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1

A Hands-On Guide to the Common Component Architecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Assembling and running a CCA application, driver components, creating a component from an existing library, creating a new component from scratch, using TAU to monitor performance of components, understanding arrays and component state, understanding objects and message passing, remote access for CCA environment, building CCA tools and TAU, setting up your environment, tutorial

2

Components of Coated Vesicles and Nuclear Pore Complexes Share a Common Molecular Architecture  

PubMed Central

Numerous features distinguish prokaryotes from eukaryotes, chief among which are the distinctive internal membrane systems of eukaryotic cells. These membrane systems form elaborate compartments and vesicular trafficking pathways, and sequester the chromatin within the nuclear envelope. The nuclear pore complex is the portal that specifically mediates macromolecular trafficking across the nuclear envelope. Although it is generally understood that these internal membrane systems evolved from specialized invaginations of the prokaryotic plasma membrane, it is not clear how the nuclear pore complex could have evolved from organisms with no analogous transport system. Here we use computational and biochemical methods to perform a structural analysis of the seven proteins comprising the yNup84/vNup107–160 subcomplex, a core building block of the nuclear pore complex. Our analysis indicates that all seven proteins contain either a ?-propeller fold, an ?-solenoid fold, or a distinctive arrangement of both, revealing close similarities between the structures comprising the yNup84/vNup107–160 subcomplex and those comprising the major types of vesicle coating complexes that maintain vesicular trafficking pathways. These similarities suggest a common evolutionary origin for nuclear pore complexes and coated vesicles in an early membrane-curving module that led to the formation of the internal membrane systems in modern eukaryotes.

2004-01-01

3

Parallel, Multigrid Finite Element Simulator for Fractured/Faulted and Other Complex Reservoirs based on Common Component Architecture (CCA)  

SciTech Connect

Black-oil, compositional and thermal simulators have been developed to address different physical processes in reservoir simulation. A number of different types of discretization methods have also been proposed to address issues related to representing the complex reservoir geometry. These methods are more significant for fractured reservoirs where the geometry can be particularly challenging. In this project, a general modular framework for reservoir simulation was developed, wherein the physical models were efficiently decoupled from the discretization methods. This made it possible to couple any discretization method with different physical models. Oil characterization methods are becoming increasingly sophisticated, and it is possible to construct geologically constrained models of faulted/fractured reservoirs. Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) simulation provides the option of performing multiphase calculations on spatially explicit, geologically feasible fracture sets. Multiphase DFN simulations of and sensitivity studies on a wide variety of fracture networks created using fracture creation/simulation programs was undertaken in the first part of this project. This involved creating interfaces to seamlessly convert the fracture characterization information into simulator input, grid the complex geometry, perform the simulations, and analyze and visualize results. Benchmarking and comparison with conventional simulators was also a component of this work. After demonstration of the fact that multiphase simulations can be carried out on complex fracture networks, quantitative effects of the heterogeneity of fracture properties were evaluated. Reservoirs are populated with fractures of several different scales and properties. A multiscale fracture modeling study was undertaken and the effects of heterogeneity and storage on water displacement dynamics in fractured basements were investigated. In gravity-dominated systems, more oil could be recovered at a given pore volume of injection at lower rates. However, if oil production can be continued at high water cuts, the discounted cumulative production usually favors higher production rates. The workflow developed during the project was also used to perform multiphase simulations in heterogeneous, fracture-matrix systems. Compositional and thermal-compositional simulators were developed for fractured reservoirs using the generalized framework. The thermal-compositional simulator was based on a novel 'equation-alignment' approach that helped choose the correct variables to solve depending on the number of phases present and the prescribed component partitioning. The simulators were used in steamflooding and in insitu combustion applications. The framework was constructed to be inherently parallel. The partitioning routines employed in the framework allowed generalized partitioning on highly complex fractured reservoirs and in instances when wells (incorporated in these models as line sources) were divided between two or more processors.

Milind Deo; Chung-Kan Huang; Huabing Wang

2008-08-31

4

Model Checking IBM's Common Cryptographic Architecture API  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results from the application of a model checker to the analysis of the API used by a number of security modules in Automated Teller Machine networks — IBM's Common Cryptographic Architecture API. We show that it is capable of rediscovering all known attacks on the API, using models containing a greater set of API commands. We also analyse

Gavin Keighren

2006-01-01

5

A reference architecture for the component factory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software reuse can be achieved through an organization that focuses on utilization of life cycle products from previous developments. The component factory is both an example of the more general concepts of experience and domain factory and an organizational unit worth being considered independently. The critical features of such an organization are flexibility and continuous improvement. In order to achieve these features we can represent the architecture of the factory at different levels of abstraction and define a reference architecture from which specific architectures can be derived by instantiation. A reference architecture is an implementation and organization independent representation of the component factory and its environment. The paper outlines this reference architecture, discusses the instantiation process, and presents some examples of specific architectures by comparing them in the framework of the reference model.

Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Cantone, Giovanni

1992-01-01

6

A Component Architecture for High-Performance Computing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This preprint, written by researchers at Oak Ridge and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, discusses some important design decisions involved in developing a high-performance computer architecture for scientific applications. The authors introduce the Common Component Architecture and its orientation toward the general computing needs of the scientific community, as opposed to other approaches that are suitable only for specific tasks. The proposed methodology illuminates many aspects of future generations of large scale computing efforts.

Bernholdt, D. E.; Elwasif, W. R.; Epperly, T. G.; Kohl, J. S.

7

Perceptual-components architecture for digital video  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A perceptual-components architecture for digital video partitions the image stream into signal components in a manner analogous to that used in the human visual system. These components consist of achromatic and opponent color channels, divided into static and motion channels, further divided into bands of particular spatial frequency and orientation. Bits are allocated to an individual band in accord with visual sensitivity to that band and in accord with the properties of visual masking. This architecture is argued to have desirable features such as efficiency, error tolerance, scalability, device independence, and extensibility.

Watson, Andrew B.

1990-01-01

8

Component architecture in drug discovery informatics.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the characteristics of a new model of computing that has been spurred on by the Internet, known as Netcentric computing. Developments in this model led to distributed component architectures, which, although not new ideas, are now realizable with modern tools such as Enterprise Java. The application of this approach to scientific computing, particularly in pharmaceutical discovery research, is discussed and highlighted by a particular case involving the management of biological assay data. PMID:12058611

Smith, Peter M

2002-05-01

9

A common architecture for TPS development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Test Program Set (TPS) software development for Electro-Optical (EO) testing has traditionally been an expensive and lengthy process. A major cause of this has been the development of new test executive software on an ad hoc basis for each program. Furthermore, there have typically been different needs for production versus lab environments with production needing a set of standard tests, while users in a lab environment requiring the capability to modify certain aspects of their tests as needed. At Santa Barbara Infrared, a new architecture for TPS development has been engineered that addresses these concerns. The new architecture can host a complete TPS development environment that eliminates the need for a separate test executive. It supports EO testing in both engineering development and production testing through the use of user editable test scripts along with distinct user accounts and privileges. The new architecture is unit under test (UUT) centric, allowing a user to define UUT parameters once and easily share the results between tests. In this article we will review the new architecture and give examples of TPS development under that architecture.

Irwin, Alan; La Veigne, Joe; Nehring, Brian

2011-05-01

10

Component Commonality with Service Level Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends recent results of Baker et al. (Baker, K. R., M. J. Magazine, H. L. W. Nuttle. 1986. The effect of commonality on safety stocks in a simple inventory model. Management Sci. 32 982--988.) in understanding the impact of component commonality on stocking levels under service level constraints. A model is formulated for an arbitrary number of products

Yigal Gerchak; Michael J. Magazine; A. Bruce Gamble

1988-01-01

11

A Component Architecture for High-Performance Scientific Computing  

SciTech Connect

The Common Component Architecture (CCA) provides a means for software developers to manage the complexity of large-scale scientific simulations and to move toward a plug-and-play environment for high-performance computing. In the scientific computing context, component models also promote collaboration using independently developed software, thereby allowing particular individuals or groups to focus on the aspects of greatest interest to them. The CCA supports parallel and distributed computing as well as local high-performance connections between components in a language-independent manner. The design places minimal requirements on components and thus facilitates the integration of existing code into the CCA environment. The CCA model imposes minimal overhead to minimize the impact on application performance. The focus on high performance distinguishes the CCA from most other component models. The CCA is being applied within an increasing range of disciplines, including combustion research, global climate simulation, and computational chemistry.

Bernholdt, D E; Allan, B A; Armstrong, R; Bertrand, F; Chiu, K; Dahlgren, T L; Damevski, K; Elwasif, W R; Epperly, T W; Govindaraju, M; Katz, D S; Kohl, J A; Krishnan, M; Kumfert, G; Larson, J W; Lefantzi, S; Lewis, M J; Malony, A D; McInnes, L C; Nieplocha, J; Norris, B; Parker, S G; Ray, J; Shende, S; Windus, T L; Zhou, S

2004-12-14

12

Lifecycle Prognostics Architecture for Selected High-Cost Active Components  

SciTech Connect

There are an extensive body of knowledge and some commercial products available for calculating prognostics, remaining useful life, and damage index parameters. The application of these technologies within the nuclear power community is still in its infancy. Online monitoring and condition-based maintenance is seeing increasing acceptance and deployment, and these activities provide the technological bases for expanding to add predictive/prognostics capabilities. In looking to deploy prognostics there are three key aspects of systems that are presented and discussed: (1) component/system/structure selection, (2) prognostic algorithms, and (3) prognostics architectures. Criteria are presented for component selection: feasibility, failure probability, consequences of failure, and benefits of the prognostics and health management (PHM) system. The basis and methods commonly used for prognostics algorithms are reviewed and summarized. Criteria for evaluating PHM architectures are presented: open, modular architecture; platform independence; graphical user interface for system development and/or results viewing; web enabled tools; scalability; and standards compatibility. Thirteen software products were identified and discussed in the context of being potentially useful for deployment in a PHM program applied to systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP). These products were evaluated by using information available from company websites, product brochures, fact sheets, scholarly publications, and direct communication with vendors. The thirteen products were classified into four groups of software: (1) research tools, (2) PHM system development tools, (3) deployable architectures, and (4) peripheral tools. Eight software tools fell into the deployable architectures category. Of those eight, only two employ all six modules of a full PHM system. Five systems did not offer prognostic estimates, and one system employed the full health monitoring suite but lacked operations and maintenance support. Each product is briefly described in Appendix A. Selection of the most appropriate software package for a particular application will depend on the chosen component, system, or structure. Ongoing research will determine the most appropriate choices for a successful demonstration of PHM systems in aging NPPs.

N. Lybeck; B. Pham; M. Tawfik; J. B. Coble; R. M. Meyer; P. Ramuhalli; L. J. Bond

2011-08-01

13

Study on the standard architecture for geoinformation common services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of platform for geoinformation common services was completed or on going in in most provinces and cities in these years in China, and the platforms plays an important role in the economic and social activities. Geoinfromation and geoinfromation based services are the key issues in the platform. The standards on geoinormation common services play as bridges among the users, systems and designers of the platform. The standard architecture for geoinformation common services is the guideline for designing and using the standard system in which the standards integrated to each other to promote the development, sharing and services of geoinformation resources. To establish the standard architecture for geoinformation common services is one of the tasks of "Study on important standards for geonformation common services and management of public facilities in city". The scope of the standard architecture is defined, such as data or information model, interoperability interface or service, information management. Some Research work on the status of international standards of geoinormation common services in organization and countries, like ISO/TC 211, OGC and other countries or unions like USA, EU, Japan have done. Some principles are set up to evaluate the standard, such as availability, suitability and extensible ability. Then the development requirement and practical situation are analyzed, and a framework of the standard architecture for geoinformation common services are proposed. Finally, a summary and prospects of the geoinformation standards are made.

Zha, Z.; Zhang, L.; Wang, C.; Jiang, J.; Huang, W.

2014-04-01

14

The AstroGrid Common Execution Architecture (CEA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UK Virtual Observatory (VO) project AstroGrid (see http://www.astrogrid.org and related talks at this meeting) began in 2001 and is nearing the successful completion of its first release in December 2004. This paper describes AstroGrid's Common Execution Architecture (CEA). This is an attempt to create a reasonably small set of interfaces and schema to model how to execute a typical astronomical application within the VO. The CEA has been designed primarily to work within a web services framework, with the parameter passing mechanism layered on top of this so that the web interface for all applications is described by a single constant piece of WSDL - the differences between applications are expressed by the registry entries for each application. Within AstroGrid we have created pluggable components that can wrap legacy command-line applications, HTTP GET/POST applications and databases as CEA compliant web services, which when combined with the Astrogrid Workflow component make distributed processing within the VO a reality. See http://www.astrogrid.org/maven/docs/snapshot/applications/ for current information.

Harrison, P.; Winstanley, N.; Taylor, J. D.

2005-12-01

15

The Asymptotic Distribution of Commonality Components.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Commonality components have been defined as a method of partitioning squared multiple correlations. The asymptotic joint distribution of all possible squared multiple correlations is derived. The asymptotic joint distribution of linear combinations of squared multiple correlations is obtained as a corollary. (Author/JKS)

Hedges, Larry V.; Olkin, Ingram

1981-01-01

16

Asymptotic Theory for Common Principal Component Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the common principal component model $k$ covariance matrices $\\\\mathbf{\\\\Sigma}_1,\\\\cdots,\\\\mathbf{\\\\Sigma}_k$ are simultaneously diagonalizable, i.e., there exists an orthogonal matrix $\\\\mathbf{\\\\beta}$ such that $\\\\mathbf{\\\\beta'\\\\Sigma_i\\\\beta = \\\\Lambda_i}$ is diagonal for $i = 1,\\\\cdots, k$. In this article we give the asymptotic distribution of the maximum likelihood estimates of $\\\\mathbf{\\\\beta}$ and $\\\\mathbf{\\\\Lambda}_i$. Using these results, we derive tests for (a) equality of eigenvectors

Bernard N. Flury

1986-01-01

17

A reference architecture for the component factory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software reuse can be achieved through an organization that focuses on utilization of life cycle products from previous developments. The component factory is both an example of the more general concepts of experience and domain factory and an organizational unit worth being considered independently. The critical features of such an organization are flexibility and continuous improvement. In order to achieve

Victor R. Basili; Gianluigi Caldiera; Giovanni Cantone

1992-01-01

18

Functional implications of component commonality in operational systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of commonality in a system represents an attempt to reduce costs by reducing the number of unique components. Research in this area has primarily addressed a significant benefit of commonality, the reduction of parts inventories in assemble-to-order manufacturing systems. Likewise, in an operational system subject to component failures, spares inventories are reduced through the increased commonality of components. However, commonality tends to degrade system performance parameters, a degradation that can preclude commonality in resource-constrained systems such as spacecraft. The functional impacts of component commonality on a system is addressed in a manner that allows inclusion in a commonality analysis.

Thomas, Lawrence D.

1992-01-01

19

PKUAS: An Architecture-Based Reflective Component Operating Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflective middleware is the major approach to improving the adaptability of middleware and its applications. Current researches and practices pay little attention on the usability of reflective middleware. There is also lacking a systematic way to adapt a runtime system via reflective middleware. This paper presents the design and implementation of PKUAS (Peking University Application Server), an architecture-based reflective component

Hong Mei; Gang Huang

2004-01-01

20

Common components ease phased-array analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for measuring the relative phase difference between identical active circuit elements (e.g., power amplifiers) in pulsed high-power phased-array antennas transmitting and receiving signal pulses of less than 200 microsec is described. The test setup employs commercially available components: a length of semirigid coaxial cable providing a 180-deg phase difference between paths, a three-port circulator with the line stretcher

J. Foster

1986-01-01

21

DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF COMMON COMPONENTS FOR PRODUCT FAMILY: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses product variety design and the optimal design methodology of common components for a class of products. After the form of product variety design problems is reviewed, the necessity and role of the optimal design paradigm in this direction are generally investigated as a background for the discussion of common components. Following them, the design problem of common

Kikuo Fujita; Yusuke Kounoe

22

Component Analysis Versus Common Factor Analysis: A Monte Carlo Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compares component and common factor analysis using 3 levels of population factor pattern loadings (.40,.60,.80) for each of the 3 levels of variables (9, 18, 36). Common factor analysis was significantly more accurate than components in reproducing the population pattern in each of the conditions examined. The differences decreased as the number of variables and the size of the population

Steven C. Snook; Richard L. Gorsuch

1989-01-01

23

Development of x-ray laser architectural components  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the recent experimental and computational development of short-pulse, enhanced-coherence, and high-brilliance x-ray lasers (XRLs). The authors will describe the development of an XRL cavity by injecting laser photons back into an amplifying XRL plasma. Using a combination of LASNEX/GLF/SPECTRE-BEAM3 codes, they obtained good agreement with experimental results. They will describe the adaptive spatial filtering technique used to design small-aperture shaped XRLs with near diffraction-limited output. Finally they will discuss issues concerning the development of high-brilliance XRL architecture, with emphasis on scaling the XRL aperture. Combining these advances in XRL architectural components allows them to develop a short-pulse, high-brilliance, coherent XRL suitable for applications in areas such as biological holography, plasma interferometry, and nonlinear optics.

Wan, A.S.; Da Silva, L.B.; Moreno, J.C. [and others

1994-06-01

24

Development of x-ray laser architectural components  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes our recent experimental and computational development of short-pulse, enhanced-coherence, and high-brilliance x-ray lasers (XRLs). We will describe the development of an XRL cavity by injecting laser photons back into an amplifying XRL plasma. Using a combination of LASNEX/GLF/SPECTRE-BEAM3 codes, we obtained good agreement with experimental results. We will describe the adaptive spatial filtering technique used to design small-aperture shaped XRLs with near diffraction-limited output. Finally we will discuss issues concerning the development of high-brilliance XRL architecture, with emphasis on scaling the XRL aperture. Combining these advances in XRL architectural components allows us to develop a short-pulse, high-brilliance, coherent XRL suitable for applications in areas such as biological holography, plasma interferometry, and nonlinear optics.

Wan, A. S.; Silva, L. B. da; Moreno, J. C.; Cauble, R. C.; Chandler, E. A.; Dalhed, H. E.; Libby, S. B.; Mayle, R. W.; Nilsen, J.; Ratowsky, R. P.; Scott, H. A.; Van Wonterghem, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

1995-05-01

25

A Proven Ground System Architecture for Promoting Collaboration and Common Solutions at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's "GMSEC" ground system architecture was presented at GSAW2003 as a concept being studied. GMSEC would utilize a publish/subscribe middleware framework and standardized interfaces to allow custom and COTS ground system components to plug-and-play. This capability, in turn, would reduce integration costs, allow for technology infusion over time, and encourage the development and sharing of common components across missions and organizations. At GSAW2004, GMSEC was presented at a breakout session as a system working well in the NASA lab and being applied as an integral piece of reengineering efforts for several GSFC missions. Today, GMSEC is supporting five satellites at GSFC and has been selected by several future missions. Over 30 plug-and-play components are now available to missions using the GMSEC approach. Other organizations, including Marshall Space Flight Center, Johns Hopkins University's Applied Physic Lab, and the Institute for Scientific Research are each developing GMSEC-compatible components. Based on the success of GMSEC and efforts at other NASA Centers, the message bus approach is now being evaluated as a NASA Agency-wide approach for many future missions involving multiple NASA Centers as we move towards the goals of NASA s new Exploration Initiative. The presentation will explain the basic technical concepts of using a publish/subscribe framework for mission operations support (and its applicability to flight systems as well). Lessons learned on NASA's GMSEC program will allow the audience to better understand the significant benefits of this architecture approach over the traditional "one-off" solution approach. The point of the presentation is to show the long-term benefits of using a ground system architecture which incorporates many of the successful GMSEC concepts - message bus, mix of COTS and custom software, standard interfaces, plug-and-play, etc. The implications for the development process will also be discussed.

Smith, Danford

2005-01-01

26

Missile signal processing common computer architecture for rapid technology upgrade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interceptor missiles process IR images to locate an intended target and guide the interceptor towards it. Signal processing requirements have increased as the sensor bandwidth increases and interceptors operate against more sophisticated targets. A typical interceptor signal processing chain is comprised of two parts. Front-end video processing operates on all pixels of the image and performs such operations as non-uniformity correction (NUC), image stabilization, frame integration and detection. Back-end target processing, which tracks and classifies targets detected in the image, performs such algorithms as Kalman tracking, spectral feature extraction and target discrimination. In the past, video processing was implemented using ASIC components or FPGAs because computation requirements exceeded the throughput of general-purpose processors. Target processing was performed using hybrid architectures that included ASICs, DSPs and general-purpose processors. The resulting systems tended to be function-specific, and required custom software development. They were developed using non-integrated toolsets and test equipment was developed along with the processor platform. The lifespan of a system utilizing the signal processing platform often spans decades, while the specialized nature of processor hardware and software makes it difficult and costly to upgrade. As a result, the signal processing systems often run on outdated technology, algorithms are difficult to update, and system effectiveness is impaired by the inability to rapidly respond to new threats. A new design approach is made possible three developments; Moore's Law - driven improvement in computational throughput; a newly introduced vector computing capability in general purpose processors; and a modern set of open interface software standards. Today's multiprocessor commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) platforms have sufficient throughput to support interceptor signal processing requirements. This application may be programmed under existing real-time operating systems using parallel processing software libraries, resulting in highly portable code that can be rapidly migrated to new platforms as processor technology evolves. Use of standardized development tools and 3rd party software upgrades are enabled as well as rapid upgrade of processing components as improved algorithms are developed. The resulting weapon system will have a superior processing capability over a custom approach at the time of deployment as a result of a shorter development cycles and use of newer technology. The signal processing computer may be upgraded over the lifecycle of the weapon system, and can migrate between weapon system variants enabled by modification simplicity. This paper presents a reference design using the new approach that utilizes an Altivec PowerPC parallel COTS platform. It uses a VxWorks-based real-time operating system (RTOS), and application code developed using an efficient parallel vector library (PVL). A quantification of computing requirements and demonstration of interceptor algorithm operating on this real-time platform are provided.

Rabinkin, Daniel V.; Rutledge, Edward; Monticciolo, Paul

2004-10-01

27

Key Components of a Successful Earth Science Subsetter Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the October 2010 A-Train Symposium the Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) science team released a new CALIPSO Search and Subset Application that received a very enthusiastic response from atmospheric scientists. The template of this subsetter application architecture is being applied to the distribution of Level 2 Satellite data granules from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) SSF swath datasets and Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) datasets. Science data users utilize these new tools to rapidly locate, subset, and order specific dataset parameters tailored to their requirements. This presentation focuses on the implementation of key components of this subsetter architecture and explores the challenges that ASDC's development team encountered while adapting the following framework components to each of these datasets in a fairly short time: Interactive user interface that is tightly integrated with a PostgrSQL-PostGIS metadata database specifically tailored for the science product data granules to be subsetted. Scalable workflow framework for scheduling potentially thousands of subset processes across a configurable number of cluster processing nodes. Efficient subset application with high speed access to archived data granules. Metadata mining application capable of directly mining the desired metadata directly from the archived data granules.

