country) then corresponds to a data block. For such data, it may be interesting to investigate the extent to which the correlation structure of the variables differs between the data blocks. More specifically, when capturing the correlation structure by means of component analysis, one may want to explore which components are common across all data blocks and which components differ across the data blocks. This paper presents a common and cluster-specific simultaneous component method which clusters the data blocks according to their correlation structure and allows for common and cluster-specific components. Model estimation and model selection procedures are described and simulation results validate their performance. Also, the method is applied to data from cross-cultural values research to illustrate its empirical value. PMID:23667463

De Roover, Kim; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Mesquita, Batja; Ceulemans, Eva

2013-01-01

29

A Proven Ground System Architecture for Promoting Collaboration and Common Solutions at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's "GMSEC" ground system architecture was presented at GSAW2003 as a concept being studied. GMSEC would utilize a publish/subscribe middleware framework and standardized interfaces to allow custom and COTS ground system components to plug-and-play. This capability, in turn, would reduce integration costs, allow for technology infusion over time, and encourage the development and sharing of common components across missions and organizations. At GSAW2004, GMSEC was presented at a breakout session as a system working well in the NASA lab and being applied as an integral piece of reengineering efforts for several GSFC missions. Today, GMSEC is supporting five satellites at GSFC and has been selected by several future missions. Over 30 plug-and-play components are now available to missions using the GMSEC approach. Other organizations, including Marshall Space Flight Center, Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physic Lab, and the Institute for Scientific Research are each developing GMSEC-compatible components. Based on the success of GMSEC and efforts at other NASA Centers, the message bus approach is now being evaluated as a NASA Agency-wide approach for many future missions involving multiple NASA Centers as we move towards the goals of NASA s new Exploration Initiative. The presentation will explain the basic technical concepts of using a publish/subscribe framework for mission operations support (and its applicability to flight systems as well). Lessons learned on NASA's GMSEC program will allow the audience to better understand the significant benefits of this architecture approach over the traditional "one-off" solution approach. The point of the presentation is to show the long-term benefits of using a ground system architecture which incorporates many of the successful GMSEC concepts - message bus, mix of COTS and custom software, standard interfaces, plug-and-play, etc. The implications for the development process will also be discussed.

Smith, Danford

2005-01-01

30

Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) System Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document captures the system architecture for a Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) capability needed for electronics maintenance and repair of the Constellation Program (CxP). CLEAR is intended to improve flight system supportability and reduce the mass of spares required to maintain the electronics of human rated spacecraft on long duration missions. By necessity it allows the crew to make repairs that would otherwise be performed by Earth based repair depots. Because of practical knowledge and skill limitations of small spaceflight crews they must be augmented by Earth based support crews and automated repair equipment. This system architecture covers the complete system from ground-user to flight hardware and flight crew and defines an Earth segment and a Space segment. The Earth Segment involves database management, operational planning, and remote equipment programming and validation processes. The Space Segment involves the automated diagnostic, test and repair equipment required for a complete repair process. This document defines three major subsystems including, tele-operations that links the flight hardware to ground support, highly reconfigurable diagnostics and test instruments, and a CLEAR Repair Apparatus that automates the physical repair process.

Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

2011-01-01

31

A Plug and Play GNC Architecture Using FPGA Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of Plug and Play, or PnP, is to allow hardware and software components to work together automatically, without requiring manual setup procedures. As a result, new or replacement hardware can be plugged into a system and automatically configured with the appropriate resource assignments. However, in many cases it may not be practical or even feasible to physically replace hardware components. One method for handling these types of situations is through the incorporation of reconfigurable hardware such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays, or FPGAs. This paper describes a phased approach to developing a Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) architecture that expands on the traditional concepts of PnP, in order to accommodate hardware reconfiguration without requiring detailed knowledge of the hardware. This is achieved by establishing a functional based interface that defines how the hardware will operate, and allow the hardware to reconfigure itself. The resulting system combines the flexibility of manipulating software components with the speed and efficiency of hardware.

KrishnaKumar, K.; Kaneshige, J.; Waterman, R.; Pires, C.; Ippoloito, C.

2005-01-01

32

Most common 'sporadic' cancers have a significant germline genetic component.  

PubMed

Common cancers have been demarcated into 'hereditary' or 'sporadic' ('non-hereditary') types historically. Such distinctions initially arose from work identifying rare, highly penetrant germline mutations causing 'hereditary' cancer. While rare mutations are important in particular families, most cases in the general population are 'sporadic'. Twin studies have suggested that many 'sporadic' cancers show little or no heritability. To quantify the role of germline mutations in cancer susceptibility, we applied a method for estimating the importance of common genetic variants (array heritability, h(2)g) to twelve cancer types. The following cancers showed a significant (P < 0.05) array heritability: melanoma USA set h(2)g = 0.19 (95% CI = 0.01-0.37) and Australian set h(2)g = 0.30 (0.10-0.50); pancreatic h(2)g = 0.18 (0.06-0.30); prostate h(2)g = 0.81 (0.32-1); kidney h(2)g = 0.18 (0.04-0.32); ovarian h(2)g = 0.30 (0.18-0.42); esophageal adenocarcinoma h(2)g = 0.24 (0.14-0.34); esophageal squamous cell carcinoma h(2)g = 0.19 (0.07-0.31); endometrial UK set h(2)g = 0.23 (0.01-0.45) and Australian set h(2)g = 0.39 (0.02-0.76). Three cancers showed a positive but non-significant effect: breast h(2) g = 0.13 (0-0.56); gastric h(2)g = 0.11 (0-0.27); lung h(2)g = 0.10 (0-0.24). One cancer showed a small effect: bladder h(2)g = 0.01 (0-0.11). Among these cancers, previous twin studies were only able to show heritability for prostate and breast cancer, but we can now make much stronger statements for several common cancers which emphasize the important role of genetic variants in cancer susceptibility. We have demonstrated that several 'sporadic' cancers have a significant inherited component. Larger genome-wide association studies in these cancers will continue to find more loci, which explain part of the remaining polygenic component. PMID:24943595

Lu, Yi; Ek, Weronica E; Whiteman, David; Vaughan, Thomas L; Spurdle, Amanda B; Easton, Douglas F; Pharoah, Paul D; Thompson, Deborah J; Dunning, Alison M; Hayward, Nicholas K; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Macgregor, Stuart

2014-11-15

33

Aesthetic preferences for architecture do not rely on commonly shared semantic distinctions  

E-print Network

Aesthetic preferences for architecture do not rely on commonly shared semantic distinctions Alexander H. Denker, G. Gabrielle Starr, Edward A. Vessel New York University What drives our aesthetic. The editor needs to know structures are the most aesthetically pleasing based on how strongly you

Vessel, Edward A.

34

Service Component Architecture for Vending Machine System in Cloud Computing Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a software integration model of service component architecture in the vending industry. We use this architecture to rapidly integrate related services, substantially reduce development costs, establish innovative services, and provide consumers with a brand new experiential shopping environment in retail domain. Meanwhile, we apply a cloud computing technology to solve the following problem: service over loading in

Feng-cheng Lin; Yi-shiou Lee; Chih-Hao Hsu; Kuan-Yu Chen; Tzu-chun Weng

2009-01-01

35

A Successful Component Architecture for Interoperable and Evolvable Ground Data Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has adopted an open architecture approach for satellite control centers and is now realizing benefits beyond those originally envisioned. The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) architecture utilizes standardized interfaces and a middleware software bus to allow functional components to be easily integrated. This paper presents the GMSEC architectural goals and concepts, the capabilities enabled and the benefits realized by adopting this framework approach. NASA experiences with applying the GMSEC architecture on multiple missions are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of lessons learned, future directions for GMSEC and the possible applications beyond NASA GSFC.

Smith, Danford S.; Bristow, John O.; Wilmot, Jonathan

2006-01-01

36

Comparing covariance matrices: Random skewers method compared to the common principal components model  

E-print Network

Comparing covariance matrices: Random skewers method compared to the common principal components of covariance patterns are becoming more common as interest in the evolution of relationships be- tween traits-statistics, and Common Principal Components (CPC) approaches. We find that the CPC approach is very powerful

Cheverud, James M.

37

Common relationships among proximate composition components in fishes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relationships between the various body proximate components and dry matter content were examined for five species of fishes, representing anadromous, marine and freshwater species: chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix and striped bass Morone saxatilis. The dry matter content or per cent dry mass of these fishes can be used to reliably predict the per cent composition of the other components. Therefore, with validation it is possible to estimate fat, protein and ash content of fishes from per cent dry mass information, reducing the need for costly and time-consuming laboratory proximate analysis. This approach coupled with new methods of non-lethal estimation of per cent dry mass, such as from bioelectrical impedance analysis, can provide non-destructive measurements of proximate composition of fishes. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Hartman, K.J.; Margraf, F.J.

2008-01-01

38

A Proven Ground System Architecture for Promoting Collaboration and Common Solutions at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirement: Improve how NASA develops and maintains ground data systems for dozens of missions, with a couple new missions always in the development phase. Decided in 2001 on enhanced message-bus architecture. Users offered choices for major components. They plug and play because key interfaces are all the same. Can support COTS, heritage, and new software. Even the middleware can be switched. Project name: GMSEC. Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center.

Smith, Danford

2005-01-01

39

A Visual Data Mapping Tool for Software Components Interactions in Service-Oriented Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the spread of Service-Oriented Architectures, software components are exposed as Web services whose orchestration is gaining more and more importance. Several CASE tools and development frameworks have been put in place for representing conversations and composition without requiring designers to bother about implementation issues. However, as data sources for the exposed software components are arbitrary, data management problems within

Marco Brambilla; Stefano Ceri; Sara Comai; Christina Tziviskou

2006-01-01

40

Adding a Resilience-Enhanced Component to the WfMC Reference Architecture  

E-print Network

1 Adding a Resilience-Enhanced Component to the WfMC Reference Architecture Pedro Antunes1 to support organizational resilience. We propose a workflow component responsible for moving control between the fundamental resilience properties: diagnosis, escalation, collaboration, monitoring and recovery. Keywords

Antunes, Pedro

41

Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Overview and Architectural Tenets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: 1) Command and control and mission management for the Suomi National Polar Partnership (S-NPP) mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite and the Polar Free Flyer mission in 2017 2) Data acquisition via a Polar Receptor Network (PRN) for S-NPP, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the Department of Defense (DoD) 3) Data routing over a global fiber Wide Area Network (WAN) for S-NPP, JPSS-1, Polar Free Flyer, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN, which includes several Earth Observing System [EOS] missions), MetOp for the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) 4) Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS architecture will receive a technology refresh in 2015 to satisfy several key objectives: 1) 'Operationalizing' Suomi NPP, which had originally been intended as a risk reduction mission 2) Leveraging lessons learned to date in multi-mission support 3) Taking advantage of newer, more reliable and efficient technologies 4) Satisfying new requirements and constraints due to the continually evolving budgetary environment To meet these needs, we are upgrading the CGS in the following ways: 1) Performing a system-wide technology refresh for enhanced performance and security 2) Establishing a new front end architecture and augmenting the PRN for mission data transport 3) Standardizing data protocols to accommodate an even wider variety of missions 4) Enhancing flexibility and modularity in IDPS for new and evolving algorithms 5) Achieving comprehensive situational awareness 6) Deploying a full backup capability for Continuity of Operations (COOP) 7) Providing an enclave in compliance with the latest security standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800-53 This paper will provide an overview of the CGS as it is deployed and operating today, along with a summary of the architectural tenets that will facilitate even easier incorporation of new missions and applications in 2015.

Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

2013-12-01

42

Using an architectural approach to integrate heterogeneous, distributed software components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many computer programs cannot be easily integrated because their components are distributed and heterogeneous, i.e., they are implemented in diverse programming languages, use different data representation formats, or their runtime environments are incompatible. In many cases, programs are integrated by modifying their components or interposing mechanisms that handle communication and conversion tasks. For example, remote procedure call (RPC) helps integrate heterogeneous, distributed programs. When configuring such programs, however, mechanisms like RPC must be used explicitly by software developers in order to integrate collections of diverse components. Each collection may require a unique integration solution. This paper describes improvements to the concepts of software packaging and some of our experiences in constructing complex software systems from a wide variety of components in different execution environments. Software packaging is a process that automatically determines how to integrate a diverse collection of computer programs based on the types of components involved and the capabilities of available translators and adapters in an environment. Software packaging provides a context that relates such mechanisms to software integration processes and reduces the cost of configuring applications whose components are distributed or implemented in different programming languages. Our software packaging tool subsumes traditional integration tools like UNIX make by providing a rule-based approach to software integration that is independent of execution environments.

Callahan, John R.; Purtilo, James M.

1995-01-01

43

A Systems Approach to Developing an Affordable Space Ground Transportation Architecture using a Commonality Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a structured approach for achieving a compatible Ground System (GS) and Flight System (FS) architecture that is affordable, productive and sustainable. This paper is an extension of the paper titled "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System" by McCleskey et al. This paper integrates systems engineering concepts and operationally efficient propulsion system concepts into a structured framework for achieving GS and FS compatibility in the mid-term and long-term time frames. It also presents a functional and quantitative relationship for assessing system compatibility called the Architecture Complexity Index (ACI). This paper: (1) focuses on systems engineering fundamentals as it applies to improving GS and FS compatibility; (2) establishes mid-term and long-term spaceport goals; (3) presents an overview of transitioning a spaceport to an airport model; (4) establishes a framework for defining a ground system architecture; (5) presents the ACI concept; (6) demonstrates the approach by presenting a comparison of different GS architectures; and (7) presents a discussion on the benefits of using this approach with a focus on commonality.

Garcia, Jerry L.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Bollo, Timothy R.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Robinson, John W.

2012-01-01

44

Can Core Components in Mathematics Courses Replace Comprehensive Common Course Finals? AIR 1996 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to balance common academic outcomes, as measured by common course finals, with faculty's individual teaching styles, Johnson County Community College (Kansas) mathematics faculty developed "core components" for 10 of the mathematics courses offered in Spring 1995. The core components were designed by faculty teaching each course, and

Duckwall, Julia M.; Wilson, Steven J.

45

Qinna, a Component-Based QoS Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Component-Based Software Engineering is quickly becom- ing a mainstream approach to software development. At the same time, there is a massive shift from desktop applications to embedded commu- nicating systems (e.g. PDAs or smartphones): it is especially the case for multimedia applications such as video players, music players, etc. More- over, embedded communicating systems have to deal with open aspect:

Jean-charles Tournier; Jean-philippe Babau; Vincent Olive

2005-01-01

46

Competency-Driven, Component-Based Curriculum Architecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines an approach to curriculum development that stresses a competency-driven framework including competency identification, curriculum development, and performance measurement, as well as a component-based approach to educational development and training asset management. Set in a professional services firm, the framework could serve as a

Friedlander, Philip

1996-01-01

47

Unifying Architectural and Behavioural Specifications of Distributed Components  

E-print Network

calls with futures, concretely in the frame of the Grid Component Model (GCM) [12]. The GCM is a novel.Last@sophia.inria.fr Abstract We present a novel specification language called JDC to be used at design phase of distributed Model, with extensions addressing Grid computing. From Fractal, GCM inherits a hierarchical structure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

48

Augmenting Software Architectures with Physical Components Ajinkya Bhave1  

E-print Network

, and the interactions between physical and cyber components. We intro- duce a new cyber-physical system (CPS approaches often impose an early separation be- tween the cyber and physical features of the system design elements in embedded control systems and other cyber-physical systems (CPS). Our goal is to create a CPS

Garlan, David

49

Software Architecture: Foundation of a Software Component Marketplace E. James Whitehead, Jr. Jason E. Robbins Nenad Medvidovic Richard N. Taylor  

E-print Network

Software Architecture: Foundation of a Software Component Marketplace E. James Whitehead, Jr. Jason for the estab- lishment of marketplaces for software components. A description is made of a framework of key properties that a software architecture should exhibit to be the basis of a component marketplace

Whitehead, James

50

Common and unique components of response inhibition revealed by fMRI  

E-print Network

among tasks were low, for both brain activity and performance. We suggest that common interferenceCommon and unique components of response inhibition revealed by fMRI Tor D. Wager(a,T Ching-Yune C evidence for a common set of frontal and parietal regions engaged in response inhibition across three tasks

Jonides, John

51

Power optimization of digital baseband WCDMA receiver components on algorithmic and architectural level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High data rates combined with high mobility represent a challenge for the design of cellular devices. Advanced algorithms are required which result in higher complexity, more chip area and increased power consumption. However, this contrasts to the limited power supply of mobile devices. This presentation discusses the application of an HSDPA receiver which has been optimized regarding power consumption with the focus on the algorithmic and architectural level. On algorithmic level the Rake combiner, Prefilter-Rake equalizer and MMSE equalizer are compared regarding their BER performance. Both equalizer approaches provide a significant increase of performance for high data rates compared to the Rake combiner which is commonly used for lower data rates. For both equalizer approaches several adaptive algorithms are available which differ in complexity and convergence properties. To identify the algorithm which achieves the required performance with the lowest power consumption the algorithms have been investigated using SystemC models regarding their performance and arithmetic complexity. Additionally, for the Prefilter Rake equalizer the power estimations of a modified Griffith (LMS) and a Levinson (RLS) algorithm have been compared with the tool ORINOCO supplied by ChipVision. The accuracy of this tool has been verified with a scalable architecture of the UMTS channel estimation described both in SystemC and VHDL targeting a 130 nm CMOS standard cell library. An architecture combining all three approaches combined with an adaptive control unit is presented. The control unit monitors the current condition of the propagation channel and adjusts parameters for the receiver like filter size and oversampling ratio to minimize the power consumption while maintaining the required performance. The optimization strategies result in a reduction of the number of arithmetic operations up to 70% for single components which leads to an estimated power reduction of up to 40% while the BER performance is not affected. This work utilizes SystemC and ORINOCO for the first estimation of power consumption in an early step of the design flow. Thereby algorithms can be compared in different operating modes including the effects of control units. Here an algorithm having higher peak complexity and power consumption but providing more flexibility showed less consumption for normal operating modes compared to the algorithm which is optimized for peak performance.

Schmann, M.; Bcker, M.; Hessel, S.; Langmann, U.

2008-05-01

52

Comparison of pelvic muscle architecture between humans and commonly used laboratory species  

PubMed Central

Introduction and hypothesis Pelvic floor muscles (PFM) are deleteriously affected by vaginal birth, which contributes to the development of pelvic floor disorders. To mechanistically link these events, experiments using animal models are required, as access to human PFM tissue is challenging. In choosing an animal model, a comparative study of PFM design is necessary, since gross anatomy alone is insufficient to guide the selection. Methods Human PFM architecture was measured using micromechanical dissection and then compared with mouse (n=10), rat (n=10), and rabbit (n=10) using the Architectural Difference Index (ADI) (parameterizing a combined measure of sarcomere length-to-optimal-sarcomere ratio, fiber-to-muscle-length ratio, and fraction of total PFM mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) contributed by each muscle). Coccygeus (C), iliocaudalis (IC), and pubocaudalis (PC) were harvested and subjected to architectural measurements. Parameters within species were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Tukey's tests. The scaling relationships of PFM across species were quantified using least-squares regression of log-10-transformed variables. Results Based on the ADI, rat was found to be the most similar to humans (ADI = 2.5), followed by mouse (ADI = 3.3). When animals' body mass was regressed against muscle mass, muscle length, fiber length, and PCSA scaling coefficients showed a negative allometric relationship or smaller increase than predicted by geometric scaling. Conclusion In terms of muscle design among commonly used laboratory animals, rat best approximates the human PFM, followed by mouse. Negative allometric scaling of PFM architectural parameters is likely due to the multifaceted function of these muscles. PMID:24915840

Alperin, Marianna; Tuttle, Lori J.; Conner, Blair R.; Dixon, Danielle M.; Mathewson, Margie A.; Ward, Samuel R.

2014-01-01

53

The architectural relationship of components controlling mast cell endocytosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Eukaryotic cells use multiple routes for receptor internalization. Here, we examine the topographical relationships of clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytic structures on the plasma membranes of leukemia-derived mast cells. The high affinity IgE receptor (Fc?RI) utilizes both pathways, whereas transferrin receptor serves as a marker for the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. Both receptors were tracked by live-cell imaging in the presence or absence of inhibitors that established their differential dependence on specific endocytic adaptor proteins. The topology of antigen-bound Fc?RI, clathrin, dynamin, Arf6 and Eps15-positive structures were analyzed by 2D and 3D immunoelectron microscopy techniques, revealing their remarkable spatial relationships and unique geometry. We conclude that the mast cell plasma membrane has multiple specialized domains for endocytosis. Their close proximity might reflect shared components, such as lipids and adaptor proteins, that facilitate inward membrane curvature. Intersections between these specialized domains might represent sorting stations that direct cargo to specific endocytic pathways. PMID:23986485

Cleyrat, Cdric; Darehshouri, Anza; Anderson, Karen L.; Page, Christopher; Lidke, Diane S.; Volkmann, Niels; Hanein, Dorit; Wilson, Bridget S.

2013-01-01

54

Generation of Component Based Architecture from Business Processes: Model Driven Engineering for SOA  

E-print Network

Generation of Component Based Architecture from Business Processes: Model Driven Engineering-running business service composition models drive their supporting service implementation models. To progress organiza- tions must reflect evolutions in their existing business pro- cess models, the IT must also adapt

Boyer, Edmond

55

Integrating COTS Software Components into Dependable Software Architectures Paulo Asterio de C. Guerra Alexander Romanovsky Rogrio de Lemos  

E-print Network

Integrating COTS Software Components into Dependable Software Architectures Paulo Asterio de C work. This paper considers the problem of integrating com- mercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software an architectural solution to turning COTS components into idealised fault-tolerant COTS compo- nents by adding

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

56

On Studying Common Factor Variance in Multiple-Component Measuring Instruments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for examining common factor variance in multiple-component measuring instruments is outlined. The procedure is based on an application of the latent variable modeling methodology and is concerned with evaluating observed variance explained by a global factor and by one or more additional component-specific factors. The approach furnishes

Raykov, Tenko; Pohl, Steffi

2013-01-01

57

A component-based, distributed object services architecture for a clinical workstation.  

PubMed

Attention to an architectural framework in the development of clinical applications can promote reusability of both legacy systems as well as newly designed software. We describe one approach to an architecture for a clinical workstation application which is based on a critical middle tier of distributed object-oriented services. This tier of network-based services provides flexibility in the creation of both the user interface and the database tiers. We developed a clinical workstation for ambulatory care using this architecture, defining a number of core services including those for vocabulary, patient index, documents, charting, security, and encounter management. These services can be implemented through proprietary or more standard distributed object interfaces such as CORBA and OLE. Services are accessed over the network by a collection of user interface components which can be mixed and matched to form a variety of interface styles. These services have also been reused with several applications based on World Wide Web browser interfaces. PMID:8947744

Chueh, H C; Raila, W F; Pappas, J J; Ford, M; Zatsman, P; Tu, J; Barnett, G O

1996-01-01

58

Investigation of a novel common subexpression elimination method for low power and area efficient DCT architecture.  

PubMed

A wide interest has been observed to find a low power and area efficient hardware design of discrete cosine transform (DCT) algorithm. This research work proposed a novel Common Subexpression Elimination (CSE) based pipelined architecture for DCT, aimed at reproducing the cost metrics of power and area while maintaining high speed and accuracy in DCT applications. The proposed design combines the techniques of Canonical Signed Digit (CSD) representation and CSE to implement the multiplier-less method for fixed constant multiplication of DCT coefficients. Furthermore, symmetry in the DCT coefficient matrix is used with CSE to further decrease the number of arithmetic operations. This architecture needs a single-port memory to feed the inputs instead of multiport memory, which leads to reduction of the hardware cost and area. From the analysis of experimental results and performance comparisons, it is observed that the proposed scheme uses minimum logic utilizing mere 340 slices and 22 adders. Moreover, this design meets the real time constraints of different video/image coders and peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR) requirements. Furthermore, the proposed technique has significant advantages over recent well-known methods along with accuracy in terms of power reduction, silicon area usage, and maximum operating frequency by 41%, 15%, and 15%, respectively. PMID:25133249

Siddiqui, M F; Reza, A W; Kanesan, J; Ramiah, H

2014-01-01

59

Investigation of a Novel Common Subexpression Elimination Method for Low Power and Area Efficient DCT Architecture  

PubMed Central

A wide interest has been observed to find a low power and area efficient hardware design of discrete cosine transform (DCT) algorithm. This research work proposed a novel Common Subexpression Elimination (CSE) based pipelined architecture for DCT, aimed at reproducing the cost metrics of power and area while maintaining high speed and accuracy in DCT applications. The proposed design combines the techniques of Canonical Signed Digit (CSD) representation and CSE to implement the multiplier-less method for fixed constant multiplication of DCT coefficients. Furthermore, symmetry in the DCT coefficient matrix is used with CSE to further decrease the number of arithmetic operations. This architecture needs a single-port memory to feed the inputs instead of multiport memory, which leads to reduction of the hardware cost and area. From the analysis of experimental results and performance comparisons, it is observed that the proposed scheme uses minimum logic utilizing mere 340 slices and 22 adders. Moreover, this design meets the real time constraints of different video/image coders and peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR) requirements. Furthermore, the proposed technique has significant advantages over recent well-known methods along with accuracy in terms of power reduction, silicon area usage, and maximum operating frequency by 41%, 15%, and 15%, respectively. PMID:25133249

Siddiqui, M. F.; Reza, A. W.; Kanesan, J.; Ramiah, H.

2014-01-01

60

Instrument Monitoring, Data Sharing, and Archiving Using Common Instrument Middleware Architecture (CIMA)  

SciTech Connect

The Common Instrument Middleware Architecture (CIMA) aims at Grid-enabling a wide range of scientific instruments and sensors to enable easy access to and sharing and storage of data produced by these instruments and sensors. This paper describes the implementation of CIMA applied to the field of single-crystal X-ray crystallography. To allow the researchers to easily view the current and past data streams from the instruments or sensors in a laboratory, a crystallography portal and associated portlets were developed for this application. The CIMA-based crystallography system provides an opportunity for anyone with Web access to observe and use crystallographic and other data from laboratories that previously had only limited access.

Bramley, Randall; Chiu, Kenneth; Devadithya, Tharaka; Gupta, Nisha; Hart, Charles; Huffman, John C.; Huffman, Kianosh; Ma, Yu; McMullen, Donald F. (SUNY); (Indiana)

2008-10-03

61

Integrating COTS Software Components into Dependable Software Architectures Paulo Asterio de C. Guerra Alexander Romanovsky Rogrio de Lemos  

E-print Network

Integrating COTS Software Components into Dependable Software Architectures Paulo Asterio de C-the-shelf (COTS) software components into systems with high dependability requirements. These components. An approach is described in this paper to how these techniques should be structured around the COTS component

Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

62

Frequency multiplexed flux locked loop architecture providing an array of DC SQUIDS having both shared and unshared components  

DOEpatents

Architecture for frequency multiplexing multiple flux locked loops in a system comprising an array of DC SQUID sensors. The architecture involves dividing the traditional flux locked loop into multiple unshared components and a single shared component which, in operation, form a complete flux locked loop relative to each DC SQUID sensor. Each unshared flux locked loop component operates on a different flux modulation frequency. The architecture of the present invention allows a reduction from 2N to N+1 in the number of connections between the cryogenic DC SQUID sensors and their associated room temperature flux locked loops. Furthermore, the 1.times.N architecture of the present invention can be paralleled to form an M.times.N array architecture without increasing the required number of flux modulation frequencies.

Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Independence, MO)

2002-01-01

63

Workflow-enabled distributed component-based information architecture for digital medical imaging enterprises.  

PubMed

Few information systems today offer a flexible means to define and manage the automated part of radiology processes, which provide clinical imaging services for the entire healthcare organization. Even fewer of them provide a coherent architecture that can easily cope with heterogeneity and inevitable local adaptation of applications and can integrate clinical and administrative information to aid better clinical, operational, and business decisions. We describe an innovative enterprise architecture of image information management systems to fill the needs. Such a system is based on the interplay of production workflow management, distributed object computing, Java and Web techniques, and in-depth domain knowledge in radiology operations. Our design adapts the approach of "4+1" architectural view. In this new architecture, PACS and RIS become one while the user interaction can be automated by customized workflow process. Clinical service applications are implemented as active components. They can be reasonably substituted by applications of local adaptations and can be multiplied for fault tolerance and load balancing. Furthermore, the workflow-enabled digital radiology system would provide powerful query and statistical functions for managing resources and improving productivity. This paper will potentially lead to a new direction of image information management. We illustrate the innovative design with examples taken from an implemented system. PMID:14518730

Wong, Stephen T C; Tjandra, Donny; Wang, Huili; Shen, Weimin

2003-09-01

64

Modularity in the mammalian dentition: Mice and monkeys share a common dental genetic architecture  

PubMed Central

The concept of modularity provides a useful tool for exploring the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Here, we use quantitative genetics to identify modularity within the mammalian dentition, connecting the genetics of organogenesis to the genetics of population-level variation for a phenotype well represented in the fossil record. We estimated the correlations between dental traits due to the shared additive effects of genes (pleiotropy) and compared the pleiotropic relationships among homologous traits in two evolutionary distant taxa mice and baboons. We find that in both mice and baboons, who shared a common ancestor >60 Ma, incisor size variation is genetically independent of molar size variation. Furthermore, baboon premolars show independent genetic variation from incisors, suggesting that a modular architecture separates incisors from these posterior teeth as well. Such genetic independence between modules provides an explanation for the extensive diversity of incisor size variation seen throughout mammalian evolution--variation uncorrelated with equivalent levels of postcanine tooth size variation. The modularity identified here is supported by the odontogenic homeobox code proposed for the patterning of the rodent dentition. The baboon postcanine pattern of incomplete pleiotropy is also consistent with predictions from the morphogenetic field model. PMID:20922775

Hlusko, Leslea J.; Sage, Richard D.; Mahaney, Michael C.

2010-01-01

65

The common structural architecture of Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhimurium type three secretion needles.  

PubMed

The Type Three Secretion System (T3SS), or injectisome, is a macromolecular infection machinery present in many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. It consists of a basal body, anchored in both bacterial membranes, and a hollow needle through which effector proteins are delivered into the target host cell. Two different architectures of the T3SS needle have been previously proposed. First, an atomic model of the Salmonella typhimurium needle was generated from solid-state NMR data. The needle subunit protein, PrgI, comprises a rigid-extended N-terminal segment and a helix-loop-helix motif with the N-terminus located on the outside face of the needle. Second, a model of the Shigella flexneri needle was generated from a high-resolution 7.7- cryo-electron microscopy density map. The subunit protein, MxiH, contains an N-terminal ?-helix, a loop, another ?-helix, a 14-residue-long ?-hairpin (Q51-Q64) and a C-terminal ?-helix, with the N-terminus facing inward to the lumen of the needle. In the current study, we carried out solid-state NMR measurements of wild-type Shigella flexneri needles polymerized in vitro and identified the following secondary structure elements for MxiH: a rigid-extended N-terminal segment (S2-T11), an ?-helix (L12-A38), a loop (E39-P44) and a C-terminal ?-helix (Q45-R83). Using immunogold labeling in vitro and in vivo on functional needles, we located the N-terminus of MxiH subunits on the exterior of the assembly, consistent with evolutionary sequence conservation patterns and mutagenesis data. We generated a homology model of Shigella flexneri needles compatible with both experimental data: the MxiH solid-state NMR chemical shifts and the state-of-the-art cryoEM density map. These results corroborate the solid-state NMR structure previously solved for Salmonella typhimurium PrgI needles and establish that Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhimurium subunit proteins adopt a conserved structure and orientation in their assembled state. Our study reveals a common structural architecture of T3SS needles, essential to understand T3SS-mediated infection and develop treatments. PMID:23555258

Demers, Jean-Philippe; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G; Gupta, Rashmi; Loquet, Antoine; Giller, Karin; Riedel, Dietmar; Laube, Britta; Kolbe, Michael; Baker, David; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

2013-03-01

66

Identifying common components across biological network graphs using a bipartite data model  

PubMed Central

The GeneWeaver bipartite data model provides an efficient means to evaluate shared molecular components from sets derived across diverse species, disease states and biological processes. In order to adapt this model for examining related molecular components and biological networks, such as pathway or gene network data, we have developed a means to leverage the bipartite data structure to extract and analyze shared edges. Using the Pathway Commons database we demonstrate the ability to rapidly identify shared connected components among a diverse set of pathways. In addition, we illustrate how results from maximal bipartite discovery can be decomposed into hierarchical relationships, allowing shared pathway components to be mapped through various parent-child relationships to help visualization and discovery of emergent kernel driven relationships. Interrogating common relationships among biological networks and conventional GeneWeaver gene lists will increase functional specificity and reliability of the shared biological components. This approach enables self-organization of biological processes through shared biological networks. PMID:25374613

2014-01-01

67

THE ACTIVITY/SPACE, A LEAST COMMON DENOMINATOR FOR ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMMING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TWO INTERRELATED PROBLEM AREAS OF ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMING ARE DISCUSSED--(1) "NEEDS DEFINITION," AND (2) "NEEDS DOCUMENTATION AND COMMUNICATION". FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES AND WORK OF THE CENTER FOR ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH ARE PRESENTED. ISSUES ARE THE FAILURE TO RECOGNIZE HOW, WHEN, AND IN WHAT FORM THE NEED WILL BE USED. CRITERIA FORMULATION MUST BE

HAVILAND, DAVID S.

68

The Architecture of EssB, an Integral Membrane Component of the Type VII Secretion System  

PubMed Central

Summary The membrane-bound EssB is an integral and essential component of the bacterial type VII secretion system that can contribute to pathogenicity. The architecture of Geobacillus thermodenitrificans EssB has been investigated by combining crystallographic and EPR spectroscopic methods. The protein forms a dimer that straddles the cytoplasmic membrane. A helical fold is observed for the C-terminal segment, which is positioned on the exterior of the membrane. This segment contributes most to dimer formation. The N-terminal segment displays a structure related to the pseudokinase fold and may contribute to function by recognizing substrates or secretion system partners. The remaining part of EssB may serve as an anchor point for the secretion apparatus, which is embedded in the cytoplasmic membrane with the C-terminal domain protruding out to interact with partner proteins or components of peptidoglycan. PMID:23499020

Zoltner, Martin; Norman, DavidG.; Fyfe, PaulK.; ElMkami, Hassane; Palmer, Tracy; Hunter, WilliamN.

2013-01-01

69

Standards-and Component-Based Mission Operations Architecture at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) manages many of NASA s earth and space science satellite missions. A wide variety of commercial products and GSFC-developed software components are typically integrated into a unique system configuration for each mission. Independent development of the many mission operations center systems has led to systems that are expensive to integrate, difficult to infuse with new capabilities developed for other programs, and cumbersome to maintain. This traditional approach becomes even more problematic as NASA moves towards satellite constellations, new operations concepts, and even further budgets reductions. The GSFC Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) is creating a new architecture for future missions at GSFC. Instead of selecting the best-in-class components and creating a standard control center system, GMSEC is developing component interface standards so that multiple products can plug-and-play into the configuration. Missions can then select the best components based on the merits of the product and not simply based on recent integration history at NASA. The GMSEC system utilizes a publish/subscribe information bus and standard XML-based key message interfaces. Functional components can either match directly to the interface standard, or adapters can be developed to match the product's interface to the GMSEC standard with out impacting the source product. Applications Program Interfaces (API's) are being developed to isolate the underlying middleware from the applications software and to allow the middleware product to be switched if necessary. Interface Control Documents (ICDs) between each pair of communicating components is replaced by a single message/API specification document. New applications must simply match to the information bus standards and need not worry about all of the other applications in the system. For legacy software, adapters can be developed to facilitate communications between the application and the information bus. As the approach has matured, it has become apparent that it can provide innovative solutions to some of the multi-satellite challenges facing GSFC.

Smith, Danford

2003-01-01

70

Common variation contributes to the genetic architecture of social communication traits  

PubMed Central

Background Social communication difficulties represent an autistic trait that is highly heritable and persistent during the course of development. However, little is known about the underlying genetic architecture of this phenotype. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study on parent-reported social communication problems using items of the childrens communication checklist (age 10 to 11 years) studying single and/or joint marker effects. Analyses were conducted in a large UK population-based birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and their Children, ALSPAC, N = 5,584) and followed-up within a sample of children with comparable measures from Western Australia (RAINE, N = 1364). Results Two of our seven independent top signals (P-discovery <1.0E-05) were replicated (0.009 common polymorphisms to variation in social communication phenotypes. PMID:24047820

2013-01-01

71

Novel precipitatemicrostructural architecture developed in the fabrication of solid copper components by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fabrication of Cu components by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting (EBM) from low-purity, atomized Cu powder containing a high density of Cu2O precipitates exhibits a novel example of precipitatedislocation architecture. Such architectures are seen by optical metallography, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy, to consist generally of equiaxed precipitatedislocation cell-like arrays (13?m) in the horizontal reference plane perpendicular

D. A. Ramirez; L. E. Murr; E. Martinez; D. H. Hernandez; J. L. Martinez; B. I. Machado; F. Medina; P. Frigola; R. B. Wicker

2011-01-01

72

Supply chain performance with various price-dependent demand functions and component commonality in one product family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturers provide product variants in one product family to meet different customerspsila preferences. The product demand is stochastic and price-dependent. With the numerical analysis involving a product family of cordless drills, the paper investigates the effects of component commonality and various price-demand functions on the supply chain performance in profit. The benefit with component commonality is illustrated with the application

Li Qian; Zhenyu Kong

2008-01-01

73

Abstract Interfaces for Data Analysis - Component Architecture for Data Analysis Tools  

SciTech Connect

The fast turnover of software technologies, in particular in the domain of interactivity (covering user interface and visualization), makes it difficult for a small group of people to produce complete and polished software-tools before the underlying technologies make them obsolete. At the HepVis '99 workshop, a working group has been formed to improve the production of software tools for data analysis in HENP. Beside promoting a distributed development organization, one goal of the group is to systematically design a set of abstract interfaces based on using modern OO analysis and OO design techniques. An initial domain analysis has come up with several categories (components) found in typical data analysis tools: Histograms, Ntuples, Functions, Vectors, Fitter, Plotter, Analyzer and Controller. Special emphasis was put on reducing the couplings between the categories to a minimum, thus optimizing re-use and maintainability of any component individually. The interfaces have been defined in Java and C++ and implementations exist in the form of libraries and tools using C++ (Anaphe/Lizard, OpenScientist) and Java (Java Analysis Studio). A special implementation aims at accessing the Java libraries (through their Abstract Interfaces) from C++. This paper gives an overview of the architecture and design of the various components for data analysis as discussed in AIDA.

Barrand, Guy

2002-08-20

74

Frontier: High Performance Database Access Using Standard Web Components in a Scalable Multi-Tier Architecture  

SciTech Connect

A high performance system has been assembled using standard web components to deliver database information to a large number of broadly distributed clients. The CDF Experiment at Fermilab is establishing processing centers around the world imposing a high demand on their database repository. For delivering read-only data, such as calibrations, trigger information, and run conditions data, we have abstracted the interface that clients use to retrieve data objects. A middle tier is deployed that translates client requests into database specific queries and returns the data to the client as XML datagrams. The database connection management, request translation, and data encoding are accomplished in servlets running under Tomcat. Squid Proxy caching layers are deployed near the Tomcat servers, as well as close to the clients, to significantly reduce the load on the database and provide a scalable deployment model. Details the system's construction and use are presented, including its architecture, design, interfaces, administration, performance measurements, and deployment plan.

