Science.gov

Sample records for common component architecture

  1. Parallel PDE-Based Simulations Using the Common Component Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    McInnes, Lois C.; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert; Benson, Steven J.; Bernholdt, David E.; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Diachin, Lori; Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Kohl, James A.; Larson, J. Walter; Lefantzi, Sophia; Nieplocha, Jarek; Norris, Boyana; Parker, Steven G.; Ray, Jaideep; Zhou, Shujia

    2006-03-05

    Summary. The complexity of parallel PDE-based simulations continues to increase as multimodel, multiphysics, and multi-institutional projects become widespread. A goal of componentbased software engineering in such large-scale simulations is to help manage this complexity by enabling better interoperability among various codes that have been independently developed by different groups. The Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum is defining a component architecture specification to address the challenges of high-performance scientific computing. In addition, several execution frameworks, supporting infrastructure, and generalpurpose components are being developed. Furthermore, this group is collaborating with others in the high-performance computing community to design suites of domain-specific component interface specifications and underlying implementations. This chapter discusses recent work on leveraging these CCA efforts in parallel PDE-based simulations involving accelerator design, climate modeling, combustion, and accidental fires and explosions. We explain how component technology helps to address the different challenges posed by each of these applications, and we highlight how component interfaces built on existing parallel toolkits facilitate the reuse of software for parallel mesh manipulation, discretization, linear algebra, integration, optimization, and parallel data redistribution. We also present performance data to demonstrate the suitability of this approach, and we discuss strategies for applying component technologies to both new and existing applications.

  2. The common component architecture for particle accelerator simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Dechow, D. R.; Norris, B.; Amundson, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Tech-X Corp; FNAL

    2007-01-01

    Synergia2 is a beam dynamics modeling and simulation application for high-energy accelerators such as the Tevatron at Fermilab and the International Linear Collider, which is now under planning and development. Synergia2 is a hybrid, multilanguage software package comprised of two separate accelerator physics packages (Synergia and MaryLie/Impact) and one high-performance computer science package (PETSc). We describe our approach to producing a set of beam dynamics-specific software components based on the Common Component Architecture specification. Among other topics, we describe particular experiences with the following tasks: using Python steering to guide the creation of interfaces and to prototype components; working with legacy Fortran codes; and an example component-based, beam dynamics simulation.

  3. How the Common Component Architecture Advances Compuational Science

    SciTech Connect

    Kumfert, G; Bernholdt, D; Epperly, T; Kohl, J; McInnes, L C; Parker, S; Ray, J

    2006-06-19

    Computational chemists are using Common Component Architecture (CCA) technology to increase the parallel scalability of their application ten-fold. Combustion researchers are publishing science faster because the CCA manages software complexity for them. Both the solver and meshing communities in SciDAC are converging on community interface standards as a direct response to the novel level of interoperability that CCA presents. Yet, there is much more to do before component technology becomes mainstream computational science. This paper highlights the impact that the CCA has made on scientific applications, conveys some lessons learned from five years of the SciDAC program, and previews where applications could go with the additional capabilities that the CCA has planned for SciDAC 2.

  4. Toward a common component architecture for high-performance scientific computing

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, R; Gannon, D; Geist, A; Katarzyna, K; Kohn, S; McInnes, L; Parker, S; Smolinski, B

    1999-06-09

    This paper describes work in progress to develop a standard for interoperability among high-performance scientific components. This research stems from growing recognition that the scientific community must better manage the complexity of multidisciplinary simulations and better address scalable performance issues on parallel and distributed architectures. Driving forces are the need for fast connections among components that perform numerically intensive work and parallel collective interactions among components that use multiple processes or threads. This paper focuses on the areas we believe are most crucial for such interactions, namely an interface definition language that supports scientific abstractions for specifying component interfaces and a ports connection model for specifying component interactions.

  5. Cognitive Architecture of Common and Scientific Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarábek, Paul

    2010-07-01

    The cognitive architecture of concept is a specific structure consisting of the concept core, concept periphery, the semantic frame as the meaning and the sense of the concept, and the relations among all components of this structure. The model of the cognitive architecture of scientific and common concepts is a conceptual meta-model built upon Vygotsky's concept theory, Fillmore's semantic frame, semantic triangle, on widespread ideas of the structuring of conceptual systems, and the Hestenes' Modeling Theory. The method of semantic mapping of concepts flowing from the model is designed.

  6. Parallel, Multigrid Finite Element Simulator for Fractured/Faulted and Other Complex Reservoirs based on Common Component Architecture (CCA)

    SciTech Connect

    Milind Deo; Chung-Kan Huang; Huabing Wang

    2008-08-31

    Black-oil, compositional and thermal simulators have been developed to address different physical processes in reservoir simulation. A number of different types of discretization methods have also been proposed to address issues related to representing the complex reservoir geometry. These methods are more significant for fractured reservoirs where the geometry can be particularly challenging. In this project, a general modular framework for reservoir simulation was developed, wherein the physical models were efficiently decoupled from the discretization methods. This made it possible to couple any discretization method with different physical models. Oil characterization methods are becoming increasingly sophisticated, and it is possible to construct geologically constrained models of faulted/fractured reservoirs. Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) simulation provides the option of performing multiphase calculations on spatially explicit, geologically feasible fracture sets. Multiphase DFN simulations of and sensitivity studies on a wide variety of fracture networks created using fracture creation/simulation programs was undertaken in the first part of this project. This involved creating interfaces to seamlessly convert the fracture characterization information into simulator input, grid the complex geometry, perform the simulations, and analyze and visualize results. Benchmarking and comparison with conventional simulators was also a component of this work. After demonstration of the fact that multiphase simulations can be carried out on complex fracture networks, quantitative effects of the heterogeneity of fracture properties were evaluated. Reservoirs are populated with fractures of several different scales and properties. A multiscale fracture modeling study was undertaken and the effects of heterogeneity and storage on water displacement dynamics in fractured basements were investigated. In gravity-dominated systems, more oil could be recovered at a given pore

  7. A reference architecture for the component factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Cantone, Giovanni

    1992-01-01

    Software reuse can be achieved through an organization that focuses on utilization of life cycle products from previous developments. The component factory is both an example of the more general concepts of experience and domain factory and an organizational unit worth being considered independently. The critical features of such an organization are flexibility and continuous improvement. In order to achieve these features we can represent the architecture of the factory at different levels of abstraction and define a reference architecture from which specific architectures can be derived by instantiation. A reference architecture is an implementation and organization independent representation of the component factory and its environment. The paper outlines this reference architecture, discusses the instantiation process, and presents some examples of specific architectures by comparing them in the framework of the reference model.

  8. Perceptual-components architecture for digital video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    A perceptual-components architecture for digital video partitions the image stream into signal components in a manner analogous to that used in the human visual system. These components consist of achromatic and opponent color channels, divided into static and motion channels, further divided into bands of particular spatial frequency and orientation. Bits are allocated to an individual band in accord with visual sensitivity to that band and in accord with the properties of visual masking. This architecture is argued to have desirable features such as efficiency, error tolerance, scalability, device independence, and extensibility.

  9. Component architecture of the Tecolote framework

    SciTech Connect

    Zander, M.; Hall, J.; Painter, J.; O`Rourke, S.

    1998-11-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Tecolote Framework is used in conjunction with other libraries by several physical simulations. This paper briefly describes the design and use of Tecolote`s component architecture. A component is a C++ class that meets several requirements imposed by the framework to increase its reusability, configurability, and ease of replacement. The authors discuss both the motives for imposing these requirements upon components and the means by which a generic C++ class may be integrated into Tecolote by satisfying these requirements. They also describe the means by which these components may be combined into a physics application.

  10. A Component Architecture for High-Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholdt, D E; Elwasif, W R; Kohl, J A; Epperly, T G W

    2003-01-21

    The Common Component Architecture (CCA) provides a means for developers to manage the complexity of large-scale scientific software systems and to move toward a ''plug and play'' environment for high-performance computing. The CCA model allows for a direct connection between components within the same process to maintain performance on inter-component calls. It is neutral with respect to parallelism, allowing components to use whatever means they desire to communicate within their parallel ''cohort.'' We will discuss in detail the importance of performance in the design of the CCA and will analyze the performance costs associated with features of the CCA.

  11. Component architecture in drug discovery informatics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter M

    2002-05-01

    This paper reviews the characteristics of a new model of computing that has been spurred on by the Internet, known as Netcentric computing. Developments in this model led to distributed component architectures, which, although not new ideas, are now realizable with modern tools such as Enterprise Java. The application of this approach to scientific computing, particularly in pharmaceutical discovery research, is discussed and highlighted by a particular case involving the management of biological assay data. PMID:12058611

  12. A Component Architecture for High-Performance Scientific Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholdt, D E; Allan, B A; Armstrong, R; Bertrand, F; Chiu, K; Dahlgren, T L; Damevski, K; Elwasif, W R; Epperly, T W; Govindaraju, M; Katz, D S; Kohl, J A; Krishnan, M; Kumfert, G; Larson, J W; Lefantzi, S; Lewis, M J; Malony, A D; McInnes, L C; Nieplocha, J; Norris, B; Parker, S G; Ray, J; Shende, S; Windus, T L; Zhou, S

    2004-12-14

    The Common Component Architecture (CCA) provides a means for software developers to manage the complexity of large-scale scientific simulations and to move toward a plug-and-play environment for high-performance computing. In the scientific computing context, component models also promote collaboration using independently developed software, thereby allowing particular individuals or groups to focus on the aspects of greatest interest to them. The CCA supports parallel and distributed computing as well as local high-performance connections between components in a language-independent manner. The design places minimal requirements on components and thus facilitates the integration of existing code into the CCA environment. The CCA model imposes minimal overhead to minimize the impact on application performance. The focus on high performance distinguishes the CCA from most other component models. The CCA is being applied within an increasing range of disciplines, including combustion research, global climate simulation, and computational chemistry.

  13. A Component Architecture for High-Performance Scientific Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholdt, David E; Allan, Benjamin A; Armstrong, Robert C; Bertrand, Felipe; Chiu, Kenneth; Dahlgren, Tamara L; Damevski, Kostadin; Elwasif, Wael R; Epperly, Thomas G; Govindaraju, Madhusudhan; Katz, Daniel S; Kohl, James A; Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Kumfert, Gary K; Larson, J Walter; Lefantzi, Sophia; Lewis, Michael J; Malony, Allen D; McInnes, Lois C; Nieplocha, Jarek; Norris, Boyana; Parker, Steven G; Ray, Jaideep; Shende, Sameer; Windus, Theresa L; Zhou, Shujia

    2006-07-03

    The Common Component Architecture (CCA) provides a means for software developers to manage the complexity of large-scale scientific simulations and to move toward a plug-and-play environment for high-performance computing. In the scientific computing context, component models also promote collaboration using independently developed software, thereby allowing particular individuals or groups to focus on the aspects of greatest interest to them. The CCA supports parallel and distributed computing as well as local high-performance connections between components in a language-independent manner. The design places minimal requirements on components and thus facilitates the integration of existing code into the CCA environment. The CCA model imposes minimal overhead to minimize the impact on application performance. The focus on high performance distinguishes the CCA from most other component models. The CCA is being applied within an increasing range of disciplines, including combustion research, global climate simulation, and computational chemistry.

  14. Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components

    SciTech Connect

    N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

    2011-08-01

    There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and

  15. SIFT - A Component-Based Integration Architecture for Enterprise Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, David A.; Almquist, Justin P.; Gorton, Ian; Wynne, Adam S.; Chatterton, Jack

    2007-02-01

    Architectures and technologies for enterprise application integration are relatively mature, resulting in a range of standards-based and proprietary middleware technologies. In the domain of complex analytical applications, integration architectures are not so well understood. Analytical applications such as those used in scientific discovery, emergency response, financial and intelligence analysis exert unique demands on their underlying architecture. These demands make existing integration middleware inappropriate for use in enterprise analytics environments. In this paper we describe SIFT (Scalable Information Fusion and Triage), a platform designed for integrating the various components that comprise enterprise analytics applications. SIFT exploits a common pattern for composing analytical components, and extends an existing messaging platform with dynamic configuration mechanisms and scaling capabilities. We demonstrate the use of SIFT to create a decision support platform for quality control based on large volumes of incoming delivery data. The strengths of the SIFT solution are discussed, and we conclude by describing where further work is required to create a complete solution applicable to a wide range of analytical application domains.

  16. Study on the standard architecture for geoinformation common services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Z.; Zhang, L.; Wang, C.; Jiang, J.; Huang, W.

    2014-04-01

    The construction of platform for geoinformation common services was completed or on going in in most provinces and cities in these years in China, and the platforms plays an important role in the economic and social activities. Geoinfromation and geoinfromation based services are the key issues in the platform. The standards on geoinormation common services play as bridges among the users, systems and designers of the platform. The standard architecture for geoinformation common services is the guideline for designing and using the standard system in which the standards integrated to each other to promote the development, sharing and services of geoinformation resources. To establish the standard architecture for geoinformation common services is one of the tasks of "Study on important standards for geonformation common services and management of public facilities in city". The scope of the standard architecture is defined, such as data or information model, interoperability interface or service, information management. Some Research work on the status of international standards of geoinormation common services in organization and countries, like ISO/TC 211, OGC and other countries or unions like USA, EU, Japan have done. Some principles are set up to evaluate the standard, such as availability, suitability and extensible ability. Then the development requirement and practical situation are analyzed, and a framework of the standard architecture for geoinformation common services are proposed. Finally, a summary and prospects of the geoinformation standards are made.

  17. Component architecture in HIS: a drug order entry case study.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, J M; Blumenfeld, B; Broverman, C

    1997-01-01

    Historically, many healthcare information systems (HIS) have been designed around monolithic architectures that rely upon a single organization to provide most, if not all, of the system's business logic. Recent advances in distributed systems technology and healthcare standards make a component-based architecture feasible in building today's HIS. The First DataBank Drug Toolkit is used as a case study for the role of components in the design of a HIS. Several technical challenges associated with building truly plug and play components are discussed. PMID:10175372

  18. GEARS: An Enterprise Architecture Based On Common Ground Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Earth observation satellites collect a broad variety of data used in applications that range from weather forecasting to climate monitoring. Within NOAA the National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS) supports these applications by operating satellites in both geosynchronous and polar orbits. Traditionally NESDIS has acquired and operated its satellites as stand-alone systems with their own command and control, mission management, processing, and distribution systems. As the volume, velocity, veracity, and variety of sensor data and products produced by these systems continues to increase, NESDIS is migrating to a new concept of operation in which it will operate and sustain the ground infrastructure as an integrated Enterprise. Based on a series of common ground services, the Ground Enterprise Architecture System (GEARS) approach promises greater agility, flexibility, and efficiency at reduced cost. This talk describes the new architecture and associated development activities, and presents the results of initial efforts to improve product processing and distribution.

  19. Component Architectures and Web-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdig, Richard E.; Mishra, Punya; Zhao, Yong

    2004-01-01

    The Web has caught the attention of many educators as an efficient communication medium and content delivery system. But we feel there is another aspect of the Web that has not been given the attention it deserves. We call this aspect of the Web its "component architecture." Briefly it means that on the Web one can develop very complex…

  20. Digital visual communications using a Perceptual Components Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1991-01-01

    The next era of space exploration will generate extraordinary volumes of image data, and management of this image data is beyond current technical capabilities. We propose a strategy for coding visual information that exploits the known properties of early human vision. This Perceptual Components Architecture codes images and image sequences in terms of discrete samples from limited bands of color, spatial frequency, orientation, and temporal frequency. This spatiotemporal pyramid offers efficiency (low bit rate), variable resolution, device independence, error-tolerance, and extensibility.

  1. Development of x-ray laser architectural components

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, A.S.; Da Silva, L.B.; Moreno, J.C.

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes the recent experimental and computational development of short-pulse, enhanced-coherence, and high-brilliance x-ray lasers (XRLs). The authors will describe the development of an XRL cavity by injecting laser photons back into an amplifying XRL plasma. Using a combination of LASNEX/GLF/SPECTRE-BEAM3 codes, they obtained good agreement with experimental results. They will describe the adaptive spatial filtering technique used to design small-aperture shaped XRLs with near diffraction-limited output. Finally they will discuss issues concerning the development of high-brilliance XRL architecture, with emphasis on scaling the XRL aperture. Combining these advances in XRL architectural components allows them to develop a short-pulse, high-brilliance, coherent XRL suitable for applications in areas such as biological holography, plasma interferometry, and nonlinear optics.

  2. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This document captures the system architecture for a Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) capability needed for electronics maintenance and repair of the Constellation Program (CxP). CLEAR is intended to improve flight system supportability and reduce the mass of spares required to maintain the electronics of human rated spacecraft on long duration missions. By necessity it allows the crew to make repairs that would otherwise be performed by Earth based repair depots. Because of practical knowledge and skill limitations of small spaceflight crews they must be augmented by Earth based support crews and automated repair equipment. This system architecture covers the complete system from ground-user to flight hardware and flight crew and defines an Earth segment and a Space segment. The Earth Segment involves database management, operational planning, and remote equipment programming and validation processes. The Space Segment involves the automated diagnostic, test and repair equipment required for a complete repair process. This document defines three major subsystems including, tele-operations that links the flight hardware to ground support, highly reconfigurable diagnostics and test instruments, and a CLEAR Repair Apparatus that automates the physical repair process.

  3. A Plug and Play GNC Architecture Using FPGA Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrishnaKumar, K.; Kaneshige, J.; Waterman, R.; Pires, C.; Ippoloito, C.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of Plug and Play, or PnP, is to allow hardware and software components to work together automatically, without requiring manual setup procedures. As a result, new or replacement hardware can be plugged into a system and automatically configured with the appropriate resource assignments. However, in many cases it may not be practical or even feasible to physically replace hardware components. One method for handling these types of situations is through the incorporation of reconfigurable hardware such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays, or FPGAs. This paper describes a phased approach to developing a Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) architecture that expands on the traditional concepts of PnP, in order to accommodate hardware reconfiguration without requiring detailed knowledge of the hardware. This is achieved by establishing a functional based interface that defines how the hardware will operate, and allow the hardware to reconfigure itself. The resulting system combines the flexibility of manipulating software components with the speed and efficiency of hardware.

  4. Common and Cluster-Specific Simultaneous Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    De Roover, Kim; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Mesquita, Batja; Ceulemans, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In many fields of research, so-called ‘multiblock’ data are collected, i.e., data containing multivariate observations that are nested within higher-level research units (e.g., inhabitants of different countries). Each higher-level unit (e.g., country) then corresponds to a ‘data block’. For such data, it may be interesting to investigate the extent to which the correlation structure of the variables differs between the data blocks. More specifically, when capturing the correlation structure by means of component analysis, one may want to explore which components are common across all data blocks and which components differ across the data blocks. This paper presents a common and cluster-specific simultaneous component method which clusters the data blocks according to their correlation structure and allows for common and cluster-specific components. Model estimation and model selection procedures are described and simulation results validate their performance. Also, the method is applied to data from cross-cultural values research to illustrate its empirical value. PMID:23667463

  5. Raft lipids as common components of human extracellular amyloid fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Gellermann, Gerald P.; Appel, Thomas R.; Tannert, Astrid; Radestock, Anja; Hortschansky, Peter; Schroeckh, Volker; Leisner, Christian; Lütkepohl, Tim; Shtrasburg, Shmuel; Röcken, Christoph; Pras, Mordechai; Linke, Reinhold P.; Diekmann, Stephan; Fändrich, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are fibrillar polypeptide aggregates from several degenerative human conditions, including Alzheimer's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases. Analysis of amyloid fibrils derived from various human diseases (AA, ATTR, Aβ2M, ALλ, and ALκ amyloidosis) shows that these are associated with a common lipid component that has a conserved chemical composition and that is specifically rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, the major components of cellular lipid rafts. This pattern is not notably affected by the purification procedure, and no tight lipid interactions can be detected when preformed fibrils are mixed with lipids. By contrast, the early and prefibrillar aggregates formed in an AA amyloid-producing cell system interact with the raft marker ganglioside-1, and amyloid formation is impaired by addition of cholesterol-reducing agents. These data suggest the existence of common cellular mechanisms in the generation of different types of clinical amyloid deposits. PMID:15851687

  6. Potential of hypocotyl diameter in family selection aiming at plant architecture improvement of common bean.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A M C; Batista, R O; Carneiro, P C S; Carneiro, J E S; Cruz, C D

    2015-01-01

    Cultivars of common bean with more erect plant architecture and greater tolerance to degree of lodging are required by producers. Thus, to evaluate the potential of hypocotyl diameter (HD) in family selection for plant architecture improvement of common bean, the HDs of 32 F2 plants were measured in 3 distinct populations, and the characteristics related to plant architecture were analyzed in their progenies. Ninety-six F2:3 families and 4 controls were evaluated in a randomized block design, with 3 replications, analyzing plant architecture grade, HD, and grain yield during the winter 2010 and drought 2011 seasons. We found that the correlation between the HD of F2 plants and traits related to plant architecture of F2:3 progenies were of low magnitude compared to the estimates for correlations considering the parents, indicating a high environmental influence on HD in bean plants. There was a predominance of additive genetic effects on the determination of hypocotyl diameter, which showed higher precision and accuracy compared to plant architecture grade. Thus, this characteristic can be used to select progenies in plant architecture improvement of common beans; however, selection must be based on the means of at least 39 plants in the plot, according to the results of repeatability analysis. PMID:26436392

  7. The design and fabrication of common optical components lithography lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiun-Woei

    2015-07-01

    The design and fabrication of common optical components lithography Lens has been carried out for a 1 to 1 stepper. The specification of lens is fulfilled the 3-D lithography system as 2 micron in resolution for 1 inch x 2.8 inches system. The lens has been sophistically designed by dual path in a triplet to reduce the number of components. A single aspherical surface has been applied to reduce the aberration to diffraction limit in lens. The well-made shapes of lens have been suggested. Then, the fabrication of lens has been in the process. Finally, the optical axis of tolerance optical mechanical mountings for lens system in assembly has been analyzed, and valuable for assembly and fabrication.

  8. Common Readout Unit (CRU) - A new readout architecture for the ALICE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, J.; Khan, S. A.; Mukherjee, S.; Paul, R.

    2016-03-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is presently going for a major upgrade in order to fully exploit the scientific potential of the upcoming high luminosity run, scheduled to start in the year 2021. The high interaction rate and the large event size will result in an experimental data flow of about 1 TB/s from the detectors, which need to be processed before sending to the online computing system and data storage. This processing is done in a dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU), proposed for data aggregation, trigger and timing distribution and control moderation. It act as common interface between sub-detector electronic systems, computing system and trigger processors. The interface links include GBT, TTC-PON and PCIe. GBT (Gigabit transceiver) is used for detector data payload transmission and fixed latency path for trigger distribution between CRU and detector readout electronics. TTC-PON (Timing, Trigger and Control via Passive Optical Network) is employed for time multiplex trigger distribution between CRU and Central Trigger Processor (CTP). PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express) is the high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard for bulk data transport between CRU boards and processors. In this article, we give an overview of CRU architecture in ALICE, discuss the different interfaces, along with the firmware design and implementation of CRU on the LHCb PCIe40 board.

  9. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Architecture Overview and Technical Performance Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. D.; Johnson, B. R.; Miller, S. W.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions. Originally designed to support S-NPP and JPSS, the CGS has demonstrated its scalability and flexibility to incorporate all of these other important missions efficiently and with minimal cost, schedule and risk, while strengthening global partnerships in weather and environmental monitoring. The CGS architecture will be upgraded to Block 2.0 in 2015 to satisfy several key objectives, including: "operationalizing" S-NPP, which had originally been intended as a risk reduction mission; leveraging lessons learned to date in multi-mission support; taking advantage of newer, more reliable and efficient technologies; and satisfying new requirements and constraints due to the continually evolving budgetary environment. To ensure the CGS meets these needs, we have developed 48 Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) across 9 categories: Data Availability, Data Latency, Operational Availability, Margin, Scalability, Situational Awareness, Transition (between environments and sites), WAN Efficiency, and Data Recovery Processing. This

  10. A Successful Component Architecture for Interoperable and Evolvable Ground Data Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Danford S.; Bristow, John O.; Wilmot, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has adopted an open architecture approach for satellite control centers and is now realizing benefits beyond those originally envisioned. The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) architecture utilizes standardized interfaces and a middleware software bus to allow functional components to be easily integrated. This paper presents the GMSEC architectural goals and concepts, the capabilities enabled and the benefits realized by adopting this framework approach. NASA experiences with applying the GMSEC architecture on multiple missions are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of lessons learned, future directions for GMSEC and the possible applications beyond NASA GSFC.

  11. A Proposal of Client Application Architecture using Loosely Coupled Component Connection Method in Banking Branch System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Someya, Harushi; Mori, Yuichi; Abe, Masahiro; Machida, Isamu; Hasegawa, Atsushi; Yoshie, Osamu

    Due to the deregulation of financial industry, the branches in banking industry need to shift to the sales-oriented bases from the operation-oriented bases. For corresponding to this movement, new banking branch systems are being developed. It is the main characteristics of new systems that we bring the form operations that have traditionally been performed at each branch into the centralized operation center for the purpose of rationalization and efficiency of the form operations. The branches treat a wide variety of forms. The forms can be described by common items in many cases, but the items include the different business logic and each form has the different relation among the items. And there is a need to develop the client application by user oneself. Consequently the challenge is to arrange the development environment that is high reusable, easy customizable and user developable. We propose a client application architecture that has a loosely coupled component connection method, and allows developing the applications by only describing the screen configurations and their transitions in XML documents. By adopting our architecture, we developed client applications of the centralized operation center for the latest banking branch system. Our experiments demonstrate good performances.

  12. Using an architectural approach to integrate heterogeneous, distributed software components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Purtilo, James M.

    1995-01-01

    Many computer programs cannot be easily integrated because their components are distributed and heterogeneous, i.e., they are implemented in diverse programming languages, use different data representation formats, or their runtime environments are incompatible. In many cases, programs are integrated by modifying their components or interposing mechanisms that handle communication and conversion tasks. For example, remote procedure call (RPC) helps integrate heterogeneous, distributed programs. When configuring such programs, however, mechanisms like RPC must be used explicitly by software developers in order to integrate collections of diverse components. Each collection may require a unique integration solution. This paper describes improvements to the concepts of software packaging and some of our experiences in constructing complex software systems from a wide variety of components in different execution environments. Software packaging is a process that automatically determines how to integrate a diverse collection of computer programs based on the types of components involved and the capabilities of available translators and adapters in an environment. Software packaging provides a context that relates such mechanisms to software integration processes and reduces the cost of configuring applications whose components are distributed or implemented in different programming languages. Our software packaging tool subsumes traditional integration tools like UNIX make by providing a rule-based approach to software integration that is independent of execution environments.

  13. A common network architecture efficiently implements a variety of sparsity-based inference problems.

    PubMed

    Charles, Adam S; Garrigues, Pierre; Rozell, Christopher J

    2012-12-01

    The sparse coding hypothesis has generated significant interest in the computational and theoretical neuroscience communities, but there remain open questions about the exact quantitative form of the sparsity penalty and the implementation of such a coding rule in neurally plausible architectures. The main contribution of this work is to show that a wide variety of sparsity-based probabilistic inference problems proposed in the signal processing and statistics literatures can be implemented exactly in the common network architecture known as the locally competitive algorithm (LCA). Among the cost functions we examine are approximate l(p) norms (0 ≤ p ≤ 2), modified l(p)-norms, block-l1 norms, and reweighted algorithms. Of particular interest is that we show significantly increased performance in reweighted l1 algorithms by inferring all parameters jointly in a dynamical system rather than using an iterative approach native to digital computational architectures. PMID:22970876

  14. Micro guidance and control synthesis: New components, architectures, and capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Edward; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

    1993-01-01

    New GN&C (guidance, navigation and control) system capabilities are shown to arise from component innovations that involve the synergistic use of microminiature sensors and actuators, microelectronics, and fiber optics. Micro-GN&C system and component concepts are defined that include micro-actuated adaptive optics, micromachined inertial sensors, fiber-optic data nets and light-power transmission, and VLSI microcomputers. The thesis is advanced that these micro-miniaturization products are capable of having a revolutionary impact on space missions and systems, and that GN&C is the pathfinder micro-technology application that can bring that about.

  15. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Overview and Architectural Tenets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: 1) Command and control and mission management for the Suomi National Polar Partnership (S-NPP) mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite and the Polar Free Flyer mission in 2017 2) Data acquisition via a Polar Receptor Network (PRN) for S-NPP, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the Department of Defense (DoD) 3) Data routing over a global fiber Wide Area Network (WAN) for S-NPP, JPSS-1, Polar Free Flyer, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN, which includes several Earth Observing System [EOS] missions), MetOp for the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) 4) Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS architecture will receive a technology refresh in 2015 to satisfy several key

  16. Manned/Unmanned Common Architecture Program (MCAP) net centric flight tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Dale

    2009-04-01

    Properly architected avionics systems can reduce the costs of periodic functional improvements, maintenance, and obsolescence. With this in mind, the U.S. Army Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) initiated the Manned/Unmanned Common Architecture Program (MCAP) in 2003 to develop an affordable, high-performance embedded mission processing architecture for potential application to multiple aviation platforms. MCAP analyzed Army helicopter and unmanned air vehicle (UAV) missions, identified supporting subsystems, surveyed advanced hardware and software technologies, and defined computational infrastructure technical requirements. The project selected a set of modular open systems standards and market-driven commercial-off-theshelf (COTS) electronics and software, and, developed experimental mission processors, network architectures, and software infrastructures supporting the integration of new capabilities, interoperability, and life cycle cost reductions. MCAP integrated the new mission processing architecture into an AH-64D Apache Longbow and participated in Future Combat Systems (FCS) network-centric operations field experiments in 2006 and 2007 at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico and at the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) in 2008. The MCAP Apache also participated in PM C4ISR On-the-Move (OTM) Capstone Experiments 2007 (E07) and 2008 (E08) at Ft. Dix, NJ and conducted Mesa, Arizona local area flight tests in December 2005, February 2006, and June 2008.