Parker, L.; Baskin, W. E.; Piatko, P.; Kusterer, J.; Rinsland, P.; Perez, J.

2011-12-01

28

Aggregate Safety Stock Levels and Component Part Commonality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between aggregate safety stock inventory levels and component part commonality is developed. A simulation experiment strongly supports the functional form of this relationship in an uncertain operating environment. Managers can use these equations to assess the trade-offs between aggregate safety stock levels, service level and the degree of component part standardization. For example, these relationships can be used

David A. Collier

1982-01-01

29

A Component Architecture for High-Performance Scienti?c Computing  

SciTech Connect

The Common Component Architecture (CCA) provides a means for software developers to manage the complexity of large-scale scientific simulations and to move toward a plug-and-play environment for high-performance computing. In the scientific computing context, component models also promote collaboration using independently developed software, thereby allowing particular individuals or groups to focus on the aspects of greatest interest to them. The CCA supports parallel and distributed computing as well as local high-performance connections between components in a language-independent manner. The design places minimal requirements on components and thus facilitates the integration of existing code into the CCA environment. The CCA model imposes minimal overhead to minimize the impact on application performance. The focus on high performance distinguishes the CCA from most other component models. The CCA is being applied within an increasing range of disciplines, including combustion research, global climate simulation, and computational chemistry.

Bernholdt, David E.; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Bertrand, Felipe; Chiu, Kenneth; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Damevski, Kostadin; Elwasif, Wael R.; Epperly, Thomas G.; Govindaraju, Madhusudhan; Katz, Daniel S.; Kohl, James A.; Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Kumfert, Gary K.; Larson, J. Walter; Lefantzi, Sophia; Lewis, Michael J.; Malony, Allen D.; McInnes, Lois C.; Nieplocha, Jarek; Norris, Boyana; Parker, Steven G.; Ray, Jaideep; Shende, Sameer; Windus, Theresa L.; Zhou, Shujia

2006-07-03

30

The space avionics architecture standard tailored to the Common Lunar Lander conceptual design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major avionics requirements for a Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA) and the Artemis Common Lunar Lander (CLL) are summarized. The SGOAA was applied to the Artemis program which included the tailoring of the operations control subsystem, the space data subsystem, the hardware processor requirements, and the processor internal architecture. It is concluded that tailoring the generic data system

Richard B. Wray; John R. Stovall

1993-01-01

31

A Plug and Play GNC Architecture Using FPGA Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of Plug and Play, or PnP, is to allow hardware and software components to work together automatically, without requiring manual setup procedures. As a result, new or replacement hardware can be plugged into a system and automatically configured with the appropriate resource assignments. However, in many cases it may not be practical or even feasible to physically replace hardware components. One method for handling these types of situations is through the incorporation of reconfigurable hardware such as Field Programmable Gate Arrays, or FPGAs. This paper describes a phased approach to developing a Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) architecture that expands on the traditional concepts of PnP, in order to accommodate hardware reconfiguration without requiring detailed knowledge of the hardware. This is achieved by establishing a functional based interface that defines how the hardware will operate, and allow the hardware to reconfigure itself. The resulting system combines the flexibility of manipulating software components with the speed and efficiency of hardware.

KrishnaKumar, K.; Kaneshige, J.; Waterman, R.; Pires, C.; Ippoloito, C.

2005-01-01

32

Comparing G matrices: are common principal components informative?  

PubMed Central

Common principal components (CPC) analysis is a technique for assessing whether variance-covariance matrices from different populations have similar structure. One potential application is to compare additive genetic variance-covariance matrices, G. In this article, the conditions under which G matrices are expected to have common PCs are derived for a two-locus, two-allele model and the model of constrained pleiotropy. The theory demonstrates that whether G matrices are expected to have common PCs is largely determined by whether pleiotropic effects have a modular organization. If two (or more) populations have modules and these modules have the same direction, the G matrices have a common PC, regardless of allele frequencies. In the absence of modules, common PCs exist only for very restricted combinations of allele frequencies. Together, these two results imply that, when populations are evolving, common PCs are expected only when the populations have modules in common. These results have two implications: (1) In general, G matrices will not have common PCs, and (2) when they do, these PCs indicate common modular organization. The interpretation of common PCs identified for estimates of G matrices is discussed in light of these results.

Mezey, Jason G; Houle, David

2003-01-01

33

Self-healing components in robust software architecture for concurrent and distributed systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach to designing self-healing components for robust, concurrent and distributed software architecture. A self-healing component is able to detect object anomalies inside of the component, reconfigure inter-component and intra-components before and after repairing the sick object, repair it, and then test the healed object. For this, each self-healing component is structured to the layered architecture with

Michael E. Shin

2005-01-01

34

Common and Cluster-Specific Simultaneous Component Analysis  

PubMed Central

In many fields of research, so-called ‘multiblock’ data are collected, i.e., data containing multivariate observations that are nested within higher-level research units (e.g., inhabitants of different countries). Each higher-level unit (e.g., country) then corresponds to a ‘data block’. For such data, it may be interesting to investigate the extent to which the correlation structure of the variables differs between the data blocks. More specifically, when capturing the correlation structure by means of component analysis, one may want to explore which components are common across all data blocks and which components differ across the data blocks. This paper presents a common and cluster-specific simultaneous component method which clusters the data blocks according to their correlation structure and allows for common and cluster-specific components. Model estimation and model selection procedures are described and simulation results validate their performance. Also, the method is applied to data from cross-cultural values research to illustrate its empirical value.

De Roover, Kim; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Mesquita, Batja; Ceulemans, Eva

2013-01-01

35

The space avionics architecture standard tailored to the Common Lunar Lander conceptual design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major avionics requirements for a Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture (SGOAA) and the Artemis Common Lunar Lander (CLL) are summarized. The SGOAA was applied to the Artemis program which included the tailoring of the operations control subsystem, the space data subsystem, the hardware processor requirements, and the processor internal architecture. It is concluded that tailoring the generic data system to the initial functional requirements for CLL system design facilitated the design that met the Artemis requirements.

Wray, Richard B.; Stovall, John R.

36

Raft lipids as common components of human extracellular amyloid fibrils.  

PubMed

Amyloid fibrils are fibrillar polypeptide aggregates from several degenerative human conditions, including Alzheimer's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases. Analysis of amyloid fibrils derived from various human diseases (AA, ATTR, Abeta2M, ALlambda, and ALkappa amyloidosis) shows that these are associated with a common lipid component that has a conserved chemical composition and that is specifically rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, the major components of cellular lipid rafts. This pattern is not notably affected by the purification procedure, and no tight lipid interactions can be detected when preformed fibrils are mixed with lipids. By contrast, the early and prefibrillar aggregates formed in an AA amyloid-producing cell system interact with the raft marker ganglioside-1, and amyloid formation is impaired by addition of cholesterol-reducing agents. These data suggest the existence of common cellular mechanisms in the generation of different types of clinical amyloid deposits. PMID:15851687

Gellermann, Gerald P; Appel, Thomas R; Tannert, Astrid; Radestock, Anja; Hortschansky, Peter; Schroeckh, Volker; Leisner, Christian; Lütkepohl, Tim; Shtrasburg, Shmuel; Röcken, Christoph; Pras, Mordechai; Linke, Reinhold P; Diekmann, Stephan; Fändrich, Marcus

2005-05-01

37

Raft lipids as common components of human extracellular amyloid fibrils  

PubMed Central

Amyloid fibrils are fibrillar polypeptide aggregates from several degenerative human conditions, including Alzheimer's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases. Analysis of amyloid fibrils derived from various human diseases (AA, ATTR, A?2M, AL?, and AL? amyloidosis) shows that these are associated with a common lipid component that has a conserved chemical composition and that is specifically rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids, the major components of cellular lipid rafts. This pattern is not notably affected by the purification procedure, and no tight lipid interactions can be detected when preformed fibrils are mixed with lipids. By contrast, the early and prefibrillar aggregates formed in an AA amyloid-producing cell system interact with the raft marker ganglioside-1, and amyloid formation is impaired by addition of cholesterol-reducing agents. These data suggest the existence of common cellular mechanisms in the generation of different types of clinical amyloid deposits.

Gellermann, Gerald P.; Appel, Thomas R.; Tannert, Astrid; Radestock, Anja; Hortschansky, Peter; Schroeckh, Volker; Leisner, Christian; Lutkepohl, Tim; Shtrasburg, Shmuel; Rocken, Christoph; Pras, Mordechai; Linke, Reinhold P.; Diekmann, Stephan; Fandrich, Marcus

2005-01-01

38

Geographic-Aware Architecture for the Interoperability of Ubiquitous Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a novel software architecture (ArUC) to simplify the development of ubiquitous systems, providing a set of fundamental services that have been identified as useful and desirable for any ubiquitous system. This architecture solves the three main issues related to spontaneous interoperability (initialization, discovering and interaction). To solve them we have developed a set of protocols

Giovanni Guzmán; Anabel Pineda; Miguel Torres; Rolando Menchaca Mendez; Marco Moreno

2008-01-01

39

Fast GPU-Based CT Reconstruction using the Common Unified Device Architecture (CUDA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Common Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) is a fundamentally new programming approach making use of the unified shader design of the most current Graphics Processing Units (CPUs) from NVIDIA. The programming interface allows to implement an algorithm using standard C language and a few extensions without any knowledge about graphics programming using OpenGL, DirectX, and shading languages. We apply this

Holger Scherl; Benjamin Keck; Markus Kowarschik; Joachim Hornegger

2007-01-01

40

Service Component Architecture for Vending Machine System in Cloud Computing Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a software integration model of service component architecture in the vending industry. We use this architecture to rapidly integrate related services, substantially reduce development costs, establish innovative services, and provide consumers with a brand new experiential shopping environment in retail domain. Meanwhile, we apply a cloud computing technology to solve the following problem: service over loading in

Feng-cheng Lin; Yi-shiou Lee; Chih-Hao Hsu; Kuan-Yu Chen; Tzu-chun Weng

2009-01-01

41

The dynamic architecture of emotion: Evidence for the component process model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion is conceptualised as an emergent, dynamic process based on an individual's subjective appraisal of significant events. It is argued that theoretical models of emotion need to propose an architecture that reflects the essential nature and functions of emotion as a psychobiological and cultural adaptation mechanism. One proposal for such a model and its underlying dynamic architecture, the component process

Klaus R. Scherer

2009-01-01

42

A Common Network Architecture Efficiently Implements a Variety of Sparsity-Based Inference Problems  

PubMed Central

The sparse coding hypothesis has generated significant interest in the computational and theoretical neuroscience communities, but there remain open questions about the exact quantitative form of the sparsity penalty and the implementation of such a coding rule in neurally plausible architectures. The main contribution of this work is to show that a wide variety of sparsity-based probabilistic inference problems proposed in the signal processing and statistics literatures can be implemented exactly in the common network architecture known as the locally competitive algorithm (LCA). Among the cost functions we examine are approximate ?p norms (0 ? p ? 2), modified ?p-norms, block-?1 norms, and reweighted algorithms. Of particular interest is that we show significantly increased performance in reweighted ?1 algorithms by inferring all parameters jointly in a dynamical system rather than using an iterative approach native to digital computational architectures.

Charles, Adam S.; Garrigues, Pierre; Rozell, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

43

A Successful Component Architecture for Interoperable and Evolvable Ground Data Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has adopted an open architecture approach for satellite control centers and is now realizing benefits beyond those originally envisioned. The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) architecture utilizes standardized interfaces and a middleware software bus to allow functional components to be easily integrated. This paper presents the GMSEC architectural goals and concepts, the capabilities enabled and the benefits realized by adopting this framework approach. NASA experiences with applying the GMSEC architecture on multiple missions are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of lessons learned, future directions for GMSEC and the possible applications beyond NASA GSFC.

Smith, Danford S.; Bristow, John O.; Wilmot, Jonathan

2006-01-01

44

Distributed Component-Oriented Architecture for Real-Time ECG Data Acquisition Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents a distributed component-oriented multi-tier architecture as applied to the multifunctional ECG software system development This approach makes it possible to design flexible and manageable ECG applications with the functionality that ca...

V. A. Nagin I. V. Potapov S. V. Selishchev

2001-01-01

45

A Proven Ground System Architecture for Promoting Collaboration and Common Solutions at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Requirement: Improve how NASA develops and maintains ground data systems for dozens of missions, with a couple new missions always in the development phase. Decided in 2001 on enhanced message-bus architecture. Users offered choices for major components. They plug and play because key interfaces are all the same. Can support COTS, heritage, and new software. Even the middleware can be switched. Project name: GMSEC. Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center.

Smith, Danford

2005-01-01

46

Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Overview and Architectural Tenets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: 1) Command and control and mission management for the Suomi National Polar Partnership (S-NPP) mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite and the Polar Free Flyer mission in 2017 2) Data acquisition via a Polar Receptor Network (PRN) for S-NPP, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the Department of Defense (DoD) 3) Data routing over a global fiber Wide Area Network (WAN) for S-NPP, JPSS-1, Polar Free Flyer, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN, which includes several Earth Observing System [EOS] missions), MetOp for the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the National Science Foundation (NSF) 4) Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS architecture will receive a technology refresh in 2015 to satisfy several key objectives: 1) 'Operationalizing' Suomi NPP, which had originally been intended as a risk reduction mission 2) Leveraging lessons learned to date in multi-mission support 3) Taking advantage of newer, more reliable and efficient technologies 4) Satisfying new requirements and constraints due to the continually evolving budgetary environment To meet these needs, we are upgrading the CGS in the following ways: 1) Performing a system-wide technology refresh for enhanced performance and security 2) Establishing a new front end architecture and augmenting the PRN for mission data transport 3) Standardizing data protocols to accommodate an even wider variety of missions 4) Enhancing flexibility and modularity in IDPS for new and evolving algorithms 5) Achieving comprehensive situational awareness 6) Deploying a full backup capability for Continuity of Operations (COOP) 7) Providing an enclave in compliance with the latest security standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 800-53 This paper will provide an overview of the CGS as it is deployed and operating today, along with a summary of the architectural tenets that will facilitate even easier incorporation of new missions and applications in 2015.

Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

2013-12-01

47

Manned/Unmanned Common Architecture Program (MCAP) net centric flight tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properly architected avionics systems can reduce the costs of periodic functional improvements, maintenance, and obsolescence. With this in mind, the U.S. Army Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) initiated the Manned/Unmanned Common Architecture Program (MCAP) in 2003 to develop an affordable, high-performance embedded mission processing architecture for potential application to multiple aviation platforms. MCAP analyzed Army helicopter and unmanned air vehicle (UAV) missions, identified supporting subsystems, surveyed advanced hardware and software technologies, and defined computational infrastructure technical requirements. The project selected a set of modular open systems standards and market-driven commercial-off-theshelf (COTS) electronics and software, and, developed experimental mission processors, network architectures, and software infrastructures supporting the integration of new capabilities, interoperability, and life cycle cost reductions. MCAP integrated the new mission processing architecture into an AH-64D Apache Longbow and participated in Future Combat Systems (FCS) network-centric operations field experiments in 2006 and 2007 at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico and at the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) in 2008. The MCAP Apache also participated in PM C4ISR On-the-Move (OTM) Capstone Experiments 2007 (E07) and 2008 (E08) at Ft. Dix, NJ and conducted Mesa, Arizona local area flight tests in December 2005, February 2006, and June 2008.

Johnson, Dale

2009-04-01

48

A Systems Approach to Developing an Affordable Space Ground Transportation Architecture using a Commonality Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a structured approach for achieving a compatible Ground System (GS) and Flight System (FS) architecture that is affordable, productive and sustainable. This paper is an extension of the paper titled "Approach to an Affordable and Productive Space Transportation System" by McCleskey et al. This paper integrates systems engineering concepts and operationally efficient propulsion system concepts into a structured framework for achieving GS and FS compatibility in the mid-term and long-term time frames. It also presents a functional and quantitative relationship for assessing system compatibility called the Architecture Complexity Index (ACI). This paper: (1) focuses on systems engineering fundamentals as it applies to improving GS and FS compatibility; (2) establishes mid-term and long-term spaceport goals; (3) presents an overview of transitioning a spaceport to an airport model; (4) establishes a framework for defining a ground system architecture; (5) presents the ACI concept; (6) demonstrates the approach by presenting a comparison of different GS architectures; and (7) presents a discussion on the benefits of using this approach with a focus on commonality.

Garcia, Jerry L.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Bollo, Timothy R.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Robinson, John W.

2012-01-01

49

Using an architectural approach to integrate heterogeneous, distributed software components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many computer programs cannot be easily integrated because their components are distributed and heterogeneous, i.e., they are implemented in diverse programming languages, use different data representation formats, or their runtime environments are incompatible. In many cases, programs are integrated by modifying their components or interposing mechanisms that handle communication and conversion tasks. For example, remote procedure call (RPC) helps integrate heterogeneous, distributed programs. When configuring such programs, however, mechanisms like RPC must be used explicitly by software developers in order to integrate collections of diverse components. Each collection may require a unique integration solution. This paper describes improvements to the concepts of software packaging and some of our experiences in constructing complex software systems from a wide variety of components in different execution environments. Software packaging is a process that automatically determines how to integrate a diverse collection of computer programs based on the types of components involved and the capabilities of available translators and adapters in an environment. Software packaging provides a context that relates such mechanisms to software integration processes and reduces the cost of configuring applications whose components are distributed or implemented in different programming languages. Our software packaging tool subsumes traditional integration tools like UNIX make by providing a rule-based approach to software integration that is independent of execution environments.

Callahan, John R.; Purtilo, James M.

1995-01-01

50

Micro guidance and control synthesis: New components, architectures, and capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New GN&C (guidance, navigation and control) system capabilities are shown to arise from component innovations that involve the synergistic use of microminiature sensors and actuators, microelectronics, and fiber optics. Micro-GN&C system and component concepts are defined that include micro-actuated adaptive optics, micromachined inertial sensors, fiber-optic data nets and light-power transmission, and VLSI microcomputers. The thesis is advanced that these micro-miniaturization products are capable of having a revolutionary impact on space missions and systems, and that GN&C is the pathfinder micro-technology application that can bring that about.

Mettler, Edward; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

1993-01-01

51

Common relationships among proximate composition components in fishes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relationships between the various body proximate components and dry matter content were examined for five species of fishes, representing anadromous, marine and freshwater species: chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix and striped bass Morone saxatilis. The dry matter content or per cent dry mass of these fishes can be used to reliably predict the per cent composition of the other components. Therefore, with validation it is possible to estimate fat, protein and ash content of fishes from per cent dry mass information, reducing the need for costly and time-consuming laboratory proximate analysis. This approach coupled with new methods of non-lethal estimation of per cent dry mass, such as from bioelectrical impedance analysis, can provide non-destructive measurements of proximate composition of fishes. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Hartman, K. J.; Margraf, F. J.

2008-01-01

52

A component- and message-based architectural style for GUI software  

Microsoft Academic Search

While a large fraction of application system code isdevoted to user interface (UI) functions, support for reuse inthis domain has largely been confined to creation of UI toolkits("widgets"). We present a novel architectural styledirected at supporting larger grain reuse and flexible systemcomposition. Moreover, the style supports design of distributed,concurrent, applications. A key aspect of the style isthat components are not

Richard N. Taylor; Nenad Medvidovic; Kenneth M. Anderson; E. James Whitehead Jr.; Jason E. Robbins

1995-01-01

53

Sulfate Storage and Stability on Common Lean NOx Trap Components  

SciTech Connect

Components found in a commercial lean NO{sub x} trap have been studied in order to determine their impact on sulfate storage and release. A micro-reactor and a diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (DRIFTS) were used to compare components MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Pt/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/Ba/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, and Pt/Ba/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}, as well as physical mixtures of Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Pt/Ba/CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} + MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Desulfation temperature profiles as well as DRIFTS NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} storage spectra are presented for all components. This systematic approach highlighted the ability of the underlying support to impact sulfate stability, in particular when Ba was supported on ceria-zirconia rather than alumina the desulfation temperature decreased by 60-120 C. A conceptual model of sulfation progression on the ceria-zirconia support is proposed that explains the high uptake of sulfur and low temperature release when it is employed. It was also determined that the close proximity of platinum is not necessary for much of the sulfation and desulfation chemistry that occurs, as physical mixtures with platinum dispersed on only one phase displayed similar behavior to samples with platinum dispersed on both phases.

Ottinger, Nathan A [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Roop, Justin T [ORNL; Choi, Jae-Soon [ORNL; Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL

2012-01-01

54

The common vector approach and its relation to principal component analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main point of the paper is to show the close relation between the nonzero principal components and the difference subspace together with the complementary close relation between the zero principal components and the common vector. A common vector representing each word-class is obtained from the eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of its own word-class; that is, the common vector

V. Dzhafarov; A. Barkana

2001-01-01

55

The effect of five common essential oil components on Listeria monocytogenes biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of five essential oil components (EOC’s) on biofilms were investigated on two pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes isolates. Growth of the biofilm was assessed using the crystal violet (CV) staining assay and the XTT reduction assay. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess the architectural changes of the biofilm. Treatment of a 6h preformed biofilm with each of the

M. Sandasi; C. M. Leonard; A. M. Viljoen

2008-01-01

56

Tertiary lymphoid neogenesis is a component of pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia in patients with common variable immunodeficiency  

PubMed Central

Background Despite reducing pneumonia and other infections, antibody replacement does not appear to treat pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia (PLH) in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). The pathogenesis and optimal treatments remain to be clarified. Objective We aimed to better understand the pathology of CVID-associated lung disease. Tertiary lymphoneogenesis, although a component of interstitial lung disease associated with autoimmune diseases, has not previously been explored in patients with CVID. Methods We examined the clinical characteristics and pathologic findings of 6 patients with CVID with nodular/infiltrative lung disease who had biopsy specimens demonstrating PLH. Results In these subjects regions of PLH contained distinct Band T-cell zones, with B-cell predominance in 1 patient and T-cell predominance in the others. Colocalization of Ki67, Bcl6, and CD23 within this ectopic lymphoid architecture demonstrated tertiary lymphoneogenesis with active centers of cellular proliferation. One patient received rituximab with improved pulmonary radiologic findings. Conclusion Ectopic lymphoid tissue forming germinal centers suggest tertiary lymphoneogenesis in CVID-associated lung disease. B cell–targeted therapy might disrupt CVID-associated lymphoid hyperplasia.