Kosyakov, S.; Kowalkowski, J.; Litvintsev, D.; Lueking, L.; Paterno, M.; White, S.P.; /Fermilab; Autio, Lauri; /Helsinki U.; Blumenfeld, B.; Maksimovic, P.; Mathis, M.; /Johns Hopkins U.

2004-09-01

75

Miniaturized Analytical Platforms From Nanoparticle Components: Studies in the Construction, Characterization, and High-Throughput Usage of These Novel Architectures  

SciTech Connect

The scientific community has recently experienced an overall effort to reduce the physical size of many experimental components to the nanometer size range. This size is unique as the characteristics of this regime involve aspects of pure physics, biology, and chemistry. One extensively studied example of a nanometer sized experimental component, which acts as a junction between these three principle scientific theologies, is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA). These biopolymers not only contain the biological genetic guide to code for the production of life-sustaining materials, but are also being probed by physicists as a means to create electrical circuits and furthermore as controllable architectural and sensor motifs in the chemical disciplines. Possibly the most common nano-sized component between these sciences are nanoparticles composed of a variety of materials. The cross discipline employment of nanoparticles is evident from the vast amount of literature that has been produced from each of the individual communities within the last decade. Along these cross-discipline lines, this dissertation examines the use of several different types of nanoparticles with a wide array of surface chemistries to understand their adsorption properties and to construct unique miniaturized analytical and immunoassay platforms. This introduction will act as a literature review to provide key information regarding the synthesis and surface chemistries of several types of nanoparticles. This material will set the stage for a discussion of assembling ordered arrays of nanoparticles into functional platforms, architectures, and sensors. The introduction will also include a short explanation of the atomic force microscope that is used throughout the thesis to characterize the nanoparticle-based structures. Following the Introduction, four research chapters are presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 1 examines the self-assembly of polymeric nanoparticles exhibiting a variety of surface chemistries and attempts to deconvolute general adsorption rules for their assembly on various substrates. Chapter 2 extends the usage of self-assembly of polymeric nanoparticles through a layer-by-layer deposition concept and photolithography methodologies to create analytical platforms with a vertical height controlled within the nanometer regime. This platform is then furthered in Chapter 3 by employing this integrated concept as a bio-recognition platform, with the extension of the method to a high-throughput screening system explored. Chapter 4 exploits two different types of nanoparticles, silica and gold, as multiplexed, self-assembled immunoassay sensors. This final research chapter is followed by a general summation and future prospectus section that concludes the dissertation.

Andrew David Pris

2003-08-05

76

Neuroinformatic analyses of common and distinct genetic components associated with major neuropsychiatric disorders  

PubMed Central

Major neuropsychiatric disorders are highly heritable, with mounting evidence suggesting that these disorders share overlapping sets of molecular and cellular underpinnings. In the current article we systematically test the degree of genetic commonality across six major neuropsychiatric disordersattention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders (Anx), autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). We curated a well-vetted list of genes based on large-scale human genetic studies based on the NHGRI catalog of published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). A total of 180 genes were accepted into the analysis on the basis of low but liberal GWAS p-values (<10?5). 22% of genes overlapped two or more disorders. The most widely shared subset of genescommon to five of six disordersincluded ANK3, AS3MT, CACNA1C, CACNB2, CNNM2, CSMD1, DPCR1, ITIH3, NT5C2, PPP1R11, SYNE1, TCF4, TENM4, TRIM26, and ZNRD1. Using a suite of neuroinformatic resources, we showed that many of the shared genes are implicated in the postsynaptic density (PSD), expressed in immune tissues and co-expressed in developing human brain. Using a translational cross-species approach, we detected two distinct genetic components that were both shared by each of the six disorders; the 1st component is involved in CNS development, neural projections and synaptic transmission, while the 2nd is implicated in various cytoplasmic organelles and cellular processes. Combined, these genetic components account for 2030% of the genetic load. The remaining risk is conferred by distinct, disorder-specific variants. Our systematic comparative analysis of shared and unique genetic factors highlights key gene sets and molecular processes that may ultimately translate into improved diagnosis and treatment of these debilitating disorders. PMID:25414627

Lotan, Amit; Fenckova, Michaela; Bralten, Janita; Alttoa, Aet; Dixson, Luanna; Williams, Robert W.; van der Voet, Monique

2014-01-01

77

Muscle architecture of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): perspectives for investigating chimpanzee behavior.  

PubMed

Thorpe et al. (Am J Phys Anthropol 110:179-199, 1999) quantified chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) muscle architecture and joint moment arms to determine whether they functionally compensated for structural differences between chimpanzees and humans. They observed enough distinction to conclude that musculoskeletal properties were not compensatory and suggested that chimpanzees and humans do not exhibit dynamically similar movements. These investigators based their assessment on unilateral limb musculatures from three male chimpanzees, of which they called one non-adult representative. Factors such as age, sex, and behavioral lateralization may be responsible for variation in chimpanzee muscle architecture, but this is presently unknown. While the full extent of variation in chimpanzee muscle architecture due to such factors cannot be evaluated with data presently available, the present study expands the chimpanzee dataset and provides a preliminary glimpse of the potential relevance of these factors. Thirty-seven forelimb and 36 hind limb muscles were assessed in two chimpanzee cadavers: one unilaterally (right limbs), and one bilaterally. Mass, fiber length, and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are reported for individual muscles and muscle groups. The musculature of an adult female is more similar in architectural patterns to a young male chimpanzee than to humans, particularly when comparing muscle groups. Age- and sex-related intraspecific differences do not obscure chimpanzee-human interspecific differences. Side asymmetry in one chimpanzee, despite consistent forelimb directional asymmetry, also does not exceed the magnitude of chimpanzee-human differences. Left forelimb muscles, on average, usually had higher masses and longer fiber lengths than right, while right forelimb muscles, on average, usually had greater PCSAs than left. Most muscle groups from the left forelimb exhibited greater masses than right groups, but group asymmetry was significant only for the manual digital muscles. The hind limb exhibited less asymmetry than the forelimb in most comparisons. Examination of additional chimpanzees would clarify the full range of inter- and intra-individual variation. PMID:16807683

Carlson, Kristian J

2006-07-01

78

The Simplex Reference Model: Limiting Fault-Propagation Due to Unreliable Components in Cyber-Physical System Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyber-physical systems are networked, component-based, real-time systems that control and monitor the physical world. We need software architectures that limit fault-propagation across unreliable components. This paper introduces our simplex reference model which is distinguished by: a plant being controlled in an external context, a machine performing the control, a domain model that estimates the plant state, and the safety requirements

Tanya L. Crenshaw; Elsa Gunter; C. L. Robinson; Lui Sha; P. R. Kumar

2007-01-01

79

The Simplex Reference Model: Limiting Fault-Propagation Due to Unreliable Components in Cyber-Physical System Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Cyber-Physical Systems are networked, component- based, real-time systems that control and monitor the physical world. We need software architectures that limit fault-propagation across unreliable components. This pa- per introduces our Simplex reference model which is distin- guished by: a Plant being controlled in an external context, a Machine performing the control, a Domain Model that estimates the Plant state,

Tanya L. Crenshaw; Elsa L. Gunter; C. L. Robinson; Lui Sha; P. R. Kumar

2007-01-01

80

Whole-genome sequencing to understand the genetic architecture of common gene expression and biomarker phenotypes.  

PubMed

Initial results from sequencing studies suggest that there are relatively few low-frequency (<5%) variants associated with large effects on common phenotypes. We performed low-pass whole-genome sequencing in 680 individuals from the InCHIANTI study to test two primary hypotheses: (i) that sequencing would detect single low-frequency-large effect variants that explained similar amounts of phenotypic variance as single common variants, and (ii) that some common variant associations could be explained by low-frequency variants. We tested two sets of disease-related common phenotypes for which we had statistical power to detect large numbers of common variant-common phenotype associations-11 132 cis-gene expression traits in 450 individuals and 93 circulating biomarkers in all 680 individuals. From a total of 11 657 229 high-quality variants of which 6 129 221 and 5 528 008 were common and low frequency (<5%), respectively, low frequency-large effect associations comprised 7% of detectable cis-gene expression traits [89 of 1314 cis-eQTLs at P < 1 10(-06) (false discovery rate ?5%)] and one of eight biomarker associations at P < 8 10(-10). Very few (30 of 1232; 2%) common variant associations were fully explained by low-frequency variants. Our data show that whole-genome sequencing can identify low-frequency variants undetected by genotyping based approaches when sample sizes are sufficiently large to detect substantial numbers of common variant associations, and that common variant associations are rarely explained by single low-frequency variants of large effect. PMID:25378555

Wood, Andrew R; Tuke, Marcus A; Nalls, Mike; Hernandez, Dena; Gibbs, J Raphael; Lin, Haoxiang; Xu, Christopher S; Li, Qibin; Shen, Juan; Jun, Goo; Almeida, Marcio; Tanaka, Toshiko; Perry, John R B; Gaulton, Kyle; Rivas, Manny; Pearson, Richard; Curran, Joanne E; Johnson, Matthew P; Gring, Harald H H; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Blangero, John; Mccarthy, Mark I; Bandinelli, Stefania; Murray, Anna; Weedon, Michael N; Singleton, Andrew; Melzer, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Frayling, Timothy M

2015-03-01

81

architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary architecture works according to a linear model, meaning that it takes in fresh air, energy generated from fossil fuels, drinking water, various building and other materi- als necessary for life and having squandered them ine ciently, it releases stale-air, smoke, fumes, sewage, noise and refuse that will chemically pollute the environment. In 1994 at the CIB conference held in

Erzsbet Lnyi

82

Making Components Contract Aware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Components have long promised to encapsulate data and programs into a box that operates predictably without requiring that users know the specifics of how it does so. Many advocates have predicted that components will bring about widespread software reuse, spawning a market for components usable with such mainstream software buses as the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and the

Antoine Beugnard; Jean-marc Jzquel; Nol Plouzeau; D. Watkins

1999-01-01

83

A Flexible Component based Access Control Architecture for OPeNDAP Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network data access services such as OPeNDAP enable widespread access to data across user communities. However, without ready means to restrict access to data for such services, data providers and data owners are constrained from making their data more widely available. Even with such capability, the range of different security technologies available can make interoperability between services and user client tools a challenge. OPeNDAP is a key data access service in the infrastructure under development to support the CMIP5 (Couple Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5). The work is being carried out as part of an international collaboration including the US Earth System Grid and Curator projects and the EU funded IS-ENES and Metafor projects. This infrastructure will bring together Petabytes of climate model data and associated metadata from over twenty modelling centres around the world in a federation with a core archive mirrored at three data centres. A security system is needed to meet the requirements of organisations responsible for model data including the ability to restrict data access to registered users, keep them up to date with changes to data and services, audit access and protect finite computing resources. Individual organisations have existing tools and services such as OPeNDAP with which users in the climate research community are already familiar. The security system should overlay access control in a way which maintains the usability and ease of access to these services. The BADC (British Atmospheric Data Centre) has been working in collaboration with the Earth System Grid development team and partner organisations to develop the security architecture. OpenID and MyProxy were selected at an early stage in the ESG project to provide single sign-on capability across the federation of participating organisations. Building on the existing OPeNDAP specification an architecture based on pluggable server side components has been developed at the BADC. These components filter requests to the service they protect and apply the required authentication and authorisation schemes. Filters have been developed for OpenID and SSL client based authentication. The latter enabling access with MyProxy issued credentials. By preserving a clear separation between the security and application functionality, multiple authentication technologies may be supported without the need for modification to the underlying OPeNDAP application. The software has been developed in the Python programming language securing the Python based OPeNDAP implementation, PyDAP. This utilises the Python WSGI (Web Server Gateway Interface) specification to create distinct security filter components. Work is also currently underway to develop a parallel Java based filter implementation to secure the THREDDS Data Server. Whilst the ability to apply this flexible approach to the server side security layer is important, the development of compatible client software is vital to the take up of these services across a wide user base. To date PyDAP and wget based clients have been tested and work is planned to integrate the required security interface into the netCDF API. This forms part of ongoing collaboration with the OPeNDAP user and development community to ensure interoperability.

Kershaw, Philip; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Cinquini, Luca; Lawrence, Bryan; Pascoe, Stephen; Siebenlist, Frank

2010-05-01

84

Processing of the precursors to small nucleolar RNAs and rRNAs requires common components.  

PubMed

The genes encoding the small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) species snR190 and U14 are located close together in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we report that these two snoRNAs are synthesized by processing of a larger common transcript. In strains mutant for two 5'-->3' exonucleases, Xrn1p and Rat1p, families of 5'-extended forms of snR190 and U14 accumulate; these have 5' extensions of up to 42 and 55 nucleotides, respectively. We conclude that the 5' ends of both snR190 and U14 are generated by exonuclease digestion from upstream processing sites. In contrast to snR190 and U14, the snoRNAs U18 and U24 are excised from the introns of pre-mRNAs which encode proteins in their exonic sequences. Analysis of RNA extracted from a dbr1-delta strain, which lacks intron lariat-debranching activity, shows that U24 can be synthesized only from the debranched lariat. In contrast, a substantial level of U18 can be synthesized in the absence of debranching activity. The 5' ends of these snoRNAs are also generated by Xrn1p and Rat1p. The same exonucleases are responsible for the degradation of several excised fragments of the pre-rRNA spacer regions, in addition to generating the 5' end of the 5.8S rRNA. Processing of the pre-rRNA and both intronic and polycistronic snoRNAs therefore involves common components. PMID:9488433

Petfalski, E; Dandekar, T; Henry, Y; Tollervey, D

1998-03-01

85

Processing of the Precursors to Small Nucleolar RNAs and rRNAs Requires Common Components  

PubMed Central

The genes encoding the small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) species snR190 and U14 are located close together in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we report that these two snoRNAs are synthesized by processing of a larger common transcript. In strains mutant for two 5??3? exonucleases, Xrn1p and Rat1p, families of 5?-extended forms of snR190 and U14 accumulate; these have 5? extensions of up to 42 and 55 nucleotides, respectively. We conclude that the 5? ends of both snR190 and U14 are generated by exonuclease digestion from upstream processing sites. In contrast to snR190 and U14, the snoRNAs U18 and U24 are excised from the introns of pre-mRNAs which encode proteins in their exonic sequences. Analysis of RNA extracted from a dbr1-? strain, which lacks intron lariat-debranching activity, shows that U24 can be synthesized only from the debranched lariat. In contrast, a substantial level of U18 can be synthesized in the absence of debranching activity. The 5? ends of these snoRNAs are also generated by Xrn1p and Rat1p. The same exonucleases are responsible for the degradation of several excised fragments of the pre-rRNA spacer regions, in addition to generating the 5? end of the 5.8S rRNA. Processing of the pre-rRNA and both intronic and polycistronic snoRNAs therefore involves common components. PMID:9488433

Petfalski, Elisabeth; Dandekar, Thomas; Henry, Yves; Tollervey, David

1998-01-01

86

Genetic components to belowground carbon fluxes in a riparian forest ecosystem: a common garden approach.  

PubMed

Soil carbon dioxide (CO(2)) efflux is a major component of terrestrial carbon (C) cycles; yet, the demonstration of covariation between overstory tree genetic-based traits and soil C flux remains a major frontier in understanding biological controls over soil C. Here, we used a common garden with two native tree species, Populus fremontii and P. angustifolia, and their naturally occurring hybrids to test the predictability of belowground C fluxes on the basis of taxonomic identity and genetic marker composition of replicated clones of individual genotypes. Three patterns emerged: soil CO(2) efflux and ratios of belowground flux to aboveground productivity differ by as much as 50-150% as a result of differences in clone identity and cross type; on the basis of Mantel tests of molecular marker matrices, we found that c. 30% of this variation was genetically based, in which genetically similar trees support more similar soil CO(2) efflux under their canopies than do genetically dissimilar trees; and the patterns detected in an experimental garden match observations in the wild, and seem to be unrelated to measured abiotic factors. Our findings suggest that the genetic makeup of the plants growing on soil has a significant influence on the release of C from soils to the atmosphere. PMID:22642377

Lojewski, Nathan R; Fischer, Dylan G; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Whitham, Thomas G; Hart, Stephen C

2012-08-01

87

Learning common sense knowledge from user interaction and principal component analysis  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I present a system for reasoning with common sense knowledge in multiple natural languages, as part of the Open Mind Common Sense project. The knowledge that Open Mind collects from volunteer contributors ...

Speer, Robert (Robert H.)

2007-01-01

88

Symbolics Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is an architecture. In computer systems, an architecture is a specification of an interface. To be dignified by the name architecture, an interface should be designed for a long lifespan and should connect system components maintained by different organizations. Often an architecture is part of a product definition and defines characteristics on which purchasers of that product rely, but

David A. Moon

1987-01-01

89

Moving Towards a Common Ground and Flight Data Systems Architecture for NASA's Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has embarked on an ambitious effort to return man to the moon and then on to Mars. The Exploration Vision requires development of major new space and ground assets and poses challenges well beyond those faced by many of NASA's recent programs. New crewed vehicles must be developed. Compatible supply vehicles, surface mobility modules and robotic exploration capabilities will supplement the manned exploration vehicle. New launch systems will be developed as well as a new ground communications and control infrastructure. The development must take place in a cost-constrained environment and must advance along an aggressive schedule. Common solutions and system interoperability and will be critical to the successful development of the Exploration data systems for this wide variety of flight and ground elements. To this end, NASA has assembled a team of engineers from across the agency to identify the key challenges for Exploration data systems and to establish the most beneficial strategic approach to be followed. Key challenges and the planned NASA approach for flight and ground systems will be discussed in the paper. The described approaches will capitalize on new technologies, and will result in cross-program interoperability between spacecraft and ground systems, from multiple suppliers and agencies.

Rader. Steve; Kearney, Mike; McVittie, Thom; Smith, Dan

2006-01-01

90

Virtual management of radiology examinations in the virtual radiology environment using common object request broker architecture services.  

PubMed

In the Department of Defense (DoD), US Army Medical Command is now embarking on an extremely exciting new project--creating a virtual radiology environment (VRE) for the management of radiology examinations. The business of radiology in the military is therefore being reengineered on several fronts by the VRE Project. In the VRE Project, a set of intelligent agent algorithms determine where examinations are to routed for reading bases on a knowledge base of the entire VRE. The set of algorithms, called the Meta-Manager, is hierarchical and uses object-based communications between medical treatment facilities (MTFs) and medical centers that have digital imaging network picture archiving and communications systems (DIN-PACS) networks. The communications is based on use of common object request broker architecture (CORBA) objects and services to send patient demographics and examination images from DIN-PACS networks in the MTFs to the DIN-PACS networks at the medical centers for diagnosis. The Meta-Manager is also responsible for updating the diagnosis at the originating MTF. CORBA services are used to perform secure message communications between DIN-PACS nodes in the VRE network. The Meta-Manager has a fail-safe architecture that allows the master Meta-Manager function to float to regional Meta-Manager sites in case of server failure. A prototype of the CORBA-based Meta-Manager is being developed by the University of Arizona's Computer Engineering Research Laboratory using the unified modeling language (UML) as a design tool. The prototype will implement the main functions described in the Meta-Manager design specification. The results of this project are expected to reengineer the process of radiology in the military and have extensions to commercial radiology environments. PMID:10342205

Martinez, R; Rozenblit, J; Cook, J F; Chacko, A K; Timboe, H L

1999-05-01

91

Origin of the Genetic Components of the Vomeronasal System in the Common Ancestor of all Extant Vertebrates  

E-print Network

distribution of VNS morphological characteristics, the vomeronasal or- gan (VNO), an organ in the nasal cavityOrigin of the Genetic Components of the Vomeronasal System in the Common Ancestor of all Extant such example is the vomeronasal system (VNS), a vertebrate nasal chemosensory system that is responsible

Zhang, Jianzhi

92

Variance Component Analysis of Plant Architectural Traits and Fruit Yield in Melon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant architecture can be manipulated to increase yield in melon (Cucumis melo L.). A cross between a unique highly branched line, U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 846-1 (P1; 7 to 11 lateral branches), and Topmark (P2; 2 to 4 lateral branches), a U.S. Western Market type melon, produced F1 ...

93

High-resolution microwave diagnostics of architectural components by particle swarm optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a very simple monostatic setup for coherent multifrequency microwave measurements, and an optimization procedure to reconstruct high-resolution permittivity profiles of layered objects from complex reflection coefficients. This system is capable of precisely locating internal inhomogeneities in dielectric bodies, and can be applied to on-site diagnosis of architectural components. While limiting the imaging possibilities to 1D permittivity profiles, the monostatic geometry has an important advantage over multistatic tomographic systems, since these are normally confined to laboratories, and on-site applications are difficult to devise. The sensor is a transmitting-receiving microwave antenna, and the complex reflection coefficients are measured at a number of discrete frequencies over the system passband by using a general-purpose vector network analyzer. A dedicated instrument could also be designed, thus realizing an unexpensive, easy-to-handle system. The profile reconstruction algorithm is based on the optimization of an objective functional that includes a data-fit term and a regularization term. The first consists in the norm of the complex vector difference between the measured data and the data computed by a forward solver from the current estimate of the profile function. The regularization term enforces a piecewise smooth model for the solution, based on two 1D interacting Markov random fields: the intensity field, which models the continuous permittivity values, and the binary line field, which accounts for the possible presence of discontinuities in the profile. The data-fit and the regularization terms are balanced through a tunable regularization coefficient. By virtue of this prior model, the final result is robust against noise, and overcomes the usual limitations in spatial resolution induced by the wavelengths of the probing radiations. Indeed, the accuracy in the location of the discontinuities is only limited by the system noise and the discretization grid used by the forward solver. The algorithm we chose to optimize the objective is based on the particle swarm paradigm. Each feasible solution is coded as a location in a multidimensional space, explored by a number of "particles" each moving with a certain velocity, which is partly random and partly induced by the experience of both the particle itself and the "swarm" of all the other particles. In our case, the search is complicated by the mixed continuous-binary nature of our unknowns, but the swarm intelligence approach maintains the advantage of its intrinsic parallelism. The experimental results we obtained from both simulated and real measurements show that, for typical permittivity values and radiation wavelengths, the spatial resolution is highly improved by the line process. From real measurements in the range 1.7-2.6 GHz, we accurately reconstructed the permittivity values of our test phantom and located the discontinuities within the limits imposed by our discretization grid (with 1.5 mm cell thickness). At present, the applicability of our reconstruction method is still limited by the forward solver, which is based on a cascaded transmission-line model that assumes normal and plane-wave incidence. We are developing a new solver based on a closed-form Green's function in multilayered media, which should enable us to model appropriately both the microwave sensor and the illumination geometry, thus improving the accuracy of the computed reflection coefficients in the objective functional.

Genovesi, Simone; Salerno, Emanuele; Monorchio, Agostino; Manara, Giuliano

2010-05-01

94

Common and unique components of response inhibition revealed by fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to inhibit inappropriate responses is central to cognitive control, but whether the same brain mechanisms mediate inhibition across different tasks is not known. We present evidence for a common set of frontal and parietal regions engaged in response inhibition across three tasks: a go\\/no-go task, a flanker task, and a stimulusresponse compatibility task. Regions included bilateral anterior insula\\/frontal

Tor D. Wager; Ching-Yune C. Sylvester; Steven C. Lacey; Derek Evan Nee; Michael Franklin; John Jonides

2005-01-01

95

( Z )-Dodec-3-en-1-ol, a common major component of the trail-following pheromone in the termites Kalotermitidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Z)-Dodec-3-en-1-ol has been identified as the major component of the trail-following pheromone of nine species of Kalotermitidae\\u000a belonging to six different genera, suggesting that this compound represents a common signal in this family of termites. The\\u000a homogeneous nature of trail-following pheromones of Kalotermitidae well agrees with the monophyly of this family. It also\\u000a supports the postulated position of this family

David Sillam-Dusss; Etienne Smon; Alain Robert; Christian Bordereau

2009-01-01

96

Program information architecture/document hierarchy. [Information Management Systems, it's components and rationale  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Waste Management System (NWMS) Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) (DOE 1990) requires that the information within the computer program and information management system be ordered into a precedence hierarchy for consistency. Therefore, the US Department of Energy (DOE). Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) requested Westinghouse Hanford Company to develop a plan for NWMS program information which the MSIS calls a document hierarchy. This report provides the results of that effort and describes the management system as a program information architecture.'' 3 refs., 3 figs.

Woods, T.W.

1991-09-01

97

Component Indicators for Architecture Interaction Assessment J. Payton L. Davis R. Gamble D. Flagg  

E-print Network

-based software engineering (CBSE) is essential to the rapid, cost effective development of complex software are understandability, practicality, and cost-effectiveness, while generating usable results pertaining for specific analysis. For instance, specification matching involves comparing component interface definitions

Gamble, R. F.

98

Building Grid Portal Applications from a Web-Service Component Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach to building Grid applications based\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009on the premise that users who wish to access and run these applications\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009prefer to do so without becoming experts on Grid technology. We describe\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009an application architecture based on wrapping user applications and\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009application workflows as web services and web service resources.These\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009services are visible to the users and

Dennis Gannon; Jay Alameda; Octav Chipara; Marcus Christie; Vinayak Dukle; Liang Fang; Matthew Farellee; GeoffreyFox; Shawn Hampton; Gopi Kandaswamy; Deepti Kodeboyina; Charlie Moad; Marlon Pierce; Beth Plale; Albert Rossi; Yogesh Simmhan; Anuraag Sarangi; Aleksander Slominski; SatoshiShirasauna; Thomas Thomas

2005-01-01

99

Abnormal structure or function of the amygdala is a common component of neurodevelopmental disorders.  

PubMed

The amygdala, perhaps more than any other brain region, has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. It is part of a system initially evolved to detect dangers in the environment and modulate subsequent responses, which can profoundly influence human behavior. If its threshold is set too low, normally benign aspects of the environment are perceived as dangers, interactions are limited, and anxiety may arise. If set too high, risk taking increases and inappropriate sociality may occur. Given that many neurodevelopmental disorders involve too little or too much anxiety or too little of too much social interaction, it is not surprising that the amygdala has been implicated in many of them. In this chapter, we begin by providing a brief overview of the phylogeny, ontogeny, and function of the amygdala and then appraise data from neurodevelopmental disorders which suggest amygdala dysregulation. We focus on neurodevelopmental disorders where there is evidence of amygdala dysregulation from postmortem studies, structural MRI analyses or functional MRI. However, the results are often disparate and it is not totally clear whether this is due to inherent heterogeneity or differences in methodology. Nonetheless, the amygdala is a common site for neuropathology in neurodevelopmental disorders and is therefore a potential target for therapeutics to alleviate associated symptoms. PMID:20950634

Schumann, Cynthia M; Bauman, Melissa D; Amaral, David G

2011-03-01

100

Abnormal structure or function of the amygdala is a common component of neurodevelopmental disorders  

PubMed Central

The amygdala, perhaps more than any other brain region, has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. It is part of a system initially evolved to detect dangers in the environment and modulate subsequent responses, which can profoundly influence human behavior. If its threshold is set too low, normally benign aspects of the environment are perceived as dangers, interactions are limited, and anxiety may arise. If set too high, risk taking increases and inappropriate sociality may occur. Given that many neurodevelopmental disorders involve too little or too much anxiety or too little of too much social interaction, it is not surprising that the amygdala has been implicated in many of them. In this chapter, we begin by providing a brief overview of the phylogeny, ontogeny, and function of the amygdala and then appraise data from neurodevelopmental disorders which suggest amygdala dysregulation. We focus on neurodevelopmental disorders where there is evidence of amygdala dysregulation from postmortem studies, structural MRI analyses or functional MRI. However, the results are often disparate and it is not totally clear whether this is due to inherent heterogeneity or differences in methodology. Nonetheless, the amygdala is a common site for neuropathology in neurodevelopmental disorders and is therefore a potential target for therapeutics to alleviate associated symptoms. PMID:20950634

Schumann, Cynthia M.; Bauman, Melissa D.; Amaral, David G.

2010-01-01

101

Dissection of the interferon gamma-MHC class II signal transduction pathway reveals that type I and type II interferon systems share common signalling component(s).  

PubMed Central

We have used a herpes virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) based metabolic selection system to isolate mutants defective in the interferon gamma mediated induction of the MHC class II promoter. All the mutations act in trans and result in no detectable induction of MHC and invariant chain (Ii) gene expression. Scatchard analysis indicates that the mutants have a normal number of surface IFN gamma receptors with the same affinity constant. The mutants fall into two broad categories. One class of mutants is still able to induce MHC class I, IRF-1, 9-27, 1-8 and GBP genes by IFN gamma. A second class of mutants is defective for the IFN gamma induction of all the genes tested; surprisingly, the IFN alpha/beta induction of MHC class I, 9-27, ISG54 and ISG15 genes is also defective in these mutants, although different members of this class can be discriminated by the response of the GBP and IRF-1 genes to type I interferons. These data demonstrate that the signalling pathways of both type I and type II interferon systems share common signal transduction component(s). These mutants will be useful for the study of IFN gamma regulation of class II genes and Ii chain, and to elucidate molecular components of type I and type II interferon signal transduction. Images PMID:1314162

Loh, J E; Chang, C H; Fodor, W L; Flavell, R A

1992-01-01

102

Cellular components and tunic architecture of the solitary ascidian Styela canopus (Stolidobranchiata, Styelidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell distribution and tunic morphology in the ascidian Styela canopus were examined by electron microscopy. The observations showed that the outer covering is composed of a thin sinuous cuticle with several protrusions and a deep layer of ground substance. The fibrous component and its arrangement in the tunic were demonstrated: elementary fibrils exhibit a microtubular structure and an elliptical cross-sectional

Maria Antonietta Di Bella; Georgia Cassar; Domenica Russo; Giacomo De Leo

1998-01-01

103

Method for producing components with internal architectures, such as micro-channel reactors, via diffusion bonding sheets  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a method for producing components with internal architectures, and more particularly, this invention relates to a method for producing structures with microchannels via the use of diffusion bonding of stacked laminates. Specifically, the method involves weakly bonding a stack of laminates forming internal voids and channels with a first generally low uniaxial pressure and first temperature such that bonding at least between the asperites of opposing laminates occurs and pores are isolated in interfacial contact areas, followed by a second generally higher isostatic pressure and second temperature for final bonding. The method thereby allows fabrication of micro-channel devices such as heat exchangers, recuperators, heat-pumps, chemical separators, chemical reactors, fuel processing units, and combustors without limitation on the fin aspect ratio.

Alman, David E. (Corvallis, OR); Wilson, Rick D. (Corvallis, OR); Davis, Daniel L. (Albany, OR)

2011-03-08

104

Sequence System Building Blocks: Using a Component Architecture for Sequencing Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last few years software engineering has made significant strides in making more flexible architectures and designs possible. However, at the same time, spacecraft have become more complex and flight software has become more sophisticated. Typically spacecraft are often one-of-a-kind entities that have different hardware designs, different capabilities, different instruments, etc. Ground software has become more complex and operations teams have had to learn a myriad of tools that all have different user interfaces and represent data in different ways. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) these themes have collided to require an new approach to producing ground system software. Two different groups have been looking at tackling this particular problem. One group is working for the JPL Mars Technology Program in the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Focused Technology area. The other group is the JPL Multi-Mission Planning and Sequencing Group . The major concept driving these two approaches on a similar path is to provide software that can be a more cohesive flexible system that provides a act of planning and sequencing system of services. This paper describes the efforts that have been made to date to create a unified approach from these disparate groups.

Streiffert, Barbara A.; O'Reilly, Taifun

2005-01-01

105

Sequencing System Building Blocks: Using a Component Architecture for Sequencing Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last few years software engineering has made significant strides in making more flexible architectures and designs possible. However, at the same time, spacecraft have become more complex and flight software has become more sophisticated. Typically spacecraft are often one-of-a-kind entities that have different hardware designs, different capabilities, different instruments, etc. Ground software has become more complex and operations teams have had to learn a myriad of tools that all have different user interfaces and represent data in different ways. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) these themes have collided to require a new approach to producing ground system software. Two different groups have been looking at tackling this particular problem. One group is working for the JPL Mars Technology Program in the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Focused Technology area. The other group is the JPL Multi-Mission Planning and Sequencing Group. The major concept driving these two approaches on a similar path is to provide software that can be a more cohesive flexible system that provides a set of planning and sequencing system of services. This paper describes the efforts that have been made to date to create a unified approach from these disparate groups.

Streiffert, Barbara A.; O'Reilly, Taifun

2006-01-01

106

Origin of the Genetic Components of the Vomeronasal System in the Common Ancestor of all Extant Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Comparative genomics provides a valuable tool for inferring the evolutionary history of physiological systems, particularly when this information is difficult to ascertain by morphological traits. One such example is the vomeronasal system (VNS), a vertebrate nasal chemosensory system that is responsible for detecting intraspecific pheromonal cues as well as environmental odorants. The morphological components of the VNS are found only in tetrapods, but the genetic components of the system have been found in teleost fish, in addition to tetrapods. To determine when the genetic components of the VNS originated, we searched for the VNS-specific genes in the genomes of two early diverging vertebrate lineages: the sea lamprey from jawless fishes and the elephant shark from cartilaginous fishes. Genes encoding vomeronasal type 1 receptors (V1Rs) and Trpc2, two components of the vomeronasal signaling pathway, are present in the sea lamprey genome, and both are expressed in the olfactory organ, revealing that the genetic components of the present-day VNS existed in the common ancestor of all extant vertebrates. Additionally, all three VNS genes, Trpc2, V1Rs, and vomeronasal type 2 receptors (V2Rs), are found in the elephant shark genome. Because V1Rs and V2Rs are related to two families of taste receptors, we also searched the early diverging vertebrate genomes for taste system genes and found them in the shark genome but not in the lamprey. Coupled with known distributions of the genetic components of the vertebrate main olfactory system, our results suggest staggered origins of vertebrate sensory systems. These findings are important for understanding the evolution of vertebrate sensory systems and illustrate the utility of the genome sequences of early diverging vertebrates for uncovering the evolution of vertebrate-specific traits. PMID:19008528

Grus, Wendy E.; Zhang, Jianzhi

2009-01-01

107

Cellular components and tunic architecture of the solitary ascidian Styela canopus (Stolidobranchiata, Styelidae).  

PubMed

Cell distribution and tunic morphology in the ascidian Styela canopus were examined by electron microscopy. The observations showed that the outer covering is composed of a thin sinuous cuticle with several protrusions and a deep layer of ground substance. The fibrous component and its arrangement in the tunic were demonstrated: elementary fibrils exhibit a 'microtubular' structure and an elliptical cross-sectional shape. Four types of cells were described: clear vesicular tunic granulocytes, tunic microgranulocytes, unilocular tunic granulocytes, and globular tunic granulocytes. Morphofunctional aspects of the tunic tissue and certain phylogenetic relationships are discussed. PMID:18627845

Bella, M A; Cassar, G; Russo, D; Leo, G D

1998-06-01

108

A Pan-Cancer Modular Regulatory Network Analysis to Identify Common and Cancer-Specific Network Components  

PubMed Central

Many human diseases including cancer are the result of perturbations to transcriptional regulatory networks that control context-specific expression of genes. A comparative approach across multiple cancer types is a powerful approach to illuminate the common and specific network features of this family of diseases. Recent efforts from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) have generated large collections of functional genomic data sets for multiple types of cancers. An emerging challenge is to devise computational approaches that systematically compare these genomic data sets across different cancer types that identify common and cancer-specific network components. We present a module- and network-based characterization of transcriptional patterns in six different cancers being studied in TCGA: breast, colon, rectal, kidney, ovarian, and endometrial. Our approach uses a recently developed regulatory network reconstruction algorithm, modular regulatory network learning with per gene information (MERLIN), within a stability selection framework to predict regulators for individual genes and gene modules. Our module-based analysis identifies a common theme of immune system processes in each cancer study, with modules statistically enriched for immune response processes as well as targets of key immune response regulators from the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) families. Comparison of the inferred regulatory networks from each cancer type identified a core regulatory network that included genes involved in chromatin remodeling, cell cycle, and immune response. Regulatory network hubs included genes with known roles in specific cancer types as well as genes with potentially novel roles in different cancer types. Overall, our integrated module and network analysis recapitulated known themes in cancer biology and additionally revealed novel regulatory hubs that suggest a complex interplay of immune response, cell cycle, and chromatin remodeling across multiple cancers. PMID:25374456

Knaack, Sara A; Siahpirani, Alireza Fotuhi; Roy, Sushmita

2014-01-01

109

An intelligent architecture based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays designed to detect moving objects by using Principal Component Analysis.  

PubMed

This paper presents a complete implementation of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices applied to high rate background segmentation of images. The classical sequential execution of different parts of the PCA algorithm has been parallelized. This parallelization has led to the specific development and implementation in hardware of the different stages of PCA, such as computation of the correlation matrix, matrix diagonalization using the Jacobi method and subspace projections of images. On the application side, the paper presents a motion detection algorithm, also entirely implemented on the FPGA, and based on the developed PCA core. This consists of dynamically thresholding the differences between the input image and the one obtained by expressing the input image using the PCA linear subspace previously obtained as a background model. The proposal achieves a high ratio of processed images (up to 120 frames per second) and high quality segmentation results, with a completely embedded and reliable hardware architecture based on commercial CMOS sensors and FPGA devices. PMID:22163406

Bravo, Ignacio; Mazo, Manuel; Lzaro, Jos L; Gardel, Alfredo; Jimnez, Pedro; Pizarro, Daniel

2010-01-01

110

Experimental study of impact-cratering damage on brittle cylindrical column model as a fundamental component of space architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cylindrical column of brittle material processed from soil and rock is a fundamental component of architectures on the surface of solid bodies in the solar system. One of the most hazardous events for the structure is damaging by hypervelocity impacts by meteoroids and debris. In such a background, cylindrical columns made of plaster of Paris and glass-bead-sintered ceramic were impacted by spherical projectiles of nylon, glass, and steel at velocity of about 1-4.5 km/s. Measured crater radii, depth, and excavated mass expressed by a function of the cylinder radius are similar irrespective of the target material, if those parameters are normalized by appropriate parameters of the crater produced on the flat-surface target. The empirical scaling relations of the normalized crater radii and depth are provided. Using them, crater dimensions and excavated mass of crater on cylindrical surface of any radius can be predicted from the existing knowledge of those for flat surface. Recommendation for the minimum diameter of a cylinder so as to resist against a given impact is provided.

Fujiwara, Akira; Onose, Naomi; Setoh, Masato; Nakamura, Akiko M.; Hiraoka, Kensuke; Hasegawa, Sunao; Okudaira, Kyoko

2014-10-01

111

The design and implementation of architectural components for the integration of the IP multimedia subsystem and wireless actuator networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless actuators are small scale devices that can act on their environment. The IP multimedia subsystem is an architecture with the goal of seamlessly delivering multimedia services. Combining actuation capabilities with the IMS will certainly enable novel value-added services in areas such as environment monitoring, emergency management and home automation. We have previously proposed an architecture for such integration. This

Hou Rucheng; Fatna Belqasmi; Roch. Glitho; Ferhat Khendek

2011-01-01

112

Components of the Plasminogen Activation System Promote Engraftment of Porous Polyethylene Biomaterial via Common and Distinct Effects.  

