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The common component architecture for particle accelerator simulations.  

SciTech Connect

Synergia2 is a beam dynamics modeling and simulation application for high-energy accelerators such as the Tevatron at Fermilab and the International Linear Collider, which is now under planning and development. Synergia2 is a hybrid, multilanguage software package comprised of two separate accelerator physics packages (Synergia and MaryLie/Impact) and one high-performance computer science package (PETSc). We describe our approach to producing a set of beam dynamics-specific software components based on the Common Component Architecture specification. Among other topics, we describe particular experiences with the following tasks: using Python steering to guide the creation of interfaces and to prototype components; working with legacy Fortran codes; and an example component-based, beam dynamics simulation.

Dechow, D. R.; Norris, B.; Amundson, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Tech-X Corp; FNAL



Toward a Common Component Architecture for High-Performance Scientific Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes work in progress to develop a standard for interoperability among high-performance scientific components. This research stems from the growing recognition that the scientific community needs to better manage the complexity of multidisciplinary simulations and better address scalable performance issues on parallel and distributed architectures. The driving force for this is the need for fast connections among components that perform

Robert C. Armstrong; Dennis Gannon; Al Geist; Katarzyna Keahey; Scott R. Kohn; Lois C. McInnes; Steve R. Parker; Brent A. Smolinski



Components of coated vesicles and nuclear pore complexes share a common molecular architecture.  


Numerous features distinguish prokaryotes from eukaryotes, chief among which are the distinctive internal membrane systems of eukaryotic cells. These membrane systems form elaborate compartments and vesicular trafficking pathways, and sequester the chromatin within the nuclear envelope. The nuclear pore complex is the portal that specifically mediates macromolecular trafficking across the nuclear envelope. Although it is generally understood that these internal membrane systems evolved from specialized invaginations of the prokaryotic plasma membrane, it is not clear how the nuclear pore complex could have evolved from organisms with no analogous transport system. Here we use computational and biochemical methods to perform a structural analysis of the seven proteins comprising the yNup84/vNup107-160 subcomplex, a core building block of the nuclear pore complex. Our analysis indicates that all seven proteins contain either a beta-propeller fold, an alpha-solenoid fold, or a distinctive arrangement of both, revealing close similarities between the structures comprising the yNup84/vNup107-160 subcomplex and those comprising the major types of vesicle coating complexes that maintain vesicular trafficking pathways. These similarities suggest a common evolutionary origin for nuclear pore complexes and coated vesicles in an early membrane-curving module that led to the formation of the internal membrane systems in modern eukaryotes. PMID:15523559

Devos, Damien; Dokudovskaya, Svetlana; Alber, Frank; Williams, Rosemary; Chait, Brian T; Sali, Andrej; Rout, Michael P



Common interferometer control systems architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical interferometry at the JPL has grown rapidly in the last two years. JPL is now engaged in a number of interferometry projects and is also developing a number of internal testbeds to support those projects. While each of these projects and testbeds has its own unique properties, they do share a lot of common features, and JPL is striving, through its interferometer technology program (ITP), to develop common components, software, and hardware that can be reused by multiple projects. The discipline where this commonality is probably most apparent is in the area of realtime control systems, specifically the software and electronics that drive the instrument control loops and sequence the subsystems. To this end, within the ITP, JPL has developed the realtime interferometer control systems testbed (RICST) as a facility where a common software and electronics core, essentially a control system for a generic interferometer, can be developed. The realtime control (RTC) team in the ITP program consists of about 20 full-time equivalent engineers, technicians, quality assurance personnel, architects, and managers. The remainder of this paper will describe the interferometry landscape at JPL, the RTC effort, an overview of the RICST testbed, and the generic interferometer control system architecture that has been developed.

Hines, Braden E.; Johnson, Richard L.; Starr, Kenneth M.



Parallel, Multigrid Finite Element Simulator for Fractured/Faulted and Other Complex Reservoirs based on Common Component Architecture (CCA)  

SciTech Connect

Black-oil, compositional and thermal simulators have been developed to address different physical processes in reservoir simulation. A number of different types of discretization methods have also been proposed to address issues related to representing the complex reservoir geometry. These methods are more significant for fractured reservoirs where the geometry can be particularly challenging. In this project, a general modular framework for reservoir simulation was developed, wherein the physical models were efficiently decoupled from the discretization methods. This made it possible to couple any discretization method with different physical models. Oil characterization methods are becoming increasingly sophisticated, and it is possible to construct geologically constrained models of faulted/fractured reservoirs. Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) simulation provides the option of performing multiphase calculations on spatially explicit, geologically feasible fracture sets. Multiphase DFN simulations of and sensitivity studies on a wide variety of fracture networks created using fracture creation/simulation programs was undertaken in the first part of this project. This involved creating interfaces to seamlessly convert the fracture characterization information into simulator input, grid the complex geometry, perform the simulations, and analyze and visualize results. Benchmarking and comparison with conventional simulators was also a component of this work. After demonstration of the fact that multiphase simulations can be carried out on complex fracture networks, quantitative effects of the heterogeneity of fracture properties were evaluated. Reservoirs are populated with fractures of several different scales and properties. A multiscale fracture modeling study was undertaken and the effects of heterogeneity and storage on water displacement dynamics in fractured basements were investigated. In gravity-dominated systems, more oil could be recovered at a given pore volume of injection at lower rates. However, if oil production can be continued at high water cuts, the discounted cumulative production usually favors higher production rates. The workflow developed during the project was also used to perform multiphase simulations in heterogeneous, fracture-matrix systems. Compositional and thermal-compositional simulators were developed for fractured reservoirs using the generalized framework. The thermal-compositional simulator was based on a novel 'equation-alignment' approach that helped choose the correct variables to solve depending on the number of phases present and the prescribed component partitioning. The simulators were used in steamflooding and in insitu combustion applications. The framework was constructed to be inherently parallel. The partitioning routines employed in the framework allowed generalized partitioning on highly complex fractured reservoirs and in instances when wells (incorporated in these models as line sources) were divided between two or more processors.

Milind Deo; Chung-Kan Huang; Huabing Wang



A software approach for a common munitions test architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common munitions test architecture is required to support the testing of sophisticated weapon systems from production in the factory through flight test. The architecture establishes basic building blocks that form the foundation for test systems across the component, intermediate, and munitions levels. It must be modular, adaptable, and configurable to meet the ever-increasing demands of today's test systems. This

I. Lieberman; S. Insalaco; A. A. Van Oosbreem



The Architecture of CAR Component Web Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

CAR (component assembly runtime) is a new component-oriented programming technology. Web services is a developing technology for Internet system. In this paper, we put forward a new architecture of Web services based on CAR component technology, which is called CAR Web services. We design and implement the architecture, components, interfaces, and relational methods of which. We analyses the working flowchart

Mingyi Mao; Zhicheng Chen; Qian Mo



Common element key to multiprocessor architecture  

SciTech Connect

The described multiprocessing system uses only one kind of microprocessoras a common intelligent element in order to offer faster response with greater throughput. Unusual design features overcome some of the drawbacks which limit other multiprocessing architectures. A hierarchy of buses allows communication among the master processor, the subordinate processors, and local modules within a subordinate processors, and local modules within a subordinate processor. A flexible set of address mappings allows processors to access the distributed memory. Subordinate processors have two distinct address mappings in order to make different memory regions available on the various buses. The resulting high performance architecture is easily customised for a variety of applications.

Ang, W.S.



Component architecture of the Tecolote framework  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Tecolote Framework is used in conjunction with other libraries by several physical simulations. This paper briefly describes the design and use of Tecolote`s component architecture. A component is a C++ class that meets several requirements imposed by the framework to increase its reusability, configurability, and ease of replacement. The authors discuss both the motives for imposing these requirements upon components and the means by which a generic C++ class may be integrated into Tecolote by satisfying these requirements. They also describe the means by which these components may be combined into a physics application.

Zander, M.; Hall, J.; Painter, J.; O`Rourke, S.



A Component Architecture for High-Performance Computing  

SciTech Connect

The Common Component Architecture (CCA) provides a means for developers to manage the complexity of large-scale scientific software systems and to move toward a ''plug and play'' environment for high-performance computing. The CCA model allows for a direct connection between components within the same process to maintain performance on inter-component calls. It is neutral with respect to parallelism, allowing components to use whatever means they desire to communicate within their parallel ''cohort.'' We will discuss in detail the importance of performance in the design of the CCA and will analyze the performance costs associated with features of the CCA.

Bernholdt, D E; Elwasif, W R; Kohl, J A; Epperly, T G W



Emergence of a Common Modeling Architecture for Earth System Science (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common modeling architecture can be viewed as a natural outcome of common modeling infrastructure. The development of model utility and coupling packages (ESMF, MCT, OpenMI, etc.) over the last decade represents the realization of a community vision for common model infrastructure. The adoption of these packages has led to increased technical communication among modeling centers and newly coupled modeling systems. However, adoption has also exposed aspects of interoperability that must be addressed before easy exchange of model components among different groups can be achieved. These aspects include common physical architecture (how a model is divided into components) and model metadata and usage conventions. The National Unified Operational Prediction Capability (NUOPC), an operational weather prediction consortium, is collaborating with weather and climate researchers to define a common model architecture that encompasses these advanced aspects of interoperability and looks to future needs. The nature and structure of the emergent common modeling architecture will be discussed along with its implications for future model development.

Deluca, C.



A common architecture for TPS development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Test Program Set (TPS) software development for Electro-Optical (EO) testing has traditionally been an expensive and lengthy process. A major cause of this has been the development of new test executive software on an ad hoc basis for each program. Furthermore, there have typically been different needs for production versus lab environments with production needing a set of standard tests, while users in a lab environment requiring the capability to modify certain aspects of their tests as needed. At Santa Barbara Infrared, a new architecture for TPS development has been engineered that addresses these concerns. The new architecture can host a complete TPS development environment that eliminates the need for a separate test executive. It supports EO testing in both engineering development and production testing through the use of user editable test scripts along with distinct user accounts and privileges. The new architecture is unit under test (UUT) centric, allowing a user to define UUT parameters once and easily share the results between tests. In this article we will review the new architecture and give examples of TPS development under that architecture.

Irwin, Alan; La Veigne, Joe; Nehring, Brian



A component-based architecture for self-healing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This seminar paper considers some of the problems in creating a architecture for a self-healing system. The presen- tation is by no means exhaustive. An example of an architecture of a self-healing component is presented and then starting from that architecture, problems of integrating these components are analysed. Completely different problems might arise if different approach was taken. I. INTRODUCTION

Juho Vuori


Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components  

SciTech Connect

There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and maintenance support. Each product is briefly described in Appendix A. Selection of the most appropriate software package for a particular application will depend on the chosen component, system, or structure. Ongoing research will determine the most appropriate choices for a successful demonstration of PHM systems in aging NPPs.

N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond



SIFT - A Component-Based Integration Architecture for Enterprise Analytics  

SciTech Connect

Architectures and technologies for enterprise application integration are relatively mature, resulting in a range of standards-based and proprietary middleware technologies. In the domain of complex analytical applications, integration architectures are not so well understood. Analytical applications such as those used in scientific discovery, emergency response, financial and intelligence analysis exert unique demands on their underlying architecture. These demands make existing integration middleware inappropriate for use in enterprise analytics environments. In this paper we describe SIFT (Scalable Information Fusion and Triage), a platform designed for integrating the various components that comprise enterprise analytics applications. SIFT exploits a common pattern for composing analytical components, and extends an existing messaging platform with dynamic configuration mechanisms and scaling capabilities. We demonstrate the use of SIFT to create a decision support platform for quality control based on large volumes of incoming delivery data. The strengths of the SIFT solution are discussed, and we conclude by describing where further work is required to create a complete solution applicable to a wide range of analytical application domains.

Thurman, David A.; Almquist, Justin P.; Gorton, Ian; Wynne, Adam S.; Chatterton, Jack



System Development Using the Integrating Component Architectures Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present a software development process that considers interoperability problems associated with integrating in-house systems with COTS products. The Integrating Component Architectures Process (ICAP) outlines a process that includes predicting interoperability conflicts among independent components, COTS included, based on architectural differences. Previously defined integration elements, along with a taxonomy of integration solutions based on

J. Payton; R. Keshav; R. F. Gamble



A common architecture prototype for army tactical and FCS UAVS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army is fielding several unmanned air vehicles (UAV) within the Tactical, Light Attack, and Future Combat Systems (FCS) Command, Control, Communication, Computers, Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) classes over the next several years. Each UAV program will develop its own mission processing architecture unless the Army implements a common approach that is responsive to a broad set of

L. Olson; L. Burns



New architectures support for ALMA common software: lessons learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a distributed control framework based on CORBA that provides communication between distributed pieces of software. Because of its size and complexity it provides its own compilation system, a mix of several technologies. The current ACS compilation process depends on specific tools, compilers, code generation, and a strict dependency model induced by the large number of software components. This document presents a summary of several porting and compatibility attempts at using ACS on platforms other than the officially supported one. A porting of ACS to the Microsoft Windows Platform and to the ARM processor architecture were attempted, with different grades of success. Also, support for LINUX-PREEMPT (a set of real-time patches for the Linux kernel) using a new design for real-time services was implemented. These efforts were integrated with the ACS building and compilation system, while others were included in its design. Lessons learned in this process are presented, and a general approach is extracted from them.

Menay, Camilo E.; Zamora, Gabriel A.; Tobar, Rodrigo J.; Avarias, Jorge A.; Dahl-Skog, Kevin R.; von Brand, Horst H.; Chiozzi, Gianluca



Component based open middleware architecture for autonomous navigation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces component based open middleware architecture implemented by ADD(Agency for Defense Development) to accommodate new technology evolution of unmanned autonomous system. The proposed open system architecture can be considered as a standard interface which defines the messages and operations between software components on application layer level, and its purpose is to ensure the portability of future technology onto multi-platforms as well as the inter-operability domains. In this architecture, the domain is defined as the space where several different robots are operated, and each robot is defined as a subsystem within the domain. Each subsystem, i.e., robot, is composed of several nodes, and then each node is composed of various components including node manager and communicator. The implemented middleware uses reference architecture from JAUS (Joint Architecture for Unmanned System) as a guidance. Among the key achievements of this research is the development of general node manager which makes it possible to easily accommodate a new interface or the new core technology developed on the application layer by providing a platform-independent communication interface between each subsystem and the components. This paper introduces reference architecture and middleware applied in XAV (eXperimental Autonomous Vehicle) developed in ADD. In addition, the performance of autonomous navigation and system design characteristics are briefly introduced.

Ahn, Myung Kil; Park, Yong Woon; Jee, Tae Young



Architecture for Discrete Construction Component Tracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accurate and timely identification and tracking of construction components are critical to operating a well-managed and cost efficient construction project. Establishing standards to support identification and tracking technologies has the potential to en...

K. M. Furlani W. C. Stone



A reference architecture for the component factory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software reuse can be achieved through an organization that focuses on utilization of life cycle products from previous developments. The component factory is both an example of the more general concepts of experience and domain factory and an organizational unit worth being considered independently. The critical features of such an organization are flexibility and continuous improvement. In order to achieve

Victor R. Basili; Gianluigi Caldiera; Giovanni Cantone



Functional implications of component commonality in operational systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of commonality in a system represents an attempt to reduce costs by reducing the number of unique components. Research in this area has primarily addressed a significant benefit of commonality, the reduction of parts inventories in assemble-to-order manufacturing systems. Likewise, in an operational system subject to component failure, spares inventories are reduced through the increased commonality of components.

Lawrence Dale Thomas



Light speed labeling: efficient connected component labeling on RISC architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces two fast algorithms for connected component Labeling of binary images, a peculiar case of coloring.\\u000a The first one, Selkow\\u000a \\u000a DT\\u000a is pixel-based and a Selkow’s algorithm combined with the decision tree optimization technique. The second one called light speed labeling is segment-based line-relative labeling and was especially thought for commodity RISC architectures. An extensive benchmark on both

Lionel Lacassagne; Bertrand Zavidovique



Common architecture in the flight software for STIS and NICMOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near infrared camera and multi-object spectrometer (NICMOS) and the space telescope imaging spectrograph (STIS) are next-generation orbital replacement instruments for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Ball Aerospace Systems Group is currently designing and building these instruments for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Substantial components of the flight software for these two instruments are being designed in common in order to save development costs and to make in-orbit commanding and maintenance of the flight software easier. The majority of the flight software (FSW) for both NICMOS and STIS is embedded within the electronics of the instruments. This paper begins with an overview of the HST-environment in which the embedded FSW for both STIS and NICMOS executes. The paper then describes: (1) the common electronics environment in which the FSW executes, (2) the FSW development environment, (3) the FSW real-time environment, (4) the method for in-orbit commanding of instrument operations via macros, (5) the method for gathering analog hardware engineering data, (6) the method for commanding the STIS CCD detectors and the NICMOS detectors, (7) the structure and management of the science data buffer, (8) fault management, (9) the collection of diagnostic data, (10) the capabilities for uplinking new FSW code and data once the instruments are in orbit, and (11) instrument-specific software executing in the NASA Standard Spacecraft Computer (NSSC-1), external to STIS and NICMOS.

Becker, Ira



Estimation of Common Long-Memory Components in Cointegrated Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of cointegration in large systems requires a reduction of their dimensionality. To achieve this, we propose to obtain the I(1) common factors in every subsystem and then analyze cointegration among them. In this article, a new way of estimating common long-memory components of a cointegrated system is proposed. The identification of these I(1) common factors is achieved by

Jesus Gonzalo; Clive W J Granger



A Component Architecture for High-Performance Scienti?c Computing  

SciTech Connect

The Common Component Architecture (CCA) provides a means for software developers to manage the complexity of large-scale scientific simulations and to move toward a plug-and-play environment for high-performance computing. In the scientific computing context, component models also promote collaboration using independently developed software, thereby allowing particular individuals or groups to focus on the aspects of greatest interest to them. The CCA supports parallel and distributed computing as well as local high-performance connections between components in a language-independent manner. The design places minimal requirements on components and thus facilitates the integration of existing code into the CCA environment. The CCA model imposes minimal overhead to minimize the impact on application performance. The focus on high performance distinguishes the CCA from most other component models. The CCA is being applied within an increasing range of disciplines, including combustion research, global climate simulation, and computational chemistry.

Bernholdt, David E.; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Bertrand, Felipe; Chiu, Kenneth; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Damevski, Kostadin; Elwasif, Wael R.; Epperly, Thomas G.; Govindaraju, Madhusudhan; Katz, Daniel S.; Kohl, James A.; Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Kumfert, Gary K.; Larson, J. Walter; Lefantzi, Sophia; Lewis, Michael J.; Malony, Allen D.; McInnes, Lois C.; Nieplocha, Jarek; Norris, Boyana; Parker, Steven G.; Ray, Jaideep; Shende, Sameer; Windus, Theresa L.; Zhou, Shujia



Construction of Analytic Frameworks for Component-Based Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of non-functional properties of software architectures requires technologies that enable the application of analytic theories to compo- nent models. However, available analytic techniques generally operate on for- mal models specified in notations that cannot flexibly and intuitively capture the architectures of large-scale distributed systems. The construction of model inter- preters that transform architectural models into analysis models has proved

George Edwards; Chiyoung Seo; Nenad Medvidovic



Applying a component-based software architecture to robotic workcell applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents the results of applying a component-based control software architecture to robotic workcell applications. Robotic workcells are introduced, the underlying technology is discussed, and an overview of the software architecture is presented. Next, the results and experiences of applying the architecture to seven industrial applications are described in detail. As the results indicate, software reuse levels in excess of 90%

James E. Beck; J. Michael Reagin; Thomas E. Sweeny; Ronald L. Anderson; Timothy D. Garner



Common and Cluster-Specific Simultaneous Component Analysis  

PubMed Central

In many fields of research, so-called ‘multiblock’ data are collected, i.e., data containing multivariate observations that are nested within higher-level research units (e.g., inhabitants of different countries). Each higher-level unit (e.g., country) then corresponds to a ‘data block’. For such data, it may be interesting to investigate the extent to which the correlation structure of the variables differs between the data blocks. More specifically, when capturing the correlation structure by means of component analysis, one may want to explore which components are common across all data blocks and which components differ across the data blocks. This paper presents a common and cluster-specific simultaneous component method which clusters the data blocks according to their correlation structure and allows for common and cluster-specific components. Model estimation and model selection procedures are described and simulation results validate their performance. Also, the method is applied to data from cross-cultural values research to illustrate its empirical value.

De Roover, Kim; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Mesquita, Batja; Ceulemans, Eva



The WD repeat: a common architecture for diverse functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our knowledge of the large family of proteins that contain the WD repeat continues to accumulate. The WD-repeat proteins are found in all eukaryotes and are implicated in a wide variety of crucial functions. The solution of the three-dimensional structure of one WD-repeat protein and the assumption that the structure will be common to all members of this family has

Temple F Smith; Chrysanthe Gaitatzes; Kumkum Saxena; Eva J Neer



Tool Integration, Collaboration and User Interaction Issues in Component-Based Software Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Component-based sofnvare architectures are becoming increasingly popular solutions for use in a wide range of software applications. Particular areas in which these architectures may provide improved software development support include tool integration, distribution and collaborative work support, and human interaction and end-user configuration. However, a number of open research issues exist to do with the deployment of component- based solutions

John C. Grundy; Mark D. Apperley; Rick Mugridge; John G. Hosking



Implementing a Common Database Architecture at the CADC using CAOM-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant progress has been made in implementing a common database architecture based on the Common Archive Object Model CAOM-2). The first small archives have been successfully ingested into the new database structure, with the larger and more dynamic archives to follow over the next few months.

Redman, R. O.; Dowler, P.



Manned\\/Unmanned Common Architecture Program (MCAP) net centric flight tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properly architected avionics systems can reduce the costs of periodic functional improvements, maintenance, and obsolescence. With this in mind, the U.S. Army Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) initiated the Manned\\/Unmanned Common Architecture Program (MCAP) in 2003 to develop an affordable, high-performance embedded mission processing architecture for potential application to multiple aviation platforms. MCAP analyzed Army helicopter and unmanned air vehicle

Dale Johnson



Measuring complexity of component based architecture: a graph based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Component based software development (CBSD) is an evolving paradigm where emphasis is laid on reuse of existing components and effective designing of components. As complexity of software systems increases, the challenge of CBSD lies in designing highly cohesive, testable components. Researcher community is striving hard to identify the attributes characterizing component-based development and proposing metrics that may help in controlling

Sabnam Sengupta; Ananya Kanjilal; Swapan Bhattacharya



Service Component Architecture for Vending Machine System in Cloud Computing Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a software integration model of service component architecture in the vending industry. We use this architecture to rapidly integrate related services, substantially reduce development costs, establish innovative services, and provide consumers with a brand new experiential shopping environment in retail domain. Meanwhile, we apply a cloud computing technology to solve the following problem: service over loading in

Feng-cheng Lin; Yi-shiou Lee; Chih-Hao Hsu; Kuan-Yu Chen; Tzu-chun Weng



Architecture for Component Library Retrieval on the Cloud  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Component Library(CL)is the key to realize software reuse, the CL available on the network is decentralized, independent, not easy to access at present and existing component libraries face infrastructure supply and maintenance challenges. The authors use cloud computing model, which contribute to resolve the issues of visiting different component libraries and the scalability of component library resources. In this

Ge Junwei; Tao Cong; Fang Yiqiu



A Common Network Architecture Efficiently Implements a Variety of Sparsity-Based Inference Problems  

PubMed Central

The sparse coding hypothesis has generated significant interest in the computational and theoretical neuroscience communities, but there remain open questions about the exact quantitative form of the sparsity penalty and the implementation of such a coding rule in neurally plausible architectures. The main contribution of this work is to show that a wide variety of sparsity-based probabilistic inference problems proposed in the signal processing and statistics literatures can be implemented exactly in the common network architecture known as the locally competitive algorithm (LCA). Among the cost functions we examine are approximate ?p norms (0 ? p ? 2), modified ?p-norms, block-?1 norms, and reweighted algorithms. Of particular interest is that we show significantly increased performance in reweighted ?1 algorithms by inferring all parameters jointly in a dynamical system rather than using an iterative approach native to digital computational architectures.

Charles, Adam S.; Garrigues, Pierre; Rozell, Christopher J.



A common network architecture efficiently implements a variety of sparsity-based inference problems.  


The sparse coding hypothesis has generated significant interest in the computational and theoretical neuroscience communities, but there remain open questions about the exact quantitative form of the sparsity penalty and the implementation of such a coding rule in neurally plausible architectures. The main contribution of this work is to show that a wide variety of sparsity-based probabilistic inference problems proposed in the signal processing and statistics literatures can be implemented exactly in the common network architecture known as the locally competitive algorithm (LCA). Among the cost functions we examine are approximate l(p) norms (0 ? p ? 2), modified l(p)-norms, block-l1 norms, and reweighted algorithms. Of particular interest is that we show significantly increased performance in reweighted l1 algorithms by inferring all parameters jointly in a dynamical system rather than using an iterative approach native to digital computational architectures. PMID:22970876

Charles, Adam S; Garrigues, Pierre; Rozell, Christopher J



Using an Architectural Approach to Integrate Heterogeneous, Distributed Software Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many computer programs cannot be easily integrated because their components are distributed and heterogeneous, i.e., they are implemented in diverse programming languages, use different data representation formats, or their runtime environments are incomp...

J. R. Callahan J. M. Purtilo



1. An Introduction and History of Software Architectures, Components, and Reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Software components and architectures are gaining considerable support as the way to develop object-oriented systems and business applications. Current developments in component-based software reuse is taking place in the context of some thirty years of history. It is as well to rehearse that history, as we do in this chapter, and draw lessons from it, lest we repeat the

Leonor Barroca; Jon Hall; Patrick Hall


Manned/Unmanned Common Architecture Program (MCAP) net centric flight tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properly architected avionics systems can reduce the costs of periodic functional improvements, maintenance, and obsolescence. With this in mind, the U.S. Army Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) initiated the Manned/Unmanned Common Architecture Program (MCAP) in 2003 to develop an affordable, high-performance embedded mission processing architecture for potential application to multiple aviation platforms. MCAP analyzed Army helicopter and unmanned air vehicle (UAV) missions, identified supporting subsystems, surveyed advanced hardware and software technologies, and defined computational infrastructure technical requirements. The project selected a set of modular open systems standards and market-driven commercial-off-theshelf (COTS) electronics and software, and, developed experimental mission processors, network architectures, and software infrastructures supporting the integration of new capabilities, interoperability, and life cycle cost reductions. MCAP integrated the new mission processing architecture into an AH-64D Apache Longbow and participated in Future Combat Systems (FCS) network-centric operations field experiments in 2006 and 2007 at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico and at the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) in 2008. The MCAP Apache also participated in PM C4ISR On-the-Move (OTM) Capstone Experiments 2007 (E07) and 2008 (E08) at Ft. Dix, NJ and conducted Mesa, Arizona local area flight tests in December 2005, February 2006, and June 2008.

Johnson, Dale



Component Architecture and Modeling for Microkernel-Based Embedded System Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microkernel-based approach provides operating system support for developing embedded systems with high performance and safety through memory protection. This allows us to introduce architectural mechanisms that enable good separation of concerns, while still satisfy the performance, security and reliability needs of embedded systems. Organizing embedded software as interacting components with well-defined interfaces is compatible with modeling methods. The challenge issue

Yan Liu; Ted Wong



Creating More Versatile Intelligent Learning Environments with a Component-Based Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we show that, with an appropriate component-based architecture, new functionality can be added to an Intelligent\\u000a Tutoring System (ITS) with minimal effort. In particular, we show that an explanation function can be added to a component-based\\u000a ITS which was originally designed to support activity in a learning-by-doing environment. We support these two claims by presenting\\u000a our recent

Steven Ritter; Peter Brusilovsky; Olga Medvedeva



Use of common beans as components in polymeric materials  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of the research trends in recent years is to use natural renewable materials as "green" raw materials for industrial applications. Common beans are well known, widely available and relatively cheap. They contain polysaccharides, proteins, triglyceride oils, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic antio...


Eye evolution: common use and independent recruitment of genetic components  

PubMed Central

Animal eyes can vary in complexity ranging from a single photoreceptor cell shaded by a pigment cell to elaborate arrays of these basic units, which allow image formation in compound eyes of insects or camera-type eyes of vertebrates. The evolution of the eye requires involvement of several distinct components—photoreceptors, screening pigment and genes orchestrating their proper temporal and spatial organization. Analysis of particular genetic and biochemical components shows that many evolutionary processes have participated in eye evolution. Multiple examples of co-option of crystallins, G? protein subunits and screening pigments contrast with the conserved role of opsins and a set of transcription factors governing eye development in distantly related animal phyla. The direct regulation of essential photoreceptor genes by these factors suggests that this regulatory relationship might have been already established in the ancestral photoreceptor cell.

Vopalensky, Pavel; Kozmik, Zbynek



A component-based, distributed object services architecture for a clinical workstation.  

PubMed Central

Attention to an architectural framework in the development of clinical applications can promote reusability of both legacy systems as well as newly designed software. We describe one approach to an architecture for a clinical workstation application which is based on a critical middle tier of distributed object-oriented services. This tier of network-based services provides flexibility in the creation of both the user interface and the database tiers. We developed a clinical workstation for ambulatory care using this architecture, defining a number of core services including those for vocabulary, patient index, documents, charting, security, and encounter management. These services can be implemented through proprietary or more standard distributed object interfaces such as CORBA and OLE. Services are accessed over the network by a collection of user interface components which can be mixed and matched to form a variety of interface styles. These services have also been reused with several applications based on World Wide Web browser interfaces.

Chueh, H. C.; Raila, W. F.; Pappas, J. J.; Ford, M.; Zatsman, P.; Tu, J.; Barnett, G. O.



Common Genetic Components of Obesity Traits and Serum Leptin  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate common and distinct genetic influences on a panel of obesity-related traits and serum leptin level in adults. In a cross-sectional study of 625 Danish, adult, healthy, monozygotic, and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs of both genders, we carried out detailed anthropometry (height, weight, waist and hip, and skin-fold thickness, body composition assessment by bioimpedance (fat mass and fat-free mass),

Ann L. Hasselbalch; Beben Benyamin; Peter M. Visscher; Berit L. Heitmann; Kirsten O. Kyvik; Thorkild I. A. Sřrensen



Sulfate Storage and Stability on Common Lean NOx Trap Components  

SciTech Connect

Components found in a commercial lean NO{sub x} trap have been studied in order to determine their impact on sulfate storage and release. A micro-reactor and a diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (DRIFTS) were used to compare components MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Pt/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/Ba/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, and Pt/Ba/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, as well as physical mixtures of Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Pt/Ba/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} + MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Desulfation temperature profiles as well as DRIFTS NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} storage spectra are presented for all components. This systematic approach highlighted the ability of the underlying support to impact sulfate stability, in particular when Ba was supported on ceria-zirconia rather than alumina the desulfation temperature decreased by 60-120 C. A conceptual model of sulfation progression on the ceria-zirconia support is proposed that explains the high uptake of sulfur and low temperature release when it is employed. It was also determined that the close proximity of platinum is not necessary for much of the sulfation and desulfation chemistry that occurs, as physical mixtures with platinum dispersed on only one phase displayed similar behavior to samples with platinum dispersed on both phases.

Ottinger, Nathan A [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Roop, Justin T [ORNL; Choi, Jae-Soon [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL



Common genetic link between metabolic syndrome components and senile cataract.  


Relationship between cataract and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is well established, but genetic link remains to be explored. D2S439 at 2q37 linked with QTL controlling visceral fat was investigated for its association with senile cataract. Two hundred and twenty-seven subjects including 119 cataract cases were genotyped for D2S439, tetra nucleotide repeat marker. Statistical tools assessed the association of marker's allele with anthropometric, clinical and oxidation stress parameters. Cases with longer allele ? (CTAT)(12) repeats, differed significantly from controls (0.77 vs. 0.58, p < 0.0001). Cases with at least one longer allele had higher waist circumference (50% vs. 15%, p = 0.0090), hyper-triglyceridemia (28% vs. 11%), hypo-HDL cholesterolemia (80% vs. 74%) and high diastolic blood pressure (37% vs. 26%) when compared to cases bearing the shorter allele. Cataract subjects with at least one longer allele had significantly raised lipid peroxidation levels (p = 0.0095) and showed an increased risk for cataract (OR = 5.86, CI(95%) = 1.49-23.11, p = 0.0114) after controlling for dependent variables. This exploratory study suggests that presence of even a single longer allele of D2S439 is associated with both cataract and MetS components in Asian Indians, unraveling the existence of a shared genetic locus. PMID:22165987

Mehra, Shipra; Kapur, Suman; Mittal, Saumyaa; Sehgal, Pramod Kumar



Common component classification: what can we learn from machine learning?  


Machine learning methods have been applied to classifying fMRI scans by studying locations in the brain that exhibit temporal intensity variation between groups, frequently reporting classification accuracy of 90% or better. Although empirical results are quite favorable, one might doubt the ability of classification methods to withstand changes in task ordering and the reproducibility of activation patterns over runs, and question how much of the classification machines' power is due to artifactual noise versus genuine neurological signal. To examine the true strength and power of machine learning classifiers we create and then deconstruct a classifier to examine its sensitivity to physiological noise, task reordering, and across-scan classification ability. The models are trained and tested both within and across runs to assess stability and reproducibility across conditions. We demonstrate the use of independent components analysis for both feature extraction and artifact removal and show that removal of such artifacts can reduce predictive accuracy even when data has been cleaned in the preprocessing stages. We demonstrate how mistakes in the feature selection process can cause the cross-validation error seen in publication to be a biased estimate of the testing error seen in practice and measure this bias by purposefully making flawed models. We discuss other ways to introduce bias and the statistical assumptions lying behind the data and model themselves. Finally we discuss the complications in drawing inference from the smaller sample sizes typically seen in fMRI studies, the effects of small or unbalanced samples on the Type 1 and Type 2 error rates, and how publication bias can give a false confidence of the power of such methods. Collectively this work identifies challenges specific to fMRI classification and methods affecting the stability of models. PMID:20599621

Anderson, Ariana; Labus, Jennifer S; Vianna, Eduardo P; Mayer, Emeran A; Cohen, Mark S



A novel algorithm and its VLSI architecture for connected component labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel line-based streaming labeling algorithm with its VLSI architecture is proposed in this paper. Line-based neighborhood examination scheme is used for efficient local connected components extraction. A novel reversed rooted tree hook-up strategy, which is very suitable for hardware implementation, is applied on the mergence stage of equivalent connected components. The reversed rooted tree hook-up strategy significant reduces the requirement of on-chip memory, which makes the chip area smaller. Clock domains crossing FIFOs are also applied for connecting the label core and external memory interface, which makes the label engine working in a higher frequency and raises the throughput of the label engine. Several performance tests have been performed for our proposed hardware implementation. The processing bandwidth of our hardware architecture can reach the I/O transfer boundary according to the external interface clock in all the real image tests. Beside the advantage of reducing the processing time, our hardware implementation can support the image size as large as 4096*4096, which will be very appealing in remote sensing or any other high-resolution image applications. The implementation of proposed architecture is synthesized with SMIC 180nm standard cell library. The work frequency of the label engine reaches 200MHz.

Zhao, Hualong; Sang, Hongshi; Zhang, Tianxu



Can Core Components in Mathematics Courses Replace Comprehensive Common Course Finals? AIR 1996 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an effort to balance common academic outcomes, as measured by common course finals, with faculty's individual teaching styles, Johnson County Community College (Kansas) mathematics faculty developed "core components" for 10 of the mathematics courses offered in Spring 1995. The core components were designed by faculty teaching each course, and…

Duckwall, Julia M.; Wilson, Steven J.


The Common Structural Architecture of Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhimurium Type Three Secretion Needles  

PubMed Central

The Type Three Secretion System (T3SS), or injectisome, is a macromolecular infection machinery present in many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. It consists of a basal body, anchored in both bacterial membranes, and a hollow needle through which effector proteins are delivered into the target host cell. Two different architectures of the T3SS needle have been previously proposed. First, an atomic model of the Salmonella typhimurium needle was generated from solid-state NMR data. The needle subunit protein, PrgI, comprises a rigid-extended N-terminal segment and a helix-loop-helix motif with the N-terminus located on the outside face of the needle. Second, a model of the Shigella flexneri needle was generated from a high-resolution 7.7-Ĺ cryo-electron microscopy density map. The subunit protein, MxiH, contains an N-terminal ?-helix, a loop, another ?-helix, a 14-residue-long ?-hairpin (Q51–Q64) and a C-terminal ?-helix, with the N-terminus facing inward to the lumen of the needle. In the current study, we carried out solid-state NMR measurements of wild-type Shigella flexneri needles polymerized in vitro and identified the following secondary structure elements for MxiH: a rigid-extended N-terminal segment (S2-T11), an ?-helix (L12-A38), a loop (E39-P44) and a C-terminal ?-helix (Q45-R83). Using immunogold labeling in vitro and in vivo on functional needles, we located the N-terminus of MxiH subunits on the exterior of the assembly, consistent with evolutionary sequence conservation patterns and mutagenesis data. We generated a homology model of Shigella flexneri needles compatible with both experimental data: the MxiH solid-state NMR chemical shifts and the state-of-the-art cryoEM density map. These results corroborate the solid-state NMR structure previously solved for Salmonella typhimurium PrgI needles and establish that Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhimurium subunit proteins adopt a conserved structure and orientation in their assembled state. Our study reveals a common structural architecture of T3SS needles, essential to understand T3SS-mediated infection and develop treatments.