Maglione, Paul J.; Ko, Huaibin M.; Beasley, Mary B.; Strauchen, James A.; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

2014-01-01

57

An Architecture to Support Dynamic Composition of Service Components and its Applicability to Internet Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of composite services from service components at runtime can beachieved using several different techniques. In the first approach, two or more componentsare assembled while each component remains distinct, and potentially distributed, within anetwork. To facilitate this, a new common interface must be constructed at runtime whichallows other services to interact with this set of service components as if

David William Mennie

2000-01-01

58

XML Based Integration of Web, Mobile and Desktop Components in a Service Oriented Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Component autonomy and easy composition are two of the main purposes of Service oriented Architectures. Recently, some multilayer\\u000a frameworks supporting service abstraction and tier-integration facilities have been developed. They are especially useful\\u000a for developing ubiquitous software systems where the presentation layers for different visualization devices are decoupled\\u000a from the business logic layer, but services provided by this one can be

Antonio Lillo Sanz; María N. Moreno García; Vivian F. López Batista

2008-01-01

59

Workflow-enabled distributed component-based information architecture for digital medical imaging enterprises.  

PubMed

Few information systems today offer a flexible means to define and manage the automated part of radiology processes, which provide clinical imaging services for the entire healthcare organization. Even fewer of them provide a coherent architecture that can easily cope with heterogeneity and inevitable local adaptation of applications and can integrate clinical and administrative information to aid better clinical, operational, and business decisions. We describe an innovative enterprise architecture of image information management systems to fill the needs. Such a system is based on the interplay of production workflow management, distributed object computing, Java and Web techniques, and in-depth domain knowledge in radiology operations. Our design adapts the approach of "4+1" architectural view. In this new architecture, PACS and RIS become one while the user interaction can be automated by customized workflow process. Clinical service applications are implemented as active components. They can be reasonably substituted by applications of local adaptations and can be multiplied for fault tolerance and load balancing. Furthermore, the workflow-enabled digital radiology system would provide powerful query and statistical functions for managing resources and improving productivity. This paper will potentially lead to a new direction of image information management. We illustrate the innovative design with examples taken from an implemented system. PMID:14518730

Wong, Stephen T C; Tjandra, Donny; Wang, Huili; Shen, Weimin

2003-09-01

60

Modularity in the mammalian dentition: Mice and monkeys share a common dental genetic architecture  

PubMed Central

The concept of modularity provides a useful tool for exploring the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Here, we use quantitative genetics to identify modularity within the mammalian dentition, connecting the genetics of organogenesis to the genetics of population-level variation for a phenotype well represented in the fossil record. We estimated the correlations between dental traits due to the shared additive effects of genes (pleiotropy) and compared the pleiotropic relationships among homologous traits in two evolutionary distant taxa – mice and baboons. We find that in both mice and baboons, who shared a common ancestor >60 Ma, incisor size variation is genetically independent of molar size variation. Furthermore, baboon premolars show independent genetic variation from incisors, suggesting that a modular architecture separates incisors from these posterior teeth as well. Such genetic independence between modules provides an explanation for the extensive diversity of incisor size variation seen throughout mammalian evolution--variation uncorrelated with equivalent levels of postcanine tooth size variation. The modularity identified here is supported by the odontogenic homeobox code proposed for the patterning of the rodent dentition. The baboon postcanine pattern of incomplete pleiotropy is also consistent with predictions from the morphogenetic field model.

Hlusko, Leslea J.; Sage, Richard D.; Mahaney, Michael C.

2010-01-01

61

Frequency multiplexed flux locked loop architecture providing an array of DC SQUIDS having both shared and unshared components  

DOEpatents

Architecture for frequency multiplexing multiple flux locked loops in a system comprising an array of DC SQUID sensors. The architecture involves dividing the traditional flux locked loop into multiple unshared components and a single shared component which, in operation, form a complete flux locked loop relative to each DC SQUID sensor. Each unshared flux locked loop component operates on a different flux modulation frequency. The architecture of the present invention allows a reduction from 2N to N+1 in the number of connections between the cryogenic DC SQUID sensors and their associated room temperature flux locked loops. Furthermore, the 1.times.N architecture of the present invention can be paralleled to form an M.times.N array architecture without increasing the required number of flux modulation frequencies.

Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Independence, MO)

2002-01-01

62

Evidence for a common progenitor of epithelial and mesenchymal components of the liver.  

PubMed

Tissues of the adult organism maintain the homeostasis and respond to injury by means of progenitor/stem cell compartments capable to give rise to appropriate progeny. In organs composed by histotypes of different embryological origins (e.g. the liver), the tissue turnover may in theory involve different stem/precursor cells able to respond coordinately to physiological or pathological stimuli. In the liver, a progenitor cell compartment, giving rise to hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, can be activated by chronic injury inhibiting hepatocyte proliferation. The precursor compartment guaranteeing turnover of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) (perisinusoidal cells implicated with the origin of the liver fibrosis) in adult organ is yet unveiled. We show here that epithelial and mesenchymal liver cells (hepatocytes and HSCs) may arise from a common progenitor. Sca+ murine progenitor cells were found to coexpress markers of epithelial and mesenchymal lineages and to give rise, within few generations, to cells that segregate the lineage-specific markers into two distinct subpopulations. Notably, these progenitor cells, clonally derived, when transplanted in healthy livers, were found to generate epithelial and mesenchymal liver-specific derivatives (i.e. hepatocytes and HSCs) properly integrated in the liver architecture. These evidences suggest the existence of a 'bona fide' organ-specific meso-endodermal precursor cell, thus profoundly modifying current models of adult progenitor commitment believed, so far, to be lineage-restricted. Heterotopic transplantations, which confirm the dual differentiation potentiality of those cells, indicates as tissue local cues are necessary to drive a full hepatic differentiation. These data provide first evidences for an adult stem/precursor cell capable to differentiate in both parenchymal and non-parenchymal organ-specific components and candidate the liver as the instructive site for the reservoir compartment of HSC precursors as yet non-localized in the adult. PMID:23686136

Conigliaro, A; Amicone, L; Costa, V; De Santis Puzzonia, M; Mancone, C; Sacchetti, B; Cicchini, C; Garibaldi, F; Brenner, D A; Kisseleva, T; Bianco, P; Tripodi, M

2013-08-01

63

THE ACTIVITY/SPACE, A LEAST COMMON DENOMINATOR FOR ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMMING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TWO INTERRELATED PROBLEM AREAS OF ARCHITECTURAL PROGRAMING ARE DISCUSSED--(1) "NEEDS DEFINITION," AND (2) "NEEDS DOCUMENTATION AND COMMUNICATION". FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES AND WORK OF THE CENTER FOR ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH ARE PRESENTED. ISSUES ARE THE FAILURE TO RECOGNIZE HOW, WHEN, AND IN WHAT FORM THE NEED WILL BE USED. CRITERIA FORMULATION MUST BE…

HAVILAND, DAVID S.

64

Organizing Definitions and Formalisms for Dynamic Software Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic architectural change is defined as the addition and removal of components and connectors. Dynamic software architectures are those architectures that modify their architecture and enact the mod- ifications during the system's execution. This behavior is most commonly known as run-time evolution or dynamism. As dynamic software architecture use becomes more widespread, it is important to gain a better understanding

Jeremy S. Bradbury

2004-01-01

65

Accessing and distributing EMBL data using CORBA (common object request broker architecture)  

PubMed Central

Background: The EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database is a comprehensive database of DNA and RNA sequences and related information traditionally made available in flat-file format. Queries through tools such as SRS (Sequence Retrieval System) also return data in flat-file format. Flat files have a number of shortcomings, however, and the resources therefore currently lack a flexible environment to meet individual researchers' needs. The Object Management Group's common object request broker architecture (CORBA) is an industry standard that provides platform-independent programming interfaces and models for portable distributed object-oriented computing applications. Its independence from programming languages, computing platforms and network protocols makes it attractive for developing new applications for querying and distributing biological data. Results: A CORBA infrastructure developed by EMBL-EBI provides an efficient means of accessing and distributing EMBL data. The EMBL object model is defined such that it provides a basis for specifying interfaces in interface definition language (IDL) and thus for developing the CORBA servers. The mapping from the object model to the relational schema in the underlying Oracle database uses the facilities provided by PersistenceTM, an object/relational tool. The techniques of developing loaders and 'live object caching' with persistent objects achieve a smart live object cache where objects are created on demand. The objects are managed by an evictor pattern mechanism. Conclusions: The CORBA interfaces to the EMBL database address some of the problems of traditional flat-file formats and provide an efficient means for accessing and distributing EMBL data. CORBA also provides a flexible environment for users to develop their applications by building clients to our CORBA servers, which can be integrated into existing systems.

Wang, Lichun; Rodriguez-Tome, Patricia; Redaschi, Nicole; McNeil, Phil; Robinson, Alan; Lijnzaad, Philip

2000-01-01

66

Surprise and error: common neuronal architecture for the processing of errors and novelty.  

PubMed

According to recent accounts, the processing of errors and generally infrequent, surprising (novel) events share a common neuroanatomical substrate. Direct empirical evidence for this common processing network in humans is, however, scarce. To test this hypothesis, we administered a hybrid error-monitoring/novelty-oddball task in which the frequency of novel, surprising trials was dynamically matched to the frequency of errors. Using scalp electroencephalographic recordings and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we compared neural responses to errors with neural responses to novel events. In Experiment 1, independent component analysis of scalp ERP data revealed a common neural generator implicated in the generation of both the error-related negativity (ERN) and the novelty-related frontocentral N2. In Experiment 2, this pattern was confirmed by a conjunction analysis of event-related fMRI, which showed significantly elevated BOLD activity following both types of trials in the posterior medial frontal cortex, including the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC), the neuronal generator of the ERN. Together, these findings provide direct evidence of a common neural system underlying the processing of errors and novel events. This appears to be at odds with prominent theories of the ERN and aMCC. In particular, the reinforcement learning theory of the ERN may need to be modified because it may not suffice as a fully integrative model of aMCC function. Whenever course and outcome of an action violates expectancies (not necessarily related to reward), the aMCC seems to be engaged in evaluating the necessity of behavioral adaptation. PMID:22649231

Wessel, Jan R; Danielmeier, Claudia; Morton, J Bruce; Ullsperger, Markus

2012-05-30

67

Some common characteristics of the basic components of the solar radio emission and confirmation of a fourth basic component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our high-time resolution data observed with fast sampling radio telescopes in three periods were processed. It is found that there is a rapidly varying component(RVC) in the radio emission source on the Sun. After investigating some common characteristics of the basic components of the solar radio emission, we discover that RVC is different in nature from the known three basic components: the quiet Sun, the slowly varying component (SVC), and the radio burst. It has a character superimposed on the radio burst: short duration, high brightness temperature and small dimension. For this reason, it is presented as a fourth basic component. Up to now, we have observed five typoes of RVC. Among them four types can be confirmed, another is yet in dispute. Finally, the five categories of observational characteristics of RVC are given.

Ji, S. C.; Cao, W. D.; Chen, G. Q.; Yang, K. P.

1994-06-01

68

The Architecture of EssB, an Integral Membrane Component of the Type VII Secretion System  

PubMed Central

Summary The membrane-bound EssB is an integral and essential component of the bacterial type VII secretion system that can contribute to pathogenicity. The architecture of Geobacillus thermodenitrificans EssB has been investigated by combining crystallographic and EPR spectroscopic methods. The protein forms a dimer that straddles the cytoplasmic membrane. A helical fold is observed for the C-terminal segment, which is positioned on the exterior of the membrane. This segment contributes most to dimer formation. The N-terminal segment displays a structure related to the pseudokinase fold and may contribute to function by recognizing substrates or secretion system partners. The remaining part of EssB may serve as an anchor point for the secretion apparatus, which is embedded in the cytoplasmic membrane with the C-terminal domain protruding out to interact with partner proteins or components of peptidoglycan.

Zoltner, Martin; Norman, David G.; Fyfe, Paul K.; El Mkami, Hassane; Palmer, Tracy; Hunter, William N.

2013-01-01

69

The component-based architecture of the HELIOS medical software engineering environment.  

PubMed

The constitution of highly integrated health information networks and the growth of multimedia technologies raise new challenges for the development of medical applications. We describe in this paper the general architecture of the HELIOS medical software engineering environment devoted to the development and maintenance of multimedia distributed medical applications. HELIOS is made of a set of software components, federated by a communication channel called the HELIOS Unification Bus. The HELIOS kernel includes three main components, the Analysis-Design and Environment, the Object Information System and the Interface Manager. HELIOS services consist in a collection of toolkits providing the necessary facilities to medical application developers. They include Image Related services, a Natural Language Processor, a Decision Support System and Connection services. The project gives special attention to both object-oriented approaches and software re-usability that are considered crucial steps towards the development of more reliable, coherent and integrated applications. PMID:7882667

Degoulet, P; Jean, F C; Engelmann, U; Meinzer, H P; Baud, R; Sandblad, B; Wigertz, O; Le Meur, R; Jagermann, C

1994-12-01

70

Common variation contributes to the genetic architecture of social communication traits  

PubMed Central

Background Social communication difficulties represent an autistic trait that is highly heritable and persistent during the course of development. However, little is known about the underlying genetic architecture of this phenotype. Methods We performed a genome-wide association study on parent-reported social communication problems using items of the children’s communication checklist (age 10 to 11 years) studying single and/or joint marker effects. Analyses were conducted in a large UK population-based birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and their Children, ALSPAC, N = 5,584) and followed-up within a sample of children with comparable measures from Western Australia (RAINE, N = 1364). Results Two of our seven independent top signals (P-discovery <1.0E-05) were replicated (0.009 common polymorphisms to variation in social communication phenotypes.

2013-01-01

71

Runtime recovery and manipulation of software architecture of component-based systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, more attention is paid to the researches and practices on how to use software architecture in software maintenance and evolution to reduce their complexity and cost. The key in such architecture-based maintenance and evolution is to recover software architecture from existing systems. Almost all studies on architecture recovery focus on analyzing the source code and other documents. Such recovered

Gang Huang; Hong Mei; Fu-Qing Yang

2006-01-01

72

Novel precipitate–microstructural architecture developed in the fabrication of solid copper components by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fabrication of Cu components by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting (EBM) from low-purity, atomized Cu powder containing a high density of Cu2O precipitates exhibits a novel example of precipitate–dislocation architecture. Such architectures are seen by optical metallography, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy, to consist generally of equiaxed precipitate–dislocation cell-like arrays (1–3?m) in the horizontal reference plane perpendicular

D. A. Ramirez; L. E. Murr; E. Martinez; D. H. Hernandez; J. L. Martinez; B. I. Machado; F. Medina; P. Frigola; R. B. Wicker

2011-01-01

73

Security Framework for Pervasive Healthcare Architectures Utilizing MPEG-21 IPMP Components  

PubMed Central

Nowadays in modern and ubiquitous computing environments, it is imperative more than ever the necessity for deployment of pervasive healthcare architectures into which the patient is the central point surrounded by different types of embedded and small computing devices, which measure sensitive physical indications, interacting with hospitals databases, allowing thus urgent medical response in occurrences of critical situations. Such environments must be developed satisfying the basic security requirements for real-time secure data communication, and protection of sensitive medical data and measurements, data integrity and confidentiality, and protection of the monitored patient's privacy. In this work, we argue that the MPEG-21 Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP) components can be used in order to achieve protection of transmitted medical information and enhance patient's privacy, since there is selective and controlled access to medical data that sent toward the hospital's servers.

Fragopoulos, Anastasios; Gialelis, John; Serpanos, Dimitrios

2009-01-01

74

Frontier: High Performance Database Access Using Standard Web Components in a Scalable Multi-Tier Architecture  

SciTech Connect

A high performance system has been assembled using standard web components to deliver database information to a large number of broadly distributed clients. The CDF Experiment at Fermilab is establishing processing centers around the world imposing a high demand on their database repository. For delivering read-only data, such as calibrations, trigger information, and run conditions data, we have abstracted the interface that clients use to retrieve data objects. A middle tier is deployed that translates client requests into database specific queries and returns the data to the client as XML datagrams. The database connection management, request translation, and data encoding are accomplished in servlets running under Tomcat. Squid Proxy caching layers are deployed near the Tomcat servers, as well as close to the clients, to significantly reduce the load on the database and provide a scalable deployment model. Details the system's construction and use are presented, including its architecture, design, interfaces, administration, performance measurements, and deployment plan.

Kosyakov, S.; Kowalkowski, J.; Litvintsev, D.; Lueking, L.; Paterno, M.; White, S.P.; /Fermilab; Autio, Lauri; /Helsinki U.; Blumenfeld, B.; Maksimovic, P.; Mathis, M.; /Johns Hopkins U.

2004-09-01

75

Size correction in biology: how reliable are approaches based on (common) principal component analysis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological traits typically scale with the overall body size of an organism. A meaningful comparison of trait values among\\u000a individuals or populations that differ in size therefore requires size correction. A frequently applied size correction method\\u000a involves subjecting the set of n morphological traits of interest to (common) principal component analysis [(C)PCA], and treating the first principal component\\u000a [(C)PC1] as

Daniel Berner

2011-01-01

76

PARTIAL LEAST SQUARES IS TO LISREL AS PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS IS TO COMMON FACTOR ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decision of whether to use PLS instead of a covariance based structural equation modeling technique such as LISREL for causal modeling can be assisted by looking at the differences between principal components analysis and common factor analysis. Through such a process, this paper outlines the need for PLS users to shift from merely estimating model parameters to that of

Wynne W. Chin

77

Mayo clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System (cTAKES): architecture, component evaluation and applications.  

PubMed

We aim to build and evaluate an open-source natural language processing system for information extraction from electronic medical record clinical free-text. We describe and evaluate our system, the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System (cTAKES), released open-source at http://www.ohnlp.org. The cTAKES builds on existing open-source technologies-the Unstructured Information Management Architecture framework and OpenNLP natural language processing toolkit. Its components, specifically trained for the clinical domain, create rich linguistic and semantic annotations. Performance of individual components: sentence boundary detector accuracy=0.949; tokenizer accuracy=0.949; part-of-speech tagger accuracy=0.936; shallow parser F-score=0.924; named entity recognizer and system-level evaluation F-score=0.715 for exact and 0.824 for overlapping spans, and accuracy for concept mapping, negation, and status attributes for exact and overlapping spans of 0.957, 0.943, 0.859, and 0.580, 0.939, and 0.839, respectively. Overall performance is discussed against five applications. The cTAKES annotations are the foundation for methods and modules for higher-level semantic processing of clinical free-text. PMID:20819853

Savova, Guergana K; Masanz, James J; Ogren, Philip V; Zheng, Jiaping; Sohn, Sunghwan; Kipper-Schuler, Karin C; Chute, Christopher G

2010-01-01

78

Mayo clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System (cTAKES): architecture, component evaluation and applications  

PubMed Central

We aim to build and evaluate an open-source natural language processing system for information extraction from electronic medical record clinical free-text. We describe and evaluate our system, the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System (cTAKES), released open-source at http://www.ohnlp.org. The cTAKES builds on existing open-source technologies—the Unstructured Information Management Architecture framework and OpenNLP natural language processing toolkit. Its components, specifically trained for the clinical domain, create rich linguistic and semantic annotations. Performance of individual components: sentence boundary detector accuracy=0.949; tokenizer accuracy=0.949; part-of-speech tagger accuracy=0.936; shallow parser F-score=0.924; named entity recognizer and system-level evaluation F-score=0.715 for exact and 0.824 for overlapping spans, and accuracy for concept mapping, negation, and status attributes for exact and overlapping spans of 0.957, 0.943, 0.859, and 0.580, 0.939, and 0.839, respectively. Overall performance is discussed against five applications. The cTAKES annotations are the foundation for methods and modules for higher-level semantic processing of clinical free-text.

Masanz, James J; Ogren, Philip V; Zheng, Jiaping; Sohn, Sunghwan; Kipper-Schuler, Karin C; Chute, Christopher G

2010-01-01

79

Miniaturized Analytical Platforms From Nanoparticle Components: Studies in the Construction, Characterization, and High-Throughput Usage of These Novel Architectures  

SciTech Connect

The scientific community has recently experienced an overall effort to reduce the physical size of many experimental components to the nanometer size range. This size is unique as the characteristics of this regime involve aspects of pure physics, biology, and chemistry. One extensively studied example of a nanometer sized experimental component, which acts as a junction between these three principle scientific theologies, is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA). These biopolymers not only contain the biological genetic guide to code for the production of life-sustaining materials, but are also being probed by physicists as a means to create electrical circuits and furthermore as controllable architectural and sensor motifs in the chemical disciplines. Possibly the most common nano-sized component between these sciences are nanoparticles composed of a variety of materials. The cross discipline employment of nanoparticles is evident from the vast amount of literature that has been produced from each of the individual communities within the last decade. Along these cross-discipline lines, this dissertation examines the use of several different types of nanoparticles with a wide array of surface chemistries to understand their adsorption properties and to construct unique miniaturized analytical and immunoassay platforms. This introduction will act as a literature review to provide key information regarding the synthesis and surface chemistries of several types of nanoparticles. This material will set the stage for a discussion of assembling ordered arrays of nanoparticles into functional platforms, architectures, and sensors. The introduction will also include a short explanation of the atomic force microscope that is used throughout the thesis to characterize the nanoparticle-based structures. Following the Introduction, four research chapters are presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 1 examines the self-assembly of polymeric nanoparticles exhibiting a variety of surface chemistries and attempts to deconvolute general adsorption rules for their assembly on various substrates. Chapter 2 extends the usage of self-assembly of polymeric nanoparticles through a layer-by-layer deposition concept and photolithography methodologies to create analytical platforms with a vertical height controlled within the nanometer regime. This platform is then furthered in Chapter 3 by employing this integrated concept as a bio-recognition platform, with the extension of the method to a high-throughput screening system explored. Chapter 4 exploits two different types of nanoparticles, silica and gold, as multiplexed, self-assembled immunoassay sensors. This final research chapter is followed by a general summation and future prospectus section that concludes the dissertation.