PubMed

Rapid fibrovascularization is a prerequisite for successful biomaterial engraftment. In addition to their well-known roles in fibrinolysis, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or their inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have recently been implicated as individual mediators in non-fibrinolytic processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Since these events are critical for fibrovascularization of biomaterial, we hypothesized that the components of the plasminogen activation system contribute to biomaterial engraftment. Employing in vivo and ex vivo microscopy techniques, vessel and collagen network formation within porous polyethylene (PPE) implants engrafted into dorsal skinfold chambers were found to be significantly impaired in uPA-, tPA-, or PAI-1-deficient mice. Consequently, the force required for mechanical disintegration of the implants out of the host tissue was significantly lower in the mutant mice than in wild-type controls. Conversely, surface coating with recombinant uPA, tPA, non-catalytic uPA, or PAI-1, but not with non-catalytic tPA, accelerated implant vascularization in wild-type mice. Thus, uPA, tPA, and PAI-1 contribute to the fibrovascularization of PPE implants through common and distinct effects. As clinical perspective, surface coating with recombinant uPA, tPA, or PAI-1 might provide a novel strategy for accelerating the vascularization of this biomaterial. PMID:25658820

Reichel, Christoph A; Hessenauer, Maximilian E T; Pflieger, Kerstin; Rehberg, Markus; Kanse, Sandip M; Zahler, Stefan; Krombach, Fritz; Berghaus, Alexander; Strieth, Sebastian

2015-01-01

113

Components of the Plasminogen Activation System Promote Engraftment of Porous Polyethylene Biomaterial via Common and Distinct Effects  

PubMed Central

Rapid fibrovascularization is a prerequisite for successful biomaterial engraftment. In addition to their well-known roles in fibrinolysis, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or their inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have recently been implicated as individual mediators in non-fibrinolytic processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Since these events are critical for fibrovascularization of biomaterial, we hypothesized that the components of the plasminogen activation system contribute to biomaterial engraftment. Employing in vivo and ex vivo microscopy techniques, vessel and collagen network formation within porous polyethylene (PPE) implants engrafted into dorsal skinfold chambers were found to be significantly impaired in uPA-, tPA-, or PAI-1-deficient mice. Consequently, the force required for mechanical disintegration of the implants out of the host tissue was significantly lower in the mutant mice than in wild-type controls. Conversely, surface coating with recombinant uPA, tPA, non-catalytic uPA, or PAI-1, but not with non-catalytic tPA, accelerated implant vascularization in wild-type mice. Thus, uPA, tPA, and PAI-1 contribute to the fibrovascularization of PPE implants through common and distinct effects. As clinical perspective, surface coating with recombinant uPA, tPA, or PAI-1 might provide a novel strategy for accelerating the vascularization of this biomaterial. PMID:25658820

Reichel, Christoph A.; Hessenauer, Maximilian E. T.; Pflieger, Kerstin; Rehberg, Markus; Kanse, Sandip M.; Zahler, Stefan; Krombach, Fritz; Berghaus, Alexander; Strieth, Sebastian

2015-01-01

114

Properties of placental alkaline phosphatase. I. Molecular size and electrical charge of the various electrophoretic components of the six common phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of the six common phenotypes (F1, S1, I1, F1S1, S1I1, F1I1) of placental alkaline phosphatase have been studied by DEAE-Sephadex chromatography, gel filtration, two-dimensional paper-starch gel and starch block electrophoresis. The rapidly migrating component (component I) had the same molecular weight (118,000) in all phenotypes studied but different negative charge (F1>I1>S1). The fastest of the slow-moving components (component

Nicholas G. Beratis; Winnifred Seegers; Kurt Hirschhorn

1970-01-01

115

GITEWS, an extensible and open integration platform for manifold sensor systems and processing components based on Sensor Web Enablement and the principles of Service Oriented Architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) is a multifaceted system consisting of various sensor types like seismometers, sea level sensors or GPS stations, and processing components, all with their own system behavior and proprietary data structure. To operate a warning chain, beginning from measurements scaling up to warning products, all components have to interact in a correct way, both syntactically and semantically. Designing the system great emphasis was laid on conformity to the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) specification by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The technical infrastructure, the so called Tsunami Service Bus (TSB) follows the blueprint of Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). The TSB is an integration concept (SWE) where functionality (observe, task, notify, alert, and process) is grouped around business processes (Monitoring, Decision Support, Sensor Management) and packaged as interoperable services (SAS, SOS, SPS, WNS). The benefits of using a flexible architecture together with SWE lead to an open integration platform: accessing and controlling heterogeneous sensors in a uniform way (Functional Integration) assigns functionality to distinct services (Separation of Concerns) allows resilient relationship between systems (Loose Coupling) integrates services so that they can be accessed from everywhere (Location Transparency) enables infrastructures which integrate heterogeneous applications (Encapsulation) allows combination of services (Orchestration) and data exchange within business processes Warning systems will evolve over time: New sensor types might be added, old sensors will be replaced and processing components will be improved. From a collection of few basic services it shall be possible to compose more complex functionality essential for specific warning systems. Given these requirements a flexible infrastructure is a prerequisite for sustainable systems and their architecture must be tailored for evolution. The use of well-known techniques and widely used open source software implementing industrial standards reduces the impact of service modifications allowing the evolution of a system as a whole. GITEWS implemented a solution to feed sensor raw data from any (remote) system into the infrastructure. Specific dispatchers enable plugging in sensor-type specific processing without changing the architecture. Client components don't need to be adjusted if new sensor-types or individuals are added to the system, because they access them via standardized services. One of the outstanding features of service-oriented architectures is the possibility to compose new services from existing ones. The so called orchestration, allows the definition of new warning processes which can be adapted easily to new requirements. This approach has following advantages: With implementing SWE it is possible to establish the "detection" and integration of sensors via the internet. Thus a system of systems combining early warning functionality at different levels of detail is feasible. Any institution could add both its own components as well as components from third parties if they are developed in conformance to SOA principles. In a federation an institution keeps the ownership of its data and decides which data are provided by a service and when. A system can be deployed at minor costs as a core for own development at any institution and thus enabling autonomous early warning- or monitoring systems. The presentation covers both design and various instantiations (live demonstration) of the GITEWS architecture. Experiences concerning the design and complexity of SWE will be addressed in detail. A substantial amount of attention is laid on the techniques and methods of extending the architecture, adapting proprietary components to SWE services and encoding, and their orchestration in high level workflows and processes. Furthermore the potential of the architecture concerning adaptive behavior, collaboration across boundaries and semantic interoperab

Haener, Rainer; Waechter, Joachim; Fleischer, Jens; Herrnkind, Stefan; Schwarting, Herrmann

2010-05-01

116

Developmental plasticity of the microscopic placental architecture in relation to litter size variation in the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).  

PubMed

Fetal demand, shaped by factors such as number of fetuses, may alter placental regulation of exchange, even when maternal nutrition restriction is not overt. The marmoset is an interesting model in which to examine this aspect of placental function due to unique placentation that leads to multiple fetuses sharing a unified placental mass. We demonstrated previously that the triplet marmoset placenta exhibits significantly higher efficiency than does the twin placenta. Here, we test the hypothesis that this increased efficiency is due to increases in changes in the microscopic morphology of the placenta. Stereology was employed to analyze the microscopic architecture of placentas from twin and triplet pregnancies. Compartments of interest were the trabeculae, intertrabecular space, fetal capillaries, and the surface area of the maternal-fetal interface. Placentas from the two litters did not differ significantly in overall volume or individual volumetric compartments, but triplet placentas exhibited significant expansion of the trabecular surface area in comparison to twins (p=0.039). Further, the two groups differed in the isomorphy coefficient, with triplet placentas having a significantly higher coefficient (p=0.001) and potentially a more complex microscopic topography. Differences in the maternal-fetal interface may be due to developmental constraints on gross placental growth that occur earlier in gestation, such that the only option for maintaining sufficient access to maternal resources or signaling pathways late in gestation is via an expansion of the interface. Despite the significant increase in overall surface area, individual triplet fetuses are associated with much less surface area than are individual twins, suggestive of alterations in metabolic efficiency, perhaps via differential amino acid transport regulation. PMID:19038443

Rutherford, J N; Tardif, S D

2009-01-01

117

A Framework for the Assessment and Selection of Software Components and Connectors in COTS-based Architectures  

E-print Network

A Framework for the Assessment and Selection of Software Components and Connectors in COTS by selecting the `right' set of COTS components and connectors that can be integrated with minimal effort. In this paper we describe a framework for selecting COTS software components and connectors ensuring

Mattmann, Chris

118

A Framework for the Assessment and Selection of Software Components and Connectors in COTS-based Architectures  

E-print Network

A Framework for the Assessment and Selection of Software Components and Connectors in COTS risks can often be resolved by selecting the `right' set of COTS components and connectors which can be integrated with minimal effort. In this paper we describe a framework for selecting COTS software components

Mattmann, Chris

119

Space Telecommunications Radio Systems (STRS) Hardware Architecture Standard: Release 1.0 Hardware Section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report defines a hardware architecture approach for software-defined radios to enable commonality among NASA space missions. The architecture accommodates a range of reconfigurable processing technologies including general-purpose processors, digital signal processors, field programmable gate arrays, and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in addition to flexible and tunable radiofrequency front ends to satisfy varying mission requirements. The hardware architecture consists of modules, radio functions, and interfaces. The modules are a logical division of common radio functions that compose a typical communication radio. This report describes the architecture details, the module definitions, the typical functions on each module, and the module interfaces. Tradeoffs between component-based, custom architecture and a functional-based, open architecture are described. The architecture does not specify a physical implementation internally on each module, nor does the architecture mandate the standards or ratings of the hardware used to construct the radios.

Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Smith, Carl R.; Liebetreu, John; Hill, Gary; Mortensen, Dale J.; Andro, Monty; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Farrington, Allen

2008-01-01

120

IAIMS architecture.  

PubMed

An information system architecture defines the components of a system and the interfaces among the components. A good architecture is essential for creating an Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) that works as an integrated whole yet is flexible enough to accommodate many users and roles, multiple applications, changing vendors, evolving user needs, and advancing technology. Modularity and layering promote flexibility by reducing the complexity of a system and by restricting the ways in which components may interact. Enterprise-wide mediation promotes integration by providing message routing, support for standards, dictionary-based code translation, a centralized conceptual data schema, business rule implementation, and consistent access to databases. Several IAIMS sites have adopted a client-server architecture, and some have adopted a three-tiered approach, separating user interface functions, application logic, and repositories. PMID:9067884

Hripcsak, G

1997-01-01

121

Security Aspects of an Enterprise-Wide Network Architecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of two projects that concern local area networks and the common point between networks as they relate to network security. Discusses security architectures based on firewall components, packet filters, application gateways, security-management components, an intranet solution, user registration by Web form, and requests for

Loew, Robert; Stengel, Ingo; Bleimann, Udo; McDonald, Aidan

1999-01-01

122

Job-Component Validation Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Common-Metric Questionnaire (CMQ)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of identifying the employee attributes and traits required for successful job performance has long been a troublesome one, especially when small sample sizes make criterion-related studies impractical, and results from validity generalization (VG) studies are not available for the specific test or occupation in question. McCormick's job-component validity (JCV) strategy, which reduces subjectivity by empirically linking job analysis

Reagan D. Brown; Robert J. Harvey

1996-01-01

123

Distinguishing the common components of oil- and water-based metalworking fluids for assessment of cancer incidence risk in autoworkers  

PubMed Central

Background Metalworking fluids (MWF) straight, soluble, and synthetic have overlapping components. We derived constituent-based metrics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), water-based MWF, biocides, and nitrosamines to account for this overlap and examined their relations with cancer incidence. Methods An autoworkers cohort of 30,000 was followed for cancer incidence. Hazard ratios were estimated for each cancer and cumulative exposure (lagged) to each new metric; soluble MWF contributed variably to several metrics with weight k=01. Results For most cancer sites, the constituent-based metrics resulted in stronger exposure-disease associations than the MWF classes alone. Laryngeal and bladder cancer were most strongly associated with PAH (k=0). Protective effects for stomach and lung cancer were observed with biocide, a component that may be a surrogate for endotoxin. Conclusions Our findings provide support and clarification of possible etiologies for previous positive associations and provide support for distinguishing exposure from oil- and water-based MWF in epidemiologic studies. PMID:21328414

Friesen, Melissa C; Costello, Sadie; Thurston, Sally W; Eisen, Ellen A

2012-01-01

124

Software Architecture Transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand and improve software, we commonly examine and manipulate its architecture. For example, we may want to examine the architecture at different levels of abstraction or zoom-in on one portion of the system. We may discover that the extracted architecture has deviated from our mental model of the software and hence we may want to repair it.

Hoda Fahmy; Richard C. Holt

2000-01-01

125

Single-Cell Analysis Reveals that Insulation Maintains Signaling Specificity between Two Yeast MAPK Pathways with Common Components  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic cells use multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades to evoke appropriate responses to external stimuli. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the MAPK Fus3 is activated by pheromone-binding G protein-coupled receptors to promote mating, whereas the MAPK Hog1 is activated by hyperosmotic stress to elicit the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) response. Although these MAPK pathways share several upstream components, exposure to either pheromone or osmolyte alone triggers only the appropriate response. We used fluorescent localization- and transcription-specific reporters to assess activation of these pathways in individual cells on the minute and hour timescale, respectively. Dual activation of these two MAPK pathways occurred over a broad range of stimulant concentrations and temporal regimes in wild-type cells subjected to co-stimulation. Thus, signaling specificity is achieved through an insulation mechanism, not a cross-inhibition mechanism. Furthermore, we showed that there was a critical period during which Hog1 activity had to occur for proper insulation of the HOG pathway. PMID:20959523

Patterson, Jesse C.; Klimenko, Evguenia S.; Thorner, Jeremy

2014-01-01

126

PICNIC Architecture.  

PubMed

The PICNIC architecture aims at supporting inter-enterprise integration and the facilitation of collaboration between healthcare organisations. The concept of a Regional Health Economy (RHE) is introduced to illustrate the varying nature of inter-enterprise collaboration between healthcare organisations collaborating in providing health services to citizens and patients in a regional setting. The PICNIC architecture comprises a number of PICNIC IT Services, the interfaces between them and presents a way to assemble these into a functioning Regional Health Care Network meeting the needs and concerns of its stakeholders. The PICNIC architecture is presented through a number of views relevant to different stakeholder groups. The stakeholders of the first view are national and regional health authorities and policy makers. The view describes how the architecture enables the implementation of national and regional health policies, strategies and organisational structures. The stakeholders of the second view, the service viewpoint, are the care providers, health professionals, patients and citizens. The view describes how the architecture supports and enables regional care delivery and process management including continuity of care (shared care) and citizen-centred health services. The stakeholders of the third view, the engineering view, are those that design, build and implement the RHCN. The view comprises four sub views: software engineering, IT services engineering, security and data. The proposed architecture is founded into the main stream of how distributed computing environments are evolving. The architecture is realised using the web services approach. A number of well established technology platforms and generic standards exist that can be used to implement the software components. The software components that are specified in PICNIC are implemented in Open Source. PMID:16160218

Saranummi, Niilo

2005-01-01

127

Particulate matter components and subclinical atherosclerosis: common approaches to estimating exposure in a Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Concentrations of outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have been associated with cardiovascular disease. PM2.5 chemical composition may be responsible for effects of exposure to PM2.5. Methods Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) collected in 20002002 on 6,256 US adults without clinical cardiovascular disease in six U.S. metropolitan areas, we investigated cross-sectional associations of estimated long-term exposure to total PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 components (elemental carbon [EC], organic carbon [OC], silicon and sulfur) with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium [CAC] and right common carotid intima-media thickness [CIMT]). Community monitors deployed for this study from 2007 to 2008 were used to estimate exposures at baseline addresses using three commonly-used approaches: (1) nearest monitor (the primary approach), (2) inverse-distance monitor weighting and (3) city-wide average. Results Using the exposure estimate based on nearest monitor, in single-pollutant models, increased OC (effect estimate [95% CI] per IQR: 35.1 ?m [26.8, 43.3]), EC (9.6 ?m [3.6,15.7]), sulfur (22.7 ?m [15.0,30.4]) and total PM2.5 (14.7 ?m [9.0,20.5]) but not silicon (5.2 ?m [?9.8,20.1]), were associated with increased CIMT; in two-pollutant models, only the association with OC was robust to control for the other pollutants. Findings were generally consistent across the three exposure estimation approaches. None of the PM measures were positively associated with either the presence or extent of CAC. In sensitivity analyses, effect estimates for OC and silicon were particularly sensitive to control for metropolitan area. Conclusion Employing commonly-used exposure estimation approaches, all of the PM2.5 components considered, except silicon, were associated with increased CIMT, with the evidence being strongest for OC; no component was associated with increased CAC. PM2.5 chemical components, or other features of the sources that produced them, may be important in determining the effect of PM exposure on atherosclerosis. These cross-sectional findings await confirmation in future work employing longitudinal outcome measures and using more sophisticated approaches to estimating exposure. PMID:23641873

2013-01-01

128

Principal component analysis of M1 neurophysiology data suggests a motor-control system-architecture template.  

PubMed

Stereotyped reaching tasks are used to study how primate subjects learn and recall motor skills required to compensate for different external forces during arm movements. To unveil mechanisms accounting for skilled performance under a wide range of rapidly switching task dynamics conditions, we recorded neural data from the primary motor-cortex (M1). Here we present a systematic analysis of changes in the M1 activity of a monkey with extensive practice compensating for five different dynamic fields in an elbow flexion/extension task. We show how they reflect differences in task kinematics and dynamics. Making extensive use of principal component analysis (PCA) and in preparation for computational modeling (see the companion paper) we demonstrate how M1 activity can be related functionally to the dynamics of feed-forward (FF), fast- and slow- feedback (FB) loops of the adaptive controller implemented by the brain to guide skilled motor behavior. PMID:19163012

Krouchev, Nedialko I; Galiana, Henrietta L; Kalaska, John F

2008-01-01

129

Reference Avionics Architecture for Lunar Surface Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developing and delivering infrastructure capable of supporting long-term manned operations to the lunar surface has been a primary objective of the Constellation Program in the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Several concepts have been developed related to development and deployment lunar exploration vehicles and assets that provide critical functionality such as transportation, habitation, and communication, to name a few. Together, these systems perform complex safety-critical functions, largely dependent on avionics for control and behavior of system functions. These functions are implemented using interchangeable, modular avionics designed for lunar transit and lunar surface deployment. Systems are optimized towards reuse and commonality of form and interface and can be configured via software or component integration for special purpose applications. There are two core concepts in the reference avionics architecture described in this report. The first concept uses distributed, smart systems to manage complexity, simplify integration, and facilitate commonality. The second core concept is to employ extensive commonality between elements and subsystems. These two concepts are used in the context of developing reference designs for many lunar surface exploration vehicles and elements. These concepts are repeated constantly as architectural patterns in a conceptual architectural framework. This report describes the use of these architectural patterns in a reference avionics architecture for Lunar surface systems elements.

Somervill, Kevin M.; Lapin, Jonathan C.; Schmidt, Oron L.

2010-01-01

130

Nop58p is a common component of the box C+D snoRNPs that is required for snoRNA stability.  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic nucleoli contain a large family of box C+D small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) species, all of which are associated with a common protein Nop1p/fibrillarin. Nop58p was identified in a screen for synthetic lethality with Nop1p and shown to be an essential nucleolar protein. Here we report that a Protein A-tagged version of Nop58p coprecipitates all tested box C+D snoRNAs and that genetic depletion of Nop58p leads to the loss of all tested box C+D snoRNAs. The box H+ACA class of snoRNAs are not coprecipitated with Nop58p, and are not codepleted. The yeast box C+D snoRNAs include two species, U3 and U14, that are required for the early cleavages in pre-rRNA processing. Consistent with this, Nop58p depletion leads to a strong inhibition of pre-rRNA processing and 18S rRNA synthesis. Unexpectedly, depletion of Nop58p leads to the accumulation of 3' extended forms of U3 and U24, showing that the protein is also involved in snoRNA synthesis. Nop58p is the second common component of the box C+D snoRNPs to be identified and the first to be shown to be required for the stability and for the synthesis of these snoRNAs. PMID:10094313

Lafontaine, D L; Tollervey, D

1999-01-01

131

Structural insights into the COP9 signalosome and its common architecture with the 26S proteasome lid and eIF3.  

PubMed

The evolutionary conserved COP9 signalosome (CSN), a large multisubunit complex, plays a central role in regulating ubiquitination and cell signaling. Here we report recombinant insect cell expression and two-step purification of human CSN and demonstrate its functional assembly. We further obtain a three-dimensional structure of both native and recombinant CSN using electron microscopy and single particle analysis. Antibody labeling of CSN5 and segmentation of the structure suggest a likely subunit distribution and the architecture of its helical repeat subunits is revealed. We compare the structure of CSN with its homologous complexes, the 26S proteasome lid and eIF3, and propose a conserved architecture implying similar assembly pathways and/or conserved substrate interaction modes. PMID:20399188

Enchev, Radoslav I; Schreiber, Anne; Beuron, Fabienne; Morris, Edward P

2010-03-14

132

In proceedings of The International Conference on Communications in Computation, pp: 160-166, June 2004. Design of Distributed Component Frameworks for Computational Grids  

E-print Network

implementations of the CCA specification, CCALegion and XCAT.1 Key Words: Common Component Architecture (CCA), Grid Computing, Legion, XCAT 1 Introduction Computational Grids [4] consist of hardware and software

133

Mapping genomic loci for cotton plant architecture, yield components, and fiber properties in an interspecific (Gossypium hirsutum L. G. barbadense L.) RIL population.  

PubMed

A quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was conducted to better understand the genetic control of plant architecture (PA), yield components (YC), and fiber properties (FP) in the two cultivated tetraploid species of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L.). One hundred and fifty-nine genomic regions were identified on a saturated genetic map of more than 2,500 SSR and SNP markers, constructed with an interspecific recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the genetic standards of the respective cotton species (G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 G. barbadense acc. 3-79). Using the single nonparametric and MQM QTL model mapping procedures, we detected 428 putative loci in the 159 genomic regions that confer 24 cotton traits in three diverse production environments [College Station F&B Road (FB), TX; Brazos Bottom (BB), TX; and Shafter (SH), CA]. These putative QTL loci included 25 loci for PA, 60 for YC, and 343 for FP, of which 3, 12, and 60, respectively, were strongly associated with the traits (LOD score ? 3.0). Approximately 17.7 % of the PA putative QTL, 32.9 % of the YC QTL, and 48.3 % of the FP QTL had trait associations under multiple environments. The At subgenome (chromosomes 1-13) contributed 72.7 % of loci for PA, 46.2 % for YC, and 50.4 % for FP while the Dt subgenome (chromosomes 14-26) contributed 27.3 % of loci for PA, 53.8 % for YC, and 49.6 % for FP. The data obtained from this study augment prior evidence of QTL clusters or gene islands for specific traits or biological functions existing in several non-homoeologous cotton chromosomes. DNA markers identified in the 159 genomic regions will facilitate further dissection of genetic factors underlying these important traits and marker-assisted selection in cotton. PMID:25314923

Yu, John Z; Ulloa, Mauricio; Hoffman, Steven M; Kohel, Russell J; Pepper, Alan E; Fang, David D; Percy, Richard G; Burke, John J

2014-12-01

134

Towards a Domain Specific Software Architecture for Scientific Data Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reference architecture is a "design that satisfies a clearly distinguished subset of the functional capabilities identified in the reference requirements within the boundaries of certain design and implementation constraints, also identified in reference requirements." [Tracz, 1995] Recognizing the value of a reference architecture, NASA's ESDSWG's Standards Process Group (SPG) is introducing a multi-disciplinary science data systems (SDS) reference architecture in order to provide an implementation neutral, template solution for an architecture to support scientific data systems in general [Burnett, et al, 2011]. This reference architecture describes common features and patterns in scientific data systems, and can thus provide guidelines in building and improving such systems. But, guidelines alone may not be sufficient to actually build a system. A domain specific software architecture (DSSA) is "an assemblage of software components, specialized for a particular type of task (domain), generalized for effective use across that domain, composed in a standardized structure (topology) effective for building successful applications." [Tracz, 1995]. It can be thought of as relatively specific reference architecture. The "DSSA Process" is a software life cycle developed at Carnegie Melon's Software Engineering Institute that is based on the development and use of domain-specific software architectures, components, and tools. The process has four distinct activities: 1) develop a domain specific base/model, 2) populate and maintain the library, 3) build applications, 4) operate and maintain applications [Armitage, 1993]. The DSSA process may provide the missing link between guidelines and actual system construction. In this presentation we focus specifically on the realm of scientific data access and distribution. Assuming the role of domain experts in building data access systems, we report the results of creating a DSSA for scientific data distribution. We describe the resulting domain model and our efforts towards building a heterogenous, multi-"vendor" architecture framework for data distribution based on that model. We draw on experiences and lessons learned supporting data access and distribution for multiple projects having common functionality but also unique details.

Wilson, A.; Lindholm, D. M.

2011-12-01

135

Extracellular Matrix Remodeling: The Common Denominator in Connective Tissue DiseasesPossibilities for Evaluation and Current Understanding of the Matrix as More Than a Passive Architecture, but a Key Player in Tissue Failure  

PubMed Central

Abstract Increased attention is paid to the structural components of tissues. These components are mostly collagens and various proteoglycans. Emerging evidence suggests that altered components and noncoded modifications of the matrix may be both initiators and drivers of disease, exemplified by excessive tissue remodeling leading to tissue stiffness, as well as by changes in the signaling potential of both intact matrix and fragments thereof. Although tissue structure until recently was viewed as a simple architecture anchoring cells and proteins, this complex grid may contain essential information enabling the maintenance of the structure and normal functioning of tissue. The aims of this review are to (1) discuss the structural components of the matrix and the relevance of their mutations to the pathology of diseases such as fibrosis and cancer, (2) introduce the possibility that post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as protease cleavage, citrullination, cross-linking, nitrosylation, glycosylation, and isomerization, generated during pathology, may be unique, disease-specific biochemical markers, (3) list and review the range of simple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) that have been developed for assessing the extracellular matrix (ECM) and detecting abnormal ECM remodeling, and (4) discuss whether some PTMs are the cause or consequence of disease. New evidence clearly suggests that the ECM at some point in the pathogenesis becomes a driver of disease. These pathological modified ECM proteins may allow insights into complicated pathologies in which the end stage is excessive tissue remodeling, and provide unique and more pathology-specific biochemical markers. PMID:23046407

Nielsen, Mette J.; Sand, Jannie M.; Henriksen, Kim; Genovese, Federica; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Smith, Victoria; Adamkewicz, Joanne I.; Christiansen, Claus; Leeming, Diana J.

2013-01-01

136

Compositional Specification of Software Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes our experience using parameterized algebraic specifications to model properties of software architectures. The goal is to model the decomposition of requirements independent of the style used to implement the architecture. We begin by providing an overview of the role of architecture specification in software development. We then describe how architecture specifications are build up from component and connector specifications and give an overview of insights gained from a case study used to validate the method.

Penix, John; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

137

The NASA Integrated Information Technology Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document defines an Information Technology Architecture for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), where Information Technology (IT) refers to the hardware, software, standards, protocols and processes that enable the creation, manipulation, storage, organization and sharing of information. An architecture provides an itemization and definition of these IT structures, a view of the relationship of the structures to each other and, most importantly, an accessible view of the whole. It is a fundamental assumption of this document that a useful, interoperable and affordable IT environment is key to the execution of the core NASA scientific and project competencies and business practices. This Architecture represents the highest level system design and guideline for NASA IT related activities and has been created on the authority of the NASA Chief Information Officer (CIO) and will be maintained under the auspices of that office. It addresses all aspects of general purpose, research, administrative and scientific computing and networking throughout the NASA Agency and is applicable to all NASA administrative offices, projects, field centers and remote sites. Through the establishment of five Objectives and six Principles this Architecture provides a blueprint for all NASA IT service providers: civil service, contractor and outsourcer. The most significant of the Objectives and Principles are the commitment to customer-driven IT implementations and the commitment to a simpler, cost-efficient, standards-based, modular IT infrastructure. In order to ensure that the Architecture is presented and defined in the context of the mission, project and business goals of NASA, this Architecture consists of four layers in which each subsequent layer builds on the previous layer. They are: 1) the Business Architecture: the operational functions of the business, or Enterprise, 2) the Systems Architecture: the specific Enterprise activities within the context of IT systems, 3) the Technical Architecture: a common, vendor-independent framework for design, integration and implementation of IT systems and 4) the Product Architecture: vendor=specific IT solutions. The Systems Architecture is effectively a description of the end-user "requirements". Generalized end-user requirements are discussed and subsequently organized into specific mission and project functions. The Technical Architecture depicts the framework, and relationship, of the specific IT components that enable the end-user functionality as described in the Systems Architecture. The primary components as described in the Technical Architecture are: 1) Applications: Basic Client Component, Object Creation Applications, Collaborative Applications, Object Analysis Applications, 2) Services: Messaging, Information Broker, Collaboration, Distributed Processing, and 3) Infrastructure: Network, Security, Directory, Certificate Management, Enterprise Management and File System. This Architecture also provides specific Implementation Recommendations, the most significant of which is the recognition of IT as core to NASA activities and defines a plan, which is aligned with the NASA strategic planning processes, for keeping the Architecture alive and useful.

Baldridge, Tim

1997-01-01

138

Foundations for the study of software architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to build the foundation for software architecture. We first develop an intuition for software architecture by appealing to several well-established architectural disciplines. On the basis of this intuition, we present a model of software architecture that consists of three components: elements, form, and rationale. Elements are either processing, data, or connecting elements. Form is

Dewayne E. Perry; Alexander L. Wolf

1992-01-01

139

Standardization and program effect analysis (Study 2.4). Volume 2: Equipment commonality analysis. [cost savings of using flight-proven components in designing spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility and cost savings of using flight-proven components in designing spacecraft were investigated. The components analyzed were (1) large space telescope, (2) stratospheric aerosol and gas equipment, (3) mapping mission, (4) solar maximum mission, and (5) Tiros-N. It is concluded that flight-proven hardware can be used with not-too-extensive modification, and significant savings can be realized. The cost savings for each component are presented.

Shiokari, T.

1975-01-01

140

Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. Because the NPSS was developed using the object-oriented paradigm, the resulting architecture is an extensible and flexible framework that is currently being used by a diverse set of participants in government, academia, and the aerospace industry. NPSS is being used by over 15 different institutions to support rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and aerospace. Full system-level simulations as well as subsystems may be modeled using NPSS. The NPSS architecture enables the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail, which is called numerical zooming. The middleware used to enable zooming and distributed simulations is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The NPSS Developer's Kit offers tools for the developer to generate CORBA-based components and wrap codes. The Developer's Kit enables distributed multi-fidelity and multi-discipline simulations, preserves proprietary and legacy codes, and facilitates addition of customized codes. The platforms supported are PC, Linux, HP, Sun, and SGI.

Naiman, Cynthia G.

2004-01-01

141

The Mitochondrial Genome of Chara vulgaris: Insights into the Mitochondrial DNA Architecture of the Last Common Ancestor of Green Algae and Land PlantsW?  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has undergone radical changes during the evolution of green plants, yet little is known about the dynamics of mtDNA evolution in this phylum. Land plant mtDNAs differ from the few green algal mtDNAs that have been analyzed to date by their expanded size, long spacers, and diversity of introns. We have determined the mtDNA sequence of Chara vulgaris (Charophyceae), a green alga belonging to the charophycean order (Charales) that is thought to be the most closely related alga to land plants. This 67,737-bp mtDNA sequence, displaying 68 conserved genes and 27 introns, was compared with those of three angiosperms, the bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha, the charophycean alga Chaetosphaeridium globosum (Coleochaetales), and the green alga Mesostigma viride. Despite important differences in size and intron composition, Chara mtDNA strikingly resembles Marchantia mtDNA; for instance, all except 9 of 68 conserved genes lie within blocks of colinear sequences. Overall, our genome comparisons and phylogenetic analyses provide unequivocal support for a sister-group relationship between the Charales and the land plants. Only four introns in land plant mtDNAs appear to have been inherited vertically from a charalean algar ancestor. We infer that the common ancestor of green algae and land plants harbored a tightly packed, gene-rich, and relatively intron-poor mitochondrial genome. The group II introns in this ancestral genome appear to have spread to new mtDNA sites during the evolution of bryophytes and charalean green algae, accounting for part of the intron diversity found in Chara and land plant mitochondria. PMID:12897260

Turmel, Monique; Otis, Christian; Lemieux, Claude

2003-01-01

142

Electronic Components  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from Jim Lesurf of the University of St. Andrews explains common electronic components in an easily understood format. Resistors, capacitors, diodes, inductors and more are explained here. The difference between passive and active components is also explained. Information about conductors and semiconductors is provided as well.

Lesurf, Jim

2013-08-13

143

Ontology-Driven Health Information Systems Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.Following an architecture vision such as the Generic Component Model (GCM) architecture fra mework, health information systems for supporting personalized,care have,to be based,on a component-oriented architecture. Representing concepts and their interrelations, the GCM perspectives syste m architecture, domains, and development process can be described bythe domains ontologies. The paper introduces ontology principles, ontology references to the GCM as w ell

Bernd Blobel; Frank Oemig

2009-01-01

144

Riding the Storm out: Developmental Education Reform as a Key Component of Common Core Implementation. The College Board Advocacy & Policy Center Affinity Network Background Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards provide a unique opening for K-12 and higher education institutions to work together to ensure that high school students are better prepared for postsecondary education. The college and career readiness assessments will provide educators the opportunities to intervene with students while still in high school to

Vandal, Bruce

2012-01-01

145

Mapping Software Architecture Specification to Rewriting Logic (Short Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a systematic translation algorithm that maps a software architecture model to rewriting logics. We consider a nowadays typical component-based software architecture model - SAM. SAM is a formal software architecture model that integrates two formalisms - Petri nets and temporal logic. Our goal is to effectively describe the component based software architecture model SAM using

Yujian Fu; Zhijiang Dong; Junhua Ding; Xudong He

2008-01-01

146

Common sense representations of common illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 320 undergraduates provide evidence that common sense representations of common illnesses involve 5 components: (1) a label, (2) consequences, (3) a time line, (4) a cause, and (5) a cure. The content of schemas for a person's most recent illness is shown to have small but significant effects on changes in health locus of control beliefs but not

Richard R. Lau; Karen A. Hartman

1983-01-01

147

Current Trends Driving Aircraft and Automotive Systems Architectures and their impacts on CMMI Organizational Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we discuss current trends driving Aircraft and Automotive Systems Architectures and their impacts on CMMI Organizational Structures. This includes trends as: 1) pos -globalization and regionalization; 2) the formation of knowledge oligopolies; 3) commonality, standardization and even synergy (of components, tools, development process, certification agents, standards); 4) reuse and scalability, 5) synergy of knowledge and tools convergence;

Gilberto da Cunha Trivelato

148

Final Technical Report - Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS)  

SciTech Connect

This is a final technical report for the University of Maryland work in the SciDAC Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS). The Maryland work focused on software tools for coupling parallel software components built using the Common Component Architecture (CCA) APIs. Those tools are based on the Maryland InterComm software framework that has been used in multiple computational science applications to build large-scale simulations of complex physical systems that employ multiple separately developed codes.

Sussman, Alan [University of Maryland

2014-10-21

149

An exploration of architectural innovation in professional service firms  

E-print Network

Architectural innovation is achieved using architectural knowledge to reconfigure an established system to link together components in a new way that provides a competitive advantage. Components in professional service ...

Espinosa Vasconcelos, Fernando (Francisco Fernando)

2007-01-01

150

Bocca: A Development Environment for HPC Components  

SciTech Connect

In high-performance scientific software development, the emphasis is often on short time to first solution. Even when the development of new components mostly reuses existing components or libraries and only small amounts of new code must be created, dealing with the component glue code and software build processes to obtain complete applications is still tedious and error-prone. Component-based soft ware meant to reduce complexity at the application level increases complexity with the attendant glue code. To address these needs, we introduce Bocca, the first tool to enable application developers to perform rapid component prototyping while maintaining robust software-engineering practices suitable to HPC environments. Bocca provides project management and a comprehensive build environment for creating and managing applications composed of Common Component Architecture components. Of critical importance for HPC applications, Bocca is designed to operate in a language-agnostic way, simultaneously handling components written in any of the languages commonly used in scientific applications: C, C++, Fortran, Fortran77, Python, and Java. Bocca automates the tasks related to the component glue code, freeing the user to focus on the scientific aspects of the application. Bocca embraces the philosophy pioneered by Ruby Rails for web applications: Start with something that works and evolve it to the user's purpose.

Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Norris, Boyana [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Benjamin, Allan A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Armstrong, Robert C. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)

2007-01-01

151

Bocca : A development environment for HPC components.  

SciTech Connect

In high-performance scientific software development, the emphasis is often on short time to first solution. Even when the development of new components mostly reuses existing components or libraries and only small amounts of new code must be created, dealing with component glue code to obtain complete applications is still tedious and error prone. Component-based software meant to reduce complexity at the application level increases complexity with the attendant glue code. To address these needs, we introduce Bocca, the first tool to enable application developers to perform rapid component prototyping while maintaining robust software engineering practices suitable to HPC environments. Bocca provides project management and a comprehensive build environment for creating and managing applications composed of Common Component Architecture components. Of critical importance for HPC applications, Bocca is designed to operate in a language-agnostic way, simultaneously handling components written in any of the common HPC workstation languages: C, C++, Fortran, Fortran77, Python, and Java. Bocca automates the tasks related to the component glue code, freeing the user to focus on the scientific aspects of the application. Bocca embraces the philosophy pioneered by Ruby Rails for web applications: Start with something that works and evolve it to the user's purpose.

Elwasif, W.; Norris, B.; Allan, B.; Armstrong, R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; ORNL; SNL

2007-01-01

152

Project Integration Architecture: Application Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications is enabled.

Jones, William Henry

2005-01-01

153

Avionics System Architecture Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Avionics System Architecture Tool (ASAT) is a computer program intended for use during the avionics-system-architecture- design phase of the process of designing a spacecraft for a specific mission. ASAT enables simulation of the dynamics of the command-and-data-handling functions of the spacecraft avionics in the scenarios in which the spacecraft is expected to operate. ASAT is built upon I-Logix Statemate MAGNUM, providing a complement of dynamic system modeling tools, including a graphical user interface (GUI), modeling checking capabilities, and a simulation engine. ASAT augments this with a library of predefined avionics components and additional software to support building and analyzing avionics hardware architectures using these components.

Chau, Savio; Hall, Ronald; Traylor, marcus; Whitfield, Adrian

2005-01-01

154

A murine monoclonal antibody, MoAb HMSA-5, against a melanosomal component highly expressed in early stages, and common to normal and neoplastic melanocytes.  