  17. A Systems Approach to Developing an Affordable Space Ground Transportation Architecture using a Commonality Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Jerry L.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Bollo, Timothy R.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Robinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a structured approach for achieving a compatible Ground System (GS) and Flight System (FS) architecture that is affordable, productive and sustainable. This paper is an extension of the paper titled "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System" by McCleskey et al. This paper integrates systems engineering concepts and operationally efficient propulsion system concepts into a structured framework for achieving GS and FS compatibility in the mid-term and long-term time frames. It also presents a functional and quantitative relationship for assessing system compatibility called the Architecture Complexity Index (ACI). This paper: (1) focuses on systems engineering fundamentals as it applies to improving GS and FS compatibility; (2) establishes mid-term and long-term spaceport goals; (3) presents an overview of transitioning a spaceport to an airport model; (4) establishes a framework for defining a ground system architecture; (5) presents the ACI concept; (6) demonstrates the approach by presenting a comparison of different GS architectures; and (7) presents a discussion on the benefits of using this approach with a focus on commonality.

  18. The architectural relationship of components controlling mast cell endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Cleyrat, Cédric; Darehshouri, Anza; Anderson, Karen L.; Page, Christopher; Lidke, Diane S.; Volkmann, Niels; Hanein, Dorit; Wilson, Bridget S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Eukaryotic cells use multiple routes for receptor internalization. Here, we examine the topographical relationships of clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytic structures on the plasma membranes of leukemia-derived mast cells. The high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) utilizes both pathways, whereas transferrin receptor serves as a marker for the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. Both receptors were tracked by live-cell imaging in the presence or absence of inhibitors that established their differential dependence on specific endocytic adaptor proteins. The topology of antigen-bound FcεRI, clathrin, dynamin, Arf6 and Eps15-positive structures were analyzed by 2D and 3D immunoelectron microscopy techniques, revealing their remarkable spatial relationships and unique geometry. We conclude that the mast cell plasma membrane has multiple specialized domains for endocytosis. Their close proximity might reflect shared components, such as lipids and adaptor proteins, that facilitate inward membrane curvature. Intersections between these specialized domains might represent sorting stations that direct cargo to specific endocytic pathways. PMID:23986485

  19. Use of common beans as components in polymeric materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the research trends in recent years is to use natural renewable materials as "green" raw materials for industrial applications. Common beans are well known, widely available and relatively cheap. They contain polysaccharides, proteins, triglyceride oils, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic antio...

  20. Common relationships among proximate composition components in fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Margraf, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Relationships between the various body proximate components and dry matter content were examined for five species of fishes, representing anadromous, marine and freshwater species: chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix and striped bass Morone saxatilis. The dry matter content or per cent dry mass of these fishes can be used to reliably predict the per cent composition of the other components. Therefore, with validation it is possible to estimate fat, protein and ash content of fishes from per cent dry mass information, reducing the need for costly and time-consuming laboratory proximate analysis. This approach coupled with new methods of non-lethal estimation of per cent dry mass, such as from bioelectrical impedance analysis, can provide non-destructive measurements of proximate composition of fishes. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  1. Sulfate Storage and Stability on Common Lean NOx Trap Components

    SciTech Connect

    Ottinger, Nathan A; Toops, Todd J; Pihl, Josh A; Roop, Justin T; Choi, Jae-Soon; Partridge Jr, William P

    2012-01-01

    Components found in a commercial lean NO{sub x} trap have been studied in order to determine their impact on sulfate storage and release. A micro-reactor and a diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (DRIFTS) were used to compare components MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Pt/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/Ba/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, and Pt/Ba/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, as well as physical mixtures of Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Pt/Ba/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} + MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Desulfation temperature profiles as well as DRIFTS NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} storage spectra are presented for all components. This systematic approach highlighted the ability of the underlying support to impact sulfate stability, in particular when Ba was supported on ceria-zirconia rather than alumina the desulfation temperature decreased by 60-120 C. A conceptual model of sulfation progression on the ceria-zirconia support is proposed that explains the high uptake of sulfur and low temperature release when it is employed. It was also determined that the close proximity of platinum is not necessary for much of the sulfation and desulfation chemistry that occurs, as physical mixtures with platinum dispersed on only one phase displayed similar behavior to samples with platinum dispersed on both phases.

  2. Educational Software Architecture and Systematic Impact: The Promise of Component Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roschelle, Jeremy; Kaput, James

    1996-01-01

    Examines the failure of current technology to meet education's flexible needs and points to a promising solution: component software architecture. Discusses the failure of stand-alone applications in their incompatibility, waste of funding, prevention of customization, and obstruction of integration. (AEF)

  3. Comparison of pelvic muscle architecture between humans and commonly used laboratory species

    PubMed Central

    Alperin, Marianna; Tuttle, Lori J.; Conner, Blair R.; Dixon, Danielle M.; Mathewson, Margie A.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis Pelvic floor muscles (PFM) are deleteriously affected by vaginal birth, which contributes to the development of pelvic floor disorders. To mechanistically link these events, experiments using animal models are required, as access to human PFM tissue is challenging. In choosing an animal model, a comparative study of PFM design is necessary, since gross anatomy alone is insufficient to guide the selection. Methods Human PFM architecture was measured using micromechanical dissection and then compared with mouse (n=10), rat (n=10), and rabbit (n=10) using the Architectural Difference Index (ADI) (parameterizing a combined measure of sarcomere length-to-optimal-sarcomere ratio, fiber-to-muscle-length ratio, and fraction of total PFM mass and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) contributed by each muscle). Coccygeus (C), iliocaudalis (IC), and pubocaudalis (PC) were harvested and subjected to architectural measurements. Parameters within species were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Tukey's tests. The scaling relationships of PFM across species were quantified using least-squares regression of log-10-transformed variables. Results Based on the ADI, rat was found to be the most similar to humans (ADI = 2.5), followed by mouse (ADI = 3.3). When animals' body mass was regressed against muscle mass, muscle length, fiber length, and PCSA scaling coefficients showed a negative allometric relationship or smaller increase than predicted by geometric scaling. Conclusion In terms of muscle design among commonly used laboratory animals, rat best approximates the human PFM, followed by mouse. Negative allometric scaling of PFM architectural parameters is likely due to the multifaceted function of these muscles. PMID:24915840

  4. Coupling Multi-Component Models with MPH on Distributed MemoryComputer Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yun; Ding, Chris

    2005-03-24

    A growing trend in developing large and complex applications on today's Teraflop scale computers is to integrate stand-alone and/or semi-independent program components into a comprehensive simulation package. One example is the Community Climate System Model which consists of atmosphere, ocean, land-surface and sea-ice components. Each component is semi-independent and has been developed at a different institution. We study how this multi-component, multi-executable application can run effectively on distributed memory architectures. For the first time, we clearly identify five effective execution modes and develop the MPH library to support application development utilizing these modes. MPH performs component-name registration, resource allocation and initial component handshaking in a flexible way.

  5. A component-based, distributed object services architecture for a clinical workstation.

    PubMed Central

    Chueh, H. C.; Raila, W. F.; Pappas, J. J.; Ford, M.; Zatsman, P.; Tu, J.; Barnett, G. O.

    1996-01-01

    Attention to an architectural framework in the development of clinical applications can promote reusability of both legacy systems as well as newly designed software. We describe one approach to an architecture for a clinical workstation application which is based on a critical middle tier of distributed object-oriented services. This tier of network-based services provides flexibility in the creation of both the user interface and the database tiers. We developed a clinical workstation for ambulatory care using this architecture, defining a number of core services including those for vocabulary, patient index, documents, charting, security, and encounter management. These services can be implemented through proprietary or more standard distributed object interfaces such as CORBA and OLE. Services are accessed over the network by a collection of user interface components which can be mixed and matched to form a variety of interface styles. These services have also been reused with several applications based on World Wide Web browser interfaces. PMID:8947744

  6. Judicious use of custom development in an open source component architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristol, S.; Latysh, N.; Long, D.; Tekell, S.; Allen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Modern software engineering is not as much programming from scratch as innovative assembly of existing components. Seamlessly integrating disparate components into scalable, performant architecture requires sound engineering craftsmanship and can often result in increased cost efficiency and accelerated capabilities if software teams focus their creativity on the edges of the problem space. ScienceBase is part of the U.S. Geological Survey scientific cyberinfrastructure, providing data and information management, distribution services, and analysis capabilities in a way that strives to follow this pattern. ScienceBase leverages open source NoSQL and relational databases, search indexing technology, spatial service engines, numerous libraries, and one proprietary but necessary software component in its architecture. The primary engineering focus is cohesive component interaction, including construction of a seamless Application Programming Interface (API) across all elements. The API allows researchers and software developers alike to leverage the infrastructure in unique, creative ways. Scaling the ScienceBase architecture and core API with increasing data volume (more databases) and complexity (integrated science problems) is a primary challenge addressed by judicious use of custom development in the component architecture. Other data management and informatics activities in the earth sciences have independently resolved to a similar design of reusing and building upon established technology and are working through similar issues for managing and developing information (e.g., U.S. Geoscience Information Network; NASA's Earth Observing System Clearing House; GSToRE at the University of New Mexico). Recent discussions facilitated through the Earth Science Information Partners are exploring potential avenues to exploit the implicit relationships between similar projects for explicit gains in our ability to more rapidly advance global scientific cyberinfrastructure.

  7. Investigation of a Novel Common Subexpression Elimination Method for Low Power and Area Efficient DCT Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, M. F.; Reza, A. W.; Kanesan, J.; Ramiah, H.

    2014-01-01

    A wide interest has been observed to find a low power and area efficient hardware design of discrete cosine transform (DCT) algorithm. This research work proposed a novel Common Subexpression Elimination (CSE) based pipelined architecture for DCT, aimed at reproducing the cost metrics of power and area while maintaining high speed and accuracy in DCT applications. The proposed design combines the techniques of Canonical Signed Digit (CSD) representation and CSE to implement the multiplier-less method for fixed constant multiplication of DCT coefficients. Furthermore, symmetry in the DCT coefficient matrix is used with CSE to further decrease the number of arithmetic operations. This architecture needs a single-port memory to feed the inputs instead of multiport memory, which leads to reduction of the hardware cost and area. From the analysis of experimental results and performance comparisons, it is observed that the proposed scheme uses minimum logic utilizing mere 340 slices and 22 adders. Moreover, this design meets the real time constraints of different video/image coders and peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR) requirements. Furthermore, the proposed technique has significant advantages over recent well-known methods along with accuracy in terms of power reduction, silicon area usage, and maximum operating frequency by 41%, 15%, and 15%, respectively. PMID:25133249

  8. [A telemedicine electrocardiography system based on the component-architecture soft].

    PubMed

    Potapov, I V; Selishchev, S V

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with a universal component-oriented architecture for creating the telemedicine applications. The worked-out system ensures the ECG reading, pressure measurements and pulsometry. The system design comprises a central database server and a client telemedicine module. Data can be transmitted via different interfaces--from an ordinary local network to digital satellite phones. The data protection is guaranteed by microchip charts that were used to realize the authentication 3DES algorithm. PMID:15293500

  9. Workflow-enabled distributed component-based information architecture for digital medical imaging enterprises.

    PubMed

    Wong, Stephen T C; Tjandra, Donny; Wang, Huili; Shen, Weimin

    2003-09-01

    Few information systems today offer a flexible means to define and manage the automated part of radiology processes, which provide clinical imaging services for the entire healthcare organization. Even fewer of them provide a coherent architecture that can easily cope with heterogeneity and inevitable local adaptation of applications and can integrate clinical and administrative information to aid better clinical, operational, and business decisions. We describe an innovative enterprise architecture of image information management systems to fill the needs. Such a system is based on the interplay of production workflow management, distributed object computing, Java and Web techniques, and in-depth domain knowledge in radiology operations. Our design adapts the approach of "4+1" architectural view. In this new architecture, PACS and RIS become one while the user interaction can be automated by customized workflow process. Clinical service applications are implemented as active components. They can be reasonably substituted by applications of local adaptations and can be multiplied for fault tolerance and load balancing. Furthermore, the workflow-enabled digital radiology system would provide powerful query and statistical functions for managing resources and improving productivity. This paper will potentially lead to a new direction of image information management. We illustrate the innovative design with examples taken from an implemented system. PMID:14518730

  10. Contrasting genetic architectures of schizophrenia and other complex diseases using fast variance components analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Gaurav; Gusev, Alexander; Finucane, Hilary K; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan K; Pollack, Samuela J; de Candia, Teresa R; Lee, Sang Hong; Wray, Naomi R; Kendler, Kenneth S; O’Donovan, Michael C; Neale, Benjamin M; Patterson, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Heritability analyses of GWAS cohorts have yielded important insights into complex disease architecture, and increasing sample sizes hold the promise of further discoveries. Here, we analyze the genetic architecture of schizophrenia in 49,806 samples from the PGC, and nine complex diseases in 54,734 samples from the GERA cohort. For schizophrenia, we infer an overwhelmingly polygenic disease architecture in which ≥71% of 1Mb genomic regions harbor ≥1 variant influencing schizophrenia risk. We also observe significant enrichment of heritability in GC-rich regions and in higher-frequency SNPs for both schizophrenia and GERA diseases. In bivariate analyses, we observe significant genetic correlations (ranging from 0.18 to 0.85) among several pairs of GERA diseases; genetic correlations were on average 1.3x stronger than correlations of overall disease liabilities. To accomplish these analyses, we developed a fast algorithm for multi-component, multi-trait variance components analysis that overcomes prior computational barriers that made such analyses intractable at this scale. PMID:26523775

  11. Frequency multiplexed flux locked loop architecture providing an array of DC SQUIDS having both shared and unshared components

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-01-01

    Architecture for frequency multiplexing multiple flux locked loops in a system comprising an array of DC SQUID sensors. The architecture involves dividing the traditional flux locked loop into multiple unshared components and a single shared component which, in operation, form a complete flux locked loop relative to each DC SQUID sensor. Each unshared flux locked loop component operates on a different flux modulation frequency. The architecture of the present invention allows a reduction from 2N to N+1 in the number of connections between the cryogenic DC SQUID sensors and their associated room temperature flux locked loops. Furthermore, the 1.times.N architecture of the present invention can be paralleled to form an M.times.N array architecture without increasing the required number of flux modulation frequencies.

  12. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height.

    PubMed

    Wood, Andrew R; Esko, Tonu; Yang, Jian; Vedantam, Sailaja; Pers, Tune H; Gustafsson, Stefan; Chu, Audrey Y; Estrada, Karol; Luan, Jian'an; Kutalik, Zoltán; Amin, Najaf; Buchkovich, Martin L; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Duan, Yanan; Fall, Tove; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Ferreira, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U; Karjalainen, Juha; Lo, Ken Sin; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Porcu, Eleonora; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Westra, Harm-Jan; Winkler, Thomas W; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Anderson, Denise; Baron, Jeffrey; Beekman, Marian; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Fraser, Ross M; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Lui, Julian C; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Nalls, Michael A; Nyholt, Dale R; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Prokopenko, Inga; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Shungin, Dmitry; Stancáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Afzal, Uzma; Arnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Bolton, Jennifer L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buckley, Brendan M; Buyske, Steven; Caspersen, Ida H; Chines, Peter S; Clarke, Robert; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cooper, Matthew; Daw, E Warwick; De Jong, Pim A; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela; Denny, Josh C; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Dörr, Marcus; Eklund, Niina; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Go, Alan S; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Groves, Christopher J; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hannemann, Anke; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hemani, Gibran; Henders, Anjali K; Hillege, Hans L; Hlatky, Mark A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Illig, Thomas; Isaacs, Aaron; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina; Johansen, Berit; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Junttila, Juhani; Kho, Abel N; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kocher, Thomas; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lu, Yingchang; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahajan, Anubha; Maillard, Marc; McArdle, Wendy L; McKenzie, Colin A; McLachlan, Stela; McLaren, Paul J; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nolte, Ilja M; Nöthen, Markus M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Roussel, Ronan; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, Robert A; Sehmi, Joban; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Silventoinen, Karri; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stott, David J; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Suzanne; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Heemst, Diana; van Oort, Floor V A; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wennauer, Roman; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J L; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Biffar, Reiner; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Brambilla, Paolo; Brown, Morris J; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Rory; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gejman, Pablo V

    2014-11-01

    Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ∼2,000, ∼3,700 and ∼9,500 SNPs explained ∼21%, ∼24% and ∼29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/β-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants. PMID:25282103

  13. Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Audrey Y; Estrada, Karol; Luan, Jian’an; Kutalik, Zoltán; Amin, Najaf; Buchkovich, Martin L; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Duan, Yanan; Fall, Tove; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Ferreira, Teresa; Jackson, Anne U; Karjalainen, Juha; Lo, Ken Sin; Locke, Adam E; Mägi, Reedik; Mihailov, Evelin; Porcu, Eleonora; Randall, Joshua C; Scherag, André; Vinkhuyzen, Anna AE; Westra, Harm-Jan; Winkler, Thomas W; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Zhao, Jing Hua; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Anderson, Denise; Baron, Jeffrey; Beekman, Marian; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary F; Fischer, Krista; Fraser, Ross M; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Jian; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kleber, Marcus E; Kristiansson, Kati; Lim, Unhee; Lotay, Vaneet; Lui, Julian C; Mangino, Massimo; Leach, Irene Mateo; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Nalls, Michael A; Nyholt, Dale R; Palmer, Cameron D; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Prokopenko, Inga; Ried, Janina S; Ripke, Stephan; Shungin, Dmitry; Stancáková, Alena; Strawbridge, Rona J; Sung, Yun Ju; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Trompet, Stella; van der Laan, Sander W; van Setten, Jessica; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Wang, Zhaoming; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Afzal, Uzma; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Bolton, Jennifer L; Böttcher, Yvonne; Boyd, Heather A; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Buckley, Brendan M; Buyske, Steven; Caspersen, Ida H; Chines, Peter S; Clarke, Robert; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Cooper, Matthew; Daw, E Warwick; De Jong, Pim A; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela; Denny, Josh C; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex SF; Dörr, Marcus; Eklund, Niina; Eury, Elodie; Folkersen, Lasse; Garcia, Melissa E; Geller, Frank; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Go, Alan S; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grönberg, Henrik; de Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M.; Groves, Christopher J; Haessler, Jeffrey; Hall, Per; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hannemann, Anke; Hartman, Catharina A; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Helmer, Quinta; Hemani, Gibran; Henders, Anjali K; Hillege, Hans L; Hlatky, Mark A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Per; Holmen, Oddgeir; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Illig, Thomas; Isaacs, Aaron; James, Alan L; Jeff, Janina; Johansen, Berit; Johansson, Åsa; Jolley, Jennifer; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Junttila, Juhani; Kho, Abel N; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kocher, Thomas; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lu, Yingchang; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Mahajan, Anubha; Maillard, Marc; McArdle, Wendy L; McKenzie, Colin A; McLachlan, Stela; McLaren, Paul J; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Milani, Lili; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L; Morken, Mario A; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Arthur W; Narisu, Narisu; Nauck, Matthias; Nolte, Ilja M; Nöthen, Markus M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pilz, Stefan; Rayner, Nigel W; Renstrom, Frida; Robertson, Neil R; Rose, Lynda M; Roussel, Ronan; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, Robert A; Sehmi, Joban; Seufferlein, Thomas; Shi, Jianxin; Silventoinen, Karri; Smit, Johannes H; Smith, Albert Vernon; Smolonska, Joanna; Stanton, Alice V; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stott, David J; Stringham, Heather M; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tyrer, Jonathan P; van Dijk, Suzanne; van Schoor, Natasja M; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Heemst, Diana; van Oort, Floor VA; Vermeulen, Sita H; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M; Waite, Lindsay L; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wennauer, Roman; Wilkens, Lynne R; Willenborg, Christina; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K; Wong, Andrew; Wright, Alan F; Zhang, Qunyuan; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan JL; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N; Bergmann, Sven; Biffar, Reiner; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Brambilla, Paolo; Brown, Morris J; Campbell, Harry; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Rory; Collins, Francis S; Crawford, Dana C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; den Ruijter, Hester M; Erbel, Raimund; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Ford, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Forrester, Terrence; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2014-01-01

    Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explain one-fifth of heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ~2,000, ~3,700 and ~9,500 SNPs explained ~21%, ~24% and ~29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured the majority (60%) of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci enriched for genes, pathways, and tissue-types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/beta-catenin, and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants. PMID:25282103

  14. Contrasting genetic architectures of schizophrenia and other complex diseases using fast variance-components analysis.

    PubMed

    Loh, Po-Ru; Bhatia, Gaurav; Gusev, Alexander; Finucane, Hilary K; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan K; Pollack, Samuela J; de Candia, Teresa R; Lee, Sang Hong; Wray, Naomi R; Kendler, Kenneth S; O'Donovan, Michael C; Neale, Benjamin M; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L

    2015-12-01

    Heritability analyses of genome-wide association study (GWAS) cohorts have yielded important insights into complex disease architecture, and increasing sample sizes hold the promise of further discoveries. Here we analyze the genetic architectures of schizophrenia in 49,806 samples from the PGC and nine complex diseases in 54,734 samples from the GERA cohort. For schizophrenia, we infer an overwhelmingly polygenic disease architecture in which ≥71% of 1-Mb genomic regions harbor ≥1 variant influencing schizophrenia risk. We also observe significant enrichment of heritability in GC-rich regions and in higher-frequency SNPs for both schizophrenia and GERA diseases. In bivariate analyses, we observe significant genetic correlations (ranging from 0.18 to 0.85) for several pairs of GERA diseases; genetic correlations were on average 1.3 tunes stronger than the correlations of overall disease liabilities. To accomplish these analyses, we developed a fast algorithm for multicomponent, multi-trait variance-components analysis that overcomes prior computational barriers that made such analyses intractable at this scale. PMID:26523775

  15. THE ACTIVITY/SPACE, A LEAST COMMON DENOMINATOR FOR ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMMING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAVILAND, DAVID S.

    TWO INTERRELATED PROBLEM AREAS OF ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMING ARE DISCUSSED--(1) "NEEDS DEFINITION," AND (2) "NEEDS DOCUMENTATION AND COMMUNICATION". FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES AND WORK OF THE CENTER FOR ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH ARE PRESENTED. ISSUES ARE THE FAILURE TO RECOGNIZE HOW, WHEN, AND IN WHAT FORM THE NEED WILL BE USED. CRITERIA FORMULATION MUST BE…

  16. On Studying Common Factor Variance in Multiple-Component Measuring Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Pohl, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    A method for examining common factor variance in multiple-component measuring instruments is outlined. The procedure is based on an application of the latent variable modeling methodology and is concerned with evaluating observed variance explained by a global factor and by one or more additional component-specific factors. The approach furnishes…

  17. The component-based architecture of the HELIOS medical software engineering environment.

    PubMed

    Degoulet, P; Jean, F C; Engelmann, U; Meinzer, H P; Baud, R; Sandblad, B; Wigertz, O; Le Meur, R; Jagermann, C

    1994-12-01

    The constitution of highly integrated health information networks and the growth of multimedia technologies raise new challenges for the development of medical applications. We describe in this paper the general architecture of the HELIOS medical software engineering environment devoted to the development and maintenance of multimedia distributed medical applications. HELIOS is made of a set of software components, federated by a communication channel called the HELIOS Unification Bus. The HELIOS kernel includes three main components, the Analysis-Design and Environment, the Object Information System and the Interface Manager. HELIOS services consist in a collection of toolkits providing the necessary facilities to medical application developers. They include Image Related services, a Natural Language Processor, a Decision Support System and Connection services. The project gives special attention to both object-oriented approaches and software re-usability that are considered crucial steps towards the development of more reliable, coherent and integrated applications. PMID:7882667

  18. The Emergence of Agent-Based Technology as an Architectural Component of Serious Games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Mark; Scolaro, Jackie; Scolaro, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of games as an alternative to traditional simulations in the military context has been gathering momentum over the past five years, even though the exploration of their use in the serious sense has been ongoing since the mid-nineties. Much of the focus has been on the aesthetics of the visuals provided by the core game engine as well as the artistry provided by talented development teams to produce not only breathtaking artwork, but highly immersive game play. Consideration of game technology is now so much a part of the modeling and simulation landscape that it is becoming difficult to distinguish traditional simulation solutions from game-based approaches. But games have yet to provide the much needed interactive free play that has been the domain of semi-autonomous forces (SAF). The component-based middleware architecture that game engines provide promises a great deal in terms of options for the integration of agent solutions to support the development of non-player characters that engage the human player without the deterministic nature of scripted behaviors. However, there are a number of hard-learned lessons on the modeling and simulation side of the equation that game developers have yet to learn, such as: correlation of heterogeneous systems, scalability of both terrain and numbers of non-player entities, and the bi-directional nature of simulation to game interaction provided by Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) and High Level Architecture (HLA).

  19. Security Framework for Pervasive Healthcare Architectures Utilizing MPEG-21 IPMP Components

    PubMed Central

    Fragopoulos, Anastasios; Gialelis, John; Serpanos, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays in modern and ubiquitous computing environments, it is imperative more than ever the necessity for deployment of pervasive healthcare architectures into which the patient is the central point surrounded by different types of embedded and small computing devices, which measure sensitive physical indications, interacting with hospitals databases, allowing thus urgent medical response in occurrences of critical situations. Such environments must be developed satisfying the basic security requirements for real-time secure data communication, and protection of sensitive medical data and measurements, data integrity and confidentiality, and protection of the monitored patient's privacy. In this work, we argue that the MPEG-21 Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP) components can be used in order to achieve protection of transmitted medical information and enhance patient's privacy, since there is selective and controlled access to medical data that sent toward the hospital's servers. PMID:19132095

  20. Architecture of the major component of the type III secretion system export apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Abrusci, Patrizia; Vergara–Irigaray, Marta; Johnson, Steven; Beeby, Morgan D; Hendrixson, David; Roversi, Pietro; Friede, Miriam E; Deane, Janet E; Jensen, Grant J; Tang, Christoph M; Lea, Susan M

    2012-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are bacterial membrane-embedded secretion nanomachines designed to export specifically targeted sets of proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm. Secretion through T3SS is governed by a subset of inner membrane proteins termed the ‘export apparatus’. We show that a key member of the Shigella flexneri export apparatus, MxiA, assembles into a ring essential for secretion in vivo. The ring forming interfaces are well conserved in both non-flagellar and flagellar homologues, implying that the ring is an evolutionary conserved feature in these systems. Electron cryo-tomography reveals a T3SS-associated cytoplasmic torus of size and shape corresponding to the MxiA ring aligned to the secretion channel located between the secretion pore and the ATPase complex. This defines the molecular architecture of the dominant component of the export apparatus and allows us to propose a model for the molecular mechanisms controlling secretion. PMID:23222644

  1. Abstract Interfaces for Data Analysis - Component Architecture for Data Analysis Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Barrand, Guy

    2002-08-20

    The fast turnover of software technologies, in particular in the domain of interactivity (covering user interface and visualization), makes it difficult for a small group of people to produce complete and polished software-tools before the underlying technologies make them obsolete. At the HepVis '99 workshop, a working group has been formed to improve the production of software tools for data analysis in HENP. Beside promoting a distributed development organization, one goal of the group is to systematically design a set of abstract interfaces based on using modern OO analysis and OO design techniques. An initial domain analysis has come up with several categories (components) found in typical data analysis tools: Histograms, Ntuples, Functions, Vectors, Fitter, Plotter, Analyzer and Controller. Special emphasis was put on reducing the couplings between the categories to a minimum, thus optimizing re-use and maintainability of any component individually. The interfaces have been defined in Java and C++ and implementations exist in the form of libraries and tools using C++ (Anaphe/Lizard, OpenScientist) and Java (Java Analysis Studio). A special implementation aims at accessing the Java libraries (through their Abstract Interfaces) from C++. This paper gives an overview of the architecture and design of the various components for data analysis as discussed in AIDA.

  2. Component Analysis versus Common Factor Analysis: Some issues in Selecting an Appropriate Procedure.

    PubMed

    Velicer, W F; Jackson, D N

    1990-01-01

    Should one do a component analysis or a factor analysis? The choice is not obvious, because the two broad classes of procedures serve a similar purpose, and share many important mathematical characteristics. Despite many textbooks describing common factor analysis as the preferred procedure, principal component analysis has been the most widely applied. Here we summarize relevant information for the prospective factor/component analyst. First, we discuss the key algebraic similarities and differences. Next, we analyze a number of theoretical and practical issues. The more practical aspects include: the degree of numeric similarity between solutions from the two methods, some common rules for the number of factors to be retained, effects resulting from overextraction, problems with improper solutions, and comparisons in computational efficiency. Finally, we review some broader theoretical issues: the factor indeterminacy issue, the differences between exploratory and confirmatory procedures, and the issue of latent versus manifest variables. PMID:26741964

  3. Statistical intercomparison of global climate models: A common principal component approach with application to GCM data

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S.K.; Boyle, J.S.

    1993-05-01

    Variables describing atmospheric circulation and other climate parameters derived from various GCMs and obtained from observations can be represented on a spatio-temporal grid (lattice) structure. The primary objective of this paper is to explore existing as well as some new statistical methods to analyze such data structures for the purpose of model diagnostics and intercomparison from a statistical perspective. Among the several statistical methods considered here, a new method based on common principal components appears most promising for the purpose of intercomparison of spatio-temporal data structures arising in the task of model/model and model/data intercomparison. A complete strategy for such an intercomparison is outlined. The strategy includes two steps. First, the commonality of spatial structures in two (or more) fields is captured in the common principal vectors. Second, the corresponding principal components obtained as time series are then compared on the basis of similarities in their temporal evolution.