Gupta, Rashmi; Loquet, Antoine; Giller, Karin; Riedel, Dietmar; Laube, Britta; Kolbe, Michael; Baker, David; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam




Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary architecture works according to a linear model, meaning that it takes in fresh air, energy generated from fossil fuels, drinking water, various building and other materi- als necessary for life and having squandered them ine ciently, it releases stale-air, smoke, fumes, sewage, noise and refuse that will chemically pollute the environment. In 1994 at the CIB conference held in

Erzsébet Lányi


Accessing and distributing EMBL data using CORBA (common object request broker architecture)  

PubMed Central

Background: The EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database is a comprehensive database of DNA and RNA sequences and related information traditionally made available in flat-file format. Queries through tools such as SRS (Sequence Retrieval System) also return data in flat-file format. Flat files have a number of shortcomings, however, and the resources therefore currently lack a flexible environment to meet individual researchers' needs. The Object Management Group's common object request broker architecture (CORBA) is an industry standard that provides platform-independent programming interfaces and models for portable distributed object-oriented computing applications. Its independence from programming languages, computing platforms and network protocols makes it attractive for developing new applications for querying and distributing biological data. Results: A CORBA infrastructure developed by EMBL-EBI provides an efficient means of accessing and distributing EMBL data. The EMBL object model is defined such that it provides a basis for specifying interfaces in interface definition language (IDL) and thus for developing the CORBA servers. The mapping from the object model to the relational schema in the underlying Oracle database uses the facilities provided by PersistenceTM, an object/relational tool. The techniques of developing loaders and 'live object caching' with persistent objects achieve a smart live object cache where objects are created on demand. The objects are managed by an evictor pattern mechanism. Conclusions: The CORBA interfaces to the EMBL database address some of the problems of traditional flat-file formats and provide an efficient means for accessing and distributing EMBL data. CORBA also provides a flexible environment for users to develop their applications by building clients to our CORBA servers, which can be integrated into existing systems.

Wang, Lichun; Rodriguez-Tome, Patricia; Redaschi, Nicole; McNeil, Phil; Robinson, Alan; Lijnzaad, Philip



The architecture of EssB, an integral membrane component of the type VII secretion system.  


The membrane-bound EssB is an integral and essential component of the bacterial type VII secretion system that can contribute to pathogenicity. The architecture of Geobacillus thermodenitrificans EssB has been investigated by combining crystallographic and EPR spectroscopic methods. The protein forms a dimer that straddles the cytoplasmic membrane. A helical fold is observed for the C-terminal segment, which is positioned on the exterior of the membrane. This segment contributes most to dimer formation. The N-terminal segment displays a structure related to the pseudokinase fold and may contribute to function by recognizing substrates or secretion system partners. The remaining part of EssB may serve as an anchor point for the secretion apparatus, which is embedded in the cytoplasmic membrane with the C-terminal domain protruding out to interact with partner proteins or components of peptidoglycan. PMID:23499020

Zoltner, Martin; Norman, David G; Fyfe, Paul K; El Mkami, Hassane; Palmer, Tracy; Hunter, William N



Prokaryotic regulatory systems biology: Common principles governing the functional architectures of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli unveiled by the natural decomposition approach.  


Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis are two of the best-studied prokaryotic model organisms. Previous analyses of their transcriptional regulatory networks have shown that they exhibit high plasticity during evolution and suggested that both converge to scale-free-like structures. Nevertheless, beyond this suggestion, no analyses have been carried out to identify the common systems-level components and principles governing these organisms. Here we show that these two phylogenetically distant organisms follow a set of common novel biologically consistent systems principles revealed by the mathematically and biologically founded natural decomposition approach. The discovered common functional architecture is a diamond-shaped, matryoshka-like, three-layer (coordination, processing, and integration) hierarchy exhibiting feedback, which is shaped by four systems-level components: global transcription factors (global TFs), locally autonomous modules, basal machinery and intermodular genes. The first mathematical criterion to identify global TFs, the ?-value, was reassessed on B. subtilis and confirmed its high predictive power by identifying all the previously reported, plus three potential, master regulators and eight sigma factors. The functionally conserved cores of modules, basal cell machinery, and a set of non-orthologous common physiological global responses were identified via both orthologous genes and non-orthologous conserved functions. This study reveals novel common systems principles maintained between two phylogenetically distant organisms and provides a comparison of their lifestyle adaptations. Our results shed new light on the systems-level principles and the fundamental functions required by bacteria to sustain life. PMID:22728391

Freyre-González, Julio A; Trevińo-Quintanilla, Luis G; Valtierra-Gutiérrez, Ilse A; Gutiérrez-Ríos, Rosa María; Alonso-Pavón, José A



Architecture of the major component of the type III secretion system export apparatus  

PubMed Central

Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are bacterial membrane-embedded secretion nanomachines designed to export specifically targeted sets of proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm. Secretion through T3SS is governed by a subset of inner membrane proteins termed the ‘export apparatus’. We show that a key member of the Shigella flexneri export apparatus, MxiA, assembles into a ring essential for secretion in vivo. The ring forming interfaces are well conserved in both non-flagellar and flagellar homologues, implying that the ring is an evolutionary conserved feature in these systems. Electron cryo-tomography reveals a T3SS-associated cytoplasmic torus of size and shape corresponding to the MxiA ring aligned to the secretion channel located between the secretion pore and the ATPase complex. This defines the molecular architecture of the dominant component of the export apparatus and allows us to propose a model for the molecular mechanisms controlling secretion.

Abrusci, Patrizia; Vergara-Irigaray, Marta; Johnson, Steven; Beeby, Morgan D; Hendrixson, David; Roversi, Pietro; Friede, Miriam E; Deane, Janet E; Jensen, Grant J; Tang, Christoph M; Lea, Susan M



Frontier: High Performance Database Access Using Standard Web Components in a Scalable Multi-Tier Architecture  

SciTech Connect

A high performance system has been assembled using standard web components to deliver database information to a large number of broadly distributed clients. The CDF Experiment at Fermilab is establishing processing centers around the world imposing a high demand on their database repository. For delivering read-only data, such as calibrations, trigger information, and run conditions data, we have abstracted the interface that clients use to retrieve data objects. A middle tier is deployed that translates client requests into database specific queries and returns the data to the client as XML datagrams. The database connection management, request translation, and data encoding are accomplished in servlets running under Tomcat. Squid Proxy caching layers are deployed near the Tomcat servers, as well as close to the clients, to significantly reduce the load on the database and provide a scalable deployment model. Details the system's construction and use are presented, including its architecture, design, interfaces, administration, performance measurements, and deployment plan.

Kosyakov, S.; Kowalkowski, J.; Litvintsev, D.; Lueking, L.; Paterno, M.; White, S.P.; /Fermilab; Autio, Lauri; /Helsinki U.; Blumenfeld, B.; Maksimovic, P.; Mathis, M.; /Johns Hopkins U.



Security Framework for Pervasive Healthcare Architectures Utilizing MPEG-21 IPMP Components.  


Nowadays in modern and ubiquitous computing environments, it is imperative more than ever the necessity for deployment of pervasive healthcare architectures into which the patient is the central point surrounded by different types of embedded and small computing devices, which measure sensitive physical indications, interacting with hospitals databases, allowing thus urgent medical response in occurrences of critical situations. Such environments must be developed satisfying the basic security requirements for real-time secure data communication, and protection of sensitive medical data and measurements, data integrity and confidentiality, and protection of the monitored patient's privacy. In this work, we argue that the MPEG-21 Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP) components can be used in order to achieve protection of transmitted medical information and enhance patient's privacy, since there is selective and controlled access to medical data that sent toward the hospital's servers. PMID:19132095

Fragopoulos, Anastasios; Gialelis, John; Serpanos, Dimitrios



Abstract Interfaces for Data Analysis - Component Architecture for Data Analysis Tools  

SciTech Connect

The fast turnover of software technologies, in particular in the domain of interactivity (covering user interface and visualization), makes it difficult for a small group of people to produce complete and polished software-tools before the underlying technologies make them obsolete. At the HepVis '99 workshop, a working group has been formed to improve the production of software tools for data analysis in HENP. Beside promoting a distributed development organization, one goal of the group is to systematically design a set of abstract interfaces based on using modern OO analysis and OO design techniques. An initial domain analysis has come up with several categories (components) found in typical data analysis tools: Histograms, Ntuples, Functions, Vectors, Fitter, Plotter, Analyzer and Controller. Special emphasis was put on reducing the couplings between the categories to a minimum, thus optimizing re-use and maintainability of any component individually. The interfaces have been defined in Java and C++ and implementations exist in the form of libraries and tools using C++ (Anaphe/Lizard, OpenScientist) and Java (Java Analysis Studio). A special implementation aims at accessing the Java libraries (through their Abstract Interfaces) from C++. This paper gives an overview of the architecture and design of the various components for data analysis as discussed in AIDA.

Barrand, Guy



A Common Network Architecture Efficiently Implements a Variety of Sparsity-Based Inference Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sparse coding hypothesis has generated significant interest in the computational and theoretical neuroscience communities, but there remain open questions about the exact quantitative form of the sparsity penalty and the implementation of such a coding rule in neurally plausible architectures. The main contribution of this work is to show that a wide variety of sparsity-based probabilistic inference problems proposed

Adam S. Charles; Pierre Garrigues; Christopher J. Rozell



Muscle architecture of the common chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ): perspectives for investigating chimpanzee behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thorpe et al. (Am J Phys Anthropol 110:179–199, 1999) quantified chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) muscle architecture and joint moment arms to determine whether they functionally compensated for structural differences between chimpanzees and humans. They observed enough distinction to conclude that musculoskeletal properties were not compensatory and suggested that chimpanzees and humans do not exhibit dynamically similar movements. These investigators based their

Kristian J. Carlson



Quantitative trait loci analysis of phenotypic traits and principal components of maize tassel inflorescence architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize tassel inflorescence architecture is relevant to efficient production of F1 seed and yield performance of F1 hybrids. The objectives of this study were to identify genetic relationships among seven measured tassel inflorescence architecture traits and six calculated traits in a maize backcross population derived from two lines with differing tassel architectures, and identify Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) involved in

N. Upadyayula; J. Wassom; M. O. Bohn; T. R. Rocheford



Optimal Architecture for an Asteroid Mining Mission: System Components and Project Execution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) offer potential profits both in the near-term (mining platinum group metals, or PGMs) and long-term (harvesting water, volatiles and ore to provide the economic backbone for lunar, Martian and other space exploration). The abundance of raw materials in NEAs include: water and other volatiles for life-support and power, nickel, iron and other metals for construction and manufacturing; carbonaceous compounds for ceramics and building materials; and PGMs for fuel cells and numerous applications on Earth. An efficient, flexible and cost-effective mission utilizing adaptable and resilient robotic compo-nents is essential to successfully establish NEA mining as a comer-cial enterprise. This paper presents an optimized architecture, detailing necessary engineering components, task integration between them, and methods to address the more likely problems encountered. Candidate NEAs are suggested that could offer optimal PGM resources and that have already been evaluated by rendezvous mapping. Mission delta-V and propellant selection are based upon launch from and return to LEO. On-site equipment includes AI-guided robotics, with human telecontrol from Earth to minimize risk and cost. A command-control-communication (CCC) unit orbits the NEA, and coordinates four small lander-miners (LMs), each of which acquire and process regolith. Two LMs are specialized for water and volatiles, two for PGM and Ni-Fe ore. A solar-powered unit hydrolyzes water from the NEA into H2 and O2 for use as propellant, and a solar-thermal propulsion unit returns additional water, PGMs and Ni-Fe ore to LEO. The pro-posed architecture emphasizes flexibility, redundancy of critical units, and fail-safes to maximize probability of mission success. Potential problems addressed include: failure of components, varying surface conditions and mineralogic content, fluctuating solar exposure (due to asteroid rotation) and its impact on solar power units, extreme temperature changes, drilling in milli-gravity conditions, handling regolith dust, and managing liquid H2. Mission-enhancing technologies are included that could increase profitability and further accelerate asteroid mining enterprises.

Erickson, Ken R.



Common object request broker architecture (CORBA)-based security services for the virtual radiology environment.  


The US Army Great Plains Regional Medical Command (GPRMC) has a requirement to conform to Department of Defense (DoD) and Army security policies for the Virtual Radiology Environment (VRE) Project. Within the DoD, security policy is defined as the set of laws, rules, and practices that regulate how an organization manages, protects, and distributes sensitive information. Security policy in the DoD is described by the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC), Army Regulation (AR) 380-19, Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating Environment (DII COE), Military Health Services System Automated Information Systems Security Policy Manual, and National Computer Security Center-TG-005, "Trusted Network Interpretation." These documents were used to develop a security policy that defines information protection requirements that are made with respect to those laws, rules, and practices that are required to protect the information stored and processed in the VRE Project. The goal of the security policy is to provide for a C2-level of information protection while also satisfying the functional needs of the GPRMC's user community. This report summarizes the security policy for the VRE and defines the CORBA security services that satisfy the policy. In the VRE, the information to be protected is embedded into three major information components: (1) Patient information consists of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-formatted fields. The patient information resides in the digital imaging network picture archiving and communication system (DIN-PACS) networks in the database archive systems and includes (a) patient demographics; (b) patient images from x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US); and (c) prior patient images and related patient history. (2) Meta-Manager information to be protected consists of several data objects. This information is distributed to the Meta-Manager nodes and includes (a) radiologist schedules; (b) modality worklists; (c) routed case information; (d) DIN-PACS and Composite Health Care system (CHCS) messages, and Meta-Manager administrative and security information; and (e) patient case information. (3) Access control and communications security is required in the VRE to control who uses the VRE and Meta-Manager facilities and to secure the messages between VRE components. The CORBA Security Service Specification version 1.5 is designed to allow up to TCSEC's B2-level security for distributed objects. The CORBA Security Service Specification defines the functionality of several security features: identification and authentication, authorization and access control, security auditing, communication security, nonrepudiation, and security administration. This report describes the enhanced security features for the VRE and their implementation using commercial CORBA Security Service software products. PMID:10847365

Martinez, R; Cole, C; Rozenblit, J; Cook, J F; Chacko, A K



Mayo clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System (cTAKES): architecture, component evaluation and applications  

PubMed Central

We aim to build and evaluate an open-source natural language processing system for information extraction from electronic medical record clinical free-text. We describe and evaluate our system, the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System (cTAKES), released open-source at The cTAKES builds on existing open-source technologies—the Unstructured Information Management Architecture framework and OpenNLP natural language processing toolkit. Its components, specifically trained for the clinical domain, create rich linguistic and semantic annotations. Performance of individual components: sentence boundary detector accuracy=0.949; tokenizer accuracy=0.949; part-of-speech tagger accuracy=0.936; shallow parser F-score=0.924; named entity recognizer and system-level evaluation F-score=0.715 for exact and 0.824 for overlapping spans, and accuracy for concept mapping, negation, and status attributes for exact and overlapping spans of 0.957, 0.943, 0.859, and 0.580, 0.939, and 0.839, respectively. Overall performance is discussed against five applications. The cTAKES annotations are the foundation for methods and modules for higher-level semantic processing of clinical free-text.

Masanz, James J; Ogren, Philip V; Zheng, Jiaping; Sohn, Sunghwan; Kipper-Schuler, Karin C; Chute, Christopher G



Miniaturized Analytical Platforms From Nanoparticle Components: Studies in the Construction, Characterization, and High-Throughput Usage of These Novel Architectures  

SciTech Connect

The scientific community has recently experienced an overall effort to reduce the physical size of many experimental components to the nanometer size range. This size is unique as the characteristics of this regime involve aspects of pure physics, biology, and chemistry. One extensively studied example of a nanometer sized experimental component, which acts as a junction between these three principle scientific theologies, is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA). These biopolymers not only contain the biological genetic guide to code for the production of life-sustaining materials, but are also being probed by physicists as a means to create electrical circuits and furthermore as controllable architectural and sensor motifs in the chemical disciplines. Possibly the most common nano-sized component between these sciences are nanoparticles composed of a variety of materials. The cross discipline employment of nanoparticles is evident from the vast amount of literature that has been produced from each of the individual communities within the last decade. Along these cross-discipline lines, this dissertation examines the use of several different types of nanoparticles with a wide array of surface chemistries to understand their adsorption properties and to construct unique miniaturized analytical and immunoassay platforms. This introduction will act as a literature review to provide key information regarding the synthesis and surface chemistries of several types of nanoparticles. This material will set the stage for a discussion of assembling ordered arrays of nanoparticles into functional platforms, architectures, and sensors. The introduction will also include a short explanation of the atomic force microscope that is used throughout the thesis to characterize the nanoparticle-based structures. Following the Introduction, four research chapters are presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 1 examines the self-assembly of polymeric nanoparticles exhibiting a variety of surface chemistries and attempts to deconvolute general adsorption rules for their assembly on various substrates. Chapter 2 extends the usage of self-assembly of polymeric nanoparticles through a layer-by-layer deposition concept and photolithography methodologies to create analytical platforms with a vertical height controlled within the nanometer regime. This platform is then furthered in Chapter 3 by employing this integrated concept as a bio-recognition platform, with the extension of the method to a high-throughput screening system explored. Chapter 4 exploits two different types of nanoparticles, silica and gold, as multiplexed, self-assembled immunoassay sensors. This final research chapter is followed by a general summation and future prospectus section that concludes the dissertation.

Andrew David Pris



Activity of components of melts of binary systems with a common anion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The model of regular solutions and the data on the enthalpy of mixing for binary systems with a common anion were used to\\u000a calculate the activities of the components of the systems LiF-KF, NaI-CsI, NaCl-RbCl, and NaCl-SrCl2.

B. V. Patrov



Impacts of common components on production system in an uncertain environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors have investigated the effects components commonality and uncertainty in lead time, machine breakdown, etc. in a manufacturing environment. The production is characterized by multiple end items for multi-period and multi-stage dependent demand. The delivery performances, throughput of the finished products and average production time in the system are examined for different experimental scenarios with reference

M. A. Wazed; Shamsuddin Ahmed; Nukman Yusoff



Product Line Design with Component Commonality and Cost-Reduction Effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market pressure for low prices paired with customer demand for high product variety presents a considerable dilemma for many manufacturers. Industry practice and research to date suggest that approaches based on component commonality can substantially lower the costs of proliferated product lines, but at the cost of reducing product differentiation and revenues. We analyze a stylized model of a manufacturer

Hans Sebastian Heese; Jayashankar M. Swaminathan



The Simplex Reference Model: Limiting Fault-Propagation Due to Unreliable Components in Cyber-Physical System Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyber-physical systems are networked, component-based, real-time systems that control and monitor the physical world. We need software architectures that limit fault-propagation across unreliable components. This paper introduces our simplex reference model which is distinguished by: a plant being controlled in an external context, a machine performing the control, a domain model that estimates the plant state, and the safety requirements

Tanya L. Crenshaw; Elsa Gunter; C. L. Robinson; Lui Sha; P. R. Kumar



Symbolics Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is an architecture. In computer systems, an architecture is a specification of an interface. To be dignified by the name architecture, an interface should be designed for a long lifespan and should connect system components maintained by different organizations. Often an architecture is part of a product definition and defines characteristics on which purchasers of that product rely, but

David A. Moon



A Flexible Component based Access Control Architecture for OPeNDAP Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network data access services such as OPeNDAP enable widespread access to data across user communities. However, without ready means to restrict access to data for such services, data providers and data owners are constrained from making their data more widely available. Even with such capability, the range of different security technologies available can make interoperability between services and user client tools a challenge. OPeNDAP is a key data access service in the infrastructure under development to support the CMIP5 (Couple Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5). The work is being carried out as part of an international collaboration including the US Earth System Grid and Curator projects and the EU funded IS-ENES and Metafor projects. This infrastructure will bring together Petabytes of climate model data and associated metadata from over twenty modelling centres around the world in a federation with a core archive mirrored at three data centres. A security system is needed to meet the requirements of organisations responsible for model data including the ability to restrict data access to registered users, keep them up to date with changes to data and services, audit access and protect finite computing resources. Individual organisations have existing tools and services such as OPeNDAP with which users in the climate research community are already familiar. The security system should overlay access control in a way which maintains the usability and ease of access to these services. The BADC (British Atmospheric Data Centre) has been working in collaboration with the Earth System Grid development team and partner organisations to develop the security architecture. OpenID and MyProxy were selected at an early stage in the ESG project to provide single sign-on capability across the federation of participating organisations. Building on the existing OPeNDAP specification an architecture based on pluggable server side components has been developed at the BADC. These components filter requests to the service they protect and apply the required authentication and authorisation schemes. Filters have been developed for OpenID and SSL client based authentication. The latter enabling access with MyProxy issued credentials. By preserving a clear separation between the security and application functionality, multiple authentication technologies may be supported without the need for modification to the underlying OPeNDAP application. The software has been developed in the Python programming language securing the Python based OPeNDAP implementation, PyDAP. This utilises the Python WSGI (Web Server Gateway Interface) specification to create distinct security filter components. Work is also currently underway to develop a parallel Java based filter implementation to secure the THREDDS Data Server. Whilst the ability to apply this flexible approach to the server side security layer is important, the development of compatible client software is vital to the take up of these services across a wide user base. To date PyDAP and wget based clients have been tested and work is planned to integrate the required security interface into the netCDF API. This forms part of ongoing collaboration with the OPeNDAP user and development community to ensure interoperability.

Kershaw, Philip; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Cinquini, Luca; Lawrence, Bryan; Pascoe, Stephen; Siebenlist, Frank



Myogenic Satellite Cell Proliferative and Differentiative Responses to Components of Common Oral Ergogenic Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the ability of common ergogenic supplement components to alter satellite cell proliferative activity in vitro. Compounds studied were cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, L-glutathione, ?-hydroxybutyric acid, calcium-?-hydroxy-?-methylbutyrate monohydrate, DL-thioctic acid (?-lipoic acid), and ornithine ?-ketoglutarate. Satellite cells were exposed to different levels of ergogenic test compound for a specified amount of time and analyzed by counting mononucleated and




Effect of Foliar Fertilizer as Seed Pretreatment on Yield Components in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of this research is to evaluate the effect of foliar fertilizer as seed pre-treatment at different concentrations and times to the yield components in the ?kizce 96 common wheat (Triticum aestivum L) under field conditions of Central Anatolia in a split-split plot design with four replications during 1998-99 and 1999-2000 at the University of Ankara, Faculty of Agriculture, Haymana



Genome-wide association studies and genetic architecture of common human diseases  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association scans provide the first successful method to identify genetic variation contributing to risk for common complex disease. Progress in identifying genes associated with melanoma show complex relationships between genes for pigmentation and the development of melanoma. Novel risk loci account for only a small fraction of the genetic variation contributing to this and many other diseases. Large meta-analyses find additional variants, but there is current debate about the contribution of common polymorphisms, rare polymorphisms or mutations to disease risk.



Implementation of TFT inspection system using the common unified device architecture (CUDA) on modern graphics hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, computational power of graphics hardware is strong enough to be used in many applications requiring parallel computing. It can be used any other areas even unrelated to the graphics displays. Following these trends, we adapted this general purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) for thin film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCD) inspection. In this paper, we describe practical system components

Chang Hee Lee; Changki Jeong; Moonsoo Chang



The St. Thomas Common Sense Symposium: Designing Architectures for Human-Level Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: To build a machine that has `common sense' was once a principal goal in the fieldof Artificial Intelligence. But most researchers in recent years have retreated fromthat ambitious aim. Instead, each developed some special technique that coulddeal with some class of problem well, but does poorly at almost everything else.

Marvin Minsky; Push Singh; Aaron Sloman



Fusarium root rot incidence and root system architecture in grafted common bean lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), Fusarium root rot (caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli) disease severity is increased by environmental factors that stress the plant. The current study used reciprocal grafting\\u000a techniques with the resistant cultivar FR266 and the susceptible cultivar Montcalm to determine if the genetic control of\\u000a resistance is conferred by the rootstock (root genotype) or

Karen A. Cichy; Sieglinde S. Snapp; William W. Kirk



Variance Component Analysis of Plant Architectural Traits and Fruit Yield in Melon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant architecture can be manipulated to increase yield in melon (Cucumis melo L.). A cross between a unique highly branched line, U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 846-1 (P1; 7 to 11 lateral branches), and ‘Topmark’ (P2; 2 to 4 lateral branches), a U.S. Western Market type melon, produced F1 ...


Service Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document defines the TINA Service Architecture. The architecture consists of a set of concepts, principles, rules and guidelines for constructing, deploying, operating and withdraw- ing TINA services. It also describes the environment in which such services operate. The service architecture identifies components to build services, describe the way they are combined, and the way they interact. One of the

C. Abarca; P. Farley; J. Forslöw; J. C. García; T. Hamada; P. F. Hansen; S. Hogg; H. Kamata; L. Kristiansen; C. A. Licciardi; H. Mulder; E. Utsunomiya; M. Yates


Virtual management of radiology examinations in the virtual radiology environment using common object request broker architecture services.  


In the Department of Defense (DoD), US Army Medical Command is now embarking on an extremely exciting new project--creating a virtual radiology environment (VRE) for the management of radiology examinations. The business of radiology in the military is therefore being reengineered on several fronts by the VRE Project. In the VRE Project, a set of intelligent agent algorithms determine where examinations are to routed for reading bases on a knowledge base of the entire VRE. The set of algorithms, called the Meta-Manager, is hierarchical and uses object-based communications between medical treatment facilities (MTFs) and medical centers that have digital imaging network picture archiving and communications systems (DIN-PACS) networks. The communications is based on use of common object request broker architecture (CORBA) objects and services to send patient demographics and examination images from DIN-PACS networks in the MTFs to the DIN-PACS networks at the medical centers for diagnosis. The Meta-Manager is also responsible for updating the diagnosis at the originating MTF. CORBA services are used to perform secure message communications between DIN-PACS nodes in the VRE network. The Meta-Manager has a fail-safe architecture that allows the master Meta-Manager function to float to regional Meta-Manager sites in case of server failure. A prototype of the CORBA-based Meta-Manager is being developed by the University of Arizona's Computer Engineering Research Laboratory using the unified modeling language (UML) as a design tool. The prototype will implement the main functions described in the Meta-Manager design specification. The results of this project are expected to reengineer the process of radiology in the military and have extensions to commercial radiology environments. PMID:10342205

Martinez, R; Rozenblit, J; Cook, J F; Chacko, A K; Timboe, H L



Synthesizing Communication Middleware from Explicit Connectors in Component Based Distributed Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In component based software engineering, an application is build by composing trusted and reusable units of execution, the\\u000a components. A composition is formed by connecting the components’ related interfaces. The point of connection, namely the\\u000a connector, is an abstract representation of their interaction. Most component models’ implementations rely on extensive middleware,\\u000a which handles component interaction and hides matters of heterogeneity

Dietmar Schreiner; Karl M. Göschka



High-resolution microwave diagnostics of architectural components by particle swarm optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a very simple monostatic setup for coherent multifrequency microwave measurements, and an optimization procedure to reconstruct high-resolution permittivity profiles of layered objects from complex reflection coefficients. This system is capable of precisely locating internal inhomogeneities in dielectric bodies, and can be applied to on-site diagnosis of architectural components. While limiting the imaging possibilities to 1D permittivity profiles, the monostatic geometry has an important advantage over multistatic tomographic systems, since these are normally confined to laboratories, and on-site applications are difficult to devise. The sensor is a transmitting-receiving microwave antenna, and the complex reflection coefficients are measured at a number of discrete frequencies over the system passband by using a general-purpose vector network analyzer. A dedicated instrument could also be designed, thus realizing an unexpensive, easy-to-handle system. The profile reconstruction algorithm is based on the optimization of an objective functional that includes a data-fit term and a regularization term. The first consists in the norm of the complex vector difference between the measured data and the data computed by a forward solver from the current estimate of the profile function. The regularization term enforces a piecewise smooth model for the solution, based on two 1D interacting Markov random fields: the intensity field, which models the continuous permittivity values, and the binary line field, which accounts for the possible presence of discontinuities in the profile. The data-fit and the regularization terms are balanced through a tunable regularization coefficient. By virtue of this prior model, the final result is robust against noise, and overcomes the usual limitations in spatial resolution induced by the wavelengths of the probing radiations. Indeed, the accuracy in the location of the discontinuities is only limited by the system noise and the discretization grid used by the forward solver. The algorithm we chose to optimize the objective is based on the particle swarm paradigm. Each feasible solution is coded as a location in a multidimensional space, explored by a number of "particles" each moving with a certain velocity, which is partly random and partly induced by the experience of both the particle itself and the "swarm" of all the other particles. In our case, the search is complicated by the mixed continuous-binary nature of our unknowns, but the swarm intelligence approach maintains the advantage of its intrinsic parallelism. The experimental results we obtained from both simulated and real measurements show that, for typical permittivity values and radiation wavelengths, the spatial resolution is highly improved by the line process. From real measurements in the range 1.7-2.6 GHz, we accurately reconstructed the permittivity values of our test phantom and located the discontinuities within the limits imposed by our discretization grid (with 1.5 mm cell thickness). At present, the applicability of our reconstruction method is still limited by the forward solver, which is based on a cascaded transmission-line model that assumes normal and plane-wave incidence. We are developing a new solver based on a closed-form Green's function in multilayered media, which should enable us to model appropriately both the microwave sensor and the illumination geometry, thus improving the accuracy of the computed reflection coefficients in the objective functional.

Genovesi, Simone; Salerno, Emanuele; Monorchio, Agostino; Manara, Giuliano



Performance Management in Component-Oriented Systems Using a Model Driven ArchitectureTM Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developers often lack the time or knowledge to profoundly understand the performance issues in large- scale component-oriented enterprise applications. This situation is further complicated by the fact that such applications are often built using a mix of in-house and Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components. This paper presents a methodology for understanding and predicting the performance of component-oriented distributed systems both during development

Adrian Mos; John Murphy



Site-selective effects on guest-molecular adsorption and fabrication of four-component architecture by higher order networks.  


2D porous networks have attracted great attention as they can be used to immobilize functional units as guest molecules in a spatially ordered arrangement. In this work, a novel molecular hybrid network with two kinds of cavities was fabricated. Several kinds of guest molecules, such as coronene, copper(II) phthalocyanine (CuPc), triphenylene, heptanoic acid and fullerene molecules, can be immobilized into this template. Site- and size-selective effects can be observed. Furthermore, we have also fabricated interesting 2D crystal architecture with complex four-component structure at the liquid-solid interface, following investigation by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The current findings provide a convenient approach towards the formation of more complex and functionalized surface nanopatterns, which can benefit the study of host-guest assembly behaviour within a monolayer composed by several components at interfaces. PMID:23632563

Shen, Yong-Tao; Guan, Li; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Wang, Shuai; Gan, Li-Hua; Zeng, Qing-Dao; Wang, Chen



Comparing the Magnitude of Two Fractions with Common Components: Which Representations Are Used by 10- and 12-Year-Olds?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study tested whether 10- and 12-year-olds who can correctly compare the magnitudes of fractions with common components access the magnitudes of the whole fractions rather than only compare the magnitudes of their components. Time for comparing two fractions was predicted by the numerical distance between the whole fractions, suggesting an…

Meert, Gaelle; Gregoire, Jacques; Noel, Marie-Pascale



The purification and properties of some less common allotypes of the fourth component of human complement.  


Human complement component C4 is coded by two genes situated between HLA-D and HLA-B. Both genes are highly polymorphic; C4-A gene products normally carry the blood group antigen Rodgers and C4-B proteins usually carry the Chido antigen. Using a monoclonal antibody which binds Rodgers-positive and Chido-positive proteins with different affinities, we have purified a number of less common C4 allotypes and compared their properties. All C4-B allotypes tested have similar specific hemolytic activities and binding efficiencies to small molecules. All C4-A proteins tested had similar binding to small molecules and hemolytic activities except for the C4-A6 proteins from two individuals with different extended haplotypes, both of which had identical hemolytic activities and much lower ones than other C4-A allotypes. Two allotypes, C4-A1, Rodgers-negative but Chido-positive, and C4-B5, Chido-negative but probably Rodgers-positive, were found to behave as typical C4-A and C4-B proteins, respectively, apart from the switch in their antigenic properties. PMID:2430883

Dodds, A W; Law, S K; Porter, R R



Enhancing the Management of a J2EE Application Server using a Component-Based Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe our work on improved management of middleware. We argue that a component-based approach to design of middleware results in greatly enhanced and easily extensible management capabilities. As a proof of concept, we present our re-engineered, component-based version of JOnAS, an open-source J2EE server. We describe how we have redesigned and reimplemented JOnAS using Fractal, a

Takoua Abdellatif



Architecture-Level Support for Software Component Deployment in Resource Constrained Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software deployment comprises activities for installing or updating an already implemented software system. These activities include (1) deployment of a system onto a new host, (2) component upgrade in an existing system, (3) static analysis of the proposed system configuration, and (4) dynamic analysis of the con- figuration after the deployment. In this paper, we describe an approach that supports

Marija Mikic-rakic; Nenad Medvidovic



Common Whelk (Buccinum undatum) Allergy: Identification of IgE-binding Components and Effects of Heating and Digestive Enzymes  

PubMed Central

In Korea, common whelk (Buccinum undatum) is a popular edible shellfish. The aim of this study was to observe the sensitization rate to common whelk and to characterize its allergens. We carried out skin prick test (SPT) in 1,700 patients with various allergic diseases. Specific IgE were detected by ELISA in the patient sera and ELISA inhibition tests were conducted. IgE-binding components were identified by means of SDS-PAGE and IgE-immunoblotting. The effects of digestive enzymes were evaluated in both raw and thermally treated extracts. SPT to common whelk was positive (?2+) in 83 (4.9%) patients studied. Twenty-four (38.7%) out of 62 SPT positive patients had high serum specific IgE to common whelk. ELISA inhibition test showed significant inhibitions by abalone as well as by common whelk. IgE-immunoblotting demonstrated three IgE-binding components (40, 71, 82 kDa), which were digested by simulated intestinal fluid and moderately digested by simulated gastric fluid, and the digestibility of allergens remained unchanged after thermal treatment. In conclusion, IgE-sensitization rate to common whelk was 4.9% in allergy patients. IgE-immunoblotting demonstrated three IgE-binding components, which were degraded by digestive enzymes. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of the sensitized patients to common whelk.

Lee, Byung-Jae



Manipulated electromagnetic losses by integrating chemically heterogeneous components in Fe-based core/shell architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing techniques for stabilizing and functionalizing metal nanostructures required precise control of complex procedures and probably introduce undesirable impurities. We herein report an arc-discharge chemical vapor deposition strategy for the synthesis of chemically heterogeneous core/shell metal/oxide nanocapsules Fe/TiFe2O4, Fe/MnFe2O4, and Fe/Al2O3. A universal formation mechanism based on the co-effect of oxygen potential and surface energy is further proposed, derived from fundamental thermodynamics. Such core/shell nanocapsules, integrated with tunable components, present an effective manipulability of microwave absorption at expected frequency, originating from the various dielectric behaviors of the heterogeneous oxide shells.

Huang, Hao; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Lv, Bo; Xue, Fang-Hong; Shah, Asif; Su, Lei; Yan, Jing-Guo; Yao, Man; Dong, Xing-Long



An investigation into tutor training components common among successful development education programs at American institutions of higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to create a single criterion for the success of developmental education programs and to investigate tutor training components common among reported successful developmental education programs at American higher education institutions. Using chi-square analyses, (likelihood ratio) with corrections made on invalid chi squares with Fisher's Exact test using Monte Carlo simulation (SPSS, 1996), this study

Susan Jeanne-Seguin Costa



Variation of Morphology, Yield and Essential Oil Components in Common Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert) Cultivars Grown in Southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common chamomile (Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert) is one of the oldest and most popular medicinal plants, used for its numerous properties. Two diploid and two tetraploid cultivars, sown and transplanted in Southern Italy, were compared to determine the variation in morphology, yield and essential oil components at two harvest times. An analysis of variance was performed, and means were

Laura D Andrea



Component Behaviour and Life Management: The Need for Common AGARD Approaches and Actions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Component behavior and life management are central to Damage Tolerant Design and Engine Certification. With an 'international product' such as the gas turbine engine there is a need for labs in the various countries to be able to believe each others data,...