Andrew David Pris

2003-08-05

80

Multilevel Parallelism in Computational Chemistry using Common Component Architecture and Global Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of complex scientific applications for high-end systems is a challenging task. Addressing complexity of the involved software and algorithms is becoming increasingly difficult and requires appropriate software engineering approaches to address interoperability, maintenance, and software composition challenges. At the same time, the requirements for performance and scalability to thousand processor configurations magnifies the level of difficulties facing the

Manojkumar Krishnan; Yuri Alexeev; Theresa L. Windus; Jarek Nieplocha

2005-01-01

81

A database architecture for reusable CommonKADS agent specification components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent Agent programs and Expert Systems in certain application domains may share considerable functionality: at an abstract level, specifications of these programs will share some of the knowledge they need to carry out their tasks. If there was a way in which this knowledge could be structured and stored in a repository so that it would be easy to browse,

Daniel J. Allsopp; Alan Harrison; Colin Sheppard

2002-01-01

82

Toxic and nontoxic components of botulinum neurotoxin complex are evolved from a common ancestral zinc protein  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BoNT and NTNHA proteins share a similar protein architecture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NTNHA and BoNT were both identified as zinc-binding proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NTNHA does not have a classical HEXXH zinc-coordinating motif similar to that found in all serotypes of BoNT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homology modeling implied probable key residues involved in zinc coordination. -- Abstract: Zinc atoms play an essential role in a number of enzymes. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the most potent toxin known in nature, is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase. Here we identify the nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA), one of the BoNT-complex constituents, as a zinc-binding protein, along with BoNT. A protein structure classification database search indicated that BoNT and NTNHA share a similar domain architecture, comprising a zinc-dependent metalloproteinase-like, BoNT coiled-coil motif and concanavalin A-like domains. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that every single NTNHA molecule contains a single zinc atom. This is the first demonstration of a zinc atom in this protein, as far as we know. However, the NTNHA molecule does not possess any known zinc-coordinating motif, whereas all BoNT serotypes possess the classical HEXXH motif. Homology modeling of the NTNHA structure implied that a consensus K-C-L-I-K-X{sub 35}-D sequence common among all NTNHA serotype molecules appears to coordinate a single zinc atom. These findings lead us to propose that NTNHA and BoNT may have evolved distinct functional specializations following their branching out from a common ancestral zinc protein.

Inui, Ken [Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan) [Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 1-8 Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Sagane, Yoshimasa [Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan)] [Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan); Miyata, Keita [Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan) [Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 1-8 Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Miyashita, Shin-Ichiro [Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan)] [Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan); Suzuki, Tomonori [Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)] [Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Shikamori, Yasuyuki [Agilent Technologies International Japan, Ltd. Takaura-cho 9-1, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0033 (Japan)] [Agilent Technologies International Japan, Ltd. Takaura-cho 9-1, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0033 (Japan); Ohyama, Tohru; Niwa, Koichi [Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan)] [Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan); Watanabe, Toshihiro, E-mail: t-watana@bioindustry.nodai.ac.jp [Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan)] [Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan)

2012-03-16

83

A Domain-Language Approach to Designing Dynamic Enterprise Component-Based Architectures to Support Business Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the solutions to a major subset of problems facing component-based development and integration (CBDI). These solutions include patterns, techniques, design artifacts and activities across what we have identified as the five domains of CBDI: namely, organizational, methodological, architectural, technology implementation and infrastructure. We present a taxonomy of CBDI domains that transcend technology and tools, to

Ali Arsanjani

2001-01-01

84

CommonKADS's knowledge model using UML architectural view and extension mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the challenges for any knowledge engineering methodology is to find appropriate ways of modeling knowledge in a schematic way. The CommonKADS methodology is a de-facto technique for knowledge modeling. It specifies knowledge and reasoning requirements of the prospective system. CommonKADS's knowledge modeling consists of three parts that capturing a related group of knowledge structure: Domain knowledge, Inference knowledge

Boonprasert Surakratanasakul; Kazuhiko Hamamoto

2011-01-01

85

Extending Reliability Block Diagrams to Software Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability block diagrams focus on components and connectors as do software architectures. However, some architectural styles possess characteristics which make traditional reliability block diagrams unusable as an analysis technique. In order to use the diagrams, they must be extended to reflect common architectural choices such as concurrency, distribution, dynamism, and implicit connectors.

Ahmed Abd-Allah

1997-01-01

86

Three-dimensional architecture and distribution of collagen components in the goat hypophysis.  

PubMed

The three-dimensional architecture of collagen fibrils in the connective tissue framework and the distribution of collagen types in the goat hypophysis were studied by the cell maceration method in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunohistochemistry. The pars distalis of the adenohypophysis consisted of many cell clusters. SEM revealed that the wall of cell clusters appeared as various-sized flat bundles of collagen fibrils woven in a basket-like configuration. In the pars tuberalis, the aggregates of collagen fibrils were denser and bundles thicker compared to the pars distalis. The density of collagen fibrils changed from the pars tuberalis to pars distalis without a distinct border. The collagen framework in the pars intermedia was mainly divided into three parts, the dorsal region with large hollows, the middle region, and the ventral sheet facing the cavum hypophysis. In the lobus nervosus of the neurohypophysis, the collagen network exhibited a sponge-like appearance at low magnification. Collagen fibrils of various sizes consisted of loose wavy bundles distributed around the cavities. Immunohistochemistry revealed types I, III, IV, V, and VI collagen throughout the hypophysis. It is concluded that to maintain structural and functional integration, the components of collagen are in different configurations throughout the regions of the goat hypophysis. PMID:15052655

Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji; Nakamura, Yoshi-Nori; Okano, Kaoru; Iwamoto, Hisao

2004-04-01

87

Symbolics Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is an architecture. In computer systems, an architecture is a specification of an interface. To be dignified by the name architecture, an interface should be designed for a long lifespan and should connect system components maintained by different organizations. Often an architecture is part of a product definition and defines characteristics on which purchasers of that product rely, but

David A. Moon

1987-01-01

88

Common functional principal components analysis: a new approach to analyzing human movement data.  

PubMed

In many human movement studies angle-time series data on several groups of individuals are measured. Current methods to compare groups include comparisons of the mean value in each group or use multivariate techniques such as principal components analysis and perform tests on the principal component scores. Such methods have been useful, though discard a large amount of information. Functional data analysis (FDA) is an emerging statistical analysis technique in human movement research which treats the angle-time series data as a function rather than a series of discrete measurements. This approach retains all of the information in the data. Functional principal components analysis (FPCA) is an extension of multivariate principal components analysis which examines the variability of a sample of curves and has been used to examine differences in movement patterns of several groups of individuals. Currently the functional principal components (FPCs) for each group are either determined separately (yielding components that are group-specific), or by combining the data for all groups and determining the FPCs of the combined data (yielding components that summarize the entire data set). The group-specific FPCs contain both within and between group variation and issues arise when comparing FPCs across groups when the order of the FPCs alter in each group. The FPCs of the combined data may not adequately describe all groups of individuals and comparisons between groups typically use t-tests of the mean FPC scores in each group. When these differences are statistically non-significant it can be difficult to determine how a particular intervention is affecting movement patterns or how injured subjects differ from controls. In this paper we aim to perform FPCA in a manner allowing sensible comparisons between groups of curves. A statistical technique called common functional principal components analysis (CFPCA) is implemented. CFPCA identifies the common sources of variation evident across groups but allows the order of each component to change for a particular group. This allows for the direct comparison of components across groups. We use our method to analyze a biomechanical data set examining the mechanisms of chronic Achilles tendon injury and the functional effects of orthoses. PMID:21543128

Coffey, N; Harrison, A J; Donoghue, O A; Hayes, K

2011-12-01

89

Common N1 and mismatch negativity neural evoked components are revealed by independent component model-based clustering analysis.  

PubMed

Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related brain potential that appears when an auditory regularity is violated. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain it: the adaptation hypothesis and the memory-based hypothesis. Critically, they differ in whether the MMN can be distinguished from the N1. In this study, we assessed the differential contribution of the N1 and the MMN using independent component analysis (ICA) combined with model-based clustering. Our results show that the neural responses associated with the standard and deviant tones are explained by three clusters of reliable ICs with frontocentral scalp distribution. Two of these clusters exhibited a common N1 for both the standard and deviant tones and one cluster showed an enhancement of the anterior N1 at the MMN time range. These results support the adaptation hypothesis, which proposes that MMN is generated by neural mechanisms similar to those associated with auditory N1. PMID:22971105

Lozano-Soldevilla, Diego; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Fuentemilla, Lluís; Grau, Carles

2012-11-01

90

A Flexible Component based Access Control Architecture for OPeNDAP Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network data access services such as OPeNDAP enable widespread access to data across user communities. However, without ready means to restrict access to data for such services, data providers and data owners are constrained from making their data more widely available. Even with such capability, the range of different security technologies available can make interoperability between services and user client tools a challenge. OPeNDAP is a key data access service in the infrastructure under development to support the CMIP5 (Couple Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5). The work is being carried out as part of an international collaboration including the US Earth System Grid and Curator projects and the EU funded IS-ENES and Metafor projects. This infrastructure will bring together Petabytes of climate model data and associated metadata from over twenty modelling centres around the world in a federation with a core archive mirrored at three data centres. A security system is needed to meet the requirements of organisations responsible for model data including the ability to restrict data access to registered users, keep them up to date with changes to data and services, audit access and protect finite computing resources. Individual organisations have existing tools and services such as OPeNDAP with which users in the climate research community are already familiar. The security system should overlay access control in a way which maintains the usability and ease of access to these services. The BADC (British Atmospheric Data Centre) has been working in collaboration with the Earth System Grid development team and partner organisations to develop the security architecture. OpenID and MyProxy were selected at an early stage in the ESG project to provide single sign-on capability across the federation of participating organisations. Building on the existing OPeNDAP specification an architecture based on pluggable server side components has been developed at the BADC. These components filter requests to the service they protect and apply the required authentication and authorisation schemes. Filters have been developed for OpenID and SSL client based authentication. The latter enabling access with MyProxy issued credentials. By preserving a clear separation between the security and application functionality, multiple authentication technologies may be supported without the need for modification to the underlying OPeNDAP application. The software has been developed in the Python programming language securing the Python based OPeNDAP implementation, PyDAP. This utilises the Python WSGI (Web Server Gateway Interface) specification to create distinct security filter components. Work is also currently underway to develop a parallel Java based filter implementation to secure the THREDDS Data Server. Whilst the ability to apply this flexible approach to the server side security layer is important, the development of compatible client software is vital to the take up of these services across a wide user base. To date PyDAP and wget based clients have been tested and work is planned to integrate the required security interface into the netCDF API. This forms part of ongoing collaboration with the OPeNDAP user and development community to ensure interoperability.

Kershaw, Philip; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Cinquini, Luca; Lawrence, Bryan; Pascoe, Stephen; Siebenlist, Frank

2010-05-01

91

How International Standards Such as ATML and IEEE 1641 STD can Make the Realisation of an Open System Architecture on a Common Test Platform a Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A perspective on how the DoD and MoD are integrating open standards into their ATS frameworks and policy in the search for a common test platform architecture solution for use on all test platforms. The paper examines the two approaches being taken and draws on their commonality to propose how open standards can help meet both their aims and circumstances.

C. Gorringe

2006-01-01

92

Hybrid optical TDM/WDM network technology and architecture: Component and subsystem development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ever-growing Internet has driven high demands on bandwidth. The supply of the transmission and networking bandwidth is not catching up with the insatiable demands on capacity at a satisfactory level quality of service with an affordable price. In the past ten to fifteen years, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) has revolutionized communications research and development. WDM technologies relieve the much-needed bandwidth at its fastest pace and at an affordable price. However wavelengths themselves are scare resource due to the limited bandwidth of optical amplifiers. With fixed wavelength spacing between adjacent optical signal channels, there is a limited number of channels available for WDM networks with moderately high bit rate at which the electronics multiplexing/demultiplexing are possible. As the industry tries to continually push narrow the channel spacing, they meet ever increasing challenges due to linear and nonlinear interactions within each individual signal channel and among different signal channels. There is a limit in how small the inter-channel spacing can be. Without increasing the bit rate of each individual channel, eventually, the bandwidth will reach its limits. Researchers throughout the world are now actively looking an alternative: combination of aggregating WDM channels and increasing the bit rate of each channel by optical time division multiplexing (OTDM), that is, seeking hybrid OTDM/WDM networks and architectures to increase the supply of bandwidth. With the development of an all optical switch: terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) at Princeton and its variations in different configurations, it is now possible to extract a single bit from a single wavelength data stream at bit rate as high as 750Gbps with a 1.3ps switching window. Therefore, it is possible to bit interleave many smaller users into a single wavelength in OTDM. With hybrid OTDM/WDM networks becoming more desirable and more practical for supplying much needed bandwidth and networking functionality, development of its enabling subsystems and components becomes prominent. This dissertation addresses critical subsystem and component development for such hybrid OTDM/WDM networks and systems. It presents innovative solutions in all optical switching (Chapters 2, 3, and 4), wavelength conversion and its tunable sources (Chapters 5 and 8), format conversion and pulse width management (Chapter 6), perfect synchronization for bit-parallel WDM signal channels over a single optical fiber and its its application: WDM-to-OTDM conversion (Chapter 7), and finally a design for all-optical data regeneration what has been studied in the corresponding chapter.

Zhou, Deyu

93

Re-Use of Integrated Dictionary Components for C4ISR Architectures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The C4ISR Architecture Framework Products can be developed using mapping between Structured Analysis products and the Framework products and also based on mapping between Object Orientation and Framework products (Levis and Wagenhals, Bienvenue, Shin and ...

A. T. Ali

2003-01-01

94

Connected Component Labeling in Image Processing with MIMD (Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data) Architectures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many higher level image processing algorithms suggest dynamic allocation of multiple processors to image processing subtasks. However, most parallel algorithms in image processing assume an SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) architecture with process...

R. A. Hummel A. Rojer

1985-01-01

95

Moving Towards a Common Ground and Flight Data Systems Architecture for NASA's Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has embarked on an ambitious effort to return man to the moon and then on to Mars. The Exploration Vision requires development of major new space and ground assets and poses challenges well beyond those faced by many of NASA's recent programs. New crewed vehicles must be developed. Compatible supply vehicles, surface mobility modules and robotic exploration capabilities will supplement the manned exploration vehicle. New launch systems will be developed as well as a new ground communications and control infrastructure. The development must take place in a cost-constrained environment and must advance along an aggressive schedule. Common solutions and system interoperability and will be critical to the successful development of the Exploration data systems for this wide variety of flight and ground elements. To this end, NASA has assembled a team of engineers from across the agency to identify the key challenges for Exploration data systems and to establish the most beneficial strategic approach to be followed. Key challenges and the planned NASA approach for flight and ground systems will be discussed in the paper. The described approaches will capitalize on new technologies, and will result in cross-program interoperability between spacecraft and ground systems, from multiple suppliers and agencies.

Rader. Steve; Kearney, Mike; McVittie, Thom; Smith, Dan

2006-01-01

96

Common and Distinct Genetic Properties of ESCRT-II Components in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic studies in yeast have identified class E vps genes that form the ESCRT complexes required for protein sorting at the early endosome. In Drosophila, mutations of the ESCRT-II component vps25 cause endosomal defects leading to accumulation of Notch protein and increased Notch pathway activity. These endosomal and signaling defects are thought to account for several phenotypes. Depending on the developmental context, two different types of overgrowth can be detected. Tissue predominantly mutant for vps25 displays neoplastic tumor characteristics. In contrast, vps25 mutant clones in a wild-type background trigger hyperplastic overgrowth in a non-autonomous manner. In addition, vps25 mutant clones also promote apoptotic resistance in a non-autonomous manner. Principal Findings Here, we genetically characterize the remaining ESCRT-II components vps22 and vps36. Like vps25, mutants of vps22 and vps36 display endosomal defects, accumulate Notch protein and – when the tissue is predominantly mutant – show neoplastic tumor characteristics. However, despite these common phenotypes, they have distinct non-autonomous phenotypes. While vps22 mutations cause strong non-autonomous overgrowth, they do not affect apoptotic resistance. In contrast, vps36 mutations increase apoptotic resistance, but have little effect on non-autonomous proliferation. Further characterization reveals that although all ESCRT-II mutants accumulate Notch protein, only vps22 and vps25 mutations trigger Notch activity. Conclusions/Significance The ESCRT-II components vps22, vps25 and vps36 display common and distinct genetic properties. Our data redefine the role of Notch for hyperplastic and neoplastic overgrowth in these mutants. While Notch is required for hyperplastic growth, it appears to be dispensable for neoplastic transformation.

Herz, Hans-Martin; Woodfield, Sarah E.; Chen, Zhihong; Bolduc, Clare; Bergmann, Andreas

2009-01-01

97

A Component-Driven Architecture for Internet-Based, Directly Reactive Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we focus on the architecture-based development of what we call directly reactive information systems on the Internet. These systems exhibit full content management of a, possibly distributed, multimedia information archive and provide for the integration of internal with external workflows. They are built to serve as open communications platform for a web-wide audience that is also involved

René Stolle; Wilhelm Rossak; Vassilka Kirova

2000-01-01

98

Active components of common traditional Chinese medicine decoctions have antioxidant functions.  

PubMed

Many traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoctions are proven to have multiple functions in animal production. These decoctions are seldom recognized by the international scientific community because the mechanisms of action are not clearly elucidated. According to TCM theory, Cortex Phellodendri (COP), Rhizoma Atractylodes (RA), Agastache Rugosa (AR), and Gypsum Fibrosum (GF) can be used to formulate a medicinal compound that prevents or cures animal disease caused by heat stress. The aim of this research was to study the regulatory functions of the active components of TCM and to elucidate the effects of different TCM decoctions on antioxidant activity and lipid peroxide content, using in vitro and in vivo models of heat stress. For in vitro experiments, intestinal crypt-like epithelial cell line-6 (IEC-6) cells were employed to evaluate the effects of the active components of COP, RA, AR, and GF. For in vivo experiments, forty-eight 2-mo-old Chinese experimental mini-pigs (7.20 ± 0.02 kg) were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal-temperature group (NTG); a high-temperature group (HTG); HTG treated with COP, RA, AR, and GF (1:1:1:1, TCM1); and HTG treated with COP, RA, AR, and GF (1:1:1:0.5, TCM2). Results showed that the active components of the COP, RA, AR, and GF increased (P < 0.05) the proliferation and viability of heat-stressed IEC-6 cells and that the most effective treatment doses of COP alkaloid, RA Aetherolea, Herba Agastachis Aetherolea, and GF water extract were 200, 100, 100, and 200 µg/mL, respectively. All 4 active components increased (P < 0.05) superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase activities, and glutathione content, and decreased (P < 0.05) malondialdehyde content with respect to the heat-stressed group to concentrations similar to those seen in NTG. In vivo experiments demonstrated that TCM1 and TCM2 improved (P < 0.05) the poor growth performance seen in HTG pigs. The superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase activities, and malondialdehyde content in porcine jejunum treated with TCM1 and TCM2 were not different (P > 0.05) from those seen in the NTG and were better (P < 0.05) than results seen in the HTG. Overall, it appeared that TCM2 was more effective than TCM1 in ameliorating the effects of heat stress in pigs. In conclusion, this study revealed that the active components of common TCM decoctions have antioxidant functions. PMID:21571894

Guo, K J; Xu, S F; Yin, P; Wang, W; Song, X Z; Liu, F H; Xu, J Q; Zoccarato, I

2011-10-01

99

High-resolution microwave diagnostics of architectural components by particle swarm optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a very simple monostatic setup for coherent multifrequency microwave measurements, and an optimization procedure to reconstruct high-resolution permittivity profiles of layered objects from complex reflection coefficients. This system is capable of precisely locating internal inhomogeneities in dielectric bodies, and can be applied to on-site diagnosis of architectural components. While limiting the imaging possibilities to 1D permittivity profiles, the monostatic geometry has an important advantage over multistatic tomographic systems, since these are normally confined to laboratories, and on-site applications are difficult to devise. The sensor is a transmitting-receiving microwave antenna, and the complex reflection coefficients are measured at a number of discrete frequencies over the system passband by using a general-purpose vector network analyzer. A dedicated instrument could also be designed, thus realizing an unexpensive, easy-to-handle system. The profile reconstruction algorithm is based on the optimization of an objective functional that includes a data-fit term and a regularization term. The first consists in the norm of the complex vector difference between the measured data and the data computed by a forward solver from the current estimate of the profile function. The regularization term enforces a piecewise smooth model for the solution, based on two 1D interacting Markov random fields: the intensity field, which models the continuous permittivity values, and the binary line field, which accounts for the possible presence of discontinuities in the profile. The data-fit and the regularization terms are balanced through a tunable regularization coefficient. By virtue of this prior model, the final result is robust against noise, and overcomes the usual limitations in spatial resolution induced by the wavelengths of the probing radiations. Indeed, the accuracy in the location of the discontinuities is only limited by the system noise and the discretization grid used by the forward solver. The algorithm we chose to optimize the objective is based on the particle swarm paradigm. Each feasible solution is coded as a location in a multidimensional space, explored by a number of "particles" each moving with a certain velocity, which is partly random and partly induced by the experience of both the particle itself and the "swarm" of all the other particles. In our case, the search is complicated by the mixed continuous-binary nature of our unknowns, but the swarm intelligence approach maintains the advantage of its intrinsic parallelism. The experimental results we obtained from both simulated and real measurements show that, for typical permittivity values and radiation wavelengths, the spatial resolution is highly improved by the line process. From real measurements in the range 1.7-2.6 GHz, we accurately reconstructed the permittivity values of our test phantom and located the discontinuities within the limits imposed by our discretization grid (with 1.5 mm cell thickness). At present, the applicability of our reconstruction method is still limited by the forward solver, which is based on a cascaded transmission-line model that assumes normal and plane-wave incidence. We are developing a new solver based on a closed-form Green's function in multilayered media, which should enable us to model appropriately both the microwave sensor and the illumination geometry, thus improving the accuracy of the computed reflection coefficients in the objective functional.

Genovesi, Simone; Salerno, Emanuele; Monorchio, Agostino; Manara, Giuliano

2010-05-01

100

Exploring the genetic architecture of alcohol dependence in African-Americans via analysis of a genomewide set of common variants.  