  4. Common object request broker architecture (CORBA)-based security services for the virtual radiology environment.

    PubMed

    Martinez, R; Cole, C; Rozenblit, J; Cook, J F; Chacko, A K

    2000-05-01

    The US Army Great Plains Regional Medical Command (GPRMC) has a requirement to conform to Department of Defense (DoD) and Army security policies for the Virtual Radiology Environment (VRE) Project. Within the DoD, security policy is defined as the set of laws, rules, and practices that regulate how an organization manages, protects, and distributes sensitive information. Security policy in the DoD is described by the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC), Army Regulation (AR) 380-19, Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating Environment (DII COE), Military Health Services System Automated Information Systems Security Policy Manual, and National Computer Security Center-TG-005, "Trusted Network Interpretation." These documents were used to develop a security policy that defines information protection requirements that are made with respect to those laws, rules, and practices that are required to protect the information stored and processed in the VRE Project. The goal of the security policy is to provide for a C2-level of information protection while also satisfying the functional needs of the GPRMC's user community. This report summarizes the security policy for the VRE and defines the CORBA security services that satisfy the policy. In the VRE, the information to be protected is embedded into three major information components: (1) Patient information consists of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-formatted fields. The patient information resides in the digital imaging network picture archiving and communication system (DIN-PACS) networks in the database archive systems and includes (a) patient demographics; (b) patient images from x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US); and (c) prior patient images and related patient history. (2) Meta-Manager information to be protected consists of several data objects. This information is distributed to the Meta-Manager nodes and

  5. Application of the component paradigm for analysis and design of advanced health system architectures.

    PubMed

    Blobel, B

    2000-12-01

    Based on the component paradigm for software engineering as well as on a consideration of common middleware approaches for health information systems, a generic component model has been developed supporting analysis, design, implementation and harmonisation of such complex systems. Using methods like abstract automatons and the Unified Modelling Language (UML), it could be shown that such components enable the modelling of real-world systems at different levels of abstractions and granularity, so reflecting different views on the same system in a generic and consistent way. Therefore, not only programs and technologies could be modelled, but also business processes, organisational frameworks or security issues as done successfully within the framework of several European projects. PMID:11137472

  6. Optimal Architecture for an Asteroid Mining Mission: System Components and Project Execution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Ken R.

    2007-01-01

    Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) offer potential profits both in the near-term (mining platinum group metals, or PGMs) and long-term (harvesting water, volatiles and ore to provide the economic backbone for lunar, Martian and other space exploration). The abundance of raw materials in NEAs include: water and other volatiles for life-support and power, nickel, iron and other metals for construction and manufacturing; carbonaceous compounds for ceramics and building materials; and PGMs for fuel cells and numerous applications on Earth. An efficient, flexible and cost-effective mission utilizing adaptable and resilient robotic compo-nents is essential to successfully establish NEA mining as a comer-cial enterprise. This paper presents an optimized architecture, detailing necessary engineering components, task integration between them, and methods to address the more likely problems encountered. Candidate NEAs are suggested that could offer optimal PGM resources and that have already been evaluated by rendezvous mapping. Mission delta-V and propellant selection are based upon launch from and return to LEO. On-site equipment includes AI-guided robotics, with human telecontrol from Earth to minimize risk and cost. A command-control-communication (CCC) unit orbits the NEA, and coordinates four small lander-miners (LMs), each of which acquire and process regolith. Two LMs are specialized for water and volatiles, two for PGM and Ni-Fe ore. A solar-powered unit hydrolyzes water from the NEA into H2 and O2 for use as propellant, and a solar-thermal propulsion unit returns additional water, PGMs and Ni-Fe ore to LEO. The pro-posed architecture emphasizes flexibility, redundancy of critical units, and fail-safes to maximize probability of mission success. Potential problems addressed include: failure of components, varying surface conditions and mineralogic content, fluctuating solar exposure (due to asteroid rotation) and its impact on solar power units, extreme temperature changes

  7. Muscle architecture of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): perspectives for investigating chimpanzee behavior.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Kristian J

    2006-07-01

    Thorpe et al. (Am J Phys Anthropol 110:179-199, 1999) quantified chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) muscle architecture and joint moment arms to determine whether they functionally compensated for structural differences between chimpanzees and humans. They observed enough distinction to conclude that musculoskeletal properties were not compensatory and suggested that chimpanzees and humans do not exhibit dynamically similar movements. These investigators based their assessment on unilateral limb musculatures from three male chimpanzees, of which they called one non-adult representative. Factors such as age, sex, and behavioral lateralization may be responsible for variation in chimpanzee muscle architecture, but this is presently unknown. While the full extent of variation in chimpanzee muscle architecture due to such factors cannot be evaluated with data presently available, the present study expands the chimpanzee dataset and provides a preliminary glimpse of the potential relevance of these factors. Thirty-seven forelimb and 36 hind limb muscles were assessed in two chimpanzee cadavers: one unilaterally (right limbs), and one bilaterally. Mass, fiber length, and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are reported for individual muscles and muscle groups. The musculature of an adult female is more similar in architectural patterns to a young male chimpanzee than to humans, particularly when comparing muscle groups. Age- and sex-related intraspecific differences do not obscure chimpanzee-human interspecific differences. Side asymmetry in one chimpanzee, despite consistent forelimb directional asymmetry, also does not exceed the magnitude of chimpanzee-human differences. Left forelimb muscles, on average, usually had higher masses and longer fiber lengths than right, while right forelimb muscles, on average, usually had greater PCSAs than left. Most muscle groups from the left forelimb exhibited greater masses than right groups, but group asymmetry was significant

  8. Miniaturized Analytical Platforms From Nanoparticle Components: Studies in the Construction, Characterization, and High-Throughput Usage of These Novel Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew David Pris

    2003-08-05

    The scientific community has recently experienced an overall effort to reduce the physical size of many experimental components to the nanometer size range. This size is unique as the characteristics of this regime involve aspects of pure physics, biology, and chemistry. One extensively studied example of a nanometer sized experimental component, which acts as a junction between these three principle scientific theologies, is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA). These biopolymers not only contain the biological genetic guide to code for the production of life-sustaining materials, but are also being probed by physicists as a means to create electrical circuits and furthermore as controllable architectural and sensor motifs in the chemical disciplines. Possibly the most common nano-sized component between these sciences are nanoparticles composed of a variety of materials. The cross discipline employment of nanoparticles is evident from the vast amount of literature that has been produced from each of the individual communities within the last decade. Along these cross-discipline lines, this dissertation examines the use of several different types of nanoparticles with a wide array of surface chemistries to understand their adsorption properties and to construct unique miniaturized analytical and immunoassay platforms. This introduction will act as a literature review to provide key information regarding the synthesis and surface chemistries of several types of nanoparticles. This material will set the stage for a discussion of assembling ordered arrays of nanoparticles into functional platforms, architectures, and sensors. The introduction will also include a short explanation of the atomic force microscope that is used throughout the thesis to characterize the nanoparticle-based structures. Following the Introduction, four research chapters are presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 1 examines the self-assembly of polymeric nanoparticles

  9. Toxic and nontoxic components of botulinum neurotoxin complex are evolved from a common ancestral zinc protein

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, Ken; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Miyata, Keita; Miyashita, Shin-Ichiro; Suzuki, Tomonori; Shikamori, Yasuyuki; Ohyama, Tohru; Niwa, Koichi; Watanabe, Toshihiro

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BoNT and NTNHA proteins share a similar protein architecture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NTNHA and BoNT were both identified as zinc-binding proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NTNHA does not have a classical HEXXH zinc-coordinating motif similar to that found in all serotypes of BoNT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homology modeling implied probable key residues involved in zinc coordination. -- Abstract: Zinc atoms play an essential role in a number of enzymes. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the most potent toxin known in nature, is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase. Here we identify the nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA), one of the BoNT-complex constituents, as a zinc-binding protein, along with BoNT. A protein structure classification database search indicated that BoNT and NTNHA share a similar domain architecture, comprising a zinc-dependent metalloproteinase-like, BoNT coiled-coil motif and concanavalin A-like domains. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that every single NTNHA molecule contains a single zinc atom. This is the first demonstration of a zinc atom in this protein, as far as we know. However, the NTNHA molecule does not possess any known zinc-coordinating motif, whereas all BoNT serotypes possess the classical HEXXH motif. Homology modeling of the NTNHA structure implied that a consensus K-C-L-I-K-X{sub 35}-D sequence common among all NTNHA serotype molecules appears to coordinate a single zinc atom. These findings lead us to propose that NTNHA and BoNT may have evolved distinct functional specializations following their branching out from a common ancestral zinc protein.

  10. Identifying common components across biological network graphs using a bipartite data model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The GeneWeaver bipartite data model provides an efficient means to evaluate shared molecular components from sets derived across diverse species, disease states and biological processes. In order to adapt this model for examining related molecular components and biological networks, such as pathway or gene network data, we have developed a means to leverage the bipartite data structure to extract and analyze shared edges. Using the Pathway Commons database we demonstrate the ability to rapidly identify shared connected components among a diverse set of pathways. In addition, we illustrate how results from maximal bipartite discovery can be decomposed into hierarchical relationships, allowing shared pathway components to be mapped through various parent-child relationships to help visualization and discovery of emergent kernel driven relationships. Interrogating common relationships among biological networks and conventional GeneWeaver gene lists will increase functional specificity and reliability of the shared biological components. This approach enables self-organization of biological processes through shared biological networks. PMID:25374613

  11. Raw Data Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Common Principal Component Models: A State Space Approach.

    PubMed

    Gu, Fei; Wu, Hao

    2016-09-01

    The specifications of state space model for some principal component-related models are described, including the independent-group common principal component (CPC) model, the dependent-group CPC model, and principal component-based multivariate analysis of variance. Some derivations are provided to show the equivalence of the state space approach and the existing Wishart-likelihood approach. For each model, a numeric example is used to illustrate the state space approach. In addition, a simulation study is conducted to evaluate the standard error estimates under the normality and nonnormality conditions. In order to cope with the nonnormality conditions, the robust standard errors are also computed. Finally, other possible applications of the state space approach are discussed at the end. PMID:27364333

  12. Whole-genome sequencing to understand the genetic architecture of common gene expression and biomarker phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Andrew R.; Tuke, Marcus A.; Nalls, Mike; Hernandez, Dena; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Lin, Haoxiang; Xu, Christopher S.; Li, Qibin; Shen, Juan; Jun, Goo; Almeida, Marcio; Tanaka, Toshiko; Perry, John R. B.; Gaulton, Kyle; Rivas, Manny; Pearson, Richard; Curran, Joanne E.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Blangero, John; Mccarthy, Mark I.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Murray, Anna; Weedon, Michael N.; Singleton, Andrew; Melzer, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Frayling, Timothy M

    2015-01-01

    Initial results from sequencing studies suggest that there are relatively few low-frequency (<5%) variants associated with large effects on common phenotypes. We performed low-pass whole-genome sequencing in 680 individuals from the InCHIANTI study to test two primary hypotheses: (i) that sequencing would detect single low-frequency–large effect variants that explained similar amounts of phenotypic variance as single common variants, and (ii) that some common variant associations could be explained by low-frequency variants. We tested two sets of disease-related common phenotypes for which we had statistical power to detect large numbers of common variant–common phenotype associations—11 132 cis-gene expression traits in 450 individuals and 93 circulating biomarkers in all 680 individuals. From a total of 11 657 229 high-quality variants of which 6 129 221 and 5 528 008 were common and low frequency (<5%), respectively, low frequency–large effect associations comprised 7% of detectable cis-gene expression traits [89 of 1314 cis-eQTLs at P < 1 × 10−06 (false discovery rate ∼5%)] and one of eight biomarker associations at P < 8 × 10−10. Very few (30 of 1232; 2%) common variant associations were fully explained by low-frequency variants. Our data show that whole-genome sequencing can identify low-frequency variants undetected by genotyping based approaches when sample sizes are sufficiently large to detect substantial numbers of common variant associations, and that common variant associations are rarely explained by single low-frequency variants of large effect. PMID:25378555

  13. A Flexible Component based Access Control Architecture for OPeNDAP Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kershaw, Philip; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Cinquini, Luca; Lawrence, Bryan; Pascoe, Stephen; Siebenlist, Frank

    2010-05-01

    Network data access services such as OPeNDAP enable widespread access to data across user communities. However, without ready means to restrict access to data for such services, data providers and data owners are constrained from making their data more widely available. Even with such capability, the range of different security technologies available can make interoperability between services and user client tools a challenge. OPeNDAP is a key data access service in the infrastructure under development to support the CMIP5 (Couple Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5). The work is being carried out as part of an international collaboration including the US Earth System Grid and Curator projects and the EU funded IS-ENES and Metafor projects. This infrastructure will bring together Petabytes of climate model data and associated metadata from over twenty modelling centres around the world in a federation with a core archive mirrored at three data centres. A security system is needed to meet the requirements of organisations responsible for model data including the ability to restrict data access to registered users, keep them up to date with changes to data and services, audit access and protect finite computing resources. Individual organisations have existing tools and services such as OPeNDAP with which users in the climate research community are already familiar. The security system should overlay access control in a way which maintains the usability and ease of access to these services. The BADC (British Atmospheric Data Centre) has been working in collaboration with the Earth System Grid development team and partner organisations to develop the security architecture. OpenID and MyProxy were selected at an early stage in the ESG project to provide single sign-on capability across the federation of participating organisations. Building on the existing OPeNDAP specification an architecture based on pluggable server side components has been developed at the BADC

  14. The pherophorins: common, versatile building blocks in the evolution of extracellular matrix architecture in Volvocales.

    PubMed

    Hallmann, Armin

    2006-01-01

    a result of the highly diverse extensions of the HR domains. Pherophorins have therefore been a versatile element during the evolution of ECM architecture in these green algae. PMID:16367971

  15. Common Components of Industrial Metal-Working Fluids as Sources of Carbon for Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Foxall-VanAken, S.; Brown, J. A.; Young, W.; Salmeen, I.; McClure, T.; Napier, S.; Olsen, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Water-based metal-working fluids used in large-scale industrial operations consist of many components, but in the most commonly used formulations only three classes of components are present in high enough concentrations that they could, in principle, provide enough carbon to support the high bacterial densities (109 CFU/ml) often observed in contaminated factory fluids. These components are petroleum oil (1 to 5%), petroleum sulfonates (0.1 to 0.5%), and fatty acids (less than 0.1%, mainly linoleic and oleic acids supplied as tall oils). We isolated pure strains of predominating bacteria from contaminated reservoirs of two metal-working systems and randomly selected 12 strains which we tested in liquid culture for growth with each of the metal-working fluid components as the sole source of carbon. Of the 12 strains, 7 reached high density (109 CFU/ml from an initial inoculum of less than 2 × 103) in 24 h, and 1 strain did the same in 48 h with 0.05% oleic or linoleic acid as the carbon source. These same strains also grew on 1% naphthenic petroleum oil but required up to 72 h to reach densities near 108 CFU/ml. One strain grew slightly and the others not at all on the petroleum sulfonates. The four remaining strains did not grow on any of the components, even though they were among the predominating bacteria in the contaminated system. Of the seven strains that grew best on the fatty acids and on the naphthenic petroleum oil, five were tentatively identified as Acinetobacter species and two were identified as Pseudomonas species. Four of the bacteria that did not grow were tentatively identified as species of Pseudomonas, and one could not be identified. PMID:16347072

  16. Disease and Polygenic Architecture: Avoid Trio Design and Appropriately Account for Unscreened Control Subjects for Common Disease

    PubMed Central

    Peyrot, Wouter J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Wray, Naomi R.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are an optimal design for discovery of disease risk loci for diseases whose underlying genetic architecture includes many common causal loci of small effect (a polygenic architecture). We consider two designs that deserve careful consideration if the true underlying genetic architecture of the trait is polygenic: parent-offspring trios and unscreened control subjects. We assess these designs in terms of quantification of the total contribution of genome-wide genetic markers to disease risk (SNP heritability) and power to detect an associated risk allele. First, we show that trio designs should be avoided when: (1) the disease has a lifetime risk > 1%; (2) trio probands are ascertained from families with more than one affected sibling under which scenario the SNP heritability can drop by more than 50% and power can drop as much as from 0.9 to 0.15 for a sample of 20,000 subjects; or (3) assortative mating occurs (spouse correlation of the underlying liability to the disorder), which decreases the SNP heritability but not the power to detect a single locus in the trio design. Some studies use unscreened rather than screened control subjects because these can be easier to collect; we show that the estimated SNP heritability should then be scaled by dividing by (1 − K × u)2 for disorders with population prevalence K and proportion of unscreened control subjects u. When omitting to scale appropriately, the SNP heritability of, for example, major depressive disorder (K = 0.15) would be underestimated by 28% when none of the control subjects are screened. PMID:26849113

  17. Systems-level quantification of division timing reveals a common genetic architecture controlling asynchrony and fate asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Vincy Wing Sze; Wong, Ming-Kin; An, Xiaomeng; Guan, Daogang; Shao, Jiaofang; Ng, Hon Chun Kaoru; Ren, Xiaoliang; He, Kan; Liao, Jinyue; Ang, Yingjin; Chen, Long; Huang, Xiaotai; Yan, Bin; Xia, Yiji; Chan, Leanne Lai Hang; Chow, King Lau; Yan, Hong; Zhao, Zhongying

    2015-01-01

    Coordination of cell division timing is crucial for proper cell fate specification and tissue growth. However, the differential regulation of cell division timing across or within cell types during metazoan development remains poorly understood. To elucidate the systems-level genetic architecture coordinating division timing, we performed a high-content screening for genes whose depletion produced a significant reduction in the asynchrony of division between sister cells (ADS) compared to that of wild-type during Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis. We quantified division timing using 3D time-lapse imaging followed by computer-aided lineage analysis. A total of 822 genes were selected for perturbation based on their conservation and known roles in development. Surprisingly, we find that cell fate determinants are not only essential for establishing fate asymmetry, but also are imperative for setting the ADS regardless of cellular context, indicating a common genetic architecture used by both cellular processes. The fate determinants demonstrate either coupled or separate regulation between the two processes. The temporal coordination appears to facilitate cell migration during fate specification or tissue growth. Our quantitative dataset with cellular resolution provides a resource for future analyses of the genetic control of spatial and temporal coordination during metazoan development. PMID:26063786

  18. Moving Towards a Common Ground and Flight Data Systems Architecture for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader. Steve; Kearney, Mike; McVittie, Thom; Smith, Dan

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has embarked on an ambitious effort to return man to the moon and then on to Mars. The Exploration Vision requires development of major new space and ground assets and poses challenges well beyond those faced by many of NASA's recent programs. New crewed vehicles must be developed. Compatible supply vehicles, surface mobility modules and robotic exploration capabilities will supplement the manned exploration vehicle. New launch systems will be developed as well as a new ground communications and control infrastructure. The development must take place in a cost-constrained environment and must advance along an aggressive schedule. Common solutions and system interoperability and will be critical to the successful development of the Exploration data systems for this wide variety of flight and ground elements. To this end, NASA has assembled a team of engineers from across the agency to identify the key challenges for Exploration data systems and to establish the most beneficial strategic approach to be followed. Key challenges and the planned NASA approach for flight and ground systems will be discussed in the paper. The described approaches will capitalize on new technologies, and will result in cross-program interoperability between spacecraft and ground systems, from multiple suppliers and agencies.

  19. Genetic Architecture of Atherosclerosis in Mice: A Systems Genetics Analysis of Common Inbred Strains

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Brian J.; Davis, Richard C.; Civelek, Mete; Orozco, Luz; Wu, Judy; Qi, Hannah; Pan, Calvin; Packard, René R. Sevag; Eskin, Eleazar; Yan, Mujing; Kirchgessner, Todd; Wang, Zeneng; Li, Xinmin; Gregory, Jill C.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Gargalovic, Peter S.; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    Common forms of atherosclerosis involve multiple genetic and environmental factors. While human genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci contributing to coronary artery disease and its risk factors, these studies are unable to control environmental factors or examine detailed molecular traits in relevant tissues. We now report a study of natural variations contributing to atherosclerosis and related traits in over 100 inbred strains of mice from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP). The mice were made hyperlipidemic by transgenic expression of human apolipoprotein E-Leiden (APOE-Leiden) and human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). The mice were examined for lesion size and morphology as well as plasma lipid, insulin and glucose levels, and blood cell profiles. A subset of mice was studied for plasma levels of metabolites and cytokines. We also measured global transcript levels in aorta and liver. Finally, the uptake of acetylated LDL by macrophages from HMDP mice was quantitatively examined. Loci contributing to the traits were mapped using association analysis, and relationships among traits were examined using correlation and statistical modeling. A number of conclusions emerged. First, relationships among atherosclerosis and the risk factors in mice resemble those found in humans. Second, a number of trait-loci were identified, including some overlapping with previous human and mouse studies. Third, gene expression data enabled enrichment analysis of pathways contributing to atherosclerosis and prioritization of candidate genes at associated loci in both mice and humans. Fourth, the data provided a number of mechanistic inferences; for example, we detected no association between macrophage uptake of acetylated LDL and atherosclerosis. Fifth, broad sense heritability for atherosclerosis was much larger than narrow sense heritability, indicating an important role for gene-by-gene interactions. Sixth, stepwise linear regression

  20. Genetic Architecture of Atherosclerosis in Mice: A Systems Genetics Analysis of Common Inbred Strains.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Brian J; Davis, Richard C; Civelek, Mete; Orozco, Luz; Wu, Judy; Qi, Hannah; Pan, Calvin; Packard, René R Sevag; Eskin, Eleazar; Yan, Mujing; Kirchgessner, Todd; Wang, Zeneng; Li, Xinmin; Gregory, Jill C; Hazen, Stanley L; Gargalovic, Peter S; Lusis, Aldons J

    2015-12-01

    Common forms of atherosclerosis involve multiple genetic and environmental factors. While human genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci contributing to coronary artery disease and its risk factors, these studies are unable to control environmental factors or examine detailed molecular traits in relevant tissues. We now report a study of natural variations contributing to atherosclerosis and related traits in over 100 inbred strains of mice from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP). The mice were made hyperlipidemic by transgenic expression of human apolipoprotein E-Leiden (APOE-Leiden) and human cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). The mice were examined for lesion size and morphology as well as plasma lipid, insulin and glucose levels, and blood cell profiles. A subset of mice was studied for plasma levels of metabolites and cytokines. We also measured global transcript levels in aorta and liver. Finally, the uptake of acetylated LDL by macrophages from HMDP mice was quantitatively examined. Loci contributing to the traits were mapped using association analysis, and relationships among traits were examined using correlation and statistical modeling. A number of conclusions emerged. First, relationships among atherosclerosis and the risk factors in mice resemble those found in humans. Second, a number of trait-loci were identified, including some overlapping with previous human and mouse studies. Third, gene expression data enabled enrichment analysis of pathways contributing to atherosclerosis and prioritization of candidate genes at associated loci in both mice and humans. Fourth, the data provided a number of mechanistic inferences; for example, we detected no association between macrophage uptake of acetylated LDL and atherosclerosis. Fifth, broad sense heritability for atherosclerosis was much larger than narrow sense heritability, indicating an important role for gene-by-gene interactions. Sixth, stepwise linear regression

  1. Studies on the thermal breakdown of common Li-ion battery electrolyte components

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Roth, Emanuel Peter; Langendorf, Jill Louise

    2015-08-06

    While much attention is paid to the impact of the active materials on the catastrophic failure of lithium ion batteries, much of the severity of a battery failure is also governed by the electrolytes used, which are typically flammable themselves and can decompose during battery failure. The use of LiPF6 salt can be problematic as well, not only catalyzing electrolyte decomposition, but also providing a mechanism for HF production. This work evaluates the safety performance of the common components ethylene carbonate (EC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) in the context of the gasses producedmore » during thermal decomposition, looking at both the quantity and composition of the vapor produced. EC and DEC were found to be the largest contributors to gas production, both producing upwards of 1.5 moles of gas/mole of electrolyte. DMC was found to be relatively stable, producing very little gas regardless of the presence of LiPF6. EMC was stable on its own, but the addition of LiPF6 catalyzed decomposition of the solvent. As a result, while gas analysis did not show evidence of significant quantities of any acutely toxic materials, the gasses themselves all contained enough flammable components to potentially ignite in air.« less

  2. Studies on the thermal breakdown of common Li-ion battery electrolyte components

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Roth, Emanuel Peter; Langendorf, Jill Louise

    2015-08-06

    While much attention is paid to the impact of the active materials on the catastrophic failure of lithium ion batteries, much of the severity of a battery failure is also governed by the electrolytes used, which are typically flammable themselves and can decompose during battery failure. The use of LiPF6 salt can be problematic as well, not only catalyzing electrolyte decomposition, but also providing a mechanism for HF production. This work evaluates the safety performance of the common components ethylene carbonate (EC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) in the context of the gasses produced during thermal decomposition, looking at both the quantity and composition of the vapor produced. EC and DEC were found to be the largest contributors to gas production, both producing upwards of 1.5 moles of gas/mole of electrolyte. DMC was found to be relatively stable, producing very little gas regardless of the presence of LiPF6. EMC was stable on its own, but the addition of LiPF6 catalyzed decomposition of the solvent. As a result, while gas analysis did not show evidence of significant quantities of any acutely toxic materials, the gasses themselves all contained enough flammable components to potentially ignite in air.

  3. Unbiased analysis of senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) to identify common components following different genotoxic stresses.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Servet; Alessio, Nicola; Acar, Mustafa B; Mert, Eda; Omerli, Fatih; Peluso, Gianfranco; Galderisi, Umberto

    2016-07-01

    Senescent cells secrete senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) proteins to carry out several functions, such as sensitizing surrounding cells to senesce; immunomodulation; impairing or fostering cancer growth; and promoting tissue development. Identifying secreted factors that achieve such tasks is a challenging issue since the profile of secreted proteins depends on genotoxic stress and cell type. Currently, researchers are trying to identify common markers for SASP. The present investigation compared the secretome composition of five different senescent phenotypes in two different cell types: bone marrow and adipose mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). We induced MSC senescence by oxidative stress, doxorubicin treatment, X-ray irradiation, and replicative exhaustion. We took advantage of LC-MS/MS proteome identification and subsequent gene ontology (GO) evaluation to perform an unbiased analysis (hypothesis free manner) of senescent secretomes. GO analysis allowed us to distribute SASP components into four classes: extracellular matrix/cytoskeleton/cell junctions; metabolic processes; ox-redox factors; and regulators of gene expression. We used Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to determine common pathways among the different senescent phenotypes. This investigation, along with identification of eleven proteins that were exclusively expressed in all the analyzed senescent phenotypes, permitted the identification of three key signaling paths: MMP2 - TIMP2; IGFBP3 - PAI-1; and Peroxiredoxin 6 - ERP46 - PARK7 - Cathepsin D - Major vault protein. We suggest that these paths could be involved in the paracrine circuit that induces senescence in neighboring cells and may confer apoptosis resistance to senescent cells. PMID:27288264

  4. Unbiased analysis of senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) to identify common components following different genotoxic stresses

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Servet; Alessio, Nicola; Acar, Mustafa B.; Mert, Eda; Omerli, Fatih; Peluso, Gianfranco; Galderisi, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Senescent cells secrete senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) proteins to carry out several functions, such as sensitizing surrounding cells to senesce; immunomodulation; impairing or fostering cancer growth; and promoting tissue development. Identifying secreted factors that achieve such tasks is a challenging issue since the profile of secreted proteins depends on genotoxic stress and cell type. Currently, researchers are trying to identify common markers for SASP. The present investigation compared the secretome composition of five different senescent phenotypes in two different cell types: bone marrow and adipose mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). We induced MSC senescence by oxidative stress, doxorubicin treatment, X-ray irradiation, and replicative exhaustion. We took advantage of LC-MS/MS proteome identification and subsequent gene ontology (GO) evaluation to perform an unbiased analysis (hypothesis free manner) of senescent secretomes. GO analysis allowed us to distribute SASP components into four classes: extracellular matrix/cytoskeleton/cell junctions; metabolic processes; ox-redox factors; and regulators of gene expression. We used Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to determine common pathways among the different senescent phenotypes. This investigation, along with identification of eleven proteins that were exclusively expressed in all the analyzed senescent phenotypes, permitted the identification of three key signaling paths: MMP2 - TIMP2; IGFBP3 - PAI-1; and Peroxiredoxin 6 - ERP46 - PARK7 - Cathepsin D - Major vault protein. We suggest that these paths could be involved in the paracrine circuit that induces senescence in neighboring cells and may confer apoptosis resistance to senescent cells. PMID:27288264

  5. Antibacterial interactions of monolaurin with commonly used antimicrobials and food components.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wei, Hewen; Cui, Yinan; Zhao, Guoqun; Feng, Fengqin

    2009-09-01

    Monolaurin is a nontraditional antimicrobial agent that possesses better antimicrobial activities but causes no health problems to consumers, but the use of monolaurin in the food industry as a preservative is still limited. Using a microtiter plate assay, the minimum inhibitory concentrations for monolaurin were 25 microg/mL against Escherichia coli, 12.5 microg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, and 30 microg/mL against Bacillus subtilis. The interaction with commonly used antimicrobials revealed that monolaurin and nisin acted synergistically against the test microorganisms, monolaurin in combination with sodium dehydroacetate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was synergistic against E. coli and B. subtilis but not S. aureus, and monolaurin combined with calcium propionate or sodium lactate showed no synergistic effects against any test microorganism. The interaction with food components revealed that the antibacterial effectiveness of monolaurin was reduced by fat or starch while the monolaurin activity remained unchanged in the presence of protein. This study contributes to a better understanding on the use of monolaurin as a nontraditional preservative in food products. Results from this study suggest the potential use of monolaurin as a nontraditional preservative in combination with commonly used antimicrobials, such as nisin, sodium dehydroacetate, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and suggest that the antibacterial effectiveness of monolaurin may be reduced significantly in high-fat or low-starch food products. PMID:19895490

  6. A Common Variant in the Telomerase RNA Component Is Associated with Short Telomere Length

    PubMed Central

    Njajou, Omer T.; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Mangino, Massimo; Damcott, Coleen M.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Spector, Timothy D.; Newman, Anne B.; Harris, Tamara B.; Cummings, Steven R.; Cawthon, Richard M.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Valdes, Ana M.; Hsueh, Wen-Chi

    2010-01-01

    Background Telomeres shorten as cells divide. This shortening is compensated by the enzyme telomerase. We evaluated the effect of common variants in the telomerase RNA component (TERC) gene on telomere length (TL) in the population-based Health Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study and in two replication samples (the TwinsUK Study and the Amish Family Osteoporosis Study, AFOS). Methodology Five variants were identified in the TERC region by sequence analysis and only one SNP was common (rs2293607, G/A). The frequency of the G allele was 0.26 and 0.07 in white and black, respectively. Testing for association between TL and rs2293607 was performed using linear regression models or variance component analysis conditioning on relatedness among subjects. Results The adjusted mean TL was significantly shorter in 665 white carriers of the G allele compared to 887 non-carriers from the Health ABC Study (4.69±0.05 kbp vs. 4.86±0.04 kbp, measured by quantitative PCR, p = 0.005). This association was replicated in another white sample from the TwinsUK Study (6.90±0.03 kbp in 301 carriers compared to 7.06±0.03 kbp in 395 non-carriers, measured by Southern blots, p = 0.009). A similar pattern of association was observed in whites from the family-based AFOS and blacks from the Health ABC cohort, although not statistically significant, possibly due to the lower allele frequency in these populations. Combined analysis using 2,953 white subjects from 3 studies showed a significant association between TL and rs2293607 (β = −0.19±0.04 kbp, p = 0.001). Conclusion Our study shows a significant association between a common variant in TERC and TL in humans, suggesting that TERC may play a role in telomere homeostasis. PMID:20885959

  7. Helplets: A Common Sense-Based Collaborative Help Collection and Retrieval Architecture for Web-Enabled Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauman, Mohammad; Khan, Shahbaz; Khan, Sanaullah

    All computer software systems, whether online or offline, require a help system. Help texts are traditionally written by software development companies and answer targeted questions in the form of how-tos and troubleshooting procedures. However, when the popularity of an application grows, users of the application themselves start adding to the corpus of help for the system in the form of online tutorials. There is, however, one problem with such tutorials. They have no direct link with the software for which they are written. Users have to search the Internet for different tutorials that are usually hosted on dispersed locations, and there is no ideal way of finding the relevant information without ending up with lots of noise in the search results. In this chapter, we describe a model for a help system which enhances this concept using collaborative tagging for categorization of "helplets." For the knowledge retrieval part of the system, we utilize a previously developed technique based on common sense and user personalization. We use a freely available common sense reasoning toolkit for knowledge retrieval. Our architecture can be implemented in Web-based systems as well as in stand-alone desktop applications.