PubMed Central

The melanosome is a secretory organelle unique to the melanocyte and its neoplastic counterpart, malignant melanoma. The synthesis and assembly of these intracytoplasmic organelles is not yet fully understood. We have developed a murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against melanosomes isolated from human melanocytes (newborn foreskin) cultured in the presence of 12-O tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). This MoAb, designated HMSA-5 (Human Melanosome-Specific Antigen-5) (IgG1), recognised a cytoplasmic antigen in both normal human melanocytes and neoplastic cells, such as common and dysplastic melanocytic nevi, and malignant melanoma. None of the carcinoma or sarcoma specimens tested showed positive reactivity with MoAb HMSA-5. Under immunoelectron microscopy, immuno-gold deposition was seen on microvesicles associated with melanosomes, and a portion of the ER-Golgi complexes. Radioimmunoprecipitation analysis showed that the HMSA-5 reactive antigen was a glycoprotein of M(r) 69 to 73 kDa. A pulse-chase time course study showed that the amount of antigen detected by MoAb HMSA-5 decreased over a 24 h period without significant expression on the cell surface, or corresponding appearance of the antigen in the culture supernatant. This glycoprotein appears to play a role in the early stages of melanosomal development, and the HMSA-5 reactive epitope may be lost during subsequent maturation processes. Importantly, HMSA-5 can be identified in all forms of human melanocytes, hence it can be considered a new common melanocytic marker even on routine paraffin sections. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:7678981

Der, J. E.; Dixon, W. T.; Jimbow, K.; Horikoshi, T.

1993-01-01

155

Distributed Processing Architecture for a Hospital Information System  

PubMed Central

A distributed processing architecture can support existing hospital information handling areas and can expand to accommodate additional application areas. The elements of the proposed architecture consist of heterogeneous and autonomous minicomputer host processors that serve the needs of distinct application areas, intelligent terminals that access one or more of these processors, a bus communication system featuring a single common information flow channel, and microprocessor based interface units between each network subscriber (processor or terminal) and the communication bus. Information exchange occurs via transactions using a proposed set of standardized protocols between network subscribers. Control of the network has both distributed and centralized components, and permits overall network system reliability to be independent of subscriber reliability. Key issues to the viability of a distributed processing architecture are the distribution of the data base among subscriber elements, the methods for achieving distributed data base integrity and the techniques for failure recovery.

Zeichner, Marvin L.; Brusil, Paul J.; Tolchin, Stephen G.

1979-01-01

156

Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case

Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

2013-01-01

157

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

158

Advanced information processing system: The Army fault tolerant architecture conceptual study. Volume 2: Army fault tolerant architecture design and analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described here is the Army Fault Tolerant Architecture (AFTA) hardware architecture and components and the operating system. The architectural and operational theory of the AFTA Fault Tolerant Data Bus is discussed. The test and maintenance strategy developed for use in fielded AFTA installations is presented. An approach to be used in reducing the probability of AFTA failure due to common mode faults is described. Analytical models for AFTA performance, reliability, availability, life cycle cost, weight, power, and volume are developed. An approach is presented for using VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) to describe and design AFTA's developmental hardware. A plan is described for verifying and validating key AFTA concepts during the Dem/Val phase. Analytical models and partial mission requirements are used to generate AFTA configurations for the TF/TA/NOE and Ground Vehicle missions.

Harper, R. E.; Alger, L. S.; Babikyan, C. A.; Butler, B. P.; Friend, S. A.; Ganska, R. J.; Lala, J. H.; Masotto, T. K.; Meyer, A. J.; Morton, D. P.

1992-01-01

159

NASA Integrated Network Monitor and Control Software Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Communications and Navigation office (SCaN) has commissioned a series of trade studies to define a new architecture intended to integrate the three existing networks that it operates, the Deep Space Network (DSN), Space Network (SN), and Near Earth Network (NEN), into one integrated network that offers users a set of common, standardized, services and interfaces. The integrated monitor and control architecture utilizes common software and common operator interfaces that can be deployed at all three network elements. This software uses state-of-the-art concepts such as a pool of re-programmable equipment that acts like a configurable software radio, distributed hierarchical control, and centralized management of the whole SCaN integrated network. For this trade space study a model-based approach using SysML was adopted to describe and analyze several possible options for the integrated network monitor and control architecture. This model was used to refine the design and to drive the costing of the four different software options. This trade study modeled the three existing self standing network elements at point of departure, and then described how to integrate them using variations of new and existing monitor and control system components for the different proposed deployments under consideration. This paper will describe the trade space explored, the selected system architecture, the modeling and trade study methods, and some observations on useful approaches to implementing such model based trade space representation and analysis.

Shames, Peter; Anderson, Michael; Kowal, Steve; Levesque, Michael; Sindiy, Oleg; Donahue, Kenneth; Barnes, Patrick

2012-01-01

160

Toward reusable software components at the point of care.  

PubMed

An architecture built from five software components -a Router, Parser, Matcher, Mapper, and Server -fulfills key requirements common to several point-of-care information and knowledge processing tasks. The requirements include problem-list creation, exploiting the contents of the Electronic Medical Record for the patient at hand, knowledge access, and support for semantic visualization and software agents. The components use the National Library of Medicine Unified Medical Language System to create and exploit lexical closure-a state in which terms, text and reference models are represented explicitly and consistently. Preliminary versions of the components are in use in an oncology knowledge server. PMID:8947646

Tuttle, M S; Sherertz, D D; Olson, N E; Nelson, S J; Erlbaum, M S; Keck, K D; Davis, A N; Suarez-Munist, O N; Lipow, S S; Cole, W G; Fagan, L M; Acuff, R D; Crangle, C E; Musen, M A; Tu, S W; Wiederhold, G C; Carlson, R W

1996-01-01

161

Chronic granulomatous disease caused by mutations other than the common GT deletion in NCF1, the gene encoding the p47phox component of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase.  

PubMed

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited immunodeficiency caused by defects in any of four genes encoding components of the leukocyte nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate, reduced (NADPH) oxidase. One of these is the autosomal neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (NCF1) gene encoding the p47phox protein. Most (>97%) CGD patients without p47phox (A47 degrees CGD) are homozygotes for one particular mutation in NCF1, a GT deletion in exon 2. This is due to recombination events between NCF1 and its two pseudogenes (psiNCF1) that contain this GT deletion. We have previously set up a gene-scan method to establish the ratio of NCF1 genes and pseudogenes. With this method we now found, in three CGD families patients with the normal number of two intact NCF1 genes (and four psiNCF1 genes) and in six CGD families, patients with one intact NCF1 gene (and five psiNCF1 genes). All patients lacked p47phox protein expression. These results indicate that other mutations were present in their NCF1 gene than the GT deletion. To identify these mutations, we designed PCR primers to specifically amplify the cDNA or parts of the genomic DNA from NCF1 but not from the psiNCF1 genes. We found point mutations in NCF1 in eight families. In another family, we found a 2,860-bp deletion starting in intron 2 and ending in intron 5. In six families the patients were compound heterozygotes for the GT deletion and one of these other mutations; in two families the patients had a homozygous missense mutation; and in one family the patient was a compound heterozygote for a splice defect and a nonsense mutation. Family members with either the GT deletion or one of these other mutations were identified as carriers. This knowledge was used in one of the families for prenatal diagnosis. PMID:16972229

Roos, Dirk; de Boer, Martin; Kker, M Yavuz; Dekker, Jan; Singh-Gupta, Vinita; Ahlin, Anders; Palmblad, Jan; Sanal, Ozden; Kurenko-Deptuch, Magdalena; Jolles, Stephen; Wolach, Baruch

2006-12-01

162

Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of Monarda punctata essential oil and its main components against common bacterial pathogens in respiratory tract  

PubMed Central

The aim of the current research work was to study the chemical composition of the essential oil of Monarda punctata along with evaluating the essential oil and its major components for their antibacterial effects against some frequently encountered respiratory infection causing pathogens. Gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of 13 chemical constituents with thymol (75.2%), p-cymene (6.7%), limonene (5.4), and carvacrol (3.5%) as the major constituents. The oil composition was dominated by the oxygenated monoterpenes. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil and its major constituents (thymol, p-cymene, limonene) was evaluated against Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli. The study revealed that the essential oil and its constituents exhibited a broad spectrum and variable degree of antibacterial activity against different strains. Among the tested strains, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the most susceptible bacterial strain showing lowest MIC and MBC values. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most resistant bacterial strain to the essential oil treatment showing relatively higher MIC and MBC values. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the essential oil induced potent and dose-dependent membrane damage in S. pyogenes and MRSA bacterial strains. The reactive oxygen species generated by the Monarda punctata essential oil were identified using 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA).This study indicated that the Monarda punctata essential oil to a great extent and thymol to a lower extent triggered a substantial increase in the ROS levels in S. pyogenes bacterial cultures which ultimately cause membrane damage as revealed by SEM results.

Li, Hong; Yang, Tian; Li, Fei-Yan; Yao, Yan; Sun, Zhong-Min

2014-01-01

163

Integrating the services' imagery architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any military organization requiring imagery must deal with one or more of several architectures: the tactical architectures of the three military departments, the theater architectures, and their interfaces to a separate national architecture. A seamless, joint, integrated architecture must meet today's imagery requirements. The CIO's vision of 'the right imagery to the right people in the right format at the right time' would serve well as the objective of a joint, integrated architecture. A joint imagery strategy should be initially shaped by the four pillars of the National Military Strategy of the United States: strategic deterrence; forward presence; crisis response; and reconstitution. In a macro view, it must consist of a series of sub-strategies to include science and technology and research and development, maintenance of the imagery related industrial base, acquisition, resource management, and burden sharing. Common imagery doctrine must follow the imagery strategy. Most of all, control, continuity, and direction must be maintained with regard to organizations and systems development as the architecture evolves. These areas and more must be addressed to reach the long term goal of a joint, integrated imagery architecture. This will require the services and theaters to relinquish some sovereignty over at least systems development and acquisition. Nevertheless, the goal of a joint, integrated imagery architecture is feasible. The author presents arguments and specific recommendations to orient the imagery community in the direction of a joint, integrated imagery architecture.

Mader, John F.

1993-04-01

164

Lunar architecture and urbanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

Sherwood, Brent

1992-01-01

165

Architectural-landsystem analysis of a modern glacial landscape, Slheimajkull, southern Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacial terrains are commonly recorded using a landsystem approach, which allows detailed documentation of the geomorphological evolution of the landscape. However, landsystem analysis of Quaternary subsurface stratigraphies in which landforms are not apparent or preserved is problematic, making delineation of the sedimentary architecture of a glaciated basin infill difficult. The purpose of this study is to delineate the sedimentary architecture of the Slheimajkull (southern Iceland) glacial landsystem and to provide an architectural framework for allostratigraphy and modern analogue purposes. An integrated architectural-landsystem approach is applied here, which utilizes the principles from both architectural element analysis and landsystem analysis. A bounding surface hierarchy (fourth- to seventh-order surfaces) provides a framework within which the architecture is organized. Fieldwork was conducted at Slheimajkull glacier in 2012 and 2013; and 22 different surface features (bounded by the fourth-order surfaces) were mapped, which were grouped into four different landsystem tracts (glaciofluvial, ice-contact, jkulhlaup, and colluvial slope; bounded by the sixth-order surfaces). Landsystem tracts were deconstructed into smaller architectural units (components; bounded by the fifth-order surfaces), which allowed the delineation of eight allostratigraphic units that record the evolution of the glacial landsystem from ~ 7000 YBP to A.D. 2013. The results of this study can provide insight to interpretation and delineation of the sedimentary architecture of other modern glacial landsystems and subsurface Quaternary deposits in North America and other formerly glaciated areas.

Slomka, Jessica M.; Eyles, Carolyn H.

2015-02-01

166

Maximizing commonality between military and general aviation fly-by-light helicopter system designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the face of shrinking defense budgets, survival of the United States rotorcraft industry is becoming increasingly dependent on increased sales in a highly competitive civil helicopter market. As a result, only the most competitive rotorcraft manufacturers are likely to survive. A key ingredient in improving our competitive position is the ability to produce more versatile, high performance, high quality, and low cost of ownership helicopters. Fiber optic technology offers a path of achieving these objectives. Also, adopting common components and architectures for different helicopter models (while maintaining each models' uniqueness) will further decrease design and production costs. Funds saved (or generated) by exploiting this commonality can be applied to R&D used to further improve the product. In this paper, we define a fiber optics based avionics architecture which provides the pilot a fly-by-light / digital flight control system which can be implemented in both civilian and military helicopters. We then discuss the advantages of such an architecture.

Enns, Russell; Mossman, David C.

1995-05-01

167

Self-organising software architectures for distributed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-organising software architecture is one in which components automatically configure their interaction in a way that is compatible with an overall architectural specification. The objective is to minimise the degree of explicit management necessary for construction and subsequent evolution whilst preserving the architectural properties implied by its specification. This paper examines the feasibility of using architectural constraints as the

Ioannis Georgiadis; Jeff Magee; Jeff Kramer

2002-01-01

168

College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities ARCHITECTURE,  

E-print Network

College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE, ARTS AND HUMANITIES The College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities offers graduate programs in three schools: the School in Architecture; City and Regional Planning; Communication, Technology and Society; Construc- tion Science

Bolding, M. Chad

169

Project Integration Architecture: Architectural Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. By being a single, self-revealing architecture, the ability to develop single tools, for example a single graphical user interface, to span all applications is enabled. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications becomes possible, Object-encapsulation further allows information to become in a sense self-aware, knowing things such as its own dimensionality and providing functionality appropriate to its kind.

Jones, William Henry

2001-01-01

170

Integrating hospital information systems in healthcare institutions: a mediation architecture.  

PubMed

Many studies have examined the integration of information systems into healthcare institutions, leading to several standards in the healthcare domain (CORBAmed: Common Object Request Broker Architecture in Medicine; HL7: Health Level Seven International; DICOM: Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine; and IHE: Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise). Due to the existence of a wide diversity of heterogeneous systems, three essential factors are necessary to fully integrate a system: data, functions and workflow. However, most of the previous studies have dealt with only one or two of these factors and this makes the system integration unsatisfactory. In this paper, we propose a flexible, scalable architecture for Hospital Information Systems (HIS). Our main purpose is to provide a practical solution to insure HIS interoperability so that healthcare institutions can communicate without being obliged to change their local information systems and without altering the tasks of the healthcare professionals. Our architecture is a mediation architecture with 3 levels: 1) a database level, 2) a middleware level and 3) a user interface level. The mediation is based on two central components: the Mediator and the Adapter. Using the XML format allows us to establish a structured, secured exchange of healthcare data. The notion of medical ontology is introduced to solve semantic conflicts and to unify the language used for the exchange. Our mediation architecture provides an effective, promising model that promotes the integration of hospital information systems that are autonomous, heterogeneous, semantically interoperable and platform-independent. PMID:22086739

El Azami, Ikram; Cherkaoui Malki, Mohammed Ouamah; Tahon, Christian

2012-10-01

171

Terra Harvest software architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the Terra Harvest Program, the DIA has the objective of developing a universal Controller for the Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) community. The mission is to define, implement, and thoroughly document an open architecture that universally supports UGS missions, integrating disparate systems, peripherals, etc. The Controller's inherent interoperability with numerous systems enables the integration of both legacy and future UGS System (UGSS) components, while the design's open architecture supports rapid third-party development to ensure operational readiness. The successful accomplishment of these objectives by the program's Phase 3b contractors is demonstrated via integration of the companies' respective plug-'n'-play contributions that include controllers, various peripherals, such as sensors, cameras, etc., and their associated software drivers. In order to independently validate the Terra Harvest architecture, L-3 Nova Engineering, along with its partner, the University of Dayton Research Institute, is developing the Terra Harvest Open Source Environment (THOSE), a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) running on an embedded Linux Operating System. The Use Cases on which the software is developed support the full range of UGS operational scenarios such as remote sensor triggering, image capture, and data exfiltration. The Team is additionally developing an ARM microprocessor-based evaluation platform that is both energy-efficient and operationally flexible. The paper describes the overall THOSE architecture, as well as the design decisions for some of the key software components. Development process for THOSE is discussed as well.

Humeniuk, Dave; Klawon, Kevin

2012-06-01

172

Performative architecture  

E-print Network

The following thesis explores two central hypotheses. On the one hand it introduces the idea of performative architecture (performance in design), and has done so with the desire to contribute directly to the expansion of ...

Araya, Sergio (Sergio Alejandro)

2011-01-01

173

Complement component 4  

MedlinePLUS

Complement component 4 is a blood test that measures the activity of a certain protein that is part of ... and C4 are the most commonly measured complement components. Complement activity may be measured to determine how ...

174

Application Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

When you intend to develop an application based on OPC UA you first have to think about what it should do by specifying the\\u000a requirements and the functionality. Having that in mind you normally start designing the architecture of your application.\\u000a Thereby certain design goals (e.g., portability, performance, or security) have to be agreed upon before first architectural\\u000a concepts are

Wolfgang Mahnke; Stefan-Helmut Leitner

175

Radiology systems architecture.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the software requirements for enterprise integration in radiology. The needs of a future radiology systems architecture are examined, both at a concrete functional level and at an abstract system-properties level. A component-based approach to software development is described and is validated in the context of each of the abstract system requirements for future radiology computing environments. PMID:8657878

Deibel, S R; Greenes, R A

1996-05-01

176

ASAC Executive Assistant Architecture Description Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this technical document, we describe the system architecture developed for the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Executive Assistant (EA). We describe the genesis and role of the ASAC system, discuss the objectives of the ASAC system and provide an overview of components and models within the ASAC system, discuss our choice for an architecture methodology, the Domain Specific Software Architecture (DSSA), and the DSSA approach to developing a system architecture, and describe the development process and the results of the ASAC EA system architecture. The document has six appendices.

Roberts, Eileen; Villani, James A.

1997-01-01

177

Architecture of IP Multimedia Subsystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

IP multimedia subsystem (IMS) is standardized network architecture for telecom operators that want to provide mobile and fixed multimedia services. IMS-enabled networks provide access to these services from both IP networks and circuit-switched PSTN\\/PLMNs. This paper describes the IMS architecture and explains its benefits. It concentrates on the main IMS system components and briefly summarizes their key system functions. However,

M. Koukal; R. Bestak

2006-01-01

178

Component-based integration of chemistry and optimization software.  

PubMed

Typical scientific software designs make rigid assumptions regarding programming language and data structures, frustrating software interoperability and scientific collaboration. Component-based software engineering is an emerging approach to managing the increasing complexity of scientific software. Component technology facilitates code interoperability and reuse. Through the adoption of methodology and tools developed by the Common Component Architecture Forum, we have developed a component architecture for molecular structure optimization. Using the NWChem and Massively Parallel Quantum Chemistry packages, we have produced chemistry components that provide capacity for energy and energy derivative evaluation. We have constructed geometry optimization applications by integrating the Toolkit for Advanced Optimization, Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation, and Global Arrays packages, which provide optimization and linear algebra capabilities. We present a brief overview of the component development process and a description of abstract interfaces for chemical optimizations. The components conforming to these abstract interfaces allow the construction of applications using different chemistry and mathematics packages interchangeably. Initial numerical results for the component software demonstrate good performance, and highlight potential research enabled by this platform. PMID:15362128

Kenny, Joseph P; Benson, Steven J; Alexeev, Yuri; Sarich, Jason; Janssen, Curtis L; McInnes, Lois Curfman; Krishnan, Manojkumar; Nieplocha, Jarek; Jurrus, Elizabeth; Fahlstrom, Carl; Windus, Theresa L

2004-11-15

179

Space Telecommunications Radio Architecture (STRS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software defined radio (SDR) architecture used in space-based platforms proposes to standardize certain aspects of radio development such as interface definitions, functional control and execution, and application software and firmware development. NASA has charted a team to develop an open software defined radio hardware and software architecture to support NASA missions and determine the viability of an Agency-wide Standard. A draft concept of the proposed standard has been released and discussed among organizations in the SDR community. Appropriate leveraging of the JTRS SCA, OMG's SWRadio Architecture and other aspects are considered. A standard radio architecture offers potential value by employing common waveform software instantiation, operation, testing and software maintenance. While software defined radios offer greater flexibility, they also poses challenges to the radio development for the space environment in terms of size, mass and power consumption and available technology. An SDR architecture for space must recognize and address the constraints of space flight hardware, and systems along with flight heritage and culture. NASA is actively participating in the development of technology and standards related to software defined radios. As NASA considers a standard radio architecture for space communications, input and coordination from government agencies, the industry, academia, and standards bodies is key to a successful architecture. The unique aspects of space require thorough investigation of relevant terrestrial technologies properly adapted to space. The talk will describe NASA s current effort to investigate SDR applications to space missions and a brief overview of a candidate architecture under consideration for space based platforms.

Reinhart, Richard C.

2006-01-01

180

Common cold  

MedlinePLUS

The common cold usually causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, cough, ... It is called the common cold for good reason. There are over one billion colds in the United States each year. You and your children will ...

181

Common Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

182

Component-Based Software for High-Performance Scientific Computing  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in both computational hardware and multidisciplinary science have given rise to an unprecedented level of complexity in scientific simulation software. This paper describes an ongoing grass roots effort aimed at addressing complexity in high-performance computing through the use of Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE). Highlights of the benefits and accomplishments of the Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum and SciDAC ISIC are given, followed by an illustrative example of how the CCA has been applied to drive scientific discovery in quantum chemistry. Thrusts for future research are also described briefly.

Alexeev, Yuri; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Bernholdt, David E.; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Gannon, Dennis B.; Janssen, Curtis; Kenny, Joseph P.; Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Kohl, James A.; Kumfert, Gary K.; McInnes, Lois C.; Nieplocha, Jarek; Parker, Steven G.; Rasmussen, Craig; Windus, Theresa L.

2005-06-26

183

Architectural Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Architectural Digest is one of the world's premier periodicals dedicated to architecture and interior design. Their website is a trove of materials for those dabbling in such matters. On this site, visitors can look through one of six sections: Interiors + Inspiration, Celebrity Style, Architecture + Design, Shopping + Sources, News, Culture + Travel, and In the Magazine. These areas are rich in content and commentary from diverse caravansaries. First-timers might enjoy a jaunt on over to the Daily AD to get their daily dose of what's happening in the field. A random visit to the site might bring up a photo gallery of 25 inspiring staircases from around the world, a renovation of a chateau in the Loire Valley, or a look into the homes of some of Southern California's movers and shakers. Additionally, users can sign up to receive updates about their special editions and website only features.

184

Fault Resilient Real-Time Design for NoC Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance and time to market requirements cause many real-time designers to consider components, off the shelf (COTS) for real-time cyber-physical systems. Massive multi-core embedded processors with network-on-chip (NoC) designs to facilitate core-to-core communication are becoming common in COTS. These architectures benefit real-time scheduling, but they also pose predictability challenges. In this work, we develop a framework for Fault Observant and

Christopher Zimmer; Frank Mueller

2012-01-01

185

Using multiple FPGA architectures for real-time processing of low-level machine vision functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the use of multiple field programmable gate array (FPGA) architectures for real-time machine vision processing. The use of FPGAs for low level processing represents an excellent tradeoff between software and special purpose hardware implementations. A library of modules that implement common low-level machine vision operations is presented. These modules are designed with gate-level hardware components

Thomas H. Drayer; William E. King; Joeseph G. Tront; R. W. Conners; Philip A. Araman

1995-01-01

186

The common ancestry of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is common belief that all cellular life forms on earth have a common origin. This view is supported by the universality of the genetic code and the universal conservation of multiple genes, particularly those that encode key components of the translation system. A remarkable recent study claims to provide a formal, homology independent test of the Universal Common

Eugene V Koonin; Yuri I Wolf

2010-01-01

187

Pipeline Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pipelined computer architecture has re ceived considerable attention since the 1960s when the need for faster and more cost-effective systems became critical. The merit of pipelining is that it can help to match the speeds of various subsystems without duplicating the cost of the entire system involved. As technology evolves, faster and cheaper LSI circuits become available, and the future

C. V. Ramamoorthy; Hon F. Li

1977-01-01

188

Architectural Follies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the architectural process and discusses ways of establishing good communication between architects and librarians so they can work together effectively. Highlights include the schematic design phase, the design development phase; the construction document stage, and the architect working with the contractors. (LRW)

Fenton, Serena

1999-01-01

189

ARCHITECTURES SCALABILITY  

E-print Network

called ``Pomegranate'', which is de­ signed around efficient and scalable communication. Pomegranate; Pomegranate's scalability is achieved with a novel ``sort­everywhere'' architecture that dis­ tributes work to be used for com­ municating between the pipelines. Pomegranate provides one interface per pipeline

Stanford University

190

Architectural Tops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of the skyscraper is an American story that combines architectural history, economic power, and technological achievement. Each city in the United States can be identified by the profile of its buildings. The design of the tops of skyscrapers was the inspiration for the students in the author's high-school ceramic class to develop

Mahoney, Ellen

2010-01-01

191

Dictionary of architectural and building technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book has been revised and expanded to include over 6000 entries pertaining to both architectural design and engineering. Compiled from subject indexes of some 200 textbooks in the field, the Dictionary aims to provide coverage of all but the most commonly understood terms within the field of architectural science proper-that is, structures, building materials, acoustics, thermal environment, lighting, and

H. J. Cowan; P. R. Smith

1986-01-01

192

Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides comprehensive information, selected by medical doctors, about the common cold. "The goal is to provide a framework for critical thinking which will allow informed decisions about medical care for the common cold." The section entitled Understanding Colds gives a detailed overview of how the cold virus invades the human body and how cold symptoms are caused. Information about preventing colds, and some of the complications that can occur are also included. The Special Features section includes one of the most interesting parts of the site -- Myths of the Common Cold. This site should be interesting to almost anyone, but perhaps more so for those of us who have recently had a cold.

193

Hybrid Power Management-Based Vehicle Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications (s ee figure). The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, that provides all power to a common energy storage system that is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems. This architecture also provides power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. The key element of HPM is the energy storage system. All generated power is sent to the energy storage system, and all loads derive their power from that system. This can significantly reduce the power requirement of the primary power source, while increasing the vehicle reliability. Ultracapacitors are ideal for an HPM-based energy storage system due to their exceptionally long cycle life, high reliability, high efficiency, high power density, and excellent low-temperature performance. Multiple power sources and multiple loads are easily incorporated into an HPM-based vehicle. A gas turbine is a good primary power source because of its high efficiency, high power density, long life, high reliability, and ability to operate on a wide range of fuels. An HPM controller maintains optimal control over each vehicle component. This flexible operating system can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve vehicle efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. The HPM-based vehicle architecture has many advantages over conventional vehicle architectures. Ultracapacitors have a much longer cycle life than batteries, which greatly improves system reliability, reduces life-of-system costs, and reduces environmental impact as ultracapacitors will probably never need to be replaced and disposed of. The environmentally safe ultracapacitor components reduce disposal concerns, and their recyclable nature reduces the environmental impact. High ultracapacitor power density provides high power during surges, and the ability to absorb high power during recharging. Ultracapacitors are extremely efficient in capturing recharging energy, are rugged, reliable, maintenance-free, have excellent lowtemperature characteristic, provide consistent performance over time, and promote safety as they can be left indefinitely in a safe, discharged state whereas batteries cannot.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.

2011-01-01

194

Space Station data management system architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the Space Station program, the Data Management System (DMS) functions in a dual role. First, it provides the hardware resources and software services which support the data processing, data communications, and data storage functions of the onboard subsystems and payloads. Second, it functions as an integrating entity which provides a common operating environment and human-machine interface for the operation and control of the orbiting Space Station systems and payloads by both the crew and the ground operators. This paper discusses the evolution and derivation of the requirements and issues which have had significant effect on the design of the Space Station DMS, describes the DMS components and services which support system and payload operations, and presents the current architectural view of the system as it exists in October 1986; one-and-a-half years into the Space Station Phase B Definition and Preliminary Design Study.

Mallary, William E.; Whitelaw, Virginia A.

1987-01-01

195

Open service architecture for heterogeneous home environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appliances are essential elements of all modern homes. We give an overview of a home network service architecture. It aims to define a home network system that offers desired services and privacy for end-users, and in which networked appliances can be controlled remotely. The architecture is component based. It does not impose constraints on the physical position of the software

H. Jormakka; J. Koivisto; T. Kyntaja

2002-01-01

196

Computer architecture web page design projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team oriented, web page design projects were incorporated as a major component of an undergraduate course in computer architecture. The main goal of these projects was to give students an opportunity to perform research on a topic of interest in computer architecture. The students also gained valuable experience by working in teams, and they learned useful web page design skills.

Michael J. Schulte

1999-01-01

197

A Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Based Vehicle Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Society desires vehicles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced emissions. This presents a challenge and an opportunity for industry and the government. The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a Hybrid Power Management (HPM) based vehicle architecture for space and terrestrial vehicles. GRC's Electrical and Electromagnetics Branch of the Avionics and Electrical Systems Division initiated the HPM Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, providing all power to a common energy storage system, which is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems, as well as provide power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. This flexible vehicle architecture can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve system efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. This unique vehicle architecture has the potential to alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, stimulate the economy, and enable new missions.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.

2011-01-01

198

Evolution of System Architectures: Where Do We Need to Fail Next?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Innovation requires testing and failing. Thomas Edison was right when he said "I have not failed. I've just found 10,000 ways that won't work". For innovation and improvement of standards to happen, service Architectures have to be tested and tested. Within the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), testing of service architectures has occurred for the last 15 years. This talk will present an evolution of these service architectures and a possible future path. OGC is a global forum for the collaboration of developers and users of spatial data products and services, and for the advancement and development of international standards for geospatial interoperability. The OGC Interoperability Program is a series of hands-on, fast paced, engineering initiatives to accelerate the development and acceptance of OGC standards. Each initiative is organized in threads that provide focus under a particular theme. The first testbed, OGC Web Services phase 1, completed in 2003 had four threads: Common Architecture, Web Mapping, Sensor Web and Web Imagery Enablement. The Common Architecture was a cross-thread theme, to ensure that the Web Mapping and Sensor Web experiments built on a base common architecture. The architecture was based on the three main SOA components: Broker, Requestor and Provider. It proposed a general service model defining service interactions and dependencies; categorization of service types; registries to allow discovery and access of services; data models and encodings; and common services (WMS, WFS, WCS). For the latter, there was a clear distinction on the different services: Data Services (e.g. WMS), Application services (e.g. Coordinate transformation) and server-side client applications (e.g. image exploitation). The latest testbed, OGC Web Service phase 9, completed in 2012 had 5 threads: Aviation, Cross-Community Interoperability (CCI), Security and Services Interoperability (SSI), OWS Innovations and Compliance & Interoperability Testing & Evaluation (CITE). Compared to the first testbed, OWS-9 did not have a separate common architecture thread. Instead the emphasis was on brokering information models, securing them and making data available efficiently on mobile devices. The outcome is an architecture based on usability and non-intrusiveness while leveraging mediation of information models from different communities. This talk will use lessons learned from the evolution from OGC Testbed phase 1 to phase 9 to better understand how global and complex infrastructures evolve to support many communities including the Earth System Science Community.

Bermudez, Luis; Alameh, Nadine; Percivall, George

2013-04-01

199

Common Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

200

Common Cold  

MedlinePLUS

... en espaol] National Library of Medicine, Medline Plus Common Cold Skip Content Marketing Share this: JavaScript is disabled in your browser. To view this content, please enable JavaScript and refresh the page. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. ...

201

Common Chuckwalla  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Common Chuckwalla is primarily found across the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the United States and Mexico, at elevations ranging from sea level to 1,370 m. This large (125180 mm) lizard is dorsoventrally flattened and has wrinkles on its belly and neck. Chuckwallas are strongly associa...

202

A component-based problem list subsystem for the HOLON testbed. Health Object Library Online.  

PubMed

One of the deliverables of the HOLON (Health Object Library Online) project is the specification of a reference architecture for clinical information systems that facilitates the development of a variety of discrete, reusable software components. One of the challenges facing the HOLON consortium is determining what kinds of components can be made available in a library for developers of clinical information systems. To further explore the use of component architectures in the development of reusable clinical subsystems, we have incorporated ongoing work in the development of enterprise terminology services into a Problem List subsystem for the HOLON testbed. We have successfully implemented a set of components using CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture) and Java distributed object technologies that provide a functional problem list application and UMLS-based "Problem Picker." Through this development, we have overcome a variety of obstacles characteristic of rapidly emerging technologies, and have identified architectural issues necessary to scale these components for use and reuse within an enterprise clinical information system. PMID:9929252

Law, V; Goldberg, H S; Jones, P; Safran, C

1998-01-01

203

Computer ArchitectureComputer Architecture (15 Jan 2008)  

E-print Network

Processor Computer Memory Devices I t Keyboard, Mouse Disk Control ("brain") Datapath ("brawn") (where, I/O, Memory Instruction set architecture Memory & Cache I/O & Storage CISC vs RISC 3 Performance Processor/Memory determine how fast instructions are executed AT LEAST, Know how to order components

Park, Seung-Jong "Jay"

204

Architecture selection for neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers worldwide converge into the fact that the exhaustive search over the space of network architectures is computationally infeasible even for networks of modest size. The use of heuristic strategies that dramatically reduce the search complexity is a common technique. These heuristic approaches employ directed search algorithms, such as selection of the number of nodes via sequential network construction (SNC),

Pythagoras Karampiperis; Nikos Manouselis; Theodore B. Trafalis

2002-01-01

205

Fabric Architecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by the Industrial Fabrics Association International, Fabric Architecture magazine is published bimonthly and is distributed to over 13000 architects working in the field. For those who've never thought about the possibilities and opportunities afforded by this area that straddles the lines between fabrics, design, and architecture, it's quite a find. On this page, users can look through materials that address topics like tents, lightweight structures, graphics, awnings, and truck covers. After perusing these areas, visitors should delve into the current issue. The archives here date back to 2006, and the topics covered within these pages include fabrics in the workplace, flexible design materials, and creating a "green" car park with various fabrics. For those who are interested, there's also information about how to subscribe to the print edition of the magazine.

206

Component-specific modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accomplishments are described for the second year effort of a 3-year program to develop methodology for component specific modeling of aircraft engine hot section components (turbine blades, turbine vanes, and burner liners). These accomplishments include: (1) engine thermodynamic and mission models; (2) geometry model generators; (3) remeshing; (4) specialty 3-D inelastic stuctural analysis; (5) computationally efficient solvers, (6) adaptive solution strategies; (7) engine performance parameters/component response variables decomposition and synthesis; (8) integrated software architecture and development, and (9) validation cases for software developed.

Mcknight, R. L.

1985-01-01

207

Common modeling system for digital simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Joint Modeling and Simulation System is a tri-service investigation into a common modeling framework for the development digital models. The basis for the success of this framework is an X-window-based, open systems architecture, object-based/oriented methodology, standard interface approach to digital model construction, configuration, execution, and post processing. For years Department of Defense (DOD) agencies have produced various weapon systems/technologies and typically digital representations of the systems/technologies. These digital representations (models) have also been developed for other reasons such as studies and analysis, Cost Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) tradeoffs, etc. Unfortunately, there have been no Modeling and Simulation (M&S) standards, guidelines, or efforts towards commonality in DOD M&S. The typical scenario is an organization hires a contractor to build hardware and in doing so an digital model may be constructed. Until recently, this model was not even obtained by the organization. Even if it was procured, it was on a unique platform, in a unique language, with unique interfaces, and, with the result being UNIQUE maintenance required. Additionally, the constructors of the model expended more effort in writing the 'infrastructure' of the model/simulation (e.g. user interface, database/database management system, data journalizing/archiving, graphical presentations, environment characteristics, other components in the simulation, etc.) than in producing the model of the desired system. Other side effects include: duplication of efforts; varying assumptions; lack of credibility/validation; and decentralization in policy and execution. J-MASS provides the infrastructure, standards, toolset, and architecture to permit M&S developers and analysts to concentrate on the their area of interest.

Painter, Rick

1994-01-01

208

Most genetic risk for autism resides with common variation  

PubMed Central

A key component of genetic architecture is the allelic spectrum influencing trait variability. For autism spectrum disorder (henceforth autism) the nature of its allelic spectrum is uncertain. Individual risk genes have been identified from rare variation, especially de novo mutations18. From this evidence one might conclude that rare variation dominates its allelic spectrum, yet recent studies show that common variation, individually of small effect, has substantial impact en masse9,10. At issue is how much of an impact relative to rare variation. Using a unique epidemiological sample from Sweden, novel methods that distinguish total narrow-sense heritability from that due to common variation, and by synthesizing results from other studies, we reach several conclusions about autisms genetic architecture: its narrow-sense heritability is ?54% and most traces to common variation; rare de novo mutations contribute substantially to individuals liability; still their contribution to variance in liability, 2.6%, is modest compared to heritable variation. PMID:25038753

Gaugler, Trent; Klei, Lambertus; Sanders, Stephan J.; Bodea, Corneliu A.; Goldberg, Arthur P.; Lee, Ann B.; Mahajan, Milind; Manaa, Dina; Pawitan, Yudi; Reichert, Jennifer; Ripke, Stephan; Sandin, Sven; Sklar, Pamela; Svantesson, Oscar; Reichenberg, Abraham; Hultman, Christina M.; Devlin, Bernie

2014-01-01

209

Optical linear algebra processors - Architectures and algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is given to the component design and optical configuration features of a generic optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) architecture, as well as the large number of OLAP architectures, number representations, algorithms and applications encountered in current literature. Number-representation issues associated with bipolar and complex-valued data representations, high-accuracy (including floating point) performance, and the base or radix to be employed, are discussed, together with case studies on a space-integrating frequency-multiplexed architecture and a hybrid space-integrating and time-integrating multichannel architecture.

Casasent, David

1986-01-01

210

Distributed visualization framework architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An architecture for distributed and collaborative visualization is presented. The design goals of the system are to create a lightweight, easy to use and extensible framework for reasearch in scientific visualization. The system provides both single user and collaborative distributed environment. System architecture employs a client-server model. Visualization projects can be synchronously accessed and modified from different client machines. We present a set of visualization use cases that illustrate the flexibility of our system. The framework provides a rich set of reusable components for creating new applications. These components make heavy use of leading design patterns. All components are based on the functionality of a small set of interfaces. This allows new components to be integrated seamlessly with little to no effort. All user input and higher-level control functionality interface with proxy objects supporting a concrete implementation of these interfaces. These light-weight objects can be easily streamed across the web and even integrated with smart clients running on a user's cell phone. The back-end is supported by concrete implementations wherever needed (for instance for rendering). A middle-tier manages any communication and synchronization with the proxy objects. In addition to the data components, we have developed several first-class GUI components for visualization. These include a layer compositor editor, a programmable shader editor, a material editor and various drawable editors. These GUI components interact strictly with the interfaces. Access to the various entities in the system is provided by an AssetManager. The asset manager keeps track of all of the registered proxies and responds to queries on the overall system. This allows all user components to be populated automatically. Hence if a new component is added that supports the IMaterial interface, any instances of this can be used in the various GUI components that work with this interface. One of the main features is an interactive shader designer. This allows rapid prototyping of new visualization renderings that are shader-based and greatly accelerates the development and debug cycle.