PubMed

Alcohol dependence (AD) is a complex psychiatric disorder that affects about 12.5 % of US adults. Genetic factors play a major role in the development of AD. We conducted a genomewide association study in 2,875 African-Americans including 1,719 AD cases and 1,156 controls. We used the Illumina Omni 1-Quad microarray, which yielded 769,498 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after quality control. To explore the genetic architecture of AD, we estimated the variance that could be explained by all SNPs and subsets of SNPs using two different approaches to genome partitioning. We found that 23.9 % (s.e. 9.3 %) of the phenotypic variance could be explained by using all of the common SNPs on the array. We also found a significant linear relationship between the proportion of the top SNPs used and the phenotypic variance explained by them. Based on genome partitioning of common variants, we also observed a significant linear relationship between the variance explained by a chromosome and its length. Chromosome 4, known to contain several AD risk genes, accounted for excess risk in proportion to its length. By functional partitioning, we found that the genetic variants within 20 kb of genes explained 17.5 % (s.e. 11.4 %) of the phenotypic variance. Our findings are consistent with the generally accepted view that AD is a highly polygenic trait, i.e., the genetic risk in AD appears to be conferred by multiple variants, each of which may have a small or moderate effect. PMID:24297757

Yang, Can; Li, Cong; Kranzler, Henry R; Farrer, Lindsay A; Zhao, Hongyu; Gelernter, Joel

2014-05-01

101

Architectural integration of the components necessary for electrical energy storage on the nanoscale and in 3D.  

PubMed

We describe fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) multifunctional nanoarchitectures in which the three critical components of a battery--cathode, separator/electrolyte, and anode--are internally assembled as tricontinuous nanoscopic phases. The architecture is initiated using sol-gel chemistry and processing to erect a 3D self-wired nanoparticulate scaffold of manganese oxide (>200 m(2) g(-1)) with a continuous, open, and mesoporous void volume. The integrated 3D system is generated by exhaustive coverage of the oxide network by an ultrathin, conformal layer of insulating polymer that forms via self-limiting electrodeposition of poly(phenylene oxide). The remaining interconnected void volume is then wired with RuO(2) nanowebs using subambient thermal decomposition of RuO(4). Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that the three nanoscopic charge-transfer functional components--manganese oxide, polymer separator/cation conductor, and RuO(2)--exhibit the stratified, tricontinuous design of the phase-by-phase construction. This architecture contains all three components required for a solid-state energy storage device within a void volume sized at tens of nanometres such that nanometre-thick distances are established between the opposing electrodes. We have now demonstrated the ability to assemble multifunctional energy-storage nanoarchitectures on the nanoscale and in three dimensions. PMID:21327256

Rhodes, Christopher P; Long, Jeffrey W; Pettigrew, Katherine A; Stroud, Rhonda M; Rolison, Debra R

2011-04-01

102

Locating and identifying components in a robot's workspace using a hybrid computer architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system that locates and identifies components in an automated manufacturing process. The system uses a network of processors (an array of transputers) to construct and hold the workspace model, and to extract the feature measurements used to facilitate component identification. A MLP artificial neural network is then used to identify the components using the feature measurements

J. A. Ware; J. E. Undery

1995-01-01

103

Reuse of off-the-shelf components in C2-style architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reuse of large-grain software components offers the potential for significant savings in application development cost and time. Successful component reuse and substitutability depends both on qualities of the components reused as well as the software context in which the reuse is attempted. Disciplined approaches to the structure and design of software applications offers the poten- tial of providing a hospitable

Nenad Medvidovic; Peyman Oreizy; Richard N. Taylor

1997-01-01

104

Limits of Principal Components Analysis for Producing a Common Trait Space: Implications for Inferring Selection, Contingency, and Chance in Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundComparing patterns of divergence among separate lineages or groups has posed an especially difficult challenge for biologists. Recently a new, conceptually simple methodology called the “ordered-axis plot” approach was introduced for the purpose of comparing patterns of diversity in a common morphospace. This technique involves a combination of principal components analysis (PCA) and linear regression. Given the common use of

Kevin J. Parsons; W. James Cooper; R. Craig Albertson; Ian Dworkin

2009-01-01

105

Comparing the Magnitude of Two Fractions with Common Components: Which Representations Are Used by 10- and 12-Year-Olds?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether 10- and 12-year-olds who can correctly compare the magnitudes of fractions with common components access the magnitudes of the whole fractions rather than only compare the magnitudes of their components. Time for comparing two fractions was predicted by the numerical distance between the whole fractions, suggesting an…

Meert, Gaelle; Gregoire, Jacques; Noel, Marie-Pascale

2010-01-01

106

Genetic components to belowground carbon fluxes in a riparian forest ecosystem: a common garden approach.  

PubMed

Soil carbon dioxide (CO(2)) efflux is a major component of terrestrial carbon (C) cycles; yet, the demonstration of covariation between overstory tree genetic-based traits and soil C flux remains a major frontier in understanding biological controls over soil C. Here, we used a common garden with two native tree species, Populus fremontii and P. angustifolia, and their naturally occurring hybrids to test the predictability of belowground C fluxes on the basis of taxonomic identity and genetic marker composition of replicated clones of individual genotypes. Three patterns emerged: soil CO(2) efflux and ratios of belowground flux to aboveground productivity differ by as much as 50-150% as a result of differences in clone identity and cross type; on the basis of Mantel tests of molecular marker matrices, we found that c. 30% of this variation was genetically based, in which genetically similar trees support more similar soil CO(2) efflux under their canopies than do genetically dissimilar trees; and the patterns detected in an experimental garden match observations in the wild, and seem to be unrelated to measured abiotic factors. Our findings suggest that the genetic makeup of the plants growing on soil has a significant influence on the release of C from soils to the atmosphere. PMID:22642377

Lojewski, Nathan R; Fischer, Dylan G; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Whitham, Thomas G; Hart, Stephen C

2012-08-01

107

Program information architecture/document hierarchy. [Information Management Systems, it's components and rationale  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Waste Management System (NWMS) Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) (DOE 1990) requires that the information within the computer program and information management system be ordered into a precedence hierarchy for consistency. Therefore, the US Department of Energy (DOE). Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) requested Westinghouse Hanford Company to develop a plan for NWMS program information which the MSIS calls a document hierarchy. This report provides the results of that effort and describes the management system as a program information architecture.'' 3 refs., 3 figs.

Woods, T.W.

1991-09-01

108

Site-selective effects on guest-molecular adsorption and fabrication of four-component architecture by higher order networks.  

PubMed

2D porous networks have attracted great attention as they can be used to immobilize functional units as guest molecules in a spatially ordered arrangement. In this work, a novel molecular hybrid network with two kinds of cavities was fabricated. Several kinds of guest molecules, such as coronene, copper(II) phthalocyanine (CuPc), triphenylene, heptanoic acid and fullerene molecules, can be immobilized into this template. Site- and size-selective effects can be observed. Furthermore, we have also fabricated interesting 2D crystal architecture with complex four-component structure at the liquid-solid interface, following investigation by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The current findings provide a convenient approach towards the formation of more complex and functionalized surface nanopatterns, which can benefit the study of host-guest assembly behaviour within a monolayer composed by several components at interfaces. PMID:23632563

Shen, Yong-Tao; Guan, Li; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Wang, Shuai; Gan, Li-Hua; Zeng, Qing-Dao; Wang, Chen

2013-08-14

109

Common Whelk (Buccinum undatum) Allergy: Identification of IgE-binding Components and Effects of Heating and Digestive Enzymes  

PubMed Central

In Korea, common whelk (Buccinum undatum) is a popular edible shellfish. The aim of this study was to observe the sensitization rate to common whelk and to characterize its allergens. We carried out skin prick test (SPT) in 1,700 patients with various allergic diseases. Specific IgE were detected by ELISA in the patient sera and ELISA inhibition tests were conducted. IgE-binding components were identified by means of SDS-PAGE and IgE-immunoblotting. The effects of digestive enzymes were evaluated in both raw and thermally treated extracts. SPT to common whelk was positive (?2+) in 83 (4.9%) patients studied. Twenty-four (38.7%) out of 62 SPT positive patients had high serum specific IgE to common whelk. ELISA inhibition test showed significant inhibitions by abalone as well as by common whelk. IgE-immunoblotting demonstrated three IgE-binding components (40, 71, 82 kDa), which were digested by simulated intestinal fluid and moderately digested by simulated gastric fluid, and the digestibility of allergens remained unchanged after thermal treatment. In conclusion, IgE-sensitization rate to common whelk was 4.9% in allergy patients. IgE-immunoblotting demonstrated three IgE-binding components, which were degraded by digestive enzymes. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of the sensitized patients to common whelk.

Lee, Byung-Jae

2004-01-01

110

Sequencing System Building Blocks: Using a Component Architecture for Sequencing Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last few years software engineering has made significant strides in making more flexible architectures and designs possible. However, at the same time, spacecraft have become more complex and flight software has become more sophisticated. Typically spacecraft are often one-of-a-kind entities that have different hardware designs, different capabilities, different instruments, etc. Ground software has become more complex and operations teams have had to learn a myriad of tools that all have different user interfaces and represent data in different ways. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) these themes have collided to require a new approach to producing ground system software. Two different groups have been looking at tackling this particular problem. One group is working for the JPL Mars Technology Program in the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Focused Technology area. The other group is the JPL Multi-Mission Planning and Sequencing Group. The major concept driving these two approaches on a similar path is to provide software that can be a more cohesive flexible system that provides a set of planning and sequencing system of services. This paper describes the efforts that have been made to date to create a unified approach from these disparate groups.

Streiffert, Barbara A.; O'Reilly, Taifun

2006-01-01

111

Sequence System Building Blocks: Using a Component Architecture for Sequencing Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the last few years software engineering has made significant strides in making more flexible architectures and designs possible. However, at the same time, spacecraft have become more complex and flight software has become more sophisticated. Typically spacecraft are often one-of-a-kind entities that have different hardware designs, different capabilities, different instruments, etc. Ground software has become more complex and operations teams have had to learn a myriad of tools that all have different user interfaces and represent data in different ways. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) these themes have collided to require an new approach to producing ground system software. Two different groups have been looking at tackling this particular problem. One group is working for the JPL Mars Technology Program in the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Focused Technology area. The other group is the JPL Multi-Mission Planning and Sequencing Group . The major concept driving these two approaches on a similar path is to provide software that can be a more cohesive flexible system that provides a act of planning and sequencing system of services. This paper describes the efforts that have been made to date to create a unified approach from these disparate groups.

Streiffert, Barbara A.; O'Reilly, Taifun

2005-01-01

112

Using Service-Oriented Architecture and Component-Based Development to Build Web Service Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building an enterprise-scale software system is a complex undertaking. Despite decades of technological advances, the demands imposed by today's information systems frequently stretch to breaking point a company's ability to design, construct, and evolve its mission-critical software solutions. In particular, few new systems are designed from the ground up. Rather, a software architect's task is commonly that of extending the

Alan W. Brown; Simon Johnston

113

Atrioventricular septal defect with an imperforate right-sided component of the common atrioventricular valve: anatomic and embryologic considerations.  

PubMed

We describe an atypical case of an atrioventricular septal defect with a common atrioventricular junction in which the right-sided component of the common atrioventricular valve was imperforate, producing tricuspid atresia with a severely hypoplastic right ventricle and an ostium primum defect. We discuss the implications of the anatomic findings with regard to concepts of cardiac development, drawing a comparison with similar cases previously reported. PMID:23841951

Hernandez, Lazaro E; Kochilas, Lazaros K; Anderson, Robert H

2014-06-01

114

Method for producing components with internal architectures, such as micro-channel reactors, via diffusion bonding sheets  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to a method for producing components with internal architectures, and more particularly, this invention relates to a method for producing structures with microchannels via the use of diffusion bonding of stacked laminates. Specifically, the method involves weakly bonding a stack of laminates forming internal voids and channels with a first generally low uniaxial pressure and first temperature such that bonding at least between the asperites of opposing laminates occurs and pores are isolated in interfacial contact areas, followed by a second generally higher isostatic pressure and second temperature for final bonding. The method thereby allows fabrication of micro-channel devices such as heat exchangers, recuperators, heat-pumps, chemical separators, chemical reactors, fuel processing units, and combustors without limitation on the fin aspect ratio.

Alman, David E. (Corvallis, OR); Wilson, Rick D. (Corvallis, OR); Davis, Daniel L. (Albany, OR)

2011-03-08

115

Behavioural Analysis of the Enterprise JavaBeansTM Component Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rigorous description of protocols (a sequence of events) be- tween components is mandatory for specifications of distributed compo- nent frameworks. This paper reports an experience in formalizing and verifying behavioural aspects of the Enterprise JavaBeansTM specifica- tion with the SPIN model checker. As a result, some potential flaws are identified in the EJB 1.1 specification document. The case also demon-

Shin Nakajima; Tetsuo Tamai

2001-01-01

116

Manipulated electromagnetic losses by integrating chemically heterogeneous components in Fe-based core/shell architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing techniques for stabilizing and functionalizing metal nanostructures required precise control of complex procedures and probably introduce undesirable impurities. We herein report an arc-discharge chemical vapor deposition strategy for the synthesis of chemically heterogeneous core/shell metal/oxide nanocapsules Fe/TiFe2O4, Fe/MnFe2O4, and Fe/Al2O3. A universal formation mechanism based on the co-effect of oxygen potential and surface energy is further proposed, derived from fundamental thermodynamics. Such core/shell nanocapsules, integrated with tunable components, present an effective manipulability of microwave absorption at expected frequency, originating from the various dielectric behaviors of the heterogeneous oxide shells.

Huang, Hao; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Lv, Bo; Xue, Fang-Hong; Shah, Asif; Su, Lei; Yan, Jing-Guo; Yao, Man; Dong, Xing-Long

2013-02-01

117

Security price adjustment across exchanges: an investigation of common factor components for Dow stocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

VECMs can detect trades that permanently move the markets in cross-listed stocks. We employ Gonzalo and Granger's (J. Business Econom. Stat. 13 (1995) 1) reduced-rank regressions and QGG test statistic to analyze the common factor weight attributable to three informationally-linked exchanges for DJIA stocks over 1988–1995. We distinguish this error correction approach to trading price adjustment from the information shares

Frederick H. de B. Harris; Thomas H. McInish; Robert A. Wood

2002-01-01

118

A dynamic network architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network software is a critical component of any distributed system. Because of its complexity, network software is commonly layered into a hierarchy of protocols, or more generally, into a protocol graph. Typical protocol graphs—including those standardized in the ISO and TCP\\/IP network architectures—share three important properties; the protocol graph is simple, the nodes of the graph (protocols) encapsulate complex functionality,

Sean W. O'Malley; Larry L. Peterson

1992-01-01

119

Hardware Architecture Study for NASA's Space Software Defined Radios  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study defines a hardware architecture approach for software defined radios to enable commonality among NASA space missions. The architecture accommodates a range of reconfigurable processing technologies including general purpose processors, digital signal processors, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in addition to flexible and tunable radio frequency (RF) front-ends to satisfy varying mission requirements. The hardware architecture consists of modules, radio functions, and and interfaces. The modules are a logical division of common radio functions that comprise a typical communication radio. This paper describes the architecture details, module definitions, and the typical functions on each module as well as the module interfaces. Trade-offs between component-based, custom architecture and a functional-based, open architecture are described. The architecture does not specify the internal physical implementation within each module, nor does the architecture mandate the standards or ratings of the hardware used to construct the radios.

Reinhart, Richard C.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Mortensen, Dale J.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Andro, Monty; Smith, Carl; Liebetreu, John

2008-01-01

120

An Intelligent Architecture Based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays Designed to Detect Moving Objects by Using Principal Component Analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a complete implementation of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices applied to high rate background segmentation of images. The classical sequential execution of different parts of the PCA algorithm has been parallelized. This parallelization has led to the specific development and implementation in hardware of the different stages of PCA, such as computation of the correlation matrix, matrix diagonalization using the Jacobi method and subspace projections of images. On the application side, the paper presents a motion detection algorithm, also entirely implemented on the FPGA, and based on the developed PCA core. This consists of dynamically thresholding the differences between the input image and the one obtained by expressing the input image using the PCA linear subspace previously obtained as a background model. The proposal achieves a high ratio of processed images (up to 120 frames per second) and high quality segmentation results, with a completely embedded and reliable hardware architecture based on commercial CMOS sensors and FPGA devices.

Bravo, Ignacio; Mazo, Manuel; Lazaro, Jose L.; Gardel, Alfredo; Jimenez, Pedro; Pizarro, Daniel

2010-01-01

121

Eye blink correction: a test on the preservation of common ERP components using a regression based technique.  

PubMed

Eye blinks are a pervasive problem in electroencephalography research as they contaminate the brain signal. This paper tests the merits of a software tool employing the regression-based Gratton method that claims to remove the detrimental effects of the eye blink and leaves the activity of the brain. The efficacy of the correction tool was tested on five common stimulus-locked Event Related Potential (ERP) components used in a standard Go/Nogo task. Results suggested that the 'corrected' data could be predicted from data containing no eye blinks, suggesting the tool does not distort the data to great extent. This effect was found significant for all components, except for the P3. The conclusion is that this tool distorts the data at acceptable levels, yet caution should be taken when interpreting later components, like the P3. PMID:23682349

Woltering, Steven; Bazargani, Narges; Liu, Zhong-Xu

2013-01-01

122

Association between Common Variation in Genes Encoding Sweet Taste Signaling Components and Human Sucrose Perception  

PubMed Central

Variation in taste perception of different chemical substances is a well-known phenomenon in both humans and animals. Recent advances in the understanding of sweet taste signaling have identified a number of proteins involved in this signal transduction. We evaluated the hypothesis that sequence variations occurring in genes encoding taste signaling molecules can influence sweet taste perception in humans. Our population consisted of unrelated individuals (n = 160) of Caucasian, African–American, and Asian descent. Threshold and suprathreshold sensitivities of participants for sucrose were estimated using a sorting test and signal detection analysis that produced cumulative R-index area under the curve (AUC) scores. Genetic association analysis revealed significant correlation of sucrose AUC scores with genetic variation occurring in the GNAT3 gene (single point P = 10?3 to 10?4), which encodes the taste-specific G? protein subunit gustducin. Subsequent sequencing identified additional GNAT3 variations having significant association with sucrose AUC scores. Collectively, GNAT3 polymorphisms explain 13% of the variation in sucrose perception. Our findings underscore the importance of common genetic variants influencing human taste perception.

Fushan, Alexey A.; Simons, Christopher T.; Slack, Jay P.

2010-01-01

123

Abnormal structure or function of the amygdala is a common component of neurodevelopmental disorders  

PubMed Central

The amygdala, perhaps more than any other brain region, has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. It is part of a system initially evolved to detect dangers in the environment and modulate subsequent responses, which can profoundly influence human behavior. If its threshold is set too low, normally benign aspects of the environment are perceived as dangers, interactions are limited, and anxiety may arise. If set too high, risk taking increases and inappropriate sociality may occur. Given that many neurodevelopmental disorders involve too little or too much anxiety or too little of too much social interaction, it is not surprising that the amygdala has been implicated in many of them. In this chapter, we begin by providing a brief overview of the phylogeny, ontogeny, and function of the amygdala and then appraise data from neurodevelopmental disorders which suggest amygdala dysregulation. We focus on neurodevelopmental disorders where there is evidence of amygdala dysregulation from postmortem studies, structural MRI analyses or functional MRI. However, the results are often disparate and it is not totally clear whether this is due to inherent heterogeneity or differences in methodology. Nonetheless, the amygdala is a common site for neuropathology in neurodevelopmental disorders and is therefore a potential target for therapeutics to alleviate associated symptoms.

Schumann, Cynthia M.; Bauman, Melissa D.; Amaral, David G.

2010-01-01

124

Evaluating Performance of Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parallel Component Performance Benchmarks is a computer program developed to aid the evaluation of the Common Component Architecture (CCA) - a software architecture, based on a component model, that was conceived to foster high-performance computing, including parallel computing. More specifically, this program compares the performances (principally by measuring computing times) of componentized versus conventional versions of the Parallel Pyramid 2D Adaptive Mesh Refinement library - a software library that is used to generate computational meshes for solving physical problems and that is typical of software libraries in use at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Katz, Daniel; Tisdale, Edwin; Norton, Charles

2004-01-01

125

[Rapid identification 15 effective components of anti common cold medicine with MRM by LC-MS/MS].  

PubMed

This paper reports the establishment of a method for rapid identification 15 effective components of anti common cold medicine (paracetamol, aminophenazone, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, methylephedrine hydrochloride, caffeine, amantadine hydrochloride, phenazone, guaifenesin, chlorphenamine maleate, dextromethorphen hydrobromide, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, promethazine hydrochloride, propyphenazone, benorilate and diclofenac sodium) with MRM by LC-MS/MS. The samples were extracted by methanol and were separated from a Altantis T3 column within 15 min with a gradient of acetonitrile-ammonium acetate (containing 0.25% glacial acetic acid), a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source (ESI) was used in positive ion mode, and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was performed for qualitative analysis of these compounds. The minimum detectable quantity were 0.33-2.5 microg x kg(-1) of the 15 compounds. The method is simple, accurate and with good reproducibility for rapid identification many components in the same chromatographic condition, and provides a reference for qualitative analysis illegally added chemicals in anti common cold medicine. PMID:23600148

Jiang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Xi-Ru; Zhang, Yi-Hua; Song, Geng-Shen

2013-01-01

126

GITEWS, an extensible and open integration platform for manifold sensor systems and processing components based on Sensor Web Enablement and the principles of Service Oriented Architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) is a multifaceted system consisting of various sensor types like seismometers, sea level sensors or GPS stations, and processing components, all with their own system behavior and proprietary data structure. To operate a warning chain, beginning from measurements scaling up to warning products, all components have to interact in a correct way, both syntactically and semantically. Designing the system great emphasis was laid on conformity to the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) specification by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The technical infrastructure, the so called Tsunami Service Bus (TSB) follows the blueprint of Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). The TSB is an integration concept (SWE) where functionality (observe, task, notify, alert, and process) is grouped around business processes (Monitoring, Decision Support, Sensor Management) and packaged as interoperable services (SAS, SOS, SPS, WNS). The benefits of using a flexible architecture together with SWE lead to an open integration platform: • accessing and controlling heterogeneous sensors in a uniform way (Functional Integration) • assigns functionality to distinct services (Separation of Concerns) • allows resilient relationship between systems (Loose Coupling) • integrates services so that they can be accessed from everywhere (Location Transparency) • enables infrastructures which integrate heterogeneous applications (Encapsulation) • allows combination of services (Orchestration) and data exchange within business processes Warning systems will evolve over time: New sensor types might be added, old sensors will be replaced and processing components will be improved. From a collection of few basic services it shall be possible to compose more complex functionality essential for specific warning systems. Given these requirements a flexible infrastructure is a prerequisite for sustainable systems and their architecture must be tailored for evolution. The use of well-known techniques and widely used open source software implementing industrial standards reduces the impact of service modifications allowing the evolution of a system as a whole. GITEWS implemented a solution to feed sensor raw data from any (remote) system into the infrastructure. Specific dispatchers enable plugging in sensor-type specific processing without changing the architecture. Client components don't need to be adjusted if new sensor-types or individuals are added to the system, because they access them via standardized services. One of the outstanding features of service-oriented architectures is the possibility to compose new services from existing ones. The so called orchestration, allows the definition of new warning processes which can be adapted easily to new requirements. This approach has following advantages: • With implementing SWE it is possible to establish the "detection" and integration of sensors via the internet. Thus a system of systems combining early warning functionality at different levels of detail is feasible. • Any institution could add both its own components as well as components from third parties if they are developed in conformance to SOA principles. In a federation an institution keeps the ownership of its data and decides which data are provided by a service and when. • A system can be deployed at minor costs as a core for own development at any institution and thus enabling autonomous early warning- or monitoring systems. The presentation covers both design and various instantiations (live demonstration) of the GITEWS architecture. Experiences concerning the design and complexity of SWE will be addressed in detail. A substantial amount of attention is laid on the techniques and methods of extending the architecture, adapting proprietary components to SWE services and encoding, and their orchestration in high level workflows and processes. Furthermore the potential of the architecture concerning adaptive behavior, collaboration across boundaries and semantic interoperab

Haener, Rainer; Waechter, Joachim; Fleischer, Jens; Herrnkind, Stefan; Schwarting, Herrmann

2010-05-01

127

IAIMS Architecture  

PubMed Central

Abstract An information system architecture defines the components of a system and the interfaces among the components. A good architecture is essential for creating an Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) that works as an integrated whole yet is flexible enough to accommodate many users and roles, multiple applications, changing vendors, evolving user needs, and advancing technology. Modularity and layering promote flexibility by reducing the complexity of a system and by restricting the ways in which components may interact. Enterprise-wide mediation promotes integration by providing message routing, support for standards, dictionary-based code translation, a centralized conceptual data schema, business rule implementation, and consistent access to databases. Several IAIMS sites have adopted a client-server architecture, and some have adopted a three-tiered approach, separating user interface functions, application logic, and repositories.