  8. Virtual management of radiology examinations in the virtual radiology environment using common object request broker architecture services.

    PubMed

    Martinez, R; Rozenblit, J; Cook, J F; Chacko, A K; Timboe, H L

    1999-05-01

    In the Department of Defense (DoD), US Army Medical Command is now embarking on an extremely exciting new project--creating a virtual radiology environment (VRE) for the management of radiology examinations. The business of radiology in the military is therefore being reengineered on several fronts by the VRE Project. In the VRE Project, a set of intelligent agent algorithms determine where examinations are to routed for reading bases on a knowledge base of the entire VRE. The set of algorithms, called the Meta-Manager, is hierarchical and uses object-based communications between medical treatment facilities (MTFs) and medical centers that have digital imaging network picture archiving and communications systems (DIN-PACS) networks. The communications is based on use of common object request broker architecture (CORBA) objects and services to send patient demographics and examination images from DIN-PACS networks in the MTFs to the DIN-PACS networks at the medical centers for diagnosis. The Meta-Manager is also responsible for updating the diagnosis at the originating MTF. CORBA services are used to perform secure message communications between DIN-PACS nodes in the VRE network. The Meta-Manager has a fail-safe architecture that allows the master Meta-Manager function to float to regional Meta-Manager sites in case of server failure. A prototype of the CORBA-based Meta-Manager is being developed by the University of Arizona's Computer Engineering Research Laboratory using the unified modeling language (UML) as a design tool. The prototype will implement the main functions described in the Meta-Manager design specification. The results of this project are expected to reengineer the process of radiology in the military and have extensions to commercial radiology environments. PMID:10342205

  9. Towards Zero Retraining for Myoelectric Control Based on Common Model Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianwei; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Jiang, Ning; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2016-04-01

    In spite of several decades of intense research and development, the existing algorithms of myoelectric pattern recognition (MPR) are yet to satisfy the criteria that a practical upper extremity prostheses should fulfill. This study focuses on the criterion of the short, or even zero subject training. Due to the inherent nonstationarity in surface electromyography (sEMG) signals, current myoelectric control algorithms usually need to be retrained daily during a multiple days' usage. This study was conducted based on the hypothesis that there exist some invariant characteristics in the sEMG signals when a subject performs the same motion in different days. Therefore, given a set of classifiers (models) trained on several days, it is possible to find common characteristics among them. To this end, we proposed to use common model component analysis (CMCA) framework, in which an optimized projection was found to minimize the dissimilarity among multiple models of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) trained using data from different days. Five intact-limbed subjects and two transradial amputee subjects participated in an experiment including six sessions of sEMG data recording, which were performed in six different days, to simulate the application of MPR over multiple days. The results demonstrate that CMCA has a significant better generalization ability with unseen data (not included in the training data), leading to classification accuracy improvement and increase of completion rate in a motion test simulation, when comparing with the baseline reference method. The results indicate that CMCA holds a great potential in the effort of developing zero retraining of MPR. PMID:25879963

  10. DELLA proteins are common components of symbiotic rhizobial and mycorrhizal signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yue; Liu, Huan; Luo, Dexian; Yu, Nan; Dong, Wentao; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xiaowei; Dai, Huiling; Yang, Jun; Wang, Ertao

    2016-01-01

    Legumes form symbiotic associations with either nitrogen-fixing bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Formation of these two symbioses is regulated by a common set of signalling components that act downstream of recognition of rhizobia or mycorrhizae by host plants. Central to these pathways is the calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK)-IPD3 complex which initiates nodule organogenesis following calcium oscillations in the host nucleus. However, downstream signalling events are not fully understood. Here we show that Medicago truncatula DELLA proteins, which are the central regulators of gibberellic acid signalling, positively regulate rhizobial symbiosis. Rhizobia colonization is impaired in della mutants and we provide evidence that DELLAs can promote CCaMK-IPD3 complex formation and increase the phosphorylation state of IPD3. DELLAs can also interact with NSP2-NSP1 and enhance the expression of Nod-factor-inducible genes in protoplasts. We show that DELLA is able to bridge a protein complex containing IPD3 and NSP2. Our results suggest a transcriptional framework for regulation of root nodule symbiosis. PMID:27514472

  11. DELLA proteins are common components of symbiotic rhizobial and mycorrhizal signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yue; Liu, Huan; Luo, Dexian; Yu, Nan; Dong, Wentao; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xiaowei; Dai, Huiling; Yang, Jun; Wang, Ertao

    2016-01-01

    Legumes form symbiotic associations with either nitrogen-fixing bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Formation of these two symbioses is regulated by a common set of signalling components that act downstream of recognition of rhizobia or mycorrhizae by host plants. Central to these pathways is the calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK)–IPD3 complex which initiates nodule organogenesis following calcium oscillations in the host nucleus. However, downstream signalling events are not fully understood. Here we show that Medicago truncatula DELLA proteins, which are the central regulators of gibberellic acid signalling, positively regulate rhizobial symbiosis. Rhizobia colonization is impaired in della mutants and we provide evidence that DELLAs can promote CCaMK–IPD3 complex formation and increase the phosphorylation state of IPD3. DELLAs can also interact with NSP2–NSP1 and enhance the expression of Nod-factor-inducible genes in protoplasts. We show that DELLA is able to bridge a protein complex containing IPD3 and NSP2. Our results suggest a transcriptional framework for regulation of root nodule symbiosis. PMID:27514472

  12. Architectural integration of the components necessary for electrical energy storage on the nanoscale and in 3D.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christopher P; Long, Jeffrey W; Pettigrew, Katherine A; Stroud, Rhonda M; Rolison, Debra R

    2011-04-01

    We describe fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) multifunctional nanoarchitectures in which the three critical components of a battery--cathode, separator/electrolyte, and anode--are internally assembled as tricontinuous nanoscopic phases. The architecture is initiated using sol-gel chemistry and processing to erect a 3D self-wired nanoparticulate scaffold of manganese oxide (>200 m(2) g(-1)) with a continuous, open, and mesoporous void volume. The integrated 3D system is generated by exhaustive coverage of the oxide network by an ultrathin, conformal layer of insulating polymer that forms via self-limiting electrodeposition of poly(phenylene oxide). The remaining interconnected void volume is then wired with RuO(2) nanowebs using subambient thermal decomposition of RuO(4). Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that the three nanoscopic charge-transfer functional components--manganese oxide, polymer separator/cation conductor, and RuO(2)--exhibit the stratified, tricontinuous design of the phase-by-phase construction. This architecture contains all three components required for a solid-state energy storage device within a void volume sized at tens of nanometres such that nanometre-thick distances are established between the opposing electrodes. We have now demonstrated the ability to assemble multifunctional energy-storage nanoarchitectures on the nanoscale and in three dimensions. PMID:21327256

  13. Comparing the Magnitude of Two Fractions with Common Components: Which Representations Are Used by 10- and 12-Year-Olds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meert, Gaelle; Gregoire, Jacques; Noel, Marie-Pascale

    2010-01-01

    This study tested whether 10- and 12-year-olds who can correctly compare the magnitudes of fractions with common components access the magnitudes of the whole fractions rather than only compare the magnitudes of their components. Time for comparing two fractions was predicted by the numerical distance between the whole fractions, suggesting an…

  14. A Parallel Algorithm for Connected Component Labelling of Gray-scale Images on Homogeneous Multicore Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niknam, Mehdi; Thulasiraman, Parimala; Camorlinga, Sergio

    2010-11-01

    Connected component labelling is an essential step in image processing. We provide a parallel version of Suzuki's sequential connected component algorithm in order to speed up the labelling process. Also, we modify the algorithm to enable labelling gray-scale images. Due to the data dependencies in the algorithm we used a method similar to pipeline to exploit parallelism. The parallel algorithm method achieved a speedup of 2.5 for image size of 256 × 256 pixels using 4 processing threads.

  15. Architecture, Voltage, and Components for a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Electric Grid (AVC-TeDP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gemin, Paul; Kupiszewski, Tom; Radun, Arthur; Pan, Yan; Lai, Rixin; Zhang, Di; Wang, Ruxi; Wu, Xinhui; Jiang, Yan; Galioto, Steve; Haran, Kiruba; Premerlani, William; Bray, Jim; Caiafa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to advance the selection, characterization, and modeling of a propulsion electric grid for a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) system for transport aircraft. The TeDP aircraft would constitute a miniature electric grid with 50 MW or more of total power, two or more generators, redundant transmission lines, and multiple electric motors driving propulsion fans. The study proposed power system architectures, investigated electromechanical and solid state circuit breakers, estimated the impact of the system voltage on system mass, and recommended DC bus voltage range. The study assumed an all cryogenic power system. Detailed assumptions within the study include hybrid circuit breakers, a two cryogen system, and supercritical cyrogens. A dynamic model was developed to investigate control and parameter selection.

  16. Sequence System Building Blocks: Using a Component Architecture for Sequencing Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streiffert, Barbara A.; O'Reilly, Taifun

    2005-01-01

    Over the last few years software engineering has made significant strides in making more flexible architectures and designs possible. However, at the same time, spacecraft have become more complex and flight software has become more sophisticated. Typically spacecraft are often one-of-a-kind entities that have different hardware designs, different capabilities, different instruments, etc. Ground software has become more complex and operations teams have had to learn a myriad of tools that all have different user interfaces and represent data in different ways. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) these themes have collided to require an new approach to producing ground system software. Two different groups have been looking at tackling this particular problem. One group is working for the JPL Mars Technology Program in the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Focused Technology area. The other group is the JPL Multi-Mission Planning and Sequencing Group . The major concept driving these two approaches on a similar path is to provide software that can be a more cohesive flexible system that provides a act of planning and sequencing system of services. This paper describes the efforts that have been made to date to create a unified approach from these disparate groups.

  17. Sequencing System Building Blocks: Using a Component Architecture for Sequencing Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streiffert, Barbara A.; O'Reilly, Taifun

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few years software engineering has made significant strides in making more flexible architectures and designs possible. However, at the same time, spacecraft have become more complex and flight software has become more sophisticated. Typically spacecraft are often one-of-a-kind entities that have different hardware designs, different capabilities, different instruments, etc. Ground software has become more complex and operations teams have had to learn a myriad of tools that all have different user interfaces and represent data in different ways. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) these themes have collided to require a new approach to producing ground system software. Two different groups have been looking at tackling this particular problem. One group is working for the JPL Mars Technology Program in the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Focused Technology area. The other group is the JPL Multi-Mission Planning and Sequencing Group. The major concept driving these two approaches on a similar path is to provide software that can be a more cohesive flexible system that provides a set of planning and sequencing system of services. This paper describes the efforts that have been made to date to create a unified approach from these disparate groups.

  18. Architecture, Voltage, and Components for a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Electric Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Blackwelder, Mark; Bollman, Andrew; Ross, Christine; Campbell, Angela; Jones, Catherine; Norman, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The development of a wholly superconducting turboelectric distributed propulsion system presents unique opportunities for the aerospace industry. However, this transition from normally conducting systems to superconducting systems significantly increases the equipment complexity necessary to manage the electrical power systems. Due to the low technology readiness level (TRL) nature of all components and systems, current Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) technology developments are driven by an ambiguous set of system-level electrical integration standards for an airborne microgrid system (Figure 1). While multiple decades' worth of advancements are still required for concept realization, current system-level studies are necessary to focus the technology development, target specific technological shortcomings, and enable accurate prediction of concept feasibility and viability. An understanding of the performance sensitivity to operating voltages and an early definition of advantageous voltage regulation standards for unconventional airborne microgrids will allow for more accurate targeting of technology development. Propulsive power-rated microgrid systems necessitate the introduction of new aircraft distribution system voltage standards. All protection, distribution, control, power conversion, generation, and cryocooling equipment are affected by voltage regulation standards. Information on the desired operating voltage and voltage regulation is required to determine nominal and maximum currents for sizing distribution and fault isolation equipment, developing machine topologies and machine controls, and the physical attributes of all component shielding and insulation. Voltage impacts many components and system performance.

  19. Method for producing components with internal architectures, such as micro-channel reactors, via diffusion bonding sheets

    DOEpatents

    Alman, David E.; Wilson, Rick D.; Davis, Daniel L.

    2011-03-08

    This invention relates to a method for producing components with internal architectures, and more particularly, this invention relates to a method for producing structures with microchannels via the use of diffusion bonding of stacked laminates. Specifically, the method involves weakly bonding a stack of laminates forming internal voids and channels with a first generally low uniaxial pressure and first temperature such that bonding at least between the asperites of opposing laminates occurs and pores are isolated in interfacial contact areas, followed by a second generally higher isostatic pressure and second temperature for final bonding. The method thereby allows fabrication of micro-channel devices such as heat exchangers, recuperators, heat-pumps, chemical separators, chemical reactors, fuel processing units, and combustors without limitation on the fin aspect ratio.

  20. Evolution of multi-component anion relay chemistry (ARC): construction of architecturally complex natural and unnatural products.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amos B; Wuest, William M

    2008-12-01

    Efficient construction of architecturally complex natural and unnatural products is the hallmark of organic chemistry. Anion relay chemistry (ARC)-a multi-component coupling protocol-has the potential to provide the chemist with a powerful synthetic tactic, enabling efficient, rapid elaboration of structurally complex scaffolds in a single operation with precise stereochemical control. The ARC tactic can be subdivided into two main classes, comprising the relay of negative charge either through bonds or through space, the latter with aid of a transfer agent. This review will present the current state of through-space anion relay, in conjunction with examples of natural and unnatural product syntheses that illustrate the utility of this synthetic method. PMID:19030533

  1. Promoting the Effect of the Qing Dynasty Imperial Garden Architectural Component Library on the Digitalization of Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindan, C.; Junsong, Z.; Jiujun, Z.

    2015-08-01

    With the development of computer technology and practical verification, digital virtual technology has matured and is increasingly being widely applied to cultural heritage protection and research. With this advancement in technology, there is pressing need to simplify heritage-related puzzles. Thus the main question that has increasingly become the most central and fundamental problem in heritage digitalization work is how to choose the "proper technology" that provides support directly, accurately and rapidly for the research, protection and exchange of cultural heritage. Based on the principles of "authenticity" and "completeness" found in the Venice Charter in regards to dealing with cultural heritage; this paper proposes the concept of the component library which facilitates the improvement and efficiency of virtual reconstruction, provides a visual discussion platform for cultural heritage protection, virtual scene construction, accuracy assessment, and multi-space-time exhibition; thereby implementing the spirit of tolerance and respect found in the Nara Document on Authenticity. The paper further aims to illustrate the significance of the Qing dynasty imperial garden architectural component library for cultural heritage study and protection, the principles for virtual library construction, use and maintenance of the library, and classification approaches, and also provide some suggestions about making high quality 3D models and effective means for database integration.

  2. Architecture of a Coarse-Grained Upper Middle Cambrian Alluvial Delta Dominated by Braidplain and Gilbert-Style Delta Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pound, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    The ~500-m thick upper Middle Cambrian Lockett Conglomerate was deposited as part of an alluvial delta that includes Gilbert-type mega-crossbeds as well as braidplain conglomerates, and was constructed across an accretionary prism. Internal Lockett Conglomerate architecture indicates at least three phases of progradation are recorded by Gilbert-type, delta-front deposits that are separated by delta-top distributaries and/or braidplain deposits, all of which form discontinuous sheets and lenses, and record aggradation. Evaluation of sedimentary features (particle size and organization, bedding features) allows identification of eight facies within the Lockett Conglomerate; sedimentary features were used to infer transportational and depositional mechanisms. Conglomerate facies HL-1 - HL-8 were assigned to one or more of the following depositional associations: Beachface/shoreface, Deltafront, Alluvial fan, Braidplain (fluvial, unchannelized), Delta-top distributaries, and Mouth-bars. A series of Depositional Packages was identified, and mapped; integration with measured sections allowed development of a facies model for an alluvial delta in which the subaerial component is dominated by the braidplain association, and the subaqueous component by the (Gilbert-type) deltafront association as well as the delta-top distributary and mouthbar associations. Locally, the beachface association marks the transition between the subaqueous and subaerial components of the alluvial delta. Alluvial fan deposits are absent, but the rounded pebbles, cobbles and boulders with a new and distinctive provenance signature indicate derivation from a newly exposed igneous and metamorphic basement, and abrasion during transport through the fluvial (braidplain) system prior to deposition as part of the alluvial delta.

  3. Mapping genomic loci for cotton plant architecture, yield components, and fiber properties in an interspecific (Gossypium hirsutum L. x G. barbadense L.) RIL population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted to better understand the genetic control of plant architecture (PA), yield components (YC), and fiber properties (FP) in the two cultivated tetraploid species of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and G. barbadense L.). Genomic regions were identifi...

  4. Experimental study of impact-cratering damage on brittle cylindrical column model as a fundamental component of space architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Akira; Onose, Naomi; Setoh, Masato; Nakamura, Akiko M.; Hiraoka, Kensuke; Hasegawa, Sunao; Okudaira, Kyoko

    2014-10-01

    The cylindrical column of brittle material processed from soil and rock is a fundamental component of architectures on the surface of solid bodies in the solar system. One of the most hazardous events for the structure is damaging by hypervelocity impacts by meteoroids and debris. In such a background, cylindrical columns made of plaster of Paris and glass-bead-sintered ceramic were impacted by spherical projectiles of nylon, glass, and steel at velocity of about 1-4.5 km/s. Measured crater radii, depth, and excavated mass expressed by a function of the cylinder radius are similar irrespective of the target material, if those parameters are normalized by appropriate parameters of the crater produced on the flat-surface target. The empirical scaling relations of the normalized crater radii and depth are provided. Using them, crater dimensions and excavated mass of crater on cylindrical surface of any radius can be predicted from the existing knowledge of those for flat surface. Recommendation for the minimum diameter of a cylinder so as to resist against a given impact is provided.

  5. An Intelligent Architecture Based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays Designed to Detect Moving Objects by Using Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Ignacio; Mazo, Manuel; Lázaro, José L.; Gardel, Alfredo; Jiménez, Pedro; Pizarro, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a complete implementation of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices applied to high rate background segmentation of images. The classical sequential execution of different parts of the PCA algorithm has been parallelized. This parallelization has led to the specific development and implementation in hardware of the different stages of PCA, such as computation of the correlation matrix, matrix diagonalization using the Jacobi method and subspace projections of images. On the application side, the paper presents a motion detection algorithm, also entirely implemented on the FPGA, and based on the developed PCA core. This consists of dynamically thresholding the differences between the input image and the one obtained by expressing the input image using the PCA linear subspace previously obtained as a background model. The proposal achieves a high ratio of processed images (up to 120 frames per second) and high quality segmentation results, with a completely embedded and reliable hardware architecture based on commercial CMOS sensors and FPGA devices. PMID:22163406

  6. Dissection of the interferon gamma-MHC class II signal transduction pathway reveals that type I and type II interferon systems share common signalling component(s).

    PubMed Central

    Loh, J E; Chang, C H; Fodor, W L; Flavell, R A

    1992-01-01

    We have used a herpes virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) based metabolic selection system to isolate mutants defective in the interferon gamma mediated induction of the MHC class II promoter. All the mutations act in trans and result in no detectable induction of MHC and invariant chain (Ii) gene expression. Scatchard analysis indicates that the mutants have a normal number of surface IFN gamma receptors with the same affinity constant. The mutants fall into two broad categories. One class of mutants is still able to induce MHC class I, IRF-1, 9-27, 1-8 and GBP genes by IFN gamma. A second class of mutants is defective for the IFN gamma induction of all the genes tested; surprisingly, the IFN alpha/beta induction of MHC class I, 9-27, ISG54 and ISG15 genes is also defective in these mutants, although different members of this class can be discriminated by the response of the GBP and IRF-1 genes to type I interferons. These data demonstrate that the signalling pathways of both type I and type II interferon systems share common signal transduction component(s). These mutants will be useful for the study of IFN gamma regulation of class II genes and Ii chain, and to elucidate molecular components of type I and type II interferon signal transduction. Images PMID:1314162

  7. Comparative brain architecture of the European shore crab Carcinus maenas (Brachyura) and the common hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus (Anomura) with notes on other marine hermit crabs.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Jakob; Sombke, Andy; Seefluth, Florian; Kenning, Matthes; Hansson, Bill S; Harzsch, Steffen

    2012-04-01

    The European shore crab Carcinus maenas and the common hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus are members of the sister taxa Brachyura and Anomura (together forming the taxon Meiura) respectively. Both species share similar coastal marine habitats and thus are confronted with similar environmental conditions. This study sets out to explore variations of general brain architecture of species that live in seemingly similar habitats but belong to different major malacostracan taxa and to understand possible differences of sensory systems and related brain compartments. We examined the brains of Carcinus maenas, Pagurus bernhardus, and three other hermit crab species with immunohistochemistry against tyrosinated tubulin, f-actin, synaptic proteins, RF-amides and allatostatin. Our comparison showed that their optic neuropils within the eyestalks display strong resemblance in gross morphology as well as in detailed organization, suggesting a rather similar potential of processing visual input. Besides the well-developed visual system, the olfactory neuropils are distinct components in the brain of both C. maenas and P. bernhardus as well as the other hermit crabs, suggesting that close integration of olfactory and visual information may be useful in turbid marine environments with low visibility, as is typical for many habitats such as, e.g., the Baltic and the North Sea. Comparing the shape of the olfactory glomeruli in the anomurans showed some variations, ranging from a wedge shape to an elongate morphology. Furthermore, the tritocerebrum and the organization of the second antennae associated with the tritocerebrum seem to differ markedly in C. maenas and P. bernhardus, indicating better mechanosensory abilities in the latter close to those of other Decapoda with long second antennae, such as Astacida, Homarida, or Achelata. This aspect may also represent an adaptation to the "hermit lifestyle" in which competition for shells is a major aspect of their life history. The shore

  8. Origin of the genetic components of the vomeronasal system in the common ancestor of all extant vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Grus, Wendy E; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2009-02-01

    Comparative genomics provides a valuable tool for inferring the evolutionary history of physiological systems, particularly when this information is difficult to ascertain by morphological traits. One such example is the vomeronasal system (VNS), a vertebrate nasal chemosensory system that is responsible for detecting intraspecific pheromonal cues as well as environmental odorants. The morphological components of the VNS are found only in tetrapods, but the genetic components of the system have been found in teleost fish, in addition to tetrapods. To determine when the genetic components of the VNS originated, we searched for the VNS-specific genes in the genomes of two early diverging vertebrate lineages: the sea lamprey from jawless fishes and the elephant shark from cartilaginous fishes. Genes encoding vomeronasal type 1 receptors (V1Rs) and Trpc2, two components of the vomeronasal signaling pathway, are present in the sea lamprey genome, and both are expressed in the olfactory organ, revealing that the genetic components of the present-day VNS existed in the common ancestor of all extant vertebrates. Additionally, all three VNS genes, Trpc2, V1Rs, and vomeronasal type 2 receptors (V2Rs), are found in the elephant shark genome. Because V1Rs and V2Rs are related to two families of taste receptors, we also searched the early diverging vertebrate genomes for taste system genes and found them in the shark genome but not in the lamprey. Coupled with known distributions of the genetic components of the vertebrate main olfactory system, our results suggest staggered origins of vertebrate sensory systems. These findings are important for understanding the evolution of vertebrate sensory systems and illustrate the utility of the genome sequences of early diverging vertebrates for uncovering the evolution of vertebrate-specific traits. PMID:19008528

  9. Common components of industrial metal-working fluids as sources of carbon for bacterial growth. [Acinetobacter; Pseudomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall-vanAken, S.; Brown, J.A. Jr.; Young, W.; Salmeen, I.; McClure, T.; Napier, S. Jr.; Olsen, R.H.

    1986-06-01

    Water-based metal-working fluids in large-scale industrial operations consist of many components, but in the most commonly used formulations only three classes of components are present in high enough concentrations that they could, in principle, provide enough carbon to support the high bacterial densities (10/sup 9/ CFU/ml) often observed in contaminated factory fluids. These components are petroleum oil (1 to 5%), petroleum sulfonates (0.1 to 0.5%), and fatty acids (less than 0.1%, mainly linoleic and oleic acids supplied as tall oils). Pure strains of predominating bacteria were isolated from contaminated reservoirs of two metal-working systems and randomly selected 12 strains which were tested in liquid culture for growth with each of the metal-working fluid components as the sole source of carbon. Of the 12 strains, 7 reached high density (10/sup 9/ CFU/ml from an initial inoculum of less than 2 x 10/sup 3/) in 24 h, and 1 strain did the same in 48 h with 0.05% oleic or linoleic acid as the carbon source. These same strains also grew on 1% naphthenic petroleum oil but required up to 72 h to reach densities near 10/sup 8/ CFU/ml. One strain grew slightly and the others not at all on the petroleum sulfonates. The four remaining strains did not grow on any of the components, even though they were among the predominating bacteria in the contaminated system. Of the seven strains that grew best on the fatty acids and on the naphthenic petroleum oil, five were tentatively identified as Acinetobacter species and two were identified as Pseudomonas species. Four of the bacteria that did not grow were tentatively identified as species of Pseudomonas, and one could not be identified.

  10. [Rapid identification 15 effective components of anti common cold medicine with MRM by LC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Xi-Ru; Zhang, Yi-Hua; Song, Geng-Shen

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the establishment of a method for rapid identification 15 effective components of anti common cold medicine (paracetamol, aminophenazone, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, methylephedrine hydrochloride, caffeine, amantadine hydrochloride, phenazone, guaifenesin, chlorphenamine maleate, dextromethorphen hydrobromide, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, promethazine hydrochloride, propyphenazone, benorilate and diclofenac sodium) with MRM by LC-MS/MS. The samples were extracted by methanol and were separated from a Altantis T3 column within 15 min with a gradient of acetonitrile-ammonium acetate (containing 0.25% glacial acetic acid), a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source (ESI) was used in positive ion mode, and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was performed for qualitative analysis of these compounds. The minimum detectable quantity were 0.33-2.5 microg x kg(-1) of the 15 compounds. The method is simple, accurate and with good reproducibility for rapid identification many components in the same chromatographic condition, and provides a reference for qualitative analysis illegally added chemicals in anti common cold medicine. PMID:23600148

  11. Extracting the regional common-mode component of GPS station position time series from dense continuous network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yunfeng; Shen, Zheng-Kang

    2016-02-01

    We develop a spatial filtering method to remove random noise and extract the spatially correlated transients (i.e., common-mode component (CMC)) that deviate from zero mean over the span of detrended position time series of a continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) network. The technique utilizes a weighting scheme that incorporates two factors—distances between neighboring sites and their correlations of long-term residual position time series. We use a grid search algorithm to find the optimal thresholds for deriving the CMC that minimizes the root-mean-square (RMS) of the filtered residual position time series. Comparing to the principal component analysis technique, our method achieves better (>13% on average) reduction of residual position scatters for the CGPS stations in western North America, eliminating regional transients of all spatial scales. It also has advantages in data manipulation: less intervention and applicable to a dense network of any spatial extent. Our method can also be used to detect CMC irrespective of its origins (i.e., tectonic or nontectonic), if such signals are of particular interests for further study. By varying the filtering distance range, the long-range CMC related to atmospheric disturbance can be filtered out, uncovering CMC associated with transient tectonic deformation. A correlation-based clustering algorithm is adopted to identify stations cluster that share the common regional transient characteristics.