Mishchenko, Oleg; Raman, Sundaresan; Crawfis, Roger

2010-01-01

211

An Architecture for Dynamic Courseware Working on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an architecture for creating, retrieving, and adapting materials on the World Wide Web for learning purposes. There are two major components in the architecture: Authoring Server (AS) and Courseware Server (CS). Associated with the architecture for running dynamic courseware, certain mechanisms are also imposed. These

Wu, Albert; Tam, Lincoln

212

A plug-in architecture for generating collaborative agent responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an implemented architecture for programming the responses of collaborative interface agents out of easily composable and reusable plug-in components, and discuss the underlying theoretical and practical issues. The power of the architecture comes primarily from a rich representation of collaborative discourse state, which includes a focus stack and plan tree. The architecture also provides a useful separation between

Charles Rich; Neal Lesh; Andrew Garland; Jeff Rickel

2002-01-01

213

From System Goals to Software Architecture Abstract. Requirements and architecture are two essential inter-related products  

E-print Network

to architectural design based on the KAOS framework for modeling, specifying and analyzing requirements. After]. Architectural design (AD) is concerned with the organization of the software-to-be into main components and interactions between them [Sha96, Bos00]. It has long been recognized that architectural design has a major

Bonaventure, Olivier

214

Abstract --We describe the core components of a mobile RFID system, and they include components such as mobile  

E-print Network

>P5-14mobile RFID system, and they include components such as mobile RFID reader, platform architecture and network architecture. Although there are several kinds of mobile RFID readers in the market, we will propose specially designed mobile RFID

California at Los Angeles, University of

215

Electrical Grounding Architecture for Unmanned Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and all NASA Centers and is intended to provide a common framework for consistent practices across NASA programs. This handbook was developed to describe electrical grounding design architecture options for unmanned spacecraft. This handbook is written for spacecraft system engineers, power engineers, and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) engineers. Spacecraft grounding architecture is a system-level decision which must be established at the earliest point in spacecraft design. All other grounding design must be coordinated with and be consistent with the system-level architecture. This handbook assumes that there is no one single 'correct' design for spacecraft grounding architecture. There have been many successful satellite and spacecraft programs from NASA, using a variety of grounding architectures with different levels of complexity. However, some design principles learned over the years apply to all types of spacecraft development. This handbook summarizes those principles to help guide spacecraft grounding architecture design for NASA and others.

1998-01-01

216

On the architecture of cell regulation networks  

PubMed Central

Background With the rapid development of high-throughput experiments, detecting functional modules has become increasingly important in analyzing biological networks. However, the growing size and complexity of these networks preclude structural breaking in terms of simplest units. We propose a novel graph theoretic decomposition scheme combined with dynamics consideration for probing the architecture of complex biological networks. Results Our approach allows us to identify two structurally important components: the "minimal production unit"(MPU) which responds quickly and robustly to external signals, and the feedback controllers which adjust the output of the MPU to desired values usually at a larger time scale. The successful application of our technique to several of the most common cell regulation networks indicates that such architectural feature could be universal. Detailed illustration and discussion are made to explain the network structures and how they are tied to biological functions. Conclusions The proposed scheme may be potentially applied to various large-scale cell regulation networks to identify functional modules that play essential roles and thus provide handles for analyzing and understanding cell activity from basic biochemical processes. PMID:21362203

2011-01-01

217

COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS  

E-print Network

Children with sexual behavior problems (SBPs) are children 12 years and under who demonstrate developmentally inappropriate or aggressive sexual behavior. This definition includes self-focused sexual behavior, such as excessive masturbation, and aggressive sexual behavior towards others that may include coercion or force. Recognizing these children and understanding the causes, impact, and treatment of the sexual behavior problems is a relatively new area of research and clinical practice. Some early assumptions about children with SBPs have not been supported by current research. This Fact Sheet will examine common misconceptions of children with SBPs along with the most recent findings.

unknown authors

218

Savannah River Site computing architecture migration guide  

SciTech Connect

The SRS Computing Architecture is a vision statement for site computing which enumerates the strategies which will guide SRS computing efforts for the 1990s. Each strategy is supported by a number of feature statements which clarify the strategy by providing additional detail. Since it is a strategic planning document, the Architecture has sitewide applicability and endorsement but does not attempt to specify implementation details. It does, however, specify that a document will be developed to guide the migration from the current site environment to that envisioned by the new architecture. The goal of this document, the SRS Computing Architecture Migration Guide, is to identify specific strategic and tactical tasks which would have to be completed to fully implement the architectural vision for site computing as well as a recommended sequence and timeframe for addressing these tasks. It takes into account the expected availability of technology, the existing installed base, and interdependencies among architectural components and objectives.

Not Available

1991-07-30

219

Architecture for autonomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2002 Defence R&D Canada changed research direction from pure tele-operated land vehicles to general autonomy for land, air, and sea craft. The unique constraints of the military environment coupled with the complexity of autonomous systems drove DRDC to carefully plan a research and development infrastructure that would provide state of the art tools without restricting research scope. DRDC's long term objectives for its autonomy program address disparate unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), unattended ground sensor (UGS), air (UAV), and subsea and surface (UUV and USV) vehicles operating together with minimal human oversight. Individually, these systems will range in complexity from simple reconnaissance mini-UAVs streaming video to sophisticated autonomous combat UGVs exploiting embedded and remote sensing. Together, these systems can provide low risk, long endurance, battlefield services assuming they can communicate and cooperate with manned and unmanned systems. A key enabling technology for this new research is a software architecture capable of meeting both DRDC's current and future requirements. DRDC built upon recent advances in the computing science field while developing its software architecture know as the Architecture for Autonomy (AFA). Although a well established practice in computing science, frameworks have only recently entered common use by unmanned vehicles. For industry and government, the complexity, cost, and time to re-implement stable systems often exceeds the perceived benefits of adopting a modern software infrastructure. Thus, most persevere with legacy software, adapting and modifying software when and wherever possible or necessary -- adopting strategic software frameworks only when no justifiable legacy exists. Conversely, academic programs with short one or two year projects frequently exploit strategic software frameworks but with little enduring impact. The open-source movement radically changes this picture. Academic frameworks, open to public scrutiny and modification, now rival commercial frameworks in both quality and economic impact. Further, industry now realizes that open source frameworks can reduce cost and risk of systems engineering. This paper describes the Architecture for Autonomy implemented by DRDC and how this architecture meets DRDC's current needs. It also presents an argument for why this architecture should also satisfy DRDC's future requirements as well.

Broten, Gregory S.; Monckton, Simon P.; Collier, Jack; Giesbrecht, Jared

2006-05-01

220

DIELECTROPHORETIC ARCHITECTURES  

E-print Network

--are typically stuck in place and require human intervention for reconfiguration, removal, or replacement in electronic systems originates from the ability to form and reform nonvolatile connections. Devices in modern of mobile components. Proposed applica- tions that require component mobility include neuromorphic networks

Wissner-Gross, Alexander

221

Component-specific modeling. [jet engine hot section components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accomplishments are described for a 3 year program to develop methodology for component-specific modeling of aircraft hot section components (turbine blades, turbine vanes, and burner liners). These accomplishments include: (1) engine thermodynamic and mission models, (2) geometry model generators, (3) remeshing, (4) specialty three-dimensional inelastic structural analysis, (5) computationally efficient solvers, (6) adaptive solution strategies, (7) engine performance parameters/component response variables decomposition and synthesis, (8) integrated software architecture and development, and (9) validation cases for software developed.

Mcknight, R. L.; Maffeo, R. J.; Tipton, M. T.; Weber, G.

1992-01-01

222

The Talent system: TEXTRACT architecture and data model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the architecture and data model for TEXTRACT, a document analysis framework for text analysis components. The framework and components have been deployed in research and industrial environments for text analysis and text mining tasks.

MARY S. NEFF; ROY J. BYRD; BRANIMIR K. BOGURAEV

2004-01-01

223

Distributed Feature Composition: A Virtual Architecture for Telecommunications Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Feature Composition (DFC) is a new technology for feature specification and composition, based on a virtual architecture offering benefits analogous to those of a pipe-and-filter architecture. In the DFC architecture, customer calls are processed by dynamically assembled configurations of filter-like components: each component implements an applicable feature, and communicates with its neighbors by featureless internal calls that are connected

Michael Jackson; Pamela Zave

1998-01-01

224

Wireless transceivers for mobile terminals: architectures, analysis and signal processing  

E-print Network

Wireless transceivers for mobile terminals: architectures, analysis and signal processing Lead: G components). Theoretical analysis of components impairments of the performances of these architectures. - Use-radio transmitter Frequency synthesis and PLL (Phase Locked loop) using digital signal processing for multistandard

Baudoin, Geneviève

225

Art & Architecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website was created by the Courtauld Institute of Art, a British institute created for the study of Western art. The website is "designed to be explored," and with over 40,000 images and a network of over 500,000 links, there's a great deal to explore. Because of the vast amount of content, visitors might find it helpful to first check out the link at the bottom of the page, entitled "About A&A". From there, click on the "How to Use the Art & Architecture Web Site". This extremely useful link has over a dozen categories of instruction, from "Basics" to "Search Tips" to "Profile and Preferences". The "Quizzes, Polls and Discussions" section on the left hand side of the page is a clever section with quizzes, such as those on the value of watercolors and polls. On the right hand side of the page the "Stories" area contains transcripts of fascinating interviews with artists and architects.

226

College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities ARCHITECTURE,  

E-print Network

and Urban Studies in Genoa, Italy, or the Clemson Architectural Center in Charleston, SC. The Genoa confor- mance with established educational standards. The School of Architecture's Graduate Program offers a three-year Master of Architecture (M. Arch.) track for students without a preprofessional un

Stuart, Steven J.

227

An Architecture for Agile Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short paper outlines new hardware and softwaretechnologies and methods being developed forautomated assembly of precision high-value productssuch as magnetic storage devices, palmtop and wearablecomputers and other high-density equipment.Our Agile Assembly Architecture (AAA) supportsthe creation of miniature assembly factories (minifactories)built from small modular robotic components.The goals are to substantially reduce designand deployment times and product changeovertimes,...

Arthur Quaid; Ralph L. Hollis

1995-01-01

228

Generic architectures for future flight systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generic architecture for future flight systems must be based on open system architectures (OSA). This provides the developer and integrator the flexibility to optimize the hardware and software systems to match diverse and unique applications requirements. When developed properly OSA provides interoperability, commonality, graceful upgradability, survivability and hardware/software transportability to greatly minimize life cycle costs and supportability. Architecture flexibility can be achieved to take advantage of commercial developments by basing these developments on vendor-neutral commercially accepted standards and protocols. Rome Laboratory presently has a program that addresses requirements for OSA.

Wood, Richard J.

1992-01-01

229

Blood Components  

MedlinePLUS

Home > Learn About Blood > Blood Components Printable Version Blood Components How can one donation help multiple people? ... blood. The main transfusable blood components include: Whole Blood Whole blood contains red cells, white cells, and ...

230

CONRAD Software Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Convergent Radio Astronomy Demonstrator (CONRAD) is a collaboration between the computing teams of two SKA pathfinder instruments, MeerKAT (South Africa) and ASKAP (Australia). Our goal is to produce the required common software to operate, process and store the data from the two instruments. Both instruments are synthesis arrays composed of a large number of antennas (40 - 100) operating at centimeter wavelengths with wide-field capabilities. Key challenges are the processing of high volume of data in real-time as well as the remote mode of operations. Here we present the software architecture for CONRAD. Our design approach is to maximize the use of open solutions and third-party software widely deployed in commercial applications, such as SNMP and LDAP, and to utilize modern web-based technologies for the user interfaces, such as AJAX.

Guzman, J. C.; Bennett, T.

2008-08-01

231

Architecture of a distributed multimission operations system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an architecture to develop a multimission operations systems, which we call DIOSA. In this architecture, a component used as a building block is called a functional block. Each functional block has a standard structure, and the interface between functional blocks are defined with a set of standard protocols. This paper shows the structure of the database used by functional blocks, the structure of interfaces between functional blocks, and the structure of system management. Finally, examples of typical functional blocks and an example of a system constructed with this architecture is shown.

Yamada, Takahiro

1994-01-01

232

Computer Architecture Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in computer science or engineering will find this tutorial on computer architecture very useful and enlightening. Contributed by Professor Prabhu at Iowa State University, the material covers beginning and intermediate topics. Beginning with an overview of basic theorems, like Amdahl's Law, Prabhu explains the most important considerations for processor performance. He then goes into more details of a computer's operation, with a particular emphasis on memory hierarchy. This constitutes the first half of the material; the entire second part is devoted to the principles and implications of pipelined execution. Besides the text and figures, the tutorial also has a few interactive components, including a calculator that demonstrates the resulting speedup of an enhancement.

Prabhu, Gurpur M.

1969-12-31

233

Space Telecommunications Radio Architecture (STRS): Technical Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software defined radio (SDR) architecture used in space-based platforms proposes to standardize certain aspects of radio development such as interface definitions, functional control and execution, and application software and firmware development. NASA has charted a team to develop an open software defined radio hardware and software architecture to support NASA missions and determine the viability of an Agency-wide Standard. A draft concept of the proposed standard has been released and discussed among organizations in the SDR community. Appropriate leveraging of the JTRS SCA, OMG s SWRadio Architecture and other aspects are considered. A standard radio architecture offers potential value by employing common waveform software instantiation, operation, testing and software maintenance. While software defined radios offer greater flexibility, they also poses challenges to the radio development for the space environment in terms of size, mass and power consumption and available technology. An SDR architecture for space must recognize and address the constraints of space flight hardware, and systems along with flight heritage and culture. NASA is actively participating in the development of technology and standards related to software defined radios. As NASA considers a standard radio architecture for space communications, input and coordination from government agencies, the industry, academia, and standards bodies is key to a successful architecture. The unique aspects of space require thorough investigation of relevant terrestrial technologies properly adapted to space. The talk will describe NASA's current effort to investigate SDR applications to space missions and a brief overview of a candidate architecture under consideration for space based platforms.

Reinhart, Richard C.

2006-01-01

234

Further Explorations of Common-Sense Representations of Common Illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method is presented for measuring peoples illness cognitionstheir common-sense representations of common illnesses. Data were collected from 1,628 different respondents who described a recent illness from 1 to 3 separate times over a 17-month period. A free-clustering task performed by a set of naive participants confirmed that these cognitions fall into the five components that have been previously

Richard R. Lau; Teresa M. Bernard; Karen A. Hartman

1989-01-01

235

Data Acquisition System Architecture and Capabilities At NASA GRC Plum Brook Station's Space Environment Test Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Very large space environment test facilities present unique engineering challenges in the design of facility data systems. Data systems of this scale must be versatile enough to meet the wide range of data acquisition and measurement requirements from a diverse set of customers and test programs, but also must minimize design changes to maintain reliability and serviceability. This paper presents an overview of the common architecture and capabilities of the facility data acquisition systems available at two of the world?s largest space environment test facilities located at the NASA Glenn Research Center?s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio; namely, the Space Propulsion Research Facility (commonly known as the B-2 facility) and the Space Power Facility (SPF). The common architecture of the data systems is presented along with details on system scalability and efficient measurement systems analysis and verification. The architecture highlights a modular design, which utilizes fully-remotely managed components, enabling the data systems to be highly configurable and support multiple test locations with a wide-range of measurement types and very large system channel counts.

Evans, Richard K.; Hill, Gerald M.

2012-01-01

236

Data Acquisition System Architecture and Capabilities at NASA GRC Plum Brook Station's Space Environment Test Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Very large space environment test facilities present unique engineering challenges in the design of facility data systems. Data systems of this scale must be versatile enough to meet the wide range of data acquisition and measurement requirements from a diverse set of customers and test programs, but also must minimize design changes to maintain reliability and serviceability. This paper presents an overview of the common architecture and capabilities of the facility data acquisition systems available at two of the world's largest space environment test facilities located at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio; namely, the Space Propulsion Research Facility (commonly known as the B-2 facility) and the Space Power Facility (SPF). The common architecture of the data systems is presented along with details on system scalability and efficient measurement systems analysis and verification. The architecture highlights a modular design, which utilizes fully-remotely managed components, enabling the data systems to be highly configurable and support multiple test locations with a wide-range of measurement types and very large system channel counts.

Evans, Richard K.; Hill, Gerald M.

2014-01-01

237

Concept and architecture of the RHIC LLRF upgrade platform  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the RHIC LLRF upgrade has been the development of a stand alone, generic, high performance, modular LLRF control platform, which can be configured to replace existing systems and serve as a common platform for all new RF systems. The platform is also designed to integrate seamlessly into a distributed network based controls infrastructure, be easy to deploy, and to be useful in a variety of digital signal processing and data acquisition roles. Reuse of hardware, software and firmware has been emphasized to minimize development effort and maximize commonality of system components. System interconnection, synchronization and scaling are facilitated by a deterministic, high speed serial timing and data link, while standard intra and inter chassis communications utilize high speed, non-deterministic protocol based serial links. System hardware configuration is modular and flexible, based on a combination of a main carrier board which can host up to six custom or commercial daughter modules as required to implement desired functionality. This paper will provide an overview of the platform concept, architecture, features and benefits. The RHIC LLRF Upgrade Platform has been developed with the goal of providing a flexible, modular and scalable architecture which will support our current applications and satisfy new ones for the foreseeable future. The platform has been recently commissioned at both RHIC and the RHIC EBIS injector. To date the platform has demonstrated its versatility and utility, meeting the design goals as originally defined.

Smith, K.S.; Hayes, T.; Severino, F.

2011-03-28

238

The architecture of an event correlation service for adaptive middleware-based applications  

SciTech Connect

Loosely coupled component communication driven by events is a key mechanism for building middleware- based applications that must achieve reliable qualities of service in an adaptive manner. In such a system, events that encapsulate state snapshots of a running system are generated by monitoring components. Hence, an event correlation service is necessary for correlating monitored events from multiple sources. The requirements for the event correlation raise two challenges: to seamlessly integrate event correlation services with other services and applications; and to provide reliable event management with minimal delay. This paper describes our experience in the design and implementation of an event correlation service. The design encompasses an event correlator and an event proxy that are integrated with an architecture for adaptive middleware components. The implementation utilizes the common-based event (CBE) specification and stateful Web service technologies to support the deployment of the event correlation service in a distributed architecture. We evaluate the performance of the overall solution in a test bed and present the results in terms of the trade-off between the flexibility and the performance overhead of the architecture

Liu, Yan; Gorton, Ian; Lee, Vinh Kah

2008-12-01

239

Domain specific software architectures: Command and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

GTE is the Command and Control contractor for the Domain Specific Software Architectures program. The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate an architecture-driven, component-based capability for the automated generation of command and control (C2) applications. Such a capability will significantly reduce the cost of C2 applications development and will lead to improved system quality and reliability through the use of proven architectures and components. A major focus of GTE's approach is the automated generation of application components in particular subdomains. Our initial work in this area has concentrated in the message handling subdomain; we have defined and prototyped an approach that can automate one of the most software-intensive parts of C2 systems development. This paper provides an overview of the GTE team's DSSA approach and then presents our work on automated support for message processing.

Braun, Christine; Hatch, William; Ruegsegger, Theodore; Balzer, Bob; Feather, Martin; Goldman, Neil; Wile, Dave

1992-01-01

240

Evolutionary dynamics of protein domain architecture in plants  

PubMed Central

Background Protein domains are the structural, functional and evolutionary units of the protein. Protein domain architectures are the linear arrangements of domain(s) in individual proteins. Although the evolutionary history of protein domain architecture has been extensively studied in microorganisms, the evolutionary dynamics of domain architecture in the plant kingdom remains largely undefined. To address this question, we analyzed the lineage-based protein domain architecture content in 14 completed green plant genomes. Results Our analyses show that all 14 plant genomes maintain similar distributions of species-specific, single-domain, and multi-domain architectures. Approximately 65% of plant domain architectures are universally present in all plant lineages, while the remaining architectures are lineage-specific. Clear examples are seen of both the loss and gain of specific protein architectures in higher plants. There has been a dynamic, lineage-wise expansion of domain architectures during plant evolution. The data suggest that this expansion can be largely explained by changes in nuclear ploidy resulting from rounds of whole genome duplications. Indeed, there has been a decrease in the number of unique domain architectures when the genomes were normalized into a presumed ancestral genome that has not undergone whole genome duplications. Conclusions Our data show the conservation of universal domain architectures in all available plant genomes, indicating the presence of an evolutionarily conserved, core set of protein components. However, the occurrence of lineage-specific domain architectures indicates that domain architecture diversity has been maintained beyond these core components in plant genomes. Although several features of genome-wide domain architecture content are conserved in plants, the data clearly demonstrate lineage-wise, progressive changes and expansions of individual protein domain architectures, reinforcing the notion that plant genomes have undergone dynamic evolution. PMID:22252370

2012-01-01

241

Rf-Mems Components In Mobile Communication Terminal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-machined passive components open new perspectives to the integration of multi-standard RF transceivers for mobile communications. The different types of components are reviewed and their potential use in transceiver architectures is outlined

Antriksh Singhal; Gaurang Gupta

2006-01-01

242

Robotic collaborative technology alliance: an open architecture approach to integrated research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) seeks to provide adaptive robot capabilities which move beyond traditional metric algorithms to include cognitive capabilities [1]. Research occurs in 5 main Task Areas: Intelligence, Perception, Dexterous Manipulation and Unique Mobility (DMUM), Human Robot Interaction (HRI), and Integrated Research (IR). This last task of Integrated Research is especially critical and challenging. Individual research components can only be fully assessed when integrated onto a robot where they interact with other aspects of the system to create cross-Task capabilities which move beyond the State of the Art. Adding to the complexity, the RCTA is comprised of 12+ independent organizations across the United States. Each has its own constraints due to development environments, ITAR, "lab" vs "real-time" implementations, and legacy software investments from previous and ongoing programs. We have developed three main components to manage the Integration Task. The first is RFrame, a data-centric transport agnostic middleware which unifies the disparate environments, protocols, and data collection mechanisms. Second is the modular Intelligence Architecture built around the Common World Model (CWM). The CWM instantiates a Common Data Model and provides access services. Third is RIVET, an ITAR free Hardware-In-The-Loop simulator based on 3D game technology. RIVET provides each researcher a common test-bed for development prior to integration, and a regression test mechanism. Once components are integrated and verified, they are released back to the consortium to provide the RIVET baseline for further research. This approach allows Integration of new and legacy systems built upon different architectures, by application of Open Architecture principles.

Dean, Robert Michael S.; DiBerardino, Charles A.

2014-06-01

243

Experiencing architecture, experiencing nature  

E-print Network

The idea for this thesis came from the recognition of the richness in an architectural experience and the desire to understand more about the meaning of this experience in the larger context of architecture and culture. ...

Torres, MaryAlice

1992-01-01

244

Architecture master's programme  

E-print Network

Landscape Architecture ­ master's programme at SLU, Alnarp, Sweden* Starts in September 2011. Last a possibility to in-depth studies in varied areas in the field of Landscape Architecture, for example in open

245

Stemming Architectural Erosion by Coupling Architectural Discovery and Recovery  

E-print Network

Stemming Architectural Erosion by Coupling Architectural Discovery and Recovery Nenad Medvidovic the architecture, causing architectural erosion, a phenomenon in which the initial architecture of an application an approach intended to address the problem of architectural erosion by combining three comple- mentary

Egyed, Alexander

246

Performance Engineering Technology for Scientific Component Software  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale, complex scientific applications are beginning to benefit from the use of component software design methodology and technology for software development. Integral to the success of component-based applications is the ability to achieve high-performing code solutions through the use of performance engineering tools for both intra-component and inter-component analysis and optimization. Our work on this project aimed to develop performance engineering technology for scientific component software in association with the DOE CCTTSS SciDAC project (active during the contract period) and the broader Common Component Architecture (CCA) community. Our specific implementation objectives were to extend the TAU performance system and Program Database Toolkit (PDT) to support performance instrumentation, measurement, and analysis of CCA components and frameworks, and to develop performance measurement and monitoring infrastructure that could be integrated in CCA applications. These objectives have been met in the completion of all project milestones and in the transfer of the technology into the continuing CCA activities as part of the DOE TASCS SciDAC2 effort. In addition to these achievements, over the past three years, we have been an active member of the CCA Forum, attending all meetings and serving in several working groups, such as the CCA Toolkit working group, the CQoS working group, and the Tutorial working group. We have contributed significantly to CCA tutorials since SC'04, hosted two CCA meetings, participated in the annual ACTS workshops, and were co-authors on the recent CCA journal paper [24]. There are four main areas where our project has delivered results: component performance instrumentation and measurement, component performance modeling and optimization, performance database and data mining, and online performance monitoring. This final report outlines the achievements in these areas for the entire project period. The submitted progress reports for the first two years describe those year's achievements in detail. We discuss progress in the last project period in this document. Deployment of our work in CCA components, frameworks, and applications is an important metric of success. We also summarize the project's accomplishments in this regard at the end of the report. A list of project publications is also given.

Malony, Allen D.

2007-05-08

247

Common variants explain a large fraction of the variability in the liability to psoriasis in a Han Chinese population  

PubMed Central

Background Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease with a known genetic component. Our previously published psoriasis genome-wide association study identified dozens of novel susceptibility loci in Han Chinese. However, these markers explained only a small fraction of the estimated heritable component of psoriasis. To better understand the unknown yet likely polygenic architecture in psoriasis, we applied a linear mixed model to quantify the variation in the liability to psoriasis explained by common genetic markers (minor allele frequency?>?0.01) in a Han Chinese population. Results We explored the polygenic genetic architecture of psoriasis using genome-wide association data from 2,271 Han Chinese individuals. We estimated that 34.9% (s.e.?=?6.0%, P?=?9??10-9) of the variation in the liability to psoriasis is captured by common genotyped and imputed variants. We discuss these results in the context of the strong association between HLA variants and psoriasis. We also show that the variance explained by each chromosome is linearly correlated to its length (R2?=?0.27, P=0.01), and quantify the impact of a polygenic effect on the prediction and diagnosis of psoriasis. Conclusions Our results suggest that psoriasis has a substantial polygenic component, which not only has implications for the development of genetic diagnostics and prognostics for psoriasis, but also suggests that more individual variants contributing to psoriasis may be detected if sample sizes in future association studies are increased. PMID:24479639

2014-01-01

248

Java based open architecture controller  

SciTech Connect

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) the authors have been developing an open architecture machine tool controller. This work has been patterned after the General Motors (GM) led Open Modular Architecture Controller (OMAC) work, where they have been involved since its inception. The OMAC work has centered on creating sets of implementation neutral application programming interfaces (APIs) for machine control software components. In the work at LLNL, they were among the early adopters of the Java programming language. As an application programming language, it is particularly well suited for component software development. The language contains many features, which along with a well-defined implementation API (such as the OMAC APIs) allows third party binary files to be integrated into a working system. Because of its interpreted nature, Java allows rapid integration testing of components. However, for real-time systems development, the Java programming language presents many drawbacks. For instance, lack of well defined scheduling semantics and threading behavior can present many unwanted challenges. Also, the interpreted nature of the standard Java Virtual Machine (JVM) presents an immediate performance hit. Various real-time Java vendors are currently addressing some of these drawbacks. The various pluses and minuses of using the Java programming language and environment, with regard to a component-based controller, will be outlined.

Weinert, G F

2000-01-13

249

Dynamic Adaptation of Aspect-Oriented Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current works address self-adaptability of software architectures to build more autonomous and flexible systems. However,\\u000a most of these works only perform adaptations at configuration-level: a component is adapted by being replaced with a new one.\\u000a The state of the replaced component is lost and related components can undergo undesirable changes. This paper presents a\\u000a generic solution to design components that

Cristbal Costa Soria; Jennifer Prez; Jos ngel Cars

2007-01-01

250

Automated component creation for legacy C++ and fortran codes.  

SciTech Connect

A significant amount of work has been spent creating component models and programming environments, but little support exists for automation in the process of creating components from existing codes. To entice users to adopt the component-based paradigm over traditional programming models, integration of legacy codes must be as simple and fast as possible, We present a system for automating the IDL generation stage of component development based on source code analysis of legacy C, C-t-4 and Fortran codes using the Program Database Toolkit. Together with IDL compilation tools such as Babel, we provide an alternative to hand-written IDL code for legacy applications and libraries. In addition to generating IDL, we propose an XML-based method for specifying meta-data related to type mapping and wrapper generation that can be shared between our tools and IDL compilers. The component model of choice for this work is the Common Component Architecture (CCA) using the Scientific Interface Definition Language (SIDL), though the concepts presented can be applied to other models.

Sottile, M. J. (Matthew J.); Rasmussen, C. E. (Craig E.)

2001-01-01

251

Architecture for Survivable System Processing (ASSP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Architecture for Survivable System Processing (ASSP) Program is a multi-phase effort to implement Department of Defense (DOD) and commercially developed high-tech hardware, software, and architectures for reliable space avionics and ground based systems. System configuration options provide processing capabilities to address Time Dependent Processing (TDP), Object Dependent Processing (ODP), and Mission Dependent Processing (MDP) requirements through Open System Architecture (OSA) alternatives that allow for the enhancement, incorporation, and capitalization of a broad range of development assets. High technology developments in hardware, software, and networking models, address technology challenges of long processor life times, fault tolerance, reliability, throughput, memories, radiation hardening, size, weight, power (SWAP) and security. Hardware and software design, development, and implementation focus on the interconnectivity/interoperability of an open system architecture and is being developed to apply new technology into practical OSA components. To insure for widely acceptable architecture capable of interfacing with various commercial and military components, this program provides for regular interactions with standardization working groups (e.g.) the International Standards Organization (ISO), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Selection of a viable open architecture is based on the widely accepted standards that implement the ISO/OSI Reference Model.

Wood, Richard J.

1991-01-01

252

Engineering and Architecture (FEA)  

E-print Network

Faculty of Engineering and Architecture (FEA) #12;362 Faculty of Engineering and Architecture (FEA) Undergraduate Catalogue 2014­15 Faculty of Engineering and Architecture (FEA) Officers of the Faculty Peter F as 1913 the University recognized the need for engineering education and training in the Middle East

253

Naval Architecture Marine Engineering  

E-print Network

Naval Architecture Marine Engineering Graduate Program Brochure 2014-2015 The University of Michigan #12;Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering More than 70% of our planet is covered by water environment. In the Department of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering (NA&ME), at the University

Eustice, Ryan

254

Naval Architecture Marine Engineering  

E-print Network

Naval Architecture Marine Engineering Graduate Program Brochure 2011-2012 The University of Michigan #12;Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering More than 70% of our planet is covered by water environment. In the Department of Naval Architecture & Marine Engineering (NA&ME), at the University

Eustice, Ryan

255

High performance parallel architectures  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the author describes current high performance parallel computer architectures. A taxonomy is presented to show computer architecture from the user programmer's point-of-view. The effects of the taxonomy upon the programming model are described. Some current architectures are described with respect to the taxonomy. Finally, some predictions about future systems are presented. 5 refs., 1 fig.

Anderson, R.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1989-09-01

256

Architecture AddressingModes  

E-print Network

MIPS R2000 Architecture and Assembly (Part 1) 1. CPU Registers 2. Byte Order 3. AddressingModes 4­endian byte order 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 Or Byte number #12; AddressingModes . MIPS is a load/store architecture . RICS -- Load/Store architecture -- All instructions have equal length of 4 bytes -- Every register can

Nguyen, Dat H.

257

Clover architecture for groupware  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the Clover architectural model, a new conceptual architectural model for groupware. Our model results from the combination of the layer approach of Dewan's generic architecture with the functional decomposition of the Clover design model. The Clover design model defines three classes of services that a groupware application may support, namely, production, communication and coordination services.

Yann Laurillau; Laurence Nigay

2002-01-01

258

Open Architecture SDR for Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an open-architecture SDR (software defined radio) infrastructure that is suitable for space-based operations (Space-SDR). SDR technologies will endow space and planetary exploration systems with dramatically increased capability, reduced power consumption, and significantly less mass than conventional systems, at costs reduced by vigorous competition, hardware commonality, dense integration, reduced obsolescence, interoperability, and software re-use. Significant progress has been recorded on developments like the Joint Tactical Radio System (JSTRS) Software Communication Architecture (SCA), which is oriented toward reconfigurable radios for defense forces operating in multiple theaters of engagement. The JTRS-SCA presents a consistent software interface for waveform development, and facilitates interoperability, waveform portability, software re-use, and technology evolution.

Smith, Carl; Long, Chris; Liebetreu, John; Reinhart, Richard C.

2005-01-01

259

THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL ARCHITECTURE Judith S. Dahmann  

E-print Network

THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL ARCHITECTURE Judith S. Dahmann Defense Modeling and Simulation of a common technical architecture for use across all classes of simulations in the US Department of Defense) for distributed simulations are described. 1. INTRODUCTION The Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO

260

Kaleidoscope: A Reference Architecture for Monitoring and Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although monitoring and control systems can be applied to a great variety of application domains, they exhibit a number of common characteristics, particularly the extensive use of abstraction layers and information streams. This paper presents a reference architecture upon which a number of monitoring and control systems for a wide range of application domains can be designed. The architecture is

Andrea Savigni; Francesco Tisato

1999-01-01

261

Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Common Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Numerous genetic syndromes have had the cognitive and behavioral components of the phenotype delineated, leading to improved\\u000a diagnosis of the condition, as well as to better management and interventional approaches. This article is a review of some\\u000a of what is known about the neurodevelopmental aspects of some of the more common genetic syndromes.

Helga V. Toriello

262

Reconfigurable Transceiver and Software-Defined Radio Architecture and Technology Evaluated for NASA Space Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating the development and suitability of a software-based open-architecture for space-based reconfigurable transceivers (RTs) and software-defined radios (SDRs). The main objectives of this project are to enable advanced operations and reduce mission costs. SDRs are becoming more common because of the capabilities of reconfigurable digital signal processing technologies such as field programmable gate arrays and digital signal processors, which place radio functions in firmware and software that were traditionally performed with analog hardware components. Features of interest of this communications architecture include nonproprietary open standards and application programming interfaces to enable software reuse and portability, independent hardware and software development, and hardware and software functional separation. The goals for RT and SDR technologies for NASA space missions include prelaunch and on-orbit frequency and waveform reconfigurability and programmability, high data rate capability, and overall communications and processing flexibility. These operational advances over current state-of-art transceivers will be provided to reduce the power, mass, and cost of RTs and SDRs for space communications. The open architecture for NASA communications will support existing (legacy) communications needs and capabilities while providing a path to more capable, advanced waveform development and mission concepts (e.g., ad hoc constellations with self-healing networks and high-rate science data return). A study was completed to assess the state of the art in RT architectures, implementations, and technologies. In-house researchers conducted literature searches and analysis, interviewed Government and industry contacts, and solicited information and white papers from industry on space-qualifiable RTs and SDRs and their associated technologies for space-based NASA applications. The white papers were evaluated, compiled, and used to assess RT and SDR system architectures and core technology elements to determine an appropriate investment strategy to advance these technologies to meet future mission needs. The use of these radios in the space environment represents a challenge because of the space radiation suitability of the components, which drastically reduces the processing capability. The radios available for space are considered to be RTs (as opposed to SDRs), which are digitally programmable radios with selectable changes from an architecture combining analog and digital components. The limited flexibility of this design contrasts against the desire to have a power-efficient solution and open architecture.

Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

2004-01-01

263

Towards PCB physical design automation: architectural analysis and synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of architectural definition tools to ensure the validity of early designs is crucial to avoid costly rework of the product architecture by catching potential design errors before starting detailed physical realization. Design automation tools with analysis and synthesis capabilities at both component and board levels can be the key to the design of today's complex systems with shrinking

Delfin Y. Montuno; Q. J. Zhang; B. Stacey; Wenfeng Chen; V. Chaudhary; D. Poirier; T. Mentor

1997-01-01

264

Business Capabilities Centric Enterprise Architecture Thiago Barroero,1  

E-print Network

Architecture and Business Capabilities modeling Nowadays scenario of Enterprise Architecture (EA) testifies each enterprise capability into business component (BC). Each BC is an individual business model are the modular building blocks that compose an enterprise. 1.2 Business Capabilities Models A Business Capability

Boyer, Edmond

265

Application of networking concepts to optoelectronic multiprocessor architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach to creating highspeed multiprocessor architectures involving free-space optical interconnects using knowledge gained from the analysis of traditional network topologies. Development of an architectural specification through identification of the components of a functional description and mapping them to an appropriate network model is presented. By applying these techniques, the designer has the advantage of field tested

James Rorie; Philippe J. Marchand; Jeremy Ekman; Fouad E. Kiamilev; Sadik C. Esener

1999-01-01

266

Merging the CCA Component Model with the OGSI Framework Madhusudhan Govindaraju, Sriram Krishnan, Kenneth Chiu,  

E-print Network

. The framework, called XCAT, is based on the U.S. Department of Energy Common Com- ponent Architecture. This paper describes the basic architecture of XCAT and its integration into the Open Grid Service

267

Requirements for a common GUI architecture for ultrasound applications  

E-print Network

identifier (UUID) of the interface is specified in the definition file. The UUID makes sure that the RPC is made to the correct server. The Microsoft IDL (MIDL) compiler is used to compile the IDL source file. The MIDL actually translates the IDL into C... implicitly or explicitly to a remote procedure. Implicit binding handle When we pass the binding handle implicitly to the remote procedure, we declare is as a global variable. The code generated by the MIDL then packages it for transmission to the remote...

Muthukrishnan, Sreenivas

2012-06-07

268

Storing Data in Science Archives: Striving for a Common Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Science Archive Team at ESAC (European Space Astronomy Center) is responsible for developing, maintaining and operating the Science Archives for all the Astronomy and Planetary missions. Due to the different nature of the missions, each one with its peculiarities, the data produced has a great variety of formats and is always delivered in very project-specific way. Taking this restriction

N. Fajersztejn; C. Arviset; D. Baines; I. Barbarisi; J. Castellanos; N. Cheek; H. Costa; M. Fernandez; J. Gonzalez; A. Laruelo; I. Leon; B. Martinez; I. Ortiz; P. Osuna; C. Rios; J. Salgado; M. H. Sarmiento; D. Tapiador

2011-01-01

269

78 FR 12063 - Meeting for Software Developers on the Technical Specifications for Common Formats for Patient...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...answer values, field length, guide for use, etc.) included in Common Formats; [cir] clinical document architecture (CDA) implementation guide -- provides instructions for developing a file to transmit the Common Formats Patient Safety data...

2013-02-21

270

77 FR 9252 - Meeting for Software Developers on the Technical Specifications for Common Formats for Patient...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...name, answer values, field length, guide for use, etc.) included in Common Formats; Clinical document architecture (CDA) implementation guide--provides instructions for developing a file to transmit the Common Formats Patient Safety data...

2012-02-16

271

75 FR 16817 - Meeting for Software Developers on the Technical Specifications for Common Formats for Patient...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Common Formats Version 1.1; [cir] Clinical document architecture (CDA) implementation guide-- provides instructions for developing a Health Level Seven (HL7) CDA Extensible Markup Language (XML) file to transmit the Common Formats...

2010-04-02

272

76 FR 16785 - Meeting for Software Developers on the Technical Specifications for Common Formats for Patient...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...included in Common Formats; [cir] Clinical document architecture (CDA) implementation guide-- provides instructions for developing a Health Level Seven (HL7) CDA Extensible Markup Language (XML) file to transmit the Common Formats...