Hripcsak, George

1997-01-01

128

IAIMS architecture.  

PubMed

An information system architecture defines the components of a system and the interfaces among the components. A good architecture is essential for creating an Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) that works as an integrated whole yet is flexible enough to accommodate many users and roles, multiple applications, changing vendors, evolving user needs, and advancing technology. Modularity and layering promote flexibility by reducing the complexity of a system and by restricting the ways in which components may interact. Enterprise-wide mediation promotes integration by providing message routing, support for standards, dictionary-based code translation, a centralized conceptual data schema, business rule implementation, and consistent access to databases. Several IAIMS sites have adopted a client-server architecture, and some have adopted a three-tiered approach, separating user interface functions, application logic, and repositories. PMID:9067884

Hripcsak, G

1997-01-01

129

Information architecture for a planetary 'exploration web'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

'Web services' is a common way of deploying distributed applications whose software components and data sources may be in different locations, formats, languages, etc. Although such collaboration is not utilized significantly in planetary exploration, we believe there is significant benefit in developing an architecture in which missions could leverage each others capabilities. We believe that an incremental deployment of such an architecture could significantly contribute to the evolution of increasingly capable, efficient, and even autonomous remote exploration.

Lamarra, N.; McVittie, T.

2002-01-01

130

Modular architecture model of CSCD system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular architecture model of a computer-supported collaborative design (CSCD) system is proposed on the basis of the hierarchical\\u000a structure characteristics of a distributed collaborative design system and advanced component object technology. The model\\u000a mainly regards the module as the core organizing and managing design objects and uses the common object request broker architecture\\u000a (CORBA) specifications as an interactive platform

Hongxue Xu; Hong Zheng; Xiuying Guo

2010-01-01

131

PICNIC Architecture.  

PubMed

The PICNIC architecture aims at supporting inter-enterprise integration and the facilitation of collaboration between healthcare organisations. The concept of a Regional Health Economy (RHE) is introduced to illustrate the varying nature of inter-enterprise collaboration between healthcare organisations collaborating in providing health services to citizens and patients in a regional setting. The PICNIC architecture comprises a number of PICNIC IT Services, the interfaces between them and presents a way to assemble these into a functioning Regional Health Care Network meeting the needs and concerns of its stakeholders. The PICNIC architecture is presented through a number of views relevant to different stakeholder groups. The stakeholders of the first view are national and regional health authorities and policy makers. The view describes how the architecture enables the implementation of national and regional health policies, strategies and organisational structures. The stakeholders of the second view, the service viewpoint, are the care providers, health professionals, patients and citizens. The view describes how the architecture supports and enables regional care delivery and process management including continuity of care (shared care) and citizen-centred health services. The stakeholders of the third view, the engineering view, are those that design, build and implement the RHCN. The view comprises four sub views: software engineering, IT services engineering, security and data. The proposed architecture is founded into the main stream of how distributed computing environments are evolving. The architecture is realised using the web services approach. A number of well established technology platforms and generic standards exist that can be used to implement the software components. The software components that are specified in PICNIC are implemented in Open Source. PMID:16160218

Saranummi, Niilo

2005-01-01

132

Space Telecommunications Radio Systems (STRS) Hardware Architecture Standard: Release 1.0 Hardware Section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report defines a hardware architecture approach for software-defined radios to enable commonality among NASA space missions. The architecture accommodates a range of reconfigurable processing technologies including general-purpose processors, digital signal processors, field programmable gate arrays, and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) in addition to flexible and tunable radiofrequency front ends to satisfy varying mission requirements. The hardware architecture consists of modules, radio functions, and interfaces. The modules are a logical division of common radio functions that compose a typical communication radio. This report describes the architecture details, the module definitions, the typical functions on each module, and the module interfaces. Tradeoffs between component-based, custom architecture and a functional-based, open architecture are described. The architecture does not specify a physical implementation internally on each module, nor does the architecture mandate the standards or ratings of the hardware used to construct the radios.

Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Smith, Carl R.; Liebetreu, John; Hill, Gary; Mortensen, Dale J.; Andro, Monty; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Farrington, Allen

2008-01-01

133

HL7 document patient record architecture: an XML document architecture based on a shared information model.  

PubMed Central

The HL7 SGML/XML Special Interest Group is developing the HL7 Document Patient Record Architecture. This draft proposal strives to create a common data architecture for the interoperability of healthcare documents. Key components are that it is under the umbrella of HL7 standards, it is specified in Extensible Markup Language, the semantics are drawn from the HL7 Reference Information Model, and the document specifications form an architecture that, in aggregate, define the semantics and structural constraints necessary for the exchange of clinical documents. The proposal is a work in progress and has not yet been submitted to HL7's formal balloting process.

Dolin, R. H.; Alschuler, L.; Behlen, F.; Biron, P. V.; Boyer, S.; Essin, D.; Harding, L.; Lincoln, T.; Mattison, J. E.; Rishel, W.; Sokolowski, R.; Spinosa, J.; Williams, J. P.

1999-01-01

134

Microstructural architecture developed in the fabrication of solid and open-cellular copper components by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fabrication of Cu components were first built by additive manufacturing using electron beam melting (EBM) from low-purity, atomized Cu powder containing a high density of Cu2O precipitates leading to a novel example of precipitate-dislocation architecture. These microstructures exhibit cell-like arrays (1-3microm) in the horizontal reference plane perpendicular to the build direction with columnar-like arrays extending from ~12 to >60 microm in length and corresponding spatial dimensions of 1-3 microm. These observations were observed by the use of optical metallography, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The hardness measurements were taken both on the atomized powder and the Cu components. The hardness for these architectures ranged from ~HV 83 to 88, in contrast to the original Cu powder microindentation hardness of HV 72 and the commercial Cu base plate hardness of HV 57. These observations were utilized for the fabrication of open-cellular copper structures by additive manufacturing using EBM and illustrated the ability to fabricate some form of controlled microstructural architecture by EBM parameter alteration or optimizing. The fabrication of these structures ranged in densities from 0.73g/cm3 to 6.67g/cm3. These structures correspond to four different articulated mesh arrays. While these components contained some porosity as a consequence of some unmelted regions, the Cu2O precipitates also contributed to a reduced density. Using X-ray Diffraction showed the approximate volume fraction estimated to be ~2%. The addition of precipitates created in the EBM melt scan formed microstructural arrays which contributed to hardening contributing to the strength of mesh struts and foam ligaments. The measurements of relative stiffness versus relative density plots for Cu compared very closely with Ti-6Al-4V open cellular structures - both mesh and foams. The Cu reticulated mesh structures exhibit a slope of n = 2 in contrast to a slope of n = 2.4 for the stochastic Cu foams, consistent with the Gibson-Ashby foam model where n = 2. These open cellular structure components exhibit considerable potential for novel, complex, multi-functional electrical and thermal management systems, especially complex, monolithic heat exchange device.

Ramirez, Diana Alejandra

135

An aspect-oriented framework for developing component-based software with the collaboration-based architectural style  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Component-based,development,(CBD) technique for software has emerged,to fulfill the demand,on the reuse of existing artifacts. In comparison to traditional object-oriented techniques, CBD can provide more advanced abstraction concepts such as subsystem-level reusability, gross structure abstraction, and global control flow abstraction. Unfortunately, existing software development techniques are not mature enough to make,it come true that components,developed in the third party can

Joon-sang Lee; Doo-hwan Bae

2004-01-01

136

Security Aspects of an Enterprise-Wide Network Architecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of two projects that concern local area networks and the common point between networks as they relate to network security. Discusses security architectures based on firewall components, packet filters, application gateways, security-management components, an intranet solution, user registration by Web form, and requests for…

Loew, Robert; Stengel, Ingo; Bleimann, Udo; McDonald, Aidan

1999-01-01

137

A framework for control architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of architectures for control systems has been an active area of research for at least twenty years. This research has produced many different architectures which use different terminologies and address different issues. In order to analyse existing architectures and to determine issues that must be addressed in defining a new one, a common terminology for discussing architectures and

M. K. Senehi; Thomas R. Kramer

1998-01-01

138

Impact of the common genetic associations of age-related macular degeneration upon systemic complement component C3d levels.  

PubMed

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common condition that leads to severe vision loss and dysregulation of the complement system is thought to be associated with the disease. To investigate associations of polymorphisms in AMD susceptibility genes with systemic complement activation, 2655 individuals were genotyped for 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near 23 AMD associated risk genes. Component 3 (C3) and its catabolic fragment C3d were measured in serum and AMD staging was performed using multimodal imaging. The C3d/C3 ratio was calculated and associations with environmental factors, SNPs and various haplotypes of complement factor H (CFH) genes and complement factor B (CFB) genes were analyzed. Linear models were built to measure the influence of genetic variants on the C3d/C3 ratio. The study cohort included 1387 patients with AMD and 1268 controls. Higher C3d/C3 ratios were found for current smoker (p = 0.002), higher age (p = 1.56 × 10(-7)), AMD phenotype (p = 1.15 × 10(-11)) and the two SNPs in the C3 gene rs6795735 (p = 0.04) and rs2230199 (p = 0.04). Lower C3d/C3 ratios were found for diabetes (p = 2.87 × 10(-6)), higher body mass index (p = 1.00 × 10(-13)), the SNPs rs1410996 (p = 0.0001), rs800292 (p = 0.003), rs12144939 (p = 4.60 × 10(-6)) in CFH, rs4151667 (p = 1.01 × 10(-5)) in CFB and individual haplotypes in CFH and CFB. The linear model revealed a corrected R-square of 0.063 including age, smoking status, gender, and genetic polymorphisms explaining 6.3% of the C3d/C3 ratio. After adding the AMD status the corrected R-square was 0.067. In conclusion, none of the evaluated genetic polymorphisms showed an association with increased systemic complement activation apart from two SNPs in the C3 gene. Major genetic and non-genetic factors for AMD were not associated with systemic complement activation. PMID:24675670

Ristau, Tina; Paun, Constantin; Ersoy, Lebriz; Hahn, Moritz; Lechanteur, Yara; Hoyng, Carel; de Jong, Eiko K; Daha, Mohamed R; Kirchhof, Bernd; den Hollander, Anneke I; Fauser, Sascha

2014-01-01

139

A Reference Architecture for Space Information Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a reference architecture for space information management systems that elegantly overcomes the rigid design of common information systems in many domains. The reference architecture consists of a set of flexible, reusable, independent models and software components that function in unison, but remain separately managed entities. The main guiding principle of the reference architecture is to separate the various models of information (e.g., data, metadata, etc.) from implemented system code, allowing each to evolve independently. System modularity, systems interoperability, and dynamic evolution of information system components are the primary benefits of the design of the architecture. The architecture requires the use of information models that are substantially more advanced than those used by the vast majority of information systems. These models are more expressive and can be more easily modularized, distributed and maintained than simpler models e.g., configuration files and data dictionaries. Our current work focuses on formalizing the architecture within a CCSDS Green Book and evaluating the architecture within the context of the C3I initiative.

Mattmann, Chris A.; Crichton, Daniel J.; Hughes, J. Steven; Ramirez, Paul M.; Berrios, Daniel C.

2006-01-01

140

Identifications and limited spectroscopy for Luyten common proper motion stars with probable white dwarf components. I - Pair brighter than 17th magnitude  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Identifications are provided for 103 bright Luyten common proper motion (CPM) stellar systems with m(pg) less than 17.0 mag containing likely white dwarf (WD) components. New spectral types are presented for 55 components, and spectral types for 51 more are available in the literature. With the CPM systems previously published by Giclas et al. (1978), the Luyten stars provide a uniform sample of nearly 200 pairs or multiples brighter than 17h magnitude. Selection effects biasing the combined samples are discussed; in particular, evidence is presented that fewer than 1 percent of wide WD binaries have been detected.

Oswalt, Terry D.; Hintzen, Paul M.; Luyten, Willem J.

1988-01-01

141

Architectural Specifications in CASL  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most novel features of Casl, the Common Alge- braic Specication Language, is the provision of so-called architectural specications for describing the modular structure of software systems. A brief discussion of renement of Casl specications provides the setting for a presentation of the rationale behind architectural specications. This is followed by some details of the features provided in

Michel Bidoit; Donald Sannella; Andrzej Tarlecki

1998-01-01

142

Architectural Specifications in CASL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. One of the novel features of Casl, the Common Algebraic Speci cation Language, is the provision of so-called architectural spe-ci cations for describing the modular structure of software systems. A discussion of re nement of Casl speci cations provides the setting for a presentation of the rationale behind architectural speci cations. This is followed by details of the features

Michel Bidoit; Donald Sannella; Andrzej Tarlecki

2002-01-01

143

Reference Avionics Architecture for Lunar Surface Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developing and delivering infrastructure capable of supporting long-term manned operations to the lunar surface has been a primary objective of the Constellation Program in the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Several concepts have been developed related to development and deployment lunar exploration vehicles and assets that provide critical functionality such as transportation, habitation, and communication, to name a few. Together, these systems perform complex safety-critical functions, largely dependent on avionics for control and behavior of system functions. These functions are implemented using interchangeable, modular avionics designed for lunar transit and lunar surface deployment. Systems are optimized towards reuse and commonality of form and interface and can be configured via software or component integration for special purpose applications. There are two core concepts in the reference avionics architecture described in this report. The first concept uses distributed, smart systems to manage complexity, simplify integration, and facilitate commonality. The second core concept is to employ extensive commonality between elements and subsystems. These two concepts are used in the context of developing reference designs for many lunar surface exploration vehicles and elements. These concepts are repeated constantly as architectural patterns in a conceptual architectural framework. This report describes the use of these architectural patterns in a reference avionics architecture for Lunar surface systems elements.

Somervill, Kevin M.; Lapin, Jonathan C.; Schmidt, Oron L.

2010-01-01

144

SPX1 is an important component in the phosphorus signalling network of common bean regulating root growth and phosphorus homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Proteins containing the SPX domain are believed to play vital roles in the phosphorus (P) signalling network in plants. However, the functions of SPX proteins in legumes remain largely unknown. In this study, three SPX members, PvSPX1–PvSPX3 were cloned from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). It was found that the transcripts of all three PvSPX members were significantly enhanced in both bean leaves and roots by phosphate (Pi) starvation. Among them, the expression of nuclear localized PvSPX1 showed more sensitive and rapid responses to Pi starvation. Consistently, only overexpression of PvSPX1 resulted in increased root P concentration and modified morphology of transgenic bean hairy roots, such as inhibited root growth and an enlarged root hair zone. It was further demonstrated that PvSPX1 transcripts were up-regulated by overexpressing PvPHR1, and overexpressing PvSPX1 led to increased transcripts of 10 Pi starvation-responsive genes in transgenic bean hairy roots. Taken together, it is suggested that PvSPX1 is a positive regulator in the P signalling network of common bean, and is downstream of PvPHR1.

Yao, Zhu-Fang; Liang, Cui-Yue; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Zhi-Jian; Xiao, Bi-Xian; Tian, Jiang; Liao, Hong

2014-01-01

145

SPX1 is an important component in the phosphorus signalling network of common bean regulating root growth and phosphorus homeostasis.  

PubMed

Proteins containing the SPX domain are believed to play vital roles in the phosphorus (P) signalling network in plants. However, the functions of SPX proteins in legumes remain largely unknown. In this study, three SPX members, PvSPX1-PvSPX3 were cloned from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). It was found that the transcripts of all three PvSPX members were significantly enhanced in both bean leaves and roots by phosphate (Pi) starvation. Among them, the expression of nuclear localized PvSPX1 showed more sensitive and rapid responses to Pi starvation. Consistently, only overexpression of PvSPX1 resulted in increased root P concentration and modified morphology of transgenic bean hairy roots, such as inhibited root growth and an enlarged root hair zone. It was further demonstrated that PvSPX1 transcripts were up-regulated by overexpressing PvPHR1, and overexpressing PvSPX1 led to increased transcripts of 10 Pi starvation-responsive genes in transgenic bean hairy roots. Taken together, it is suggested that PvSPX1 is a positive regulator in the P signalling network of common bean, and is downstream of PvPHR1. PMID:24790114

Yao, Zhu-Fang; Liang, Cui-Yue; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Zhi-Jian; Xiao, Bi-Xian; Tian, Jiang; Liao, Hong

2014-07-01

146

Formalizing architectural connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

As software systems become more complex the overall system structure – or software architecture – becomes a central design problem. An important step towards an engineering discipline of sofware is a formal basis for describing and analyzing these designs. In this paper we present a theory for one aspect of architectural description: the interactions between components. The key idea is

Robert B. Allen; David Garlan

1994-01-01

147

Distinguishing the common components of oil- and water-based metalworking fluids for assessment of cancer incidence risk in autoworkers  

PubMed Central

Background Metalworking fluids (MWF) — straight, soluble, and synthetic — have overlapping components. We derived constituent-based metrics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), water-based MWF, biocides, and nitrosamines to account for this overlap and examined their relations with cancer incidence. Methods An autoworkers cohort of 30,000 was followed for cancer incidence. Hazard ratios were estimated for each cancer and cumulative exposure (lagged) to each new metric; soluble MWF contributed variably to several metrics with weight k=0–1. Results For most cancer sites, the constituent-based metrics resulted in stronger exposure-disease associations than the MWF classes alone. Laryngeal and bladder cancer were most strongly associated with PAH (k=0). Protective effects for stomach and lung cancer were observed with biocide, a component that may be a surrogate for endotoxin. Conclusions Our findings provide support and clarification of possible etiologies for previous positive associations and provide support for distinguishing exposure from oil- and water-based MWF in epidemiologic studies.

Friesen, Melissa C; Costello, Sadie; Thurston, Sally W; Eisen, Ellen A

2012-01-01

148

Single-Cell Analysis Reveals that Insulation Maintains Signaling Specificity between Two Yeast MAPK Pathways with Common Components  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic cells use multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades to evoke appropriate responses to external stimuli. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the MAPK Fus3 is activated by pheromone-binding G protein-coupled receptors to promote mating, whereas the MAPK Hog1 is activated by hyperosmotic stress to elicit the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) response. Although these MAPK pathways share several upstream components, exposure to either pheromone or osmolyte alone triggers only the appropriate response. We used fluorescent localization- and transcription-specific reporters to assess activation of these pathways in individual cells on the minute and hour timescale, respectively. Dual activation of these two MAPK pathways occurred over a broad range of stimulant concentrations and temporal regimes in wild-type cells subjected to co-stimulation. Thus, signaling specificity is achieved through an “insulation” mechanism, not a “cross-inhibition” mechanism. Furthermore, we showed that there was a critical period during which Hog1 activity had to occur for proper insulation of the HOG pathway.

Patterson, Jesse C.; Klimenko, Evguenia S.; Thorner, Jeremy

2014-01-01

149

Primitive component architecture description language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document gives formatting instructions for authors preparing papers for publication in the Proceedings of an IEEE conference. The authors must follow the instructions given in the document for the papers to be published. You can use this document as both an instruction set and as a template into which you can type your own text. In this paper, we

Basel Magableh; Stephen Barrett

2010-01-01

150

Project Integration Architecture: Application Architecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked an...

W. H. Jones

2005-01-01

151

The Software Architecture of Global Climate Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has become common to compare and contrast the output of multiple global climate models (GCMs), such as in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). However, intercomparisons of the software architecture of GCMs are almost nonexistent. In this qualitative study of seven GCMs from Canada, the United States, and Europe, we attempt to fill this gap in research. We describe the various representations of the climate system as computer programs, and account for architectural differences between models. Most GCMs now practice component-based software engineering, where Earth system components (such as the atmosphere or land surface) are present as highly encapsulated sub-models. This architecture facilitates a mix-and-match approach to climate modelling that allows for convenient sharing of model components between institutions, but it also leads to difficulty when choosing where to draw the lines between systems that are not encapsulated in the real world, such as sea ice. We also examine different styles of couplers in GCMs, which manage interaction and data flow between components. Finally, we pay particular attention to the varying levels of complexity in GCMs, both between and within models. Many GCMs have some components that are significantly more complex than others, a phenomenon which can be explained by the respective institution's research goals as well as the origin of the model components. In conclusion, although some features of software architecture have been adopted by every GCM we examined, other features show a wide range of different design choices and strategies. These architectural differences may provide new insights into variability and spread between models.

Alexander, K. A.; Easterbrook, S. M.

2011-12-01

152

Compositional Specification of Software Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes our experience using parameterized algebraic specifications to model properties of software architectures. The goal is to model the decomposition of requirements independent of the style used to implement the architecture. We begin by providing an overview of the role of architecture specification in software development. We then describe how architecture specifications are build up from component and connector specifications and give an overview of insights gained from a case study used to validate the method.