C. R. Gostelow



Common and Dissociable Prefrontal Loci Associated with Component Mechanisms of Analogical Reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to draw analogies requires 2 key cognitive processes, relational integration and resolution of interference. The present study aimed to identify the neural correlates of both component processes of analogical reasoning within a single, nonverbal analogy task using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants verified whether a visual analogy was true by considering either 1 or 3 relational dimensions.

Soohyun Cho; Teena D. Moody; Leonardo Fernandino; Jeanette A. Mumford; Russell A. Poldrack; Tyrone D. Cannon; Barbara J. Knowlton; Keith J. Holyoak



An intelligent architecture based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays designed to detect moving objects by using Principal Component Analysis.  


This paper presents a complete implementation of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices applied to high rate background segmentation of images. The classical sequential execution of different parts of the PCA algorithm has been parallelized. This parallelization has led to the specific development and implementation in hardware of the different stages of PCA, such as computation of the correlation matrix, matrix diagonalization using the Jacobi method and subspace projections of images. On the application side, the paper presents a motion detection algorithm, also entirely implemented on the FPGA, and based on the developed PCA core. This consists of dynamically thresholding the differences between the input image and the one obtained by expressing the input image using the PCA linear subspace previously obtained as a background model. The proposal achieves a high ratio of processed images (up to 120 frames per second) and high quality segmentation results, with a completely embedded and reliable hardware architecture based on commercial CMOS sensors and FPGA devices. PMID:22163406

Bravo, Ignacio; Mazo, Manuel; Lázaro, José L; Gardel, Alfredo; Jiménez, Pedro; Pizarro, Daniel



An Intelligent Architecture Based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays Designed to Detect Moving Objects by Using Principal Component Analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a complete implementation of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices applied to high rate background segmentation of images. The classical sequential execution of different parts of the PCA algorithm has been parallelized. This parallelization has led to the specific development and implementation in hardware of the different stages of PCA, such as computation of the correlation matrix, matrix diagonalization using the Jacobi method and subspace projections of images. On the application side, the paper presents a motion detection algorithm, also entirely implemented on the FPGA, and based on the developed PCA core. This consists of dynamically thresholding the differences between the input image and the one obtained by expressing the input image using the PCA linear subspace previously obtained as a background model. The proposal achieves a high ratio of processed images (up to 120 frames per second) and high quality segmentation results, with a completely embedded and reliable hardware architecture based on commercial CMOS sensors and FPGA devices.

Bravo, Ignacio; Mazo, Manuel; Lazaro, Jose L.; Gardel, Alfredo; Jimenez, Pedro; Pizarro, Daniel



Chemical components of heartwood and sapwood of common Yew (Taxus baccata L.).  


Cell-wall components and solubility characteristics of the heartwood and sapwood of Taxus baccata L. were determined by methods of wood analysis and the differences between heartwood and sapwood were established. When we observe the data obtained, it is seen that the amount of extractive material found in the heartwood is substantially higher than the sapwood. The extractive material in Taxus baccata L. is originated from the hidden epithelial cells surrounded by resin canals. PMID:15248668

Merto?lu-Elmas, Gülnur



Architecture Decisions: Demystifying Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

We believe that a key to demystifying architecture products lies in the architecture decisions concept. We can make the architecture more transparent and clarify its rationale for all stakeholders by explicitly documenting major architecture decisions.

Jeff Tyree; Art Akerman



Mapping QTL for climbing ability and component traits in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varies in growth habit from aggressive climbing types to bush beans. Growth habit is determined by a combination of factors\\u000a including determinate versus indeterminate growth, total plant height, degree of branching and internode length. Together\\u000a these factors make up climbing ability. The objective of this research was to determine the quantitative trait loci (QTL)\\u000a controlling

Oscar E. Checa; Matthew W. Blair



Comparative brain architecture of the European shore crab Carcinus maenas (Brachyura) and the common hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus (Anomura) with notes on other marine hermit crabs.  


The European shore crab Carcinus maenas and the common hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus are members of the sister taxa Brachyura and Anomura (together forming the taxon Meiura) respectively. Both species share similar coastal marine habitats and thus are confronted with similar environmental conditions. This study sets out to explore variations of general brain architecture of species that live in seemingly similar habitats but belong to different major malacostracan taxa and to understand possible differences of sensory systems and related brain compartments. We examined the brains of Carcinus maenas, Pagurus bernhardus, and three other hermit crab species with immunohistochemistry against tyrosinated tubulin, f-actin, synaptic proteins, RF-amides and allatostatin. Our comparison showed that their optic neuropils within the eyestalks display strong resemblance in gross morphology as well as in detailed organization, suggesting a rather similar potential of processing visual input. Besides the well-developed visual system, the olfactory neuropils are distinct components in the brain of both C. maenas and P. bernhardus as well as the other hermit crabs, suggesting that close integration of olfactory and visual information may be useful in turbid marine environments with low visibility, as is typical for many habitats such as, e.g., the Baltic and the North Sea. Comparing the shape of the olfactory glomeruli in the anomurans showed some variations, ranging from a wedge shape to an elongate morphology. Furthermore, the tritocerebrum and the organization of the second antennae associated with the tritocerebrum seem to differ markedly in C. maenas and P. bernhardus, indicating better mechanosensory abilities in the latter close to those of other Decapoda with long second antennae, such as Astacida, Homarida, or Achelata. This aspect may also represent an adaptation to the "hermit lifestyle" in which competition for shells is a major aspect of their life history. The shore crab C. maenas, on the other hand seems to rely much less on mechanosensory information mediated by the second antennae but in water, the visual and the olfactory senses seem to be the most important modalities. PMID:22374330

Krieger, Jakob; Sombke, Andy; Seefluth, Florian; Kenning, Matthes; Hansson, Bill S; Harzsch, Steffen



An Architectural Evolution Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Mae an architectural evolution environment, built upon a system model that combines architectural and configura- tion management concepts into a single representation. Through Mae, users can specify architectures (in terms of their constitu- ent components, connectors, and interfaces) in a traditional man- ner, manage the evolution of the architectures using a check-out\\/ check-in mechanism that tracks all changes,

Roshanak Roshandel


Evolution of Agent Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent architectures provide the blueprints for the design and development of individual agents. The purpose of agent architecture is to define modes and modules of agent's interaction in the world as well as connections among internal components of an agent. An agent can be understood in terms of its architectural description of its perceptual, deliberation, and acting capabilities. Architectures have

Henry Hexmoor



Abnormal structure or function of the amygdala is a common component of neurodevelopmental disorders  

PubMed Central

The amygdala, perhaps more than any other brain region, has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. It is part of a system initially evolved to detect dangers in the environment and modulate subsequent responses, which can profoundly influence human behavior. If its threshold is set too low, normally benign aspects of the environment are perceived as dangers, interactions are limited, and anxiety may arise. If set too high, risk taking increases and inappropriate sociality may occur. Given that many neurodevelopmental disorders involve too little or too much anxiety or too little of too much social interaction, it is not surprising that the amygdala has been implicated in many of them. In this chapter, we begin by providing a brief overview of the phylogeny, ontogeny, and function of the amygdala and then appraise data from neurodevelopmental disorders which suggest amygdala dysregulation. We focus on neurodevelopmental disorders where there is evidence of amygdala dysregulation from postmortem studies, structural MRI analyses or functional MRI. However, the results are often disparate and it is not totally clear whether this is due to inherent heterogeneity or differences in methodology. Nonetheless, the amygdala is a common site for neuropathology in neurodevelopmental disorders and is therefore a potential target for therapeutics to alleviate associated symptoms.

Schumann, Cynthia M.; Bauman, Melissa D.; Amaral, David G.



GITEWS, an extensible and open integration platform for manifold sensor systems and processing components based on Sensor Web Enablement and the principles of Service Oriented Architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) is a multifaceted system consisting of various sensor types like seismometers, sea level sensors or GPS stations, and processing components, all with their own system behavior and proprietary data structure. To operate a warning chain, beginning from measurements scaling up to warning products, all components have to interact in a correct way, both syntactically and semantically. Designing the system great emphasis was laid on conformity to the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) specification by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The technical infrastructure, the so called Tsunami Service Bus (TSB) follows the blueprint of Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). The TSB is an integration concept (SWE) where functionality (observe, task, notify, alert, and process) is grouped around business processes (Monitoring, Decision Support, Sensor Management) and packaged as interoperable services (SAS, SOS, SPS, WNS). The benefits of using a flexible architecture together with SWE lead to an open integration platform: • accessing and controlling heterogeneous sensors in a uniform way (Functional Integration) • assigns functionality to distinct services (Separation of Concerns) • allows resilient relationship between systems (Loose Coupling) • integrates services so that they can be accessed from everywhere (Location Transparency) • enables infrastructures which integrate heterogeneous applications (Encapsulation) • allows combination of services (Orchestration) and data exchange within business processes Warning systems will evolve over time: New sensor types might be added, old sensors will be replaced and processing components will be improved. From a collection of few basic services it shall be possible to compose more complex functionality essential for specific warning systems. Given these requirements a flexible infrastructure is a prerequisite for sustainable systems and their architecture must be tailored for evolution. The use of well-known techniques and widely used open source software implementing industrial standards reduces the impact of service modifications allowing the evolution of a system as a whole. GITEWS implemented a solution to feed sensor raw data from any (remote) system into the infrastructure. Specific dispatchers enable plugging in sensor-type specific processing without changing the architecture. Client components don't need to be adjusted if new sensor-types or individuals are added to the system, because they access them via standardized services. One of the outstanding features of service-oriented architectures is the possibility to compose new services from existing ones. The so called orchestration, allows the definition of new warning processes which can be adapted easily to new requirements. This approach has following advantages: • With implementing SWE it is possible to establish the "detection" and integration of sensors via the internet. Thus a system of systems combining early warning functionality at different levels of detail is feasible. • Any institution could add both its own components as well as components from third parties if they are developed in conformance to SOA principles. In a federation an institution keeps the ownership of its data and decides which data are provided by a service and when. • A system can be deployed at minor costs as a core for own development at any institution and thus enabling autonomous early warning- or monitoring systems. The presentation covers both design and various instantiations (live demonstration) of the GITEWS architecture. Experiences concerning the design and complexity of SWE will be addressed in detail. A substantial amount of attention is laid on the techniques and methods of extending the architecture, adapting proprietary components to SWE services and encoding, and their orchestration in high level workflows and processes. Furthermore the potential of the architecture concerning adaptive behavior, collaboration across boundaries and semantic interoperab

Haener, Rainer; Waechter, Joachim; Fleischer, Jens; Herrnkind, Stefan; Schwarting, Herrmann



IAIMS Architecture  

PubMed Central

Abstract An information system architecture defines the components of a system and the interfaces among the components. A good architecture is essential for creating an Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) that works as an integrated whole yet is flexible enough to accommodate many users and roles, multiple applications, changing vendors, evolving user needs, and advancing technology. Modularity and layering promote flexibility by reducing the complexity of a system and by restricting the ways in which components may interact. Enterprise-wide mediation promotes integration by providing message routing, support for standards, dictionary-based code translation, a centralized conceptual data schema, business rule implementation, and consistent access to databases. Several IAIMS sites have adopted a client-server architecture, and some have adopted a three-tiered approach, separating user interface functions, application logic, and repositories.

Hripcsak, George



Power system commonality study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system\\/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this

Franklin D. Littman



Origin of the genetic components of the vomeronasal system in the common ancestor of all extant vertebrates.  


Comparative genomics provides a valuable tool for inferring the evolutionary history of physiological systems, particularly when this information is difficult to ascertain by morphological traits. One such example is the vomeronasal system (VNS), a vertebrate nasal chemosensory system that is responsible for detecting intraspecific pheromonal cues as well as environmental odorants. The morphological components of the VNS are found only in tetrapods, but the genetic components of the system have been found in teleost fish, in addition to tetrapods. To determine when the genetic components of the VNS originated, we searched for the VNS-specific genes in the genomes of two early diverging vertebrate lineages: the sea lamprey from jawless fishes and the elephant shark from cartilaginous fishes. Genes encoding vomeronasal type 1 receptors (V1Rs) and Trpc2, two components of the vomeronasal signaling pathway, are present in the sea lamprey genome, and both are expressed in the olfactory organ, revealing that the genetic components of the present-day VNS existed in the common ancestor of all extant vertebrates. Additionally, all three VNS genes, Trpc2, V1Rs, and vomeronasal type 2 receptors (V2Rs), are found in the elephant shark genome. Because V1Rs and V2Rs are related to two families of taste receptors, we also searched the early diverging vertebrate genomes for taste system genes and found them in the shark genome but not in the lamprey. Coupled with known distributions of the genetic components of the vertebrate main olfactory system, our results suggest staggered origins of vertebrate sensory systems. These findings are important for understanding the evolution of vertebrate sensory systems and illustrate the utility of the genome sequences of early diverging vertebrates for uncovering the evolution of vertebrate-specific traits. PMID:19008528

Grus, Wendy E; Zhang, Jianzhi



Origin of the Genetic Components of the Vomeronasal System in the Common Ancestor of all Extant Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Comparative genomics provides a valuable tool for inferring the evolutionary history of physiological systems, particularly when this information is difficult to ascertain by morphological traits. One such example is the vomeronasal system (VNS), a vertebrate nasal chemosensory system that is responsible for detecting intraspecific pheromonal cues as well as environmental odorants. The morphological components of the VNS are found only in tetrapods, but the genetic components of the system have been found in teleost fish, in addition to tetrapods. To determine when the genetic components of the VNS originated, we searched for the VNS-specific genes in the genomes of two early diverging vertebrate lineages: the sea lamprey from jawless fishes and the elephant shark from cartilaginous fishes. Genes encoding vomeronasal type 1 receptors (V1Rs) and Trpc2, two components of the vomeronasal signaling pathway, are present in the sea lamprey genome, and both are expressed in the olfactory organ, revealing that the genetic components of the present-day VNS existed in the common ancestor of all extant vertebrates. Additionally, all three VNS genes, Trpc2, V1Rs, and vomeronasal type 2 receptors (V2Rs), are found in the elephant shark genome. Because V1Rs and V2Rs are related to two families of taste receptors, we also searched the early diverging vertebrate genomes for taste system genes and found them in the shark genome but not in the lamprey. Coupled with known distributions of the genetic components of the vertebrate main olfactory system, our results suggest staggered origins of vertebrate sensory systems. These findings are important for understanding the evolution of vertebrate sensory systems and illustrate the utility of the genome sequences of early diverging vertebrates for uncovering the evolution of vertebrate-specific traits.

Grus, Wendy E.; Zhang, Jianzhi



In search of `architectural knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The software architecture community puts more and more emphasis on 'architectural knowledge'. However, there appears to be no commonly accepted definition of what architectural knowledge entails, which makes it a fuzzy concept. In order to obtain a better understanding of how different authors view 'architectural knowledge', we have conducted a systematic review to examine how architectural knowledge is defined and

Remco C. De Boer; Rik Farenhorst



[Rapid identification 15 effective components of anti common cold medicine with MRM by LC-MS/MS].  


This paper reports the establishment of a method for rapid identification 15 effective components of anti common cold medicine (paracetamol, aminophenazone, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, methylephedrine hydrochloride, caffeine, amantadine hydrochloride, phenazone, guaifenesin, chlorphenamine maleate, dextromethorphen hydrobromide, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, promethazine hydrochloride, propyphenazone, benorilate and diclofenac sodium) with MRM by LC-MS/MS. The samples were extracted by methanol and were separated from a Altantis T3 column within 15 min with a gradient of acetonitrile-ammonium acetate (containing 0.25% glacial acetic acid), a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source (ESI) was used in positive ion mode, and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was performed for qualitative analysis of these compounds. The minimum detectable quantity were 0.33-2.5 microg x kg(-1) of the 15 compounds. The method is simple, accurate and with good reproducibility for rapid identification many components in the same chromatographic condition, and provides a reference for qualitative analysis illegally added chemicals in anti common cold medicine. PMID:23600148

Jiang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Xi-Ru; Zhang, Yi-Hua; Song, Geng-Shen



The Architecture of a Database Computer. Part III. The Design of the Mass Memory and Its Related Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the last of the three-part series which deals with the design of a back-end computer known as the database computer (DBC). The concepts and capabilities of the DBC were presented in Part I. Schematically, the DBC architecture consists of two loops...

D. K. Hsiao K. Kannan



Plastic and Heritable Components of Phenotypic Variation in Nucella lapillus: An Assessment Using Reciprocal Transplant and Common Garden Experiments  

PubMed Central

Assessment of plastic and heritable components of phenotypic variation is crucial for understanding the evolution of adaptive character traits in heterogeneous environments. We assessed the above in relation to adaptive shell morphology of the rocky intertidal snail Nucella lapillus by reciprocal transplantation of snails between two shores differing in wave action and rearing snails of the same provenance in a common garden. Results were compared with those reported for similar experiments conducted elsewhere. Microsatellite variation indicated limited gene flow between the populations. Intrinsic growth rate was greater in exposed-site than sheltered-site snails, but the reverse was true of absolute growth rate, suggesting heritable compensation for reduced foraging opportunity at the exposed site. Shell morphology of reciprocal transplants partially converged through plasticity toward that of native snails. Shell morphology of F2s in the common garden partially retained characteristics of the P-generation, suggesting genetic control. A maternal effect was revealed by greater resemblance of F1s than F2s to the P-generation. The observed synergistic effects of plastic, maternal and genetic control of shell-shape may be expected to maximise fitness when environmental characteristics become unpredictable through dispersal.

Pascoal, Sonia; Carvalho, Gary; Creer, Simon; Rock, Jenny; Kawaii, Kei; Mendo, Sonia; Hughes, Roger



Plastic and heritable components of phenotypic variation in Nucella lapillus: an assessment using reciprocal transplant and common garden experiments.  


Assessment of plastic and heritable components of phenotypic variation is crucial for understanding the evolution of adaptive character traits in heterogeneous environments. We assessed the above in relation to adaptive shell morphology of the rocky intertidal snail Nucella lapillus by reciprocal transplantation of snails between two shores differing in wave action and rearing snails of the same provenance in a common garden. Results were compared with those reported for similar experiments conducted elsewhere. Microsatellite variation indicated limited gene flow between the populations. Intrinsic growth rate was greater in exposed-site than sheltered-site snails, but the reverse was true of absolute growth rate, suggesting heritable compensation for reduced foraging opportunity at the exposed site. Shell morphology of reciprocal transplants partially converged through plasticity toward that of native snails. Shell morphology of F(2)s in the common garden partially retained characteristics of the P-generation, suggesting genetic control. A maternal effect was revealed by greater resemblance of F(1)s than F(2)s to the P-generation. The observed synergistic effects of plastic, maternal and genetic control of shell-shape may be expected to maximise fitness when environmental characteristics become unpredictable through dispersal. PMID:22299035

Pascoal, Sonia; Carvalho, Gary; Creer, Simon; Rock, Jenny; Kawaii, Kei; Mendo, Sonia; Hughes, Roger



Unremodeled endochondral bone is a major architectural component of the cortical bone of the rat (Rattus norvegicus).  


The laboratory rat is one of the most frequently-used animal models for studying bone biology and skeletal diseases. Here we show that a substantial portion of the cortical bone of mature rats is primary endochondral bone, consisting of a disorganized arrangement of mineralized collagen fibers. We characterize the structure and mechanical properties of the cortical bone of the rat. We show that the cortical bone consists of two architecturally distinct regions. One region, consisting of well-organized circumferential lamellae (CLB), is located in the endosteal and/or the periosteal regions while another, disorganized region, is located in the more central region of the cortex. Unexpectedly, we found that the disorganized region contains many islands of highly mineralized cartilage. Micro tomography showed different structural and compositional properties of the two primary structural elements; the CLB region has lower mineral density, lower porosity, larger but fewer blood vessels and fewer lacunae. However, no difference was found in the average lacunar volume. Additionally the mean indentation modulus of the CLB region was lower than that of the disorganized region. The islands of calcified cartilage were found to be extremely stiff, with an indentation modulus of 33.4±3.5GPa. We conclude that though the cortical bone of rats is in part lamellar, its architecture is markedly different from that of the cortical bone of humans, a fact that must be borne in mind when using the rat as a model animal for studies of human bone biology and disease. PMID:23643909

Shipov, A; Zaslansky, P; Riesemeier, H; Segev, G; Atkins, A; Shahar, R



Using Component Business Modeling to Facilitate Business Enterprise Architecture and Business Services at the US Department of Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Component business modeling (CBM) is an aggregation of models, methods and techniques that are designed to organize, understand, evaluate, and ultimately, transform an enterprise. The decomposition of an enterprise into well bounded and discrete business components enables a straightforward understanding of a complex enterprise and facilitates the realization of business intent by information technology. This paper examines the use of

David Flaxer; Anil Nigam; John Vergo



Microstructural architecture developed in the fabrication of solid and open-cellular copper components by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fabrication of Cu components were first built by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting (EBM) from low-purity, atomized Cu powder containing a high density of Cu2O precipitates leading to a novel example of precipitate-dislocation architecture. These microstructures exhibit cell-like arrays (1-3microm) in the horizontal reference plane perpendicular to the build direction with columnar-like arrays extending from ~12 to >60 microm in length and corresponding spatial dimensions of 1-3 microm. These observations were observed by the use of optical metallography, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The hardness measurements were taken both on the atomized powder and the Cu components. The hardness for these architectures ranged from ~HV 83 to 88, in contrast to the original Cu powder microindentation hardness of HV 72 and the commercial Cu base plate hardness of HV 57. These observations were utilized for the fabrication of open-cellular copper structures by additive manufacturing using EBM and illustrated the ability to fabricate some form of controlled microstructural architecture by EBM parameter alteration or optimizing. The fabrication of these structures ranged in densities from 0.73g/cm3 to 6.67g/cm3. These structures correspond to four different articulated mesh arrays. While these components contained some porosity as a consequence of some unmelted regions, the Cu2O precipitates also contributed to a reduced density. Using X-ray Diffraction showed the approximate volume fraction estimated to be ~2%. The addition of precipitates created in the EBM melt scan formed microstructural arrays which contributed to hardening contributing to the strength of mesh struts and foam ligaments. The measurements of relative stiffness versus relative density plots for Cu compared very closely with Ti-6Al-4V open cellular structures - both mesh and foams. The Cu reticulated mesh structures exhibit a slope of n = 2 in contrast to a slope of n = 2.4 for the stochastic Cu foams, consistent with the Gibson-Ashby foam model where n = 2. These open cellular structure components exhibit considerable potential for novel, complex, multi-functional electrical and thermal management systems, especially complex, monolithic heat exchange device.

Ramirez, Diana Alejandra


An aspect-oriented framework for developing component-based software with the collaboration-based architectural style  

Microsoft Academic Search

Component-based development (CBD) technique for software has emerged to fulfill the demand on the reuse of existing artifacts. In comparison to traditional object-oriented techniques, CBD can provide more advanced abstraction concepts such as subsystem-level reusability, gross structure abstraction, and global control flow abstraction. Unfortunately, existing software development techniques are not mature enough to make it come true that components developed

Joon-Sang Lee; Doo-Hwan Bae


Security Aspects of an Enterprise-Wide Network Architecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an overview of two projects that concern local area networks and the common point between networks as they relate to network security. Discusses security architectures based on firewall components, packet filters, application gateways, security-management components, an intranet solution, user registration by Web form, and requests for…

Loew, Robert; Stengel, Ingo; Bleimann, Udo; McDonald, Aidan



Distilling Software Architectural Primitives from Architectural Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architectural styles codify commonly used idioms in system structures, organizations, and interactions. Existing classifications of archite ctural styles provide empirical guidelines for style selection, but fail to systemat ically characterize styles or reveal their foundations. Moreover, the mapping between architectural styles and their imple- mentations is generally poorly understood. This paper in- troduces an approach towards a systematic understanding of

Nikunj R. Mehta; Nenad Medvidovic



A small chloroplast-encoded protein as a novel architectural component of the light-harvesting antenna.  


A small conserved open reading frame in the plastid genome, ycf9, encodes a putative membrane protein of 62 amino acids. To determine the function of this reading frame we have constructed a knockout allele for targeted disruption of ycf9. This allele was introduced into the tobacco plastid genome by biolistic transformation to replace the wild-type ycf9 allele. Homoplasmic ycf9 knockout plants displayed no phenotype under normal growth conditions. However, under low light conditions, their growth rate was significantly reduced as compared with the wild-type, due to a lowered efficiency of the light reaction of photosynthesis. We show that this phenotype is caused by the deficiency in a pigment-protein complex of the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II and hence by a reduced efficiency of photon capture when light availability is limiting. Our results indicate that, in contrast to the current view, light-harvesting complexes do not only consist of the classical pigment-binding proteins, but may contain small structural subunits in addition. These subunits appear to be crucial architectural factors for the assembly and/or maintenance of stable light-harvesting complexes. PMID:10769029

Ruf, S; Biehler, K; Bock, R



Enhanced Machine Controller Architecture Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Enhanced Machine Controller program has defined an architecture for controllers, with an emphasis on machine tools. The architecture defines a set of components and their interfaces. The objective ...

F. M. Proctor J. Michaloski



Collaboration in the square: an architecture for collaborative ubicomp  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an architecture and software infrastructure for collaborative ubiquitous systems based around the EQUIP data sharing system. A peer-to-peer approach is used between mobile systems, such that peers are discovered and messages are passed between different system components without the need for a central server. Each peer system has a common compo- nent-based architecture which supports 'probes' which

Barry Brown; Ian MacColl; Marek Bell; Matthew Chalmers


Islet architecture  

PubMed Central

Emerging reports on the organization of the different hormone-secreting cell types (?, glucagon; ?, insulin; and ?, somatostatin) in human islets have emphasized the distinct differences between human and mouse islets, raising questions about the relevance of studies of mouse islets to human islet physiology. Here, we examine the differences and similarities between the architecture of human and mouse islets. We studied islets from various mouse models including ob/ob and db/db and pregnant mice. We also examined the islets of monkeys, pigs, rabbits and birds for further comparisons. Despite differences in overall body and pancreas size as well as total ?-cell mass among these species, the distribution of their islet sizes closely overlaps, except in the bird pancreas in which the ?-cell population predominates (both in singlets and clusters) along with a small number of islets. Markedly large islets (>10,000 ?m2) were observed in human and monkey islets as well as in islets from ob/ob and pregnant mice. The fraction of ?-, ?- and ?-cells within an islet varied between islets in all the species examined. Furthermore, there was variability in the distribution of ?- and ?-cells within the same species. In summary, human and mouse islets share common architectural features that may reflect demand for insulin. Comparative studies of islet architecture may lead to a better understanding of islet development and function.

Kim, Abraham; Miller, Kevin; Jo, Junghyo; Kilimnik, German; Wojcik, Pawel; Hara, Manami



Reflective Self-Regenerative Systems Architecture Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, we develop the Reflective Self-Regenerative Systems (RSRS) architecture in detail, describing the internal structure of each component and the mutual invocations among the components. The main goal of RSRS architecture is a conceptually sim...

C. Pu D. Blough



A neuropathic pain component is common in acute whiplash and associated with a more complex clinical presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whiplash is a heterogeneous condition with some individuals showing features suggestive of neuropathic pain. This study investigated the presence of a neuropathic pain component in acute whiplash using the Self-reported Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Signs and Symptoms' scale (S-LANSS) and evaluated relationships among S-LANSS responses, pain\\/disability, sensory characteristics (mechanical, thermal pain thresholds, and Brachial plexus provocation test (BPPT) responses) and

Michele Sterling; Ashley Pedler



A neuropathic pain component is common in acute whiplash and associated with a more complex clinical presentation.  


Whiplash is a heterogeneous condition with some individuals showing features suggestive of neuropathic pain. This study investigated the presence of a neuropathic pain component in acute whiplash using the Self-reported Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Signs and Symptoms' scale (S-LANSS) and evaluated relationships among S-LANSS responses, pain/disability, sensory characteristics (mechanical, thermal pain thresholds, and Brachial plexus provocation test (BPPT) responses) and psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28)). Participants were 85 people with acute whiplash (<4 weeks) (54 females, age 36.27+/-12.69 years). Thirty-four percent demonstrated a predominantly neuropathic pain component (S-LANSS>or=12). This group showed higher pain/disability, cold hyperalgesia, cervical mechanical hyperalgesia, and less elbow extension with the BPPT (p<0.03) when compared to the group with non-neuropathic pain (S-LANSS0.09). None of the S-LANSS items could discriminate those with cold hyperalgesia (p=0.06). A predominantly neuropathic pain component is related to a complex presentation of higher pain/disability and sensory hypersensitivity. The S-LANSS may be a useful tool and the BPPT a useful clinical test in the early assessment of whiplash. PMID:18358761

Sterling, Michele; Pedler, Ashley



Architecture and Performance of XML-Based Componentization of the Symbian Smartphone Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is common in enterprise back-ends and is finding its way to mainstream desktop systems. SOA is traditionally built on top of an existing component infrastructure. This paper investigates how a similar architecture can be realized in mobile devices based on the Symbian operating system; in an environment that does not have a fully-fledged component infrastructure. The proposed

Szabolcs Payrits; Péter Dornbach; Gábor Márton



The Software Architecture of Global Climate Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has become common to compare and contrast the output of multiple global climate models (GCMs), such as in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). However, intercomparisons of the software architecture of GCMs are almost nonexistent. In this qualitative study of seven GCMs from Canada, the United States, and Europe, we attempt to fill this gap in research. We describe the various representations of the climate system as computer programs, and account for architectural differences between models. Most GCMs now practice component-based software engineering, where Earth system components (such as the atmosphere or land surface) are present as highly encapsulated sub-models. This architecture facilitates a mix-and-match approach to climate modelling that allows for convenient sharing of model components between institutions, but it also leads to difficulty when choosing where to draw the lines between systems that are not encapsulated in the real world, such as sea ice. We also examine different styles of couplers in GCMs, which manage interaction and data flow between components. Finally, we pay particular attention to the varying levels of complexity in GCMs, both between and within models. Many GCMs have some components that are significantly more complex than others, a phenomenon which can be explained by the respective institution's research goals as well as the origin of the model components. In conclusion, although some features of software architecture have been adopted by every GCM we examined, other features show a wide range of different design choices and strategies. These architectural differences may provide new insights into variability and spread between models.

Alexander, K. A.; Easterbrook, S. M.



Usefulness of Software Architecture Description Languages for Modeling and Analysis of Federates and Federation Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software architecture is high-level software design, dealing with the structure and organization of large software systems. The architecture of a software system is defined in terms of computational components and interactions among those components. Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) are languages designed to represent software designs at the architecture level. Different ADLs often have different design intents; for example, the ADL

Frederic D. Mckenzie; Mikel D. Petty; Qingwen Xu



Two proteins isolated from sea urchin sperm flagella: structural components common to the stable microtubules of axonemes and centrioles.  


Biochemical fractionation of axonemal microtubules yields the protofilament ribbon (pf-ribbon), an insoluble structure of 3-4 longitudinal protofilaments composed primarily of alpha/beta tubulin, tektins A, B and C, and two previously uncharacterized polypeptides of 77 kDa and 83 kDa. We have isolated the 77/83 kDa polypeptides (termed Sp77 and Sp83) from sperm flagella of the sea urchin Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus and raised polyclonal antibodies against them. Sp77 and Sp83 copurify exclusively with the pf-ribbon. Both the anti-Sp77 and anti-Sp83 antibodies detected the nine outer doublets and the basal bodies of sea urchin sperm by immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, the anti-Sp83 antibody, but not the anti-Sp77 antibody, detected a single 83 kDa polypeptide on immunoblots of unfertilized sea urchin egg cytoplasm, and a single polypeptide of 80 kDa on blots of isolated mitotic spindles from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Previous studies have shown that tektins are present in the basal bodies and centrosomes/centrioles of cells ranging from clam to human. We found that anti-Sp83 decorates the spindle poles in sea urchin zygotes, and the interphase centrosome and spindle poles in CHO cells. In CHO cells arrested in S phase with aphidicolin, anti-Sp83 detects multiple centrosomes. The staining of the centrosome was not disrupted by prolonged nocodazole treatment, suggesting that the 80 kDa polypeptide is associated with the centrioles themselves. Our observations demonstrate that, like tektins, Sp77 and Sp83 are structural proteins associated with stable doublet microtubules, and may be components of basal bodies and centrioles of sea urchins and mammalian cells. PMID:9454732

Hinchcliffe, E H; Linck, R W



Towards a Domain Specific Software Architecture for Scientific Data Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reference architecture is a "design that satisfies a clearly distinguished subset of the functional capabilities identified in the reference requirements within the boundaries of certain design and implementation constraints, also identified in reference requirements." [Tracz, 1995] Recognizing the value of a reference architecture, NASA's ESDSWG's Standards Process Group (SPG) is introducing a multi-disciplinary science data systems (SDS) reference architecture in order to provide an implementation neutral, template solution for an architecture to support scientific data systems in general [Burnett, et al, 2011]. This reference architecture describes common features and patterns in scientific data systems, and can thus provide guidelines in building and improving such systems. But, guidelines alone may not be sufficient to actually build a system. A domain specific software architecture (DSSA) is "an assemblage of software components, specialized for a particular type of task (domain), generalized for effective use across that domain, composed in a standardized structure (topology) effective for building successful applications." [Tracz, 1995]. It can be thought of as relatively specific reference architecture. The "DSSA Process" is a software life cycle developed at Carnegie Melon's Software Engineering Institute that is based on the development and use of domain-specific software architectures, components, and tools. The process has four distinct activities: 1) develop a domain specific base/model, 2) populate and maintain the library, 3) build applications, 4) operate and maintain applications [Armitage, 1993]. The DSSA process may provide the missing link between guidelines and actual system construction. In this presentation we focus specifically on the realm of scientific data access and distribution. Assuming the role of domain experts in building data access systems, we report the results of creating a DSSA for scientific data distribution. We describe the resulting domain model and our efforts towards building a heterogenous, multi-"vendor" architecture framework for data distribution based on that model. We draw on experiences and lessons learned supporting data access and distribution for multiple projects having common functionality but also unique details.

Wilson, A.; Lindholm, D. M.



Architecture Reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

An architectural review serves several purposes: to gain confidence in the design, to reason about alternatives, to attend to architectural rot. The process of such a review involves the interplay of design decisions, scenarios, and forces on the system.

Grady Booch



The Zeaxanthin-Independent and Zeaxanthin-Dependent qE Components of Nonphotochemical Quenching Involve Common Conformational Changes within the Photosystem II Antenna in Arabidopsis1[W  

PubMed Central

The light-harvesting antenna of higher plant photosystem II (LHCII) has the intrinsic capacity to dissipate excess light energy as heat in a process termed nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). Recent studies suggest that zeaxanthin and lutein both contribute to the rapidly relaxing component of NPQ, qE, possibly acting in the minor monomeric antenna complexes and the major trimeric LHCII, respectively. To distinguish whether zeaxanthin and lutein act independently as quenchers at separate sites, or alternatively whether zeaxanthin fulfills an allosteric role regulating lutein-mediated quenching, the kinetics of qE and the qE-related conformational changes (?A535) were compared in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant/antisense plants with altered contents of minor antenna (kolhcb6, aslhcb4), trimeric LHCII (aslhcb2), lutein (lut2, lut2npq1, lut2npq2), and zeaxanthin (npq1, npq2). The kinetics of the two components of NPQ induction arising from zeaxanthin-independent and zeaxanthin-dependent qE were both sensitive to changes in the protein composition of the photosystem II antenna. The replacement of lutein by zeaxanthin or violaxanthin in the internal Lhcb protein-binding sites affected the kinetics and relative amplitude of each component as well as the absolute chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime. Both components of qE were characterized by a conformational change leading to nearly identical absorption changes in the Soret region that indicated the involvement of the LHCII lutein 1 domain. Based on these observations, we suggest that both components of qE arise from a common quenching mechanism based upon a conformational change within the photosystem II antenna, optimized by Lhcb subunit-subunit interactions and tuned by the synergistic effects of external and internally bound xanthophylls.

Johnson, Matthew P.; Perez-Bueno, Maria L.; Zia, Ahmad; Horton, Peter; Ruban, Alexander V.



The zeaxanthin-independent and zeaxanthin-dependent qE components of nonphotochemical quenching involve common conformational changes within the photosystem II antenna in Arabidopsis.  