2011-03-25

273

Extensible Hardware Architecture for Mobile Robots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a new mobile robot hardware architecture designed for extensibility and reconfigurability. Currently implemented on the k9 rover. and won to be integrated onto the K10 series of human-robot collaboration research robots, this architecture allows for rapid changes in instrumentation configuration and provides a high degree of modularity through a synergistic mix of off-the-shelf and custom designed components, allowing eased transplantation into a wide vane6 of mobile robot platforms. A component level overview of this architecture is presented along with a description of the changes required for implementation on K10 , followed by plans for future work.

Park, Eric; Kobayashi, Linda; Lee, Susan Y.

2005-01-01

274

AUTONOMY ARCHITECTURES FOR A CONSTELLATION OF SPACECRAFT Anthony Barrett  

E-print Network

AUTONOMY ARCHITECTURES FOR A CONSTELLATION OF SPACECRAFT Anthony Barrett Jet Propulsion Laboratory a hundred spacecraft (such as for interferometer or magnetospheric constellation missions). 1. INTRODUCTION software components of autonomous spacecraft and constellations, the next section describes a master

Schaffer, Steven

275

Systolic architecture for B-spline surfaces  

SciTech Connect

B-spline surfaces are among the most commonly used types of surfaces for modeling objects in computer graphics and CAD applications. One of the time consuming operations in B-spline surface generation is that of inversion. An efficient algorithm is proposed for solving this problem. This algorithm is implemented on a systolic architecture in order to facilitate fast interactive surface design.

Ajjanagadde, V.G.; Patnaik, L.M.

1986-12-01

276

Web Service Architecture Framework for Embedded Devices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of Service Oriented Architectures, namely web services, has become a widely adopted method for transfer of data between systems across the Internet as well as the Enterprise. Adopting a similar approach to embedded devices is also starting to emerge as personal devices and sensor networks are becoming more common in the industry. This

Yanzick, Paul David

2009-01-01

277

Tactical communication systems with the GOSIP architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author proposes a solution to the issue of digital communications interoperability between tactical and strategic (or other) groups within an integrated communications architecture of the future. He proposes two significant changes that permit the tactical systems to be integrated into future communication systems. The first change requires a common set of communication protocols to be used over the communications

1992-01-01

278

Integrated computer control system architectural overview  

SciTech Connect

This overview introduces the NIF Integrated Control System (ICCS) architecture. The design is abstract to allow the construction of many similar applications from a common framework. This summary lays the essential foundation for understanding the model-based engineering approach used to execute the design.

Van Arsdall, P.

1997-06-18

279

Common Polymorphisms in Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

A wide variety of diseases have a significant genetic component, including major causes of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Many of these diseases are also angiogenesis dependent. In humans, common polymorphisms, although more subtle in effect than rare mutations that cause Mendelian disease, are expected to have greater overall effects on human disease. Thus, common polymorphisms in angiogenesis-regulating genes may affect the response to an angiogenic stimulus and thereby affect susceptibility to or progression of such diseases. Candidate gene studies have identified several associations between angiogenesis gene polymorphisms and disease. Similarly, emerging pharmacogenomic evidence indicates that several angiogenesis-regulating polymorphisms may predict response to therapy. In contrast, genome-wide association studies have identified only a few risk alleles in obvious angiogenesis genes. As in other traits, regulatory polymorphisms appear to dominate the landscape of angiogenic responsiveness. Rodent assays, including the mouse corneal micropocket assay, tumor models, and a macular degeneration model have allowed the identification and comparison of loci that directly affect the trait. Complementarity between human and animal approaches will allow increased understanding of the genetic basis for angiogenesis-dependent disease. PMID:23125197

Rogers, Michael S.; DAmato, Robert J.

2012-01-01

280

Parallel supercomputing with commodity components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have implemented a parallel computer architecture based entirely upon commodity personal computer components. Using 16 Intel Pentium Pro microprocessors and switched fast ethernet as a communication fabric, we have obtained sustained performance on scientific applications in excess of one Gigaflop. During one production astrophysics treecode simulation, we performed 1.2 x 10(sup 15) floating point operations (1.2 Petaflops) over a three week period, with one phase of that simulation running continuously for two weeks without interruption. We report on a variety of disk, memory and network benchmarks. We also present results from the NAS parallel benchmark suite, which indicate that this architecture is competitive with current commercial architectures. In addition, we describe some software written to support efficient message passing, as well as a Linux device driver interface to the Pentium hardware performance monitoring registers.

Warren, M. S.; Goda, M. P.; Becker, D. J.

1997-01-01

281

Parallel supercomputing with commodity components  

SciTech Connect

We have implemented a parallel computer architecture based entirely upon commodity personal computer components. Using 16 Intel Pentium Pro microprocessors and switched fast ethernet as a communication fabric, we have obtained sustained performance on scientific applications in excess of one Gigaflop. During one production astrophysics treecode simulation, we performed 1.2 x 10{sup 15} floating point operations (1.2 Petaflops) over a three week period, with one phase of that simulation running continuously for two weeks without interruption. We report on a variety of disk, memory and network benchmarks. We also present results from the NAS parallel benchmark suite, which indicate that this architecture is competitive with current commercial architectures. In addition, we describe some software written to support efficient message passing, as well as a Linux device driver interface to the Pentium hardware performance monitoring registers.

Warren, M.S.; Goda, M.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Becker, D.J. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [and others

1997-09-01

282

Supporting Undergraduate Computer Architecture Students Using a Visual MIPS64 CPU Simulator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topics of computer architecture are always taught using an Assembly dialect as an example. The most commonly used textbooks in this field use the MIPS64 Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) to help students in learning the fundamentals of computer architecture because of its orthogonality and its suitability for real-world applications. This

Patti, D.; Spadaccini, A.; Palesi, M.; Fazzino, F.; Catania, V.

2012-01-01

283

Dynamics and Design Principles of a Basic Regulatory Architecture Controlling Metabolic Pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic features of a genetic network's response to environmental fluctuations represent essential functional specifications and thus may constrain the possible choices of network architecture and kinetic parameters. To explore the connection between dynamics and network design, we have analyzed a general regulatory architecture that is commonly found in many metabolic pathways. Such architecture is characterized by a dual control

Chen-Shan Chin; Victor Chubukov; Emmitt R Jolly; Joe DeRisi; Hao Li

2008-01-01

284

Control software and electronics architecture design in the framework of the E-ELT instrumentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last years the European Southern Observatory (ESO), in collaboration with other European astronomical institutes, has started several feasibility studies for the E-ELT (European-Extremely Large Telescope) instrumentation and post-focal adaptive optics. The goal is to create a flexible suite of instruments to deal with the wide variety of scientific questions astronomers would like to see solved in the coming decades. In this framework INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Trieste (INAF-AOTs) is currently responsible of carrying out the analysis and the preliminary study of the architecture of the electronics and control software of three instruments: CODEX (control software and electronics) and OPTIMOS-EVE/OPTIMOS-DIORAMAS (control software). To cope with the increased complexity and new requirements for stability, precision, real-time latency and communications among sub-systems imposed by these instruments, new solutions have been investigated by our group. In this paper we present the proposed software and electronics architecture based on a distributed common framework centered on the Component/Container model that uses OPC Unified Architecture as a standard layer to communicate with COTS components of three different vendors. We describe three working prototypes that have been set-up in our laboratory and discuss their performances, integration complexity and ease of deployment.

Di Marcantonio, P.; Coretti, I.; Cirami, R.; Comari, M.; Santin, P.; Pucillo, M.

2010-07-01

285

College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities ARCHITECTURE,  

E-print Network

and Information Design. The school also offers certificate programs in Health Communication and Writing Assessment Environment; Professional Communication; Real Estate Development; Rhetorics, Communica- tion and Information Design; and Visual Arts. Courses are offered in art and architectural history, communication studies

Stuart, Steven J.

286

College of Architecture, Arts and Humanities ARCHITECTURE,  

E-print Network

. The school also offers a certificate program in Health Communication. Faculty have been re- cipients in Architecture; City and Regional Planning; Communication, Technology and Society; Construc- tion Science; Planning, Design and the Built Environment; Professional Communication; Real Estate Development; Rhetorics

Stuart, Steven J.

287

The Mermaid Architecture-workbench for Multicomputers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cache hierarchyBusFigure 3: The template architecture models.defines a bus component. It is a simple forwarding mechanism, carrying out arbitrationupon multiple accesses. The parameters used to configure this component include buswidth,bus cycle-time and arbitration details. Changing the bus to a more complex structure,such as a multistage network, can be done without too much remodelling effort. Inthat case, only a new Pearl

1996-01-01

288

A scalable architecture for visual data exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligence analysts in the areas of defense and homeland security are now faced with the difficult problem of discerning the relevant details amidst massive data stores. We propose a component-based visualization architecture that is built specifically to encourage the flexible exploration of geospatial event databases. The proposed system is designed to deploy on a variety of display layouts, from a

Jonathan W. Decker; Alex Godwin; Mark A. Livingston; Denise Royle

2009-01-01

289

Structures, inner values, hierarchies and stages: essentials for developmental robot architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we try to locate the essential components needed for a developmental robot architecture. We take the vocabulary and the main concepts from Piaget's genetic epistemology and Vygotsky's activity theory. After proposing an outline for a general developmental architecture, we describe the architectures that we have been developing in the recent years - Petitag and Vygovorotsky. According to

Andrea Kulakov; Georgi Stojanov

290

Embracing the Idea of 'Context' in Architecture Education and the Internationalization Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the era of globalization, the graduates of architecture program in South East Asia are expected to gain employment not just locally but internationally. The aim of this paper is to put forward the idea of 'context' in architecture that can be the important component in the architecture curriculum and in the studio teaching. Context embraces the site and time.

Mohd Hamdan Ahmad

291

Formalization and visualization of domain-specific software architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a domain-specific software design system based on the concepts of software architectures engineering and domain-specific models and languages. In this system, software architectures are used as high level abstractions to formulate a domain-specific software design. The software architecture serves as a framework for composing architectural fragments (e.g., domain objects, system components, and hardware interfaces) that make up the knowledge (or model) base for solving a problem in a particular application area. A corresponding software design is generated by analyzing and describing a system in the context of the software architecture. While the software architecture serves as the framework for the design, this concept is insufficient by itself for supplying the additional details required for a specific design. Additional domain knowledge is still needed to instantiate components of the architecture and develop optimized algorithms for the problem domain. One possible way to obtain the additional details is through the use of domain-specific languages. Thus, the general concept of a software architecture and the specific design details provided by domain-specific languages are combined to create what can be termed a domain-specific software architecture (DSSA).

Bailor, Paul D.; Luginbuhl, David R.; Robinson, John S.

1992-01-01

292

GPGPU Processing in CUDA Architecture  

E-print Network

The future of computation is the Graphical Processing Unit, i.e. the GPU. The promise that the graphics cards have shown in the field of image processing and accelerated rendering of 3D scenes, and the computational capability that these GPUs possess, they are developing into great parallel computing units. It is quite simple to program a graphics processor to perform general parallel tasks. But after understanding the various architectural aspects of the graphics processor, it can be used to perform other taxing tasks as well. In this paper, we will show how CUDA can fully utilize the tremendous power of these GPUs. CUDA is NVIDIA's parallel computing architecture. It enables dramatic increases in computing performance, by harnessing the power of the GPU. This paper talks about CUDA and its architecture. It takes us through a comparison of CUDA C/C++ with other parallel programming languages like OpenCL and DirectCompute. The paper also lists out the common myths about CUDA and how the future seems to be pro...

Ghorpade, Jayshree; Kulkarni, Madhura; Bawaskar, Amit

2012-01-01

293

An evolutionarily structured universe of protein architecture.  

PubMed

Protein structural diversity encompasses a finite set of architectural designs. Embedded in these topologies are evolutionary histories that we here uncover using cladistic principles and measurements of protein-fold usage and sharing. The reconstructed phylogenies are inherently rooted and depict histories of protein and proteome diversification. Proteome phylogenies showed two monophyletic sister-groups delimiting Bacteria and Archaea, and a topology rooted in Eucarya. This suggests three dramatic evolutionary events and a common ancestor with a eukaryotic-like, gene-rich, and relatively modern organization. Conversely, a general phylogeny of protein architectures showed that structural classes of globular proteins appeared early in evolution and in defined order, the alpha/beta class being the first. Although most ancestral folds shared a common architecture of barrels or interleaved beta-sheets and alpha-helices, many were clearly derived, such as polyhedral folds in the all-alpha class and beta-sandwiches, beta-propellers, and beta-prisms in all-beta proteins. We also describe transformation pathways of architectures that are prevalently used in nature. For example, beta-barrels with increased curl and stagger were favored evolutionary outcomes in the all-beta class. Interestingly, we found cases where structural change followed the alpha-to-beta tendency uncovered in the tree of architectures. Lastly, we traced the total number of enzymatic functions associated with folds in the trees and show that there is a general link between structure and enzymatic function. PMID:12840035

Caetano-Anolls, Gustavo; Caetano-Anolls, Derek

2003-07-01

294

Common Control System Vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

Trent Nelson

2005-12-01

295

Kernel methods for phenotyping complex plant architecture.  

PubMed

The Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping of plant architecture is a critical step for understanding the genetic determinism of plant architecture. Previous studies adopted simple measurements, such as plant-height, stem-diameter and branching-intensity for QTL mapping of plant architecture. Many of these quantitative traits were generally correlated to each other, which give rise to statistical problem in the detection of QTL. We aim to test the applicability of kernel methods to phenotyping inflorescence architecture and its QTL mapping. We first test Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) over an artificial dataset of simulated inflorescences with different types of flower distribution, which is coded as a sequence of flower-number per node along a shoot. The ability of discriminating the different inflorescence types by SVM and KPCA is illustrated. We then apply the KPCA representation to the real dataset of rose inflorescence shoots (n=1460) obtained from a 98 F1 hybrid mapping population. We find kernel principal components with high heritability (>0.7), and the QTL analysis identifies a new QTL, which was not detected by a trait-by-trait analysis of simple architectural measurements. The main tools developed in this paper could be use to tackle the general problem of QTL mapping of complex (sequences, 3D structure, graphs) phenotypic traits. PMID:24211258

Kawamura, Koji; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, Laurence; Foucher, Fabrice; Thouroude, Tatiana; Loustau, Sbastien

2014-02-01

296

Mathematics and Architecture Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit about architecture and its unique relation to mathematics, incorporating the study of such mathematical concepts as ratio, proportion, scales, symmetry, and similarity, and providing definitions and explanations of the mathematical concepts of elementary geometry, stating their connection to architecture. Activities include lesson plans on ratio and proportion as they relate to architectural designing, model building, the need for mathematical accuracy in measuring, and the analysis of buildings from drawings.

Morgan, Winnifred

2007-02-19

297

GNC Architecture Design for ARES Simulation. Revision 3.0. Revision 3.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this document is to describe the GNC architecture and associated interfaces for all ARES simulations. Establishing a common architecture facilitates development across the ARES simulations and provides an efficient mechanism for creating an end-to-end simulation capability. In general, the GNC architecture is the frame work in which all GNC development takes place, including sensor and effector models. All GNC software applications have a standard location within the architecture making integration easier and, thus more efficient.

Gay, Robert

2006-01-01

298

Common Waste and Materials  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Wastes Resource Conservation Common Wastes & Materials Common Waste and Materials Related Links Universal Waste Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPG) Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) ...

299

Brain components  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

300

Enterprise Knowledge Clouds: Architecture and Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter outlines the architectural foundations of Enterprise Knowledge Clouds (EKC) (Delic & Riley, describing the underlying technological fabrics and then pointing at the key capabilities of the (hypothetical) intelligent enterprise operating in constantly evolving, dynamic market conditions. Our aim is to give readers of this chapter a better understanding of knowledge cloud architectural aims and practical insights into EKC technological components. Thanks to knowledge, the enterprise will know more, will act better and react sooner in changing environment conditions, ultimately improving its performance and enabling it to show better behaviour and measurable improvements.

Delic, Kemal A.; Riley, Jeff A.

301

Model-Drive Architecture for Agent-Based Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach uses a platform-independent model to define system functionality, or requirements, using some specification language. The requirements are then translated to a platform-specific model for implementation. An agent architecture based on the human cognitive model of planning, the Cognitive Agent Architecture (Cougaar) is selected for the implementation platform. The resulting Cougaar MDA prescribes certain kinds of models to be used, how those models may be prepared and the relationships of the different kinds of models. Using the existing Cougaar architecture, the level of application composition is elevated from individual components to domain level model specifications in order to generate software artifacts. The software artifacts generation is based on a metamodel. Each component maps to a UML structured component which is then converted into multiple artifacts: Cougaar/Java code, documentation, and test cases.

Gradanin, Denis; Singh, H. Lally; Bohner, Shawn A.; Hinchey, Michael G.

2004-01-01

302

Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering  

E-print Network

Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Undergraduate Program The University of Michigan #12;2 The Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Educational Objectives The Educational Objectives knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering within naval architecture and marine engineering

Eustice, Ryan

303

Space application of airborne common modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that, with some early planning, common electronics modules designed for combat aircraft can be used in space applications. It is shown that architectures, made up of common modules, can be constructed in a manner that will resolve reliability, safety, environmental and cost concerns. Growth path and capability are shown for near-term projects (heavy launch vehicle) through far-term (manned Mars mission) applications. Performance requirements, environmental specifications, validation methods, and testing philosophy for missions in space transportation are addressed.

Flanagan, R. A.; Mosher, T. O.; Fleischman, D. L.; Bond, D. G.

304

Enriching software architecture documentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eective documentation of Architectural Knowledge (AK) is one of the key factors in leveraging the paradigm shift toward sharing and reusing AK. However, current documentation approaches have severe shortcomings in capturing the knowl- edge of large and complex systems and subsequently facilitating its usage. In this paper, we propose to tackle this problem through the enrichment of traditional architectural

Anton Jansen; Jan Salvador Van Der Ven

2009-01-01

305

Teaching American Indian Architecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

Winchell, Dick

1991-01-01

306

Workflow automation architecture standard  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-11-14

307

Analysing architecture through drawing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reflects on drawing as a medium for acquiring knowledge and understanding of the possibilities and workings of architecture by analysing examples. Drawing has been much discussed as a medium for design and of communication in architecture, but the potential of its role as a medium for analysis, though recognized, has not enjoyed the same attention. The paper begins

Simon Unwin

2007-01-01

308

Architectural Physics: Lighting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author coordinates the many diverse branches of knowledge which have dealt with the field of lighting--physiology, psychology, engineering, physics, and architectural design. Part I, "The Elements of Architectural Physics", discusses the physiological aspects of lighting, visual performance, lighting design, calculations and measurements of

Hopkinson, R. G.

309

Information Architecture: Looking Ahead.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the future of the field of information architecture. Highlights include a comparison with the growth of the field of professional management; the design of information systems since the Web; more demanding users; the need for an interdisciplinary approach; and how to define information architecture. (LRW)

Rosenfeld, Louis

2002-01-01

310

Components in the Pipeline  

SciTech Connect

Scientists commonly describe their data processing systems metaphorically as software pipelines. These pipelines input one or more data sources and apply a sequence of processing steps to transform the data and create useful results. While conceptually simple, pipelines often adopt complex topologies and must meet stringent quality of service requirements that place stress on the software infrastructure used to construct the pipeline. In this paper we describe the MeDICi Integration Framework, which is a component-based framework for constructing complex software pipelines. The framework supports composing pipelines from distributed heterogeneous software components and provides mechanisms for controlling qualities of service to meet demanding performance, reliability and communication requirements.

Gorton, Ian; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan (Jenny); Yin, Jian

2011-02-24

311

Moving the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability to a Distributed, Portable Architecture  

SciTech Connect

The Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) has been re-engineered from a Windows application with tight binding between computation and a graphical user interface (GUI) to a new distributed object architecture. The key goals of this new architecture are platform portability, extensibility, deployment flexibility, client-server operations, easy integration with other systems, and support for a new map-based GUI. Selection of Java as the development and runtime environment is the major factor in achieving each of the goals, platform portability in particular. Portability is further enforced by allowing only Java components in the client. Extensibility is achieved via Java's dynamic binding and class loading capabilities and a design by interface approach. HPAC supports deployment on a standalone host, as a heavy client in client-server mode with data stored on the client but calculations performed on the server host, and as a thin client with data and calculations on the server host. The principle architectural element supporting deployment flexibility is the use of Universal Resource Locators (URLs) for all file references. Java WebStart{trademark} is used for thin client deployment. Although there were many choices for the object distribution mechanism, the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) was chosen to support HPAC client server operation. HPAC complies with version 2.0 of the CORBA standard and does not assume support for pass-by-value method arguments. Execution in standalone mode is expedited by having most server objects run in the same process as client objects, thereby bypassing CORBA object transport. HPAC provides four levels for access by other tools and systems, starting with a Windows library providing transport and dispersion (T&D) calculations and output generation, detailed and more abstract sets of CORBA services, and reusable Java components.

Lee, RW

2002-09-05

312

COMPONENT User's Guide Consensus trees  

E-print Network

COMPONENT User's Guide Chapter 4 Consensus trees Consensus trees are a convenient way to summarise the agreement between two or more trees. This chapter describes the consensus methods available in COMPONENT subtree (Kubicka et al, 1992; also called the common pruned tree [Finden and Gordon, 1985]). This method

Page, Roderic

313

Commonality analysis as a knowledge acquisition problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commonality analysis is a systematic attempt to reduce costs in a large scale engineering project by discontinuing development of certain components during the design phase. Each discontinued component is replaced by another component that has sufficient functionality to be considered an appropriate substitute. The replacement strategy is driven by economic considerations. The System Commonality Analysis Tool (SCAT) is based on an oversimplified model of the problem and incorporates no knowledge acquisition component. In fact, the process of arriving at a compromise between functionality and economy is quite complex, with many opportunities for the application of expert knowledge. Such knowledge is of two types: general knowledge expressible as heuristics or mathematical laws potentially applicable to any set of components, and specific knowledge about the way in which elements of a given set of components interrelate. Examples of both types of knowledge are presented, and a framework is proposed for integrating the knowledge into a more general and useable tool.

Yeager, Dorian P.

1987-01-01

314

Molecular basis of angiosperm tree architecture.  

PubMed

I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: The architecture of trees greatly impacts the productivity of orchards and forestry plantations. Amassing greater knowledge on the molecular genetics that underlie tree form can benefit these industries, as well as contribute to basic knowledge of plant developmental biology. This review describes the fundamental components of branch architecture, a prominent aspect of tree structure, as well as genetic and hormonal influences inferred from studies in model plant systems and from trees with non-standard architectures. The bulk of the molecular and genetic data described here is from studies of fruit trees and poplar, as these species have been the primary subjects of investigation in this field of science. PMID:25483362

Hollender, Courtney A; Dardick, Chris

2014-12-01

315

ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY 4 School of Architecture  

E-print Network

%); a final exam (30%) during the university's exam period. #12;2 Lecture Schedule: Brave New World (Jan 10 Winter 2013 This fourth course in our Architectural History sequence explores new forms that emerged new approaches to the subject, carefully chosen to nurture skills in critical reading and to encourage

Barthelat, Francois

316

College of Architecture, Arts, and Humanities ARCHITECTURE,  

E-print Network

. To illustrate these ideas, consider the diversity of communication skills practiced and taught in the College communication, and com- munication through the written word. Each skill is vital to a successful student Planning, and Architecture) with Arts (Visual Arts and Performing Arts) and the Humanities (Communication

Stuart, Steven J.

317

Component Adaptation in Contemporary Execution Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because they are required to support component deployment and composition, modern execution environments embody a number of common features such as dynamic linking and support for multiple component versions. These features help to overcome some classical maintenance problems focused largely on component evolution, where successive generations of collaborating components need to be kept collaborating. What has been less studied has

Susan Eisenbach; Chris Sadler; Dominic Wong

2007-01-01

318

A Facility and Architecture for Autonomy Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomy is a key enabling factor in the advancement of the remote robotic exploration. There is currently a large gap between autonomy software at the research level and software that is ready for insertion into near-term space missions. The Mission Simulation Facility (MST) will bridge this gap by providing a simulation framework and suite of simulation tools to support research in autonomy for remote exploration. This system will allow developers of autonomy software to test their models in a high-fidelity simulation and evaluate their system's performance against a set of integrated, standardized simulations. The Mission Simulation ToolKit (MST) uses a distributed architecture with a communication layer that is built on top of the standardized High Level Architecture (HLA). This architecture enables the use of existing high fidelity models, allows mixing simulation components from various computing platforms and enforces the use of a standardized high-level interface among components. The components needed to achieve a realistic simulation can be grouped into four categories: environment generation (terrain, environmental features), robotic platform behavior (robot dynamics), instrument models (camera/spectrometer/etc.), and data analysis. The MST will provide basic components in these areas but allows users to plug-in easily any refined model by means of a communication protocol. Finally, a description file defines the robot and environment parameters for easy configuration and ensures that all the simulation models share the same information.

Pisanich, Greg; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

319

Fractal Geometry of Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Fractals smaller parts and the whole are linked together. Fractals are self-similar, as those parts are, at least approximately, scaled-down copies of the rough whole. In architecture, such a concept has also been known for a long time. Not only architects of the twentieth century called for an overall idea that is mirrored in every single detail, but also Gothic cathedrals and Indian temples offer self-similarity. This study mainly focuses upon the question whether this concept of self-similarity makes architecture with fractal properties more diverse and interesting than Euclidean Modern architecture. The first part gives an introduction and explains Fractal properties in various natural and architectural objects, presenting the underlying structure by computer programmed renderings. In this connection, differences between the fractal, architectural concept and true, mathematical Fractals are worked out to become aware of limits. This is the basis for dealing with the problem whether fractal-like architecture, particularly facades, can be measured so that different designs can be compared with each other under the aspect of fractal properties. Finally the usability of the Box-Counting Method, an easy-to-use measurement method of Fractal Dimension is analyzed with regard to architecture.

Lorenz, Wolfgang E.

320

Optical alignment of multiple components to a common coordinate system.  

PubMed

An improved method of optical tooling for the determination of angular alignment of randomly oriented multicomponent systems is described. The method was developed for alignment of the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. A test object is mounted on a precision rotary table and viewed in autocollimation by a first-order theodolite. Azimuth and elevation readings from subject mirrors and relay mirrors, and azimuth readings from a dihedral mirror reference system are transformed into test object coordinates of roll, pitch, and yaw by a computer program. The program uses matrix optics methods. Errors are discussed. PMID:20068732

Appler, R L; Howell, B J

1968-06-01

321

System Architectural Considerations on Reliable Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN and C) for Constellation Program (CxP) Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report summarizes the results of a comparative assessment of the fault tolerance and reliability of different Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) architectural approaches. This study was proactively performed by a combined Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Draper Laboratory team as a GN&C "Discipline-Advancing" activity sponsored by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). This systematic comparative assessment of GN&C system architectural approaches was undertaken as a fundamental step towards understanding the opportunities for, and limitations of, architecting highly reliable and fault tolerant GN&C systems composed of common avionic components. The primary goal of this study was to obtain architectural 'rules of thumb' that could positively influence future designs in the direction of an optimized (i.e., most reliable and cost-efficient) GN&C system. A secondary goal was to demonstrate the application and the utility of a systematic modeling approach that maps the entire possible architecture solution space.

Dennehy, Cornelius J.

2010-01-01

322

Partially Decentralized Control Architectures for Satellite Formations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a partially decentralized control architecture, more than one but less than all nodes have supervisory capability. This paper describes an approach to choosing the number of supervisors in such au architecture, based on a reliability vs. cost trade. It also considers the implications of these results for the design of navigation systems for satellite formations that could be controlled with a partially decentralized architecture. Using an assumed cost model, analytic and simulation-based results indicate that it may be cheaper to achieve a given overall system reliability with a partially decentralized architecture containing only a few supervisors, than with either fully decentralized or purely centralized architectures. Nominally, the subset of supervisors may act as centralized estimation and control nodes for corresponding subsets of the remaining subordinate nodes, and act as decentralized estimation and control peers with respect to each other. However, in the context of partially decentralized satellite formation control, the absolute positions and velocities of each spacecraft are unique, so that correlations which make estimates using only local information suboptimal only occur through common biases and process noise. Covariance and monte-carlo analysis of a simplified system show that this lack of correlation may allow simplification of the local estimators while preserving the global optimality of the maneuvers commanded by the supervisors.

Carpenter, J. Russell; Bauer, Frank H.

2002-01-01

323

Evolution of a common controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precedent has shown common controllers must strike a balance between the desire for an integrated user interface design by human factors engineers and support of project-specific data requirements. A common user-interface requires the project-specific data to conform to an internal representation, but project-specific customization is impeded by the implicit rules introduced by the internal data representation. Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) developed the latest version of the Multi-robot Operator Control Unit (MOCU) to address interoperability, standardization, and customization issues by using a modular, extensible, and flexible architecture built upon a sharedworld model. MOCU version 3 provides an open and extensible operator-control interface that allows additional functionality to be seamlessly added with software modules while providing the means to fully integrate the information into a layered game-like user interface. MOCU's design allows it to completely decouple the human interface from the core management modules, while still enabling modules to render overlapping regions of the screen without interference or a priori knowledge of other display elements, thus allowing more flexibility in project-specific customization.

Powell, D.; Barbour, D.; Gilbreath, G.

2012-06-01

324

Diffraction Gratings WDM Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffraction grating WDM components have tremendous capability in number of channels (160 channel components and more with bi-directionality are commercially available and components with two times more channels have been demonstrated experimentally). They have a high free spectral range (typically 775 nm with gratings working in the first order). Small spacing such as 25 GHz is commercially available and 5 GHz feasibility has been demonstrated. Athermal glass components down to 25 GHz spacing are manufactured with uncontrolled drifts as low as 0.35 pm/C using commonly available glasses. These solutions are based on the traditional and mature optics technology used to manufacture millions of diffractionlimited reliable optics at low cost. The unique three-dimensional nature of these components can be exploited for advanced features requested by network designers such as add/drops, crossconnects, and routing devices. Cyclic passive routers accurately matched to the ITU frequencies in DWDM or to ITU wavelengths in CWDM have been proposed for advanced networks. Diffraction grating components can be used for high quality bidirectional links. For mono-directional or bi-directional links they have virtually unlimited numbers of channels and provide the lowest crosstalk for the higher number of channels. For low cost mass production the problems of fibre handling, that are the same with any solution, remain to be solved.

Laude, Jean-Pierre

325

Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant

Ringel, Robert F.

326

Viewpoints for modeling choreographies in service-oriented architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Component integration plays a decisive role in service-oriented architectures (SOAs). The technical implementation must faithfully reflect business and enterprise integration requirements. This implies a good understanding of the globally observable message choreography but also of how messages are handled by the involved components and by the SOA middleware. In this paper we present a solution to the problem of keeping

Sebastian Wieczorek; Andreas Roth; Alin Stefanescu; Vitaly Kozyura; Anis Charfi; Frank Michael Kraft; Ina Schieferdecker

2009-01-01

327

An architecture for adaptive algorithmic hybrids.  

PubMed

We describe a cognitive architecture for creating more robust intelligent systems. Our approach is to enable hybrids of algorithms based on different computational formalisms to be executed. The architecture is motivated by some features of human cognitive architecture and the following beliefs: 1) Most existing computational methods often exhibit some of the characteristics desired of intelligent systems at the cost of other desired characteristics and 2) a system exhibiting robust intelligence can be designed by implementing hybrids of these computational methods. The main obstacle to this approach is that the various relevant computational methods are based on data structures and algorithms that are difficult to integrate into one system. We describe a new method of executing hybrids of algorithms using the focus of attention of multiple modules. The key to this approach is the following two principles: 1) Algorithms based on very different computational frameworks (e.g., logical reasoning, probabilistic inference, and case-based reasoning) can be implemented using the same set of five common functions and 2) each of these common functions can be executed using multiple data structures and algorithms. This approach has been embodied in the Polyscheme cognitive architecture. Systems based on Polyscheme in planning, spatial reasoning, robotics, and information retrieval illustrate that this approach to hybridizing algorithms enables qualitative and measurable quantitative advances in the abilities of intelligent systems. PMID:19914898

Cassimatis, Nicholas; Bignoli, Perrin; Bugajska, Magdalena; Dugas, Scott; Kurup, Unmesh; Murugesan, Arthi; Bello, Paul

2010-06-01

328

Standardizing the information architecture for spacecraft operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an information architecture developed for the Space Station Freedom as a model from which to derive an information architecture standard for advanced spacecraft. The information architecture provides a way of making information available across a program, and among programs, assuming that the information will be in a variety of local formats, structures and representations. It provides a format that can be expanded to define all of the physical and logical elements that make up a program, add definitions as required, and import definitions from prior programs to a new program. It allows a spacecraft and its control center to work in different representations and formats, with the potential for supporting existing spacecraft from new control centers. It supports a common view of data and control of all spacecraft, regardless of their own internal view of their data and control characteristics, and of their communications standards, protocols and formats. This information architecture is central to standardizing spacecraft operations, in that it provides a basis for information transfer and translation, such that diverse spacecraft can be monitored and controlled in a common way.

Easton, C. R.

1994-01-01

329

Mapping reusable software components onto the ARC parallel processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown how to map the components of a program onto the ARC (Architecture for Reusable Components) processor automatically in a way that exploits its features. Mapping consists of two phases. The first phase determines the maximum amount of parallelism attainable from a program in the model of parallel execution. This is done by mapping program components onto logical

Lonnie R. Welch; Bruce W. Weide

1990-01-01

330

Simplifying Component Development in an Integrated Groupware Environment  

E-print Network

Simplifying Component Development in an Integrated Groupware Environment Mark Roseman and Saul a component architecture for TeamWave Workplace, an integrated groupware environment using a rooms metaphor in developing this component model should be generally applicable to future integrated groupware systems

Greenberg, Saul

331

Architectural plasticity in a Mediterranean winter annual  

PubMed Central

Size variability in plants may be underlain by overlooked components of architectural plasticity. In annual plants, organ sizes are expected to depend on the availability and reliability of resources and developmental time. Given sufficient resources and developmental time, plants are expected to develop a greater number of large branches, which would maximize fitness in the long run. However, under restrictive growth conditions and environmental reliability, developing large branches might be risky and smaller branches are expected to foster higher final fitness. Growth and architecture of Trifolium purpureum (Papilionaceae) plants from both Mediterranean (MED) and semi-arid (SAR) origins were studied, when plants were subjected to variable water availability, photoperiod cues and germination timing. Although no clear architectural plasticity could be found in response to water availability, plants subjected to photoperiod cuing typical to late spring developed fewer basal branches. Furthermore, plants that germinated late were significantly smaller, with fewer basal branches, compared with plants which grew for the same time, starting at the beginning of the growing season. The results demonstrate an intricate interplay between size and architectural plasticities, whereby size modifications are readily induced by environmental factors related to prevalent resource availability but architectural plasticity is only elicited following the perception of reliable anticipatory cues. PMID:22499177

Shemesh, Hagai; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Acua, Tania; Novoplansky, Ariel

2012-01-01

332

Orbit Evolution in Common Envelopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study how the inclination angle and eccentricity evolve during a common envelope phase. During a common envelope phase, a compact star is swallowed by its giant companion and spirals into a tighter orbit. A close binary results if the compact star releases enough energy to expel the envelope. We investigate possible fossil evidence of the common envelope phase on the inclination angle and the eccentricity. A convective common envelope leads to force component perpendicular to the orbital plane, and thus change the orbital inclination. This makes it harder to uniquely identify the signature of neutron star natal kicks. A common envelope is usually assumed to circularize orbits, but some eccentricity in fact arises both from the spiral-in process itself, and from random forces in the orbital plane. When the envelope is expelled, it might seem that the binary system would preserve whatever eccentricity had been established at the final stage of the inspiral. But tidal dissipation by the residual envelope can reduce the eccentricity. The final eccentricity depends on which of these effects wins or how they balance each other. We discuss applications and observational tests of these predictions.

Luan, Jing; Phinney, E. S.

2011-09-01

333

Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

Singh, Rajvir; Pant, K. K.; Lal, Shankar; Yadav, D. P.; Garg, S. R.; Raghuvanshi, V. K.; Mundra, G.

2012-11-01

334

Hybrid architecture for building secure sensor networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensor networks have various communication and security architectural concerns. Three approaches are defined to address these concerns for sensor networks. The first area is the utilization of new computing architectures that leverage embedded virtualization software on the sensor. Deploying a small, embedded virtualization operating system on the sensor nodes that is designed to communicate to low-cost cloud computing infrastructure in the network is the foundation to delivering low-cost, secure sensor networks. The second area focuses on securing the sensor. Sensor security components include developing an identification scheme, and leveraging authentication algorithms and protocols that address security assurance within the physical, communication network, and application layers. This function will primarily be accomplished through encrypting the communication channel and integrating sensor network firewall and intrusion detection/prevention components to the sensor network architecture. Hence, sensor networks will be able to maintain high levels of security. The third area addresses the real-time and high priority nature of the data that sensor networks collect. This function requires that a quality-of-service (QoS) definition and algorithm be developed for delivering the right data at the right time. A hybrid architecture is proposed that combines software and hardware features to handle network traffic with diverse QoS requirements.

Owens, Ken R., Jr.; Watkins, Steve E.

2012-04-01

335

HYDRA : High-speed simulation architecture for precision spacecraft formation simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

e Hierarchical Distributed Reconfigurable Architecture- is a scalable simulation architecture that provides flexibility and ease-of-use which take advantage of modern computation and communication hardware. It also provides the ability to implement distributed - or workstation - based simulations and high-fidelity real-time simulation from a common core. Originally designed to serve as a research platform for examining fundamental challenges in formation flying simulation for future space missions, it is also finding use in other missions and applications, all of which can take advantage of the underlying Object-Oriented structure to easily produce distributed simulations. Hydra automates the process of connecting disparate simulation components (Hydra Clients) through a client server architecture that uses high-level descriptions of data associated with each client to find and forge desirable connections (Hydra Services) at run time. Services communicate through the use of Connectors, which abstract messaging to provide single-interface access to any desired communication protocol, such as from shared-memory message passing to TCP/IP to ACE and COBRA. Hydra shares many features with the HLA, although providing more flexibility in connectivity services and behavior overriding.

Martin, Bryan J.; Sohl, Garett.