  12. Overview of the surface architecture and elements common to a wide range of Lunar and Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, John F.; Toups, Larry D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA has studied future missions to the moon and Mars since the 1960's, and most recently during the studies for the Space Exploration Initiative chartered by President Bush. With these most recent studies, the Lunar and Mars Exploration Program Office is looking at a number of possible options for the human exploration of the solar system. Objectives of these options include science and exploration, testing and learning centers, local planetary resource development, and self sufficient bases. To meet the objectives of any particular mission, efforts have focused primarily in three areas: (1) space transportation vehicles, (2) the associated space infrastructure to support these vehicles, and (3) the necessary infrastructure on the planet surface to carry out the mission objectives. This paper looks at work done by the Planet Surface Systems Office at JSC in the third area, and presents an overview of the approach to determining appropriate equipment and elements of the surface infrastructure needed for these mission alternatives. It describes the process of deriving appropriate surface architectures with consideration of mission objectives leading to system concepts, designation of elements and element placement.

  13. Ground-penetrating radar survey on the island of Pantelleria (Italy) reveals an ancient architectural complex with likely Punic and Roman components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Thomas M.; Murray, Carrie Ann; Vella, Clive; Lahikainen, Amanda

    2015-12-01

    A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey conducted on the small volcanic island of Pantelleria, in the Strait of Sicily, south-central Mediterranean, revealed an apparent complex of Punic/Roman architecture. The survey focused on the Lago di Venere area, where a previously investigated ritual Punic site was built alongside a brackish volcanic lake. The site also exhibits evidence of earlier Eneolithic components and later Roman components. The full extent of the site has remained undetermined, however, with only the small area of the Punic ritual complex having been excavated from 1996 to 2002. The GPR survey was intended to explore whether additional architecture remained unseen in surrounding areas, thus taking a first step toward determining the site's full spatial extent and archaeological potential. This survey revealed a complex of architectural ruins beneath an active agricultural field immediately west of the previously excavated features, and extending to a depth of approximately 2 m. These newly discovered features expand the known architectural footprint of the immediate site by three-fold. This GPR study is the first published archaeo-geophysical investigation on the island.

  14. The structures of cytosolic and plastid-located glutamine synthetases from Medicago truncatula reveal a common and dynamic architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Torreira, Eva; Seabra, Ana Rita; Marriott, Hazel; Zhou, Min; Llorca, Óscar; Robinson, Carol V.; Carvalho, Helena G.; Fernández-Tornero, Carlos; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa

    2014-04-01

    The experimental models of dicotyledonous cytoplasmic and plastid-located glutamine synthetases unveil a conserved eukaryotic-type decameric architecture, with subtle structural differences in M. truncatula isoenzymes that account for their distinct herbicide resistance. The first step of nitrogen assimilation in higher plants, the energy-driven incorporation of ammonia into glutamate, is catalyzed by glutamine synthetase. This central process yields the readily metabolizable glutamine, which in turn is at the basis of all subsequent biosynthesis of nitrogenous compounds. The essential role performed by glutamine synthetase makes it a prime target for herbicidal compounds, but also a suitable intervention point for the improvement of crop yields. Although the majority of crop plants are dicotyledonous, little is known about the structural organization of glutamine synthetase in these organisms and about the functional differences between the different isoforms. Here, the structural characterization of two glutamine synthetase isoforms from the model legume Medicago truncatula is reported: the crystallographic structure of cytoplasmic GSII-1a and an electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of plastid-located GSII-2a. Together, these structural models unveil a decameric organization of dicotyledonous glutamine synthetase, with two pentameric rings weakly connected by inter-ring loops. Moreover, rearrangement of these dynamic loops changes the relative orientation of the rings, suggesting a zipper-like mechanism for their assembly into a decameric enzyme. Finally, the atomic structure of M. truncatula GSII-1a provides important insights into the structural determinants of herbicide resistance in this family of enzymes, opening new avenues for the development of herbicide-resistant plants.

  15. Developmental plasticity of the microscopic placental architecture in relation to litter size variation in the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Julienne N.; Tardif, Suzette D.

    2012-01-01

    Fetal demand, shaped by factors such as number of fetuses, may alter placental regulation of exchange, even when maternal nutrition restriction is not overt. The marmoset is an interesting model in which to examine this aspect of placental function due to unique placentation that leads to multiple fetuses sharing a unified placental mass. We demonstrated previously that the triplet marmoset placenta exhibits significantly higher efficiency than does the twin placenta. Here, we test the hypothesis that this increased efficiency is due to changes in the microscopic morphology of the placenta. Stereology was employed to analyze the microscopic architecture of placentas from twin and triplet pregnancies. Compartments of interest were the trabeculae, intertrabecular space, fetal capillaries, and the surface area of the maternal-fetal interface. Placentas from the two litters did not differ significantly in overall volume or individual volumetric compartments, but triplet placentas exhibited significant expansion of the trabecular surface area in comparison to twins (p=0.039). Further, the two groups differed in the isomorphy coefficient, with triplet placentas having a significantly higher coefficient (p=0.001) and potentially a more complex microscopic topography. Differences in the maternal-fetal interface may be due to developmental constraints on gross placental growth that occur earlier in gestation, such that the only option for maintaining sufficient access to maternal resources or signaling pathways late in gestation is via an expansion of the interface. Despite the significant increase in overall surface area, individual triplet fetuses are associated with much less surface area than are individual twins, suggestive of alterations in metabolic efficiency, perhaps via differential amino acid transport regulation. PMID:19038443

  16. Developmental plasticity of the microscopic placental architecture in relation to litter size variation in the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Rutherford, J N; Tardif, S D

    2009-01-01

    Fetal demand, shaped by factors such as number of fetuses, may alter placental regulation of exchange, even when maternal nutrition restriction is not overt. The marmoset is an interesting model in which to examine this aspect of placental function due to unique placentation that leads to multiple fetuses sharing a unified placental mass. We demonstrated previously that the triplet marmoset placenta exhibits significantly higher efficiency than does the twin placenta. Here, we test the hypothesis that this increased efficiency is due to increases in changes in the microscopic morphology of the placenta. Stereology was employed to analyze the microscopic architecture of placentas from twin and triplet pregnancies. Compartments of interest were the trabeculae, intertrabecular space, fetal capillaries, and the surface area of the maternal-fetal interface. Placentas from the two litters did not differ significantly in overall volume or individual volumetric compartments, but triplet placentas exhibited significant expansion of the trabecular surface area in comparison to twins (p=0.039). Further, the two groups differed in the isomorphy coefficient, with triplet placentas having a significantly higher coefficient (p=0.001) and potentially a more complex microscopic topography. Differences in the maternal-fetal interface may be due to developmental constraints on gross placental growth that occur earlier in gestation, such that the only option for maintaining sufficient access to maternal resources or signaling pathways late in gestation is via an expansion of the interface. Despite the significant increase in overall surface area, individual triplet fetuses are associated with much less surface area than are individual twins, suggestive of alterations in metabolic efficiency, perhaps via differential amino acid transport regulation. PMID:19038443

  17. Hardware Architecture Study for NASA's Space Software Defined Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Mortensen, Dale J.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Andro, Monty; Smith, Carl; Liebetreu, John

    2008-01-01

    This study defines a hardware architecture approach for software defined radios to enable commonality among NASA space missions. The architecture accommodates a range of reconfigurable processing technologies including general purpose processors, digital signal processors, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in addition to flexible and tunable radio frequency (RF) front-ends to satisfy varying mission requirements. The hardware architecture consists of modules, radio functions, and and interfaces. The modules are a logical division of common radio functions that comprise a typical communication radio. This paper describes the architecture details, module definitions, and the typical functions on each module as well as the module interfaces. Trade-offs between component-based, custom architecture and a functional-based, open architecture are described. The architecture does not specify the internal physical implementation within each module, nor does the architecture mandate the standards or ratings of the hardware used to construct the radios.

  18. GITEWS, an extensible and open integration platform for manifold sensor systems and processing components based on Sensor Web Enablement and the principles of Service Oriented Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haener, Rainer; Waechter, Joachim; Fleischer, Jens; Herrnkind, Stefan; Schwarting, Herrmann

    2010-05-01

    The German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) is a multifaceted system consisting of various sensor types like seismometers, sea level sensors or GPS stations, and processing components, all with their own system behavior and proprietary data structure. To operate a warning chain, beginning from measurements scaling up to warning products, all components have to interact in a correct way, both syntactically and semantically. Designing the system great emphasis was laid on conformity to the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) specification by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The technical infrastructure, the so called Tsunami Service Bus (TSB) follows the blueprint of Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). The TSB is an integration concept (SWE) where functionality (observe, task, notify, alert, and process) is grouped around business processes (Monitoring, Decision Support, Sensor Management) and packaged as interoperable services (SAS, SOS, SPS, WNS). The benefits of using a flexible architecture together with SWE lead to an open integration platform: • accessing and controlling heterogeneous sensors in a uniform way (Functional Integration) • assigns functionality to distinct services (Separation of Concerns) • allows resilient relationship between systems (Loose Coupling) • integrates services so that they can be accessed from everywhere (Location Transparency) • enables infrastructures which integrate heterogeneous applications (Encapsulation) • allows combination of services (Orchestration) and data exchange within business processes Warning systems will evolve over time: New sensor types might be added, old sensors will be replaced and processing components will be improved. From a collection of few basic services it shall be possible to compose more complex functionality essential for specific warning systems. Given these requirements a flexible infrastructure is a prerequisite for sustainable systems and their architecture must be

  19. GITEWS, an extensible and open integration platform for manifold sensor systems and processing components based on Sensor Web Enablement and the principles of Service Oriented Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haener, Rainer; Waechter, Joachim; Fleischer, Jens; Herrnkind, Stefan; Schwarting, Herrmann

    2010-05-01

    The German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) is a multifaceted system consisting of various sensor types like seismometers, sea level sensors or GPS stations, and processing components, all with their own system behavior and proprietary data structure. To operate a warning chain, beginning from measurements scaling up to warning products, all components have to interact in a correct way, both syntactically and semantically. Designing the system great emphasis was laid on conformity to the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) specification by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The technical infrastructure, the so called Tsunami Service Bus (TSB) follows the blueprint of Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). The TSB is an integration concept (SWE) where functionality (observe, task, notify, alert, and process) is grouped around business processes (Monitoring, Decision Support, Sensor Management) and packaged as interoperable services (SAS, SOS, SPS, WNS). The benefits of using a flexible architecture together with SWE lead to an open integration platform: • accessing and controlling heterogeneous sensors in a uniform way (Functional Integration) • assigns functionality to distinct services (Separation of Concerns) • allows resilient relationship between systems (Loose Coupling) • integrates services so that they can be accessed from everywhere (Location Transparency) • enables infrastructures which integrate heterogeneous applications (Encapsulation) • allows combination of services (Orchestration) and data exchange within business processes Warning systems will evolve over time: New sensor types might be added, old sensors will be replaced and processing components will be improved. From a collection of few basic services it shall be possible to compose more complex functionality essential for specific warning systems. Given these requirements a flexible infrastructure is a prerequisite for sustainable systems and their architecture must be

  20. Plastic and Heritable Components of Phenotypic Variation in Nucella lapillus: An Assessment Using Reciprocal Transplant and Common Garden Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Pascoal, Sonia; Carvalho, Gary; Creer, Simon; Rock, Jenny; Kawaii, Kei; Mendo, Sonia; Hughes, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of plastic and heritable components of phenotypic variation is crucial for understanding the evolution of adaptive character traits in heterogeneous environments. We assessed the above in relation to adaptive shell morphology of the rocky intertidal snail Nucella lapillus by reciprocal transplantation of snails between two shores differing in wave action and rearing snails of the same provenance in a common garden. Results were compared with those reported for similar experiments conducted elsewhere. Microsatellite variation indicated limited gene flow between the populations. Intrinsic growth rate was greater in exposed-site than sheltered-site snails, but the reverse was true of absolute growth rate, suggesting heritable compensation for reduced foraging opportunity at the exposed site. Shell morphology of reciprocal transplants partially converged through plasticity toward that of native snails. Shell morphology of F2s in the common garden partially retained characteristics of the P-generation, suggesting genetic control. A maternal effect was revealed by greater resemblance of F1s than F2s to the P-generation. The observed synergistic effects of plastic, maternal and genetic control of shell-shape may be expected to maximise fitness when environmental characteristics become unpredictable through dispersal. PMID:22299035

  1. The genetic architecture of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and the potential importance of common regulatory genetic variants.

    PubMed

    Saffen, David

    2015-10-01

    Currently, there is great interest in identifying genetic variants that contribute to the risk of developing autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), due in part to recent increases in the frequency of diagnosis of these disorders worldwide. While there is nearly universal agreement that ASDs are complex diseases, with multiple genetic and environmental contributing factors, there is less agreement concerning the relative importance of common vs rare genetic variants in ASD liability. Recent observations that rare mutations and copy number variants (CNVs) are frequently associated with ASDs, combined with reduced fecundity of individuals with these disorders, has led to the hypothesis that ASDs are caused primarily by de novo or rare genetic mutations. Based on this model, large-scale whole-genome DNA sequencing has been proposed as the most appropriate method for discovering ASD liability genes. While this approach will undoubtedly identify many novel candidate genes and produce important new insights concerning the genetic causes of these disorders, a full accounting of the genetics of ASDs will be incomplete absent an understanding of the contributions of common regulatory variants, which are likely to influence ASD liability by modifying the effects of rare variants or, by assuming unfavorable combinations, directly produce these disorders. Because it is not yet possible to identify regulatory genetic variants by examination of DNA sequences alone, their identification will require experimentation. In this essay, I discuss these issues and describe the advantages of measurements of allelic expression imbalance (AEI) of mRNA expression for identifying cis-acting regulatory variants that contribute to ASDs. PMID:26335735

  2. Uncovering the genetic architecture of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum resistance through QTL mapping and epistatic interaction analysis in common bean

    PubMed Central

    González, Ana M.; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J.; Rodiño, A. Paula; De Ron, Antonio M.; Capel, Carmen; García-Alcázar, Manuel; Lozano, Rafael; Santalla, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose disease in common bean. Despite the genetics of anthracnose resistance has been studied for a long time, few quantitative trait loci (QTLs) studies have been conducted on this species. The present work examines the genetic basis of quantitative resistance to races 23 and 1545 of C. lindemuthianum in different organs (stem, leaf and petiole). A population of 185 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from the cross PMB0225 × PHA1037 was evaluated for anthracnose resistance under natural and artificial photoperiod growth conditions. Using multi-environment QTL mapping approach, 10 and 16 main effect QTLs were identified for resistance to anthracnose races 23 and 1545, respectively. The homologous genomic regions corresponding to 17 of the 26 main effect QTLs detected were positive for the presence of resistance-associated gene cluster encoding nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (NL) proteins. Among them, it is worth noting that the main effect QTLs detected on linkage group 05 for resistance to race 1545 in stem, petiole and leaf were located within a 1.2 Mb region. The NL gene Phvul.005G117900 is located in this region, which can be considered an important candidate gene for the non-organ-specific QTL identified here. Furthermore, a total of 39 epistatic QTL (E-QTLs) (21 for resistance to race 23 and 18 for resistance to race 1545) involved in 20 epistatic interactions (eleven and nine interactions for resistance to races 23 and 1545, respectively) were identified. None of the main and epistatic QTLs detected displayed significant environment interaction effects. The present research provides essential information not only for the better understanding of the plant-pathogen interaction but also for the application of genomic assisted breeding for anthracnose resistance improvement in common bean through application of marker-assisted selection (MAS). PMID:25852706

  3. A Pan-Cancer Modular Regulatory Network Analysis to Identify Common and Cancer-Specific Network Components

    PubMed Central

    Knaack, Sara A; Siahpirani, Alireza Fotuhi; Roy, Sushmita

    2014-01-01

    Many human diseases including cancer are the result of perturbations to transcriptional regulatory networks that control context-specific expression of genes. A comparative approach across multiple cancer types is a powerful approach to illuminate the common and specific network features of this family of diseases. Recent efforts from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) have generated large collections of functional genomic data sets for multiple types of cancers. An emerging challenge is to devise computational approaches that systematically compare these genomic data sets across different cancer types that identify common and cancer-specific network components. We present a module- and network-based characterization of transcriptional patterns in six different cancers being studied in TCGA: breast, colon, rectal, kidney, ovarian, and endometrial. Our approach uses a recently developed regulatory network reconstruction algorithm, modular regulatory network learning with per gene information (MERLIN), within a stability selection framework to predict regulators for individual genes and gene modules. Our module-based analysis identifies a common theme of immune system processes in each cancer study, with modules statistically enriched for immune response processes as well as targets of key immune response regulators from the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) families. Comparison of the inferred regulatory networks from each cancer type identified a core regulatory network that included genes involved in chromatin remodeling, cell cycle, and immune response. Regulatory network hubs included genes with known roles in specific cancer types as well as genes with potentially novel roles in different cancer types. Overall, our integrated module and network analysis recapitulated known themes in cancer biology and additionally revealed novel regulatory hubs that suggest a complex interplay of immune response, cell

  4. Improving the Discoverability and Availability of Sample Data and Imagery in NASA's Astromaterials Curation Digital Repository Using a New Common Architecture for Sample Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, N. S.; Evans, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the designated facility for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. The suite of collections includes the lunar samples from the Apollo missions, cosmic dust particles falling into the Earth's atmosphere, meteorites collected in Antarctica, comet and interstellar dust particles from the Stardust mission, asteroid particles from the Japanese Hayabusa mission, and solar wind atoms collected during the Genesis mission. To support planetary science research on these samples, NASA's Astromaterials Curation Office hosts the Astromaterials Curation Digital Repository, which provides descriptions of the missions and collections, and critical information about each individual sample. Our office is implementing several informatics initiatives with the goal of better serving the planetary research community. One of these initiatives aims to increase the availability and discoverability of sample data and images through the use of a newly designed common architecture for Astromaterials Curation databases.

  5. IAIMS Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Hripcsak, George

    1997-01-01

    Abstract An information system architecture defines the components of a system and the interfaces among the components. A good architecture is essential for creating an Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) that works as an integrated whole yet is flexible enough to accommodate many users and roles, multiple applications, changing vendors, evolving user needs, and advancing technology. Modularity and layering promote flexibility by reducing the complexity of a system and by restricting the ways in which components may interact. Enterprise-wide mediation promotes integration by providing message routing, support for standards, dictionary-based code translation, a centralized conceptual data schema, business rule implementation, and consistent access to databases. Several IAIMS sites have adopted a client-server architecture, and some have adopted a three-tiered approach, separating user interface functions, application logic, and repositories. PMID:9067884

  6. IAIMS architecture.

    PubMed

    Hripcsak, G

    1997-01-01

    An information system architecture defines the components of a system and the interfaces among the components. A good architecture is essential for creating an Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) that works as an integrated whole yet is flexible enough to accommodate many users and roles, multiple applications, changing vendors, evolving user needs, and advancing technology. Modularity and layering promote flexibility by reducing the complexity of a system and by restricting the ways in which components may interact. Enterprise-wide mediation promotes integration by providing message routing, support for standards, dictionary-based code translation, a centralized conceptual data schema, business rule implementation, and consistent access to databases. Several IAIMS sites have adopted a client-server architecture, and some have adopted a three-tiered approach, separating user interface functions, application logic, and repositories. PMID:9067884

  7. Components of the Plasminogen Activation System Promote Engraftment of Porous Polyethylene Biomaterial via Common and Distinct Effects

    PubMed Central

    Reichel, Christoph A.; Hessenauer, Maximilian E. T.; Pflieger, Kerstin; Rehberg, Markus; Kanse, Sandip M.; Zahler, Stefan; Krombach, Fritz; Berghaus, Alexander; Strieth, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Rapid fibrovascularization is a prerequisite for successful biomaterial engraftment. In addition to their well-known roles in fibrinolysis, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or their inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have recently been implicated as individual mediators in non-fibrinolytic processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Since these events are critical for fibrovascularization of biomaterial, we hypothesized that the components of the plasminogen activation system contribute to biomaterial engraftment. Employing in vivo and ex vivo microscopy techniques, vessel and collagen network formation within porous polyethylene (PPE) implants engrafted into dorsal skinfold chambers were found to be significantly impaired in uPA-, tPA-, or PAI-1-deficient mice. Consequently, the force required for mechanical disintegration of the implants out of the host tissue was significantly lower in the mutant mice than in wild-type controls. Conversely, surface coating with recombinant uPA, tPA, non-catalytic uPA, or PAI-1, but not with non-catalytic tPA, accelerated implant vascularization in wild-type mice. Thus, uPA, tPA, and PAI-1 contribute to the fibrovascularization of PPE implants through common and distinct effects. As clinical perspective, surface coating with recombinant uPA, tPA, or PAI-1 might provide a novel strategy for accelerating the vascularization of this biomaterial. PMID:25658820

  8. Overall Architecture of the Intraflagellar Transport (IFT)-B Complex Containing Cluap1/IFT38 as an Essential Component of the IFT-B Peripheral Subcomplex.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yohei; Terada, Masaya; Nishijima, Yuya; Takei, Ryota; Nozaki, Shohei; Hamada, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Kazuhisa

    2016-05-20

    Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is essential for assembly and maintenance of cilia and flagella as well as ciliary motility and signaling. IFT is mediated by multisubunit complexes, including IFT-A, IFT-B, and the BBSome, in concert with kinesin and dynein motors. Under high salt conditions, purified IFT-B complex dissociates into a core subcomplex composed of at least nine subunits and at least five peripherally associated proteins. Using the visible immunoprecipitation assay, which we recently developed as a convenient protein-protein interaction assay, we determined the overall architecture of the IFT-B complex, which can be divided into core and peripheral subcomplexes composed of 10 and 6 subunits, respectively. In particular, we identified TTC26/IFT56 and Cluap1/IFT38, neither of which was included with certainty in previous models of the IFT-B complex, as integral components of the core and peripheral subcomplexes, respectively. Consistent with this, a ciliogenesis defect of Cluap1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts was rescued by exogenous expression of wild-type Cluap1 but not by mutant Cluap1 lacking the binding ability to other IFT-B components. The detailed interaction map as well as comparison of subcellular localization of IFT-B components between wild-type and Cluap1-deficient cells provides insights into the functional relevance of the architecture of the IFT-B complex. PMID:26980730

  9. Information architecture for a planetary 'exploration web'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamarra, N.; McVittie, T.

    2002-01-01

    'Web services' is a common way of deploying distributed applications whose software components and data sources may be in different locations, formats, languages, etc. Although such collaboration is not utilized significantly in planetary exploration, we believe there is significant benefit in developing an architecture in which missions could leverage each others capabilities. We believe that an incremental deployment of such an architecture could significantly contribute to the evolution of increasingly capable, efficient, and even autonomous remote exploration.

  10. A multi-step phosphorelay two-component system impacts on tolerance against dehydration stress in common wheat.

    PubMed

    Gahlaut, Vijay; Mathur, Saloni; Dhariwal, Raman; Khurana, Jitendra P; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Balyan, Harindra S; Gupta, Pushpendra K

    2014-12-01

    Wheat is an important staple crop, and its productivity is severely constrained by drought stress (DS). An understanding of the molecular basis of drought tolerance is necessary for genetic improvement of wheat for tolerance to DS. The two-component system (TCS) serves as a common sensor-regulator coupling mechanism implicated in the regulation of diverse biological processes (including response to DS) not only in prokaryotes, but also in higher plants. In the latter, TCS generally consists of two signalling elements, a histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR) associated with an intermediate element called histidine phosphotransferase (HPT). Keeping in view the possible utility of TCS in developing water use efficient (WUE) wheat cultivars, we identified and characterized 62 wheat genes encoding TCS elements in a silico study; these included 7 HKs, 45 RRs along with 10 HPTs. Twelve of the 62 genes showed relatively higher alterations in the expression under drought. The quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR)-based expression analysis of these 12 TCS genes was carried out in wheat seedlings of a drought sensitive (HD2967) and a tolerant (Dharwar Dry) cultivar subjected to either dehydration stress or cytokinin treatment. The expression of these 12 genes under dehydration stress differed in sensitive and tolerant genotypes, even though for individual genes, both showed either up-regulation or down-regulation. In response to the treatment of cytokinin, the expression of type-A RR genes was higher in the tolerant genotype, relative to that in the sensitive genotype, the situation being reverse for the type-B RRs. These results have been discussed in the context of the role of TCS elements in drought tolerance in wheat. PMID:25228409

  11. The Prp19 U-box Crystal Structure Suggests a Common Dimeric Architecture for a Class of Oligomeric E3 Ubiquitin Ligases †,‡

    PubMed Central

    Vander Kooi, Craig W.; Ohi, Melanie D.; Rosenberg, Joshua A.; Oldham, Michael L.; Newcomer, Marcia E.; Gould, Kathleen L.; Chazin, Walter J.

    2008-01-01

    Prp19 is an essential splicing factor and a member of the U-box family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Prp19 forms a tetramer via a central coiled-coil domain. Here we show the U-box domain of Prp19 exists as a dimer within the context of the Prp19 tetramer. A high-resolution structure of the homo-dimeric state of the Prp19 U-box was determined by x-ray crystallography. Mutation of the U-box dimer interface abrogates U-box dimer formation and is lethal in vivo. The structure of the U-box dimer enables construction of a complete model of Prp19 providing insights into how the tetrameric protein functions as an E3 ligase. Finally, comparison of the Prp19 U-box homodimer with the heterodimeric complex of BRCA1/BARD1 RING-finger domains uncovers a common architecture for a family of oligmeric U-box and RING-finger E3 ubiquitin ligases, which has mechanistic implications for E3 ligase mediated poly-ubiquitination and E4 poly-ubiquitin ligases. PMID:16388587

  12. Analysis of the genetic architecture of susceptibility to cervical cancer indicates that common SNPs explain a large proportion of the heritability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Cui, Tao; Ek, Weronica E; Liu, Han; Wang, Huibo; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2015-09-01

    The genetic architecture of susceptibility to cervical cancer is not well-understood. By using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 1034 cervical cancer patients and 3948 controls with 632668 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we estimated that 24.0% [standard error (SE) = 5.9%, P = 3.19×10(-6)] of variation in liability to cervical cancer is captured by autosomal SNPs, a bit lower than the heritability estimated from family study (27.0%), suggesting that a substantial proportion of the heritability is tagged by common SNPs. The remaining missing heritability most probably reflects incomplete linkage disequilibrium between causal variants and the genotyped SNPs. The variance explained by each chromosome is not related to its length (R (2) = 0.020, P = 0.516). Published genome-wide significant variants only explain 2.1% (SE = 1.5%, P = 0) of phenotypic variance, which reveals that most of the heritability has not been detected, presumably due to small individual effects. Another 2.1% (SE = 1.1%, P = 0.013) of variation is attributable to biological pathways associated with risk of cervical cancer, supporting that pathway analysis can identify part of the hidden heritability. Except for human leukocyte antigen genes and MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A (MICA), none of the 82 candidate genes/regions reported in other association studies contributes to the heritability of cervical cancer in our dataset. This study shows that risk of cervical cancer is influenced by many common germline genetic variants of small effects. The findings are important for further study design to identify the hiding heritability that has not yet been revealed. More susceptibility loci are yet to be found in GWASs with higher power. PMID:26045304

  13. PICNIC Architecture.

    PubMed

    Saranummi, Niilo

    2005-01-01

    The PICNIC architecture aims at supporting inter-enterprise integration and the facilitation of collaboration between healthcare organisations. The concept of a Regional Health Economy (RHE) is introduced to illustrate the varying nature of inter-enterprise collaboration between healthcare organisations collaborating in providing health services to citizens and patients in a regional setting. The PICNIC architecture comprises a number of PICNIC IT Services, the interfaces between them and presents a way to assemble these into a functioning Regional Health Care Network meeting the needs and concerns of its stakeholders. The PICNIC architecture is presented through a number of views relevant to different stakeholder groups. The stakeholders of the first view are national and regional health authorities and policy makers. The view describes how the architecture enables the implementation of national and regional health policies, strategies and organisational structures. The stakeholders of the second view, the service viewpoint, are the care providers, health professionals, patients and citizens. The view describes how the architecture supports and enables regional care delivery and process management including continuity of care (shared care) and citizen-centred health services. The stakeholders of the third view, the engineering view, are those that design, build and implement the RHCN. The view comprises four sub views: software engineering, IT services engineering, security and data. The proposed architecture is founded into the main stream of how distributed computing environments are evolving. The architecture is realised using the web services approach. A number of well established technology platforms and generic standards exist that can be used to implement the software components. The software components that are specified in PICNIC are implemented in Open Source. PMID:16160218

  14. Microstructural architecture developed in the fabrication of solid and open-cellular copper components by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Diana Alejandra

    The fabrication of Cu components were first built by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting (EBM) from low-purity, atomized Cu powder containing a high density of Cu2O precipitates leading to a novel example of precipitate-dislocation architecture. These microstructures exhibit cell-like arrays (1-3microm) in the horizontal reference plane perpendicular to the build direction with columnar-like arrays extending from ~12 to >60 microm in length and corresponding spatial dimensions of 1-3 microm. These observations were observed by the use of optical metallography, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The hardness measurements were taken both on the atomized powder and the Cu components. The hardness for these architectures ranged from ~HV 83 to 88, in contrast to the original Cu powder microindentation hardness of HV 72 and the commercial Cu base plate hardness of HV 57. These observations were utilized for the fabrication of open-cellular copper structures by additive manufacturing using EBM and illustrated the ability to fabricate some form of controlled microstructural architecture by EBM parameter alteration or optimizing. The fabrication of these structures ranged in densities from 0.73g/cm3 to 6.67g/cm3. These structures correspond to four different articulated mesh arrays. While these components contained some porosity as a consequence of some unmelted regions, the Cu2O precipitates also contributed to a reduced density. Using X-ray Diffraction showed the approximate volume fraction estimated to be ~2%. The addition of precipitates created in the EBM melt scan formed microstructural arrays which contributed to hardening contributing to the strength of mesh struts and foam ligaments. The measurements of relative stiffness versus relative density plots for Cu compared very closely with Ti-6Al-4V open cellular structures - both mesh and foams. The Cu reticulated mesh structures exhibit a slope of n = 2 in contrast to a slope of n = 2

  15. Treatment of Acute Cough Due to the Common Cold: Multi-component, Multi-symptom Therapy is Preferable to Single-Component, Single-Symptom Therapy--A Pro/Con Debate.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Ronald; Turner, Ronald B; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V

    2016-02-01

    Acute viral upper respiratory tract infection, or, the common cold, affects essentially every human being, and cough is reported as its most frequent associated symptom. Billions of dollars are spent worldwide annually by individuals seeking relief from this multi-symptom syndrome. Thousands of non-prescription, over-the-counter products are available worldwide, aimed at relieving the various bothersome symptoms induced by the common cold. Differences of opinion exist as to whether optimal therapy for cough associated with the common cold consists of multi-component, multi-symptom cough/cold preparations, or, whether single-component medications, aimed at relief of specific symptoms, represent the optimal therapeutic approach. The 5th American Cough Conference, held in Washington, D.C. in June, 2015, provided an ideal forum for discussion and debate of this issue between two internationally recognized experts in the field of the common cold and its treatment. PMID:26420163

  16. Inhibitory and excitatory axon terminals share a common nano-architecture of their Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca(2+) channels.