The light-harvesting antenna of higher plant photosystem II (LHCII) has the intrinsic capacity to dissipate excess light energy as heat in a process termed nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). Recent studies suggest that zeaxanthin and lutein both contribute to the rapidly relaxing component of NPQ, qE, possibly acting in the minor monomeric antenna complexes and the major trimeric LHCII, respectively. To distinguish whether zeaxanthin and lutein act independently as quenchers at separate sites, or alternatively whether zeaxanthin fulfills an allosteric role regulating lutein-mediated quenching, the kinetics of qE and the qE-related conformational changes (DeltaA535) were compared in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant/antisense plants with altered contents of minor antenna (kolhcb6, aslhcb4), trimeric LHCII (aslhcb2), lutein (lut2, lut2npq1, lut2npq2), and zeaxanthin (npq1, npq2). The kinetics of the two components of NPQ induction arising from zeaxanthin-independent and zeaxanthin-dependent qE were both sensitive to changes in the protein composition of the photosystem II antenna. The replacement of lutein by zeaxanthin or violaxanthin in the internal Lhcb protein-binding sites affected the kinetics and relative amplitude of each component as well as the absolute chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime. Both components of qE were characterized by a conformational change leading to nearly identical absorption changes in the Soret region that indicated the involvement of the LHCII lutein 1 domain. Based on these observations, we suggest that both components of qE arise from a common quenching mechanism based upon a conformational change within the photosystem II antenna, optimized by Lhcb subunit-subunit interactions and tuned by the synergistic effects of external and internally bound xanthophylls. PMID:19011000

Johnson, Matthew P; Pérez-Bueno, María L; Zia, Ahmad; Horton, Peter; Ruban, Alexander V



Software Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software architecture is a rapidly growing sub-area of research and practice within software engineering. The foundation of any large software intensive system is its architecture. This artifact describes how the system will accomplish its tasks, how the development work will be broken down, how quality goals will be met, and much more. Because of its central importance, an architecture needs



Architecture & Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael



Anatomical architecture of the brachial plexus in the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) with special reference to the derivation and course of its unique branches.  


The anatomy of the brachial plexus in the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), which has not been previously reported, was first examined bilaterally in a newborn hippopotamus. Our observations clarified the following: (1) the brachial plexus comprises the fifth cervical (C5) to first thoracic (T1) nerves. These formed two trunks, C5-C6 and C7-T1; in addition, the axillary artery passed in between C6 and C7, (2) unique branches to the brachialis muscle and those of the lateral cutaneous antebrachii nerves ramified from the median nerve, (3) nerve fibre analysis revealed that these unique nerve branches from the median nerve were closely related and structurally similar to the musculocutaneous (MC) nerve; however, they had changed course from the MC to the median nerve, and (4) this unique branching pattern is likely to be a common morphological feature of the brachial plexus in amphibians, reptiles and certain mammals. PMID:22250889

Yoshitomi, S; Kawashima, T; Murakami, K; Takayanagi, M; Inoue, Y; Aoyagi, R; Sato, F



Mathematical Description Framework for Architecture Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

To resolve the problems of the definition, description, and proof of semantic property preservation of model-driven development, a mathematical framework for architecture models is proposed by using algebraic specification and process algebra. First, component signature, component specification and the relationships between components are defined respectively. Then, component-based architecture model is given with precise semantics. The framework is formally described and

Jinkui Hou



SAL: an explicitly pluralistic cognitive architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SAL cognitive architecture is a synthesis of two well-established constituents: ACT-R, a hybrid symbolic-subsymbolic cognitive architecture, and Leabra, a neural architecture. These component architectures have vastly different origins yet suggest a surprisingly convergent view of the brain, the mind and behaviour. Furthermore, both of these architectures are internally pluralistic, recognising that models at a single level of abstraction cannot

David J. Jilk; Christian Lebiere; Randall C. O’Reilly; John R. Anderson



The Ubiquitous Nature of Epistasis in Determining Susceptibility to Common Human Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing awareness that epistasis or gene-gene interaction plays a role in susceptibility to common human diseases. In this paper, we formulate a working hypothesis that epistasis is a ubiquitous component of the genetic architecture of common human diseases and that complex interactions are more important than the independent main effects of any one susceptibility gene. This working hypothesis

Jason H. Moore



The health impact of common inorganic components of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ambient air: a critical review.  


Ambient air particulate matter (PM) originates as either primary particles emitted directly into the atmosphere from a specific source or as secondary particles produced from atmospheric chemical reactions between precursor gases or between these gases and primary particles. PM can derive from both natural and anthropogenic sources, resulting in a complex chemical mix. The "fine" size mode of ambient PM, designated as PM(2.5), is defined as comprising those particles having aerodynamic diameters below 2.5 microm. While the total mass of PM(2.5) has been associated with adverse human health outcomes, the relationship between these and specific chemical components has not been resolved. This article provides a perspective on the current state of the science concerning health effects from a major group of chemical species found within PM(2.5), namely common inorganic constituents. The specific chemical classes discussed herein are secondary inorganic species, namely, sulfate, nitrate, and acidity, and generally crustal-derived species, namely, phosphate, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, silicon, and aluminum. The article discusses evidence for adverse health effects from inorganic PM(2.5) components within the framework of various caveats surrounding both epidemiology and toxicology assessments. The largest database exists for sulfate, but conclusions that attribute sulfate to health outcomes have not been consistent across all epidemiology studies, and there is a lack of coherence with toxicology studies, which show biological responses only at high levels of exposure. Limited epidemiological and toxicological data for nitrate suggests little or no adverse health effects at current levels. Epidemiological studies specifically identifying crustal components of PM(2.5) suggest that they are not likely, by themselves, to produce a significant health risk, and these components do not have unequivocal biological plausibility from toxicological studies for being significant contributors to adverse health outcomes. PMID:17687714

Schlesinger, Richard B



Ontology-driven health information systems architectures.  


Following an architecture vision such as the Generic Component Model (GCM) architecture framework, health information systems for supporting personalized care have to be based on a component-oriented architecture. Representing concepts and their interrelations, the GCM perspectives system architecture, domains, and development process can be described by the domains' ontologies. The paper introduces ontology principles, ontology references to the GCM as well as some practical aspects of ontology-driven approaches to semantically interoperable and sustainable health information systems. PMID:19745296

Blobel, Bernd; Oemig, Frank



False aneurysm of the common femoral artery secondary to migration of a threaded acetabular component. A case report and review of the literature.  


A 66-year-old woman with severe rheumatoid arthritis had revision of a protrusio acetabuli component with a threaded socket. Subsequent anteromedial migration of the socket and thread laceration of the common femoral artery resulted in a pseudoaneurysm and massive pelvic erosion seven months later. Vascular reconstruction and excisional arthroplasty were necessary. Later, gracilis and gluteal muscle flaps were swung to fill the resultant pelvic cavity. The hip was nonreconstructable. Ten months later the wound healed and the patient was ambulating in a walker. This represents a previously unreported cause of vascular injury complicating total hip arthroplasty (THA). A comprehensive review of the English and European literature illustrates the various mechanisms of vascular trauma in this setting and provides a rational basis for prevention. PMID:3286079

Giacchetto, J; Gallagher, J J



Formal Modeling of Software Architectures at Multiple Levels of Abstraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software architectures are multi-dimensional entities that can be fully understood only when viewed and analyzed at four different levels of abstraction: (1) internal functionality of a component, (2) the interface(s) exported by the component to the rest of the system, (3) interconnection of architectural elements in an architecture, and (4) rules of the architectural style. This paper presents the characteristics

Nenad Medvidovic; Richard N. Taylor; E. James Whitehead



The mitochondrial genome of Chara vulgaris: insights into the mitochondrial DNA architecture of the last common ancestor of green algae and land plants.  


Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has undergone radical changes during the evolution of green plants, yet little is known about the dynamics of mtDNA evolution in this phylum. Land plant mtDNAs differ from the few green algal mtDNAs that have been analyzed to date by their expanded size, long spacers, and diversity of introns. We have determined the mtDNA sequence of Chara vulgaris (Charophyceae), a green alga belonging to the charophycean order (Charales) that is thought to be the most closely related alga to land plants. This 67,737-bp mtDNA sequence, displaying 68 conserved genes and 27 introns, was compared with those of three angiosperms, the bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha, the charophycean alga Chaetosphaeridium globosum (Coleochaetales), and the green alga Mesostigma viride. Despite important differences in size and intron composition, Chara mtDNA strikingly resembles Marchantia mtDNA; for instance, all except 9 of 68 conserved genes lie within blocks of colinear sequences. Overall, our genome comparisons and phylogenetic analyses provide unequivocal support for a sister-group relationship between the Charales and the land plants. Only four introns in land plant mtDNAs appear to have been inherited vertically from a charalean algar ancestor. We infer that the common ancestor of green algae and land plants harbored a tightly packed, gene-rich, and relatively intron-poor mitochondrial genome. The group II introns in this ancestral genome appear to have spread to new mtDNA sites during the evolution of bryophytes and charalean green algae, accounting for part of the intron diversity found in Chara and land plant mitochondria. PMID:12897260

Turmel, Monique; Otis, Christian; Lemieux, Claude



The Mitochondrial Genome of Chara vulgaris: Insights into the Mitochondrial DNA Architecture of the Last Common Ancestor of Green Algae and Land PlantsW?  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has undergone radical changes during the evolution of green plants, yet little is known about the dynamics of mtDNA evolution in this phylum. Land plant mtDNAs differ from the few green algal mtDNAs that have been analyzed to date by their expanded size, long spacers, and diversity of introns. We have determined the mtDNA sequence of Chara vulgaris (Charophyceae), a green alga belonging to the charophycean order (Charales) that is thought to be the most closely related alga to land plants. This 67,737-bp mtDNA sequence, displaying 68 conserved genes and 27 introns, was compared with those of three angiosperms, the bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha, the charophycean alga Chaetosphaeridium globosum (Coleochaetales), and the green alga Mesostigma viride. Despite important differences in size and intron composition, Chara mtDNA strikingly resembles Marchantia mtDNA; for instance, all except 9 of 68 conserved genes lie within blocks of colinear sequences. Overall, our genome comparisons and phylogenetic analyses provide unequivocal support for a sister-group relationship between the Charales and the land plants. Only four introns in land plant mtDNAs appear to have been inherited vertically from a charalean algar ancestor. We infer that the common ancestor of green algae and land plants harbored a tightly packed, gene-rich, and relatively intron-poor mitochondrial genome. The group II introns in this ancestral genome appear to have spread to new mtDNA sites during the evolution of bryophytes and charalean green algae, accounting for part of the intron diversity found in Chara and land plant mitochondria.

Turmel, Monique; Otis, Christian; Lemieux, Claude



NASA's ESDS Reference Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few decades, advances in geophysical measurement technologies have led to an explosion in the volume and scope of Earth Science data sets. Implementation of the instrument systems that acquire these measurements requires commensurate development in data systems to enable the collection, processing, archiving and distribution of the resultant large volumes of data. As more and more of the data systems come on line, their common features have become increasingly apparent. NASA's Earth Science Data System Working Group (ESDSWG) recognizes these trends and needs and has asked its Standards Process Group (SPG) to develop a reference architecture for NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS's). That reference architecture is introduced in this presentation. The NASA ESDS Reference Architecture describes those common features and patterns, and thus provides guidelines for individuals and teams who plan to construct and interact with new NASA ESDS's.

Burnett, M.; Weiss, B.; Law, E.



Principled design of the modern Web architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Wide Web has succeeded in large part because its software architecture has been designed to meet the needs of an Internet-scale distributed hypermedia system. The modern Web architecture emphasizes scalability of component interactions, generality of interfaces, independent deployment of components, and intermediary components to reduce interaction latency, enforce security, and encapsulate legacy systems. In this paper, we introduce

Roy T. Fielding; Richard N. Taylor



An SNP-guided microRNA map of fifteen common human disorders identifies a consensus disease phenocode aiming at principal components of the nuclear import pathway.  


Recent large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) studies of SNP variations captured many thousands individual genetic profiles of H. sapiens and facilitated identification of significant genetic traits which are highly likely to influence the pathogenesis of several major human diseases. Here we apply the integrative genomics principles to interrogate relationships between structural features and gene expression patterns of disease-linked SNPs, microRNAs and mRNAs of protein-coding genes in association to phenotypes of 15 major human disorders, namely bipolar disease (BD); rheumatoid arthritis (RA); coronary artery disease (CAD); Crohn's disease (CD); type 1 diabetes (T1D); type 2 diabetes (T2D); hypertension (HT); ankylosing spondylitis (AS); Graves' disease (autoimmune thyroid disease; AITD); multiple sclerosis (MS); breast cancer (BC); prostate cancer (PC); systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); vitiligo-associated multiple autoimmune disease (VIT); and ulcerative colitis (UC). We selected for sequence homology profiling a set of approximately 250 SNPs which were unequivocally associated with common human disorders based on multiple independent studies of 220,124 individual samples comprising 85,077 disease cases and 129,506 controls. Our analysis reveals a systematic primary sequence homology/complementarity-driven pattern of associations between disease-linked SNPs, microRNAs and protein-coding mRNAs defined here as a human disease phenocode. We utilize this approach to draw SNP-guided microRNA maps of major human diseases and define a consensus disease phenocode for fifteen major human disorders. A consensus disease phenocode comprises 72 SNPs and 18 microRNAs with an apparent propensity to target mRNA sequences derived from a single protein-coding gene, KPNA1. Each of microRNAs in this elite set appears linked to at least three common human diseases and has potential protein-coding mRNA targets among the principal components of the nuclear import pathway. We confirmed the validity of our findings by analyzing independent sets of most significant disease-linked SNPs and demonstrating statistically significant KPNA1-gene expression phenotypes associated with human genotypes of CD, BD, T2D and RA populations. Our analysis supports the idea that variations in DNA sequences associated with multiple human diseases may affect phenotypes in trans via non-protein-coding RNA intermediaries interfering with functions of microRNAs and defines the nuclear import pathway as a potential major target in 15 common human disorders. PMID:18719369

Glinsky, Gennadi V



Integrating the services' imagery architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Any military organization requiring imagery must deal with one or more of several architectures: the tactical architectures of the three military departments, the theater architectures, and their interfaces to a separate national architecture. A seamless, joint, integrated architecture must meet today's imagery requirements. The CIO's vision of 'the right imagery to the right people in the right format at the right time' would serve well as the objective of a joint, integrated architecture. A joint imagery strategy should be initially shaped by the four pillars of the National Military Strategy of the United States: strategic deterrence; forward presence; crisis response; and reconstitution. In a macro view, it must consist of a series of sub-strategies to include science and technology and research and development, maintenance of the imagery related industrial base, acquisition, resource management, and burden sharing. Common imagery doctrine must follow the imagery strategy. Most of all, control, continuity, and direction must be maintained with regard to organizations and systems development as the architecture evolves. These areas and more must be addressed to reach the long term goal of a joint, integrated imagery architecture. This will require the services and theaters to relinquish some sovereignty over at least systems development and acquisition. Nevertheless, the goal of a joint, integrated imagery architecture is feasible. The author presents arguments and specific recommendations to orient the imagery community in the direction of a joint, integrated imagery architecture.

Mader, John F.



Simulation Infrastructure for the DII COE Architecture: The Army Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key to the future interoperability of Simulations with Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems is the Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating Environment (DII COE) architecture. The DII COE is composed of configurable, layered, reusable software components that work together with specific C4ISR mission software to perform a task. All future DoD C4I systems will design to

Michael R. Hieb; Ron Sprinkle


Architecture Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Eugene, Oregon, Architecture Week is a magazine that is intended for design and building professionals, and their work includes profiles of new building techniques, historic preservation issues, and architectural practice. Visitors can view the current issues online here, and they will also want to look through their "And More" area. Here they will find sections like "Blog Center", "New Products", "Jobs" and "Conferences". Also, visitors can subscribe to their "ArchitectureWeek Notes", which is a weekly email newsletter. Recent articles on the site have included a piece on historic sites in the United States that are at risk of being demolished and another piece on the importance of listening to clients before starting a major architectural project.


Adaptability Evaluation of Software Architectures; A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software architectures for adaptive software systems should be flexible enough to allow components to change their behavior, even at runtime, depending on the environmental changes and goals of the system and changes in stakeholders' objectives. Evaluating the adaptability at the software architecture level, i.e. before system implementation, to identify the weakness of the architecture and further improve the architecture based

Pentti Tarvainen



Architecture of an integrated router interconnected spectrally (IRIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of optical packet routers poses significant challenges both in terms of its architecture and component design. In this paper, we evaluate several alternatives for the architecture of such routers, and describe the architecture of IRIS (integrated router interconnected spectrally), an optical router being designed at Bell Laboratories. By combining load balancing with wavelength switching, the IRIS architecture can

Pietro Bernasconi; Jurgen Gripp; David Neilson; John Simsarian; Dimitrios Stiliadis; Anujan Varma; Martin Zirngibl



SAAM: a method for analyzing the properties of software architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

While software architecture has become an increasingly important research topic in recent years, insufficient atten- tion has been paid to methods for evaluation of these archi- tectures. Evaluating architectures is difficult for two main reasons. First, there is no common language used to de- scribe different architectures. Second, there is no clear way of understanding an architecture with respect to

Rick Kazman; Leonard J. Bass; Mike Webb



Space Elevators Preliminary Architectural View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Systems Architecture has been expanded into a process by the US Department of Defense for their large scale systems of systems development programs. This paper uses the steps in the process to establishes a framework for Space Elevator systems to be developed and provides a methodology to manage complexity. This new approach to developing a family of systems is based upon three architectural views: Operational View OV), Systems View (SV), and Technical Standards View (TV). The top level view of the process establishes the stages for the development of the first Space Elevator and is called Architectural View - 1, Overview and Summary. This paper will show the guidelines and steps of the process while focusing upon components of the Space Elevator Preliminary Architecture View. This Preliminary Architecture View is presented as a draft starting point for the Space Elevator Project.

Pullum, L.; Swan, P. A.


Consistency Checking in C4ISR Architecture Designing Based on DOD Architecture Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architecture is defined as the structure of components, their relationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time. Consistency checking is one important work in C4ISR system architecture designing. At present, there is a little of the research on the consistency checking of C4ISR architecture. The paper introduces the conception of structural consistency in assigning activities

Liu Jun-xian; Jiang Zhi-ping; Chen Hong-hui



pi-AAL: an architecture analysis language for formally specifying and verifying structural and behavioural properties of software architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key aspect of the design of any software system is its architecture. An architecture description, from a runtime perspective, provides a formal representation of the architecture in terms of its components and connectors, their ports and behaviours, and how they are composed together. In the past decade, several Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) have been defined for representing the structure

Radu Mateescu; Flávio Oquendo



Software Architecture as a Shared Mental Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software architecture is commonly considered to be the structure of a large piece of software -- commonly presented as a nested set of box and arrow diagrams. This paper takes a different position, claiming that software architecture is most usefully thought of as a mental model shared among the people responsible for software. This point of view leads to a

Ric Holt



Power supply induced common cause faults-experimental assessment of potential countermeasures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault-tolerant architectures based on physical replication of components are vulnerable to faults that cause the same effect in all replica. Short outages in a power supply shared by all replica are a prominent example for such common cause faults. For systems in which the provision of a replicated power supply would cause prohibitive efforts the identification of reliable countermeasures against

Peter Tummeltshammer; Andreas Steininger



Composing architectural styles from architectural primitives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architectural styles are named collections of constraints on configurations of architectural elements, and are believed to bring economies of scale in applying software architecture techniques to software development. Existing research on architectural styles provides little guidance for the systematic design and construction of architectural style elements. This paper proposes a framework, Alfa, for systematically and constructively composing \\

Nikunj R. Mehta; Nenad Medvidovic



Constellation Architecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Collectively, these requirements outline the broad policy framework for the post-shuttle U.S. human spaceflight architecture: 1. We will manage the U.S. space program so as to complete the space station by 2010, utilizing the space shuttle for that purpos...

M. D. Griffin



Architectural Tops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The development of the skyscraper is an American story that combines architectural history, economic power, and technological achievement. Each city in the United States can be identified by the profile of its buildings. The design of the tops of skyscrapers was the inspiration for the students in the author's high-school ceramic class to develop…

Mahoney, Ellen



Architectural Follies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the architectural process and discusses ways of establishing good communication between architects and librarians so they can work together effectively. Highlights include the schematic design phase, the design development phase; the construction document stage, and the architect working with the contractors. (LRW)|

Fenton, Serena



Cobot architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new robot architecture: the collaborative robot, or cobot. Cobots are intended for direct physical interaction with a human operator. The cobot can create smooth, strong virtual surfaces and other haptic effects within a shared human\\/cobot workspace. The kinematic properties of cobots differ markedly from those of robots. Most significantly, cobots have only one mechanical degree of freedom,

Michael A. Peshkin; J. Edward Colgate; Witaya Wannasuphoprasit; Carl A. Moore; R. Brent Gillespie; Prasad Akella



Classifying Enterprise Architecture Analysis Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enterprise architecture (EA) management forms a commonly accepted means to enhance the alignment of business and IT, and to support the managed evolution of the enterprise. One major challenge of EA management is to provide decision support by analyzing as-is states of the architecture as well as assessing planned future states. Thus, different kinds of analysis regarding the EA exist, each relying on certain conditions and demands for models, methods, and techniques.

Buckl, Sabine; Matthes, Florian; Schweda, Christian M.


Modeling Complex Architectures Based on Granular Computing on Ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose granular computing (GrC) on ontology as a solution to the problem of modeling complex architectures. We expressed the architectures formally as ontology domains, which include two components: the set of basic vocabularies and a knowledge library of rules. The set of basic vocabularies contains elements or basic architecture components. The knowledge library comprises rules that control the combination

Yong Liu; Yunliang Jiang; Lican Huang



Manifolds: Cellular Component Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This extended abstract reports on initial investigation into a software architecture for component systems. Described is a geometrically-based, cellular framework for the organization of component computation and communication. These structures are called Cellular Component Manifolds. The starting point for this work is the observation that the concept of address space is a pervasive abstraction across all computing and communicating systems.

Charles Herring; Simon M. Kaplan



Deciphering structural and temporal interplays during the architectural development of mango trees.  


Plant architecture is commonly defined by the adjacency of organs within the structure and their properties. Few studies consider the effect of endogenous temporal factors, namely phenological factors, on the establishment of plant architecture. This study hypothesized that, in addition to the effect of environmental factors, the observed plant architecture results from both endogenous structural and temporal components, and their interplays. Mango tree, which is characterized by strong phenological asynchronisms within and between trees and by repeated vegetative and reproductive flushes during a growing cycle, was chosen as a plant model. During two consecutive growing cycles, this study described vegetative and reproductive development of 20 trees submitted to the same environmental conditions. Four mango cultivars were considered to assess possible cultivar-specific patterns. Integrative vegetative and reproductive development models incorporating generalized linear models as components were built. These models described the occurrence, intensity, and timing of vegetative and reproductive development at the growth unit scale. This study showed significant interplays between structural and temporal components of plant architectural development at two temporal scales. Within a growing cycle, earliness of bud burst was highly and positively related to earliness of vegetative development and flowering. Between growing cycles, flowering growth units delayed vegetative development compared to growth units that did not flower. These interplays explained how vegetative and reproductive phenological asynchronisms within and between trees were generated and maintained. It is suggested that causation networks involving structural and temporal components may give rise to contrasted tree architectures. PMID:23585668

Dambreville, Anaëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Trottier, Catherine; Guédon, Yann; Normand, Frédéric



Fabric Architecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by the Industrial Fabrics Association International, Fabric Architecture magazine is published bimonthly and is distributed to over 13000 architects working in the field. For those who've never thought about the possibilities and opportunities afforded by this area that straddles the lines between fabrics, design, and architecture, it's quite a find. On this page, users can look through materials that address topics like tents, lightweight structures, graphics, awnings, and truck covers. After perusing these areas, visitors should delve into the current issue. The archives here date back to 2006, and the topics covered within these pages include fabrics in the workplace, flexible design materials, and creating a "green" car park with various fabrics. For those who are interested, there's also information about how to subscribe to the print edition of the magazine.


Contest architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contest architecture specifies how the contestants are split among several sub-contests whose winners compete against each other (while other players are eliminated). We compare the performance of such dynamic schemes to that of static winner-take-all contests from the point of view of a designer who maximizes either the expected total effort or the expected highest effort. For the case

Benny Moldovanu; Aner Sela



Secure Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Defining robust security architectures is vital for protecting IT infrastructures from cyber-attacks. This is especially true\\u000a when the IT infrastructure is going to be used by investigators and law enforcement agencies to combat crime across EU. A\\u000a compromise between the level of security and the level of acceptable risk must be found. As a first step it is mandatory to

Rodrigo Diaz Rodriguez


Architectural Synthesis: Integrating Multiple Architectural Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many tools and techniques available to understand and analyze a system at the architectural level. Each of these may provide its own perspective of the key architectural elements of the system. We introduce the process of architectural synthesis to deal with the problem of integrating these different architectural perspectives. We e mphasize the utility of the synthesis process

Robert Waters



How architecture wins technology wars.  


Signs of revolutionary transformation in the global computer industry are everywhere. A roll call of the major industry players reads like a waiting list in the emergency room. The usual explanations for the industry's turmoil are at best inadequate. Scale, friendly government policies, manufacturing capabilities, a strong position in desktop markets, excellent software, top design skills--none of these is sufficient, either by itself or in combination, to ensure competitive success in information technology. A new paradigm is required to explain patterns of success and failure. Simply stated, success flows to the company that manages to establish proprietary architectural control over a broad, fast-moving, competitive space. Architectural strategies have become crucial to information technology because of the astonishing rate of improvement in microprocessors and other semiconductor components. Since no single vendor can keep pace with the outpouring of cheap, powerful, mass-produced components, customers insist on stitching together their own local systems solutions. Architectures impose order on the system and make the interconnections possible. The architectural controller is the company that controls the standard by which the entire information package is assembled. Microsoft's Windows is an excellent example of this. Because of the popularity of Windows, companies like Lotus must conform their software to its parameters in order to compete for market share. In the 1990s, proprietary architectural control is not only possible but indispensable to competitive success. What's more, it has broader implications for organizational structure: architectural competition is giving rise to a new form of business organization. PMID:10124636

Morris, C R; Ferguson, C H


The S-1 AAP architecture  

SciTech Connect

A computer architecture can be viewed from two perspectives. The end-user views the machine in terms of its behavior: The architecture of a system can be defined as the functional appearance of the system to the user.'' The end-user is most concerned with the number and type of registers that the machine contains, its instruction set, and its special functional characteristics. By contrast, the system designer is interested in the high-level plan according to which the various components of the machine are arranged. This includes the organization of the pipeline and the caches, the data flow through functional units, and some of the performance characteristics which are transparent to the end-user. The first section of this manual presents a high-level summary of the AAP architecture from both of these viewpoints. The remainder of the manual defines the AAP's instruction set architecture.

Bruner, J.D.



Multistage architectures for high resolution digital potentiometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital potentiometers are extensively used for digitally controlled adjustments in mixed-signal systems. The demand for higher resolution and increased tuning accuracy is driving the research efforts toward developing multistage potentiometer architectures that employ special techniques for achieving high precision with fewer components. This paper describes such architectures and techniques.

Radu H. Iacob; Otilia Neagoe; Anca Manolescu



An adaptable software architecture for integrated avionics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the process, challenges, and preliminary results of developing a software architecture for navigation, guidance and flight director. These critical real-time functions were chosen because they represent the essential features of integrated avionics systems. The authors propose that adaptable software architectures coupled with parameterized components, tools, and processes can greatly improve the quality and maintainability of flight systems.

Will Tracz; Lou Coglianese



Information Model Driven Semantic Framework Architecture and Design for Distributed Data Repositories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Earth and space science, the steady evolution away from isolated and single purpose data 'systems' toward systems of systems, data ecosystems, or data frameworks that provide access to highly heterogeneous data repositories is picking up in pace. As a result, common informatics approaches are being sought for how newer architectures are developed and/or implemented. In particular, a clear need to have a repeatable method for modeling, implementing and evolving the information architectures has emerged and one that goes beyond traditional software design. This presentation outlines new component design approaches bases in sets of information model and semantic encodings for mediation.

Fox, P. A.; Semantic eScience Framework Team



A Simulation Study of Decoupled Architecture Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decoupled architectures achieve high scalar performance by cleanly splitting instruction processing into memory access and execution tasks. Several decoupled architectures have been proposed, and they all have two characteristics in common: 1) they have two separate sets of instructions, one for accessing memory and one for performing function execution. 2) The memory accessing task and the execution task communicate via

James E. Smith; Shlomo Weiss; Nicholas Y. Pang



The Department of Defense High Level Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High Level Architecture (HLA) provides the specification of a common technical architecture for use across all classes of simulations in the US Department of Defense. It provides the structural basis for simulation interoperability. The baseline definition of the HLA includes (1) the HLA Rules, (2) the HLA Interface Specification, and (3) the HLA Object Model Template. This paper describes

Judith S. Dahmann; Richard M. Fujimoto; Richard M. Weatherly




Microsoft Academic Search

Software architecture specification captures system structure, by identifying architectural components and connectors, and required system behavior by specifying how components and connectors are intended to interact. COSA (Component-Object based Software Architecture) is a software architecture model that provides important capabilities to describe the structural aspects of software systems; however it lacks the support for the behavioral aspects. In this paper,

Alti Adel; Smeda Adel; Djoudi Mahieddine


Distributed visualization framework architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An architecture for distributed and collaborative visualization is presented. The design goals of the system are to create a lightweight, easy to use and extensible framework for reasearch in scientific visualization. The system provides both single user and collaborative distributed environment. System architecture employs a client-server model. Visualization projects can be synchronously accessed and modified from different client machines. We present a set of visualization use cases that illustrate the flexibility of our system. The framework provides a rich set of reusable components for creating new applications. These components make heavy use of leading design patterns. All components are based on the functionality of a small set of interfaces. This allows new components to be integrated seamlessly with little to no effort. All user input and higher-level control functionality interface with proxy objects supporting a concrete implementation of these interfaces. These light-weight objects can be easily streamed across the web and even integrated with smart clients running on a user's cell phone. The back-end is supported by concrete implementations wherever needed (for instance for rendering). A middle-tier manages any communication and synchronization with the proxy objects. In addition to the data components, we have developed several first-class GUI components for visualization. These include a layer compositor editor, a programmable shader editor, a material editor and various drawable editors. These GUI components interact strictly with the interfaces. Access to the various entities in the system is provided by an AssetManager. The asset manager keeps track of all of the registered proxies and responds to queries on the overall system. This allows all user components to be populated automatically. Hence if a new component is added that supports the IMaterial interface, any instances of this can be used in the various GUI components that work with this interface. One of the main features is an interactive shader designer. This allows rapid prototyping of new visualization renderings that are shader-based and greatly accelerates the development and debug cycle.

Mishchenko, Oleg; Raman, Sundaresan; Crawfis, Roger



Architecture of a surgical robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ROBODOC Surgical Assistant System has been developed to increase the accuracy and efficacy of surgical procedures. The first application is total hip replacement surgery, where the function of the robot is to machine a cavity in the patient's femure for a prosthetic implant. The authors describe the hardware and software architecture of the operating room component of the system.

P. Kazanzides; J. Zuhars; B. Mittelstadt; B. Williamson; P. Cain; F. Smith; L. Rose; B. Musits



A proposed information architecture for telehealth system interoperability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an object-oriented information architecture for telemedicine systems that promotes secure `plug-and-play' interaction between system components through standardized interfaces, communication protocols, messaging formats, and data definitions. In this architecture, each component functions as a black box, and components plug together in a “lego-like” fashion to achieve the desired device or system functionality

S. Warren; R. L. Craft; R. C. Parks; L. K. Gallagher; R. J. Garcia; D. R. Funkhouser



Structural components and architectures of RNA exosomes.  


A large body of structural work conducted over the past ten years has elucidated mechanistic details related to 3' to 5' processing and decay of RNA substrates by the RNA exosome. This chapter will focus on the structural organization of eukaryotic exosomes and their evolutionary cousins in bacteria and archaea with an emphasis on mechanistic details related to substrate recognition and to 3' to 5' phosphorolytic exoribonucleolytic activities of bacterial and archaeal exosomes as well as the hydrolytic exoribonucleolytic and endoribonucleolytic activities of eukaryotic exosomes. These points will be addressed in large part through presentation of crystal structures ofphosphorolytic enzymes such as bacterial RNase PH, PNPase and archaeal exosomes and crystal structures ofthe eukaryotic exosome and exosome sub-complexes in addition to standalone structures of proteins that catalyze activities associated with the eukaryotic RNA exosome, namely Rrp44, Rrp6 and their bacterial counterparts. PMID:21618871

Januszyk, Kurt; Lima, Christopher D



Breeding Value and Variance Component Estimation from Data Containing Inbred Individuals: Application to Gynogenetic Families in Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Under gynogenetic reproduction, offspring receive genes only from their dams and completely homozygous offspring are produced within one generation. When gynogenetic reproduction is applied to fully inbred individuals, homozygous clone lines are produced. A mixed model method was developed for breeding value and variance component estimation in gynogenetic families, which requires the inverse of the numerator relationship matrix. A general method for creating the inverse for a population with unusual relationships between animals is presented, which reduces to simple rules as is illustrated for gynogenetic populations. The presence of clones in gynogenetic populations causes singularity of the numerator relationship matrix. However, clones can be regarded as repeated observations of the same genotype, which can be accommodated by modifying the incidence matrix, and by considering only unique genotypes in the estimation procedure. Optimum gynogenetic sib family sizes for estimating heritabilities and estimates of their accuracy were derived and compared to those for conventional full-sib designs. This was done by means of a deterministic derivation and by stochastic simulation using Gibbs sampling. Optimum family sizes were smallest for gynogenetic families. Only for low heritabilities, there was a small advantage in accuracy under the gynogenetic design.

Bijma, P.; Van-Arendonk, JAM.; Bovenhuis, H.



Environment for Managing Evolving Product Line Architectures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of product lines is recognized as beneficial in promoting and structuring both component and architecture reuse throughout an organization. While the business practices of using product lines are well- understood and representations for specifying...

A. Garg M. Critchlow P. Chen C. Van der Westhuizen A. Van der Hoek



Fundamentals of product family architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing the rationale of a product family architecture (PFA) with respect to design for mass customization (DFMC), this paper discusses the fundamental issues underlying a PFA, including product information modeling, structural implications of product families, functional variety versus technical variety, class-member relationships inherent in variety, modularity and commonality, PFA design spaces, and PFA composition. The background research is reviewed in

Jianxin Jiao; Mitchell M. Tseng



The Reyes image rendering architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

An architecture is presented for fast high-quality rendering of complex images. All objects are reduced to common world-space geometric entities called micropolygons, and all of the shading and visibility calculations operate on these micropolygons. Each type of calculation is performed in a coordinate system that is natural for that type of calculation. Micropolygons are created and textured in the local

Robert L. Cook; Loren C. Carpenter; Edwin E. Catmull



Molecular Profiling of Stomatal Meristemoids Reveals New Component of Asymmetric Cell Division and Commonalities among Stem Cell Populations in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

The balance between maintenance and differentiation of stem cells is a central question in developmental biology. Development of stomata in Arabidopsis thaliana begins with de novo asymmetric divisions producing meristemoids, proliferating precursor cells with stem cell–like properties. The transient and asynchronous nature of the meristemoid has made it difficult to study its molecular characteristics. Synthetic combination of stomatal differentiation mutants due to loss- or gain-of-function mutations in SPEECHLESS, MUTE, and SCREAM create seedlings with an epidermis overwhelmingly composed of pavement cells, meristemoids, or stomata, respectively. Through transcriptome analysis, we define and characterize the molecular signatures of meristemoids. The reporter localization studies of meristemoid-enriched proteins reveals pathways not previously associated with stomatal development. We identified a novel protein, POLAR, and demonstrate through time-lapse live imaging that it exhibits transient polar localization and segregates unevenly during meristemoid asymmetric divisions. The polar localization of POLAR requires BREAKING OF ASYMMETRY IN THE STOMATAL LINEAGE. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of the transcriptional profiles of a meristemoid with shoot and root apical meristems highlighted cytokinin signaling and the ERECTA family receptor-like kinases in the broad regulation of stem cell populations. Our work reveals molecular constituents of stomatal stem cells and illuminates a common theme among stem cell populations in plants.

Pillitteri, Lynn Jo; Peterson, Kylee M.; Horst, Robin J.; Torii, Keiko U.



Architecture-Based Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a description of architecture-centric system development. In an architecture-centric process, a set of architecture requirements is developed in addition to functional requirements. This report describes the source of these architectu...

L. Bass R. Kazman



The origin of the very variable haemolytic activities of the common human complement component C4 allotypes including C4-A6.  