2003-01-01

336

A Framework for Using Component Redundancy for self-Optimising and self-Healing Component Based Systems  

E-print Network

-the-shelf - COTS) components, according to a well-defined software architecture. Consequently, the dependability], as well as towards achieving dependability guarantees for COTS components ([6], [7]), support this idea deployment conditions can dynamically change at runtime. Using COTS components exacerbates the problem

337

The Information Architecture of Behavior Change Websites  

PubMed Central

The extraordinary growth in Internet use offers researchers important new opportunities to identify and test new ways to deliver effective behavior change programs. The information architecture (IA)the structure of website informationis an important but often overlooked factor to consider when adapting behavioral strategies developed in office-based settings for Web delivery. Using examples and relevant perspectives from multiple disciplines, we describe a continuum of website IA designs ranging from a matrix design to the tunnel design. The free-form matrix IA design allows users free rein to use multiple hyperlinks to explore available content according to their idiosyncratic interests. The more directive tunnel IA design (commonly used in e-learning courses) guides users step-by-step through a series of Web pages that are arranged in a particular order to improve the chances of achieving a goal that is measurable and consistent. Other IA designs are also discussed, including hierarchical IA and hybrid IA designs. In the hierarchical IA design, program content is arranged in a top-down manner, which helps the user find content of interest. The more complex hybrid IA design incorporates some combination of components that use matrix, tunnel, and/or hierarchical IA designs. Each of these IA designs is discussed in terms of usability, participant engagement, and program tailoring, as well as how they might best be matched with different behavior change goals (using Web-based smoking cessation interventions as examples). Our presentation underscores the role of considering and clearly reporting the use of IA designs when creating effective Web-based interventions. We also encourage the adoption of a multidisciplinary perspective as we move towards a more mature view of Internet intervention research. PMID:15914459

McKay, H Garth; Seeley, John R

2005-01-01

338

Application and management of commonality within NASA systems  

E-print Network

Commonality can be defined as the sharing of assets such as components, designs, processes, technologies, interfaces, and/or infrastructure across systems. Through commonality, NASA has the opportunity to develop, produce, ...

Rhodes, Richard Alexander

2010-01-01

339

The New Common School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Horace Mann's goal of creating a common school that brings our society's children together in mutual respect and common learning need not be frustrated by residential segregation and geographical separation of the haves and have-nots. Massachusetts' new common school vision boasts a Metro Program for minority students, 80 magnet schools, and

Glenn, Charles L.

1987-01-01

340

The Common Style of  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraordinary impact of Thomas Paine's Common Sense has often been attributed to its style to the simplicity and forcefulness with which Paine expressed ideas that many others before him had expressed. Comparative analysis of Common Sense and other pre-Revolutionary pamphlets suggests that Common Sense was indeed stylistically unique; no other pamphleteer came close to matching Paine's combination of

Lee Sigelman; Colin Martindale; Dean McKenzie

1996-01-01

341

Canonical Commonality Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonality analysis is a method of partitioning variance that has advantages over more traditional "OVA" methods. Commonality analysis indicates the amount of explanatory power that is "unique" to a given predictor variable and the amount of explanatory power that is "common" to or shared with at least one predictor variable. This paper outlines

Leister, K. Dawn

342

Updates to the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an update of the Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) open architecture for NASA space based radios. The STRS architecture has been defined as a framework for the design, development, operation and upgrade of space based software defined radios, where processing resources are constrained. The architecture has been updated based upon reviews by NASA missions, radio providers, and component vendors. The STRS Standard prescribes the architectural relationship between the software elements used in software execution and defines the Application Programmer Interface (API) between the operating environment and the waveform application. Modeling tools have been adopted to present the architecture. The paper will present a description of the updated API, configuration files, and constraints. Minimum compliance is discussed for early implementations. The paper then closes with a summary of the changes made and discussion of the relevant alignment with the Object Management Group (OMG) SWRadio specification, and enhancements to the specialized signal processing abstraction.

Kacpura, Thomas J.; Handler, Louis M.; Briones, Janette; Hall, Charles S.

2008-01-01

343

Bridge : an unraveled architecture  

E-print Network

The bridge is an inhabitable structure housing live/work artists studios, galleries and workshops. It is an urban/architectural/personal intervention that strives to explore issues of Iatent/potential narratives within a ...

ElHusseiny, Ahmed

2006-01-01

344

Robot Electronics Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electronics architecture has been developed to enable the rapid construction and testing of prototypes of robotic systems. This architecture is designed to be a research vehicle of great stability, reliability, and versatility. A system according to this architecture can easily be reconfigured (including expanded or contracted) to satisfy a variety of needs with respect to input, output, processing of data, sensing, actuation, and power. The architecture affords a variety of expandable input/output options that enable ready integration of instruments, actuators, sensors, and other devices as independent modular units. The separation of different electrical functions onto independent circuit boards facilitates the development of corresponding simple and modular software interfaces. As a result, both hardware and software can be made to expand or contract in modular fashion while expending a minimum of time and effort.

Garrett, Michael; Magnone, Lee; Aghazarian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric; Kennedy, Brett

2008-01-01

345

OBBL Architecture Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive applet gives students the opportunity to compose architectural structures using geometric and irregular elements. Learners must consider the effects of gravity and the methods of joining parts. Links to Help and Ideas sections are included.

2011-01-01

346

Sustainability in architecture  

E-print Network

Current standard practice in architecture does not take into account the external societal costs that a building creates. To understand the total consequences of a building, one must consider all of the ecological and human ...

Cordero, Elizabeth, 1959-

2001-01-01

347

Common effector processing mediates cell-specific responses to stimuli  

E-print Network

LETTERS Common effector processing mediates cell-specific responses to stimuli Kathryn Miller components of many signalling pathways are common to all cells1­3 . However, stimulating or perturbing share a common `effector-processing' mechanism. Partial-least-squares regression models based on common

348

Describing the genetic architecture of epilepsy through heritability analysis.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is a disease with substantial missing heritability; despite its high genetic component, genetic association studies have had limited success detecting common variants which influence susceptibility. In this paper, we reassess the role of common variants on epilepsy using extensions of heritability analysis. Our data set consists of 1258 UK patients with epilepsy, of which 958 have focal epilepsy, and 5129 population control subjects, with genotypes recorded for over 4 million common single nucleotide polymorphisms. Firstly, we show that on the liability scale, common variants collectively explain at least 26% (standard deviation 5%) of phenotypic variation for all epilepsy and 27% (standard deviation 5%) for focal epilepsy. Secondly we provide a new method for estimating the number of causal variants for complex traits; when applied to epilepsy, our most optimistic estimate suggests that at least 400 variants influence disease susceptibility, with potentially many thousands. Thirdly, we use bivariate analysis to assess how similar the genetic architecture of focal epilepsy is to that of non-focal epilepsy; we demonstrate both significant differences (P = 0.004) and significant similarities (P = 0.01) between the two subtypes, indicating that although the clinical definition of focal epilepsy does identify a genetically distinct epilepsy subtype, there is also scope to improve the classification of epilepsy by incorporating genotypic information. Lastly, we investigate the potential value in using genetic data to diagnose epilepsy following a single epileptic seizure; we find that a prediction model explaining 10% of phenotypic variation could have clinical utility for deciding which single-seizure individuals are likely to benefit from immediate anti-epileptic drug therapy. PMID:25063994

Speed, Doug; O'Brien, Terence J; Palotie, Aarno; Shkura, Kirill; Marson, Anthony G; Balding, David J; Johnson, Michael R

2014-10-01

349

Describing the genetic architecture of epilepsy through heritability analysis  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy is a disease with substantial missing heritability; despite its high genetic component, genetic association studies have had limited success detecting common variants which influence susceptibility. In this paper, we reassess the role of common variants on epilepsy using extensions of heritability analysis. Our data set consists of 1258 UK patients with epilepsy, of which 958 have focal epilepsy, and 5129 population control subjects, with genotypes recorded for over 4 million common single nucleotide polymorphisms. Firstly, we show that on the liability scale, common variants collectively explain at least 26% (standard deviation 5%) of phenotypic variation for all epilepsy and 27% (standard deviation 5%) for focal epilepsy. Secondly we provide a new method for estimating the number of causal variants for complex traits; when applied to epilepsy, our most optimistic estimate suggests that at least 400 variants influence disease susceptibility, with potentially many thousands. Thirdly, we use bivariate analysis to assess how similar the genetic architecture of focal epilepsy is to that of non-focal epilepsy; we demonstrate both significant differences (P = 0.004) and significant similarities (P = 0.01) between the two subtypes, indicating that although the clinical definition of focal epilepsy does identify a genetically distinct epilepsy subtype, there is also scope to improve the classification of epilepsy by incorporating genotypic information. Lastly, we investigate the potential value in using genetic data to diagnose epilepsy following a single epileptic seizure; we find that a prediction model explaining 10% of phenotypic variation could have clinical utility for deciding which single-seizure individuals are likely to benefit from immediate anti-epileptic drug therapy. PMID:25063994

OBrien, Terence J.; Palotie, Aarno; Shkura, Kirill; Marson, Anthony G.; Balding, David J.

2014-01-01

350

Feedback loops and temporal misalignment in component-based hydrologic modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In component-based modeling, a complex system is represented as a series of loosely integrated components with defined interfaces and data exchanges that allow the components to be coupled together through shared boundary conditions. Although the component-based paradigm is commonly used in software engineering, it has only recently been applied for modeling hydrologic and earth systems. As a result, research is needed to test and verify the applicability of the approach for modeling hydrologic systems. The objective of this work was therefore to investigate two aspects of using component-based software architecture for hydrologic modeling: (1) simulation of feedback loops between components that share a boundary condition and (2) data transfers between temporally misaligned model components. We investigated these topics using a simple case study where diffusion of mass is modeled across a water-sediment interface. We simulated the multimedia system using two model components, one for the water and one for the sediment, coupled using the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI) standard. The results were compared with a more conventional numerical approach for solving the system where the domain is represented by a single multidimensional array. Results showed that the component-based approach was able to produce the same results obtained with the more conventional numerical approach. When the two components were temporally misaligned, we explored the use of different interpolation schemes to minimize mass balance error within the coupled system. The outcome of this work provides evidence that component-based modeling can be used to simulate complicated feedback loops between systems and guidance as to how different interpolation schemes minimize mass balance error introduced when components are temporally misaligned.

Elag, Mostafa M.; Goodall, Jonathan L.; Castronova, Anthony M.

2011-12-01

351

Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture  

SciTech Connect

A Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture is described that allows a simulation to be automatically distributed over a heterogeneous network of computers and executed with very little human direction. A prototype Framework is presented that implements the elements of the Architecture and demonstrates the feasibility of the concepts. It provides a basis for a future, improved Framework that will support legacy models. Because the Framework is implemented in Java, it may be installed on almost any modern computer system.

Booker, C.P.

1999-05-14

352

How Common Is the Common Core?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,

Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

2014-01-01

353

A Common Framework for Syntactic Annotation Department of Computer Science  

E-print Network

A Common Framework for Syntactic Annotation Nancy Ide Department of Computer Science Vassar College phrase), syntactic role (subject, object), etc.; · Dependency information: relations among components

Ide, Nancy

354

Architecture Adaptive Computing Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Architecture Adaptive Computing Environment (aCe) is a software system that includes a language, compiler, and run-time library for parallel computing. aCe was developed to enable programmers to write programs, more easily than was previously possible, for a variety of parallel computing architectures. Heretofore, it has been perceived to be difficult to write parallel programs for parallel computers and more difficult to port the programs to different parallel computing architectures. In contrast, aCe is supportable on all high-performance computing architectures. Currently, it is supported on LINUX clusters. aCe uses parallel programming constructs that facilitate writing of parallel programs. Such constructs were used in single-instruction/multiple-data (SIMD) programming languages of the 1980s, including Parallel Pascal, Parallel Forth, C*, *LISP, and MasPar MPL. In aCe, these constructs are extended and implemented for both SIMD and multiple- instruction/multiple-data (MIMD) architectures. Two new constructs incorporated in aCe are those of (1) scalar and virtual variables and (2) pre-computed paths. The scalar-and-virtual-variables construct increases flexibility in optimizing memory utilization in various architectures. The pre-computed-paths construct enables the compiler to pre-compute part of a communication operation once, rather than computing it every time the communication operation is performed.

Dorband, John E.

2006-01-01

355

Design and implementation of an RSVP-based quality of service architecture for an integrated services Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is currently in the process of overhauling the architecture of the Internet to meet new challenges and support new applications. One of the most important components of that venture is the enhancement of the Internet service model from a classless best effort service architecture to an integrated services architecture supporting a multitude of classes

Tsipora P. Barzilai; Dilip D. Kandlur; Ashish Mehra; Debanjan Saha

1998-01-01

356

Remote monitoring and control of a flexible manufacturing system through a service oriented architecture Subtitle as needed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces a novel architecture used to remotely monitor and control a flexible manufacturing system. The architecture has been developed around the corner poles of a service oriented architecture and contains two main components: the OPC UA server and the web services. The OPC UA server has been developed through the use of a special adapter solution as migration

A. Girbea; C. Suciu; F. Sisak

2011-01-01

357

IDD Archival Hardware Architecture and Workflow  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the functionality of every component in the DHS/IDD archival and storage hardware system shown in Fig. 1. The document describes steps by step process of image data being received at LLNL then being processed and made available to authorized personnel and collaborators. Throughout this document references will be made to one of two figures, Fig. 1 describing the elements of the architecture and the Fig. 2 describing the workflow and how the project utilizes the available hardware.

Mendonsa, D; Nekoogar, F; Martz, H

2008-10-09

358

Development of a satellite structural architecture for operationally responsive space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Research Laboratory\\/Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL\\/RV) is developing a satellite structural architecture in support of the Department of Defense's Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) initiative. Such a structural architecture must enable rapid Assembly, Integration, and Test (AI&T) of the satellite, accommodate multiple configurations (to include structural configurations, components, and payloads), and incorporate structurally integrated thermal management and electronics, while

Brandon J. Arritt; Steven J. Buckley; Jeffrey M. Ganley; Jeffry S. Welsh; Benjamin K. Henderson; M. Eric Lyall; Andrew D. Williams; Jeffrey C. Preble; John DiPalma; Greg Mehle; R. Roopnarine

2008-01-01

359

Requirements for a need-to-know (NTK) architecture  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this document is to present requirements for a network architecture which can be used between sites within the DOE complex to transfer classified and sensitive unclassified information requiring need-to-know separation. The network will not be multilevel; all users will have a Q clearance. The architecture includes hardware and software of the network components and computer resources connected to the network, the computer security features implemented, and the operation procedures needed to implement the network.

Nuclear Information Working Group; Computer Security Working Group

1996-05-01

360

Simulation system architecture design for generic communications link  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses a computer simulation system architecture design for generic digital communications systems. It addresses the issues of an overall system architecture in order to achieve a user-friendly, efficient, and yet easily implementable simulation system. The system block diagram and its individual functional components are described in detail. Software implementation is discussed with the VAX/VMS operating system used as a target environment.

Tsang, Chit-Sang; Ratliff, Jim

1986-01-01

361

Protein Dynamics: Implications for Nuclear Architecture and Gene Expression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studies of nuclear architecture reveal that the dynamic properties of proteins in the nucleus are critical for their function. The high mobility of proteins ensures their availability throughout the nucleus; their dynamic interplay generates an ever-changing, but overall stable, architectural framework, within which nuclear processes take place. As a consequence, overall nuclear morphology is determined by the functional interactions of nuclear components. The observed dynamic properties of nuclear proteins are consistent with a central role for stochastic mechanisms in gene expression and nuclear architecture.

Tom Mistelli (National Cancer Institute; )

2001-02-02

362

Manufacturing of Lightweight Components by Metal Forming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to constantly increasing ecological concerns and demands for higher performance, lightweight construction is a key factor to success mainly in the transportation sector but also in general engineering, machine-tools, and architecture. This paper deals with current and future contributions of forming technology to the manufacture of lightweight components and structures. As design, materials, and manufacturing processes have to be

M. Kleiner; M. Geiger; A. Klaus

2003-01-01

363

Variable pleiotropic effects from mutations at the same locus hamper prediction of fitness from a fitness component.  

PubMed

The relationship of genotype, fitness components, and fitness can be complicated by genetic effects such as pleiotropy and epistasis and by heterogeneous environments. However, because it is often difficult to measure genotype and fitness directly, fitness components are commonly used to estimate fitness without regard to genetic architecture. The small bacteriophage X174 enables direct evaluation of genetic and environmental effects on fitness components and fitness. We used 15 mutants to study mutation effects on attachment rate and fitness in six hosts. The mutants differed from our lab strain of X174 by only one or two amino acids in the major capsid protein (gpF, sites 101 and 102). The sites are variable in natural and experimentally evolved X174 populations and affect phage attachment rate. Within the limits of detection of our assays, all mutations were neutral or deleterious relative to the wild type; 11 mutants had decreased host range. While fitness was predictable from attachment rate in most cases, 3 mutants had rapid attachment but low fitness on most hosts. Thus, some mutations had a pleiotropic effect on a fitness component other than attachment rate. In addition, on one host most mutants had high attachment rate but decreased fitness, suggesting that pleiotropic effects also depended on host. The data highlight that even in this simple, well-characterized system, prediction of fitness from a fitness component depends on genetic architecture and environment. PMID:16361237

Pepin, Kim M; Samuel, Melanie A; Wichman, Holly A

2006-04-01

364

Variable Pleiotropic Effects From Mutations at the Same Locus Hamper Prediction of Fitness From a Fitness Component  

PubMed Central

The relationship of genotype, fitness components, and fitness can be complicated by genetic effects such as pleiotropy and epistasis and by heterogeneous environments. However, because it is often difficult to measure genotype and fitness directly, fitness components are commonly used to estimate fitness without regard to genetic architecture. The small bacteriophage ?X174 enables direct evaluation of genetic and environmental effects on fitness components and fitness. We used 15 mutants to study mutation effects on attachment rate and fitness in six hosts. The mutants differed from our lab strain of ?X174 by only one or two amino acids in the major capsid protein (gpF, sites 101 and 102). The sites are variable in natural and experimentally evolved ?X174 populations and affect phage attachment rate. Within the limits of detection of our assays, all mutations were neutral or deleterious relative to the wild type; 11 mutants had decreased host range. While fitness was predictable from attachment rate in most cases, 3 mutants had rapid attachment but low fitness on most hosts. Thus, some mutations had a pleiotropic effect on a fitness component other than attachment rate. In addition, on one host most mutants had high attachment rate but decreased fitness, suggesting that pleiotropic effects also depended on host. The data highlight that even in this simple, well-characterized system, prediction of fitness from a fitness component depends on genetic architecture and environment. PMID:16361237

Pepin, Kim M.; Samuel, Melanie A.; Wichman, Holly A.

2006-01-01

365

The PASS project architectural model  

SciTech Connect

The PASS project has as its goal the implementation of solutions to the foreseen data access problems of the next generation of scientific experiments. The architectural model results from an evaluation of the operational and technical requirements and is described in terms of an abstract reference model, an implementation model and a discussion of some design aspects. The abstract reference model describes a system that matches the requirements in terms of its components and the mechanisms by which they communicate, but does not discuss policy or design issues that would be necessary to match the model to an actual implementation. Some of these issues are discussed, but more detailed design and simulation work will be necessary before choices can be made.

Day, C.T.; Loken, S.; Macfarlane, J.F.; Quarrie, D.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lifka, D.; Lusk, E.; Malon, D.; May, E.; Price, L.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Cormell, L. [and others

1994-12-31

366

Common sense treatment for common lipid disorders.  

PubMed

Dyslipidemia is a common, major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Screening for lipid disorders is simple, and available treatments decrease disease risk. However, secondary causes of dyslipidemia are probably underappreciated, and severe lipid elevations should be referred to a lipid specialist. Patients usually respond to lifestyle modifications and drug therapy guided by a stepwise approach supported by the results of clinical trials, but several misconceptions may interfere with treatment strategies. PMID:21568232

Johnson, Mariko; Semenkovich, Clay F

2011-01-01

367

Networks of Neuronal Genes Affected by Common and Rare Variants in Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Recent studies have reported rare and de novo mutations in ASD, but the allelic architecture of ASD remains unclear. To assess the role of common and rare variations in ASD, we constructed a gene co-expression network based on a widespread survey of gene expression in the human brain. We identified modules associated with specific cell types and processes. By integrating known rare mutations and the results of an ASD genome-wide association study (GWAS), we identified two neuronal modules that are perturbed by both rare and common variations. These modules contain highly connected genes that are involved in synaptic and neuronal plasticity and that are expressed in areas associated with learning and memory and sensory perception. The enrichment of common risk variants was replicated in two additional samples which include both simplex and multiplex families. An analysis of the combined contribution of common variants in the neuronal modules revealed a polygenic component to the risk of ASD. The results of this study point toward contribution of minor and major perturbations in the two sub-networks of neuronal genes to ASD risk. PMID:22412387

Ben-David, Eyal; Shifman, Sagiv

2012-01-01

368

Storage system architectures and their characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Not all users storage requirements call for 20 MBS data transfer rates, multi-tier file or data migration schemes, or even automated retrieval of data. The number of available storage solutions reflects the broad range of user requirements. It is foolish to think that any one solution can address the complete range of requirements. For users with simple off-line storage requirements, the cost and complexity of high end solutions would provide no advantage over a more simple solution. The correct answer is to match the requirements of a particular storage need to the various attributes of the available solutions. The goal of this paper is to introduce basic concepts of archiving and storage management in combination with the most common architectures and to provide some insight into how these concepts and architectures address various storage problems. The intent is to provide potential consumers of storage technology with a framework within which to begin the hunt for a solution which meets their particular needs. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive study or to address all possible solutions or new technologies, but is intended to be a more practical treatment of todays storage system alternatives. Since most commercial storage systems today are built on Open Systems concepts, the majority of these solutions are hosted on the UNIX operating system. For this reason, some of the architectural issues discussed focus around specific UNIX architectural concepts. However, most of the architectures are operating system independent and the conclusions are applicable to such architectures on any operating system.

Sarandrea, Bryan M.

1993-01-01

369

MAGMA: a multiagent architecture for metaheuristics.  

PubMed

In this work, we introduce a multiagent architecture called the MultiAGent Metaheuristic Architecture (MAGMA) conceived as a conceptual and practical framework for metaheuristic algorithms. Metaheuristics can be seen as the result of the interaction among different kinds of agents: The basic architecture contains three levels, each hosting one or more agents. Level-0 agents build solutions, level-1 agents improve solutions, and level-2 agents provide the high level strategy. In this framework, classical metaheuristic algorithms can be smoothly accommodated and extended. The basic three level architecture can be enhanced with the introduction of a fourth level of agents (level-3 agents) coordinating lower level agents. With this additional level, MAGMA can also describe, in a uniform way, cooperative search and, in general, any combination of metaheuristics. We describe the entire architecture, the structure of agents in each level in terms of tuples, and the structure of their coordination as a labeled transition system. We propose this perspective with the aim to achieve a better and clearer understanding of metaheuristics, obtain hybrid algorithms, suggest guidelines for a software engineering-oriented implementation and for didactic purposes. Some specializations of the general architecture will be provided in order to show that existing metaheuristics [e.g., greedy randomized adaptive procedure (GRASP), ant colony optimization (ACO), iterated local search (ILS), memetic algorithms (MAs)] can be easily described in our framework. We describe cooperative search and large neighborhood search (LNS) in the proposed framework exploiting level-3 agents. We show also that a simple hybrid algorithm, called guided restart ILS, can be easily conceived as a combination of existing components in our framework. PMID:15376840

Milano, Michela; Roli, Andrea

2004-04-01

370

A Reusable Component Architecture for Agent Construction Bryan C. Horling  

E-print Network

to painlessly transport source code from one project to E ort sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and Air Force Research Laboratory Air Force Materiel Command, USAF, under agreement representing the o cial policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of the Defense Advanced Research

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

371

Roystonea: A Cloud Computing System with Pluggable Component Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Cloud computing system provides infrastructure layer services to users by managing virtualized infrastructure resources. The infrastructure resources include CPU, hyper visor, storage, and networking. Each category of infrastructure resources is a subsystem in a cloud computing system. The cloud computing system coordinates infrastructure subsystems to provide services to users. Most current cloud computing systems lacks pluggability in their infrastructure

Chao-En Yen; Jyun-Shiung Yang; Pangfeng Liu; Jan-Jan Wu

2011-01-01

372

Common and distinct structural features of Salmonella injectisome and flagellar basal body  

PubMed Central

Bacterial pathogens use an injectisome to deliver virulence proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The bacterial flagellum and injectisome export their component proteins for self-assembly. These two systems show high structural similarities and are classified as the type III secretion system, but it remains elusive how similar they are in situ because the structures of these complexes isolated from cells and visualized by electron cryomicroscopy have shown only the export channel and housing for the export apparatus. Here we report in situ structures of Salmonella injectisome and flagellum by electron cryotomography. The injectisome lacks the flagellar basal body C-ring, but a wing-like disc and a globular density corresponding to the export gate platform and ATPase hexamer ring, respectively, are stably attached through thin connectors, revealing yet unidentified common architectures of the two systems. The ATPase ring is far from the disc, suggesting that both apparatuses are observed in an export-off state. PMID:24284544

Kawamoto, Akihiro; Morimoto, Yusuke V.; Miyata, Tomoko; Minamino, Tohru; Hughes, Kelly T.; Kato, Takayuki; Namba, Keiichi

2013-01-01

373

Memory, reasoning, and categorization: parallels and common mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, memory, reasoning, and categorization have been treated as separate components of human cognition. We challenge this distinction, arguing that there is broad scope for crossover between the methods and theories developed for each task. The links between memory and reasoning are illustrated in a review of two lines of research. The first takes theoretical ideas (two-process accounts) and methodological tools (signal detection analysis, receiver operating characteristic curves) from memory research and applies them to important issues in reasoning research: relations between induction and deduction, and the belief bias effect. The second line of research introduces a task in which subjects make either memory or reasoning judgments for the same set of stimuli. Other than broader generalization for reasoning than memory, the results were similar for the two tasks, across a variety of experimental stimuli and manipulations. It was possible to simultaneously explain performance on both tasks within a single cognitive architecture, based on exemplar-based comparisons of similarity. The final sections explore evidence for empirical and processing links between inductive reasoning and categorization and between categorization and recognition. An important implication is that progress in all three of these fields will be expedited by further investigation of the many commonalities between these tasks. PMID:24987380

Hayes, Brett K.; Heit, Evan; Rotello, Caren M.

2014-01-01

374

Hadl: HUMS Architectural Description Language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specification of architectures is an important prerequisite for evaluation of architectures. With the increase m the growth of health usage and monitoring systems (HUMS) in commercial and military domains, the need far the design and evaluation of HUMS architectures has also been on the increase. In this paper, we describe HADL, HUMS Architectural Description Language, that we have designed for this purpose. In particular, we describe the features of the language, illustrate them with examples, and show how we use it in designing domain-specific HUMS architectures. A companion paper contains details on our design methodology of HUMS architectures.

Mukkamala, R.; Adavi, V.; Agarwal, N.; Gullapalli, S.; Kumar, P.; Sundaram, P.

2004-01-01

375

Radiomarked Common Loon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A juvenile common loon wearing a satellite transmitter antenna follows an adult. USGSscientists and partners captured and radiomarked juvenile common loons on lakes scattered across Minnesota and Wisconsin during the last two weeks of August 2014 to track their movements and wintering ground...

376

Scientist Releases Common Loon  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

As part of a cooperative project, scientists with the USGS and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources tagged common loons in north central Wisconsin to study the distribution and migration movements, as well as foraging patterns and depth profiles of common loons equipped with archiv...

377

Psychology and common sense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines the nature of the relationship between psychology and common sense. It is postulated that common sense may be categorized in 3 ways: (a) as a set of shared fundamental assumptions, (b) as a set of maxims or shared beliefs, and (c) as a shared way of thinking. It is argued that psychology has and should have a different relationship

Garth J. Fletcher

1984-01-01

378

Prebreeding in Common Bean  

E-print Network

Prebreeding in Common Bean and Use of Genetic Diversity from Wild Germplasm JORGE A. ACOSTA to human welfare with five cultigens domesticated in pre-Columbian times: the common bean (P. vulgaris number of its species is found in Mesoamerica (Del- gado-Salinas, 1985; Freytag and Debouck, 2002). Among

Gepts, Paul

379

Restorative Commons: Creating Health  

E-print Network

#12; Cover Photo: New York City Housing Authority community garden, MarlboroRestorative Commons: Creating Health and Well-being through Urban Landscapes Edited by Lindsay;#12;Restorative Commons: Creating Health and Well-being through Urban Landscapes Edited by Lindsay Campbell

380

NSDL Math Common Core  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NSDL Math Common Core collection provides quick and easy access to high-quality math resources that have been related to one or more standard statements within the Math Common Core. These resources are selected from the larger NSDL collection and other trusted providers, and organized by grade level and domain area.

2010-08-10

381

Campus Common Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

Bakken, Gordon Morris

1976-01-01

382

Advanced ground station architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a new station architecture for NASA's Ground Network (GN). The architecture makes efficient use of emerging technologies to provide dramatic reductions in size, operational complexity, and operational and maintenance costs. The architecture, which is based on recent receiver work sponsored by the Office of Space Communications Advanced Systems Program, allows integration of both GN and Space Network (SN) modes of operation in the same electronics system. It is highly configurable through software and the use of charged coupled device (CCD) technology to provide a wide range of operating modes. Moreover, it affords modularity of features which are optional depending on the application. The resulting system incorporates advanced RF, digital, and remote control technology capable of introducing significant operational, performance, and cost benefits to a variety of NASA communications and tracking applications.

Zillig, David; Benjamin, Ted

1994-01-01

383

Society of Architectural Historians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Society of Architectural Historians (SAH) was founded at Harvard University in 1940 and "promotes the study, interpretation, and conservation of architecture, design, landscapes and urbanism worldwide for the benefit of all." The SAH's outreach programs include the "Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians," an annual conference, study tours, and more. On the homepage, visitors can peruse the SAH News, the Association's informative and creative blog, and the Publications and Research area, which contains some member-only sections. The general public, however, can still take advantage of a number of digital resources here. Resources include the SAH Archipedia Classic Buildings, and external archives, such as the Julia Morgan Collection, Building Canada, and the Drawings & Documents Archive at Ball State University. Finally, visitors may also wish to look over the Jobs and Careers area for information about new and exciting careers in the field.

2013-04-22

384

Superresolution microscopy using common-path phase-shifting interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution, we present a new approach aimed to achieve superresolution in digital holographic microscopy that overcomes the limitations imposed by the Abbe's diffraction limit. Based on time multiplexing and off-axis illumination, a common-path interferometric architecture allows the synthesis of an enlarged aperture that expands the cutoff frequency of the conventional imaging system. Complex object amplitude distribution is recovered

Vicente Mic; Zeev Zalevsky; Javier Garca

2008-01-01

385

A Key for the Identification of Eighteen Common Timbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dichotomous key for 18 woods in common domestic and architectural use in Britain is provided. It is based upon structures visible with the naked eye and a hand-lens. Descriptions of the necessary anatomy and terminology are given. Timbers include yew, pine, spruce, oak, sweet chestnut, elm, ash, teak, cherry, walnut, mahogany, box, beech,

Thomas, P. A.

1991-01-01

386

Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard. Release 1.02.1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains the NASA architecture standard for software defined radios used in space- and ground-based platforms to enable commonality among radio developments to enhance capability and services while reducing mission and programmatic risk. Transceivers (or transponders) with functionality primarily defined in software (e.g., firmware) have the ability to change their functional behavior through software alone. This radio architecture standard offers value by employing common waveform software interfaces, method of instantiation, operation, and testing among different compliant hardware and software products. These common interfaces within the architecture abstract application software from the underlying hardware to enable technology insertion independently at either the software or hardware layer.

Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Handler, Louis M.; Hall, C. Steve; Mortensen, Dale J.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Briones, Janette C.; Nappier, Jennifer M.; Downey, Joseph A.; Lux, James P.

2012-01-01

387

Schedule Verification and Synthesis for Embedded Real-Time Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the problems of schedule synthesis and timing verification for component-based architectures in embedded\\u000a systems. We consider a component to be a set of tasks with response times that lie within specified intervals. When a set\\u000a of components is deployed to implement a desired functionality, we want to guarantee that the components can achieve the timing

Purandar Bhaduri

388

Discovery Channel Telescope software component template and state design: principles and implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Discovery Channel Telescope is a 4.3m astronomical research telescope in northern Arizona constructed through a partnership between Discovery Communications and Lowell Observatory. The control software for the telescope and observatory systems consists of stand-alone, state-based components that respond to triggers (external signals or internal data changes). Component applications execute on Windows, real-time, and FPGA targets. The team has developed a template for a system component, the implementation of which has yielded large gains in productivity, robustness, and maintainability. These benefits follow from the dependence of the template on common, well-tested code, allowing a developer to focus on application-specific particulars unencumbered by details of infrastructure elements such as communication, and from the separation of concerns the architecture provides, ensuring that modifications are straightforward, separable, and consequently relatively safe. We describe a repeatable design process for developing a state machine design, and show how this translates directly into a concrete implementation utilizing several design patterns, illustrating this with examples from components of the functioning active optics system. We also present a refined top-level state machine design and rules for highly independent component interactions within and between hierarchies that we propose offer a general solution for large component-based control systems.

Lotz, Paul J.; Lacasse, Michael J.; Godwin, Ryan C.

2012-09-01

389

Mindshare: PC System Architecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mindshare is a company that specializes in technical training for a variety of computer technologies. Five short courses can be accessed from the Mindshare home page at no charge, after completing a quick registration. The online courses give an overview of the "PCI-X System Architecture, Rambus, USB 2.0, PCI Power Management, and Infiniband System Architecture." Each of these technologies is introduced with a virtual presentation, which shows video of the speaker and the slides used in the talk. The Web interface is very well designed and easy to use. The presentations range from 45 minutes to over two hours.

390

D Architectural Videomapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D architectural mapping is a video projection technique that can be done with a survey of a chosen building in order to realize a perfect correspondence between its shapes and the images in projection. As a performative kind of audiovisual artifact, the real event of the 3D mapping is a combination of a registered video animation file with a real architecture. This new kind of visual art is becoming very popular and its big audience success testifies new expressive chances in the field of urban design. My case study has been experienced in Pisa for the Luminara feast in 2012.

Catanese, R.

2013-07-01

391

Software Architecture Documentation in Practice: Documenting Architectural Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: iiiPreface to the Special Report vPreface to Software ArchitectureDocumentation in Practice vii1 Documenting Software Architectures 11.1 Rules for Sound Documentation 21.2 Views 61.3 Uses of Architecture Documentation 82 The Layered View 112.1

F. Bachmann; J. Carriere; P. Clements; D. Garlan; J. Ivers; R. Nord; R. Little

2000-01-01

392

ACOUSTICS IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS WAS--(1) TO COMPILE A CLASSIFIED BIBLIOGRAPHY, INCLUDING MOST OF THOSE PUBLICATIONS ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS, PUBLISHED IN ENGLISH, FRENCH, AND GERMAN WHICH CAN SUPPLY A USEFUL AND UP-TO-DATE SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR THOSE ENCOUNTERING ANY ARCHITECTURAL-ACOUSTIC DESIGN

DOELLE, LESLIE L.

393

12. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and Cartographic Branch, Alexandria, Va.) 'Non-Com-Officers Qrs.' Quartermaster Generals Office Standard Plan 82, sheet 2, April 1893. Lithograph on linen architectural drawing. DETAILS - Fort Myer, Non-Commissioned Officers Quarters, Washington Avenue between Johnson Lane & Custer Road, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

394

11. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and Cartographic Branch Alexandria, Va.) 'Non-Com-Officers Qrs.' Quartermaster General's Office Standard Plan 82, sheet 1. Lithograph on linen architectural drawing. April 1893 3 ELEVATIONS, 3 PLANS AND A PARTIAL SECTION - Fort Myer, Non-Commissioned Officers Quarters, Washington Avenue between Johnson Lane & Custer Road, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

395

A study of the selection of microcomputer architectures to automate planetary spacecraft power systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance and reliability models of alternate microcomputer architectures as a methodology for optimizing system design were examined. A methodology for selecting an optimum microcomputer architecture for autonomous operation of planetary spacecraft power systems was developed. Various microcomputer system architectures are analyzed to determine their application to spacecraft power systems. It is suggested that no standardization formula or common set of guidelines exists which provides an optimum configuration for a given set of specifications.

Nauda, A.

1982-01-01

396

Open Architecture Standard for NASA's Software-Defined Space Telecommunications Radio Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is developing an architecture standard for software-defined radios used in space- and ground-based platforms to enable commonality among radio developments to enhance capability and services while reducing mission and programmatic risk. Transceivers (or transponders) with functionality primarily defined in software (e.g., firmware) have the ability to change their functional behavior through software alone. This radio architecture standard offers value by employing common waveform software interfaces, method of instantiation, operation, and testing among different compliant hardware and software products. These common interfaces within the architecture abstract application software from the underlying hardware to enable technology insertion independently at either the software or hardware layer. This paper presents the initial Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture for NASA missions to provide the desired software abstraction and flexibility while minimizing the resources necessary to support the architecture.

Reinhart, Richard C.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Hall, Charles S.; Smith, Carl R.; Liebetreu, John

2008-01-01

397

Community architecture : myth and reality  

E-print Network

This thesis examines the origins and the claims of the community architecture movement. Community architecture, which has recently attracted considerable professional attention in the U.K., is a movement that argues for ...

Mongold, Neal J. (Neal Joseph)

1988-01-01

398

Technology advances and market forces: Their impact on high performance architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reasonable projections into future supercomputer architectures and technology require an analysis of the computer industry market environment, the current capabilities and trends within the component industry, and the research activities on computer architecture in the industrial and academic communities. Management, programmer, architect, and user must cooperate to increase the efficiency of supercomputer development efforts. Care must be taken to match the funding, compiler, architecture and application with greater attention to testability, maintainability, reliability, and usability than supercomputer development programs of the past.

Best, D. R.

1978-01-01

399

Performance evaluation of network processor architectures: combining simulation with analytical estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of most systems-on-a-chip (SoC) architectures rely on simulation as a means for performance estimation. Such designs usually start with a parameterizable template architecture, and the design space exploration is restricted to identifyi ng the suitable parameters for all the ar- chitectural components. However, in the case of heterogeneous SoC architectures such as network processors the design space exploration

Samarjit Chakraborty; Simon Knzli; Lothar Thiele; Andreas Herkersdorf; Patricia Sagmeister

2003-01-01

400

AQuA: An Adaptive Architecture that Provides Dependable Distributed Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building dependable distributed systems from commercial off-the-shelf components is of growing practical importance. For both cost and production reasons, there is interest in approaches and architectures that facilitate building such systems. The AQuA architecture is one such approach; its goal is to provide adaptive fault tolerance to CORBA applications by replicating objects. The AQuA architecture allows application programmers to request

Jennifer Ren; David E. Bakken; Tod Courtney; Michel Cukier; David A. Karr; Paul Rubel; Chetan Sabnis; William H. Sanders; Richard E. Schantz; Mouna Seri

2003-01-01

401

Architectural Strategy The Concept  

E-print Network

Room opposite. A window seat will allow students and visitors to wait with a view to the Quad. A timber67 Architectural Strategy 6.0 #12;68 The Concept 6.1 View of Porters Lodge The Porters Lodge a route MainEntrace porters Lodge Ruskin Room cloister cloister Seminar Rm Seminar Rm Seminar Rm Teaching

Flynn, E. Victor

402

Architectural Design Design Fundamentals  

E-print Network

563 Colonial/Post-Colonial History 568 Russian History 573 History of Arch 588 History of Building Arch 662 Thesis Arch 413 History Of Architecture Arch 314 Structures I Arch 589 Site Planning Arch 324 Elective Elective Elective Elective HISTORY/THEORY ELECTIVES 503 Special Topics History* 518 Renaissance

Papalambros, Panos

403

Emulating an MIMD architecture  

SciTech Connect

As part of a research effort in parallel processor architecture and programming, the ultracomputer group at New York University has performed extensive simulation of parallel programs. To speed up these simulations, a parallel processor emulator, using the microprogrammable Puma computer system previously designed and built at NYU, has been developed. 8 references.