    PubMed

    Althof, Daniel; Baehrens, David; Watanabe, Masahiko; Suzuki, Noboru; Fakler, Bernd; Kulik, Ákos

    2015-01-01

    Tuning of the time course and strength of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter release is fundamental for the precise operation of cortical network activity and is controlled by Ca(2+) influx into presynaptic terminals through the high voltage-activated P/Q-type Ca(2+) (Cav2.1) channels. Proper channel-mediated Ca(2+)-signaling critically depends on the topographical arrangement of the channels in the presynaptic membrane. Here, we used high-resolution SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica immunoelectron microscopy together with automatized computational analysis of Cav2.1 immunogold labeling to determine the precise subcellular organization of Cav2.1 channels in both inhibitory and excitatory terminals. Immunoparticles labeling the pore-forming α1 subunit of Cav2.1 channels were enriched over the active zone of the boutons with the number of channels (3-62) correlated with the area of the synaptic membrane. Detailed analysis showed that Cav2.1 channels are non-uniformly distributed over the presynaptic membrane specialization where they are arranged in clusters of an average five channels per cluster covering a mean area with a diameter of about 70 nm. Importantly, clustered arrangement and cluster properties did not show any significant difference between GABAergic and glutamatergic terminals. Our data demonstrate a common nano-architecture of Cav2.1 channels in inhibitory and excitatory boutons in stratum radiatum of the hippocampal CA1 area suggesting that the cluster arrangement is crucial for the precise release of transmitters from the axonal boutons. PMID:26321916

  17. Inhibitory and excitatory axon terminals share a common nano-architecture of their Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Althof, Daniel; Baehrens, David; Watanabe, Masahiko; Suzuki, Noboru; Fakler, Bernd; Kulik, Ákos

    2015-01-01

    Tuning of the time course and strength of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter release is fundamental for the precise operation of cortical network activity and is controlled by Ca2+ influx into presynaptic terminals through the high voltage-activated P/Q-type Ca2+ (Cav2.1) channels. Proper channel-mediated Ca2+-signaling critically depends on the topographical arrangement of the channels in the presynaptic membrane. Here, we used high-resolution SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica immunoelectron microscopy together with automatized computational analysis of Cav2.1 immunogold labeling to determine the precise subcellular organization of Cav2.1 channels in both inhibitory and excitatory terminals. Immunoparticles labeling the pore-forming α1 subunit of Cav2.1 channels were enriched over the active zone of the boutons with the number of channels (3–62) correlated with the area of the synaptic membrane. Detailed analysis showed that Cav2.1 channels are non-uniformly distributed over the presynaptic membrane specialization where they are arranged in clusters of an average five channels per cluster covering a mean area with a diameter of about 70 nm. Importantly, clustered arrangement and cluster properties did not show any significant difference between GABAergic and glutamatergic terminals. Our data demonstrate a common nano-architecture of Cav2.1 channels in inhibitory and excitatory boutons in stratum radiatum of the hippocampal CA1 area suggesting that the cluster arrangement is crucial for the precise release of transmitters from the axonal boutons. PMID:26321916

  18. Space Telecommunications Radio Systems (STRS) Hardware Architecture Standard: Release 1.0 Hardware Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Smith, Carl R.; Liebetreu, John; Hill, Gary; Mortensen, Dale J.; Andro, Monty; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Farrington, Allen

    2008-01-01

    This report defines a hardware architecture approach for software-defined radios to enable commonality among NASA space missions. The architecture accommodates a range of reconfigurable processing technologies including general-purpose processors, digital signal processors, field programmable gate arrays, and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in addition to flexible and tunable radiofrequency front ends to satisfy varying mission requirements. The hardware architecture consists of modules, radio functions, and interfaces. The modules are a logical division of common radio functions that compose a typical communication radio. This report describes the architecture details, the module definitions, the typical functions on each module, and the module interfaces. Tradeoffs between component-based, custom architecture and a functional-based, open architecture are described. The architecture does not specify a physical implementation internally on each module, nor does the architecture mandate the standards or ratings of the hardware used to construct the radios.

  19. HL7 document patient record architecture: an XML document architecture based on a shared information model.

    PubMed

    Dolin, R H; Alschuler, L; Behlen, F; Biron, P V; Boyer, S; Essin, D; Harding, L; Lincoln, T; Mattison, J E; Rishel, W; Sokolowski, R; Spinosa, J; Williams, J P

    1999-01-01

    The HL7 SGML/XML Special Interest Group is developing the HL7 Document Patient Record Architecture. This draft proposal strives to create a common data architecture for the interoperability of healthcare documents. Key components are that it is under the umbrella of HL7 standards, it is specified in Extensible Markup Language, the semantics are drawn from the HL7 Reference Information Model, and the document specifications form an architecture that, in aggregate, define the semantics and structural constraints necessary for the exchange of clinical documents. The proposal is a work in progress and has not yet been submitted to HL7's formal balloting process. PMID:10566319

  20. Identical mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in the gliomatous and the sarcomatous components of gliosarcomas suggest a common origin from glial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Biernat, W.; Aguzzi, A.; Sure, U.

    1995-09-01

    Gliosarcomas are morphologically heterogeneous tumors of the central nervous system composed of gliomatous and sarcomatous components. The histogenesis of the latter is still a matter of debate. As mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene represent an early event in the development of gliomas, we attempted to determine whether both components of gliosarcomas share identical alterations of the p53 gene. Using single-strand conformation analysis (SSCA) and direct DNA sequencing of the p53 gene, we analyzed dissected gliomatous and sarcomatous parts of 12 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gliosarcomas. The two tumors that contained a p53 alteration were found to carry the identical mutation (exon 5; codon 151, CCC {r_arrow} TCC; codon 173, GTG {r_arrow} GTA) in the gliomatous and the sarcomatous components. These findings suggest a common origin of the two cellular components from neoplastic glial cells. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Security Aspects of an Enterprise-Wide Network Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loew, Robert; Stengel, Ingo; Bleimann, Udo; McDonald, Aidan

    1999-01-01

    Presents an overview of two projects that concern local area networks and the common point between networks as they relate to network security. Discusses security architectures based on firewall components, packet filters, application gateways, security-management components, an intranet solution, user registration by Web form, and requests for…

  2. A Reference Architecture for Space Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattmann, Chris A.; Crichton, Daniel J.; Hughes, J. Steven; Ramirez, Paul M.; Berrios, Daniel C.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a reference architecture for space information management systems that elegantly overcomes the rigid design of common information systems in many domains. The reference architecture consists of a set of flexible, reusable, independent models and software components that function in unison, but remain separately managed entities. The main guiding principle of the reference architecture is to separate the various models of information (e.g., data, metadata, etc.) from implemented system code, allowing each to evolve independently. System modularity, systems interoperability, and dynamic evolution of information system components are the primary benefits of the design of the architecture. The architecture requires the use of information models that are substantially more advanced than those used by the vast majority of information systems. These models are more expressive and can be more easily modularized, distributed and maintained than simpler models e.g., configuration files and data dictionaries. Our current work focuses on formalizing the architecture within a CCSDS Green Book and evaluating the architecture within the context of the C3I initiative.

  3. Identifications and limited spectroscopy for Luyten common proper motion stars with probable white dwarf components. I - Pair brighter than 17th magnitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswalt, Terry D.; Hintzen, Paul M.; Luyten, Willem J.

    1988-01-01

    Identifications are provided for 103 bright Luyten common proper motion (CPM) stellar systems with m(pg) less than 17.0 mag containing likely white dwarf (WD) components. New spectral types are presented for 55 components, and spectral types for 51 more are available in the literature. With the CPM systems previously published by Giclas et al. (1978), the Luyten stars provide a uniform sample of nearly 200 pairs or multiples brighter than 17h magnitude. Selection effects biasing the combined samples are discussed; in particular, evidence is presented that fewer than 1 percent of wide WD binaries have been detected.

  4. Distinguishing the common components of oil- and water-based metalworking fluids for assessment of cancer incidence risk in autoworkers

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Melissa C; Costello, Sadie; Thurston, Sally W; Eisen, Ellen A

    2012-01-01

    Background Metalworking fluids (MWF) — straight, soluble, and synthetic — have overlapping components. We derived constituent-based metrics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), water-based MWF, biocides, and nitrosamines to account for this overlap and examined their relations with cancer incidence. Methods An autoworkers cohort of 30,000 was followed for cancer incidence. Hazard ratios were estimated for each cancer and cumulative exposure (lagged) to each new metric; soluble MWF contributed variably to several metrics with weight k=0–1. Results For most cancer sites, the constituent-based metrics resulted in stronger exposure-disease associations than the MWF classes alone. Laryngeal and bladder cancer were most strongly associated with PAH (k=0). Protective effects for stomach and lung cancer were observed with biocide, a component that may be a surrogate for endotoxin. Conclusions Our findings provide support and clarification of possible etiologies for previous positive associations and provide support for distinguishing exposure from oil- and water-based MWF in epidemiologic studies. PMID:21328414

  5. Phosphorus runoff from a phosphorus deficient soil under common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) genotypes with contrasting root architecture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection of plant materials on the basis of root characteristics is key to improving nutrient and water use efficiency in low-input farming systems. Crop genotypes with superior root architecture can make more efficient use of available soil resources and, through improved growth, may also lower er...

  6. Single-Cell Analysis Reveals that Insulation Maintains Signaling Specificity between Two Yeast MAPK Pathways with Common Components

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Jesse C.; Klimenko, Evguenia S.; Thorner, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells use multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades to evoke appropriate responses to external stimuli. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the MAPK Fus3 is activated by pheromone-binding G protein-coupled receptors to promote mating, whereas the MAPK Hog1 is activated by hyperosmotic stress to elicit the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) response. Although these MAPK pathways share several upstream components, exposure to either pheromone or osmolyte alone triggers only the appropriate response. We used fluorescent localization- and transcription-specific reporters to assess activation of these pathways in individual cells on the minute and hour timescale, respectively. Dual activation of these two MAPK pathways occurred over a broad range of stimulant concentrations and temporal regimes in wild-type cells subjected to co-stimulation. Thus, signaling specificity is achieved through an “insulation” mechanism, not a “cross-inhibition” mechanism. Furthermore, we showed that there was a critical period during which Hog1 activity had to occur for proper insulation of the HOG pathway. PMID:20959523

  7. Two Novel AP2/EREBP Transcription Factor Genes TaPARG Have Pleiotropic Functions on Plant Architecture and Yield-Related Traits in Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Li, Qiaoru; Mao, Xinguo; Li, Ang; Wang, Jingyi; Chang, Xiaoping; Hao, Chenyang; Zhang, Xueyong; Jing, Ruilian

    2016-01-01

    AP2/EREBPs play significant roles in plant growth and development. A novel, pleiotropic TaPARG (PLANT ARCHITECTURE-RELATED GENE), a member of the AP2/EREBP transcription factor gene family, and its flanking sequences were isolated in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Two TaPARG genes were identified and named as TaPARG-2A and TaPARG-2D. Their amino acid sequences were highly similar especially in the functional domains. TaPARG-2A on chromosome 2A was flanked by markers Xwmc63 and Xgwm372. TaPARG-2D was mapped to chromosome 2D. Subcellular localization revealed that TaPARG-2D was localized in the nucleus. The results of tissue expression pattern, overexpression in rice, association analysis and distinct population verification jointly revealed that TaPARG functions during the entire growth cycle of wheat. Its functions include regulation of plant architecture-related and yield-related traits. Association analysis, geographic distribution and allelic frequencies suggested that favored haplotypes Hap-2A-2 and Hap-2A-3 were selected in Chinese wheat breeding programs. Both favored haplotypes might be caused by a single amino acid substitution (His/Tyr). These results suggest that TaPARG is a regulatory factor in plant growth and development, and that the favored alleles might be useful for improving plant architecture and grain yield of wheat. PMID:27555860

  8. Two Novel AP2/EREBP Transcription Factor Genes TaPARG Have Pleiotropic Functions on Plant Architecture and Yield-Related Traits in Common Wheat.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Li, Qiaoru; Mao, Xinguo; Li, Ang; Wang, Jingyi; Chang, Xiaoping; Hao, Chenyang; Zhang, Xueyong; Jing, Ruilian

    2016-01-01

    AP2/EREBPs play significant roles in plant growth and development. A novel, pleiotropic TaPARG (PLANT ARCHITECTURE-RELATED GENE), a member of the AP2/EREBP transcription factor gene family, and its flanking sequences were isolated in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Two TaPARG genes were identified and named as TaPARG-2A and TaPARG-2D. Their amino acid sequences were highly similar especially in the functional domains. TaPARG-2A on chromosome 2A was flanked by markers Xwmc63 and Xgwm372. TaPARG-2D was mapped to chromosome 2D. Subcellular localization revealed that TaPARG-2D was localized in the nucleus. The results of tissue expression pattern, overexpression in rice, association analysis and distinct population verification jointly revealed that TaPARG functions during the entire growth cycle of wheat. Its functions include regulation of plant architecture-related and yield-related traits. Association analysis, geographic distribution and allelic frequencies suggested that favored haplotypes Hap-2A-2 and Hap-2A-3 were selected in Chinese wheat breeding programs. Both favored haplotypes might be caused by a single amino acid substitution (His/Tyr). These results suggest that TaPARG is a regulatory factor in plant growth and development, and that the favored alleles might be useful for improving plant architecture and grain yield of wheat. PMID:27555860

  9. A Tool for Managing Software Architecture Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Babar, Muhammad A.; Gorton, Ian

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes a tool for managing architectural knowledge and rationale. The tool has been developed to support a framework for capturing and using architectural knowledge to improve the architecture process. This paper describes the main architectural components and features of the tool. The paper also provides examples of using the tool for supporting wellknown architecture design and analysis methods.

  10. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Architecture

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel Architecture (RIK-A) is a multi-level architecture that supports a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-A is used to coalesce hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a framework that can be used to create behaviors for humans to interact with the robot.

  11. Reference Avionics Architecture for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somervill, Kevin M.; Lapin, Jonathan C.; Schmidt, Oron L.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and delivering infrastructure capable of supporting long-term manned operations to the lunar surface has been a primary objective of the Constellation Program in the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Several concepts have been developed related to development and deployment lunar exploration vehicles and assets that provide critical functionality such as transportation, habitation, and communication, to name a few. Together, these systems perform complex safety-critical functions, largely dependent on avionics for control and behavior of system functions. These functions are implemented using interchangeable, modular avionics designed for lunar transit and lunar surface deployment. Systems are optimized towards reuse and commonality of form and interface and can be configured via software or component integration for special purpose applications. There are two core concepts in the reference avionics architecture described in this report. The first concept uses distributed, smart systems to manage complexity, simplify integration, and facilitate commonality. The second core concept is to employ extensive commonality between elements and subsystems. These two concepts are used in the context of developing reference designs for many lunar surface exploration vehicles and elements. These concepts are repeated constantly as architectural patterns in a conceptual architectural framework. This report describes the use of these architectural patterns in a reference avionics architecture for Lunar surface systems elements.

  12. Particulate matter components and subclinical atherosclerosis: common approaches to estimating exposure in a Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Concentrations of outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have been associated with cardiovascular disease. PM2.5 chemical composition may be responsible for effects of exposure to PM2.5. Methods Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) collected in 2000–2002 on 6,256 US adults without clinical cardiovascular disease in six U.S. metropolitan areas, we investigated cross-sectional associations of estimated long-term exposure to total PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 components (elemental carbon [EC], organic carbon [OC], silicon and sulfur) with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium [CAC] and right common carotid intima-media thickness [CIMT]). Community monitors deployed for this study from 2007 to 2008 were used to estimate exposures at baseline addresses using three commonly-used approaches: (1) nearest monitor (the primary approach), (2) inverse-distance monitor weighting and (3) city-wide average. Results Using the exposure estimate based on nearest monitor, in single-pollutant models, increased OC (effect estimate [95% CI] per IQR: 35.1 μm [26.8, 43.3]), EC (9.6 μm [3.6,15.7]), sulfur (22.7 μm [15.0,30.4]) and total PM2.5 (14.7 μm [9.0,20.5]) but not silicon (5.2 μm [−9.8,20.1]), were associated with increased CIMT; in two-pollutant models, only the association with OC was robust to control for the other pollutants. Findings were generally consistent across the three exposure estimation approaches. None of the PM measures were positively associated with either the presence or extent of CAC. In sensitivity analyses, effect estimates for OC and silicon were particularly sensitive to control for metropolitan area. Conclusion Employing commonly-used exposure estimation approaches, all of the PM2.5 components considered, except silicon, were associated with increased CIMT, with the evidence being strongest for OC; no component was associated with increased CAC. PM2.5 chemical components, or other features

  13. Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Charles P.; Lipkin, Ilya; Davidson, Steven A.; Dirner, Jason

    2016-05-01

    The Sensor Open System Architecture (SOSA) is a C4ISR-focused technical and economic collaborative effort between the Air Force, Navy, Army, the Department of Defense (DoD), Industry, and other Governmental agencies to develop (and incorporate) technical Open Systems Architecture standards in order to maximize C4ISR sub-system, system, and platform affordability, re-configurability, overall performance, and hardware/software/firmware re-use. The SOSA effort will effectively create an operational and technical framework for the integration of disparate payloads into C4ISR systems; with a focus on the development of a functional decomposition for common multi-purpose backbone architecture for radar, EO/IR, SIGINT, EW, and communications modalities. SOSA addresses hardware, software, and mechanical/electrical interfaces. The functional decomposition will produce a set of re-useable components, interfaces, and sub-systems that engender re-usable capabilities. This, in effect, creates a realistic and affordable ecosystem enabling mission effectiveness through systematic re-use of all available re-composed hardware, software, and electrical/mechanical base components and interfaces.

  14. The Software Architecture of Global Climate Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, K. A.; Easterbrook, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    It has become common to compare and contrast the output of multiple global climate models (GCMs), such as in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). However, intercomparisons of the software architecture of GCMs are almost nonexistent. In this qualitative study of seven GCMs from Canada, the United States, and Europe, we attempt to fill this gap in research. We describe the various representations of the climate system as computer programs, and account for architectural differences between models. Most GCMs now practice component-based software engineering, where Earth system components (such as the atmosphere or land surface) are present as highly encapsulated sub-models. This architecture facilitates a mix-and-match approach to climate modelling that allows for convenient sharing of model components between institutions, but it also leads to difficulty when choosing where to draw the lines between systems that are not encapsulated in the real world, such as sea ice. We also examine different styles of couplers in GCMs, which manage interaction and data flow between components. Finally, we pay particular attention to the varying levels of complexity in GCMs, both between and within models. Many GCMs have some components that are significantly more complex than others, a phenomenon which can be explained by the respective institution's research goals as well as the origin of the model components. In conclusion, although some features of software architecture have been adopted by every GCM we examined, other features show a wide range of different design choices and strategies. These architectural differences may provide new insights into variability and spread between models.

  15. Modular avionic architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Edward

    The author presents an analysis revealing some of the salient features of modular avionics. A decomposition of the modular avionics concept is performed, highlighting some of the key features of such architectures. Several layers of architecture can be found in such concepts, including those relating to software structure, communication, and supportability. Particular emphasis is placed on the layer relating to partitioning, which gives rise to those features of integration, modularity, and commonality. Where integration is the sharing of common tasks or items to gain efficiency and flexibility, modularity is the partitioning of a system into reconfigurable and maintainable items, and commonality is partitioning to maximize the use of identical items across the range of applications. Two architectures, MASA (Modular Avionics System Architecture) and Pave Pillar, are considered in particular.

  16. Compositional Specification of Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penix, John; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes our experience using parameterized algebraic specifications to model properties of software architectures. The goal is to model the decomposition of requirements independent of the style used to implement the architecture. We begin by providing an overview of the role of architecture specification in software development. We then describe how architecture specifications are build up from component and connector specifications and give an overview of insights gained from a case study used to validate the method.

  17. Extracellular Matrix Remodeling: The Common Denominator in Connective Tissue DiseasesPossibilities for Evaluation and Current Understanding of the Matrix as More Than a Passive Architecture, but a Key Player in Tissue Failure

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Mette J.; Sand, Jannie M.; Henriksen, Kim; Genovese, Federica; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Smith, Victoria; Adamkewicz, Joanne I.; Christiansen, Claus; Leeming, Diana J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Increased attention is paid to the structural components of tissues. These components are mostly collagens and various proteoglycans. Emerging evidence suggests that altered components and noncoded modifications of the matrix may be both initiators and drivers of disease, exemplified by excessive tissue remodeling leading to tissue stiffness, as well as by changes in the signaling potential of both intact matrix and fragments thereof. Although tissue structure until recently was viewed as a simple architecture anchoring cells and proteins, this complex grid may contain essential information enabling the maintenance of the structure and normal functioning of tissue. The aims of this review are to (1) discuss the structural components of the matrix and the relevance of their mutations to the pathology of diseases such as fibrosis and cancer, (2) introduce the possibility that post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as protease cleavage, citrullination, cross-linking, nitrosylation, glycosylation, and isomerization, generated during pathology, may be unique, disease-specific biochemical markers, (3) list and review the range of simple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) that have been developed for assessing the extracellular matrix (ECM) and detecting abnormal ECM remodeling, and (4) discuss whether some PTMs are the cause or consequence of disease. New evidence clearly suggests that the ECM at some point in the pathogenesis becomes a driver of disease. These pathological modified ECM proteins may allow insights into complicated pathologies in which the end stage is excessive tissue remodeling, and provide unique and more pathology-specific biochemical markers. PMID:23046407

  18. The NASA Integrated Information Technology Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldridge, Tim

    1997-01-01

    of IT systems, 3) the Technical Architecture: a common, vendor-independent framework for design, integration and implementation of IT systems and 4) the Product Architecture: vendor=specific IT solutions. The Systems Architecture is effectively a description of the end-user "requirements". Generalized end-user requirements are discussed and subsequently organized into specific mission and project functions. The Technical Architecture depicts the framework, and relationship, of the specific IT components that enable the end-user functionality as described in the Systems Architecture. The primary components as described in the Technical Architecture are: 1) Applications: Basic Client Component, Object Creation Applications, Collaborative Applications, Object Analysis Applications, 2) Services: Messaging, Information Broker, Collaboration, Distributed Processing, and 3) Infrastructure: Network, Security, Directory, Certificate Management, Enterprise Management and File System. This Architecture also provides specific Implementation Recommendations, the most significant of which is the recognition of IT as core to NASA activities and defines a plan, which is aligned with the NASA strategic planning processes, for keeping the Architecture alive and useful.

  19. Towards a Domain Specific Software Architecture for Scientific Data Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A.; Lindholm, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    A reference architecture is a "design that satisfies a clearly distinguished subset of the functional capabilities identified in the reference requirements within the boundaries of certain design and implementation constraints, also identified in reference requirements." [Tracz, 1995] Recognizing the value of a reference architecture, NASA's ESDSWG's Standards Process Group (SPG) is introducing a multi-disciplinary science data systems (SDS) reference architecture in order to provide an implementation neutral, template solution for an architecture to support scientific data systems in general [Burnett, et al, 2011]. This reference architecture describes common features and patterns in scientific data systems, and can thus provide guidelines in building and improving such systems. But, guidelines alone may not be sufficient to actually build a system. A domain specific software architecture (DSSA) is "an assemblage of software components, specialized for a particular type of task (domain), generalized for effective use across that domain, composed in a standardized structure (topology) effective for building successful applications." [Tracz, 1995]. It can be thought of as relatively specific reference architecture. The "DSSA Process" is a software life cycle developed at Carnegie Melon's Software Engineering Institute that is based on the development and use of domain-specific software architectures, components, and tools. The process has four distinct activities: 1) develop a domain specific base/model, 2) populate and maintain the library, 3) build applications, 4) operate and maintain applications [Armitage, 1993]. The DSSA process may provide the missing link between guidelines and actual system construction. In this presentation we focus specifically on the realm of scientific data access and distribution. Assuming the role of domain experts in building data access systems, we report the results of creating a DSSA for scientific data distribution. We describe

  20. Genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kazuo; Shojima, Nobuhiro; Hosoe, Jun; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2014-09-19

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 70 loci associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most genetic variants associated with T2D are common variants with modest effects on T2D and are shared with major ancestry groups. To what extent the genetic component of T2D can be explained by common variants relies upon the shape of the genetic architecture of T2D. Fine mapping utilizing populations with different patterns of linkage disequilibrium and functional annotation derived from experiments in relevant tissues are mandatory to track down causal variants responsible for the pathogenesis of T2D. PMID:25111817

  1. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K..; McDonald, C.E.

    1997-03-18

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 14 figs.

  2. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; McDonald, Carolyn E.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  3. Architecture & Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  4. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia G.

    2004-01-01

    The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. Because the NPSS was developed using the object-oriented paradigm, the resulting architecture is an extensible and flexible framework that is currently being used by a diverse set of participants in government, academia, and the aerospace industry. NPSS is being used by over 15 different institutions to support rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and aerospace. Full system-level simulations as well as subsystems may be modeled using NPSS. The NPSS architecture enables the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail, which is called numerical zooming. The middleware used to enable zooming and distributed simulations is the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The NPSS Developer's Kit offers tools for the developer to generate CORBA-based components and wrap codes. The Developer's Kit enables distributed multi-fidelity and multi-discipline simulations, preserves proprietary and legacy codes, and facilitates addition of customized codes. The platforms supported are PC, Linux, HP, Sun, and SGI.

  5. Project Integration Architecture: Application Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications is enabled.

  6. The EPOS ICT Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Keith; Harrison, Matt; Bailo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    The EPOS-PP Project 2010-2014 proposed an architecture and demonstrated feasibility with a prototype. Requirements based on use cases were collected and an inventory of assets (e.g. datasets, software, users, computing resources, equipment/detectors, laboratory services) (RIDE) was developed. The architecture evolved through three stages of refinement with much consultation both with the EPOS community representing EPOS users and participants in geoscience and with the overall ICT community especially those working on research such as the RDA (Research Data Alliance) community. The architecture consists of a central ICS (Integrated Core Services) consisting of a portal and catalog, the latter providing to end-users a 'map' of all EPOS resources (datasets, software, users, computing, equipment/detectors etc.). ICS is extended to ICS-d (distributed ICS) for certain services (such as visualisation software services or Cloud computing resources) and CES (Computational Earth Science) for specific simulation or analytical processing. ICS also communicates with TCS (Thematic Core Services) which represent European-wide portals to national and local assets, resources and services in the various specific domains (e.g. seismology, volcanology, geodesy) of EPOS. The EPOS-IP project 2015-2019 started October 2015. Two work-packages cover the ICT aspects; WP6 involves interaction with the TCS while WP7 concentrates on ICS including interoperation with ICS-d and CES offerings: in short the ICT architecture. Based on the experience and results of EPOS-PP the ICT team held a pre-meeting in July 2015 and set out a project plan. The first major activity involved requirements (re-)collection with use cases and also updating the inventory of assets held by the various TCS in EPOS. The RIDE database of assets is currently being converted to CERIF (Common European Research Information Format - an EU Recommendation to Member States) to provide the basis for the EPOS-IP ICS Catalog. In

  7. Flexible weapons architecture design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyant, William C., III

    Present day air-delivered weapons are of a closed architecture, with little to no ability to tailor the weapon for the individual engagement. The closed architectures require weaponeers to make the target fit the weapon instead of fitting the individual weapons to a target. The concept of a flexible weapons aims to modularize weapons design using an open architecture shell into which different modules are inserted to achieve the desired target fractional damage while reducing cost and civilian casualties. This thesis shows that the architecture design factors of damage mechanism, fusing, weapons weight, guidance, and propulsion are significant in enhancing weapon performance objectives, and would benefit from modularization. Additionally, this thesis constructs an algorithm that can be used to design a weapon set for a particular target class based on these modular components.