PubMed Central

The human complement component C4 occurs in many different forms which show big differences in their haemolytic activities. This phenomenon seems likely to be of considerable importance both physiologically and pathologically. C4 is coded by duplicated genes between HLA-D and HLA-B loci in the major histocompatibility complex in man. Several fold differences in haemolytic activity between products of the two loci C4-A and C4-B have been correlated with changes of six amino acid residues in this large protein of 1722 residues and with differences of several fold in the covalent binding of C4 to antibody-antigen aggregates. Some allotypes of one locus also differ markedly, notably C4-A6 which has 1/10th the haemolytic activity of other C4-A allotypes. A monoclonal antibody affinity column has been prepared which is able to separate C4-A from C4-B proteins and, using serum from an individual expressing only the C4-A6 allele at the C4-A locus, C4-A6 protein has been prepared. Investigation has shown C4-A6 to have the same reactivity as other C4-A allotypes except in the formation of the complex protease, C5 convertase. This protease is formed from C4, C2 and C3 and if C4-A6 is used it has approximately 1/5th the catalytic activity compared with other C4-A allotype. Allelic differences in sequence identified in C4 proteins so far are few and it is probable that the big difference in catalytic activity of C5 convertase is caused by very small changes in structure. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3.

Dodds, A W; Law, S K; Porter, R R



Fast architecture prototyping through 3D collage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new framework for architecture prototyping via the concept of 3D collage, that is, a combination of geometrically transformed components segmented from multiple source architectures. In short, our\\u000a proposed framework makes its contribution by featuring three desired functionalities as follows. First, during the construction\\u000a process, two components can be snapped together through the most matched

Chuan-Kai Yang; Ching-Yang Tsai


Savannah River Site computing architecture migration guide  

SciTech Connect

The SRS Computing Architecture is a vision statement for site computing which enumerates the strategies which will guide SRS computing efforts for the 1990s. Each strategy is supported by a number of feature statements which clarify the strategy by providing additional detail. Since it is a strategic planning document, the Architecture has sitewide applicability and endorsement but does not attempt to specify implementation details. It does, however, specify that a document will be developed to guide the migration from the current site environment to that envisioned by the new architecture. The goal of this document, the SRS Computing Architecture Migration Guide, is to identify specific strategic and tactical tasks which would have to be completed to fully implement the architectural vision for site computing as well as a recommended sequence and timeframe for addressing these tasks. It takes into account the expected availability of technology, the existing installed base, and interdependencies among architectural components and objectives.

Not Available



Ubiquitous services for senior citizens service architecture and middleware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ubiquitous services are designed to help senior citizenspsila daily lives. Service architecture and middleware are the key enablers of ubiquitous services. In this paper a service architecture is established with detailed descriptions of its key components and their functions. Game engine is proposed as middleware for ubiquitous services. This paper discusses service architecture and middleware building in detail. At the

Petri Pulli; Antero Metso; Xiaosong Zheng



Motivation in software architecture and software project management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software architecture (SA) is considered an active research area nowadays, although it is not a new activity while developing software. Software architecture is a structure represented using Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) and graphical diagrams of the system, showing different components and relationships among them. Software Project Management (SPM) pertains to the management and controlling activities involved in Software Development Life

Syeda Uzma Gardazi; Haroon Khan; Syeda Faiza Gardazi; Arshad Ali Shahid



Building an example application with the Unstructured Information Management Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

IBM's Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) is a software architecture for developing and deploying unstructured information management (UIM) applications. In this paper we provide a high-level overview of the architecture, introduce its basic components, and describe the set of tools that constitute a UIMA development framework. Then we take the reader through the steps involved in building a simple UIM

David Ferrucci; Adam Lally



Common Cold  


... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...


A Software Architecture for HPC Grid Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a component software architecture designed for demanding grid computing environments that allows the optimal\\u000a performance of the assembled component applications to be achieved. Performance over the assembled component application is\\u000a maintained through inter-component static and dynamic optimisation techniques. Having defined an application through both\\u000a its component task and data flow graphs we are able to use the associated

Steven Newhouse; Anthony Mayer; John Darlington


Defining Change Management Properties for Component Interoperability Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we leverage software architecture analysis techniques to codify change management properties and to examine their affect on the functional integration of software components. Software architecture provides a means to predict and analyze the potential for interoperability problems among interacting components. However, the properties addressed in traditional software architecture analysis are limited to the functions for a component's

T. Gamble; Rose F. Gamble; Leigh A. Davis



Hybrid image recognition architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current research on artificial vision and pattern recognition tends to concentrate either on numerical processing (filtering, morphological, spectral) or in symbolic or subsymbolic processing (neural networks, fuzzy logic, knowledge-based systems). In this work we combine both kinds of processing in a hybrid image processing architecture. The numerical processing part implements the most usual facilities (equalization, convolution filters, morphological filters, segmentation and description) in a way adequate to transform the input image into a polygonal outline. Then recognition is performed with a rule-based system implemented in Prolog. This allows a neat high-level representation of the patterns to recognize as a set of logical relations (predicates), and also the recognition procedure is represented as a set of logical rules. To integrate the numerical and logical components of our system, we embedded a Prolog interpreter as a software component within a visual programming language. Thus, our architecture features both the speed and versatility of a visual language application, and the abstraction level and modularity of a logical description.

Delrieux, Claudio; Katz, Roman



The Vienna Component Framework enabling composition across component models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vienna Component Framework (VCF) supports the interoperability and composability of components across different component models, a facility that is lacking in existing component models. The VCF presents a unified component model---implemented by a façade component---to the application programmer. The programmer may write new components by composing components from different component models, accessed through the VCF. The model supports common

Johann Oberleitner; Thomas Gschwind; Mehdi Jazayeri



Future Trends in Software Architectures for Automotive Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focus on the future integration of software modules into vehicle electronics architecture. Based on an analysis\\u000a of the challenges coming soon we present common approaches and solutions for the software architectures which are already\\u000a perceptible. To validate the architecture concepts a demonstration of an example completes the contribution.

Stefan Voget; Robert Bosch


Design and realization of macroscopic grid architectures mimicking carbon molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper shows, through a new geometrical approach, how to build some special deltahedra, which might represent nano-architectures of molecular structures, in nature commonly known as fullerenes, as well as new intriguing macro-architectures for designing innovative structures. We have realized models of these nano and macro architectures including a roof-like structure for a tennis court and educational games.

Gastaldi, Davide; Pugno, Nicola M.



Evolution of System Architectures: Where Do We Need to Fail Next?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Innovation requires testing and failing. Thomas Edison was right when he said "I have not failed. I've just found 10,000 ways that won't work". For innovation and improvement of standards to happen, service Architectures have to be tested and tested. Within the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), testing of service architectures has occurred for the last 15 years. This talk will present an evolution of these service architectures and a possible future path. OGC is a global forum for the collaboration of developers and users of spatial data products and services, and for the advancement and development of international standards for geospatial interoperability. The OGC Interoperability Program is a series of hands-on, fast paced, engineering initiatives to accelerate the development and acceptance of OGC standards. Each initiative is organized in threads that provide focus under a particular theme. The first testbed, OGC Web Services phase 1, completed in 2003 had four threads: Common Architecture, Web Mapping, Sensor Web and Web Imagery Enablement. The Common Architecture was a cross-thread theme, to ensure that the Web Mapping and Sensor Web experiments built on a base common architecture. The architecture was based on the three main SOA components: Broker, Requestor and Provider. It proposed a general service model defining service interactions and dependencies; categorization of service types; registries to allow discovery and access of services; data models and encodings; and common services (WMS, WFS, WCS). For the latter, there was a clear distinction on the different services: Data Services (e.g. WMS), Application services (e.g. Coordinate transformation) and server-side client applications (e.g. image exploitation). The latest testbed, OGC Web Service phase 9, completed in 2012 had 5 threads: Aviation, Cross-Community Interoperability (CCI), Security and Services Interoperability (SSI), OWS Innovations and Compliance & Interoperability Testing & Evaluation (CITE). Compared to the first testbed, OWS-9 did not have a separate common architecture thread. Instead the emphasis was on brokering information models, securing them and making data available efficiently on mobile devices. The outcome is an architecture based on usability and non-intrusiveness while leveraging mediation of information models from different communities. This talk will use lessons learned from the evolution from OGC Testbed phase 1 to phase 9 to better understand how global and complex infrastructures evolve to support many communities including the Earth System Science Community.

Bermudez, Luis; Alameh, Nadine; Percivall, George



Adding Meta-Architectural Understanding to Resource Aware Software Architectures Requiring Device Synchronization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a component-based software architecture that dynamically discovers and consumes remote services from distributed devices connected across a network. The architecture maintains its own local functionality, while also actively participating in its environment by discovering and responding to other devices as well. One novel capability of this software is its ability to synchronize its local and remote services with

Chris Mattmann; Bilal Shaw



Common cold  


... C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 3. Art. ... M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 2. Art. ...


Common Warts  


Common warts Basics In-Depth Multimedia Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Common warts By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ...


Distributed Feature Composition: A Virtual Architecture for Telecommunications Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Feature Composition (DFC) is a new technology for feature specification and composition, based on a virtual architecture offering benefits analogous to those of a pipe-and-filter architecture. In the DFC architecture, customer calls are processed by dynamically assembled configurations of filter-like components: each component implements an applicable feature, and communicates with its neighbors by featureless internal calls that are connected

Michael Jackson; Pamela Zave



Linux Kernel as Flexible Product-Line Architecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Linux kernel source tree is huge (> 125 MB) and inflexible (because it is difficult to add new kernel components). We propose to make this architecture more flexible by assembling kernel source trees dynamically from individual kernel components. User...

M. De Jonge



The Governor's vale levu : Architecture and Hybridity at Nasova House, Levuka, Fiji Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an integral component of colonial culture, colonial architecture provides a tangible expression of western presence and domination throughout various colonial settings. In tropical colonies, such as Fiji, western architecture was not simply transplanted, but became transformed through the conscious integration of western and nonwestern architectural elements and grammars. Thus hybrid colonial architecture played a significant role within the sociopolitical

Robbin Chatan



Directions in modelling large-scale software architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling the software architectures of large systems is a challenging task. A wide variety of abstractions are required by developers to assist them in describing and analysing such architectures, including information about the components and relationships that comprise a system, the static and dynamic structure of the system, and the behavioural responsibilities of components of the system. In addition, good

John Grundy; John Hosking



Managing modularity of product architectures: toward an integrated theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of innovation through modular product architecture strategies is gaining increasing importance for firms, both in practice and theory. Modularity refers to a new product development strategy in which interfaces shared among components in a given product architecture are specified and standardized to allow for greater substitutability of components across product families. It is argued that the degree of

Juliana Hsuan Mikkola; Oliver Gassmann



Software architecture critics in the Argo design environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software architectures are high-level design representations of software systems that focus on composition o f software components and how those components interact. Software architectures abstract the details o f implementation and allow the designer to focus on essential design decisions. Regardless of notation, designers are faced with the task of making good design decisions that demand a broad range of

Jason E. Robbins; David F. Redmiles



The MIND Architecture for Heterogeneous Multimedia Federated Digital Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the architecture of the MIND system for fed- erating multimedia digital libraries. MIND integrates heterogeneous, multimedia non-co-operating digital libraries and gives the user the impression of a single coherent system. The architecture consists of a single mediator and one proxy (composed of several proxy components) for every connected library. These spe- cialised, distributed components are

Henrik Nottelmann; Norbert Fuhr



Language interoperability for high-performance parallel scientific components  

SciTech Connect

With the increasing complexity and interdisciplinary nature of scientific applications, code reuse is becoming increasingly important in scientific computing. One method for facilitating code reuse is the use of components technologies, which have been used widely in industry. However, components have only recently worked their way into scientific computing. Language interoperability is an important underlying technology for these component architectures. In this paper, we present an approach to language interoperability for a high-performance parallel, component architecture being developed by the Common Component Architecture (CCA) group. Our approach is based on Interface Definition Language (IDL) techniques. We have developed a Scientific Interface Definition Language (SIDL), as well as bindings to C and Fortran. We have also developed a SIDL compiler and run-time library support for reference counting, reflection, object management, and exception handling (Babel). Results from using Babel to call a standard numerical solver library (written in C) from C and Fortran show that the cost of using Babel is minimal, where as the savings in development time and the benefits of object-oriented development support for C and Fortran far outweigh the costs.

Elliot, N; Kohn, S; Smolinski, B



Detecting influential observations in principal components and common principal components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting outlying observations is an important step in any analysis, even when robust estimates are used. In particular, the robustified Mahalanobis distance is a natural measure of outlyingness if one focuses on ellipsoidal distributions. However, it is well known that the asymptotic chi-square approximation for the cutoff value of the Mahalanobis distance based on several robust estimates (like the minimum

Graciela Boente; Ana M. Pires; Isabel M. Rodrigues



Computer Architecture Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in computer science or engineering will find this tutorial on computer architecture very useful and enlightening. Contributed by Professor Prabhu at Iowa State University, the material covers beginning and intermediate topics. Beginning with an overview of basic theorems, like Amdahl's Law, Prabhu explains the most important considerations for processor performance. He then goes into more details of a computer's operation, with a particular emphasis on memory hierarchy. This constitutes the first half of the material; the entire second part is devoted to the principles and implications of pipelined execution. Besides the text and figures, the tutorial also has a few interactive components, including a calculator that demonstrates the resulting speedup of an enhancement.

Prabhu, Gurpur M.



Code injection attacks on harvard-architecture devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harvard architecture CPU design is common in the embed- ded world. Examples of Harvard-based architecture devices are the Mica family of wireless sensors. Mica motes have limited memory and can process only very small packets. Stack-based buer overow techniques that inject code into the stack and then execute it are therefore not applicable. It has been a common belief that

Aurélien Francillon; Claude Castelluccia



Component-based integration of chemistry and optimization software.  


Typical scientific software designs make rigid assumptions regarding programming language and data structures, frustrating software interoperability and scientific collaboration. Component-based software engineering is an emerging approach to managing the increasing complexity of scientific software. Component technology facilitates code interoperability and reuse. Through the adoption of methodology and tools developed by the Common Component Architecture Forum, we have developed a component architecture for molecular structure optimization. Using the NWChem and Massively Parallel Quantum Chemistry packages, we have produced chemistry components that provide capacity for energy and energy derivative evaluation. We have constructed geometry optimization applications by integrating the Toolkit for Advanced Optimization, Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation, and Global Arrays packages, which provide optimization and linear algebra capabilities. We present a brief overview of the component development process and a description of abstract interfaces for chemical optimizations. The components conforming to these abstract interfaces allow the construction of applications using different chemistry and mathematics packages interchangeably. Initial numerical results for the component software demonstrate good performance, and highlight potential research enabled by this platform. PMID:15362128

Kenny, Joseph P; Benson, Steven J; Alexeev, Yuri; Sarich, Jason; Janssen, Curtis L; McInnes, Lois Curfman; Krishnan, Manojkumar; Nieplocha, Jarek; Jurrus, Elizabeth; Fahlstrom, Carl; Windus, Theresa L



Nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the details of the nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data. Topic discussed include: connection with principal component analysis; network architecture; analysis of the standard routine (PRINC); and results.

Boyle, J.; Sengupta, S.



Reconfigurable Multicarrier Demodulator Architecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An architecture based on parallel and pipline design approaches has been developed for the Frequency Division Multiple Access/Time Domain Multiplexed (FDMA/TDM) conversion system. The architecture has two main modules namely the transmultiplexer and the d...

S. C. Kwatra M. M. Jamali



Common Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)


Dictionary of architectural and building technology  

SciTech Connect

This book has been revised and expanded to include over 6000 entries pertaining to both architectural design and engineering. Compiled from subject indexes of some 200 textbooks in the field, the Dictionary aims to provide coverage of all but the most commonly understood terms within the field of architectural science proper-that is, structures, building materials, acoustics, thermal environment, lighting, and building services. In addition, definitions are provided for frequently encountered terms from neighboring field, including civil and mechanical engineering, physics, chemistry, architectural history, and fine art. Computer abbreviations for FORTRAN programs are provided, and appendixes and references supplement the main work.

Cowan, H.J.; Smith, P.R.



Model-Driven Product Line Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been recognized that successful product line engineering revolves around the creation of a coherent and flexible\\u000a product line architecture that consolidates the common parts of a product family for reuse and captures the variant parts\\u000a for simple adaptation. However, it has been less clear what form such architectures should take and how they should be represented.\\u000a One

Dirk Muthig; Colin Atkinson



Can We Predict the Generation of Bugs? Software Architecture and Quality in Open-Source Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study how software architecture relates to quality. Based on a software architecture representation that accounts for not only the hierarchical arrangement of its subsystems and components but also their dependency structure, we formally define the notion of system cyclicality. System cyclicality is an architectural property that captures the fraction of mutually interdependent components in a system. By examining multiple

Manuel Sosa; Jürgen Mihm; Tyson Browning


The incorporation of construction history in architectural history: the HISTCON interactive computer program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current teaching methods for architectural history seldom embrace building technology as an essential component of study. Accepting the premise that architectural history is a fundamental component to the overall architectural learning environment, it is argued that the study of construction history will further enhance student knowledge. This hypothesis created an opportunity to investigate how the study of construction history could

David L. Batie



On developmental mental architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a computational theory of developmental mental architectures for artificial and natural systems, motivated by neuroscience. The work is an attempt to approximately model biological mental architectures using mathematical tools. Six types of architecture are presented, beginning with the observation-driven Markov decision process as Type-1. From Type-1 to Type-6, the architecture progressively becomes more complete toward the necessary

Juyang Weng



On CIM architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper starts by explaining the importance of CIM architecture and its role in system design and implementation. Then, by comparison, comments on the major existing architectures are given and the main characteristics of each architecture are presented. Based on these considerations and the authors' own experiences in China, the authors propose a CIM-OSA-like cube with six views as an

Chen Yuliu; Zhang Weibiao



Genetically Engineered ART Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. This chapter focuses on the evolution of ARTMAP architectures, us- ing genetic algorithms, with the objective of improving generalization performance and alleviating the ART category proliferation problem. We refer to the resulting architectures as GFAM, GEAM, and GGAM. We demonstrate through extensive experimentation that evolved ARTMAP architectures exhibit good generalization and are of small size, while consuming reasonable computational

Ahmad Al-daraiseh; Assem Kaylani; Michael Georgiopoulos; Mansooreh Mollaghasemi; Annie S. Wu; Georgios C. Anagnostopoulos



MITRE's Architecture Quality Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

MITRE's Architecture Quality Assessment (AQA) is intended to provide an objective and repeatable technique for the evaluation of system architectures. This paper describes the scope of AQA and its intended use; the evaluation methodology embodied in the AQA; the process of conducting an architecture assessment using the AQA; the current status of the AQA; and a comparison with other approaches

Richard F. Hilliard II; Michael J. Kurland; Steven D. Litvintchouk



Complement component 4  


Complement component 4 is a blood test that measures the activity of a certain protein that is part of ... and C4 are the most commonly measured complement components. Complement activity may be measured to determine how ...


A new architecture for hyperspectral image processing and analysis system: design and implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new architecture for HIPAS (Hyperspectral Image Processing and Analysis System V2.0) was introduced in this paper which was modified and improved based on the first version of HIPAS V1.0. The comprehensive hyperspectral image analyzing system has been developed under VC++6.0 integrated development environment (IDE) and obtained perfect runtime efficiency and stability. The base architecture was specially designed and implemented to meet the requirements for the rapid preprocessing of imaging spectrometer data and easy prototyping of algorithms. Based on the modularized and object oriented software engineering construction, the architecture is compatible for other UNIX platforms with little modification. The most important components of HIPAS were presented in this paper including tools for input/output, preprocessing, data visualization, information extraction, conventional image analysis, advanced tools, and integrated interface to connect with general spectral databases. Some new methodologies for data analysis and processing were realized and applied to reach some valuable results based on the architecture including mineral identification, agriculture investigation, urban mapping etc. With an open storage architecture, HIPAS is entirely compatible with some advanced special commercial software such as ENVI and ERDAS and even the common image processing system Photoshop. At last, a strict and careful software test was carried out and the results were also analyzed and discussed.

Yu, Jianlin; Hu, Xingtang; Zhang, Bing; Ning, Shunian



Component specification for parallel coupling infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

Coupled systems comprise multiple mutually interacting subsystems, and are an increasingly common computational science application, most notably as multiscale and multiphysics models. Parallel computing, and in particular message-passing programming have spurred the development of these models, but also present a parallel coupling problem (PCP) in the form of intermodel data dependencies. The PCP complicates model coupling through requirements for the description, transfer, and transformation of the distributed data that models in a parallel coupled system exchange. Component-based software engineering has been proposed as one means of conquering software complexity in scientific applications, and given the compound nature of coupled models, it is a natural approach to addressing the parallel coupling problem. We define a software component specification for solving the parallel coupling problem. This design draws from the already successful Common Component Architecture (CCA). We abstract the parallel coupling problem's elements and map them onto a set of CCA components, defining a parallel coupling infrastructure toolkit. We discuss a reference implementation based on the Model Coupling Toolkit. We demonstrate how these components might be deployed to solve a relevant coupling problems in climate modeling.

Larson, J. W.; Norris, B.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Australian National Univ.



Component-based design approach for multicore SoCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a high-level component-based methodology and design environment for application-specific multicore SoC architectures. Component-based design provides primitives to build complex architectures from basic components. This bottom-up approach allows design-architects to explore efficient custom solutions with best performances. This paper presents a high-level component-based methodology and design environment for application-specific multicore SoC architectures. The system specifications are represented as

Wander O. Cesário; Amer Baghdadi; Lovic Gauthier; Damien Lyonnard; Gabriela Nicolescu; Yanick Paviot; Sungjoo Yoo; Ahmed Amine Jerraya; Mario Diaz-Nava



Solar building architecture  

SciTech Connect

The functions of buildings have evolved over centuries to meet the changing needs of society. At one time, buildings needed only to keep weather and enemies out. Today, they usually perform dozens of functions. With the advent of concern about energy resources in the 1970s, substantial research advanced the performance of a major set of these functions. The functions of buildings now include the utilization of the solar energy that strikes the exterior of buildings, use of other naturally occurring energy phenomena (such as sky radiational cooling and daylighting), and more efficient use of energy. To design buildings that perform these functions as economically and as effectively as possible requires professional building design and engineering. This involves the careful integration of energy components, subcomponents, and systems with architectural techniques that perform the above set of functions in a way that best satisfies the program needs of the building and recognizes the myriad of other considerations that determine the final design. The volume recognizes that most solar research focuses on solar energy components and systems as though they were furnaces'' or air conditioning systems.'' Just as conventional furnaces and air conditioners (HVAC systems) are integrated into buildings and have repercussions on their design, solar energy applications also affect the way buildings and groups of buildings are planned, designed, and engineered. 330 refs., 140 figs., 10 tabs.

Anderson, B. (ed.)



Evolutionary dynamics of protein domain architecture in plants  

PubMed Central

Background Protein domains are the structural, functional and evolutionary units of the protein. Protein domain architectures are the linear arrangements of domain(s) in individual proteins. Although the evolutionary history of protein domain architecture has been extensively studied in microorganisms, the evolutionary dynamics of domain architecture in the plant kingdom remains largely undefined. To address this question, we analyzed the lineage-based protein domain architecture content in 14 completed green plant genomes. Results Our analyses show that all 14 plant genomes maintain similar distributions of species-specific, single-domain, and multi-domain architectures. Approximately 65% of plant domain architectures are universally present in all plant lineages, while the remaining architectures are lineage-specific. Clear examples are seen of both the loss and gain of specific protein architectures in higher plants. There has been a dynamic, lineage-wise expansion of domain architectures during plant evolution. The data suggest that this expansion can be largely explained by changes in nuclear ploidy resulting from rounds of whole genome duplications. Indeed, there has been a decrease in the number of unique domain architectures when the genomes were normalized into a presumed ancestral genome that has not undergone whole genome duplications. Conclusions Our data show the conservation of universal domain architectures in all available plant genomes, indicating the presence of an evolutionarily conserved, core set of protein components. However, the occurrence of lineage-specific domain architectures indicates that domain architecture diversity has been maintained beyond these core components in plant genomes. Although several features of genome-wide domain architecture content are conserved in plants, the data clearly demonstrate lineage-wise, progressive changes and expansions of individual protein domain architectures, reinforcing the notion that plant genomes have undergone dynamic evolution.



Role of System Architecture in Architecture in Developing New Drafting Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the impact of information technologies in architectural design process is discussed. In this discussion, first the differences/nuances between the concept of software engineering and system architecture are clarified. Then, the design process in engineering, and design process in architecture has been compared by considering 3-D models as the center of design process over which the other disciplines involve the design. It is pointed out that in many high-end engineering applications, 3-D solid models and consequently digital mock-up concept has become a common practice. But, architecture as one of the important customers of CAD systems employing these tools has not started to use these 3-D models. It is shown that the reason of this time lag between architecture and engineering lies behind the tradition of design attitude. Therefore, it is proposed a new design scheme a meta-model to develop an integrated design model being centered on 3-D model. It is also proposed a system architecture to achieve the transformation of architectural design process by replacing 2-D thinking with 3-D thinking. It is stated that in the proposed system architecture, the CAD systems are included and adapted for 3-D architectural design in order to provide interfaces for integration of all possible disciplines to design process. It is also shown that such a change will allow to elaborate the intelligent or smart building concept in future.

Sorguç, Arzu Gönenç


An Empirical Evaluation of Architectural Alternatives for J2EE and Web Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Component-based technologies such as J2EE and .NET have been widely adopted to develop Web-based applications. With the emerging use of Web services and service-based architectures, such component technologies provide the necessary back-end components to execute application business logic, supporting a variety of architectural alternatives. The combination of component technologies with Web services further extends the set of architecture choices, with

Ian Gorton



CORBA-based Common Software for the ALMA project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe and North America. ALMA will consist of at least 64 12-meter antennas operating in the millimeter and sub-millimeter range, with baselines up to 14 km. It will be located at an altitude above 5000m in the Chilean Atacama desert. The ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and of components that implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is an object model based on Distributed Objects (DOs), implemented as CORBA objects. The teams responsible for the control system development use DOs as the basis for components and devices such as an antenna mount control. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. A code generator creates a Java Bean for each DO. Programmers can write Java client applications by connecting those Beans with data-manipulation and visualization Beans. ACS is based on the experience gained in the astronomical and particle accelerator domains, and reuses and extends proven concepts and components. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can be used in other new control systems, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, stable and reliable technology. This paper presents the architecture of ACS and its status, detailing the object model and major services.

Chiozzi, Gianluca; Gustafsson, Birger; Jeram, Bogdan; Plesko, Mark; Sekoranja, Matej; Tkacik, Gasper; Zagar, K.



Information Technology: A Framework for Assessing and Improving Enterprise Architecture Management (Version 1.1).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We offer here the first update to our maturity framework for enterprise architecture management. Its purpose is to provide federal agencies with a common benchmarking tool for planning and measuring their efforts to improve enterprise architecture managem...



Java based open architecture controller  

SciTech Connect

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) the authors have been developing an open architecture machine tool controller. This work has been patterned after the General Motors (GM) led Open Modular Architecture Controller (OMAC) work, where they have been involved since its inception. The OMAC work has centered on creating sets of implementation neutral application programming interfaces (APIs) for machine control software components. In the work at LLNL, they were among the early adopters of the Java programming language. As an application programming language, it is particularly well suited for component software development. The language contains many features, which along with a well-defined implementation API (such as the OMAC APIs) allows third party binary files to be integrated into a working system. Because of its interpreted nature, Java allows rapid integration testing of components. However, for real-time systems development, the Java programming language presents many drawbacks. For instance, lack of well defined scheduling semantics and threading behavior can present many unwanted challenges. Also, the interpreted nature of the standard Java Virtual Machine (JVM) presents an immediate performance hit. Various real-time Java vendors are currently addressing some of these drawbacks. The various pluses and minuses of using the Java programming language and environment, with regard to a component-based controller, will be outlined.

Weinert, G F



Modeling Architectural Patterns' Behavior Using Architectural Primitives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architectural patterns have an impact on both the structure and the behavior of a system at the architecture design level.\\u000a However, it is challenging to model patterns’ behavior in a systematic way because modeling languages do not provide the appropriate\\u000a abstractions and because each pattern addresses a whole solution space comprised of potentially infinite solution variants.\\u000a In this paper, we

Ahmad Waqas Kamal



Common Cold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site provides comprehensive information, selected by medical doctors, about the common cold. The goal is to provide a framework for critical thinking which will allow informed decisions about medical care for the common cold. The section entitled Understanding Colds gives a detailed overview of how the cold virus invades the human body and how cold symptoms are caused. Information about preventing colds, and some of the complications that can occur are also included. The Special Features section includes one of the most interesting parts of the site -- Myths of the Common Cold. This site should be interesting to almost anyone, but perhaps more so for those of us who have recently had a cold.



Architecture for Survivable System Processing (ASSP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Architecture for Survivable System Processing (ASSP) Program is a multi-phase effort to implement Department of Defense (DOD) and commercially developed high-tech hardware, software, and architectures for reliable space avionics and ground based systems. System configuration options provide processing capabilities to address Time Dependent Processing (TDP), Object Dependent Processing (ODP), and Mission Dependent Processing (MDP) requirements through Open System Architecture (OSA) alternatives that allow for the enhancement, incorporation, and capitalization of a broad range of development assets. High technology developments in hardware, software, and networking models, address technology challenges of long processor life times, fault tolerance, reliability, throughput, memories, radiation hardening, size, weight, power (SWAP) and security. Hardware and software design, development, and implementation focus on the interconnectivity/interoperability of an open system architecture and is being developed to apply new technology into practical OSA components. To insure for widely acceptable architecture capable of interfacing with various commercial and military components, this program provides for regular interactions with standardization working groups (e.g.) the International Standards Organization (ISO), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Selection of a viable open architecture is based on the widely accepted standards that implement the ISO/OSI Reference Model.

Wood, Richard J.



The genetic determinants of common human obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic determinants of common human obesity have been elusive until recently, when work from several groups led to the\\u000a identification of 16 loci that reproducibly associate with common human obesity. These loci reveal that the genetic architecture\\u000a of common human obesity likely involves rare high penetrant loci, common low penetrant loci, and likely intermediate loci\\u000a that are yet to

Elizabeth K. Speliotes



A generic micro-architectural test plan approach for microprocessor verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern microprocessors share several common types of micro-architectural building blocks. The rising complexity of the micro-architecture increases the risk of bugs and the difficulty of achieving comprehensive verification. We propose a methodology to exploit the commonality in the different microprocessors to create a design-independent micro-architectural test plan. Our method allows the testing of the huge micro-architectural test space by using

Allon Adir; Hezi Azatchi; Eyal Bin; Ofer Peled; Kirill Shoikhet



A simulation study of decoupled architecture computers  

SciTech Connect

Decoupled architectures achieve high scalar performance by cleanly splitting instruction processing into memory access and execution tasks. Several decoupled architectures have been proposed, and they all have two characteristics in common: 1) they have two separate sets of instructions, one for accessing memory and one for performing function execution. 2) The memory accessing task and the execution task communicate via architectural queues. These characteristics lead to pipelined computer that have the following advantages: 1) they can issue more than one instruction per clock period; 2) they can dynamically schedule instructions at runtime; 3) they are less sensitive to memory access delays than conventional architectures. The authors present a simulation study of decoupled architectures. The simulation models are very detailed, with timing resolution to the clock period. The Lawrence Livermore Loops are used as the workload. They first describe a decoupled architecture based on the CRAY-1 scalar architecture. The sensitivity to memory access delays are studied by varying memory access time over a wide range of values. They show that performance improvements increase linearly over the scalar CRAY-1 as the memory access paths of both are lengthened. Then, they study queue lengths in decoupled machines, and show the affect of queue lengths on performance. Relatively short queues are shown to give optimum, or near-optimum, performance.

Smith, J.S.; Weiss, S.; Pang, N.Y.



Common Beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most widely cultivated legumes in the world, occupying over 27 million hectares of tropical and temperate\\u000a agricultural land in the Americas, Europe, Africa and Asia (FAO, 2003). The genus Phaseolus is of American origin and comprises over 30 species (Debouck, 1999). P. vulgaris is the most widely grown legume, occupying

Francisco J. Morales


Scalar supercomputer architecture  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on high-performance scalar architectures that have the capability to issue multiple instructions per clock period. The essential characteristics and the principal architectural tradeoffs in scientific array processors, very long instruction word (VLIW) machines, the polycyclic architecture, and decoupled computers are examined. Array processors rely solely on static code scheduling done manually or by the compiler. The scheduling task is quite complex and the resulting code may not be very efficient. In a VLIW, sophisticated compiler technology provides software solutions for functions traditionally done in hardware. The polycyclic architecture is similar to array processors in its structure but provides architectural support to the instruction scheduling task. Finally, in decoupled architectures the hardware changes the order of the instruction execution at run time. This dynamic code scheduling capability does not come at the expense of additional control complexity.

Weiss, S. (Maryland Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))



Mathematics and Architecture Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit about architecture and its unique relation to mathematics, incorporating the study of such mathematical concepts as ratio, proportion, scales, symmetry, and similarity, and providing definitions and explanations of the mathematical concepts of elementary geometry, stating their connection to architecture. Activities include lesson plans on ratio and proportion as they relate to architectural designing, model building, the need for mathematical accuracy in measuring, and the analysis of buildings from drawings.

Morgan, Winnifred



Adaptive Fast Path Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive Fast Path Architecture (AFPA) is a software architecture that dramatically improves the efficiency, and therefore the capacity, of Web and other network servers. The architecture includes a RAM-based cache that serves static content and a reverse proxy that can distribute requests for dynamic content to multiple servers. These two mechanisms are combined using a ?exible layer-7 (content-based) routing facility.

Elbert C. Hu; Philippe Joubert; Robert B. King; Jason D. Lavoie; John M. Tracey



Network MFA tracking architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents some initial steps in the development of a decentralized network centric multiple frame assignment (MFA) class of architecture algorithms that affordably preserves the quality of a centralized architecture across a network of platforms while managing communication loading and achieving a consistent air picture on entities of interest for each platform. In particular, this work discussed four architectures, namely, Centralized, Network MFA Centralized, Network MFA on Local Data and Network Tracks, and Network MFA on All Data and Network Tracks and the results of extensive computations with the architectures.

Lu, Suihua; Poore, Aubrey P.; Suchomel, Brian J.