Penix, John; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

153

The Zeaxanthin-Independent and Zeaxanthin-Dependent qE Components of Nonphotochemical Quenching Involve Common Conformational Changes within the Photosystem II Antenna in Arabidopsis1[W  

PubMed Central

The light-harvesting antenna of higher plant photosystem II (LHCII) has the intrinsic capacity to dissipate excess light energy as heat in a process termed nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). Recent studies suggest that zeaxanthin and lutein both contribute to the rapidly relaxing component of NPQ, qE, possibly acting in the minor monomeric antenna complexes and the major trimeric LHCII, respectively. To distinguish whether zeaxanthin and lutein act independently as quenchers at separate sites, or alternatively whether zeaxanthin fulfills an allosteric role regulating lutein-mediated quenching, the kinetics of qE and the qE-related conformational changes (?A535) were compared in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant/antisense plants with altered contents of minor antenna (kolhcb6, aslhcb4), trimeric LHCII (aslhcb2), lutein (lut2, lut2npq1, lut2npq2), and zeaxanthin (npq1, npq2). The kinetics of the two components of NPQ induction arising from zeaxanthin-independent and zeaxanthin-dependent qE were both sensitive to changes in the protein composition of the photosystem II antenna. The replacement of lutein by zeaxanthin or violaxanthin in the internal Lhcb protein-binding sites affected the kinetics and relative amplitude of each component as well as the absolute chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime. Both components of qE were characterized by a conformational change leading to nearly identical absorption changes in the Soret region that indicated the involvement of the LHCII lutein 1 domain. Based on these observations, we suggest that both components of qE arise from a common quenching mechanism based upon a conformational change within the photosystem II antenna, optimized by Lhcb subunit-subunit interactions and tuned by the synergistic effects of external and internally bound xanthophylls.

Johnson, Matthew P.; Perez-Bueno, Maria L.; Zia, Ahmad; Horton, Peter; Ruban, Alexander V.

2009-01-01

154

The NASA Integrated Information Technology Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document defines an Information Technology Architecture for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), where Information Technology (IT) refers to the hardware, software, standards, protocols and processes that enable the creation, manipulation, storage, organization and sharing of information. An architecture provides an itemization and definition of these IT structures, a view of the relationship of the structures to each other and, most importantly, an accessible view of the whole. It is a fundamental assumption of this document that a useful, interoperable and affordable IT environment is key to the execution of the core NASA scientific and project competencies and business practices. This Architecture represents the highest level system design and guideline for NASA IT related activities and has been created on the authority of the NASA Chief Information Officer (CIO) and will be maintained under the auspices of that office. It addresses all aspects of general purpose, research, administrative and scientific computing and networking throughout the NASA Agency and is applicable to all NASA administrative offices, projects, field centers and remote sites. Through the establishment of five Objectives and six Principles this Architecture provides a blueprint for all NASA IT service providers: civil service, contractor and outsourcer. The most significant of the Objectives and Principles are the commitment to customer-driven IT implementations and the commitment to a simpler, cost-efficient, standards-based, modular IT infrastructure. In order to ensure that the Architecture is presented and defined in the context of the mission, project and business goals of NASA, this Architecture consists of four layers in which each subsequent layer builds on the previous layer. They are: 1) the Business Architecture: the operational functions of the business, or Enterprise, 2) the Systems Architecture: the specific Enterprise activities within the context of IT systems, 3) the Technical Architecture: a common, vendor-independent framework for design, integration and implementation of IT systems and 4) the Product Architecture: vendor=specific IT solutions. The Systems Architecture is effectively a description of the end-user "requirements". Generalized end-user requirements are discussed and subsequently organized into specific mission and project functions. The Technical Architecture depicts the framework, and relationship, of the specific IT components that enable the end-user functionality as described in the Systems Architecture. The primary components as described in the Technical Architecture are: 1) Applications: Basic Client Component, Object Creation Applications, Collaborative Applications, Object Analysis Applications, 2) Services: Messaging, Information Broker, Collaboration, Distributed Processing, and 3) Infrastructure: Network, Security, Directory, Certificate Management, Enterprise Management and File System. This Architecture also provides specific Implementation Recommendations, the most significant of which is the recognition of IT as core to NASA activities and defines a plan, which is aligned with the NASA strategic planning processes, for keeping the Architecture alive and useful.

Baldridge, Tim

1997-01-01

155

Particulate matter components and subclinical atherosclerosis: common approaches to estimating exposure in a Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Concentrations of outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have been associated with cardiovascular disease. PM2.5 chemical composition may be responsible for effects of exposure to PM2.5. Methods Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) collected in 2000–2002 on 6,256 US adults without clinical cardiovascular disease in six U.S. metropolitan areas, we investigated cross-sectional associations of estimated long-term exposure to total PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 components (elemental carbon [EC], organic carbon [OC], silicon and sulfur) with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium [CAC] and right common carotid intima-media thickness [CIMT]). Community monitors deployed for this study from 2007 to 2008 were used to estimate exposures at baseline addresses using three commonly-used approaches: (1) nearest monitor (the primary approach), (2) inverse-distance monitor weighting and (3) city-wide average. Results Using the exposure estimate based on nearest monitor, in single-pollutant models, increased OC (effect estimate [95% CI] per IQR: 35.1 ?m [26.8, 43.3]), EC (9.6 ?m [3.6,15.7]), sulfur (22.7 ?m [15.0,30.4]) and total PM2.5 (14.7 ?m [9.0,20.5]) but not silicon (5.2 ?m [?9.8,20.1]), were associated with increased CIMT; in two-pollutant models, only the association with OC was robust to control for the other pollutants. Findings were generally consistent across the three exposure estimation approaches. None of the PM measures were positively associated with either the presence or extent of CAC. In sensitivity analyses, effect estimates for OC and silicon were particularly sensitive to control for metropolitan area. Conclusion Employing commonly-used exposure estimation approaches, all of the PM2.5 components considered, except silicon, were associated with increased CIMT, with the evidence being strongest for OC; no component was associated with increased CAC. PM2.5 chemical components, or other features of the sources that produced them, may be important in determining the effect of PM exposure on atherosclerosis. These cross-sectional findings await confirmation in future work employing longitudinal outcome measures and using more sophisticated approaches to estimating exposure.

2013-01-01

156

Towards a Domain Specific Software Architecture for Scientific Data Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reference architecture is a "design that satisfies a clearly distinguished subset of the functional capabilities identified in the reference requirements within the boundaries of certain design and implementation constraints, also identified in reference requirements." [Tracz, 1995] Recognizing the value of a reference architecture, NASA's ESDSWG's Standards Process Group (SPG) is introducing a multi-disciplinary science data systems (SDS) reference architecture in order to provide an implementation neutral, template solution for an architecture to support scientific data systems in general [Burnett, et al, 2011]. This reference architecture describes common features and patterns in scientific data systems, and can thus provide guidelines in building and improving such systems. But, guidelines alone may not be sufficient to actually build a system. A domain specific software architecture (DSSA) is "an assemblage of software components, specialized for a particular type of task (domain), generalized for effective use across that domain, composed in a standardized structure (topology) effective for building successful applications." [Tracz, 1995]. It can be thought of as relatively specific reference architecture. The "DSSA Process" is a software life cycle developed at Carnegie Melon's Software Engineering Institute that is based on the development and use of domain-specific software architectures, components, and tools. The process has four distinct activities: 1) develop a domain specific base/model, 2) populate and maintain the library, 3) build applications, 4) operate and maintain applications [Armitage, 1993]. The DSSA process may provide the missing link between guidelines and actual system construction. In this presentation we focus specifically on the realm of scientific data access and distribution. Assuming the role of domain experts in building data access systems, we report the results of creating a DSSA for scientific data distribution. We describe the resulting domain model and our efforts towards building a heterogenous, multi-"vendor" architecture framework for data distribution based on that model. We draw on experiences and lessons learned supporting data access and distribution for multiple projects having common functionality but also unique details.

Wilson, A.; Lindholm, D. M.

2011-12-01

157

Foundations for the study of software architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to build the foundation for software architecture. We first develop an intuition for software architecture by appealing to several well-established architectural disciplines. On the basis of this intuition, we present a model of software architecture that consists of three components: elements, form, and rationale. Elements are either processing, data, or connecting elements. Form is

Dewayne E. Perry; Alexander L. Wolf

1992-01-01

158

The Ubiquitous Nature of Epistasis in Determining Susceptibility to Common Human Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing awareness that epistasis or gene-gene interaction plays a role in susceptibility to common human diseases. In this paper, we formulate a working hypothesis that epistasis is a ubiquitous component of the genetic architecture of common human diseases and that complex interactions are more important than the independent main effects of any one susceptibility gene. This working hypothesis

Jason H. Moore

2003-01-01

159

Mathematics in Architecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To produce structures that are functional as well as models of architectural beauty, designers must apply principles of mathematics in their work. Scale drawings, commonly known as plans, are used as patterns in the construction of buildings. Proper ratios and proportions relate each feature of a building with every other one and with the whole structure to obtain a pleasing appearance. This unit addresses basic mathematical principles used in architecture, discussing the concepts of measurement, scale drawing, ratio, proportion, and symmetry.

Fox, Lauretta J.

2007-02-21

160

Microcomponent sheet architecture  

DOEpatents

The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA); McDonald, Carolyn E. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01

161

Microcomponent sheet architecture  

DOEpatents

The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 14 figs.

Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K..; McDonald, C.E.

1997-03-18

162

Improving Read Disturb Characteristics by Using Double Common Source Line and Dummy Switch Architecture in Multi Level Cell NAND Flash Memory with Low Power Consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new NAND structures using double common source line (CSL) and dummy switch and their read operation schemes as a solution for NAND flash memories have been proposed. Compared with conventional scheme, the proposed read schemes improves read disturb characteristics beyond sub-30 nm technology node. By using proposed read scheme, the number of fail bits of proposed NAND was decreased than those of conventional NAND at read cycles. Also, it was proven that they contribute to improve the performance and suppress the power consumption. The proposed NAND was verified by both simulation and experimental measurements in a fabricated 40 nm multi level cell (MLC) NAND device.

Kang, Myounggon; Park, Ki-Tae; Song, Youngsun; Lim, Youngho; Suh, Kang-Deog; Shin, Hyungcheol

2011-04-01

163

Architecture & Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

2010-01-01

164

Mechanistic studies on the Cu-catalyzed three-component reactions of sulfonyl azides, 1-alkynes and amines, alcohols, or water: dichotomy via a common pathway.  

PubMed

Combined analyses of experimental and computational studies on the Cu-catalyzed three-component reactions of sulfonyl azides, terminal alkynes and amines, alcohols, or water are described. A range of experimental data including product distribution ratio and trapping of key intermediates support the validity of a common pathway in the reaction of 1-alkynes and two distinct types of azides substituted with sulfonyl and aryl(alkyl) groups. The proposal that bimolecular cycloaddition reactions take place initially between triple bonds and sulfonyl azides to give N-sulfonyl triazolyl copper intermediates was verified by a trapping experiment. The main reason for the different outcome from reactions between sulfonyl and aryl(alkyl) azides is attributed to the lability of the N-sulfonyl triazolyl copper intermediates. These species are readily rearranged to another key intermediate, ketenimine, into which various nucleophiles such as amines, alcohols, or water add to afford the three-component coupled products: amidines, imidates, or amides, respectively. In addition, the proposed mechanistic framework is in good agreement with the obtained kinetics and competition studies. A computational study (B3LYP/LACV3P*+) was also performed confirming the proposed mechanistic pathway that the triazolyl copper intermediate plays as a branching point to dictate the product distribution. PMID:18557650

Yoo, Eun Jeong; Ahlquist, Mårten; Bae, Imhyuck; Sharpless, K Barry; Fokin, Valery V; Chang, Sukbok

2008-07-18

165

Project Integration Architecture: Application Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications is enabled.

Jones, William Henry

2005-01-01

166

Principle Components Analysis (PCA) dazzled Cap Transformation commonly "spectral enhancements" multispectral images. 'bands' formed enhancements calculated from? point enhancements PCA differ dazzled Cap producing calculations band?  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: Principle Components Analysis (PCA) dazzled Cap Transformation commonly "spectral enhancements" multispectral images. 'bands' formed enhancements calculated from? point enhancements PCA differ dazzled Cap producing calculations band? ?

167

A reference architecture for semantic interoperability and its practical application.  

PubMed

Objective: Reusing EPR data for secondary purposes often requires mapping to classifications and vocabularies such as ICD, LOINC or NCI thesaurus. We aimed for a common architecture which supports the use of different vocabularies and mapping tools. Methods: We integrated the components clinical data warehouse, vocabulary resources and mapping tools with the EPR and client applications. Results: In two projects we used this architecture to map laboratory parameters from the LIS to LOINC, and to map clinical data elements from the Soarian EPR to the cancer registry system using the NCI-Thesaurus®. Conclusion: The approach was successful in both projects. The reference architecture does not resolve the mapping task, but provides reusable integration links between the different components and thus facilitates further mapping activities. PMID:24825683

Zunner, Christian; Ganslandt, Thomas; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Bürkle, Thomas

2014-01-01

168

Software Engineering in Practice: Design and Architectures of FLOSS Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FLOSS) practitioners and developers are typically also users of their own systems: as a result, traditional software engineering (SE) processes (e.g., the requirements and design phases), take less time to articulate and negotiate among FLOSS developers. Design and requirements are kept more as informal knowledge, rather than formally described and assessed. This paper attempts to recover the SE concepts of software design and architectures from three FLOSS case studies, sharing the same application domain (i.e., Instant Messaging). Its first objective is to determine whether a common architecture emerges from the three systems, which can be used as shared knowledge for future applications. The second objective is to determine whether these architectures evolve or decay during the evolution of these systems. The results of this study are encouraging: albeit no explicit effort was done by FLOSS developers to define a high-level view of the architecture, a common shared architecture could be distilled for the Instant Messaging application domain. It was also found that, for two of the three systems, the architecture becomes better organised, and the components better specified, as long as the system evolves in time.

Capiluppi, Andrea; Knowles, Thomas

169

An SNP-guided microRNA map of fifteen common human disorders identifies a consensus disease phenocode aiming at principal components of the nuclear import pathway.  

PubMed

Recent large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) studies of SNP variations captured many thousands individual genetic profiles of H. sapiens and facilitated identification of significant genetic traits which are highly likely to influence the pathogenesis of several major human diseases. Here we apply the integrative genomics principles to interrogate relationships between structural features and gene expression patterns of disease-linked SNPs, microRNAs and mRNAs of protein-coding genes in association to phenotypes of 15 major human disorders, namely bipolar disease (BD); rheumatoid arthritis (RA); coronary artery disease (CAD); Crohn's disease (CD); type 1 diabetes (T1D); type 2 diabetes (T2D); hypertension (HT); ankylosing spondylitis (AS); Graves' disease (autoimmune thyroid disease; AITD); multiple sclerosis (MS); breast cancer (BC); prostate cancer (PC); systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); vitiligo-associated multiple autoimmune disease (VIT); and ulcerative colitis (UC). We selected for sequence homology profiling a set of approximately 250 SNPs which were unequivocally associated with common human disorders based on multiple independent studies of 220,124 individual samples comprising 85,077 disease cases and 129,506 controls. Our analysis reveals a systematic primary sequence homology/complementarity-driven pattern of associations between disease-linked SNPs, microRNAs and protein-coding mRNAs defined here as a human disease phenocode. We utilize this approach to draw SNP-guided microRNA maps of major human diseases and define a consensus disease phenocode for fifteen major human disorders. A consensus disease phenocode comprises 72 SNPs and 18 microRNAs with an apparent propensity to target mRNA sequences derived from a single protein-coding gene, KPNA1. Each of microRNAs in this elite set appears linked to at least three common human diseases and has potential protein-coding mRNA targets among the principal components of the nuclear import pathway. We confirmed the validity of our findings by analyzing independent sets of most significant disease-linked SNPs and demonstrating statistically significant KPNA1-gene expression phenotypes associated with human genotypes of CD, BD, T2D and RA populations. Our analysis supports the idea that variations in DNA sequences associated with multiple human diseases may affect phenotypes in trans via non-protein-coding RNA intermediaries interfering with functions of microRNAs and defines the nuclear import pathway as a potential major target in 15 common human disorders. PMID:18719369

Glinsky, Gennadi V

2008-08-15

170

Design considerations for high-voltage DC bus architecture and wire mechanization for hybrid and electric vehicle applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications high-voltage (HV) DC bus is shared by multiple power converter units and energy storage systems. Each of these components should meet a set of common HV bus design requirements besides their own functional requirements. Selection of an appropriate HV DC bus architecture is intertwined with control dynamics and filter component sizing, together with

Mohammad N. Anwar; Sean E. Gleason; Timothy M. Grewe

2010-01-01

171

Formal Modeling of Software Architectures at Multiple Levels of Abstraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software architectures are multi-dimensional entities that can be fully understood only when viewed and analyzed at four different levels of abstraction: (1) internal functionality of a component, (2) the interface(s) exported by the component to the rest of the system, (3) interconnection of architectural elements in an architecture, and (4) rules of the architectural style. This paper presents the characteristics

Nenad Medvidovic; Richard N. Taylor; E. James Whitehead

1996-01-01

172

NASA's ESDS Reference Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few decades, advances in geophysical measurement technologies have led to an explosion in the volume and scope of Earth Science data sets. Implementation of the instrument systems that acquire these measurements requires commensurate development in data systems to enable the collection, processing, archiving and distribution of the resultant large volumes of data. As more and more of the data systems come on line, their common features have become increasingly apparent. NASA's Earth Science Data System Working Group (ESDSWG) recognizes these trends and needs and has asked its Standards Process Group (SPG) to develop a reference architecture for NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS's). That reference architecture is introduced in this presentation. The NASA ESDS Reference Architecture describes those common features and patterns, and thus provides guidelines for individuals and teams who plan to construct and interact with new NASA ESDS's.

Burnett, M.; Weiss, B.; Law, E.

2011-12-01

173

Avionics System Architecture Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Avionics System Architecture Tool (ASAT) is a computer program intended for use during the avionics-system-architecture- design phase of the process of designing a spacecraft for a specific mission. ASAT enables simulation of the dynamics of the command-and-data-handling functions of the spacecraft avionics in the scenarios in which the spacecraft is expected to operate. ASAT is built upon I-Logix Statemate MAGNUM, providing a complement of dynamic system modeling tools, including a graphical user interface (GUI), modeling checking capabilities, and a simulation engine. ASAT augments this with a library of predefined avionics components and additional software to support building and analyzing avionics hardware architectures using these components.

Chau, Savio; Hall, Ronald; Traylor, marcus; Whitfield, Adrian

2005-01-01

174

The PERSEUS System Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the system architecture and a prototype of Perseus, a secure operating system focusing on personal security management. Nevertheless Perseus allows users to use their favourite applications in a convenient, known way. It is built upon a trusted computing base that is small enough to be formally verified and evaluated according to the Common Criteria or ITSEC. The design

Birgit Pfitzmann; James Riordan; Christian Stüble; Michael Waidner; Arnd Weber

2001-01-01

175

Intelligent Agent Architectures: Reactive Planning Testbed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Integrated Agent Architecture (IAA) is a framework or paradigm for constructing intelligent agents. Intelligent agents are collections of sensors, computers, and effectors that interact with their environments in real time in goal-directed ways. Because of the complexity involved in designing intelligent agents, it has been found useful to approach the construction of agents with some organizing principle, theory, or paradigm that gives shape to the agent's components and structures their relationships. Given the wide variety of approaches being taken in the field, the question naturally arises: Is there a way to compare and evaluate these approaches? The purpose of the present work is to develop common benchmark tasks and evaluation metrics to which intelligent agents, including complex robotic agents, constructed using various architectural approaches can be subjected.

Rosenschein, Stanley J.; Kahn, Philip

1993-01-01

176

Factors affecting the component community structure of haemoparasites in common voles ( Microtus arvalis) from the Mazury Lake District region of Poland.  

PubMed

The prevalence and abundance of infections with haemoparasites were studied over a 4-year period in Microtus arvalis (common vole, n =321) sampled from fallow grassland sites in north-eastern Poland. Total species richness was five (prevalence= Haemobartonella sp. 63.9%, Bartonella spp. 27.7%, Babesia microti 9.0%, Trypanosoma sp. 8.4% and and Hepatozoon lavieri 3.1%) with 76.9% of the voles carrying at least one species and a mean infracommunity species richness of 1.1. Variation in species richness was determined primarily by season and year, the interaction of these factors, and that of year with host age. The observed frequency distribution of infracommunity species richness did not differ from that predicted by a null model, suggesting that there were no marked associations between the species. Analyses of prevalence and abundance of infection with each species in turn, revealed that overall the principal causes of variation were temporal and seasonal, their interaction, and interactions with intrinsic factors (age and sex), the latter playing only a minor role in their own right. However, the relative importance of these combinations varied and was distinct for each of the species in the study. Prevalence data revealed eight sets of two- and three-way associations between species, mostly dependent to some extent on one of the intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the model. Analysis of quantitative associations suggested two sets of positive two-way interactions, none of which remained after controlling for the effect of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on the abundance of each species. These data are discussed in the context of the changing ecological profiles in this region of Eastern Europe and, in a wider context, in relation to current understanding of the factors that shape component community structures of haemoparasites in wild rodents. PMID:14714180

Pawelczyk, A; Bajer, A; Behnke, J M; Gilbert, F S; Sinski, E

2004-03-01

177

GITEWS, an extensible and open integration platform for manifold sensor systems and processing components based on Sensor Web Enablement and the principles of Service Oriented Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) is a multifaceted system consisting of various sensor types like seismometers, sea level sensors or GPS stations, and processing components, all with their own system behavior and proprietary data structure. To operate a warning chain, beginning from measurements scaling up to warning products, all components have to interact in a correct way,

Rainer Haener; Joachim Waechter; Jens Fleischer; Stefan Herrnkind; Herrmann Schwarting

2010-01-01

178

A formal basis for architectural connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

As software systems become more complex, the overall system structure—or software architecture—becomes a central design problem. An important step toward an engineering discipline of software is a formal basis for describing and analyzing these designs. In the article we present a formal approach to one aspect of architectural design: the interactions among components. The key idea is to define architectural

Robert Allen; David Garlan

1997-01-01

179

Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

2013-01-01

180

Project Integration Architecture: Architectural Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. By being a single, self-revealing architecture, the ability to develop single tools, for example a single graphical user interface, to span all applications is enabled. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications becomes possible, Object-encapsulation further allows information to become in a sense self-aware, knowing things such as its own dimensionality and providing functionality appropriate to its kind.