  8. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  9. Standardization and program effect analysis (Study 2.4). Volume 2: Equipment commonality analysis. [cost savings of using flight-proven components in designing spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiokari, T.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility and cost savings of using flight-proven components in designing spacecraft were investigated. The components analyzed were (1) large space telescope, (2) stratospheric aerosol and gas equipment, (3) mapping mission, (4) solar maximum mission, and (5) Tiros-N. It is concluded that flight-proven hardware can be used with not-too-extensive modification, and significant savings can be realized. The cost savings for each component are presented.

  10. Avionics System Architecture Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Savio; Hall, Ronald; Traylor, marcus; Whitfield, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Avionics System Architecture Tool (ASAT) is a computer program intended for use during the avionics-system-architecture- design phase of the process of designing a spacecraft for a specific mission. ASAT enables simulation of the dynamics of the command-and-data-handling functions of the spacecraft avionics in the scenarios in which the spacecraft is expected to operate. ASAT is built upon I-Logix Statemate MAGNUM, providing a complement of dynamic system modeling tools, including a graphical user interface (GUI), modeling checking capabilities, and a simulation engine. ASAT augments this with a library of predefined avionics components and additional software to support building and analyzing avionics hardware architectures using these components.

  11. A Hybrid Model for Research on Subjective Well-Being: Examining Common- and Component-Specific Sources of Variance in Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect, and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael; Sadava, Stanley; DeCourville, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The primary components of subjective well-being (SWB) include life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). There is little consensus, however, concerning how these components form a model of SWB. In this paper, six longitudinal studies varying in demographic characteristics, length of time between assessment periods,…

  12. Project Integration Architecture: Architectural Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2001-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. By being a single, self-revealing architecture, the ability to develop single tools, for example a single graphical user interface, to span all applications is enabled. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications becomes possible, Object-encapsulation further allows information to become in a sense self-aware, knowing things such as its own dimensionality and providing functionality appropriate to its kind.

  13. Scientific Software Component Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, S.; Dykman, N.; Kumfert, G.; Smolinski, B.

    2000-02-16

    We are developing new software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address issues of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology enables cross-project code re-use, reduces software development costs, and provides additional simulation capabilities for massively parallel laboratory application codes. The success of our approach will be measured by its impact on DOE mathematical and scientific software efforts. Thus, we are collaborating closely with library developers and application scientists in the Common Component Architecture forum, the Equation Solver Interface forum, and other DOE mathematical software groups to gather requirements, write and adopt a variety of design specifications, and develop demonstration projects to validate our approach. Numerical simulation is essential to the science mission at the laboratory. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage the complexity of modern simulation software. Computational scientists develop complex, three-dimensional, massively parallel, full-physics simulations that require the integration of diverse software packages written by outside development teams. Currently, the integration of a new software package, such as a new linear solver library, can require several months of effort. Current industry component technologies such as CORBA, JavaBeans, and COM have all been used successfully in the business domain to reduce software development costs and increase software quality. However, these existing industry component infrastructures will not scale to support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. In particular, they do not address issues related to high-performance parallel computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections between components, language interoperability for scientific languages such as Fortran, parallel data redistribution between components, and massively

  14. Intelligent Agent Architectures: Reactive Planning Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenschein, Stanley J.; Kahn, Philip

    1993-01-01

    An Integrated Agent Architecture (IAA) is a framework or paradigm for constructing intelligent agents. Intelligent agents are collections of sensors, computers, and effectors that interact with their environments in real time in goal-directed ways. Because of the complexity involved in designing intelligent agents, it has been found useful to approach the construction of agents with some organizing principle, theory, or paradigm that gives shape to the agent's components and structures their relationships. Given the wide variety of approaches being taken in the field, the question naturally arises: Is there a way to compare and evaluate these approaches? The purpose of the present work is to develop common benchmark tasks and evaluation metrics to which intelligent agents, including complex robotic agents, constructed using various architectural approaches can be subjected.

  15. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  16. Embedded instrumentation systems architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visnevski, Nikita A.

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes the operational concept of the Embedded Instrumentation Systems Architecture (EISA) that is being developed for Test and Evaluation (T&E) applications. The architecture addresses such future T&E requirements as interoperability, flexibility, and non-intrusiveness. These are the ultimate requirements that support continuous T&E objectives. In this paper, we demonstrate that these objectives can be met by decoupling the Embedded Instrumentation (EI) system into an on-board and an off-board component. An on-board component is responsible for sampling, pre-processing, buffering, and transmitting data to the off-board component. The latter is responsible for aggregating, post-processing, and storing test data as well as providing access to the data via a clearly defined interface including such aspects as security, user authentication and access control. The power of the EISA architecture approach is in its inherent ability to support virtual instrumentation as well as enabling interoperability with such important T&E systems as Integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET), Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) and other relevant Department of Defense initiatives.

  17. Common Avionics Display Processor (CADP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Paul E.

    1995-06-01

    The 1970s saw the start of a trend towards integrated digital avionics. In the 1980s, the Air Force's Pave Pillar initiative defined centralized digital processing as the cost- effective approach to tactical avionics. The avionics systems of the two advanced aircraft presently under development, a fixed-wing tactical fighter and an armed scout/reconnaissance helicopter, were based on this architecture. Both platforms relied upon custom, single-purpose hardware and software to generate images for their advanced multifunctional flat panel cockpit displays. The technology to generate real-time synthetic images with common data and signal processors was not available during the development of the platforms. Harris IR&D investigations have focused on an approach that Harris GASD has named the Common Avionics Display Processor (CADP). This programmable device can generate sophisticated images or perform sensor image manipulation and processing. The Common Avionics Display Processor is a general purpose image synthesizer. It consists of software and hardware components configured at run time by a downloaded program. The CADP offers two advantages over custom, special purpose devices. First, it solves a class of problems, not a single one. It can generate many types of images, from alphanumeric to sensor simulation. Only one module type is required for any of these functions. Second, as program schedules become shorter, traditional hardware design time becomes the delivery limiting task. Because both the software and hardware components are programmable at run time, the CADP can adapt to changing requirements without redesign.

  18. Splicing remodels messenger ribonucleoprotein architecture via eIF4A3-dependent and -independent recruitment of exon junction complex components.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuo; Krainer, Adrian R

    2007-07-10

    Pre-mRNA splicing not only removes introns and joins exons to generate spliced mRNA but also results in remodeling of the spliced messenger ribonucleoprotein, influencing various downstream events. This remodeling includes the loading of an exon-exon junction complex (EJC). It is unclear how the spliceosome recruits the EJC onto the mRNA and whether EJC formation or EJC components are required for pre-mRNA splicing. Here we immunodepleted the EJC core component eIF4A3 from HeLa cell nuclear extract and found that eIF4A3 is dispensable for pre-mRNA splicing in vitro. However, eIF4A3 is required for the splicing-dependent loading of the Y14/Magoh heterodimer onto mRNA, and this activity of human eIF4A3 is also present in the Drosophila ortholog. Surprisingly, the loading of six other EJC components was not affected by eIF4A3 depletion, suggesting that their binding to mRNA involves different or redundant pathways. Finally, we found that the assembly of the EJC onto mRNA occurs at the late stages of the splicing reaction and requires the second-step splicing and mRNA-release factor HRH1/hPrp22. The EJC-dependent and -independent recruitment of RNA-binding proteins onto mRNA suggests a role for the EJC in messenger ribonucleoprotein remodeling involving interactions with other proteins already bound to the pre-mRNA, which has implications for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and other mRNA transactions. PMID:17606899

  19. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  20. Global ocean biogeochemistry model HAMOCC: Model architecture and performance as component of the MPI-Earth system model in different CMIP5 experimental realizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyina, Tatiana; Six, Katharina D.; Segschneider, Joachim; Maier-Reimer, Ernst; Li, Hongmei; NúñEz-Riboni, Ismael

    2013-06-01

    Ocean biogeochemistry is a novel standard component of fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) experiments which project future climate change caused by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Of particular interest here is the evolution of the oceanic sink of carbon and the oceanic contribution to the climate-carbon cycle feedback loop. The Hamburg ocean carbon cycle model (HAMOCC), a component of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth system model (MPI-ESM), is employed to address these challenges. In this paper we describe the version of HAMOCC used in the CMIP5 experiments (HAMOCC 5.2) and its implementation in the MPI-ESM to provide a documentation and basis for future CMIP5-related studies. Modeled present day distributions of biogeochemical variables calculated in two different horizontal resolutions compare fairly well with observations. Statistical metrics indicate that the model performs better at the ocean surface and worse in the ocean interior. There is a tendency for improvements in the higher resolution model configuration in representing deeper ocean variables; however, there is little to no improvement at the ocean surface. An experiment with interactive carbon cycle driven by emissions of CO2 produces a 25% higher variability in the oceanic carbon uptake over the historical period than the same model forced by prescribed atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Furthermore, a climate warming of 3.5 K projected at atmospheric CO2 concentration of four times the preindustrial value, reduced the atmosphere-ocean CO2 flux by 1 GtC yr-1. Overall, the model shows consistent results in different configurations, being suitable for the type of simulations required within the CMIP5 experimental design.

  1. Predicate calculus for an architecture of multiple neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consoli, Robert H.

    1990-08-01

    Future projects with neural networks will require multiple individual network components. Current efforts along these lines are ad hoc. This paper relates the neural network to a classical device and derives a multi-part architecture from that model. Further it provides a Predicate Calculus variant for describing the location and nature of the trainings and suggests Resolution Refutation as a method for determining the performance of the system as well as the location of needed trainings for specific proofs. 2. THE NEURAL NETWORK AND A CLASSICAL DEVICE Recently investigators have been making reports about architectures of multiple neural networksL234. These efforts are appearing at an early stage in neural network investigations they are characterized by architectures suggested directly by the problem space. Touretzky and Hinton suggest an architecture for processing logical statements1 the design of this architecture arises from the syntax of a restricted class of logical expressions and exhibits syntactic limitations. In similar fashion a multiple neural netword arises out of a control problem2 from the sequence learning problem3 and from the domain of machine learning. 4 But a general theory of multiple neural devices is missing. More general attempts to relate single or multiple neural networks to classical computing devices are not common although an attempt is made to relate single neural devices to a Turing machines and Sun et a!. develop a multiple neural architecture that performs pattern classification.

  2. Infrared thermography at EDF: common technique for high-voltage lines but new in monitoring and diagnosis of PWR plant components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Daniel

    1996-03-01

    Infrared thermography is a remarkable aid in maintenance, and has been used for a number of years in testing high-voltage lines and transformer substations. Electricite de France (EDF) has developed a special infrared thermography system for this type of application. Until recently, use of IRT in both fossil and nuclear power plants was only sporadic and depended on the interest shown in the technique by individual maintenance managers. In power stations, it was primarily used for tests on switchyards, electrical control cabinets and insulation. The General Engineering Department of the EDF Generation and Transmission Division was responsible for assessing new equipment and studying special development requirements as they arose. Routine infrared thermography tests were performed by two teams from the Division, one handling northern France and the other southern France. Today, infrared thermography has become a fully-fledged monitoring and diagnosis tool in its own right, and related activities are being reorganized accordingly. Its recent success can be attributed to a number of factors: more high-powered IRT techniques, valuable feedback from American utility companies, and technical and economic assessments conducted by EDF over the last two years on equipment such as electrical and mechanical components, valves and insulation. EDF's reorganization of infrared thermography activities will begin with an overview of the resources now existing within the company. This inventory will be carried out by the General Engineering Department. At the same time, a report will be drawn up bearing on IRT testing over the last decade in conventional and nuclear power plants in France and the United States. Lastly, EDF will draw up a list of components to be monitored in this way, essentially on the basis of RCM studies. These measures will provide power plants with a catalogue of infrared thermography applications for specific component/failure combinations.

  3. Evolution of bow-tie architectures in biology.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Tamar; Mayo, Avraham E; Tlusty, Tsvi; Alon, Uri

    2015-03-01

    Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in many biological systems. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signaling pathways to regulate multiple output genes. Little is known, however, about how bow-tie architectures evolve. Here, we address the evolution of bow-tie architectures using simulations of multi-layered systems evolving to fulfill a given input-output goal. We find that bow-ties spontaneously evolve when the information in the evolutionary goal can be compressed. Mathematically speaking, bow-ties evolve when the rank of the input-output matrix describing the evolutionary goal is deficient. The maximal compression possible (the rank of the goal) determines the size of the narrowest part of the network-that is the bow-tie. A further requirement is that a process is active to reduce the number of links in the network, such as product-rule mutations, otherwise a non-bow-tie solution is found in the evolutionary simulations. This offers a mechanism to understand a common architectural principle of biological systems, and a way to quantitate the effective rank of the goals under which they evolved. PMID:25798588

  4. Evolution of Bow-Tie Architectures in Biology

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, Tamar; Mayo, Avraham E.; Tlusty, Tsvi; Alon, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in many biological systems. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signaling pathways to regulate multiple output genes. Little is known, however, about how bow-tie architectures evolve. Here, we address the evolution of bow-tie architectures using simulations of multi-layered systems evolving to fulfill a given input-output goal. We find that bow-ties spontaneously evolve when the information in the evolutionary goal can be compressed. Mathematically speaking, bow-ties evolve when the rank of the input-output matrix describing the evolutionary goal is deficient. The maximal compression possible (the rank of the goal) determines the size of the narrowest part of the network—that is the bow-tie. A further requirement is that a process is active to reduce the number of links in the network, such as product-rule mutations, otherwise a non-bow-tie solution is found in the evolutionary simulations. This offers a mechanism to understand a common architectural principle of biological systems, and a way to quantitate the effective rank of the goals under which they evolved. PMID:25798588

  5. Component architecture - the software architecture for mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the challenges in developing a dynamic service such as FEI to support various mission requirements while being able to reduce cost on maintenance without sacrificing reliability and performance.

  6. Genome-wide association study of agronomic traits in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a global Andean diversity panel (ADP) of 237 genotypes of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris was conducted to gain insight into the genetic architecture of several agronomic traits controlling phenology, biomass, yield components and seed yield. The panel wa...

  7. Advanced information processing system: The Army fault tolerant architecture conceptual study. Volume 2: Army fault tolerant architecture design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, R. E.; Alger, L. S.; Babikyan, C. A.; Butler, B. P.; Friend, S. A.; Ganska, R. J.; Lala, J. H.; Masotto, T. K.; Meyer, A. J.; Morton, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Described here is the Army Fault Tolerant Architecture (AFTA) hardware architecture and components and the operating system. The architectural and operational theory of the AFTA Fault Tolerant Data Bus is discussed. The test and maintenance strategy developed for use in fielded AFTA installations is presented. An approach to be used in reducing the probability of AFTA failure due to common mode faults is described. Analytical models for AFTA performance, reliability, availability, life cycle cost, weight, power, and volume are developed. An approach is presented for using VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) to describe and design AFTA's developmental hardware. A plan is described for verifying and validating key AFTA concepts during the Dem/Val phase. Analytical models and partial mission requirements are used to generate AFTA configurations for the TF/TA/NOE and Ground Vehicle missions.

  8. Staged Event Architecture

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-05-30

    Sea is a framework for a Staged Event Architecture, designed around non-blocking asynchronous communication facilities that are decoupled from the threading model chosen by any given application, Components for P networking and in-memory communication are provided. The Sea Java library encapsulates these concepts. Sea is used to easily build efficient and flexible low-level network clients and servers, and in particular as a basic communication substrate for Peer-to-Peer applications.

  9. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  10. A murine monoclonal antibody, MoAb HMSA-5, against a melanosomal component highly expressed in early stages, and common to normal and neoplastic melanocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Der, J. E.; Dixon, W. T.; Jimbow, K.; Horikoshi, T.

    1993-01-01

    The melanosome is a secretory organelle unique to the melanocyte and its neoplastic counterpart, malignant melanoma. The synthesis and assembly of these intracytoplasmic organelles is not yet fully understood. We have developed a murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against melanosomes isolated from human melanocytes (newborn foreskin) cultured in the presence of 12-O tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). This MoAb, designated HMSA-5 (Human Melanosome-Specific Antigen-5) (IgG1), recognised a cytoplasmic antigen in both normal human melanocytes and neoplastic cells, such as common and dysplastic melanocytic nevi, and malignant melanoma. None of the carcinoma or sarcoma specimens tested showed positive reactivity with MoAb HMSA-5. Under immunoelectron microscopy, immuno-gold deposition was seen on microvesicles associated with melanosomes, and a portion of the ER-Golgi complexes. Radioimmunoprecipitation analysis showed that the HMSA-5 reactive antigen was a glycoprotein of M(r) 69 to 73 kDa. A pulse-chase time course study showed that the amount of antigen detected by MoAb HMSA-5 decreased over a 24 h period without significant expression on the cell surface, or corresponding appearance of the antigen in the culture supernatant. This glycoprotein appears to play a role in the early stages of melanosomal development, and the HMSA-5 reactive epitope may be lost during subsequent maturation processes. Importantly, HMSA-5 can be identified in all forms of human melanocytes, hence it can be considered a new common melanocytic marker even on routine paraffin sections. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:7678981

  11. Architectural Illusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doornek, Richard R.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan developed around the work of architectural muralist Richard Haas. Discusses the significance of mural painting and gives key concepts for the lesson. Lists class activities for the elementary and secondary grades. Provides a photograph of the Haas mural on the Fountainbleau Hilton Hotel, 1986. (GG)

  12. Architectural Treasures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietropola, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Presents an art lesson for eighth-grade students in which they created their own architectural structures. Stresses a strong discipline-based introduction using slide shows of famous buildings, large metropolitan cities, and 35,00 years of homes. Reports the lesson spanned two weeks. Includes a diagram, directions, and specifies materials. (CMK)

  13. Architectural Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Ronald; Yancey, Bruce

    Designed to be used as a supplement to a two-book course in basic drafting, these instructional materials consisting of 14 units cover the process of drawing all working drawings necessary for residential buildings. The following topics are covered in the individual units: introduction to architectural drafting, lettering and tools, site…

  14. Architectural Tops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The development of the skyscraper is an American story that combines architectural history, economic power, and technological achievement. Each city in the United States can be identified by the profile of its buildings. The design of the tops of skyscrapers was the inspiration for the students in the author's high-school ceramic class to develop…

  15. NASA Integrated Network Monitor and Control Software Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shames, Peter; Anderson, Michael; Kowal, Steve; Levesque, Michael; Sindiy, Oleg; Donahue, Kenneth; Barnes, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Communications and Navigation office (SCaN) has commissioned a series of trade studies to define a new architecture intended to integrate the three existing networks that it operates, the Deep Space Network (DSN), Space Network (SN), and Near Earth Network (NEN), into one integrated network that offers users a set of common, standardized, services and interfaces. The integrated monitor and control architecture utilizes common software and common operator interfaces that can be deployed at all three network elements. This software uses state-of-the-art concepts such as a pool of re-programmable equipment that acts like a configurable software radio, distributed hierarchical control, and centralized management of the whole SCaN integrated network. For this trade space study a model-based approach using SysML was adopted to describe and analyze several possible options for the integrated network monitor and control architecture. This model was used to refine the design and to drive the costing of the four different software options. This trade study modeled the three existing self standing network elements at point of departure, and then described how to integrate them using variations of new and existing monitor and control system components for the different proposed deployments under consideration. This paper will describe the trade space explored, the selected system architecture, the modeling and trade study methods, and some observations on useful approaches to implementing such model based trade space representation and analysis.

  16. Executable Architecture Research at Old Dominion University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolk, Andreas; Shuman, Edwin A.; Garcia, Johnny J.

    2011-01-01

    Executable Architectures allow the evaluation of system architectures not only regarding their static, but also their dynamic behavior. However, the systems engineering community do not agree on a common formal specification of executable architectures. To close this gap and identify necessary elements of an executable architecture, a modeling language, and a modeling formalism is topic of ongoing PhD research. In addition, systems are generally defined and applied in an operational context to provide capabilities and enable missions. To maximize the benefits of executable architectures, a second PhD effort introduces the idea of creating an executable context in addition to the executable architecture. The results move the validation of architectures from the current information domain into the knowledge domain and improve the reliability of such validation efforts. The paper presents research and results of both doctoral research efforts and puts them into a common context of state-of-the-art of systems engineering methods supporting more agility.

  17. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.; Birmingham, J.G.; McDonald, C.E.; Kurath, D.E.; Friedrich, M.

    1998-09-22

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 26 figs.

  18. Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; Call, Charles J.; Birmingham, Joseph G.; McDonald, Carolyn Evans; Kurath, Dean E.; Friedrich, Michele

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  19. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of Monarda punctata essential oil and its main components against common bacterial pathogens in respiratory tract

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Yang, Tian; Li, Fei-Yan; Yao, Yan; Sun, Zhong-Min

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current research work was to study the chemical composition of the essential oil of Monarda punctata along with evaluating the essential oil and its major components for their antibacterial effects against some frequently encountered respiratory infection causing pathogens. Gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of 13 chemical constituents with thymol (75.2%), p-cymene (6.7%), limonene (5.4), and carvacrol (3.5%) as the major constituents. The oil composition was dominated by the oxygenated monoterpenes. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil and its major constituents (thymol, p-cymene, limonene) was evaluated against Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli. The study revealed that the essential oil and its constituents exhibited a broad spectrum and variable degree of antibacterial activity against different strains. Among the tested strains, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the most susceptible bacterial strain showing lowest MIC and MBC values. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most resistant bacterial strain to the essential oil treatment showing relatively higher MIC and MBC values. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the essential oil induced potent and dose-dependent membrane damage in S. pyogenes and MRSA bacterial strains. The reactive oxygen species generated by the Monarda punctata essential oil were identified using 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA).This study indicated that the Monarda punctata essential oil to a great extent and thymol to a lower extent triggered a substantial increase in the ROS levels in S. pyogenes bacterial cultures which ultimately cause membrane damage as revealed by SEM results. PMID:25550774

  20. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of Monarda punctata essential oil and its main components against common bacterial pathogens in respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Yang, Tian; Li, Fei-Yan; Yao, Yan; Sun, Zhong-Min

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current research work was to study the chemical composition of the essential oil of Monarda punctata along with evaluating the essential oil and its major components for their antibacterial effects against some frequently encountered respiratory infection causing pathogens. Gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of 13 chemical constituents with thymol (75.2%), p-cymene (6.7%), limonene (5.4), and carvacrol (3.5%) as the major constituents. The oil composition was dominated by the oxygenated monoterpenes. Antibacterial activity of the essential oil and its major constituents (thymol, p-cymene, limonene) was evaluated against Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Escherichia coli. The study revealed that the essential oil and its constituents exhibited a broad spectrum and variable degree of antibacterial activity against different strains. Among the tested strains, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the most susceptible bacterial strain showing lowest MIC and MBC values. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most resistant bacterial strain to the essential oil treatment showing relatively higher MIC and MBC values. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the essential oil induced potent and dose-dependent membrane damage in S. pyogenes and MRSA bacterial strains. The reactive oxygen species generated by the Monarda punctata essential oil were identified using 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA).This study indicated that the Monarda punctata essential oil to a great extent and thymol to a lower extent triggered a substantial increase in the ROS levels in S. pyogenes bacterial cultures which ultimately cause membrane damage as revealed by SEM results. PMID:25550774

  1. Common Space, Common Time, Common Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Melody J.

    2005-01-01

    The most valued means of support and learning cited by new teachers at Poland Regional High School in rural Maine are the collegial interactions that common workspace, common planning time, and common tasks make possible. The school has used these everyday structures to enable new and veteran teachers to converse about curricular and pedagogical…

  2. Space Telecommunications Radio Architecture (STRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.

    2006-01-01

    A software defined radio (SDR) architecture used in space-based platforms proposes to standardize certain aspects of radio development such as interface definitions, functional control and execution, and application software and firmware development. NASA has charted a team to develop an open software defined radio hardware and software architecture to support NASA missions and determine the viability of an Agency-wide Standard. A draft concept of the proposed standard has been released and discussed among organizations in the SDR community. Appropriate leveraging of the JTRS SCA, OMG's SWRadio Architecture and other aspects are considered. A standard radio architecture offers potential value by employing common waveform software instantiation, operation, testing and software maintenance. While software defined radios offer greater flexibility, they also poses challenges to the radio development for the space environment in terms of size, mass and power consumption and available technology. An SDR architecture for space must recognize and address the constraints of space flight hardware, and systems along with flight heritage and culture. NASA is actively participating in the development of technology and standards related to software defined radios. As NASA considers a standard radio architecture for space communications, input and coordination from government agencies, the industry, academia, and standards bodies is key to a successful architecture. The unique aspects of space require thorough investigation of relevant terrestrial technologies properly adapted to space. The talk will describe NASA s current effort to investigate SDR applications to space missions and a brief overview of a candidate architecture under consideration for space based platforms.

  3. ASAC Executive Assistant Architecture Description Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Eileen; Villani, James A.

    1997-01-01

    In this technical document, we describe the system architecture developed for the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Executive Assistant (EA). We describe the genesis and role of the ASAC system, discuss the objectives of the ASAC system and provide an overview of components and models within the ASAC system, discuss our choice for an architecture methodology, the Domain Specific Software Architecture (DSSA), and the DSSA approach to developing a system architecture, and describe the development process and the results of the ASAC EA system architecture. The document has six appendices.

  4. Component architecture for web based EMR applications.

    PubMed Central

    Berkowicz, D. A.; Barnett, G. O.; Chueh, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    The World Wide Web provides the means for the collation and display of disseminated clinical information of use to the healthcare provider. However, the heterogeneous nature of clinical data storage and formats makes it very difficult for the physician to use one consistent client application to view and manipulate information. Similarly, developers are faced with a multitude of possibilities when creating interfaces for their users. A single patients records may be distributed over a number of different record keeping systems, and/or a physician may see patients whose individual records are stored at different sites. Our goal is to provide the healthcare worker with a consistent application interface independent of the parent database and at the same time allow developers the opportunity to customize the GUI in a well controlled, stable application environment. PMID:9929193

  5. Structural components and architectures of RNA exosomes.

    PubMed

    Januszyk, Kurt; Lima, Christopher D

    2010-01-01

    A large body of structural work conducted over the past ten years has elucidated mechanistic details related to 3' to 5' processing and decay of RNA substrates by the RNA exosome. This chapter will focus on the structural organization of eukaryotic exosomes and their evolutionary cousins in bacteria and archaea with an emphasis on mechanistic details related to substrate recognition and to 3' to 5' phosphorolytic exoribonucleolytic activities of bacterial and archaeal exosomes as well as the hydrolytic exoribonucleolytic and endoribonucleolytic activities of eukaryotic exosomes. These points will be addressed in large part through presentation of crystal structures ofphosphorolytic enzymes such as bacterial RNase PH, PNPase and archaeal exosomes and crystal structures ofthe eukaryotic exosome and exosome sub-complexes in addition to standalone structures of proteins that catalyze activities associated with the eukaryotic RNA exosome, namely Rrp44, Rrp6 and their bacterial counterparts. PMID:21618871

  6. Final Technical Report - Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, Alan

    2014-10-21

    This is a final technical report for the University of Maryland work in the SciDAC Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS). The Maryland work focused on software tools for coupling parallel software components built using the Common Component Architecture (CCA) APIs. Those tools are based on the Maryland InterComm software framework that has been used in multiple computational science applications to build large-scale simulations of complex physical systems that employ multiple separately developed codes.

  7. Bocca: A Development Environment for HPC Components

    SciTech Connect

    Elwasif, Wael R; Norris, Boyana; Benjamin, Allan A.; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    In high-performance scientific software development, the emphasis is often on short time to first solution. Even when the development of new components mostly reuses existing components or libraries and only small amounts of new code must be created, dealing with the component glue code and software build processes to obtain complete applications is still tedious and error-prone. Component-based soft ware meant to reduce complexity at the application level increases complexity with the attendant glue code. To address these needs, we introduce Bocca, the first tool to enable application developers to perform rapid component prototyping while maintaining robust software-engineering practices suitable to HPC environments. Bocca provides project management and a comprehensive build environment for creating and managing applications composed of Common Component Architecture components. Of critical importance for HPC applications, Bocca is designed to operate in a language-agnostic way, simultaneously handling components written in any of the languages commonly used in scientific applications: C, C++, Fortran, Fortran77, Python, and Java. Bocca automates the tasks related to the component glue code, freeing the user to focus on the scientific aspects of the application. Bocca embraces the philosophy pioneered by Ruby Rails for web applications: Start with something that works and evolve it to the user's purpose.