A Rigorous Architectural Approach to Adaptive Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The engineering of distributed adaptive software is a complex task which requires a rigorous approach. Software architectural (structural) concepts and principles are highly beneflcial in specifying, designing, analysing, constructing and evolving distributed software. A rigorous architectural approach dictates formalisms and techniques that are compositional, components that are context independent and systems that can be constructed and evolved incrementally. This paper

Jeff Kramer; Jeff Magee



The Architecture of an Emergency Plan Deployment System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the architecture and early implementation of an emergency plan deployment system that helps teams of human agents develop and execute comprehensive emergency plans, hyperlinked to conventional as well as geographical documents. The architecture features six components: a document database; a plan management module; a resource management module; a geographical document management module; a conventional document management module;



The coming-of-age of software architecture research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, software architecture research has emerged as the principled study of the overall structure of software systems, especially the relations among subsystems and components. From its roots in qualitative descriptions of useful system organizations, software architecture has matured to encompass broad explorations of notations, tools, and analysis techniques. Whereas initially the research area interpreted software practice, it

Mary M. Shaw



ISAC Humanoid: An Architecture for Learning and Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report on the development of a software architecture to facilitate interactions between a person and a humanoid robot is given. The architecture employs independent, asynchronous software agents that run in parallel on a set of PCs in a local area network. It comprises four major components: a Self Agent which controls the robot's gen- eral interactions with the world

Richard Alan; Peters II; Kazuhiko Kawamura; D. Mitchell Wilkes; Kimberly A. Hambuchen; Tamara E. Rogers; Anthony Alford



From Requirements to Architectural Design -Using Goals and Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

To strengthen the connection between requirements and design during the early stages of architectural design, a designer would like to have notations to help visualize the incremental refinement of an architecture from initially abstract descriptions to increasingly concrete components and interactions, all the while maintaining a clear focus on the relevant requirements at each step. We propose the combined use

Lin Liu; Eric Yu



An Actor Based Architecture for Intelligent Tutoring Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The evolution of intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) toward the use of multiple learning strategies calls on a multi-agent architecture. We show how such an architecture can be defined for the pedagogical component of an ITS. After considering the evolution of intelligent agents, we observe that ITS need to have cognitive agents able to model the human behavior in learning

Claude Frasson; Thierry Mengelle; Esma Aďmeur; Guy Gouardčres



An object-oriented architecture for intelligent tutoring systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an object-oriented architecture for intelligent tutoring systems. The architecture is oriented around objects that represent the various knowledge elements that are to be taught by the tutor. Each of these knowledge elements, called bites, inherits both a knowledge organization describing the kind of knowledge represented and tutoring components that provide the functionality to accomplish standard tutoring tasks like

Jeffrey Bonar; Robert K. Cunningham; Jamie Schultz



ADVISOR: A Machine Learning Architecture for Intelligent Tutor Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed ADVISOR, a two-agent machine learning architecture for intelligent tutoring systems (ITS). The purpose of this architecture is to centralize the reasoning of an ITS into a single component to al- low customization of teaching goals and to simplify im- proving the ITS. The first agent is responsible for learn- ing a model of how students perform using

Joseph Beck; Beverly Park Woolf; Carole R. Beal



Potential Architecture for Future Generation `Green' Wireless Base Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current radio frequency power amplifiers (PAs) in 3G base stations have very high power consumption leading to a hefty cost and negative environmental impact. In this paper, we propose a potential architecture design for future wireless base station. Issues associated with components of the architecture are investigated. A comparison of PA with pulse width modulation drive and PA with envelope

V. Bassoo; K. Tom; A. K. Mustafal; E. Cijvat; H. Sjoland; M. Faulkner



GrayWulf: Scalable Clustered Architecture for Data Intensive Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data intensive computing presents a significant challenge for traditional supercomputing architectures that maximize FLOPS since CPU speed has surpassed IO capabilities of HPC systems and BeoWulf clusters. We present the architecture for a three tier commodity component cluster designed for a range of data intensive computations operating on petascale data sets named GrayWulf†. The design goal is a balanced system

Alexander S. Szalay; Gordon Bell; Jan Vandenberg; Alainna Wonders; Randal C. Burns; Jim Heasley; Tony Hey; María A. Nieto-santisteban; Ani Thakar; Catharine Van Ingen; Richard Wilton; Dan Fay



A Reconfigurable Architecture for Building Intelligent Learning Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our initial efforts at implementing a new Choice- Adaptive Intelligent Learning Environment (CAILE) that combines multi-agent adaptive technologies and service architectures to provide a framework for design- ing extendible and reconfigurable learning environments. We describe the core components of the CAILE architecture, learning tasks that establish a situated con- text for learning, and a set of customizable

Joseph G. Linn; James Segedy; Hogyeong Jeong; Benjamin Podgursky; Gautam Biswas



The architecture of an event correlation service for adaptive middleware-based applications  

SciTech Connect

Loosely coupled component communication driven by events is a key mechanism for building middleware- based applications that must achieve reliable qualities of service in an adaptive manner. In such a system, events that encapsulate state snapshots of a running system are generated by monitoring components. Hence, an event correlation service is necessary for correlating monitored events from multiple sources. The requirements for the event correlation raise two challenges: to seamlessly integrate event correlation services with other services and applications; and to provide reliable event management with minimal delay. This paper describes our experience in the design and implementation of an event correlation service. The design encompasses an event correlator and an event proxy that are integrated with an architecture for adaptive middleware components. The implementation utilizes the common-based event (CBE) specification and stateful Web service technologies to support the deployment of the event correlation service in a distributed architecture. We evaluate the performance of the overall solution in a test bed and present the results in terms of the trade-off between the flexibility and the performance overhead of the architecture

Liu, Yan; Gorton, Ian; Lee, Vinh Kah



Architectural Quality Criteria for Hospital Information Systems  

PubMed Central

An important part of hospital information systems (HIS) evaluation is the quality assessment of its architecture, i.e. the structure of its IT infrastructure. Therefore, quantitative architectural quality criteria are needed. On the basis of relevant architectural components of a HIS, as defined by 3LGM2, the following quality criteria were defined: functional redundancy, functional under-saturation, functional correspondence, informational redundancy, degree of heterogeneity and degree of computer-support. These quality criteria were implemented as part of the 3LGM2 tool: a modelling tool to create 3LGM2 conformant HIS models. For every 3LGM2 model and its corresponding components, the relevant quality criteria are automatically calculated and presented. The defined quality criteria can be used for several information management purposes. Nevertheless they are not intended to make absolute statements about the HIS quality. To ensure their expressiveness, complete and consistent underlying 3LGM2 models are needed.

Brigl, Birgit; Hubner-Bloder, Gudrun; Wendt, Thomas; Haux, Reinhold; Winter, Alfred



Reconfigurable multi-component sensors built from MEMS payloads carried by micro-robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field Programmable Robot Arrays (FPRAs) are micro-robots with onboard reconfigurable logic. The primary goal of the FPRAs is to build digital-logic structures by physical motion as well as electronic reconfiguration (commonly used in prior programmable logic). We extend the application of FPRAs here by presenting a sensor-based architecture with the following components: (a) Scratch-Drive-Actuator (SDA) micro-robots carrying MEMS sensor payload

Jung H. Cho; Mayuresh Kothare; Mark G. Arnold



Digital Resource Commons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ohio Digital Resource Commons (DRC) is a place to learn about the historic, instructional, cultural, and creative works of those in the Ohio University system, as well as the liberal arts colleges of Ohio. Although not all of the Ohio schools save material with the DRC, many of them elect to do so. Higher education institutions, as well as K-12 institutions are allowed to save their work via the central network, as long as the work has archival merit. Visitors will want to click on "Communities and Collections" on the left hand menu to browse the vast resources available. Some of the communities included are "Art and Architecture", "Multi-Subject Video", and "OhioLINK Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Center". Within each community are some notable collections including, "Archaeological Atlas of Ohio", "Encyclopedia of Physics Demonstrations", and the "Kent State Shootings Oral Histories". In order to see a list of the archives available to search, visitors should click on "Advanced Search", under the blank search box near the top of the page. The scrollable box next to the archives category includes such choices as "Oberlin Digital Commons", "Scholarly Commons at Miami University", and "Digital Archive of Literacy Narratives".


A general purpose architecture for intelligent tutoring systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the Conversational Interfaces project at CSLI is to develop a general purpose architecture which supports multi-modal dialogues with complex devices, services, and applications. We are developing generic dialogue management software which supports collaborative activities between a human and devices. Our systems use a common software base consisting of the Open Agent Architecture, Nuance speech recogniser, Gemini (SRI’s

Brady Clark; Oliver Lemon; Alexander Gruenstein; Elizabeth Owen Bratt; John Fry; Stanley Peters; Heather Pon-Barry; Karl Schultz; Zack Thomsen-Gray; Pucktada Treeratpituk



Integrating architecture description languages with a standard design method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software architecture descriptions are high-level models of software systems. Some researchers have proposed special- purpose architectural notations that have a great deal of expressive power but are not well integrated with common development methods. Others have used mainstream development methods that are accessible to developers, but lack semantics needed for extensive analysis. We describe an approach to combining the advantages

Jason E. Robbins; Nenad Medvidovic; David F. Redmiles; David S. Rosenblum



The KRAFT architecture for knowledge fusion and transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the KRAFT architecture which supports the fusion of know- ledge from multiple, distributed, heterogeneous sources. The architecture uses constraints as a common knowledge interchange format, expressed against a com- mon ontology. Knowledge held in local sources can be tranformed into the com- mon constraint language, and fused with knowledge from other sources. The fused knowledge is then

Alun D. Preece; Kit-ying Hui; W. A. Gray; Philippe Marti; Trevor J. M. Bench-capon; Dean M. Jones; Zhan Cui



A program transformation and architecture support for quantum uncomputation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum computing's power comes from new algorithms that exploit quantum mechanical phenomena for computation. Quantum algorithms are different from their classical counterparts in that quantum algorithms rely on algorithmic structures that are simply not present in classical computing. Just as classical program transformations and architectures have been designed for common classical algorithm structures, quantum program transformations and quantum architectures should

Ethan Schuchman; T. N. Vijaykumar



NASA Enterprise Architecture and Its Use in Transition of Research Results to Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enterprise architecture describes the design of the components of an enterprise, their relationships and how they support the objectives of that enterprise. NASA Stennis Space Center leads several projects involving enterprise architecture tools used to gather information on research assets within NASA's Earth Science Division. In the near future, enterprise architecture tools will link and display the relevant requirements, parameters, observatories, models, decision systems, and benefit/impact information relationships and map to the Federal Enterprise Architecture Reference Models. Components configured within the enterprise architecture serving the NASA Applied Sciences Program include the Earth Science Components Knowledge Base, the Systems Components database, and the Earth Science Architecture Tool. The Earth Science Components Knowledge Base systematically catalogues NASA missions, sensors, models, data products, model products, and network partners appropriate for consideration in NASA Earth Science applications projects. The Systems Components database is a centralized information warehouse of NASA's Earth Science research assets and a critical first link in the implementation of enterprise architecture. The Earth Science Architecture Tool is used to analyze potential NASA candidate systems that may be beneficial to decision-making capabilities of other Federal agencies. Use of the current configuration of NASA enterprise architecture (the Earth Science Components Knowledge Base, the Systems Components database, and the Earth Science Architecture Tool) has far exceeded its original intent and has tremendous potential for the transition of research results to operational entities.

Frisbie, T. E.; Hall, C. M.



System design document U-AVLIS control system architecture  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the architecture of the integrated control system for the U-AVLIS process. It includes an overview of the major control system components and their interfaces to one another. Separate documents are utilized to fully describe each component mentioned herein. The purpose of this document is to introduce the reader to the integrated U-AVLIS control system. It describes the philosophy of the control system architecture and how all of the control system components are integrated. While the other System Design Documents describe in detail the design of individual control system components, this document puts those components into their correct context within the entire integrated control system.

Viebeck, P.G.



A Neural Recognition Architecture for Composed Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We present an architecture for object recognition based onartificial neural networks (ANN). The system can be trained on the holisticrecognition of wooden toy pieces and aggregates composed of thesepieces. However, the more complex aggregates become, the more difficultbecomes holistic recognition. Therefore, after a "first glance" hypothesisby the holistic recognition module, the aggregate must be inspectedvisually for the single components.

Gunther Heidemann; Helge Ritter



OSPF Monitoring: Architecture, Design, and Deployment Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improving IP control plane (routing) robust- ness is critical to the creation of reliable and sta- ble IP services. Yet very few tools exist for ef- fective IP route monitoring and management. We describe the architecture, design and deployment of a monitoring system for OSPF, an IP intra- domain routing protocol in wide use. The archi- tecture has three components,

Aman Shaikh; Albert G. Greenberg



Creating Reference Architectures: An Example from Avionics  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADAGE is a project to define and build a domain-spe-cific software architecture (DSSA) environment for assisting the development of avionics software. A cen-tral concept of DSSA is the use of software system gen-erators to implement component-based models of software synthesis in the target domain [SEI90].

Don S. Batory; Lou Coglianese; Mark Goodwin; Steve Shafer



Extending the BDI architecture with commitments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a novel agent architecture for normative multi- agent systems which is based on multi-context systems. It models the three modali- ties of Rao and Georgeff's BDI agents as individual contexts and adds a fourth one for commitments. This new component is connected to all other mental attitudes via two sets of bridge rules, injecting formulae

Dorian Gaertner; Pablo Noriega; Carles Sierra



Calculating Architectural Reliability via Modeling and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a software architecture-based approach tocompositional estimation of systemýs reliability. Ourapproach is applicable to early stages of developmentwhen the implementation artifacts are not yet available,and exact execution profile is unknown. The uncertainty ofthe execution profile is modeled using stochastic processeswith unknown parameters. The compositional approachcalculates overall reliability of the system as a function ofthe reliability of its constituent components

Roshanak Roshandel



Service-Oriented Systems Engineering: Specification and Design of Services and Layered Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the FOCUS theory of distributed systems (see [Broy and Střlen, 2001]) that are composed of interacting components we introduce a formal model of services and of layered architectures. In FOCUS a component is a total behavior. In contrast, a service is a partial behavior. A layer in a layered architecture is a component or a service with two

Manfred Broy


Hybridization of Architectural Styles for Integrated Enterprise Information Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current enterprise systems engineering theory does not provide adequate support for the development of information systems on demand. To say more precisely, it is forming. This chapter proposes the main architectural decisions that underlie the design of integrated enterprise information systems. This chapter argues for the extending service-oriented architecture - for merging it with component-based paradigm at the design stage and using connectors of different architectural styles. The suitability of general-purpose language SysML for the modeling of integrated enterprise information systems architectures is described and arguments pros are presented.

Bagusyte, Lina; Lupeikiene, Audrone


Using Architectural Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are increasing demands for the explicit representation and subsequent sharing and usage of architectural decisions in the software architecting process. However, there is little known on how to use these architectural decisions, or what type of stakeholders need to use them. This paper presents a use case model that arose from industrial needs, and is meant to explore how

Jan S. van der Ven; Anton Jansen; Dieter K. Hammer



Teaching American Indian Architecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

Winchell, Dick



American Architecture, 1975 - 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of design trends in American architecture from 1975 to 2000 includes two general tendencies that have influenced designers during this period: far sources and near sources. Far sources include both pre-modern, or historicizing, images, and popular, or commercial, images. Near sources include various architectural movements of the early twentieth century such as Modernism, Expressionism, and Constructivism. Whereas far

David G. De Long


Mars Exploration Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The architecture of NASA's program of robotic Mars exploration missions received an intense scrutiny during the summer months of 1998. We present here the results of that scrutiny, and describe a list of Mars exploration missions which are now being proposed by the nation's space agency. The heart of the new program architecture consists of missions which will return samples

James F. Jordan; Sylvia L. Miller



Studies in prolong architectures  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation addresses the problem of how logic programs can be made to execute at high speeds. Prolog, chosen as a representative logic programming language, differs from procedural languages in that it is applicative, nondeterminate and uses unification as its primary operation. Program performance is directly related to memory performance because high-speed processors are ultimately limited by memory bandwidth, and architectures that require less bandwidth have greater potential for high performance. This dissertation reports the dynamic data and instruction referencing characteristics of both sequential and parallel Prolog architectures and corresponding uniprocessor and multiprocessor memory-hierarchy performance tradeoffs. Initially, a family of canonical architectures, corresponding closely to Prolog, is defined from the principles of ideal machine architectures of Flynn, and is then refined into the realizable Warren Abstract Machine (WAM) architecture. The memory-referencing behavior of these architecture sis examined by tracing memory references during emulation of a set of Prolog benchmarks. Two-level memory hierarchies for both sequential (WAM) and parallel (PWAM) Prolog architectures are modeled. PWAM is the Restricted-AND Parallel architecture of Hermenegildo.

Tick, E.



Comparing Architectural Design Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different architectural styles lead not simply to different designs, but to designs with significantly different properties. This look at 11 designs of a cruise-control system shows that solutions varied, even within a design style, because of how the architectural choice leads the designer to view the system's environment

Mary Shaw



Virtual Museum of Architecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Architect Stephen Lauf created this site, Quondam: A Virtual Museum of Architecture, to combine architecture and computers. Lauf was the first architect in Philadelphia to master computer aided design (CAD) and 3-dimensional computer modeling. Today there are over 30 computer models that mak up the Quondam Web site's core collection.

Lauf, Stephen


Software architecture: a roadmap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade software architecture has received increasing attention as an important subfield of software engineering. During that time there has been considerable progress in developing the technological and methodologi- cal base for treating architectural design as an engineering discipline. However, much remains to be done to achieve that goal. Moreover, the changing face of technology raises a number

David Garlan



Polysiloxanes in macromolecular architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review some recent advances regarding siloxane materials with non-linear architectures are discussed. Cyclic, branched and network structures are reviewed, the three main areas covered being (1) macrocyclic siloxanes, (2) hyperbranched polymers and (3) interpenetrating siloxane networks. Recent concepts and synthetic strategies for manipulating siloxane architectures are explored. Also reviewed are the specific and unusual material science properties of

R Bischoff; S. E Cray



An Architectural Approach to Autonomic Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We describe an architecturalapproach,to achieving the goals of autonomic ,computing. The architecture that we outline ,describes interfaces and behavioral requirements for individual system components, describes how ,interactions among ,components ,are established, and recommends design patterns that engender,the desired system-level properties of self- configuration, self-optimization, self-healing and self- protection. We have ,validated many ,of these ideas in two prototype autonomic,computing,systems.

Steve R. White; James E. Hanson; Ian Whalley; David M. Chess; Jeffrey O. Kephart



Modelling, Analysis and Evaluation of Systems Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems architectures get normally more and more complexity be increasing functionality, by implementing additional features, by using microelectronic and digital components, by dominant processing of signals and information, by software-based applications, by optimizing the price\\/performance ratio etc. The realization of a lot of industrial systems is based on the use of processors, memories, I\\/O components, communication nets, programs, and application

Ernst Schmitter



Comparing Acquisition Strategies: Open Architecture versus Product Lines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An open architecture is a development methodology that employs published, widely accepted standards for defining key interfaces within a system. Systems that are 'open' have components that can be provided by different vendors, allowing performance improv...

N. Guertin P. Clements



Web Service Architecture Framework for Embedded Devices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of Service Oriented Architectures, namely web services, has become a widely adopted method for transfer of data between systems across the Internet as well as the Enterprise. Adopting a similar approach to embedded devices is also starting to emerge as personal devices and sensor networks are becoming more common in the industry. This…

Yanzick, Paul David



Enterprise Information System Data Architecture Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data architecture defines how data is stored, managed, and used in a system. It establishes common guidelines for data operations that make it impossible to predict, model, gauge, or control the flow of data in the system. This is even more important when...

G. A. Lewis S. Cornella-Dorda P. Place D. Plakosh R. C. Seacord



Reusable software architectures for aerospace systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern, complex control systems for specific application domains often display common system design architectures with similar subsystem functionality and interactions. The similarities between these subsystems in most spacecraft can be exploited to create a model-driven system development environment and then transformed into software or hardware either manually or automatically. Modifications to software and hardware during operations can be similarly made

Kathryn Anne Weiss; Elwin C. Ong; Nancy G. Leveson



Component based distributed systems - CORBA and EJB in context.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy, like other sciences, is highly collaborative, so it is no surprise that astronomical computing environments have become increasingly distributed in nature. Therefore the interest in benefiting from new developments in distributed computing technologies is clear, but to reap these potential benefits one must overcome the problems posed by the heterogeneous mix of different architectures and operating systems that occur. This mix has made information flow between systems at best difficult and organizations have not been able to fully harness one of their most valuable assets, namely information. This paper introduces the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and Enterprise Java Beans (EJBs), and puts forward a rationale as to why they have the potential to provide the required integration platform. These component based distributed technologies, allow disparate, heterogeneous legacy data systems to be integrated with current systems and they also support the incremental growth of current systems to meet evolving requirements.

Lunney, T. F.; McCaughey, A. J.



The Simulation Intranet Architecture  

SciTech Connect

The Simdarion Infranet (S1) is a term which is being used to dcscribc one element of a multidisciplinary distributed and distance computing initiative known as DisCom2 at Sandia National Laboratory (http ct al. 1998). The Simulation Intranet is an architecture for satisfying Sandia's long term goal of providing an end- to-end set of scrviccs for high fidelity full physics simu- lations in a high performance, distributed, and distance computing environment. The Intranet Architecture group was formed to apply current distributed object technologies to this problcm. For the hardware architec- tures and software models involved with the current simulation process, a CORBA-based architecture is best suited to meet Sandia's needs. This paper presents the initial desi-a and implementation of this Intranct based on a three-tier Network Computing Architecture(NCA). The major parts of the architecture include: the Web Cli- ent, the Business Objects, and Data Persistence.

Holmes, V.P.; Linebarger, J.M.; Miller, D.J.; Vandewart, R.L.



Irish Architecture Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Irish Architecture Foundation's website is very inviting with its stylish grey and green-schemed color scheme. The Foundation has multiple goals: encouraging people to value architecture and "champion[ing] the power of architecture and urban design," just to name a few. Visitors will find this website filled with opportunities to learn about, discuss, and debate the role of architecture, at lectures, workshops and events. The "Education" link under the Activity heading at the top of the page contains lesson plans for teachers, lecture series' for adults, programs for children, and details on their Summer School. The "Exhibition" link, also under the Activity heading, has a number of announcements for design competitions, such as one for a public civic space for Dublin. There are also calls for papers, which include one on the politics of architectural destruction and the nature of sculpture is in the 21st century.


Cell broadband engine architecture as a DSP platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The slowing pace of performance improvement in the commonly available processors is a cause of concern amongst many computational scientists. This combined with the ever increasing need for computational power has caused us to turn to alternative architectures in search of performance gains. Two main candidates were the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) and the Cell Broadband Engine (CELL BE) architecture. This paper focuses on the latter, outlining the architecture and basic programming paradigms, and also contains performance comparison of algorithms currently developed by our team.

Szumski, Karol; Malanowski, Mateusz



Dataflow Architecture for Scientific Visualization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dataflow is a popular architecture for scientific visualization. In this paper, we presented the architecture of GIVE (General Interactive Visualization Environment). GIVE owned a dataflow architecture with lazy evaluation. Several new concepts of dataflo...

W. L. Cai J. Shi



Coming Attractions in Software Architecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Software architecture is a field of study enjoying unprecedented growth and interest. This report identifies a set of promising lines of research related to software architecture and architecture-based system development that are expected to lead to advan...

P. C. Clements




Microsoft Academic Search

Command and Control (C2) organizations continue to deal with the problem of architecture design, implementation and integration because they still must integrate multiple, interconnected, component \\

Raymond J. Curts; Douglas E. Campbell




Microsoft Academic Search

Various kinds of domestic architecture existed during the late sixteenth century (best viewed in screens known as Rakuchu Rakugai zu ~1fJ~..)i.~ depicting the city of Kyoto). The most common (and the least studied) are the long shingle-roofed rowhouses of commoners, which fronted the streets and often doubled as shop space. In contrast, wealthy courtiers and warriors lived in spacious mansions

Melinda Takeuchi


FEDEF: A High Level Architecture Federate Development Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of High Level Architecture (HLA) federates can be repetitive and time consuming, with development time better spent on the aspects that differentiate the functionality provided by federates. The common tasks and design patterns involved in...

J. W. Van Spengen



Data and Signal Processing Architectures for Future Avionics,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pave Pillar architecture incorporates a Common Signal Processor (CSP) concept as a key building block of a USAF advanced avionics suite. This CSP concept embodies the use of standard internal interfaces, a family of modules, use of the programming languag...

M. T. Michael



An Evolutionarily Structured Universe of Protein Architecture  

PubMed Central

Protein structural diversity encompasses a finite set of architectural designs. Embedded in these topologies are evolutionary histories that we here uncover using cladistic principles and measurements of protein-fold usage and sharing. The reconstructed phylogenies are inherently rooted and depict histories of protein and proteome diversification. Proteome phylogenies showed two monophyletic sister-groups delimiting Bacteria and Archaea, and a topology rooted in Eucarya. This suggests three dramatic evolutionary events and a common ancestor with a eukaryotic-like, gene-rich, and relatively modern organization. Conversely, a general phylogeny of protein architectures showed that structural classes of globular proteins appeared early in evolution and in defined order, the ?/? class being the first. Although most ancestral folds shared a common architecture of barrels or interleaved ?-sheets and ?-helices, many were clearly derived, such as polyhedral folds in the all-? class and ?-sandwiches, ?-propellers, and ?-prisms in all-? proteins. We also describe transformation pathways of architectures that are prevalently used in nature. For example, ?-barrels with increased curl and stagger were favored evolutionary outcomes in the all-? class. Interestingly, we found cases where structural change followed the ?-to-? tendency uncovered in the tree of architectures. Lastly, we traced the total number of enzymatic functions associated with folds in the trees and show that there is a general link between structure and enzymatic function.

Caetano-Anolles, Gustavo; Caetano-Anolles, Derek



SE155 DBSA: a device-based software architecture for data mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a new architecture for a variety of data mining tasks is introduced. The Device-Based Software Architecture (DBSA) is a highly portable and generic data mining software framework where processing tasks are modeled as components linked together to form a data mining application. The name of the architecture comes from the analogy that each processing task in the

Janne Kätevä; Perttu Laurinen; Taneli Rautio; Jaakko Suutala; Lauri Tuovinen; Juha Röning



Database Architecture for Autonomous Transportation Agents for On-Scene Networked Incident Management (ATON)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of distributed databases forms an important architectural component of the ATON project for networked incidence management of highway traffic. The database sub-architecture supports the architectural integration of many thematic areas of the ATON, and provides many high level abstractions that semantically correspond to traffic incidents. These databases are queried for the detection of local or distributed traffic incidents

Mohan M. Trivedi; Shailendra K. Bhonsle; Amarnath Gupta



Reuse-Based Layering: A Strategy for Architectural Frameworks for Learning Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to develop standards for learning technologies have developed along two distinct strands: standards for data and information models; and standards for components, interfaces and architectures. Standards relating to architectural frameworks are less well developed, and responsibility for decisions concerning system architecture has been left largely in the hands of developers of proprietary software such as learning management systems. There

Maeve Paris



Parallel architecture for rapid image generation and analysis  

SciTech Connect

A multiprocessor architecture inspired by the Disney multiplane camera is proposed. For many applications, this approach produces a natural mapping of processors to objects in a scene. Such a mapping promotes parallelism and reduces the hidden-surface work with minimal interprocessor communication and low-overhead cost. Existing graphics architectures store the final picture as a monolithic entity. The architecture here stores each object's image separately. It assembles the final composite picture from component images only when the video display needs to be refreshed. This organization simplifies the work required to animate moving objects that occlude other objects. In addition, the architecture has multiple processors that generate the component images in parallel. This further shortens the time needed to create a composite picture. In addition to generating images for animation, the architecture has the ability to decompose images.

Nerheim, R.J.



Supporting Undergraduate Computer Architecture Students Using a Visual MIPS64 CPU Simulator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The topics of computer architecture are always taught using an Assembly dialect as an example. The most commonly used textbooks in this field use the MIPS64 Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) to help students in learning the fundamentals of computer architecture because of its orthogonality and its suitability for real-world applications. This…

Patti, D.; Spadaccini, A.; Palesi, M.; Fazzino, F.; Catania, V.



Fractal Geometry of Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Fractals smaller parts and the whole are linked together. Fractals are self-similar, as those parts are, at least approximately, scaled-down copies of the rough whole. In architecture, such a concept has also been known for a long time. Not only architects of the twentieth century called for an overall idea that is mirrored in every single detail, but also Gothic cathedrals and Indian temples offer self-similarity. This study mainly focuses upon the question whether this concept of self-similarity makes architecture with fractal properties more diverse and interesting than Euclidean Modern architecture. The first part gives an introduction and explains Fractal properties in various natural and architectural objects, presenting the underlying structure by computer programmed renderings. In this connection, differences between the fractal, architectural concept and true, mathematical Fractals are worked out to become aware of limits. This is the basis for dealing with the problem whether fractal-like architecture, particularly facades, can be measured so that different designs can be compared with each other under the aspect of fractal properties. Finally the usability of the Box-Counting Method, an easy-to-use measurement method of Fractal Dimension is analyzed with regard to architecture.

Lorenz, Wolfgang E.


Enterprise Knowledge Clouds: Architecture and Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter outlines the architectural foundations of Enterprise Knowledge Clouds (EKC) (Delic & Riley, describing the underlying technological fabrics and then pointing at the key capabilities of the (hypothetical) intelligent enterprise operating in constantly evolving, dynamic market conditions. Our aim is to give readers of this chapter a better understanding of knowledge cloud architectural aims and practical insights into EKC technological components. Thanks to knowledge, the enterprise will know more, will act better and react sooner in changing environment conditions, ultimately improving its performance and enabling it to show better behaviour and measurable improvements.

Delic, Kemal A.; Riley, Jeff A.


TRANSIMS software architecture for IOC-1  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the TRANSIMS software architecture and high-level design for the first Interim Operational Capability (IOC-1). Our primary goal in establishing the TRANSIMS software architecture is to lay down a framework for IOC-1. We aim to make sure that the various components of TRANSIMS are effectively integrated, both for IOC-1 and beyond, so that TRANSIMS remains flexible, expandable, portable, and maintainable throughout its lifetime. In addition to outlining the high-level design of the TRANSIMS software, we also set forth the software development environment and software engineering practices used for TRANSIMS.

Berkbigler, K.P.; Bush, B.W.; Davis, J.F.



Fault tolerant EHA architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation is conducted of fault-tolerant electrohydrostatic actuator (EHA) architectures applicable to prospective military aircraft, defining fault tolerances in terms of mission-success probability and safety reliability. The functional-level failure modes of an EHA and its interfacing equipment are used to analyze levels of fault coverage and redundancy required by MIL-F-9490 and MIL-STD 882B. A summary is presented of estimates of fault tolerance, performance, and weight of candidate EHA architectures, to allow selection of an architecture suited for a specific application.

Sadeghi, Tom; Lyons, Arthur



Composition Of Style-Based Software Architectures From Architectural Primitives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The codification of software architectural decisions made to address recurring software development challenges results in architectural styles. The Alfa framework provides a small set of architectural primitives for systematically specifying styles and style-based architectures for network- based systems. In this paper, we formalize Alfa's primitives in a compositional theory of styles and software architec- tures. Formalization of this theory has

Nikunj R. Mehta; Nenad Medvidovic



Dynamic Component Selection for SCA Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Service Oriented Computing (SOC) has gained maturity and there have been various specifications and frameworks for realization of SOC. One such specification is the Service Component Architecture (SCA), which defines applications as assembly of heterogeneous components. However, such assembly is defined once and remains static for fixed components throughout the application life-cycle.

Belaďd, Djamel; Mukhtar, Hamid; Ozanne, Alain; Tata, Samir


Renaissance and Baroque Architecture: Architectural History 102  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site hosts a collection of over 500 images that were prepared by the Digital Image Center at the University of Virginia Library for use in Professor C. W. Westfall's course on Renaissance and Baroque Architecture. The images are grouped topically, as they were covered in the class. Section titles include Florence in the 15th Century, The Sixteenth Century--Bramante and Roman Architecture, French Explorations of the New Classicism, The Holy Roman Emperor Rediscovers the Empire, and England Accepts Classicism, among others. Each section contains a number of thumbnails each of which leads to a full-sized JPEG image. It should be noted that the images are not individually labelled, but instead each section offers a description list at the bottom of the page. In some sections, but not in all, these are also hyperlinked. Teachers, scholars, students, and the general public are free to use these images for educational purposes.


Parallel processing architecture  


The parallel processing architecture provides a processor array which accepts input data at a faster rate that its processing elements are able to execute. The main features of this architecture are its programmability, scalability, high bandwidth communication and low cost. It provides high connectivity while maintaining minimum distance between processor elements. This architecture enables construction of a parallel processing with high bandwidth communication in six directions among the neighboring processors. It provides for future growth into more complex and optimized algorithms, and facilitiates incorporation of hardware advances with little effect on currently installed systems. Parallel processing architecture is useful for data sharing in an array, pattern recognition within a data array and sustaining a data input rate which is higher than the pattern recognition algorithm execution time (particle identification in high energy physics).

Crosetto, D.B.



DIVA (Data Intensive Architecture).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design development and implementation of a prototype system of a novel computer architecture based on PIM (Processing-In-Memory) technology are presented. The simulator and emulator that were used to develop and evaluate the overall concepts and syste...

J. Chame J. Draper J. LaCoss J. J. Granacki M. Hall



OBBL Architecture Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive applet gives students the opportunity to compose architectural structures using geometric and irregular elements. Learners must consider the effects of gravity and the methods of joining parts. Links to Help and Ideas sections are included.



Workshop on Architecture Competence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes a workshop on architecture competence that was held at the Carnegie Mellon(R) Software Engineering Institute (SEI) in June of 2008. The SEI invited accomplished practitioners from government, academia, and industry to discuss key is...

J. Klein L. Bass M. Klein P. Clements R. Kazman



Submicron Systems Architecture Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is a summary of research activities and results for the seven-month period, 1 April 1989 to 31 October 1989, under the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Submicron Systems Architecture Project. Previous semiannual technical rep...

C. L. Seitz K. M. Chandy A. J. Martin C. L. Seitz S. Taylor



Lunar Architecture and Urbanism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlem...

B. Sherwood



VAX vector architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VAX architecture has been extended to include an integrated, register-based vector processor. This extension allows both high-end and low-end implementations and can be supported with only small changes by VAX\\/VMS and VAX\\/ULTRIX operating systems. The extension is effectively exploited by the new vectorizing capabilities of VAX Fortran. Features of the VAX vector architecture and the design decisions which make

Dileep Bhandarkar; Richard Brunner



VAX vector architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VAX Architecture has been extended to include an integrated, register-based vector processor. This extension allows both high-end and low-end implementations and can be supported with only small changes by VAX\\/VMS and VAX\\/ULTRIX operating systems. The extension is effectively exploited by the new vectorizing capabilities of VAX FORTRAN. Features of the VAX Vector Architecture and the design decisions which make

Dileep Bhandarkar; Richard Brunner



Challenges of Algebraic Multigrid across Multicore Architectures  

SciTech Connect

Algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a popular solver for large-scale scientific computing and an essential component of many simulation codes. AMG has shown to be extremely efficient on distributed-memory architectures. However, when executed on modern multicore architectures, we face new challenges that can significantly deteriorate AMG's performance. We examine its performance and scalability on three disparate multicore architectures: a cluster with four AMD Opteron Quad-core processors per node (Hera), a Cray XT5 with two AMD Opteron Hex-core processors per node (Jaguar), and an IBM BlueGene/P system with a single Quad-core processor (Intrepid). We discuss our experiences on these platforms and present results using both an MPI-only and a hybrid MPI/OpenMP model. We also discuss a set of techniques that helped to overcome the associated problems, including thread and process pinning and correct memory associations.

Baker, A H; Gamblin, T; Schulz, M; Yang, U M



Architectural Abstractions and Language Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

When we apply the mechanisms of an object-oriented language we form concrete architectures over some domain. Over time we identify recurring patterns and transform the concrete architectures into more general architectural ab- stractions. Such abstractions are then used in combination with the language mechanisms to form other kinds of con- crete architectures in diagrams and programs: we apply a combination

Bent Bruun Kristensen




Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual architecture is a networked spatial environment designed using the metaphor of physical architecture 1 , from which virtual architecture inherits many visual and spatial characteristics. However, in order to further explore its potential, virtual architecture need to go beyond its physical metaphor to develop its own theories and styles. One important step of this process is to establish a

Ning Gu; Mary Lou Maher


Collaborative architecture design and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a collaborative environment created to support distributed evaluation of a complex system architecture. The approach couples an interactive architecture browser with collaborative walkthroughs of an evolving architectural representation. The collaborative architecture browser was created to facilitate involvement of project stakeholders from geographically dispersed, heterogeneous organizations. The paper provides a rationale for the approach, describes the

Steven R. Haynes; Amie L. Skattebo; Jonathan A. Singel; Mark A. Cohen; Jodi L. Himelright



Software, architecture, and participatory design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much work in software architecture has been inspired by work in physical architecture, in particular Alexander's work on 'design patterns'. By contrast, Alexander's work is little-used in town planning and architecture. In this paper, we examine some of the reasons that this is so, describe some parallels and differences between the fields of physical and software architecture, and identify areas

Stephen Rank; Carl O'Coill; Cornelia Boldyreff; Mark Doughty



Software Architectures and Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software architecture has emerged as an area of intense research over the past decade [25,32]. A number of approaches have been proposed to deal with architectural description and analysis [21], architectural styles [8], domain-specific and application family architectures [4,35], architecture-based dynamic system adaptation [29], and so forth. By and large, however, these approaches share assumptions that make them suited specifically

Nenad Medvidovic; Sam Malek; Marija Mikic-Rakic


Architectural plasticity in a Mediterranean winter annual  

PubMed Central

Size variability in plants may be underlain by overlooked components of architectural plasticity. In annual plants, organ sizes are expected to depend on the availability and reliability of resources and developmental time. Given sufficient resources and developmental time, plants are expected to develop a greater number of large branches, which would maximize fitness in the long run. However, under restrictive growth conditions and environmental reliability, developing large branches might be risky and smaller branches are expected to foster higher final fitness. Growth and architecture of Trifolium purpureum (Papilionaceae) plants from both Mediterranean (MED) and semi-arid (SAR) origins were studied, when plants were subjected to variable water availability, photoperiod cues and germination timing. Although no clear architectural plasticity could be found in response to water availability, plants subjected to photoperiod cuing typical to late spring developed fewer basal branches. Furthermore, plants that germinated late were significantly smaller, with fewer basal branches, compared with plants which grew for the same time, starting at the beginning of the growing season. The results demonstrate an intricate interplay between size and architectural plasticities, whereby size modifications are readily induced by environmental factors related to prevalent resource availability but architectural plasticity is only elicited following the perception of reliable anticipatory cues.