Su Bogong; Grishman, R.

1982-01-01

404

The architecture of life.  

PubMed

The role of tensegrity in the architecture of organic structures is examined. Topics include a definition of tensegrity, principles of tensegrity applied to the skeleton and cytoskeleton, mechanics in biochemistry, self-assembly of organic structures, geodesic forms in cellular structure, and the universality of the geodesic form. PMID:11536845

Ingber, D E

1998-01-01

405

Ancient Egyptian Architecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Time to learn about Temples, Pyramids, and Obelisks in Ancient Egypt! Please use the links below to help you find the answers to the questions on your worksheets. Ancient Egypt (click on the pyramids and temples links) Architecture(use this link to answer questions in the Temples section) Obelisks pyramids ...

Mr. Myers

2011-10-06

406

The software radio architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

As communications technology continues its rapid transition from analog to digital, more functions of contemporary radio systems are implemented in software, leading toward the software radio. This article provides a tutorial review of software radio architectures and technology, highlighting benefits, pitfalls, and lessons learned. This includes a closer look at the canonical functional partitioning of channel coding into antenna, RF,

J. Mitola

1995-01-01

407

Specifying Distributed Software Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a real need for clear and sound design specifications of distributed systems at the architectural level. This is the level of the design which deals with the high-level organisation of computational elements and the interactions between those elements. The paper presents the Darwin notation for specifying this high-level organisation. Darwin is in essence a declarative binding language which

Jeff Magee; Naranker Dulay; Susan Eisenbach; Jeff Kramer

1995-01-01

408

The Stratus Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given of the architecture of the Stratus fault-tolerant computer systems, which were the first to use hardware alone to provide fault tolerance in the commercial marketplace. The power subsystem, system boards, and off-board I\\/O interface buses are examined in some detail. Recovery scenarios and the Stratus service approach are described

S. Webber; J. Beirne

1991-01-01

409

A virtual environment architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part of MITRE's charter as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC) is to objectively evaluate and compare current technologies, and to recommend courses of action for numerous government programs. As such, the authors have been involved in assessing workstation, graphics, and user interface technology. They are currently developing a virtual environment architecture (VEA), to be used as a

David A. Southard; John P. Lee; Richard B. Mitchell; Gorges G. Grinstein

1993-01-01

410

Climate and Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the beginning of time, man has been affected by climate and its influence over the earth. The first humans built shelters and lived in caves to protect themselves from the weather elements. However, the first documentation of architectural design with climate interests in mind dates back to fourth century B.C. in Greece. The philosopher Vitruvius is quoted as saying,

Lauren Turner

411

Geometric Systems in Architecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lessons that include deriving formulas for volume by building rectangular prisms, identifying geometric solids by constructing cubes, tetrahedrons, and octahedrons, and identifying geometric patterns found in ceiling and wall tiles. Additional lessons deal with geometric systems manifested in the crystal structure of minerals. Students are introduced to three-dimensional figures in nature, in the classroom, and in architecture.

Decaprio, Sheryl A.

2007-04-09

412

Geometric Shapes in Architecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit designed to improve students' understanding and appreciation of basic geometric shapes used in architecture. It describes various plane geometric figures and discusses in detail the properties of several of these figures. Perimeters and areas of polygons and circles are computed.

Fox, Lauretta J.

2007-02-22

413

Geostar's system architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geostar is currently constructing a radiodetermination satellite system to provide position fixes and vehicle surveillance services, and has proposed a digital land mobile satellite service to provide data, facsimile and digitized voice services to low cost mobile users. The different system architectures for these two systems, are reviewed.

Lepkowski, Ronald J.

1989-03-01

414

Geostar's system architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geostar is currently constructing a radiodetermination satellite system to provide position fixes and vehicle surveillance services, and has proposed a digital land mobile satellite service to provide data, facsimile and digitized voice services to low cost mobile users. The different system architectures for these two systems, are reviewed.

Lepkowski, Ronald J.

1989-01-01

415

AN ELECTRONIC MARKETPLACE ARCHITECTURE  

E-print Network

AN ELECTRONIC MARKETPLACE ARCHITECTURE Asuman Dogac, Ilker Durusoy, Sena Arpinar, Nesime Tatbul for a distributed marketplace whose scope can be the whole Web where resource discovery agents find out about resources that may want to join the marketplace and electronic commerce is realised through buying agents

Tatbul, Nesime

416

BIT PERMUTATION INSTRUCTIONS: ARCHITECTURE, IMPLEMENTATION,  

E-print Network

-set architecture features motivated by cryptographic algorithms, as well as of architectural features occurring for other reasons, e.g., multimedia, that may influence the design of cryptographic algorithms. We hopeBIT PERMUTATION INSTRUCTIONS: ARCHITECTURE, IMPLEMENTATION, AND CRYPTOGRAPHIC PROPERTIES Zhijie

Shi, Zhijie Jerry

417

Integrated cognitive architectures: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to present an account of the state of the art research in the fleld of integrated cognitive architectures by providing a review of six cognitive architectures, namely Soar, ACT-R, ICARUS, BDI, the subsumption architecture and CLARION. We conduct a detailed functional comparison by looking at a wide range of cognitive com- ponents, including perception, memory, goal representation,

Hui-Qing Chong; Ah-Hwee Tan; Gee-Wah Ng

2007-01-01

418

Describing Software Architecture with UML  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our experience using UML, the Unified Modeling Lan- guage, to describe the software architecture of a system. We found that it works well for communicating the static structure of the architecture: the elements of the architecture, their relations, and the variability of a structure. These static properties are much more readily described with it than the dynamic

Christine Hofmeister; Robert L. Nord; Dilip Soni

1999-01-01

419

Architectural Adventures in Your Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to architecture's complexity, it can be challenging to develop lessons for the students, and consequently, the teaching of architecture is frequently overlooked. Every community has an architectural history. For example, the community in which the author's students live has a variety of historic houses from when the community originated (the

Henn, Cynthia A.

2007-01-01

420

Common Foot Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... are an area of thickened skin caused by friction and pressure. Juvenile plantar dermatosis occurs in children ... occurs in response to excessive, repeated shear or friction forces, commonly due to constant rubbing of the ...

421

Common Carrier Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,

Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

422

Common NICU Equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... dashboard . Common NICU equipment The NICU contains many machines and other types of equipment used to care for sick babies with many different problems. These machines seem less intimidating when you understand how they ...

423

Ten Common NWP Misconceptions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module introduces forecasters to ten of the most commonly encountered or significant misconceptions about NWP models. This list of ten misconceptions includes issues surrounding data assimilation, model resolution, physical parameterizations, and post-processing of model forecast output.

Comet

2002-05-02

424

Metabolism - Common Metabolism Concepts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains how solar energy is the energy source for almost all living systems on earth. Photosynthesis, catabolic reactions, and anabolic reactions are briefly discussed. Lastly, common questions are answered about converting food to energy.

425

Design and Analysis of Architectures for Structural Health Monitoring Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the two-year project period, we have worked on several aspects of Health Usage and Monitoring Systems for structural health monitoring. In particular, we have made contributions in the following areas. 1. Reference HUMS architecture: We developed a high-level architecture for health monitoring and usage systems (HUMS). The proposed reference architecture is shown. It is compatible with the Generic Open Architecture (GOA) proposed as a standard for avionics systems. 2. HUMS kernel: One of the critical layers of HUMS reference architecture is the HUMS kernel. We developed a detailed design of a kernel to implement the high level architecture.3. Prototype implementation of HUMS kernel: We have implemented a preliminary version of the HUMS kernel on a Unix platform.We have implemented both a centralized system version and a distributed version. 4. SCRAMNet and HUMS: SCRAMNet (Shared Common Random Access Memory Network) is a system that is found to be suitable to implement HUMS. For this reason, we have conducted a simulation study to determine its stability in handling the input data rates in HUMS. 5. Architectural specification.

Mukkamala, Ravi; Sixto, S. L. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

426

Architectural Implications for Spatial Object Association Algorithms  

SciTech Connect

Spatial object association, also referred to as cross-match of spatial datasets, is the problem of identifying and comparing objects in two or more datasets based on their positions in a common spatial coordinate system. In this work, we evaluate two crossmatch algorithms that are used for astronomical sky surveys, on the following database system architecture configurations: (1) Netezza Performance Server R, a parallel database system with active disk style processing capabilities, (2) MySQL Cluster, a high-throughput network database system, and (3) a hybrid configuration consisting of a collection of independent database system instances with data replication support. Our evaluation provides insights about how architectural characteristics of these systems affect the performance of the spatial crossmatch algorithms. We conducted our study using real use-case scenarios borrowed from a large-scale astronomy application known as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST).

Kumar, V S; Kurc, T; Saltz, J; Abdulla, G; Kohn, S R; Matarazzo, C

2009-01-29

427

Architectural Implications for Spatial Object Association Algorithms*  

PubMed Central

Spatial object association, also referred to as crossmatch of spatial datasets, is the problem of identifying and comparing objects in two or more datasets based on their positions in a common spatial coordinate system. In this work, we evaluate two crossmatch algorithms that are used for astronomical sky surveys, on the following database system architecture configurations: (1) Netezza Performance Server, a parallel database system with active disk style processing capabilities, (2) MySQL Cluster, a high-throughput network database system, and (3) a hybrid configuration consisting of a collection of independent database system instances with data replication support. Our evaluation provides insights about how architectural characteristics of these systems affect the performance of the spatial crossmatch algorithms. We conducted our study using real use-case scenarios borrowed from a large-scale astronomy application known as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST).

Kumar, Vijay S.; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel; Abdulla, Ghaleb; Kohn, Scott R.; Matarazzo, Celeste

2013-01-01

428

Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus On Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed as a public online resource by the Getty Institute, the Art and Architecture Thesaurus is a structured vocabulary containing 125,000 terms and other information that may be used to describe art, architecture, decorative arts, material culture, and archival materials. Each record within the Thesaurus is returned as a concept, which in turn, is linked to various terms, related concepts, sources for the data, and notes. For example, if a user types in the term "gargoyle," all of this valuable information is returned, including a chart that notes the terms hierarchical position within the Thesaurus. An online help feature will assist first-time visitors get better acquainted with the system, and a FAQ section provides answers to a number of common queries. Finally, users can provide feedback to the editors via an online form. [KMG

429

State-determinate foraging decisions and web architecture in the spider Dictyna volucripes  

E-print Network

State-determinate foraging decisions and web architecture in the spider Dictyna volucripes (Araneae informa- tion about the environment. We examined the relationship of web architecture and foraging decisions in the tangle web-building spider Dictyna volucripes Key- serling, a common spider in North

Blackledge, Todd

430

A Web of Things Application Architecture -Integrating the Real-World into the Web  

E-print Network

for a Common Internet of Things Application Architecture Application development with smart things: Requires of Internet of Things applications and bring it closer to non-specialists?» 15.08.2011 4Dominique Guinard [Mot Development in the Internet of Things [flickr.com/photos/docman] #12;Web of Things Application Architecture 15

431

Commanding Constellations (Pipeline Architecture)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing ground command software for constellations of spacecraft is a challenging problem. Reliable command delivery requires a feedback loop; for a constellation there will likely be an independent feedback loop for each constellation member. Each command must be sent via the proper Ground Station, which may change from one contact to the next (and may be different for different members). Dynamic configuration of the ground command software is usually required (e.g. directives to configure each member's feedback loop and assign the appropriate Ground Station). For testing purposes, there must be a way to insert command data at any level in the protocol stack. The Pipeline architecture described in this paper can support all these capabilities with a sequence of software modules (the pipeline), and a single self-identifying message format (for all types of command data and configuration directives). The Pipeline architecture is quite simple, yet it can solve some complex problems. The resulting solutions are conceptually simple, and therefore, reliable. They are also modular, and therefore, easy to distribute and extend. We first used the Pipeline architecture to design a CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) Ground Telecommand system (to command one spacecraft at a time with a fixed Ground Station interface). This pipeline was later extended to include gateways to any of several Ground Stations. The resulting pipeline was then extended to handle a small constellation of spacecraft. The use of the Pipeline architecture allowed us to easily handle the increasing complexity. This paper will describe the Pipeline architecture, show how it was used to solve each of the above commanding situations, and how it can easily be extended to handle larger constellations.

Ray, Tim; Condron, Jeff

2003-01-01

432

Architecture and Metamorphosis  

PubMed Central

When compared to other conserved housekeeping protein families, such as ribosomal proteins, during the evolution of higher eukaryotes, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) show an apparent high propensity to add new sequences, and especially, new domains. The stepwise emergence of those new domains is consistent with their involvement in a broad range of biological functions beyond protein synthesis, and correlates with the increasing biological complexity of higher organisms. The new domains have been extensively characterized based on their evolutionary origins and their sequence, structural and functional features. While some of the domains are uniquely found in aaRSs and may have originated from nucleic acid binding motifs, others are common domain modules mediating protein-protein interactions that play a critical role in the assembly of the multi-synthetase complex (MSC). Interestingly, the MSC has emerged from a miniature complex in yeast, to a large, stable complex in insects to humans. The human MSC consists of 9 aaRSs (LysRS, ArgRS, GlnRS, AspRS, MetRS, IleRS, LeuRS and GluProRS) and 3 scaffold proteins (AIMP1/p43, AIMP2/p38 and AIMP3/p18), and has a molecular weight of 1.5 million Da. The MSC has been proposed to have a functional dualism: both facilitating protein synthesis and serving as a reservoir of non-canonical functions associated with its synthetase and non-synthetase components. Importantly, domain additions and functional expansions are not limited to the components of the MSC and are found in almost all aaRS proteins. From a structural perspective, multi-functionalities are represented by multiple conformational states. In fact, alternative conformations of aaRSs have been generated by various mechanisms from proteolysis to alternative splicing and posttranslational modifications, as well as by disease-causing mutations. Therefore, the metamorphosis between different conformational states is connected to the activation and regulation of the novel functions of aaRSs in higher eukaryotes. PMID:23536245

2013-01-01

433

A Ground Systems Architecture Transition for a Distributed Operations System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Ground Systems Department (GSD) recently undertook an architecture change in the product line that serves the ISS program. As a result, the architecture tradeoffs between data system product lines that serve remote users versus those that serve control center flight control teams were explored extensively. This paper describes the resulting architecture that will be used in the International Space Station (ISS) payloads program, and the resulting functional breakdown of the products that support this architecture. It also describes the lessons learned from the path that was followed, as a migration of products cause the need to reevaluate the allocation of functions across the architecture. The result is a set of innovative ground system solutions that is scalable so it can support facilities of wide-ranging sizes, from a small site up to large control centers. Effective use of system automation, custom components, design optimization for data management, data storage, data transmissions, and advanced local and wide area networking architectures, plus the effective use of Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) products, provides flexible Remote Ground System options that can be tailored to the needs of each user. This paper offers a description of the efficiency and effectiveness of the Ground Systems architectural options that have been implemented, and includes successful implementation examples and lessons learned.

Sellers, Donna; Pitts, Lee; Bryant, Barry

2003-01-01

434

Building sustainable ecosystem-oriented architectures  

E-print Network

Currently, organizations are transforming their business processes into e-services and service-oriented architectures to improve coordination across sales, marketing, and partner channels, to build flexible and scalable systems, and to reduce integration-related maintenance and development costs. However, this new paradigm is still fragile and lacks many features crucial for building sustainable and progressive computing infrastructures able to rapidly respond and adapt to the always-changing market and environmental business. This paper proposes a novel framework for building sustainable Ecosystem- Oriented Architectures (EOA) using e-service models. The backbone of this framework is an ecosystem layer comprising several computing units whose aim is to deliver universal interoperability, transparent communication, automated management, self-integration, self-adaptation, and security to all the interconnected services, components, and devices in the ecosystem. Overall, the proposed model seeks to deliver a co...

Bassil, Youssef

2012-01-01

435

Savannah River Site information technology architecture  

SciTech Connect

This document enumerates the principles, scenarios, and strategies which capt the essence of architectural design decisions which have been made for the computing infrastructure. Its objective is to guide the designers of infrastructure components to reduce the number of design decisions which must be made, to document and justify decisions which have already been made, and to promote consistent, interoperable, cost-effective implementations. Designers and implementers should consult the Design Architecture throughout the life of a project to ensure compliance and to guarantee that conceptual integrity is maintained. Changing needs of the site, as well as emerging technologies, will cause future implementation changes. This document attempts to provide guidance for an approximately three-year window to the future, and will be updated periodically. In some areas, such as multimedia computing, implementation issues are still be identified. These areas will be further addressed in updated versions of this document.

Not Available

1993-02-01

436

A resource management architecture for metacomputing systems.  

SciTech Connect

Metacomputing systems are intended to support remote and/or concurrent use of geographically distributed computational resources. Resource management in such systems is complicated by five concerns that do not typically arise in other situations: site autonomy and heterogeneous substrates at the resources, and application requirements for policy extensibility, co-allocation, and online control. We describe a resource management architecture that addresses these concerns. This architecture distributes the resource management problem among distinct local manager, resource broker, and resource co-allocator components and defines an extensible resource specification language to exchange information about requirements. We describe how these techniques have been implemented in the context of the Globus metacomputing toolkit and used to implement a variety of different resource management strategies. We report on our experiences applying our techniques in a large testbed, GUSTO, incorporating 15 sites, 330 computers, and 3600 processors.

Czajkowski, K.; Foster, I.; Karonis, N.; Kesselman, C.; Martin, S.; Smith, W.; Tuecke, S.

1999-08-24

437

A Software Architecture for High Level Applications  

SciTech Connect

A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.

Shen,G.

2009-05-04

438

Formalism Challenges of the Cougaar Model Driven Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cognitive Agent Architecture (Cougaar) is one of the most sophisticated distributed agent architectures developed today. As part of its research and evolution, Cougaar is being studied for application to large, logistics-based applications for the Department of Defense (DoD). Anticipiting future complex applications of Cougaar, we are investigating the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach to understand how effective it would be for increasing productivity in Cougar-based development efforts. Recognizing the sophistication of the Cougaar development environment and the limitations of transformation technologies for agents, we have systematically developed an approach that combines component assembly in the large and transformation in the small. This paper describes some of the key elements that went into the Cougaar Model Driven Architecture approach and the characteristics that drove the approach.

Bohner, Shawn A.; George, Boby; Gracanin, Denis; Hinchey, Michael G.

2004-01-01

439

Parallel architecture for real-time simulation. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis is concerned with the development of a very fast and highly efficient parallel computer architecture for real-time simulation of continuous systems. Currently, several parallel processing systems exist that may be capable of executing a complex simulation in real-time. These systems are examined and the pros and cons of each system discussed. The thesis then introduced a custom-designed parallel architecture based upon The University of Alabama's OPERA architecture. Each component of this system is discussed and rationale presented for its selection. The problem selected, real-time simulation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine for the test and evaluation of the proposed architecture, is explored, identifying the areas where parallelism can be exploited and parallel processing applied. Results from the test and evaluation phase are presented and compared with the results of the same problem that has been processed on a uniprocessor system.

Cockrell, C.D.

1989-01-01

440

COMMONING AND COMMON INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND ECOLOGICAL  

E-print Network

1 COMMONING AND COMMON INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY Claudio and social equity are among the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals - but, unfortunately proposes Commoning and Common Information Systems as a possible tentative to facilitate the inclusion

Boyer, Edmond

441

Rosacea: A Common, Yet Commonly Overlooked, Condition  

E-print Network

Rosacea is a common, but often overlooked, skin condition of uncertain etiology that can lead to significant facial disfigurement, ocular complications, and severe emotional distress. The progression of rosacea is variable; however, typical stages include: (1) facial flushing, (2) erythema and/or edema and ocular symptoms, (3) papules and pustules, and (4) rhinophyma. A history of exacerbation by sun exposure, stress, cold weather, hot beverages, alcohol consumption, or certain foods helps determine the diagnosis; the first line of treatment is avoidance of these triggering or exacerbating factors. Most patients respond well to long-term topical antibiotic treatment. Oral or topical retinoid therapy may also be effective. Laser treatment is an option for progressive telangiectasis or rhinophyma. Family physicians should be able to identify and effectively treat the majority of patients with rosacea. Consultation with subspecialists may be required for the management of rhinophyma, ocular complications, or severe disease. (Am Fam Physician 2002;66:435-40,442. Copyright 2002 American Academy of Family Physicians.) O A patient information handout on

B. Wayne Blount; Allen L. Pelletier

442

Graphene-enabled hybrid architectures for multiprocessors: bridging nanophotonics and nanoscale wireless communication  

E-print Network

Graphene-enabled hybrid architectures for multiprocessors: bridging nanophotonics and nanoscale propose a hybrid optical/wireless architecture for massively multicore processors, in which graphene components. In this paper, we do a first overview of the state-of-the-art in graphene and silicon

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

443

Graphene-enabled hybrid architectures for multiprocessors: bridging nanophotonics and nanoscale  

E-print Network

Graphene-enabled hybrid architectures for multiprocessors: bridging nanophotonics and nanoscale propose a hybrid optical/wireless architecture for massively multicore processors, in which graphene components. In this paper, we do a first overview of the state-of-the-art in graphene and silicon

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

444

metro: A Router Architecture for High-Performance, Short-Haul Routing Networks  

E-print Network

metro: A Router Architecture for High-Performance, Short-Haul Routing Networks Andre DeHon Transit Router Organi- zation (metro) is a exible routing architecture for high-performance, tightly-coupled, multiprocessors and routing hubs. A metro router is a dilated cross- bar routing component supporting half

Chong, Frederic T.

445

Management of Product Architecture Modularity for Mass Customization: Modeling and Theoretical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the management of product architecture modularity for mass customization. Product architecture modularity is concerned with system decomposition, the selection of components and how they are linked with each other without compromising system integrity. The goal of mass customization is to produce customized goods at low cost. It has enabled many companies to penetrate new markets and capture

Juliana H. Mikkola

2007-01-01

446

Structural Studies of Ciliary Components  

PubMed Central

Cilia are organelles found on most eukaryotic cells, where they serve important functions in motility, sensory reception, and signaling. Recent advances in electron tomography have facilitated a number of ultrastructural studies of ciliary components that have significantly improved our knowledge of cilium architecture. These studies have produced nanometer?resolution structures of axonemal dynein complexes, microtubule doublets and triplets, basal bodies, radial spokes, and nexin complexes. In addition to these electron tomography studies, several recently published crystal structures provide insights into the architecture and mechanism of dynein as well as the centriolar protein SAS-6, important for establishing the 9-fold symmetry of centrioles. Ciliary assembly requires intraflagellar transport (IFT), a process that moves macromolecules between the tip of the cilium and the cell body. IFT relies on a large 20-subunit protein complex that is thought to mediate the contacts between ciliary motor and cargo proteins. Structural investigations of IFT complexes are starting to emerge, including the first three?dimensional models of IFT material in situ, revealing how IFT particles organize into larger train-like arrays, and the high-resolution structure of the IFT25/27 subcomplex. In this review, we cover recent advances in the structural and mechanistic understanding of ciliary components and IFT complexes. PMID:22683354

Mizuno, Naoko; Taschner, Michael; Engel, Benjamin D.; Lorentzen, Esben

2012-01-01

447

An open architecture for medical image workstation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dealing with the difficulties of integrating various medical image viewing and processing technologies with a variety of clinical and departmental information systems and, in the meantime, overcoming the performance constraints in transferring and processing large-scale and ever-increasing image data in healthcare enterprise, we design and implement a flexible, usable and high-performance architecture for medical image workstations. This architecture is not developed for radiology only, but for any workstations in any application environments that may need medical image retrieving, viewing, and post-processing. This architecture contains an infrastructure named Memory PACS and different kinds of image applications built on it. The Memory PACS is in charge of image data caching, pre-fetching and management. It provides image applications with a high speed image data access and a very reliable DICOM network I/O. In dealing with the image applications, we use dynamic component technology to separate the performance-constrained modules from the flexibility-constrained modules so that different image viewing or processing technologies can be developed and maintained independently. We also develop a weakly coupled collaboration service, through which these image applications can communicate with each other or with third party applications. We applied this architecture in developing our product line and it works well. In our clinical sites, this architecture is applied not only in Radiology Department, but also in Ultrasonic, Surgery, Clinics, and Consultation Center. Giving that each concerned department has its particular requirements and business routines along with the facts that they all have different image processing technologies and image display devices, our workstations are still able to maintain high performance and high usability.

Liang, Liang; Hu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiangyun

2005-04-01

448

Robust Software Architecture for Robots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robust Real-Time Reconfigurable Robotics Software Architecture (R4SA) is the name of both a software architecture and software that embodies the architecture. The architecture was conceived in the spirit of current practice in designing modular, hard, realtime aerospace systems. The architecture facilitates the integration of new sensory, motor, and control software modules into the software of a given robotic system. R4SA was developed for initial application aboard exploratory mobile robots on Mars, but is adaptable to terrestrial robotic systems, real-time embedded computing systems in general, and robotic toys.

Aghazanian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric; Garrett, Michael

2009-01-01

449

Two Complementary Personal Medication Management Applications Developed on a Common Platform: Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse drug events are a major safety issue in ambulatory care. Improving medication self-management could reduce these adverse events. Researchers have developed medication applications for tethered personal health records (PHRs), but little has been reported about medication applications for interoperable PHRs. Objective Our objective was to develop two complementary personal health applications on a common PHR platform: one to assist children with complex health needs (MyMediHealth), and one to assist older adults in care transitions (Colorado Care Tablet). Methods The applications were developed using a user-centered design approach. The two applications shared a common PHR platform based on a service-oriented architecture. MyMediHealth employed Web and mobile phone user interfaces. Colorado Care Tablet employed a Web interface customized for a tablet PC. Results We created complementary medication management applications tailored to the needs of distinctly different user groups using common components. Challenges were addressed in multiple areas, including how to encode medication identities, how to incorporate knowledge bases for medication images and consumer health information, how to include supplementary dosing information, how to simplify user interfaces for older adults, and how to support mobile devices for children. Conclusions These prototypes demonstrate the utility of abstracting PHR data and services (the PHR platform) from applications that can be tailored to meet the needs of diverse patients. Based on the challenges we faced, we provide recommendations on the structure of publicly available knowledge resources and the use of mobile messaging systems for PHR applications. PMID:21749966

Johnson, Kevin B; Siek, Katie A; Gordon, Jeffry S; Khan, Danish U; Haverhals, Leah M

2011-01-01

450

Resource-Conscious Optimization of Cryptographic Algorithms on an Embedded Architecture  

E-print Network

Resource-Conscious Optimization of Cryptographic Algorithms on an Embedded Architecture Wassim {wbassale,kaeli}@ece.neu.edu Abstract Cryptographic algorithms are widely used in embedded systems commonly used cryptographic algorithms. We analyze their performance on an embedded system targeting

Kaeli, David R.

451

caCORE version 3: Implementation of a model driven, service-oriented architecture for semantic interoperability  

PubMed Central

One of the requirements for a federated information system is interoperability, the ability of one computer system to access and use the resources of another system. This feature is particularly important in biomedical research systems, which need to coordinate a variety of disparate types of data. In order to meet this need, the National Cancer Institute Center for Bioinformatics (NCICB) has created the cancer Common Ontologic Representation Environment (caCORE), an interoperability infrastructure based on Model Driven Architecture. The caCORE infrastructure provides a mechanism to create interoperable biomedical information systems. Systems built using the caCORE paradigm address both aspects of interoperability: the ability to access data (syntactic interoperability) and understand the data once retrieved (semantic interoperability). This infrastructure consists of an integrated set of three major components: a controlled terminology service (Enterprise Vocabulary Services), a standards-based metadata repository (the cancer Data Standards Repository) and an information system with an Application Programming Interface (API) based on Domain Model Driven Architecture. This infrastructure is being leveraged to create a Semantic Service Oriented Architecture (SSOA) for cancer research by the National Cancer Institutes cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG). PMID:17512259

Komatsoulis, George A.; Warzel, Denise B.; Hartel, Frank W.; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Chilukuri, Ram; Fragoso, Gilberto; de Coronado, Sherri; Reeves, Dianne M.; Hadfield, Jillaine B.; Ludet, Christophe; Covitz, Peter A.

2008-01-01

452

caCORE version 3: Implementation of a model driven, service-oriented architecture for semantic interoperability.  

PubMed

One of the requirements for a federated information system is interoperability, the ability of one computer system to access and use the resources of another system. This feature is particularly important in biomedical research systems, which need to coordinate a variety of disparate types of data. In order to meet this need, the National Cancer Institute Center for Bioinformatics (NCICB) has created the cancer Common Ontologic Representation Environment (caCORE), an interoperability infrastructure based on Model Driven Architecture. The caCORE infrastructure provides a mechanism to create interoperable biomedical information systems. Systems built using the caCORE paradigm address both aspects of interoperability: the ability to access data (syntactic interoperability) and understand the data once retrieved (semantic interoperability). This infrastructure consists of an integrated set of three major components: a controlled terminology service (Enterprise Vocabulary Services), a standards-based metadata repository (the cancer Data Standards Repository) and an information system with an Application Programming Interface (API) based on Domain Model Driven Architecture. This infrastructure is being leveraged to create a Semantic Service-Oriented Architecture (SSOA) for cancer research by the National Cancer Institute's cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG). PMID:17512259

Komatsoulis, George A; Warzel, Denise B; Hartel, Francis W; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Chilukuri, Ram; Fragoso, Gilberto; Coronado, Sherri de; Reeves, Dianne M; Hadfield, Jillaine B; Ludet, Christophe; Covitz, Peter A

2008-02-01

453

The Cognitive Map architecture for facilitating human-robot interaction in humanoid robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cognitive Map robot architecture is used to build multi-agent systems where components can communicate with each other using a publish-subscribe mechanism of message passing. Messages can be sent as discrete events or via continuous data streams. Our approach of isolating the component interface within a single API layer allows easy conversion of legacy code into components within our system.

Victor Ng-Thow-Hing; Kristinn R. Thorisson; Ravi Kiran; Joel Wormer; Thor List

454

Structural Definition and Mass Estimation of Lunar Surface Habitats for the Lunar Architecture Team Phase 2 (LAT-2) Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Architecture Team Phase 2 study defined and assessed architecture options for a Lunar Outpost at the Moon's South Pole. The Habitation Focus Element Team was responsible for developing concepts for all of the Habitats and pressurized logistics modules particular to each of the architectures, and defined the shapes, volumes and internal layouts considering human factors, surface operations and safety requirements, as well as Lander mass and volume constraints. The Structures Subsystem Team developed structural concepts, sizing estimates and mass estimates for the primary Habitat structure. In these studies, the primary structure was decomposed into a more detailed list of components to be sized to gain greater insight into concept mass contributors. Structural mass estimates were developed that captured the effect of major design parameters such as internal pressure load. Analytical and empirical equations were developed for each structural component identified. Over 20 different hard-shell, hybrid expandable and inflatable soft-shell Habitat and pressurized logistics module concepts were sized and compared to assess structural performance and efficiency during the study. Habitats were developed in three categories; Mini Habs that are removed from the Lander and placed on the Lunar surface, Monolithic habitats that remain on the Lander, and Habitats that are part of the Mobile Lander system. Each category of Habitat resulted in structural concepts with advantages and disadvantages. The same modular shell components could be used for the Mini Hab concept, maximizing commonality and minimizing development costs. Larger Habitats had higher volumetric mass efficiency and floor area than smaller Habitats (whose mass was dominated by fixed items such as domes and frames). Hybrid and pure expandable Habitat structures were very mass-efficient, but the structures technology is less mature, and the ability to efficiently package and deploy internal subsystems remains an open issue.

Dorsey, John T.; Wu, K, Chauncey; Smith, Russell W.

2008-01-01

455

Common Cause Failure Modes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

2011-01-01

456

The Federal Commons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1999, the Federal Financial Assistance Management Improvement Act was passed in order to force the development of federal electronic grant processing. A result of the legislation, the Federal Commons portal gives "grantees (state and local governments, universities, small businesses, etc.) full service grants processing across all functions in the grant life cycle." While providing only an entrance to various grant institutions and services, the Federal Commons helps to eliminate the maze-like trail that multi-grant projects sometimes must travel to get to grant proposal Web sites. Most physical sciences researchers will find relevant federal departments listed under the Science and Technology link.

457

Open Sensor Web Architecture: Core Services Xingchen Chu1  

E-print Network

Open Sensor Web Architecture: Core Services Xingchen Chu1 , Tom Kobialka2 , Bohdan Durnota1 The University of Melbourne, Australia http://gridbus.csse.unimelb.edu.au/sensorweb/ Abstract As sensor network heterogeneous sensor resources. Common data operations and transformations exist in deployment scenarios and can

Buyya, Rajkumar

458

Open Sensor Web Architecture: Stateful Web Tom Kobialka 1  

E-print Network

Open Sensor Web Architecture: Stateful Web Services Tom Kobialka 1 , Rajkumar Buyya 2 , Christopher As sensor networks become more pervasive there emerges a need for interfacing applications to perform common operations and transformations on sensor data. Web Services provide an interoperable and platform independent

Melbourne, University of

459

Sensor Web Architecture: Core Services #Xingchen Chu1  

E-print Network

Sensor Web Architecture: Core Services #Xingchen Chu1 , Tom Kobialka2 , Rajkumar Buyya1 GRIDS Lab1 The University of Melbourne, Australia {xchu,tkob,raj}@csse.unimelb.edu.au Abstract As sensor network deployments heterogeneous sensor resources. Common data operations and transformations exist in deployment scenarios which

Buyya, Rajkumar

460

Architectures of Multivalent Glycomimetics for Probing Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well-defined multivalent glycoconjugates are valued tools in glycoscience and they are particularly valuable for the investigation of carbohydrate-lectin interactions. In addition to the relatively globularly shaped glycodendrimers many other designs have been realized. This chapter gives an overview on the common different architectures and their chemical synthesis by focussing on the achievements made since 2001.

Lahmann, Martina

461

Modelling the Design Process in Engineering and in Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of the design process in engineering seem to have converged upon a consensus represented, for example, by the German VDI model. However, after starting from common origins, models of the design process in architecture have diverged from the engineering consensus, in response to criticisms from both theorists and practitioners. There now appear to be significant differences between the engineering

NIGEL CROSS; NORBERT ROOZENBURG

1992-01-01

462

Architecture.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The official homepage of the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA), this site offers a number of architecture-related resources. The heart of the site is an indexed collection of over 1000 annotated links to architecture resources from around the world, though it currently focuses mainly on Britain. The links may be searched by keyword or browsed by category and subject. A "raw" list of another 1000 sites compiled by the RIBA staff and organized by topic (some annotated) is also provided. From the site visitors can also access the RIBA Library online catalog, which is searchable by keyword, author, title, subject, and series. Detailed information on the library and its holdings is also available. Other features at the site include a registry of architects in the UK, career and job information (UK-based), information on events and competitions, site of the day, and a bookshop.

463

Instrumented Architectural Simulation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulation of systems at an architectural level can offer an effective way to study critical design choices if (1) the performance of the simulator is adequate to examine designs executing significant code bodies, not just toy problems or small application fragements, (2) the details of the simulation include the critical details of the design, (3) the view of the design presented by the simulator instrumentation leads to useful insights on the problems with the design, and (4) there is enough flexibility in the simulation system so that the asking of unplanned questions is not suppressed by the weight of the mechanics involved in making changes either in the design or its measurement. A simulation system with these goals is described together with the approach to its implementation. Its application to the study of a particular class of multiprocessor hardware system architectures is illustrated.

Delagi, B. A.; Saraiya, N.; Nishimura, S.; Byrd, G.

1987-01-01

464

Generic robot architecture  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

Bruemmer, David J. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2010-09-21

465

World Architecture Community  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The World Architecture Community website is the genuine article, and even a cursory look reveals that people are posting items to this site from Bangalore to Buffalo. New users can go to the left-hand side of the site to register, and then they can look through the various architectural directories, which include architects, buildings, critics, and theorists. In the buildings area, the buildings available for consideration are divided into more detailed thematic categories, including "Work Places", "Public Buildings", and "Public Infrastructure". Moving on, the site also includes an excellent section dedicated to "Theory and Issues". Here visitors can read about sustainable development, semiotics, design, and urban issues. All told, this site is a tremendous resource for architects, urban planners, and students of cities in general.

466

Parallel Subconvolution Filtering Architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These architectures are based on methods of vector processing and the discrete-Fourier-transform/inverse-discrete- Fourier-transform (DFT-IDFT) overlap-and-save method, combined with time-block separation of digital filters into frequency-domain subfilters implemented by use of sub-convolutions. The parallel-processing method implemented in these architectures enables the use of relatively small DFT-IDFT pairs, while filter tap lengths are theoretically unlimited. The size of a DFT-IDFT pair is determined by the desired reduction in processing rate, rather than on the order of the filter that one seeks to implement. The emphasis in this report is on those aspects of the underlying theory and design rules that promote computational efficiency, parallel processing at reduced data rates, and simplification of the designs of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits needed to implement high-order filters and correlators.

Gray, Andrew A.

2003-01-01

467

Aerobot Autonomy Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An architecture for autonomous operation of an aerobot (i.e., a robotic blimp) to be used in scientific exploration of planets and moons in the Solar system with an atmosphere (such as Titan and Venus) is undergoing development. This architecture is also applicable to autonomous airships that could be flown in the terrestrial atmosphere for scientific exploration, military reconnaissance and surveillance, and as radio-communication relay stations in disaster areas. The architecture was conceived to satisfy requirements to perform the following functions: a) Vehicle safing, that is, ensuring the integrity of the aerobot during its entire mission, including during extended communication blackouts. b) Accurate and robust autonomous flight control during operation in diverse modes, including launch, deployment of scientific instruments, long traverses, hovering or station-keeping, and maneuvers for touch-and-go surface sampling. c) Mapping and self-localization in the absence of a global positioning system. d) Advanced recognition of hazards and targets in conjunction with tracking of, and visual servoing toward, targets, all to enable the aerobot to detect and avoid atmospheric and topographic hazards and to identify, home in on, and hover over predefined terrain features or other targets of scientific interest. The architecture is an integrated combination of systems for accurate and robust vehicle and flight trajectory control; estimation of the state of the aerobot; perception-based detection and avoidance of hazards; monitoring of the integrity and functionality ("health") of the aerobot; reflexive safing actions; multi-modal localization and mapping; autonomous planning and execution of scientific observations; and long-range planning and monitoring of the mission of the aerobot. The prototype JPL aerobot (see figure) has been tested extensively in various areas in the California Mojave desert.

Elfes, Alberto; Hall, Jeffery L.; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Clouse, Daniel S.; Montgomery, James F.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Machuzak, Richard J.

2009-01-01

468

Architectural Methodology Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The establishment of conventions between two communicating entities in the end systems is essential for communications. Examples of the kind of decisions that need to be made in establishing a protocol convention include the nature of the data representation, the for-mat and the speed of the date representation over the communications path, and the sequence of control messages (if any) which are sent. One of the