  8. System Safety Common Cause Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-03-10

    The COMCAN fault tree analysis codes are designed to analyze complex systems such as nuclear plants for common causes of failure. A common cause event, or common mode failure, is a secondary cause that could contribute to the failure of more than one component and violates the assumption of independence. Analysis of such events is an integral part of system reliability and safety analysis. A significant common cause event is a secondary cause common tomore » all basic events in one or more minimal cut sets. Minimal cut sets containing events from components sharing a common location or a common link are called common cause candidates. Components share a common location if no barrier insulates any one of them from the secondary cause. A common link is a dependency among components which cannot be removed by a physical barrier (e.g.,a common energy source or common maintenance instructions).« less

  9. Integrating hospital information systems in healthcare institutions: a mediation architecture.

    PubMed

    El Azami, Ikram; Cherkaoui Malki, Mohammed Ouçamah; Tahon, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Many studies have examined the integration of information systems into healthcare institutions, leading to several standards in the healthcare domain (CORBAmed: Common Object Request Broker Architecture in Medicine; HL7: Health Level Seven International; DICOM: Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine; and IHE: Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise). Due to the existence of a wide diversity of heterogeneous systems, three essential factors are necessary to fully integrate a system: data, functions and workflow. However, most of the previous studies have dealt with only one or two of these factors and this makes the system integration unsatisfactory. In this paper, we propose a flexible, scalable architecture for Hospital Information Systems (HIS). Our main purpose is to provide a practical solution to insure HIS interoperability so that healthcare institutions can communicate without being obliged to change their local information systems and without altering the tasks of the healthcare professionals. Our architecture is a mediation architecture with 3 levels: 1) a database level, 2) a middleware level and 3) a user interface level. The mediation is based on two central components: the Mediator and the Adapter. Using the XML format allows us to establish a structured, secured exchange of healthcare data. The notion of medical ontology is introduced to solve semantic conflicts and to unify the language used for the exchange. Our mediation architecture provides an effective, promising model that promotes the integration of hospital information systems that are autonomous, heterogeneous, semantically interoperable and platform-independent. PMID:22086739

  10. How architecture wins technology wars.

    PubMed

    Morris, C R; Ferguson, C H

    1993-01-01

    Signs of revolutionary transformation in the global computer industry are everywhere. A roll call of the major industry players reads like a waiting list in the emergency room. The usual explanations for the industry's turmoil are at best inadequate. Scale, friendly government policies, manufacturing capabilities, a strong position in desktop markets, excellent software, top design skills--none of these is sufficient, either by itself or in combination, to ensure competitive success in information technology. A new paradigm is required to explain patterns of success and failure. Simply stated, success flows to the company that manages to establish proprietary architectural control over a broad, fast-moving, competitive space. Architectural strategies have become crucial to information technology because of the astonishing rate of improvement in microprocessors and other semiconductor components. Since no single vendor can keep pace with the outpouring of cheap, powerful, mass-produced components, customers insist on stitching together their own local systems solutions. Architectures impose order on the system and make the interconnections possible. The architectural controller is the company that controls the standard by which the entire information package is assembled. Microsoft's Windows is an excellent example of this. Because of the popularity of Windows, companies like Lotus must conform their software to its parameters in order to compete for market share. In the 1990s, proprietary architectural control is not only possible but indispensable to competitive success. What's more, it has broader implications for organizational structure: architectural competition is giving rise to a new form of business organization. PMID:10124636

  11. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  12. Common Schools for Common Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Eamonn

    1995-01-01

    A vision of common education for citizens of a liberal democracy warrants faith in common schools as an instrument of social good. Some kinds of separate schooling are not inconsistent with common schooling and are even desirable. Equal respect, as defined by J. Rawls, is a basis for common education. (SLD)

  13. Functional Interface Considerations within an Exploration Life Support System Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    As notional life support system (LSS) architectures are developed and evaluated, myriad options must be considered pertaining to process technologies, components, and equipment assemblies. Each option must be evaluated relative to its impact on key functional interfaces within the LSS architecture. A leading notional architecture has been developed to guide the path toward realizing future crewed space exploration goals. This architecture includes atmosphere revitalization, water recovery and management, and environmental monitoring subsystems. Guiding requirements for developing this architecture are summarized and important interfaces within the architecture are discussed. The role of environmental monitoring within the architecture is described.

  14. Distributed visualization framework architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Oleg; Raman, Sundaresan; Crawfis, Roger

    2010-01-01

    An architecture for distributed and collaborative visualization is presented. The design goals of the system are to create a lightweight, easy to use and extensible framework for reasearch in scientific visualization. The system provides both single user and collaborative distributed environment. System architecture employs a client-server model. Visualization projects can be synchronously accessed and modified from different client machines. We present a set of visualization use cases that illustrate the flexibility of our system. The framework provides a rich set of reusable components for creating new applications. These components make heavy use of leading design patterns. All components are based on the functionality of a small set of interfaces. This allows new components to be integrated seamlessly with little to no effort. All user input and higher-level control functionality interface with proxy objects supporting a concrete implementation of these interfaces. These light-weight objects can be easily streamed across the web and even integrated with smart clients running on a user's cell phone. The back-end is supported by concrete implementations wherever needed (for instance for rendering). A middle-tier manages any communication and synchronization with the proxy objects. In addition to the data components, we have developed several first-class GUI components for visualization. These include a layer compositor editor, a programmable shader editor, a material editor and various drawable editors. These GUI components interact strictly with the interfaces. Access to the various entities in the system is provided by an AssetManager. The asset manager keeps track of all of the registered proxies and responds to queries on the overall system. This allows all user components to be populated automatically. Hence if a new component is added that supports the IMaterial interface, any instances of this can be used in the various GUI components that work with this

  15. Lab architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2008-04-01

    There are few more dramatic illustrations of the vicissitudes of laboratory architecturethan the contrast between Building 20 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its replacement, the Ray and Maria Stata Center. Building 20 was built hurriedly in 1943 as temporary housing for MIT's famous Rad Lab, the site of wartime radar research, and it remained a productive laboratory space for over half a century. A decade ago it was demolished to make way for the Stata Center, an architecturally striking building designed by Frank Gehry to house MIT's computer science and artificial intelligence labs (above). But in 2004 - just two years after the Stata Center officially opened - the building was criticized for being unsuitable for research and became the subject of still ongoing lawsuits alleging design and construction failures.

  16. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Common Cold Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page ... Help people who are suffering from the common cold by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials. ...

  17. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...

  18. Open architecture design and approach for the Integrated Sensor Architecture (ISA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, Christine L.; Krzywicki, Alan T.; Hepp, Jared J.; Harrell, John; Kogut, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Integrated Sensor Architecture (ISA) is designed in response to stovepiped integration approaches. The design, based on the principles of Service Oriented Architectures (SOA) and Open Architectures, addresses the problem of integration, and is not designed for specific sensors or systems. The use of SOA and Open Architecture approaches has led to a flexible, extensible architecture. Using these approaches, and supported with common data formats, open protocol specifications, and Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) system architecture documents, an integration-focused architecture has been developed. ISA can help move the Department of Defense (DoD) from costly stovepipe solutions to a more cost-effective plug-and-play design to support interoperability.

  19. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  20. Architecture for autonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broten, Gregory S.; Monckton, Simon P.; Collier, Jack; Giesbrecht, Jared

    2006-05-01

    In 2002 Defence R&D Canada changed research direction from pure tele-operated land vehicles to general autonomy for land, air, and sea craft. The unique constraints of the military environment coupled with the complexity of autonomous systems drove DRDC to carefully plan a research and development infrastructure that would provide state of the art tools without restricting research scope. DRDC's long term objectives for its autonomy program address disparate unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), unattended ground sensor (UGS), air (UAV), and subsea and surface (UUV and USV) vehicles operating together with minimal human oversight. Individually, these systems will range in complexity from simple reconnaissance mini-UAVs streaming video to sophisticated autonomous combat UGVs exploiting embedded and remote sensing. Together, these systems can provide low risk, long endurance, battlefield services assuming they can communicate and cooperate with manned and unmanned systems. A key enabling technology for this new research is a software architecture capable of meeting both DRDC's current and future requirements. DRDC built upon recent advances in the computing science field while developing its software architecture know as the Architecture for Autonomy (AFA). Although a well established practice in computing science, frameworks have only recently entered common use by unmanned vehicles. For industry and government, the complexity, cost, and time to re-implement stable systems often exceeds the perceived benefits of adopting a modern software infrastructure. Thus, most persevere with legacy software, adapting and modifying software when and wherever possible or necessary -- adopting strategic software frameworks only when no justifiable legacy exists. Conversely, academic programs with short one or two year projects frequently exploit strategic software frameworks but with little enduring impact. The open-source movement radically changes this picture. Academic frameworks

  1. Information Model Driven Semantic Framework Architecture and Design for Distributed Data Repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P. A.; Semantic eScience Framework Team

    2011-12-01

    In Earth and space science, the steady evolution away from isolated and single purpose data 'systems' toward systems of systems, data ecosystems, or data frameworks that provide access to highly heterogeneous data repositories is picking up in pace. As a result, common informatics approaches are being sought for how newer architectures are developed and/or implemented. In particular, a clear need to have a repeatable method for modeling, implementing and evolving the information architectures has emerged and one that goes beyond traditional software design. This presentation outlines new component design approaches bases in sets of information model and semantic encodings for mediation.

  2. Challenges in the application of modular open system architecture to weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaver, Jonathan; Rose, Leo; Young, Quinn; Christensen, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    The overarching objective for Flexible Weapons is to replace current inventory weapons that will not fully utilize the increased capabilities of 6th generation platforms, with a single weapons kit made up of flexible, open architecture components. Flexible Weapon will develop a common architecture to enable modular subsystems to achieve flexible weapons capability while allowing technology refresh at the pace of technology discovery in an affordable and sustainable design. The various combinations of weapons to address multiple missions must be 100% compatible with 6th generation delivery platforms (fighters, bombers, RPAs) and backwards compatible with 4th and 5th generation platforms.

  3. Hybrid Power Management-Based Vehicle Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications (s ee figure). The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, that provides all power to a common energy storage system that is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems. This architecture also provides power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. The key element of HPM is the energy storage system. All generated power is sent to the energy storage system, and all loads derive their power from that system. This can significantly reduce the power requirement of the primary power source, while increasing the vehicle reliability. Ultracapacitors are ideal for an HPM-based energy storage system due to their exceptionally long cycle life, high reliability, high efficiency, high power density, and excellent low-temperature performance. Multiple power sources and multiple loads are easily incorporated into an HPM-based vehicle. A gas turbine is a good primary power source because of its high efficiency, high power density, long life, high reliability, and ability to operate on a wide range of fuels. An HPM controller maintains optimal control over each vehicle component. This flexible operating system can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve vehicle efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. The HPM-based vehicle architecture has many advantages over conventional vehicle architectures. Ultracapacitors have a much longer cycle life than batteries, which greatly improves system reliability, reduces life-of-system costs, and reduces environmental impact as ultracapacitors will probably never need to be

  4. Maximizing commonality between military and general aviation fly-by-light helicopter system designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enns, Russell; Mossman, David C.

    1995-05-01

    In the face of shrinking defense budgets, survival of the United States rotorcraft industry is becoming increasingly dependent on increased sales in a highly competitive civil helicopter market. As a result, only the most competitive rotorcraft manufacturers are likely to survive. A key ingredient in improving our competitive position is the ability to produce more versatile, high performance, high quality, and low cost of ownership helicopters. Fiber optic technology offers a path of achieving these objectives. Also, adopting common components and architectures for different helicopter models (while maintaining each models' uniqueness) will further decrease design and production costs. Funds saved (or generated) by exploiting this commonality can be applied to R&D used to further improve the product. In this paper, we define a fiber optics based avionics architecture which provides the pilot a fly-by-light / digital flight control system which can be implemented in both civilian and military helicopters. We then discuss the advantages of such an architecture.

  5. Space Station data management system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallary, William E.; Whitelaw, Virginia A.

    1987-01-01

    Within the Space Station program, the Data Management System (DMS) functions in a dual role. First, it provides the hardware resources and software services which support the data processing, data communications, and data storage functions of the onboard subsystems and payloads. Second, it functions as an integrating entity which provides a common operating environment and human-machine interface for the operation and control of the orbiting Space Station systems and payloads by both the crew and the ground operators. This paper discusses the evolution and derivation of the requirements and issues which have had significant effect on the design of the Space Station DMS, describes the DMS components and services which support system and payload operations, and presents the current architectural view of the system as it exists in October 1986; one-and-a-half years into the Space Station Phase B Definition and Preliminary Design Study.

  6. Optical linear algebra processors - Architectures and algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, David

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to the component design and optical configuration features of a generic optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) architecture, as well as the large number of OLAP architectures, number representations, algorithms and applications encountered in current literature. Number-representation issues associated with bipolar and complex-valued data representations, high-accuracy (including floating point) performance, and the base or radix to be employed, are discussed, together with case studies on a space-integrating frequency-multiplexed architecture and a hybrid space-integrating and time-integrating multichannel architecture.

  7. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  8. An introductory review of parallel independent component analysis (p-ICA) and a guide to applying p-ICA to genetic data and imaging phenotypes to identify disease-associated biological pathways and systems in common complex disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Liu, Jingyu; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2015-01-01

    Complex inherited phenotypes, including those for many common medical and psychiatric diseases, are most likely underpinned by multiple genes contributing to interlocking molecular biological processes, along with environmental factors (Owen et al., 2010). Despite this, genotyping strategies for complex, inherited, disease-related phenotypes mostly employ univariate analyses, e.g., genome wide association. Such procedures most often identify isolated risk-related SNPs or loci, not the underlying biological pathways necessary to help guide the development of novel treatment approaches. This article focuses on the multivariate analysis strategy of parallel (i.e., simultaneous combination of SNP and neuroimage information) independent component analysis (p-ICA), which typically yields large clusters of functionally related SNPs statistically correlated with phenotype components, whose overall molecular biologic relevance is inferred subsequently using annotation software suites. Because this is a novel approach, whose details are relatively new to the field we summarize its underlying principles and address conceptual questions regarding interpretation of resulting data and provide practical illustrations of the method. PMID:26442095

  9. An introductory review of parallel independent component analysis (p-ICA) and a guide to applying p-ICA to genetic data and imaging phenotypes to identify disease-associated biological pathways and systems in common complex disorders.

    PubMed

    Pearlson, Godfrey D; Liu, Jingyu; Calhoun, Vince D

    2015-01-01

    Complex inherited phenotypes, including those for many common medical and psychiatric diseases, are most likely underpinned by multiple genes contributing to interlocking molecular biological processes, along with environmental factors (Owen et al., 2010). Despite this, genotyping strategies for complex, inherited, disease-related phenotypes mostly employ univariate analyses, e.g., genome wide association. Such procedures most often identify isolated risk-related SNPs or loci, not the underlying biological pathways necessary to help guide the development of novel treatment approaches. This article focuses on the multivariate analysis strategy of parallel (i.e., simultaneous combination of SNP and neuroimage information) independent component analysis (p-ICA), which typically yields large clusters of functionally related SNPs statistically correlated with phenotype components, whose overall molecular biologic relevance is inferred subsequently using annotation software suites. Because this is a novel approach, whose details are relatively new to the field we summarize its underlying principles and address conceptual questions regarding interpretation of resulting data and provide practical illustrations of the method. PMID:26442095

  10. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  11. A Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Based Vehicle Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Society desires vehicles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced emissions. This presents a challenge and an opportunity for industry and the government. The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a Hybrid Power Management (HPM) based vehicle architecture for space and terrestrial vehicles. GRC's Electrical and Electromagnetics Branch of the Avionics and Electrical Systems Division initiated the HPM Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, providing all power to a common energy storage system, which is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems, as well as provide power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. This flexible vehicle architecture can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve system efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. This unique vehicle architecture has the potential to alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, stimulate the economy, and enable new missions.

  12. Will architecture win the technology wars?

    PubMed

    Alberthal, L; Manzi, J; Curtis, G; Davidow, W H; Timko, J W; Nadler, D; Davis, L L

    1993-01-01

    Success today flows to the company that establishes proprietary architectural control over a broad, fast-moving, competitive space, Charles R. Morris and Charles H. Ferguson claim in "How Architecture Wins Technology Wars" (March-April 1993). No single vendor can keep pace with the outpouring of cheap, powerful, mass-produced components, so customers have been stitching together their own local systems solutions. Architectures impose order on the system and make interconnections possible. An architectural controller has power over the standard by which the entire information package is assembled. Because of the popularity of Microsoft's Windows, for example, companies like Lotus must conform their software to its parameters to be able to compete for market share. Proprietary architectural control has broader implications for organizational structure too: architectural competition is giving rise to a new form of business organization. PMID:10126152

  13. Parallel Architecture For Robotics Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1990-01-01

    Universal Real-Time Robotic Controller and Simulator (URRCS) is highly parallel computing architecture for control and simulation of robot motion. Result of extensive algorithmic study of different kinematic and dynamic computational problems arising in control and simulation of robot motion. Study led to development of class of efficient parallel algorithms for these problems. Represents algorithmically specialized architecture, in sense capable of exploiting common properties of this class of parallel algorithms. System with both MIMD and SIMD capabilities. Regarded as processor attached to bus of external host processor, as part of bus memory.

  14. Electrical Grounding Architecture for Unmanned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This handbook is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and all NASA Centers and is intended to provide a common framework for consistent practices across NASA programs. This handbook was developed to describe electrical grounding design architecture options for unmanned spacecraft. This handbook is written for spacecraft system engineers, power engineers, and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) engineers. Spacecraft grounding architecture is a system-level decision which must be established at the earliest point in spacecraft design. All other grounding design must be coordinated with and be consistent with the system-level architecture. This handbook assumes that there is no one single 'correct' design for spacecraft grounding architecture. There have been many successful satellite and spacecraft programs from NASA, using a variety of grounding architectures with different levels of complexity. However, some design principles learned over the years apply to all types of spacecraft development. This handbook summarizes those principles to help guide spacecraft grounding architecture design for NASA and others.

  15. Automated Synthesis of Architecture of Avionic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Savio; Xu, Joseph; Dang, Van; Lu, James F.

    2006-01-01

    The Architecture Synthesis Tool (AST) is software that automatically synthesizes software and hardware architectures of avionic systems. The AST is expected to be most helpful during initial formulation of an avionic-system design, when system requirements change frequently and manual modification of architecture is time-consuming and susceptible to error. The AST comprises two parts: (1) an architecture generator, which utilizes a genetic algorithm to create a multitude of architectures; and (2) a functionality evaluator, which analyzes the architectures for viability, rejecting most of the non-viable ones. The functionality evaluator generates and uses a viability tree a hierarchy representing functions and components that perform the functions such that the system as a whole performs system-level functions representing the requirements for the system as specified by a user. Architectures that survive the functionality evaluator are further evaluated by the selection process of the genetic algorithm. Architectures found to be most promising to satisfy the user s requirements and to perform optimally are selected as parents to the next generation of architectures. The foregoing process is iterated as many times as the user desires. The final output is one or a few viable architectures that satisfy the user s requirements.

  16. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work. Parents often get colds ... other children. A cold can spread quickly through schools or daycares. Colds can occur at any time ...

  17. Language interoperability for high-performance parallel scientific components

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, N; Kohn, S; Smolinski, B

    1999-05-18

    With the increasing complexity and interdisciplinary nature of scientific applications, code reuse is becoming increasingly important in scientific computing. One method for facilitating code reuse is the use of components technologies, which have been used widely in industry. However, components have only recently worked their way into scientific computing. Language interoperability is an important underlying technology for these component architectures. In this paper, we present an approach to language interoperability for a high-performance parallel, component architecture being developed by the Common Component Architecture (CCA) group. Our approach is based on Interface Definition Language (IDL) techniques. We have developed a Scientific Interface Definition Language (SIDL), as well as bindings to C and Fortran. We have also developed a SIDL compiler and run-time library support for reference counting, reflection, object management, and exception handling (Babel). Results from using Babel to call a standard numerical solver library (written in C) from C and Fortran show that the cost of using Babel is minimal, where as the savings in development time and the benefits of object-oriented development support for C and Fortran far outweigh the costs.

  18. Airport Surface Network Architecture Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thanh C.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Bretmersky, Steven C.; Lawas-Grodek, Fran; Ellis, Brenda L.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, airport surface communications are fragmented across multiple types of systems. These communication systems for airport operations at most airports today are based dedicated and separate architectures that cannot support system-wide interoperability and information sharing. The requirements placed upon the Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) systems in airports are rapidly growing and integration is urgently needed if the future vision of the National Airspace System (NAS) and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) 2025 concept are to be realized. To address this and other problems such as airport surface congestion, the Space Based Technologies Project s Surface ICNS Network Architecture team at NASA Glenn Research Center has assessed airport surface communications requirements, analyzed existing and future surface applications, and defined a set of architecture functions that will help design a scalable, reliable and flexible surface network architecture to meet the current and future needs of airport operations. This paper describes the systems approach or methodology to networking that was employed to assess airport surface communications requirements, analyze applications, and to define the surface network architecture functions as the building blocks or components of the network. The systems approach used for defining these functions is relatively new to networking. It is viewing the surface network, along with its environment (everything that the surface network interacts with or impacts), as a system. Associated with this system are sets of services that are offered by the network to the rest of the system. Therefore, the surface network is considered as part of the larger system (such as the NAS), with interactions and dependencies between the surface network and its users, applications, and devices. The surface network architecture includes components such as addressing/routing, network management, network

  19. Evolution of System Architectures: Where Do We Need to Fail Next?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermudez, Luis; Alameh, Nadine; Percivall, George

    2013-04-01

    Innovation requires testing and failing. Thomas Edison was right when he said "I have not failed. I've just found 10,000 ways that won't work". For innovation and improvement of standards to happen, service Architectures have to be tested and tested. Within the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), testing of service architectures has occurred for the last 15 years. This talk will present an evolution of these service architectures and a possible future path. OGC is a global forum for the collaboration of developers and users of spatial data products and services, and for the advancement and development of international standards for geospatial interoperability. The OGC Interoperability Program is a series of hands-on, fast paced, engineering initiatives to accelerate the development and acceptance of OGC standards. Each initiative is organized in threads that provide focus under a particular theme. The first testbed, OGC Web Services phase 1, completed in 2003 had four threads: Common Architecture, Web Mapping, Sensor Web and Web Imagery Enablement. The Common Architecture was a cross-thread theme, to ensure that the Web Mapping and Sensor Web experiments built on a base common architecture. The architecture was based on the three main SOA components: Broker, Requestor and Provider. It proposed a general service model defining service interactions and dependencies; categorization of service types; registries to allow discovery and access of services; data models and encodings; and common services (WMS, WFS, WCS). For the latter, there was a clear distinction on the different services: Data Services (e.g. WMS), Application services (e.g. Coordinate transformation) and server-side client applications (e.g. image exploitation). The latest testbed, OGC Web Service phase 9, completed in 2012 had 5 threads: Aviation, Cross-Community Interoperability (CCI), Security and Services Interoperability (SSI), OWS Innovations and Compliance & Interoperability Testing & Evaluation

  20. Component-based integration of chemistry and optimization software.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Joseph P; Benson, Steven J; Alexeev, Yuri; Sarich, Jason; Janssen, Curtis L; McInnes, Lois Curfman; Krishnan, Manojkumar; Nieplocha, Jarek; Jurrus, Elizabeth; Fahlstrom, Carl; Windus, Theresa L

    2004-11-15

    Typical scientific software designs make rigid assumptions regarding programming language and data structures, frustrating software interoperability and scientific collaboration. Component-based software engineering is an emerging approach to managing the increasing complexity of scientific software. Component technology facilitates code interoperability and reuse. Through the adoption of methodology and tools developed by the Common Component Architecture Forum, we have developed a component architecture for molecular structure optimization. Using the NWChem and Massively Parallel Quantum Chemistry packages, we have produced chemistry components that provide capacity for energy and energy derivative evaluation. We have constructed geometry optimization applications by integrating the Toolkit for Advanced Optimization, Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation, and Global Arrays packages, which provide optimization and linear algebra capabilities. We present a brief overview of the component development process and a description of abstract interfaces for chemical optimizations. The components conforming to these abstract interfaces allow the construction of applications using different chemistry and mathematics packages interchangeably. Initial numerical results for the component software demonstrate good performance, and highlight potential research enabled by this platform. PMID:15362128

  1. Component-Based Software for High-Performance Scientific Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Alexeev, Yuri; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Bernholdt, David E.; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Gannon, Dennis B.; Janssen, Curtis; Kenny, Joseph P.; Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Kohl, James A.; Kumfert, Gary K.; McInnes, Lois C.; Nieplocha, Jarek; Parker, Steven G.; Rasmussen, Craig; Windus, Theresa L.

    2005-06-26

    Recent advances in both computational hardware and multidisciplinary science have given rise to an unprecedented level of complexity in scientific simulation software. This paper describes an ongoing grass roots effort aimed at addressing complexity in high-performance computing through the use of Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE). Highlights of the benefits and accomplishments of the Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum and SciDAC ISIC are given, followed by an illustrative example of how the CCA has been applied to drive scientific discovery in quantum chemistry. Thrusts for future research are also described briefly.

  2. The UAS control segment architecture: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Douglas A.; Batavia, Parag; Coats, Mark; Allport, Chris; Jennings, Ann; Ernst, Richard

    2013-05-01

    The Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology and Logistics) directed the Services in 2009 to jointly develop and demonstrate a common architecture for command and control of Department of Defense (DoD) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Groups 2 through 5. The UAS Control Segment (UCS) Architecture is an architecture framework for specifying and designing the softwareintensive capabilities of current and emerging UCS systems in the DoD inventory. The UCS Architecture is based on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) principles that will be adopted by each of the Services as a common basis for acquiring, integrating, and extending the capabilities of the UAS Control Segment. The UAS Task Force established the UCS Working Group to develop and support the UCS Architecture. The Working Group currently has over three hundred members, and is open to qualified representatives from DoD-approved defense contractors, academia, and the Government. The UCS Architecture is currently at Release 2.2, with Release 3.0 planned for July 2013. This paper discusses the current and planned elements of the UCS Architecture, and related activities of the UCS Community of Interest.

  3. Performance measurement and modeling of component applications in a high performance computing environment : a case study.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Robert C.; Ray, Jaideep; Malony, A.; Shende, Sameer; Trebon, Nicholas D.

    2003-11-01

    We present a case study of performance measurement and modeling of a CCA (Common Component Architecture) component-based application in a high performance computing environment. We explore issues peculiar to component-based HPC applications and propose a performance measurement infrastructure for HPC based loosely on recent work done for Grid environments. A prototypical implementation of the infrastructure is used to collect data for a three components in a scientific application and construct performance models for two of them. Both computational and message-passing performance are addressed.

  4. Nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.; Sengupta, S.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents the details of the nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data. Topic discussed include: connection with principal component analysis; network architecture; analysis of the standard routine (PRINC); and results.

  5. CONRAD Software Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, J. C.; Bennett, T.

    2008-08-01

    The Convergent Radio Astronomy Demonstrator (CONRAD) is a collaboration between the computing teams of two SKA pathfinder instruments, MeerKAT (South Africa) and ASKAP (Australia). Our goal is to produce the required common software to operate, process and store the data from the two instruments. Both instruments are synthesis arrays composed of a large number of antennas (40 - 100) operating at centimeter wavelengths with wide-field capabilities. Key challenges are the processing of high volume of data in real-time as well as the remote mode of operations. Here we present the software architecture for CONRAD. Our design approach is to maximize the use of open solutions and third-party software widely deployed in commercial applications, such as SNMP and LDAP, and to utilize modern web-based technologies for the user interfaces, such as AJAX.

  6. Most genetic risk for autism resides with common variation.

    PubMed

    Gaugler, Trent; Klei, Lambertus; Sanders, Stephan J; Bodea, Corneliu A; Goldberg, Arthur P; Lee, Ann B; Mahajan, Milind; Manaa, Dina; Pawitan, Yudi; Reichert, Jennifer; Ripke, Stephan; Sandin, Sven; Sklar, Pamela; Svantesson, Oscar; Reichenberg, Abraham; Hultman, Christina M; Devlin, Bernie; Roeder, Kathryn; Buxbaum, Joseph D

    2014-08-01

    A key component of genetic architecture is the allelic spectrum influencing trait variability. For autism spectrum disorder (herein termed autism), the nature of the allelic spectrum is uncertain. Individual risk-associated genes have been identified from rare variation, especially de novo mutations. From this evidence, one might conclude that rare variation dominates the allelic spectrum in autism, yet recent studies show that common variation, individually of small effect, has substantial impact en masse. At issue is how much of an impact relative to rare variation this common variation has. Using a unique epidemiological sample from Sweden, new methods that distinguish total narrow-sense heritability from that due to common variation and synthesis of results from other studies, we reach several conclusions about autism's genetic architecture: its narrow-sense heritability is ∼52.4%, with most due to common variation, and rare de novo mutations contribute substantially to individual liability, yet their contribution to variance in liability, 2.6%, is modest compared to that for heritable variation. PMID:25038753

  7. Component-specific modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Accomplishments are described for the second year effort of a 3-year program to develop methodology for component specific modeling of aircraft engine hot section components (turbine blades, turbine vanes, and burner liners). These accomplishments include: (1) engine thermodynamic and mission models; (2) geometry model generators; (3) remeshing; (4) specialty 3-D inelastic stuctural analysis; (5) computationally efficient solvers, (6) adaptive solution strategies; (7) engine performance parameters/component response variables decomposition and synthesis; (8) integrated software architecture and development, and (9) validation cases for software developed.

  8. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  9. New computer architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberghien, J.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on supercomputers. Topics considered include decentralized computer architecture, new programming languages, data flow computers, reduction computers, parallel prefix calculations, structural and behavioral descriptions of digital systems, instruction sets, software generation, personal computing, and computer architecture education.

  10. Post and Lintel Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Robert A.

    1973-01-01

    Author finds that children understand architectural concepts more readily when he refers to familiar non-architectural examples of them such as goal posts, chairs, tables, and playground equipment. (GB)