Shemesh, Hagai; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Acuna, Tania; Novoplansky, Ariel



QTL analysis of yield traits in an advanced backcross population derived from a cultivated Andean × wild common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cross  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced backcross QTL analysis was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for agronomic performance in a population\\u000a of BC2F3:5 introgression lines created from the cross of a Colombian large red-seeded commercial cultivar, ICA Cerinza, and a wild common\\u000a bean accession, G24404. A total of 157 lines were evaluated for phenological traits, plant architecture, seed weight, yield\\u000a and yield components

M. W. Blair; G. Iriarte; S. Beebe



Architecture-based autonomous repair management: an application to J2EE clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a component-based architecture for autonomous repair management in distributed systems, and a prototype implementation of this architecture, called JADE, which provides repair management for J2EE application server clusters. The JADE architecture features three major elements, which we believe to be of wide relevance for the construction of autonomic distributed systems: (1) a dynamically configurable, component-based structure that

Sara Bouchenak; Fabienne Boyer; Daniel Hagimont; Sacha Krakowiak; Adrian Mos; N. de Palma; V. Quema; J.-B. Stefani



Architecture-Based Autonomous Repair Management: Application to J2EE Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a component-based architecture for autonomous repair management in distributed systems, and a prototype implementation of this architecture, calledJADE, which provides repair management for J2EE application server clusters. TheJADE architecture features three major elements, which we believe to be of wide relevance for the construction of autonomic distributed systems: (1) a dynamically configurable, component-based structure that exploits the

Sara Bouchenak; Fabienne Boyer; Daniel Hagimont; Sacha Krakowiak; Noel De Palma; Vivien Quéma; Jean-bernard Stefani



Calculating an appropriate multiplier for ß? when modeling common cause failure in triplex systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Beta Model for common cause failure (CCF) is well accepted and has proven appropriate for dual architecture Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS). However, it is not directly applicable to a triplex architecture SIS. It has been suggested that CCF for a triplex architecture is appropriately modeled by ???. This paper derives ?, the multiplier for ??, required in the evaluation

Julia V. Bukowski; R. Chalupa



Common optical interconnect for systems and sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the implementation of a single optical backbone interconnect that can accommodate the wide variety of information that must be exchanged within a typical avionics system. The building block elements of this common optical backbone are based on products that have been developed for the commercial telecommunications and cable TV industries. During the development of this architecture a

Rick C. Stevens



Reliability analysis of fault-tolerant IMU architectures with redundant inertial sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic reliability analysis procedure for evaluating fault-tolerant inertial measurement unit (IMU) architectures is described. The procedure is based on modeling the system architecture, the component reliabilities, and the redundancy management. The component reliabilities are based on constant failure rates and exponential failure distributions. The overall reliability of the IMU and the major contributors to IMU reliability are computed. Three

M. K. Jeerage



Information architecture. Volume 3: Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document, as presented in Volume 1, The Foundations, is to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and promulgating information architecture guidance. This guidance is aimed at increasing the development of information architecture as a Departmentwide management best practice. This document describes departmental information architecture principles and minimum design characteristics for systems and infrastructures within the DOE Information Architecture Conceptual Model, and establishes a Departmentwide standards-based architecture program. The publication of this document fulfills the commitment to address guiding principles, promote standard architectural practices, and provide technical guidance. This document guides the transition from the baseline or defacto Departmental architecture through approved information management program plans and budgets to the future vision architecture. This document also represents another major step toward establishing a well-organized, logical foundation for the DOE information architecture.




The PASS project architectural model  

SciTech Connect

The PASS project has as its goal the implementation of solutions to the foreseen data access problems of the next generation of scientific experiments. The architectural model results from an evaluation of the operational and technical requirements and is described in terms of an abstract reference model, an implementation model and a discussion of some design aspects. The abstract reference model describes a system that matches the requirements in terms of its components and the mechanisms by which they communicate, but does not discuss policy or design issues that would be necessary to match the model to an actual implementation. Some of these issues are discussed, but more detailed design and simulation work will be necessary before choices can be made.

Day, C.T.; Loken, S.; Macfarlane, J.F. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [and others



Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.

Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.



American Architectural Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those who have scoured the web for architecture sites may have come across the homepage of the American Architectural Foundation (AAF), but those who haven't will find this site to be quite a find. Founded in 1943, the AAF "seeks to educate individuals and community leaders about the power of architecture to improve lives and transform the places where we live, learn, work, and play." Visitors to the site can take advantage of a number of online resources, including their online publications. These publications include findings from their design study charrettes and their investigations into creating effective learning spaces for students in the 21st century. Within the "Video" section of the site, visitors can look at short films made to complement some of their publications. The site is rounded out by the "News" area where visitors can learn about their well-regarded conferences, which include the National Summit on School Design.


Society of Architectural Historians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Society of Architectural Historians (SAH) was founded at Harvard University in 1940 and "promotes the study, interpretation, and conservation of architecture, design, landscapes and urbanism worldwide for the benefit of all." The SAH's outreach programs include the "Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians," an annual conference, study tours, and more. On the homepage, visitors can peruse the SAH News, the Association's informative and creative blog, and the Publications and Research area, which contains some member-only sections. The general public, however, can still take advantage of a number of digital resources here. Resources include the SAH Archipedia Classic Buildings, and external archives, such as the Julia Morgan Collection, Building Canada, and the Drawings & Documents Archive at Ball State University. Finally, visitors may also wish to look over the Jobs and Careers area for information about new and exciting careers in the field.



Moving the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability to a Distributed, Portable Architecture  

SciTech Connect

The Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) has been re-engineered from a Windows application with tight binding between computation and a graphical user interface (GUI) to a new distributed object architecture. The key goals of this new architecture are platform portability, extensibility, deployment flexibility, client-server operations, easy integration with other systems, and support for a new map-based GUI. Selection of Java as the development and runtime environment is the major factor in achieving each of the goals, platform portability in particular. Portability is further enforced by allowing only Java components in the client. Extensibility is achieved via Java's dynamic binding and class loading capabilities and a design by interface approach. HPAC supports deployment on a standalone host, as a heavy client in client-server mode with data stored on the client but calculations performed on the server host, and as a thin client with data and calculations on the server host. The principle architectural element supporting deployment flexibility is the use of Universal Resource Locators (URLs) for all file references. Java WebStart{trademark} is used for thin client deployment. Although there were many choices for the object distribution mechanism, the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) was chosen to support HPAC client server operation. HPAC complies with version 2.0 of the CORBA standard and does not assume support for pass-by-value method arguments. Execution in standalone mode is expedited by having most server objects run in the same process as client objects, thereby bypassing CORBA object transport. HPAC provides four levels for access by other tools and systems, starting with a Windows library providing transport and dispersion (T&D) calculations and output generation, detailed and more abstract sets of CORBA services, and reusable Java components.

Lee, RW



Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

Ringel, Robert F.


Developing a Drama Management Architecture for Interactive Fiction Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing research community is working towards employ- ing drama management components in interactive story-based games. These components gently guide the story towards a narrative arc that improves the player's experience. In this paper we present our Drama Management architecture for real-time interactive story games that has been connected to a real graphical interactive story based on the An- chorhead

Santiago Ontańón; Abhishek Jain; Manish Mehta; Ashwin Ram



Architecture, Fabrication, and Properties of Stretchable MicroElectrode Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential components of a stretchable microelectrode array (SMEA) to record from biological tissue include: a compliant and elastic substrate, stretchable conductors forming active electrodes and traces, and an electrical insulation layer. The materials and architecture of these SMEA components must be biocompatible, resistant to electrolytic environments, and electrically functional during and after mechanical stretching. While rigid MEA systems exist, many

Candice Tsay; Stéphanie P. Lacour; Sigurd Wagner; Barclay Morrison



Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

Ringel, Robert F.


Synergetics and architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of phenomena pertaining to economics, quantum physics, language, literary criticism, and especially architecture is studied from the standpoint of synergetics (the study of self-organizing complex systems). It turns out that a whole series of concrete formulas describing these phenomena is identical in these different situations. This is the case of formulas relating to the Bose-Einstein distribution of particles and the distribution of words from a frequency dictionary. This also allows to apply a “quantized” from of the Zipf law to the problem of the authorship of Quiet Flows the Don and to the “blending in” of new architectural structures in an existing environment.

Maslov, V. P.; Maslova, T. V.



Mindshare: PC System Architecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mindshare is a company that specializes in technical training for a variety of computer technologies. Five short courses can be accessed from the Mindshare home page at no charge, after completing a quick registration. The online courses give an overview of the "PCI-X System Architecture, Rambus, USB 2.0, PCI Power Management, and Infiniband System Architecture." Each of these technologies is introduced with a virtual presentation, which shows video of the speaker and the slides used in the talk. The Web interface is very well designed and easy to use. The presentations range from 45 minutes to over two hours.


The Architecture of the Presynaptic Release Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The architecture of the presynaptic release site is exquisitely designedto facilitate the regulated tethering, docking, and\\u000a fusing of synaptic vesicles withthe plasma membrane. With the identification of some of the building blocks,we are beginning\\u000a to understand the morphologic and functional properties of thesynapse. Presynaptic release sites consist of a plasma membrane,\\u000a a cytomatrix,and dense projections. These three components are morphologically

R. Grace Zhai


Performance Validation of Mobile Software Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design paradigms based on the idea of code mobility have been recently introduced, where components of an application may\\u000a (autonomously or upon request) move to different locations, during the application execution. Besides, software technologies\\u000a are readily available (e.g. Javabased), that provide tools to implement these paradigms. Based on mobile code paradigms and\\u000a technologies, different but functionally equivalent software architectures can

Vincenzo Grassi; Vittorio Cortellessa; Raffaela Mirandola



Generalized Release Planning for Product Line Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper elaborates on the coordination and management of evolving software product-lines, where development teams work around a shared and reusable domain infrastructure. The trend away from monolithic applications and towards component-based, product-line architectures has enabled the development of complex software to be undertaken by autonomous and often, geographically separated teams. To deliver a complete product or product-line requires significant

Louis J. M. Taborda



IDD Archival Hardware Architecture and Workflow  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the functionality of every component in the DHS/IDD archival and storage hardware system shown in Fig. 1. The document describes steps by step process of image data being received at LLNL then being processed and made available to authorized personnel and collaborators. Throughout this document references will be made to one of two figures, Fig. 1 describing the elements of the architecture and the Fig. 2 describing the workflow and how the project utilizes the available hardware.

Mendonsa, D; Nekoogar, F; Martz, H



A VLSI architecture design of CAVLC decoder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable length code is an integral component of many international standards on image and video compression. Recently, context-based adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) is adopted by the emerging JVT (also called H.264 in ITU, and AVC in MPEG-4). In this paper, we describe a novel architecture for CAVLC decoder, including a coeff_token decoder, level decoder, total_zeros decoder and run_before decoder.

Wu Di; Gao Wen; Hu Mingzeng; Ji Zhenzhou



Deriving test plans from architectural descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an approach to derive test plansfor the conformance testing of a system implementationwith respect to the formal description of its SoftwareArchitecture (SA). The SA describes a system in termsof its components and connections, therefore the derivedtest plans address the integration testing phase.We base our approach on a Labelled Transition System(LTS) modeling the SA dynamics, and on suitable

Antonia Bertolino; Flavio Corradini; Henry Muccini



Bridging functional heterogeneity in multicore architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterogeneous processors that mix big high performance cores with small low power cores promise excellent single-threaded performance coupled with high multi-threaded throughput and higher performance-per-watt. A significant portion of the commercial multicore heterogeneous processors are likely to have a common instruction set architecture( ISA). However, due to limited design resources and goals, each core is likely to contain ISA extensions

Dheeraj Reddy; David A. Koufaty; Paul Brett; Scott Hahn



The Clinical Document Architecture and the Continuity of Care Record: A Critical Analysis  

PubMed Central

Health care provides many opportunities in which the sharing of data between independent sites is highly desirable. Several standards are required to produce the functional and semantic interoperability necessary to support the exchange of such data: a common reference information model, a common set of data elements, a common terminology, common data structures, and a common transport standard. This paper addresses one component of that set of standards: the ability to create a document that supports the exchange of structured data components. Unfortunately, two different standards development organizations have produced similar standards for that purpose based on different information models: Health Level 7 (HL7)'s Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) and The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM International) Continuity of Care Record (CCR). The coexistence of both standards might require mapping from one standard to the other, which could be accompanied by a loss of information and functionality. This paper examines and compares the two standards, emphasizes the strengths and weaknesses of each, and proposes a strategy of harmonization to enhance future progress. While some of the authors are members of HL7 and/or ASTM International, the authors stress that the viewpoints represented in this paper are those of the authors and do not represent the official viewpoints of either HL7 or of ASTM International.

Ferranti, Jeffrey M.; Musser, R. Clayton; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Hammond, W. Ed



Software Architecture as a Set of Architectural Design Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software architectures have high costs for change, are complex, and erode during evolution. We believe these problems are partially due to knowledge vaporization. Cur- rently, almost all the knowledge and information about the design decisions the architecture is based on are implicitl y embedded in the architecture, but lack a first-class repre- sentation. Consequently, knowledge about these design de- cisions

Anton Jansen; Jan Bosch



Towards architecture-based self-healing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our approach to creating self-healing systems is based on software architecture, where repairs are done at the level of a software system's components and connectors. In our approach, event-based software architectures are targeted because they offer significant benefits for run-time adaptation. Before an automated planning agent can decide how to repair a self-healing system, a significant infrastructure must be in

Eric M. Dashofy; André van der Hoek; Richard N. Taylor



First international workshop on architectures for software systems workshop summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

As systems become more complex, the high-level organization of the overall system---the software architecture---becomes a critical aspect of design. Architectural concerns include organization of a system as a composition of components; global control structures; protocols for communication, synchronization, and data access; assignment of functionality to design elements; physical distribution; scaling and performance; dimensions of evolution; and selection among design alternatives.Recently,



A Wireless Sensor Network Architecture for Homeland Security Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an innovative wireless sensor network architecture, which has intrinsic reliability and can therefore\\u000a be used for some components of homeland security applications such as intrusion detection. The proposed architecture includes\\u000a a set of communication protocols in the different layers of the model. DTSN is a transport protocol used for reliable data\\u000a transfer and DSDV is a routing

António Grilo; Krzysztof Piotrowski; Peter Langendoerfer; Augusto Casaca



A Component-Based Framework for Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulations of Reactive Fluid Flow in Porous Media.  

SciTech Connect

The development of a framework to support smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of fluid flow and transport in porous media is described. The framework is built using the Common Component Architecture (CCA) toolkit and supports SPH simulations using a variety of different SPH models and setup formats. The SPH simulation code is decomposed into independent components that represent self-contained units of functionality. Different physics models can be developed within the framework by re-implementing key components but no modification of other components is required. The model for defining components and developing abstract interfaces for them that support a high degree of modularity and minimal dependencies between components is discussed in detail.

Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Palmer, Bruce J.



Daylight in architecture  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive explanation of the architectural design potential of daylight is presented. The value of daylighting is demonstrated, the principles and techniques for its implementation are explained, and examples of successful daylighting in current building construction are presented. The potential energy/cost savings gained from the proper use of daylight are explored. Case studies of buildings with good daylighting design are analyzed. (MCW)

Evans, B.H.



The IVOA Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will present the official and current International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) Architecture, describing the various building blocks of the Virtual Observatory (VO) framework and their relation to all existing and in-progress IVOA standards. Additionally, it will show examples of these standards in action, connecting VO “providers” to VO “consumers”.

Arviset, C.; Gaudet, S.; IVOA TCG




Microsoft Academic Search

In the frame of integrated architectural design, the structural building design plays a most decisive role in supporting the areas of interdisciplinary development as regards form, construction and energy efficiency of the building. In earthquake endangered areas the design of the structure includes an additional level of complexity within the integral development, for achieving from an early design stage optimized

M. C. Phocas


Architectural Principles of the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data stream management systems (DSMSs) receive large overheads when queries directly access the serial non-indexed incoming stream. Our novel architecture, presented in this work, addresses this problem by indexing the incoming dataflow based on a specially designed data structure. The role of this data structure is as fundamental for our DSMS as the role of a relation in a relational

Panayiotis Adamos Michael; Douglas Stott Parker Jr.




Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The study focused on problems, drivers and priorities for information architecture and management of electronic information, especially records, in the Swedish financial sector. In the theoretical framework ,it is stressed that in order ,to develop ,effective eservices in any type of organisation it is necessary to not only to focus on business,and technological infrastructure, but also to develop efficient

Hĺkan P. Sundberg; Patrik Wallin


Architecture as canvas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities are increasingly becoming vessels of consumption, while various opportunities for production of space and public expression are taken away from the city's inhabitants. New architectural interventions often disregard a site's previously developed character and further aid in wiping away memories closely related to a city's cultural past. Banja Luka, the second largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, has been

Monika Blazenovic



Architecture, meaning and significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, the arts have been divided into the representational and the abstract. Representational arts are those which are about the world, such as painting and literature; abstract arts are those which are not, such as architecture and music. It is possible to describe the ways in which a representational art is ‘about the world’ and so to define its content,

Edward Winters



Geometric Shapes in Architecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit designed to improve students' understanding and appreciation of basic geometric shapes used in architecture. It describes various plane geometric figures and discusses in detail the properties of several of these figures. Perimeters and areas of polygons and circles are computed.

Fox, Lauretta J.



GNU debugger internal architecture  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the internal and architecture and implementation of the GNU debugger, gdb. Topics include inferior process management, command execution, symbol table management and remote debugging. Call graphs for specific functions are supplied. This document is not a complete description but offers a developer an overview which is the place to start before modification.

Miller, P.; Nessett, D. [eds.; Pizzi, R.



Building Foundations in Architecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the benefits of teaching architecture to gifted students and describes a unit implemented in elementary gifted classrooms. Student activities included researching architects' styles, creating model-building exteriors out of mixed media, creating floor plans, designing interiors, and brainstorming with resource people from fields related…

Pentecost, C. Houston



System Building and Architecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The technical director of the Metropolitan Toronto School Boards Study of Educational Facilities (SEF) presents a description of the general theory and execution of the first SEF building system, and his views on the general principles of system building as they might affect architecture and the economy. (TC)

Robbie, Roderick G.


Architectural Layout Design Optimization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This joint effort between architecture and mechanical engineering researchers at the University of Michigan applied geometrical and topological optimization techniques to building floorplan layout. In the course of their research, they developed an optimization tool that is briefly described and can be downloaded from a Web site given in the paper.

Michalek, Jeremy J.; Choudhary, Ruchi; Papalambros, Panos Y.



Climate and Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the beginning of time, man has been affected by climate and its influence over the earth. The first humans built shelters and lived in caves to protect themselves from the weather elements. However, the first documentation of architectural design with climate interests in mind dates back to fourth century B.C. in Greece. The philosopher Vitruvius is quoted as saying,

Lauren Turner


Nuclear reactor architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architecture is presented for nuclear reactors. A special feature is ; that the prestressed concrete vessel presents a shouldering for the support of ; the weight bearing structures. This shouldering is positioned between the inner ; face and the floor of the reactor intended to contain the core. This shouldering ; can be formed by reducing the diameter of the




Quantum Circuit Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method for optimizing quantum circuits architecture, based on the notion of a quantum comb, which describes a circuit board where one can insert variable subcircuits. Unexplored quantum processing tasks, such as cloning and storing or retrieving of gates, can be optimized, along with setups for tomography and discrimination or estimation of quantum circuits.

Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.



Specifying Distributed Software Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a real need for clear and sound design specifications of distributed systems at the architectural level. This is the level of the design which deals with the high-level organisation of computational elements and the interactions between those elements. The paper presents the Darwin notation for specifying this high-level organisation. Darwin is in essence a declarative binding language which

Jeff Magee; Naranker Dulay; Susan Eisenbach; Jeff Kramer



TSAT network architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Transformational Satellite Communications System (TSAT) is poised to become the DoD's next generation protected and processed satellite system. This paper describes the network architecture of the TSAT system. The presence of a high capacity IP router on the satellite pay- load is a key distinguishing feature of the TSAT system. The TSAT pay load also provides RF and optical

J. Pulliam; Y. Zambre; A. Karmarkar; V. Mehta; J. Touch; J. Haines; M. Everett



TRIPTYCH: A New FPGA Architecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Existing FPGA architectures can be classified along two dimensions: reprogrammable vs. one-time programmable and general-purpose vs. domain specific. The most challenging class of FPGA architectures to design is the reprogrammable, general-purpose FPGA, o...

C. Ebeling D. Song E. A. Walkup G. Borriello S. A. Hauck



An Experiment in Architectural Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the application of the PLATO IV computer-based educational system to a one-semester basic drawing course for freshman architecture, landscape architecture, and interior design students and relates student reactions to the experience. (RAO)

Dvorak, Robert W.



Memory performance of Prolog architectures  

SciTech Connect

Memory Performance of Prolog Architectures addresses these problems and reports dynamic data and instruction referencing characteristics of both sequential and parallel prolog architectures and corresponding uni-processor and multi-processor memory-hierarchy performance tradeoffs. Computer designers and logic programmers will find this work to be a valuable reference with many practical applications. Memory Performance of Prolog Architectures will also serve as an important textbook for graduate level courses in computer architecture and/or performance analysis.

Tick, E.



Parallel supercomputing with commodity components  

SciTech Connect

We have implemented a parallel computer architecture based entirely upon commodity personal computer components. Using 16 Intel Pentium Pro microprocessors and switched fast ethernet as a communication fabric, we have obtained sustained performance on scientific applications in excess of one Gigaflop. During one production astrophysics treecode simulation, we performed 1.2 x 10{sup 15} floating point operations (1.2 Petaflops) over a three week period, with one phase of that simulation running continuously for two weeks without interruption. We report on a variety of disk, memory and network benchmarks. We also present results from the NAS parallel benchmark suite, which indicate that this architecture is competitive with current commercial architectures. In addition, we describe some software written to support efficient message passing, as well as a Linux device driver interface to the Pentium hardware performance monitoring registers.

Warren, M.S.; Goda, M.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Becker, D.J. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [and others



Design and implementation of an RSVP-based quality of service architecture for an integrated services Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is currently in the process of overhauling the architecture of the Internet to meet new challenges and support new applications. One of the most important components of that venture is the enhancement of the Internet service model from a classless best effort service architecture to an integrated services architecture supporting a multitude of classes

Tsipora P. Barzilai; Dilip D. Kandlur; Ashish Mehra; Debanjan Saha



The Security Architecture of qmail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The architecture of qmail was carefully designed to overcome the security problems of sendmail. However, qmail is not only more secure than sendmail, it is also more efficient and easier to understand. Thus, the architecture is able to accomplish several goals at once. The security of qmail is based on a few patterns, and understanding its architecture can help us

Munawar Hafiz; Ralph E Johnson; Raja Afandi


Integrated cognitive architectures: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to present an account of the state of the art research in the fleld of integrated cognitive architectures by providing a review of six cognitive architectures, namely Soar, ACT-R, ICARUS, BDI, the subsumption architecture and CLARION. We conduct a detailed functional comparison by looking at a wide range of cognitive com- ponents, including perception, memory, goal representation,

Hui-Qing Chong; Ah-Hwee Tan; Gee-Wah Ng



ADLs and dynamic architecture changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing ADLs typically support only static architecture specifica- tion and do not provide facilities for the support of dynamically changing architectures. This paper presents a possible solution to this problem: in order to adequately support dynamic architecture changes, ADLs can leverage techniques used in dynamic program- ming languages. In particular, changes to ADL specifications should be interpreted. To enable interpretation,

Nenad Medvidovic



Architecture Exploration Using Performance Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying performance modeling methodologies at higher levels of abstraction can significantly reduce the time for architecture exploration. System-level simulation models can be used to evaluate architecture alternatives and a few successful ones can be selected based on some predefined system-level performance goals. This should result in significant reduction in the product development cycle, since only the successful architecture alternatives will

Abu Asaduzzaman; Vermont Rutherfoord; Imad Mahgoub



Architectural Adventures in Your Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to architecture's complexity, it can be challenging to develop lessons for the students, and consequently, the teaching of architecture is frequently overlooked. Every community has an architectural history. For example, the community in which the author's students live has a variety of historic houses from when the community originated (the…

Henn, Cynthia A.



Performance Engineering Technology for Scientific Component Software  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale, complex scientific applications are beginning to benefit from the use of component software design methodology and technology for software development. Integral to the success of component-based applications is the ability to achieve high-performing code solutions through the use of performance engineering tools for both intra-component and inter-component analysis and optimization. Our work on this project aimed to develop performance engineering technology for scientific component software in association with the DOE CCTTSS SciDAC project (active during the contract period) and the broader Common Component Architecture (CCA) community. Our specific implementation objectives were to extend the TAU performance system and Program Database Toolkit (PDT) to support performance instrumentation, measurement, and analysis of CCA components and frameworks, and to develop performance measurement and monitoring infrastructure that could be integrated in CCA applications. These objectives have been met in the completion of all project milestones and in the transfer of the technology into the continuing CCA activities as part of the DOE TASCS SciDAC2 effort. In addition to these achievements, over the past three years, we have been an active member of the CCA Forum, attending all meetings and serving in several working groups, such as the CCA Toolkit working group, the CQoS working group, and the Tutorial working group. We have contributed significantly to CCA tutorials since SC'04, hosted two CCA meetings, participated in the annual ACTS workshops, and were co-authors on the recent CCA journal paper [24]. There are four main areas where our project has delivered results: component performance instrumentation and measurement, component performance modeling and optimization, performance database and data mining, and online performance monitoring. This final report outlines the achievements in these areas for the entire project period. The submitted progress reports for the first two years describe those year's achievements in detail. We discuss progress in the last project period in this document. Deployment of our work in CCA components, frameworks, and applications is an important metric of success. We also summarize the project's accomplishments in this regard at the end of the report. A list of project publications is also given.

Malony, Allen D.



Overview of Digital Library Components and Developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital libraries are being built upon a firm foundation of prior work as the high-end information systems of the future. A component architecture approach is becoming popular, with well established support for key components like the repository, especially through the Open Archives Initiative. We consider digital objects, metadata, harvesting, indexing, searching, browsing, rights management, linking, and powerful interfaces. Flexible interaction

Edward A. Fox


Advanced visualization technology project (AVTP): an architecture for visualization using remote parallel/distributed computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles of scalable computing have been used in an investigation of the application of high speed data networks and remote computer resources in providing visualization tools for research and development activities. The architecture of a distributed visualization system that can utilize either shared memory or message passing paradigms is described. The three components of the system can be physically separated if network communication is provided. A flexible data cache server is used to accommodate newly computed data or data from an earlier experiment or computation. An image specification toolset, implemented for parallel/distributed architectures using PVM, includes methods of calculating common visualization forms such as vector fields, surfaces or streamlines from cache data. An image generation library, implemented for workstations and high performance PCs, receives the data objects and provides investigators with flexibility in image display. The system has been operated with several combinations of distributed and parallel processor machines connected by networks of different bandwidths and capacities. Observations on the performance and flexibility of different system architectures are given.

Franke, Ernest A.; Huffman, Stephen D.; Carter, William M.; Baumgartner, Joseph P.; Wenzel, Dennis J.



COREBA (cognition-oriented emergent behavior architecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, many behavior implementation technologies are available for modeling human behaviors in Department of Defense (DOD) computerized systems. However, it is commonly known that any single currently adopted behavior implementation technology is not so capable of fully representing complex and dynamic human decision-making and cognition behaviors. The author views that the current situation can be greatly improved if multiple technologies are integrated within a well designed overarching architecture that amplifies the merits of each of the participating technologies while suppressing the limitations that are inherent with each of the technologies. COREBA uses an overarching behavior integration architecture that makes the multiple implementation technologies cooperate in a homogeneous environment while collectively transcending the limitations associated with the individual implementation technologies. Specifically, COREBA synergistically integrates Artificial Intelligence and Complex Adaptive System under Rational Behavior Model multi-level multi- paradigm behavior architecture. This paper will describe applicability of COREBA in DOD domain, behavioral capabilities and characteristics of COREBA and how the COREBA architectural integrates various behavior implementation technologies.

Kwak, S. David



Tool support for architecture analysis and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The needs of software architectural design and analysis have led to a desire to create CASE tools to support the processes. Such a tool should help: to document an architecture; to reuse architectural artifacts; to aid in exploring architectural alternatives; and to support architectural metrics. This position paper first presents a set of requirements that an ideal tool for architectural

Rick Kazman



Assessing root traits associated with root rot resistance in common bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting differences in root architecture and growth patterns among common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes may provide unique selection criteria for genetic resistance to Fusarium root rot. Genetic variation in root system architecture was quantified for 10 contrasting bean genotypes that represent four common bean classes (kidney, cranberry, black, and snap bean) under greenhouse conditions and under root rot disease

B Román-Avilés; S. S Snapp; J. D Kelly



The Research of Soft Component Library Based on Cloud Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aimed at the problems that have appeared in the component library (CL) development at present, this paper introduces a distributed CL system based on cloud computing technology. The architecture and retrieval model of this system are also introduced. It can nicely meet the need of component retrieval for component requester through many distributed component base.

Hongyan Zhao; Yingjun Zhang; Jiangfeng Liu



Canadian Architectural Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Canadian Architectural Archives were established in 1974 as a joint venture between the University of Calgary Library and the Faculty of Environmental Design. The site contains a great deal of information about their holdings and collection, but most visitors will want to click directly over to their "Online Collections" area. Here visitors will find the Panda Digital Image Bank, the Donovan & Williams Canadian Church Collection, and the Calgary Modern Site Survey. The Panda Digital Image Bank collection contains over a million images from the twentieth century. Visitors can search the Image Bank as they see fit, or they may wish to look over some of the thematic headings as well. The Church Collection contain over 500 images of Canadian churches taken during the early 1990s and the Modern Site Survey offers up several hundred architectural images taken in 2004.


Novel Payload Architectures for LISA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the current LISA Mission Formulation Study, and based on prior internal investigations, Astrium Germany has defined and preliminary assessed novel payload architectures, potentially reducing overall complexity and improving budgets and costs. A promising concept is characterized by a single active inertial sensor attached to a single optical bench and serving both adjacent interferometer arms via two rigidly connected off-axis telescopes. The in-plane triangular constellation ``breathing angle'' compensation is accomplished by common telescope in-field of view pointing actuation of the transmit/received beams line of sight. A dedicated actuation mechanism located on the optical bench is required in addition to the on bench actuators for differential pointing of the transmit and receive direction perpendicular to the constellation plane. Both actuators operate in a sinusoidal yearly period. A technical challenge is the actuation mechanism pointing jitter and the monitoring and calibration of the laser phase walk which occurs while changing the optical path inside the optical assembly during re-pointing. Calibration or monitoring of instrument internal phase effects e.g. by a laser metrology truss derived from the existing interferometry is required. The architecture exploits in full the two-step interferometry (strap down) concept, separating functionally inter spacecraft and intra-spacecraft interferometry (reference mass laser metrology degrees of freedom sensing). The single test mass is maintained as cubic, but in free-fall in the lateral degrees of freedom within the constellation plane. Also the option of a completely free spherical test mass with full laser interferometer readout has been conceptually investigated. The spherical test mass would rotate slowly, and would be allowed to tumble. Imperfections in roundness and density would be calibrated from differential wave front sensing in a tetrahedral arrangement, supported by added attitude information via a grid of tick marks etched onto the surface and monitored by the laser readout.

Johann, Ulrich A.; Gath, Peter F.; Holota, Wolfgang; Schulte, Hans Reiner; Weise, Dennis



Information systems definition architecture  

SciTech Connect

The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Systems Definition architecture evaluated information Management (IM) processes in several key organizations. The intent of the study is to identify improvements in TWRS IM processes that will enable better support to the TWRS mission, and accommodate changes in TWRS business environment. The ultimate goals of the study are to reduce IM costs, Manage the configuration of TWRS IM elements, and improve IM-related process performance.

Calapristi, A.J.



TRUMPET service management architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the service-level management architecture, developed to support the aims of the TRUMPET (DGXIIIB, AC112) project: to investigate secure, high integrity interactions between administratively separate bodies providing broadband telecommunications services. To investigate these issues a system was designed that included a number of players interacting over a mixture of technologies-i.e. Java, CMIP and CORBA. These technologies are used

L. Sacks; O. Prnjat; M. Wittig; M. M. Kande; B. Bhushan; S. Mazaher; C. Autant



Wireless Communications Architecture for \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a next-generation architecture for wireless communications, based on mobile phone carriers (GPRS) and\\u000a broadband (WiFi), developed for the field of railways and enabling “train-to-earth” communications. This communication channel\\u000a aims to complement traditional railway communication systems and its benefits make the deployment of new services, such as\\u000a passenger oriented services, possible. Moreover, the result of this work is

Itziar Salaberria; Roberto Carballedo; Unai Gutierrez; Asier Perallos



ERA: Evolving Reconfigurable Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new paradigm to design computer systems called evolving reconfigurable architecture (ERA) is proposed. Several holistic principles are introduced and pursued through the ERA design cycle. We show how reconfigurability is implemented at the level of hardware elements and system software structure. Two new models: (i) graph-logic and (ii) control-data-predicate are introduced and applied in the ERA. We propose a

Igor Schagaev; Thomas Kaegi-Trachsel; Jürg Gutknecht



Irregular Applications: Architectures & Algorithms  

SciTech Connect

Irregular applications are characterized by irregular data structures, control and communication patterns. Novel irregular high performance applications which deal with large data sets and require have recently appeared. Unfortunately, current high performance systems and software infrastructures executes irregular algorithms poorly. Only coordinated efforts by end user, area specialists and computer scientists that consider both the architecture and the software stack may be able to provide solutions to the challenges of modern irregular applications.

Feo, John T.; Villa, Oreste; Tumeo, Antonino; Secchi, Simone



The CONNECT Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Current solutions to interoperability remain limited with respect to highly dynamic and heterogeneous environments, where\\u000a systems encounter one another spontaneously. In this chapter, we introduce the Connect architecture, which puts forward a fundamentally different method to tackle the interoperability problem. The philosophy\\u000a is to observe networked systems in action, learn their behaviour and then dynamically generate mediator software which will

Paul Grace; Nikolaos Georgantas; Amel Bennaceur; Gordon Blair; Franck Chauvel; Valérie Issarny; Massimo Paolucci; Rachid Saadi; Betrand Souville; Daniel Sykes


The Architecture of Personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a theoretical framework for analyzing psychological systems that contribute to the variability, consistency, and cross-situational coherence of personality functioning. In the proposed knowledge-and-appraisal personality architecture (KAPA), personality structures and processes are delineated by combining 2 principles: distinctions (a) between knowledge structures and appraisal processes and (b) among intentional cognitions with varying directions of fit, with the latter

Daniel Cervone



VLSI architectures and CAD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topics addressed include: Bit Serial vs Word Parallel Computers; Development of Wirelisp; Simframe: A Framework for Multimode Simulation; Behavioral Representation of Digital Systems; Timing Optimization of Multi-phase Sequential Logic; Adaptive Scripts for MIS; A Demonstration of the APEX Architecture; A Hardware Data Compressor; Reconfigurable Logic Arrays; Work on a Low Cost Testing Environment; Wirelisp: Graphical Programs for Digital System Design; and Ohmics: A Program to Check Ohmic Contacts.

Snyder, Lawrence



Optimum component test plans for systems with dependent components  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unrealistic and very restrictive assumption of component testing models in the literature is the stochastic independence of the components. The independence assumption is hardly true for a complex system where all components operate under the same environmental conditions which may change randomly in time. We consider such a model where stochastic dependence is due to the common environment that

?. Kuban Altinel; Süleyman Özekici



A Software Architecture for High Level Applications  

SciTech Connect

A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.




A resource management architecture for metacomputing systems.  

SciTech Connect

Metacomputing systems are intended to support remote and/or concurrent use of geographically distributed computational resources. Resource management in such systems is complicated by five concerns that do not typically arise in other situations: site autonomy and heterogeneous substrates at the resources, and application requirements for policy extensibility, co-allocation, and online control. We describe a resource management architecture that addresses these concerns. This architecture distributes the resource management problem among distinct local manager, resource broker, and resource co-allocator components and defines an extensible resource specification language to exchange information about requirements. We describe how these techniques have been implemented in the context of the Globus metacomputing toolkit and used to implement a variety of different resource management strategies. We report on our experiences applying our techniques in a large testbed, GUSTO, incorporating 15 sites, 330 computers, and 3600 processors.

Czajkowski, K.; Foster, I.; Karonis, N.; Kesselman, C.; Martin, S.; Smith, W.; Tuecke, S.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli is a serious seedborne disease limiting common bean production worldwide. Genetic resistance is the most important component of integrated strategies including planting pathogen-free seed, crop rotation, and chemical applications,...


Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus On Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed as a public online resource by the Getty Institute, the Art and Architecture Thesaurus is a structured vocabulary containing 125,000 terms and other information that may be used to describe art, architecture, decorative arts, material culture, and archival materials. Each record within the Thesaurus is returned as a concept, which in turn, is linked to various terms, related concepts, sources for the data, and notes. For example, if a user types in the term "gargoyle," all of this valuable information is returned, including a chart that notes the terms hierarchical position within the Thesaurus. An online help feature will assist first-time visitors get better acquainted with the system, and a FAQ section provides answers to a number of common queries. Finally, users can provide feedback to the editors via an online form. [KMG


Architectures, Components, and Subsystems for Future Optical Packet Switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly increasing network traffic is posing a challenge to the construction of future routers. While high-capacity transport has kept pace with rising traffic demands through the use of dense wavelength-division multiplexing, the scaling of core routers is slowed by power density limits and complexity and interconnectivity issues. Optical switching has the potential to overcome these scaling restrictions, and as a

Jurgen Gripp; Jesse E. Simsarian; Jane D. LeGrange; Pietro G. Bernasconi; David T. Neilson



Automatic generation of application-specific architectures for heterogeneous multiprocessor system-on-chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a design flow for the generation of application-specific multiprocessor architectures. In the flow, architectural parameters are first extracted from a high-level system specification. Parameters are used to instantiate architectural components, such as processors, memory modules and communication networks. The flow includes the automatic generation of communication coprocessor that adapts the processor to the communication network in an application-specific

Damien Lyonnard; Sungjoo Yoo; Amer Baghdadi; Ahmed Amine Jerraya



Performance evaluation of network processor architectures: combining simulation with analytical estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of most systems-on-a-chip (SoC) architectures rely on simulation as a means for performance estimation. Such designs usually start with a parameterizable template architecture, and the design space exploration is restricted to identifyi ng the suitable parameters for all the ar- chitectural components. However, in the case of heterogeneous SoC architectures such as network processors the design space exploration

Samarjit Chakraborty; Simon Künzli; Lothar Thiele; Andreas Herkersdorf; Patricia Sagmeister



Architecture as a craft: architecture, drawing, model and position  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen essays in 'Architecture as a craft' present a vision of the architectural discipline in which the essence is sought in craft itself.\\u000aThe book is based on the eponymous symposium that the Delft University of Technology held at the Faculty of Architecture from May 13 to June 4, 2009.\\u000a\\u000aThe texts can be divided into three main groups:\\u000a1.

A. S. Alkan; E. Altürk; J. De Vylder; S. Fujimoto; C. Gantenbein; K. Geers; G. Grassi; M. Linder; M. Maltzan; S. Milani; J. Ockman; G. Pasquarelli; M. Riedijk; O. M. Ungers; E. Walker



OXC management and control system architecture with scalability, maintenance, and distributed managing environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present the Optical Cross-Connect (OXC) Management Control System Architecture, which has the scalability and robust maintenance and provides the distributed managing environment in the optical transport network. The OXC system we are developing, which is divided into the hardware and the internal and external software for the OXC system, is made up the OXC subsystem with the Optical Transport Network (OTN) sub-layersí» hardware and the optical switch control system, the signaling control protocol subsystem performing the User-to-Network Interface (UNI) and Network-to-Network Interface (NNI) signaling control, the Operation Administration Maintenance & Provisioning (OAM&P) subsystem, and the network management subsystem. And the OXC management control system has the features that can support the flexible expansion of the optical transport network, provide the connectivity to heterogeneous external network elements, be added or deleted without interrupting OAM&P services, be remotely operated, provide the global view and detail information for network planner and operator, and have Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) based the open system architecture adding and deleting the intelligent service networking functions easily in future. To meet these considerations, we adopt the object oriented development method in the whole developing steps of the system analysis, design, and implementation to build the OXC management control system with the scalability, the maintenance, and the distributed managing environment. As a consequently, the componentification for the OXC operation management functions of each subsystem makes the robust maintenance, and increases code reusability. Also, the component based OXC management control system architecture will have the flexibility and scalability in nature.

Park, Soomyung; Joo, Seong-Soon; Yae, Byung-Ho; Lee, Jong-Hyun



Parallel architecture for real-time simulation. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis is concerned with the development of a very fast and highly efficient parallel computer architecture for real-time simulation of continuous systems. Currently, several parallel processing systems exist that may be capable of executing a complex simulation in real-time. These systems are examined and the pros and cons of each system discussed. The thesis then introduced a custom-designed parallel architecture based upon The University of Alabama's OPERA architecture. Each component of this system is discussed and rationale presented for its selection. The problem selected, real-time simulation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine for the test and evaluation of the proposed architecture, is explored, identifying the areas where parallelism can be exploited and parallel processing applied. Results from the test and evaluation phase are presented and compared with the results of the same problem that has been processed on a uniprocessor system.

Cockrell, C.D.



Developing traveler information systems using the National ITS Architecture  

SciTech Connect

The document focuses on traveler information systems, a component of ITS. It aims to provide practical help for the transportation community with deploying traveler information systems in an integrated, multimodal environment using the National ITS Architecture. ITS is the application of management strategies and technologies to increase the efficiency and safety of national, regional, and local surface transportation systems. This document covers the basics of traveler information ITS applications (including public-private partnerships), the role the National ITS Architecture can play in traveler information system project development, the development process for a regional architecture, some challenges faced by transportation management agencies, and some best practices and lessons learned for developing and deploying advanced traveler information systems. The regional architecture will indicate how current and future systems in the region may be integrated to obtain the added benefits available through integration of these systems.




Common Control System Vulnerability  

SciTech Connect

The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the control system processes and functions. With the detailed knowledge of how the control data functions, as well as what computers and devices communicate using this data, the attacker can use a well known Man-in-the-Middle attack to perform malicious operations virtually undetected. The control systems assessment teams have used this method to gather enough information about the system to craft an attack that intercepts and changes the information flow between the end devices (controllers) and the human machine interface (HMI and/or workstation). Using this attack, the cyber assessment team has been able to demonstrate complete manipulation of devices in control systems while simultaneously modifying the data flowing back to the operator's console to give false information of the state of the system (known as ''spoofing''). This is a very effective technique for a control system attack because it allows the attacker to manipulate the system and the operator's situational awareness of the perceived system status. The three main elements of this attack technique are: (1) network reconnaissance and data gathering, (2) reverse engineering, and (3) the Man-in-the-Middle attack. The details of this attack technique and the mitigation techniques are discussed.

Trent Nelson



System-Level Bus-Based Communication Architecture Exploration Using a Pseudoparallel Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing complexity in system-on-a-chip (SoC) design demands effective approaches to explore various architectures quickly for the target applications. With the common use of intellectual properties (IPs) in SoC and the large amount of data interchanges among IPs, communication architecture significantly affects the system in terms of power and performance. Therefore, designers should carefully plan the communication architecture to meet the

Lih-Yih Chiou; Yi-Siou Chen; Chih-Hsien Lee



Milsatcom intersatellite link architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is great interest within the military satellite communication community to establish standards for both inter- and intraservice communication. The adoption of standards allows not only interoperability, crucial in times of crises, but also promises to reduce procurement, maintenance, and operational costs associated with a variety of Milsatcom missions. For such reasons, both low and high data rate standards for uplink, downlink, and intersatellite link (ISL) services are currently being developed. This paper summarizes the results of recent ISL trade studies including a potential standard ISL architecture for inclusion in future Milsatcom systems.

Vaddiparty, S. V.; Price, K. M.; Heckert, G. P.; Wright, C. H. G.



American Institute of Architecture Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The AIAS is an independent, non-profit and student-run organization. This grassroots association is a cooperative between thousands of students (of all ages and academic degrees) committed to helping those in the field of Architecture. The AIAS is also a professional organization that is the official voice of architecture students. The site contains a few select sites in their Speak Up section that highlight member sites related to architectural design. Furthermore, in the student resources section they provide helpful tools for current and prospective architecture students.



Adaptive mode transition control architecture with an application to unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, an architecture for the adaptive mode transition control of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) is presented. The proposed architecture consists of three levels: the highest level is occupied by mission planning routines where information about way points the vehicle must follow is processed. The middle level uses a trajectory generation component to coordinate the task execution and provides

Luis Benigno Gutierrez Zea



Architecture of human telomerase RNA  

PubMed Central

Telomerase is a unique reverse transcriptase that catalyzes the addition of telomere DNA repeats onto the 3? ends of linear chromosomes and plays a critical role in maintaining genome stability. Unlike other reverse transcriptases, telomerase is unique in that it is a ribonucleoprotein complex, where the RNA component [telomerase RNA (TR)] not only provides the template for the synthesis of telomere DNA repeats but also plays essential roles in catalysis, accumulation, TR 3?-end processing, localization, and holoenzyme assembly. Biochemical studies have identified TR elements essential for catalysis that share remarkably conserved secondary structures across different species as well as species-specific domains for other functions, paving the way for high-resolution structure determination of TRs. Over the past decade, structures of key elements from the core, conserved regions 4 and 5, and small Cajal body specific RNA domains of human TR have emerged, providing significant insights into the roles of these RNA elements in telomerase function. Structures of all helical elements of the core domain have been recently reported, providing the basis for a high-resolution model of the complete core domain. We review this progress to determine the overall architecture of human telomerase RNA.

Zhang, Qi; Kim, Nak-Kyoon; Feigon, Juli



Benchmarking massively parallel architectures  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to summarize some initial experiences related to measuring the performance of massively parallel processors (MPPs) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Actually, the range of MPP architectures the authors have used is rather limited, being confined mostly to the Thinking Machines Corporation (TMC) Connection Machine CM-2 and CM-5. Some very preliminary work has been carried out on the Kendall Square KSR-1, and efforts related to other machines, such as the Intel Paragon and the soon-to-be-released CRAY T3D are planned. This paper will concentrate more on methodology rather than discuss specific architectural strengths and weaknesses; the latter is expected to be the subject of future reports. MPP benchmarking is a field in critical need of structure and definition. As the authors have stated previously, such machines have enormous potential, and there is certainly a dire need for orders of magnitude computational power over current supercomputers. However, performance reports for MPPs must emphasize actual sustainable performance from real applications in a careful, responsible manner. Such has not always been the case. A recent paper has described in some detail, the problem of potentially misleading performance reporting in the parallel scientific computing field. Thus, in this paper, the authors briefly offer a few general ideas on MPP performance analysis.

Lubeck, O.; Moore, J.; Simmons, M.; Wasserman, H.



Benchmarking massively parallel architectures  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to summarize some initial experiences related to measuring the performance of massively parallel processors (MPPs) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Actually, the range of MPP architectures the authors have used is rather limited, being confined mostly to the Thinking Machines Corporation (TMC) Connection Machine CM-2 and CM-5. Some very preliminary work has been carried out on the Kendall Square KSR-1, and efforts related to other machines, such as the Intel Paragon and the soon-to-be-released CRAY T3D are planned. This paper will concentrate more on methodology rather than discuss specific architectural strengths and weaknesses; the latter is expected to be the subject of future reports. MPP benchmarking is a field in critical need of structure and definition. As the authors have stated previously, such machines have enormous potential, and there is certainly a dire need for orders of magnitude computational power over current supercomputers. However, performance reports for MPPs must emphasize actual sustainable performance from real applications in a careful, responsible manner. Such has not always been the case. A recent paper has described in some detail, the problem of potentially misleading performance reporting in the parallel scientific computing field. Thus, in this paper, the authors briefly offer a few general ideas on MPP performance analysis.

Lubeck, O.; Moore, J.; Simmons, M.; Wasserman, H.



The Ensembl Computing Architecture  

PubMed Central

Ensembl is a software project to automatically annotate large eukaryotic genomes and release them freely into the public domain. The project currently automatically annotates 10 complete genomes. This makes very large demands on compute resources, due to the vast number of sequence comparisons that need to be executed. To circumvent the financial outlay often associated with classical supercomputing environments, farms of multiple, lower-cost machines have now become the norm and have been deployed successfully with this project. The architecture and design of farms containing hundreds of compute nodes is complex and nontrivial to implement. This study will define and explain some of the essential elements to consider when designing such systems. Server architecture and network infrastructure are discussed with a particular emphasis on solutions that worked and those that did not (often with fairly spectacular consequences). The aim of the study is to give the reader, who may be implementing a large-scale biocompute project, an insight into some of the pitfalls that may be waiting ahead.

Cuff, James A.; Coates, Guy M.P.; Cutts, Tim J.R.; Rae, Mark



Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture  

SciTech Connect

Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) engineers John Zimmerman and Tom Bender directed separate projects within this CRADA. This Project Accomplishments Summary contains their reports independently. Zimmerman: In 1998 Honeywell FM&T partnered with the Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Cooperative Business Management Program to pilot the Supply Chain Integration Planning Prototype (SCIP). At the time, FM&T was developing an enterprise-wide supply chain management prototype called the Integrated Programmatic Scheduling System (IPSS) to improve the DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) supply chain. In the CRADA partnership, FM&T provided the IPSS technical and business infrastructure as a test bed for SCIP technology, and this would provide FM&T the opportunity to evaluate SCIP as the central schedule engine and decision support tool for IPSS. FM&T agreed to do the bulk of the work for piloting SCIP. In support of that aim, DAMA needed specific DOE Defense Programs opportunities to prove the value of its supply chain architecture and tools. In this partnership, FM&T teamed with Sandia National Labs (SNL), Division 6534, the other DAMA partner and developer of SCIP. FM&T tested SCIP in 1998 and 1999. Testing ended in 1999 when DAMA CRADA funding for FM&T ceased. Before entering the partnership, FM&T discovered that the DAMA SCIP technology had an array of applications in strategic, tactical, and operational planning and scheduling. At the time, FM&T planned to improve its supply chain performance by modernizing the NWC-wide planning and scheduling business processes and tools. The modernization took the form of a distributed client-server planning and scheduling system (IPSS) for planners and schedulers to use throughout the NWC on desktops through an off-the-shelf WEB browser. The planning and scheduling process within the NWC then, and today, is a labor-intensive paper-based method that plans and schedules more than 8,000 shipped parts per month based on more than 50 manually-created document types. The fact that DAMA and FM&T desired to move from paper-based manual architectures to digitally based computer architectures gave further incentive for the partnership to grow. FM&T's greatest strength was its knowledge of NWC-wide scheduling and planning with its role as the NWC leader in manufacturing logistics. DAMA's asset was its new knowledge gained in the research and development of advanced architectures and tools for supply chain management in the textiles industry. These complimentary strengths allowed the two parties to provide both the context and the tools for the pilot. Bender: Honeywell FM&T participated in a four-site supply chain project, also referred to as an Inter-Enterprise Pipeline Evaluation. The MSAD project was selected because it involves four NWC sites: FM&T, Pantex, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). FM&T had previously participated with Los Alamos National Laboratory in FY98 to model a two-site supply chain project, between FM&T and LANL. Evaluation of a Supply Chain Methodology is a subset of the DAMA project for the AMTEX consortium. LANL organization TSA-7, Enterprise Modeling and Simulation, has been involved in AMTEX and DAMA through development of process models and simulations for LANL, the NWC, and others. The FY 1998 and this FY 1999 projects directly involved collaboration between Honeywell and the Enterprise Modeling and Simulation (TSA-7) and Detonation Science and Technology (DX1) organizations at LANL.

Bender, T.R.; Zimmerman, J.J.



Evaluating software architectures: development, stability, and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. We survey seminal work on software architecture evaluation methods. We then look at an emerging class of methods that explicates evaluating software architectures for stability and evolution. We define architectural stability and formulate the problem of evaluating software architectures for stability and evolution. We draw attention to the use of Architectures Description Languages (ADLs) for supporting

Rami Bahsoon; Wolfgang Emmerich



Architectural Knowledge: Getting to the Core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different organizations or organizational units are likely to store and maintain different types of information about their software architectures. This in- hibits effective management of architectural knowledge. We experimented with a model of architectural knowledge to characterize the use of architectural knowl- edge in four different organizations. Based on this experimentation we identified four perspectives on architectural knowledge management, and

Remco C. De Boer; Rik Farenhorst; Patricia Lago; Hans Van Vliet; Viktor Clerc; Anton Jansen



Software Architecture Design: Evaluation and Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Since the architecture of a software system constrains the non-functional requirements, the decisions taken during architectural design h ave a large impact i n the resulting system. An architectural design method is presented that employs iterative e valuation and transformation of the software architecture ,in ,order to ,satisfy ,the ,non- functional requirements (NFRs). Architecture e valuation is performed by

Jan Bosch; Peter Molin



Fault tolerant modular distributed architecture for a hypersonic vehicle management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for implementing a distributed processing architecture as the vehicle management control element for future hypersonic vehicle applications is described. Key features of the architecture which provide fault tolerance include redundancy management, processor synchronization, and multiple voting planes. Modular building blocks for constructing such a distributed vehicle management data processing system, based on contemporary common module designs, are described

W. E. Griesel; A. K. Chaudhary



Architectural patterns to design software safety based safety-critical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety-critical systems are embedded systems that may cause injury, loss of human life or great damage to the property if they fail. Architectural Patterns give solutions to the commonly recurring design problems in different applications and help the designers and architects to choose suitable design solutions. In this paper different architectural patterns for safety critical systems are presented and their

S. Phani Kumar; P. Seetha Ramaiah; V. Khanaa



Re-engineering Nascom's network management architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of Nascom systems for ground communications began in 1958 with Project Vanguard. The low-speed systems (rates less than 9.6 Kbs) were developed following existing standards; but, there were no comparable standards for high-speed systems. As a result, these systems were developed using custom protocols and custom hardware. Technology has made enormous strides since the ground support systems were implemented. Standards for computer equipment, software, and high-speed communications exist and the performance of current workstations exceeds that of the mainframes used in the development of the ground systems. Nascom is in the process of upgrading its ground support systems and providing additional services. The Message Switching System (MSS), Communications Address Processor (CAP), and Multiplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM) Automated Control System (MACS) are all examples of Nascom systems developed using standards such as, X-windows, Motif, and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Also, the Earth Observing System (EOS) Communications (Ecom) project is stressing standards as an integral part of its network. The move towards standards has produced a reduction in development, maintenance, and interoperability costs, while providing operational quality improvement. The Facility and Resource Manager (FARM) project has been established to integrate the Nascom networks and systems into a common network management architecture. The maximization of standards and implementation of computer automation in the architecture will lead to continued cost reductions and increased operational efficiency. The first step has been to derive overall Nascom requirements and identify the functionality common to all the current management systems. The identification of these common functions will enable the reuse of processes in the management architecture and promote increased use of automation throughout the Nascom network. The MSS, CAP, MACS, and Ecom projects have indicated the potential value of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) and standards through reduced cost and high quality. The FARM will allow the application of the lessons learned from these projects to all future Nascom systems.

Drake, Brian C.; Messent, David



DIS next-generation protocol architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several new architectural components are needed by distributed interactive simulation (DIS) to support new and expanding distributed interactive simulation applications. The elements defined include: organization of DIS protocols into groups to provide for basic interoperability and optional interoperability associated with different functional domains; a supporting message structure that is ore efficient and flexible than the one currently defined in the DIS standards; a data element dictionary to hold the definitions of the lowest order elements of information exchanged between simulation applications in a DIS exercise; and a protocol catalog to hold the definitions of the protocols used to exchange information between simulation applications in a DIS exercise.

Seidensticker, Steve



Fractal geometry of root systems: Field observations of contrasting genotypes of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown under different phosphorus regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root growth and architecture are important for phosphorus acquisition due to the relative immobility of P in the soil. Fractal\\u000a geometry is a potential new approach to the analysis of root architecture. Substantial genetic variation in root growth and\\u000a architecture has been observed in common bean. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes with contrasting root architecture\\u000a were grown under moderate

Kai L. Nielsen; Carter R. Miller; Douglas Beck; Jonathan P. Lynch



Component Lifing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Failure mechanisms which can occur in an aircraft engine component in service are categorized into low life failures, macroscopically nonlocalized damage accumulation, and macroscopically localized damage accumulation. The methods used to avoid these fail...

A. C. Pickard



Survey of software and hardware VLC architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In implementation of hybrid compression algorithms, the Huffman or Modified Huffman codec can consume a significant portion of silicon real-estate or CPU cycles. To reduce this cost, several schemes have been published that take advantage of one or more inherent properties of the variable length code tables. This paper examines some of these properties and their corresponding architectural components which can be pieced together to form custom hybrids suited to specific applications. Hardware architectural classifications include: serial and parallel Trees, Content Addressable Memory, Programmable Logic Arrays, and parallel comparators schemes that resemble flash A/D architectures. Assessment criteria include: bit rate vs. symbolic rate performance, clock cycle ratios, latencies, pre-buffering and post- buffering, codebook and source channel statistical dependencies, encoder and decoder circuitry sharing, pre-processing of codebooks, critical path, register use in software, breakdown between memory and logical operators, custom vs. standard cells, and code word order. Finally, the performance and size of current industrial implementations for specific application (JPEG, MPEG) are summarized.

Fogg, Chad E.



Assessing Coating Reliability Through Pore Architecture Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) exhibit many interlamellar pores, voids, and microcracks. These microstructural features are primarily responsible for the low global stiffness and the low thermal conductivity commonly exhibited by such coatings. The pore architecture thus has an important influence on such thermophysical properties. In the present work, the effect of heat treatment (at temperatures up to 1400 °C, for times of up to 20 h) on the pore architecture of detached YSZ top coats with different impurity levels have been characterized by mercury intrusion porosimetry and gas-sorption techniques. Stiffness and thermal conductivity were also monitored to assess the effect of change in pore architecture on properties. While the overall porosity level remained relatively unaffected (at around 10-12%) after the heat treatments concerned, there were substantial changes in the pore size distribution and the (surface-connected) specific surface area. Fine pores (<~50 nm) rapidly disappeared, while the specific surface area dropped dramatically, particularly at high-treatment temperatures (~1400 °C). These changes are thought to be associated with intrasplat microcrack healing, improved intersplat bonding and increased contact area, leading to disappearance of much of the fine porosity. These microstructural changes are reflected in sharply increased stiffness and thermal conductivity. Increase in thermal conductivity and stiffness were found to be more pronounced for coatings with higher impurity content (particularly alumina and silica). Reliability issues surrounding such increase in thermal conductivity and stiffness are discussed along with a brief note on the effect of impurities on TBC life.

Paul, S.



Information architecture: Profile of adopted standards  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE), like other Federal agencies, is under increasing pressure to use information technology to improve efficiency in mission accomplishment as well as delivery of services to the public. Because users and systems have become interdependent, DOE has enterprise wide needs for common application architectures, communication networks, databases, security, and management capabilities. Users need open systems that provide interoperability of products and portability of people, data, and applications that are distributed throughout heterogeneous computing environments. The level of interoperability necessary requires the adoption of DOE wide standards, protocols, and best practices. The Department has developed an information architecture and a related standards adoption and retirement process to assist users in developing strategies and plans for acquiring information technology products and services based upon open systems standards that support application software interoperability, portability, and scalability. This set of Departmental Information Architecture standards represents guidance for achieving higher degrees of interoperability within the greater DOE community, business partners, and stakeholders. While these standards are not mandatory, particular and due consideration of their applications in contractual matters and use in technology implementations Department wide are goals of the Chief Information Officer.




Medical nanorobot architecture based on nanobioelectronics.  


This work describes an innovative medical nanorobot architecture based on important discoveries in nanotechnology, integrated circuit patents, and some publications, directly or indirectly related to one of the most challenging new fields of science: molecular machines. Thus, the architecture described in this paper reflects, and is supported by, some remarkable recent achievements and patents in nanoelectronics, wireless communication and power transmission techniques, nanotubes, lithography, biomedical instrumentation, genetics, and photonics. We also describe how medicine can benefit from the joint development of nanodevices which are derived, and which integrate techniques, from artificial intelligence, nanotechnology, and embedded smart sensors. Teleoperated surgical procedures, early disease diagnosis, and pervasive patient monitoring are some possible applications of nanorobots, reflecting progress along a roadmap for the gradual and practical development of nanorobots. To illustrate the described nanorobot architecture, a computational 3D approach with the application of nanorobots for diabetes is simulated using clinical data. Theoretical and practical analysis of system integration modeling is one important aspect for supporting the rapid development in the emerging field of nanotechnology. This provides useful directions for further research and development of medical nanorobotics and suggests a time frame in which nanorobots may be expected to be available for common utilization in therapeutic and medical procedures. PMID:19076015

Cavalcanti, Adriano; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Freitas, Robert A; Kretly, Luiz C



An object-oriented architecture for text retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

For almost all aspects of information access systems it is still the case that their optimalcomposition and functionality is hotly debated. Moreover, different application scenarios putdifferent demands on individual components. It is therefore of the essence to be able to quicklybuild systems that permit exploration of different designs and implementation strategies. Thispaper presents a software implementation architecture for text retrieval

Douglas R. Cutting; Jan Pedersen; Per Christian Halvorsen



A Services-Oriented Architecture for Water Observations Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water observations data are time series of measurements made at point locations of water level, flow, and quality and corresponding data for climatic observations at point locations such as gaged precipitation and weather variables. A services-oriented architecture has been built for such information for the United States that has three components: hydrologic information servers, hydrologic information clients, and a centralized

D. R. Maidment; I. Zaslavsky; D. Valentine; D. G. Tarboton; T. Whitenack; T. Whiteaker; R. Hooper; D. Kirschtel



An intelligent service-based network architecture for wearable robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a novel robot concept called the wearable robot. Wearable robots are mobile information devices capable of supporting remote communication and intelligent interaction between networked entities. In this paper, we explore the possible functions of such a robotic network and will present a distributed network architecture based on service components. In order to support the interaction and communication

Ka Keung Lee; Ping Zhang; Yangsheng Xu; Bin Liang



Towards an Agile Design of the Enterprise Architecture Management Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprise architecture (EA) management pro- vides an engineering approach for the continuous advancement of the enterprise as a whole. The high number of involved components and their dense web of interdependencies never- theless form a major challenge for such approach and demand high initial investment into documentations, communications, and analysis. Aforementioned fact has in the past been an impediment for

Sabine Buckl; Florian Matthes; Ivan Monahov; Sascha Roth; Christopher Schulz; Christian M. Schweda



An Architecture for Mining Massive Web Logs with Experiments?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce an experimental web log mining architecture with ad- vanced storage and data mining components. The aim of the system is to give a flexible base for web usage mining of large scale Internet sites. We present exper- iments over logs of the largest Hungarian Web portal (origo) ( that among others provides online news and magazines, community pages,



System design document U-AVLIS control system architecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the architecture of the integrated control system for the U-AVLIS process. It includes an overview of the major control system components and their interfaces to one another. Separate documents are utilized to fully describe each c...

P. G. Viebeck



Healthcare Modelling through Enterprise Architecture: A Hospital Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a strategic activity and planning tool for an enterprise, which facilitates decision-making by enabling a conceptual view of the enterprise. The main objective of an EA approach is to define the layout of organizational components and relationships among them, in order to understand the integration of objects for further improvement. In a healthcare context, EA has

Kamran Ahsan; Hanifa Shah; Paul Kingston



Dissecting Cyclops: a detailed analysis of a multithreaded architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiprocessor systems-on-a-chip offer a structured approach to managing complexity in chip design. Cyclops is a new family of multithreaded architectures which integrates processing logic, main memory and communications hardware on a single chip. Its simple, hierarchical design allows the hardware architect to manage a large number of components to meet the design constraints in terms of performance, power or application

George Almfisi; C?lin Ca?caval; José G. Castańos; Monty Denneau; Derek Lieber; José E. Moreira; Henry S. Warren Jr.



An Environment for Managing Evolving Product Line Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of product lines is recognized as beneficial in promoting and structuring both component and architec- ture reuse throughout an organization. While the business practices of using product lines are well-understood and representations for specifying and capturing the underly- ing architecture of a product line are coming of age, sup- port environments for managing the evolution of a prod-

Akash Garg; Matt Critchlow; Ping Chen; Christopher Van Der Westhuizen; André Van Der Hoek



Time management in the DoD high level architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a considerable amount of effort in the U.S. Department of Defense has been devoted to defining the High Level Architecture (HLA) for distributed simulations. This paper describes the time management component of the HLA that defines the means by which individual simulations (called federates) advance through time. Time management includes synchronization mechanisms to ensure event ordering when this is

Richard M. Fujimoto; Richard M. Weatherly



Constructing Active Architectures in the ArchWare ADL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software that cannot change is condemned to atrophy: it cannot accommodate the constant revision and re- negotiation of its business goals nor intercept the potential of new technology. To accommodate change in such systems we have defined an active software architecture to be: dynamic in that the structure and cardinality of the components and interactions are not statically known; updatable

Ronald Morrison; Graham N. C. Kirby; Dharini Balasubramaniam; Kath Mickan; Flavio Oquendo; Sorana Cîmpan; Brian Warboys; Bob Snowdon; R. Mark Greenwood



Metadata for digital libraries: architecture and design rationale  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a distributed, heterogeneous, proxy-based digital library,autonomous services and collections are accessedindirectly via proxies. To facilitate metadata compatibilityand interoperability in such a digital library, wehave designed a metadata architecture that includesfour basic component classes: attribute model proxies,attribute model translators, metadata facilities forsearch proxies, and metadata repositories. Attributemodel proxies elevate both attribute sets and the attributes...

Michelle Q. Wang Baldonado; Chen-Chuan K. Chang; Luis Gravano; Andreas Paepcke



BDI+C — an architecture for normative, autonomous agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a novel agent architecture for normative multi-agent systems which is based on multi-context systems. It models the three modalities of Rao and Georgeff's BDI agents as individual contexts and adds a fourth one for commitments. This new component is connected to all other mental attitudes via two sets of bridge rules, injecting formulae into it

Dorian Gaertner; Pablo Noriega; Carles Sierra


A Security Architecture for Mobile Agent Based Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a security architecture for mobile agent based systems. It defines the notion of a security-enhanced agent and outlines security management components in agent platform bases and considers secure migration of agents from one base to another. The security enhanced agent carries a passport that contains its security credentials and some related security code. Then we describe how

V. Varadharajan; D. Foster



Creating Meaningful Assessments for Professional Development Education in Software Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive instructional materials have been developed and used for courses in specific software architecture topics offered at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) at Carnegie Mellon University, to support the instructional goals laid out by the creators of the SEI's professional education program and the designers of the individual courses. However, to date, these courses have lacked any assessment component, certification

Elspeth Golden; Len Bass



The architecture of the earth system modeling framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) project is developing a standard software platform for Earth system models. The standard, which defines a component architecture and a support infrastructure, is being developed under open-software practices. Target applications range from operational numerical weather prediction to climate-system change and predictability studies.

Chris Hill; Cecelia DeLuca; B Balaji; Max Suarez; A. Da Silva



Experience with a New Architecture Review Process Using a Globally Distributed Architecture Review Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present in this paper our experience with applying a new architecture review process that uses a globally distributed review team to assess architecture risk of a complex mission critical system. The new architecture review process uses aspects of the checklist-based architecture review process and the operational scenario-based architecture review process. We present the architecture review process approach, a summary

Flavio Duarte; Clarissa Pires; Carlos A. de Souza; Johannes P. Ros; R. M. M. Lea?o; E. de Souza e Silva; J. Leite; V. Cortellessa; D. Mosse?; Yuanfang Cai



Neural Architectures for Robot Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that the direct experimental approaches to elucidate the architecture of higher brains may benefit from insights gained from ex- ploring the possibilities and limits of artificial control architectures for robot systems. We present some of our recent work that has been motivated by that view and that is centered around the study of various aspects of hand actions

Helge Ritter; Jochen J. Steil; Claudia Nölker; Frank Röthling; Patrick C. Mcguire



NASA's Lunar Robotic Architecture Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the findings and analysis of a 60-day agency-wide Lunar Robotic Architecture Study (LRAS) conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Work on this study began in January 2006. Its purpose was to: Define a lunar robotics architecture by addressing the following issues: 1) Do we need robotic missions at all? If so, why and under

Daniel R. Mulville



Rio de Janeiro: Contrasting Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This photograph shows contrasting styles of architecture in downtown Rio de Janeiro. Here we see a row of 19th century buildings on Rua Acre with the modernist twenty two story building, The Night, at the end of the street. The older buildings are examples of 19th century eclecticism, a trend in European architecture adapted in Rio de Janeiro to reflect

Chet Smolski; Joseph Spin



Software architectures for mobile learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile learning (M-learning) systems may be built using any of a number of generic software architectures, each of which has its own benefits and limitations. This paper describes four generic software architectures that can be applied to M-learning systems and provides an overview of their comparative strengths and weaknesses in meeting the various requirements of the mobile learner. This paper




Business goals as architectural knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we argue that business goals constitute an important type of architectural knowledge. Quality attributes are often the primary drivers (shaping forces) behind an architecture, but quality attributes derive from an organization's business goals, whether the organization is the one developing or acquiring the software system. We introduce a seven-part scenario format for capturing and articulating business goals,

Paul Clements; Len Bass



Qualitative characteristics of enterprise architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constant changes in information technology (IT) and business environments have made the demand for a powerful management for IT systems more pressing. Enterprise architecture is a framework to develop and maintain IT, to achieve organizational goals and to manage resources of this technology. Enterprise Architecture (EA) quality is a multi-dimensional content which is not easily distinguishable and measurable. To determine

Raouf Khayami



Capturing Software Architectural Design Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software architecture is composed of the design and its set of design decisions. The documentation of design decisions is important in capturing architectural knowledge, but current methods of capture are tedious processes. A new method is being proposed that would reduce the amount of work needed to capture design decisions while increasing traceability by acting as a memory-aid. We propose

Larix Lee; Philippe Kruchten



Cognitive Strategies in Architectural Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes one of the series of experiments studying the nature of the architectural design process and how design skills are acquired by students. An experimental situation is described which models some central features of design problems in the abstract. This allows comparisons to be made between groups of first and final year students of architecture as well as




Czech Culture in Prague: Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prague's main feature is that, out of many cultural treasures, it preserved its architectural culture and put it to practical use to present day. Particularly Prague has embraced a wealth of architectural styles from many ages. From the Romanesque, the Gothic culture of Czech's pinnacle age, Baroque, Neo Classicism, the Art Nouveau style buildings that concentrated in Prague at the

Kyuchin Kim



Architectural Portfolio 2001: Main Winners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents descriptions and photographs of the following two American School and University Architectural Portfolio main winners for 2001: Chesterton, Indiana's Chesterton High School and Lied Library at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Included are each project's vital statistics, the architectural firm involved, and a list of designers.(GR)

American School & University, 2001



The Titan Graphics Supercomputer Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design criteria for the Titan are outlined, and the hardware, architecture, and implementation developed to meet them are examined. The key architectural elements in Titan are described, and the reasoning behind their selection is presented. Titan's processor subsystem is explored, focusing on how it reduces the cost and complexity of graphics-specific hardware. The design constraints and implementation of the

Tom Diede; Carl F. Hagenmaier; Glen S. Miranker; Jonathan J. Rubinstein; William S. Worley Jr.



An Architecture for Differentiated Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document defines an architecture for implementing scalable service differentiation in the Internet. This architecture achieves scalability by aggregating traffic classification state which is conveyed by means of IP-layer packet marking using the DS field [DSFIELD]. Packets are classified and marked to receive a particular per-hop forwarding behavior on nodes along their path. Sophisticated classification, marking, policing, and shaping operations

Steven L. Blake; David L. Black; Mark Carlson; E. Keith Davies; Z. Wang; W. Weiss



Software patterns in ITS architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses ITS architectures in terms of patterns that exist within them. The concept of patterns has received surprisingly little attention so far from researchers in the field of ITS. A recent analysis of a number of existing ITS architectures has revealed that many ITS designers and developers use their own solutions when faced with design problems that are

Vladan Devedzic; Andreas Harrer



Concurrency in the DD&P Robot Control Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

DD&P is a hybrid robot control architecture cur- rently under development. It features (1) logically and physi- cally concurrent robot control components, (2) the role of ac- tion plans as media of high-level advice and communication rather than rigid control regimes, and (3) a direct structural coupling of the high-level planning and the low-level dynamic execution component, making DD&P a

Joachim Hertzberg; Frank Sch



3D Digital Library Service System for Engineering Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although 3D engineering component models are becoming widely available due to the recent technological advancement and modeling tools, we lack engineering component models library service system where they can be searched and retrieved efficiently. This paper described the architecture and function modules of 3D engineering components library that enables users to navigate large sets of 3D engineering models. Critical service

Xuemei Liu; Aiping Li



Application of Model-based Systems Engineering Methods to Development of Combat System Architectures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Navy acquisition activities frequently produce combat system architectures based on existing systems rather than on stakeholder requirements. This approach limits software component reuse, which, in turn, limits potential application to other platforms. T...

J. M. Green