Jones, William Henry

2001-01-01

181

Simulation Infrastructure for the DII COE Architecture: The Army Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key to the future interoperability of Simulations with Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems is the Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating Environment (DII COE) architecture. The DII COE is composed of configurable, layered, reusable software components that work together with specific C4ISR mission software to perform a task. All future DoD C4I systems will design to

Michael R. Hieb; Ron Sprinkle

182

Plant architecture  

PubMed Central

Plant architecture is species specific, indicating that it is under strict genetic control. Although it is also influenced by environmental conditions such as light, temperature, humidity and nutrient status, here we wish to focus only on the endogenous regulatory principles that control plant architecture. We summarise recent progress in the understanding of the basic patterning mechanisms involved in the regulation of leaf arrangement, the genetic regulation of meristem determinacy, i.e. the decision to stop or continue growth, and the control of branching during vegetative and generative development.  Finally, we discuss the basis of leaf architecture and the role of cell division and cell growth in morphogenesis.

Reinhardt, Didier; Kuhlemeier, Cris

2002-01-01

183

Lunar architecture and urbanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

Sherwood, Brent

1992-01-01

184

Current Trends Driving Aircraft and Automotive Systems Architectures and their impacts on CMMI® Organizational Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we discuss current trends driving Aircraft and Automotive Systems Architectures and their impacts on CMMI® Organizational Structures. This includes trends as: 1) pos -globalization and regionalization; 2) the formation of knowledge oligopolies; 3) commonality, standardization and even synergy (of components, tools, development process, certification agents, standards); 4) reuse and scalability, 5) synergy of knowledge and tools convergence;

Gilberto da Cunha Trivelato

185

Standardization and program effect analysis (Study 2.4). Volume 2: Equipment commonality analysis. [cost savings of using flight-proven components in designing spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility and cost savings of using flight-proven components in designing spacecraft were investigated. The components analyzed were (1) large space telescope, (2) stratospheric aerosol and gas equipment, (3) mapping mission, (4) solar maximum mission, and (5) Tiros-N. It is concluded that flight-proven hardware can be used with not-too-extensive modification, and significant savings can be realized. The cost savings for each component are presented.

Shiokari, T.

1975-01-01

186

Experimental Architecture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the design of the Centre for Architectural Structures and Technology at the University of Manitoba, including the educational context and design goals. Includes building plans and photographs. (EV)

Alter, Kevin

2003-01-01

187

Terra Harvest software architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under the Terra Harvest Program, the DIA has the objective of developing a universal Controller for the Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) community. The mission is to define, implement, and thoroughly document an open architecture that universally supports UGS missions, integrating disparate systems, peripherals, etc. The Controller's inherent interoperability with numerous systems enables the integration of both legacy and future UGS System (UGSS) components, while the design's open architecture supports rapid third-party development to ensure operational readiness. The successful accomplishment of these objectives by the program's Phase 3b contractors is demonstrated via integration of the companies' respective plug-'n'-play contributions that include controllers, various peripherals, such as sensors, cameras, etc., and their associated software drivers. In order to independently validate the Terra Harvest architecture, L-3 Nova Engineering, along with its partner, the University of Dayton Research Institute, is developing the Terra Harvest Open Source Environment (THOSE), a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) running on an embedded Linux Operating System. The Use Cases on which the software is developed support the full range of UGS operational scenarios such as remote sensor triggering, image capture, and data exfiltration. The Team is additionally developing an ARM microprocessor-based evaluation platform that is both energy-efficient and operationally flexible. The paper describes the overall THOSE architecture, as well as the design decisions for some of the key software components. Development process for THOSE is discussed as well.

Humeniuk, Dave; Klawon, Kevin

2012-05-01

188

NASA Integrated Network Monitor and Control Software Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Communications and Navigation office (SCaN) has commissioned a series of trade studies to define a new architecture intended to integrate the three existing networks that it operates, the Deep Space Network (DSN), Space Network (SN), and Near Earth Network (NEN), into one integrated network that offers users a set of common, standardized, services and interfaces. The integrated monitor and control architecture utilizes common software and common operator interfaces that can be deployed at all three network elements. This software uses state-of-the-art concepts such as a pool of re-programmable equipment that acts like a configurable software radio, distributed hierarchical control, and centralized management of the whole SCaN integrated network. For this trade space study a model-based approach using SysML was adopted to describe and analyze several possible options for the integrated network monitor and control architecture. This model was used to refine the design and to drive the costing of the four different software options. This trade study modeled the three existing self standing network elements at point of departure, and then described how to integrate them using variations of new and existing monitor and control system components for the different proposed deployments under consideration. This paper will describe the trade space explored, the selected system architecture, the modeling and trade study methods, and some observations on useful approaches to implementing such model based trade space representation and analysis.

Shames, Peter; Anderson, Michael; Kowal, Steve; Levesque, Michael; Sindiy, Oleg; Donahue, Kenneth; Barnes, Patrick

2012-01-01

189

SAAM: a method for analyzing the properties of software architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

While software architecture has become an increasingly important research topic in recent years, insufficient atten- tion has been paid to methods for evaluation of these archi- tectures. Evaluating architectures is difficult for two main reasons. First, there is no common language used to de- scribe different architectures. Second, there is no clear way of understanding an architecture with respect to

Rick Kazman; Leonard J. Bass; Mike Webb

1994-01-01

190

Representing Hierarchical Mobility in Software Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to move components from one hierarchical model to another becomes necessary to support arbitrary changes in software topologies. Mobility allows the access to the hidden interface of a hierarchical component without breaking encapsulation, keeping the architecture modular. Mobility permits also the introduction of new functionally in the application without requiring changes in the architecture, enabling its adaptation to

Fernando J. Barros

2007-01-01

191

Space Elevators Preliminary Architectural View  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Systems Architecture has been expanded into a process by the US Department of Defense for their large scale systems of systems development programs. This paper uses the steps in the process to establishes a framework for Space Elevator systems to be developed and provides a methodology to manage complexity. This new approach to developing a family of systems is based upon three architectural views: Operational View OV), Systems View (SV), and Technical Standards View (TV). The top level view of the process establishes the stages for the development of the first Space Elevator and is called Architectural View - 1, Overview and Summary. This paper will show the guidelines and steps of the process while focusing upon components of the Space Elevator Preliminary Architecture View. This Preliminary Architecture View is presented as a draft starting point for the Space Elevator Project.

Pullum, L.; Swan, P. A.

192

Radiology systems architecture.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the software requirements for enterprise integration in radiology. The needs of a future radiology systems architecture are examined, both at a concrete functional level and at an abstract system-properties level. A component-based approach to software development is described and is validated in the context of each of the abstract system requirements for future radiology computing environments. PMID:8657878

Deibel, S R; Greenes, R A

1996-05-01

193

Classifying Enterprise Architecture Analysis Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enterprise architecture (EA) management forms a commonly accepted means to enhance the alignment of business and IT, and to support the managed evolution of the enterprise. One major challenge of EA management is to provide decision support by analyzing as-is states of the architecture as well as assessing planned future states. Thus, different kinds of analysis regarding the EA exist, each relying on certain conditions and demands for models, methods, and techniques.

Buckl, Sabine; Matthes, Florian; Schweda, Christian M.

194

Classifying Enterprise Architecture Analysis Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprise architecture (EA) management forms a commonly accepted means to enhance the alignment of business and IT, and to\\u000a support the managed evolution of the enterprise. One major challenge of EA management is to provide decision support by analyzing\\u000a as-is states of the architecture as well as assessing planned future states. Thus, different kinds of analysis regarding the\\u000a EA exist,

Sabine Buckl; Florian Matthes; Christian M. Schweda

2009-01-01

195

The Zeaxanthin-Independent and Zeaxanthin-Dependent qE Components of Nonphotochemical Quenching Involve Common Conformational Changes within the Photosystem II Antenna in Arabidopsis 1(W)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light-harvesting antenna of higher plant photosystem II (LHCII) has the intrinsic capacity to dissipate excess light energy as heat in a process termed nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). Recent studies suggest that zeaxanthin and lutein both contribute to the rapidly relaxing component of NPQ, qE, possibly acting in the minor monomeric antenna complexes and the major trimeric LHCII, respectively. To distinguish

Matthew P. Johnson; Ahmad Zia; Peter Horton; Alexander V. Ruban

2009-01-01

196

Architectural Follies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the architectural process and discusses ways of establishing good communication between architects and librarians so they can work together effectively. Highlights include the schematic design phase, the design development phase; the construction document stage, and the architect working with the contractors. (LRW)

Fenton, Serena

1999-01-01

197

Dataflow architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows how a decentralized structure based on the flow of data will permit future computers to operate at even higher speeds. In data-flow computers, each of many identical processors calculates results as the data for a given computation become available. Data-flow machines are examined in the context of the broader efforts to develop parallel computer architectures. The development

1984-01-01

198

Architectural Treasures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an art lesson for eighth-grade students in which they created their own architectural structures. Stresses a strong discipline-based introduction using slide shows of famous buildings, large metropolitan cities, and 35,00 years of homes. Reports the lesson spanned two weeks. Includes a diagram, directions, and specifies materials. (CMK)

Pietropola, Anne

1998-01-01

199

Architectural Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests building models as a way to reinforce and enhance related subjects such as architectural drafting, structural carpentry, etc., and discusses time, materials, scales, tools or equipment needed, how to achieve realistic special effects, and the types of projects that can be built (model of complete building, a panoramic model, and model…

Levenson, Harold E.; Hurni, Andre

1978-01-01

200

Architectural Tops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of the skyscraper is an American story that combines architectural history, economic power, and technological achievement. Each city in the United States can be identified by the profile of its buildings. The design of the tops of skyscrapers was the inspiration for the students in the author's high-school ceramic class to develop…

Mahoney, Ellen

2010-01-01

201

Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture  

DOEpatents

The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 26 figs.

Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.; Birmingham, J.G.; McDonald, C.E.; Kurath, D.E.; Friedrich, M.

1998-09-22

202

Microcomponent chemical process sheet architecture  

DOEpatents

The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one chemical process unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA); Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA); Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA); Birmingham, Joseph G. (Richland, WA); McDonald, Carolyn Evans (Richland, WA); Kurath, Dean E. (Benton County, WA); Friedrich, Michele (Prosser, WA)

1998-01-01

203

Space Telecommunications Radio Architecture (STRS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software defined radio (SDR) architecture used in space-based platforms proposes to standardize certain aspects of radio development such as interface definitions, functional control and execution, and application software and firmware development. NASA has charted a team to develop an open software defined radio hardware and software architecture to support NASA missions and determine the viability of an Agency-wide Standard. A draft concept of the proposed standard has been released and discussed among organizations in the SDR community. Appropriate leveraging of the JTRS SCA, OMG's SWRadio Architecture and other aspects are considered. A standard radio architecture offers potential value by employing common waveform software instantiation, operation, testing and software maintenance. While software defined radios offer greater flexibility, they also poses challenges to the radio development for the space environment in terms of size, mass and power consumption and available technology. An SDR architecture for space must recognize and address the constraints of space flight hardware, and systems along with flight heritage and culture. NASA is actively participating in the development of technology and standards related to software defined radios. As NASA considers a standard radio architecture for space communications, input and coordination from government agencies, the industry, academia, and standards bodies is key to a successful architecture. The unique aspects of space require thorough investigation of relevant terrestrial technologies properly adapted to space. The talk will describe NASA s current effort to investigate SDR applications to space missions and a brief overview of a candidate architecture under consideration for space based platforms.

Reinhart, Richard C.

2006-01-01

204

CDSS (Clinical Decision Support System) Architecture in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present architecture for implementing independent, extensible, and interoperable clinical decision support service in perspective of EHR. In this architecture, components for implementing independent knowledge service and interface mechanism with EHR service or existing hospital information system are identified. In our architecture knowledge engine is critical component for implementing knowledge service. In this paper, we suggested interoperable CDSS(clinical decision support

Jeong Ah Kim; InSook Cho; Yoon Kim

2008-01-01

205

Phenotypic covariance structure in tamarins (genusSaguinus): a comparison of variation patterns using matrix correlation and common principal component analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constancy of variation\\/covariation structure among popula- tions is frequently assumed in order to measure the differential selective forces which have caused population differentiation through evolutionary time. Following Steppan ((1997) Evolution 51:571-594), this assumption is examined among closely related tamarin species (genus Saguinus), using two distinct approaches applied to the task of evaluating similarity in patterns of morphological variation: common principal

Rebecca Rogers Ackermann; James M. Cheverud

2000-01-01

206

Factors affecting the component community structure of haemoparasites in common voles ( Microtus arvalis ) from the Mazury Lake District region of Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and abundance of infections with haemoparasites were studied over a 4-year period in Microtus arvalis (common vole, n =321) sampled from fallow grassland sites in north-eastern Poland. Total species richness was five (prevalence= Haemobartonella sp. 63.9%, Bartonella spp. 27.7%, Babesia microti 9.0%, Trypanosoma sp. 8.4% and and Hepatozoon lavieri 3.1%) with 76.9% of the voles carrying at least

A. Pawelczyk; A. Bajer; J. M. Behnke; F. S. Gilbert; E. Sinski

2004-01-01

207

Genetic, Common Environment, and Individual Specific Components of Variance for Bone Mineral Density in 10- to 26Yearold Females: A Twin Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lean mass and areal bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total forearm were measured in 215 volunteer female twin pairs (122 monozygotic, 93 dizygotic), aged 10-26 years, using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The study was conducted in Melbourne from 1990 to1994. Under the classic twin model, there was evidence for a genetic component of variation in

John L. Hopper; Robyn M. Green; Carol A. Nowson; Doris Young; A. Jane Sherwin; Bahtiyar Kaymakci; Richard G. Larkins; John D. Wark

208

Molecular analysis of the gene for the human vitamin-D-binding protein (group-specific component): allelic differences of the common genetic GC types  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA sequence analysis of the polymerase chain reaction products, including the coding region for amino acids 416 and 420, of the vitamin-D-binding protein (DBP, group-specific component, GC) shows allelespecific differences. The GC2 and GC1F phenotypes have an aspartic acid residue at amino acid position 416, whereas the GC1S phenotype has a glutamic acid at this position. In the GC2 phenotype,

Andreas Braun; Regina Bichlmaier; Hartwig Cleve

1992-01-01

209

Analysis of N-Tier Architecture Applied to Distributed-Database Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

N-tier architecture has been more commonly used as a methodology for developing large database applications. This work evaluates the use of this architecture instead of the classical Client/Server architecture in developing corporate applications based on...

A. G. Valente

1999-01-01

210

Fractional Anisotropy Changes in Alzheimer's Disease Depend on the Underlying Fiber Tract Architecture: A Multiparametric DTI Study using Joint Independent Component Analysis.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows the simultaneous measurement of several diffusion indices that provide complementary information on the substrate of white matter alterations in neurodegenerative diseases. These indices include fractional anisotropy (FA) as measure of fiber tract integrity, and the mode of anisotropy (Mode) reflecting differences in the shape of the diffusion tensor. We used a multivariate approach based on joint independent component analysis of FA and Mode in a large sample of 138 subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, 37 subjects with cerebrospinal fluid biomarker positive mild cognitive impairment (MCI-AD), and 153 healthy elderly controls from the European DTI Study on Dementia to comprehensively study alterations of microstructural white matter integrity in AD dementia and predementia AD. We found a parallel decrease of FA and Mode in intracortically projecting fiber tracts, and a parallel increase of FA and Mode in the corticospinal tract in AD patients compared to controls. Subjects with MCI-AD showed a similar, but spatially more restricted pattern of diffusion changes. Our findings suggest an early axonal degeneration in intracortical projecting fiber tracts in dementia and predementia stages of AD. An increase of Mode, parallel to an increase of FA, in the corticospinal tract suggests a more linear shape of diffusion due to loss of crossing fibers along relatively preserved cortico-petal and cortico-fugal fiber tracts in AD. Supporting this interpretation, we found three populations of fiber tracts, namely cortico-petal and cortico-fugal, commissural, and intrahemispherically projecting fiber tracts, in the peak area of parallel FA and Mode increase. PMID:24577476

Teipel, Stefan J; Grothe, Michel J; Filippi, Massimo; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Dyrba, Martin; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Meindl, Thomas; Bokde, Arun L W; Hampel, Harald; Klöppel, Stefan; Hauenstein, Karlheinz

2014-01-01

211

Architecture-Based Operations Analysis: An Extension of Classical Operations Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DEFINITION OF TERMS: (1) ARCHITECTURE is the structure of components, their relationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time. (2) INTEGRATED ARCHITECTURE has products whose constituent architecture data eleme...

C. E. Dickerson S. R. Peppers B. Cordell E. M. Fortunato B. T. Brady

2005-01-01

212

Fabric Architecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by the Industrial Fabrics Association International, Fabric Architecture magazine is published bimonthly and is distributed to over 13000 architects working in the field. For those who've never thought about the possibilities and opportunities afforded by this area that straddles the lines between fabrics, design, and architecture, it's quite a find. On this page, users can look through materials that address topics like tents, lightweight structures, graphics, awnings, and truck covers. After perusing these areas, visitors should delve into the current issue. The archives here date back to 2006, and the topics covered within these pages include fabrics in the workplace, flexible design materials, and creating a "green" car park with various fabrics. For those who are interested, there's also information about how to subscribe to the print edition of the magazine.

213

ITS System Specification. Appendix A: Architectural Trade-Off Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Polaris Project is to define an Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) architecture for the state of Minnesota. An architecture is a framework that defines how multiple ITS Components interrelate and contribute to the overall ITS ob...

1997-01-01

214

How architecture wins technology wars.  

PubMed

Signs of revolutionary transformation in the global computer industry are everywhere. A roll call of the major industry players reads like a waiting list in the emergency room. The usual explanations for the industry's turmoil are at best inadequate. Scale, friendly government policies, manufacturing capabilities, a strong position in desktop markets, excellent software, top design skills--none of these is sufficient, either by itself or in combination, to ensure competitive success in information technology. A new paradigm is required to explain patterns of success and failure. Simply stated, success flows to the company that manages to establish proprietary architectural control over a broad, fast-moving, competitive space. Architectural strategies have become crucial to information technology because of the astonishing rate of improvement in microprocessors and other semiconductor components. Since no single vendor can keep pace with the outpouring of cheap, powerful, mass-produced components, customers insist on stitching together their own local systems solutions. Architectures impose order on the system and make the interconnections possible. The architectural controller is the company that controls the standard by which the entire information package is assembled. Microsoft's Windows is an excellent example of this. Because of the popularity of Windows, companies like Lotus must conform their software to its parameters in order to compete for market share. In the 1990s, proprietary architectural control is not only possible but indispensable to competitive success. What's more, it has broader implications for organizational structure: architectural competition is giving rise to a new form of business organization. PMID:10124636

Morris, C R; Ferguson, C H

1993-01-01

215

Development of protocol for screening the formulation components and the assessment of common quality problems of nano-structured lipid carriers.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the screening of the formulation components as well as evaluates the quality issues of the nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for the anticancer agent, CPT-11. The stepwise screening of the components for the preparation of NLCs requires the selection of liquid lipid or oil, based on the relative solubility of CPT-11 in different oils. Maximum solubility of the CPT-11 was found in capmul MCM-C8 (81±0.5 mg/ml). Hence, it was selected as the liquid lipid for the development of NLCs. Solid lipids gelucire 39/1, glyceryl mono stearate (GSM) and compritol ATO 888 were observed to have good affinity for the drug on systematic screening of different solid lipids. However, gelucire 39/1 and GSM were found to have lower physical compatibility (miscibility) with capmul MCM C-8. Hence, compritol ATO 888 was selected as the solid lipid phase for the preparation of NLCs. Ratio of liquid lipid (oil) to solid lipid was optimized with the intention of maximizing the oil concentration (as oil was found to have higher solubility of drug) as well as producing a lipid mix with sufficient melting point to maintain solid state. The liquid-solid lipid mixture in the ratio up to 30:70 was observed to have sufficient melting point (52.48±1.2 °C). Pluronic F-68 was selected as the main surfactant for the preparation of NLCs because of its good emulsification efficacy for the solid lipid liquid mix. The optimized formulation was also evaluated for the different quality issues. PXRD data revealed that the characteristic peaks of the compritol were present in the NLC samples and there was no appreciable polymorphic change when the formulation was stored for 6 months. Electron microscopic and DLS studies proved the absence of different colloidal species. Thermal analysis by DSC revealed that the lipid particles maintained sufficiently good melting point even after nanosizing. Absence of gelation on multiple syringing and resilience for the stress provided by autoclaving further established the quality of the developed NLCs. PMID:24345574

Negi, Lalit Mohan; Jaggi, Manu; Talegaonkar, Sushama

2014-01-30

216

Molecular Profiling of Stomatal Meristemoids Reveals New Component of Asymmetric Cell Division and Commonalities among Stem Cell Populations in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

The balance between maintenance and differentiation of stem cells is a central question in developmental biology. Development of stomata in Arabidopsis thaliana begins with de novo asymmetric divisions producing meristemoids, proliferating precursor cells with stem cell–like properties. The transient and asynchronous nature of the meristemoid has made it difficult to study its molecular characteristics. Synthetic combination of stomatal differentiation mutants due to loss- or gain-of-function mutations in SPEECHLESS, MUTE, and SCREAM create seedlings with an epidermis overwhelmingly composed of pavement cells, meristemoids, or stomata, respectively. Through transcriptome analysis, we define and characterize the molecular signatures of meristemoids. The reporter localization studies of meristemoid-enriched proteins reveals pathways not previously associated with stomatal development. We identified a novel protein, POLAR, and demonstrate through time-lapse live imaging that it exhibits transient polar localization and segregates unevenly during meristemoid asymmetric divisions. The polar localization of POLAR requires BREAKING OF ASYMMETRY IN THE STOMATAL LINEAGE. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of the transcriptional profiles of a meristemoid with shoot and root apical meristems highlighted cytokinin signaling and the ERECTA family receptor-like kinases in the broad regulation of stem cell populations. Our work reveals molecular constituents of stomatal stem cells and illuminates a common theme among stem cell populations in plants.

Pillitteri, Lynn Jo; Peterson, Kylee M.; Horst, Robin J.; Torii, Keiko U.

2011-01-01

217

Breeding Value and Variance Component Estimation from Data Containing Inbred Individuals: Application to Gynogenetic Families in Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Under gynogenetic reproduction, offspring receive genes only from their dams and completely homozygous offspring are produced within one generation. When gynogenetic reproduction is applied to fully inbred individuals, homozygous clone lines are produced. A mixed model method was developed for breeding value and variance component estimation in gynogenetic families, which requires the inverse of the numerator relationship matrix. A general method for creating the inverse for a population with unusual relationships between animals is presented, which reduces to simple rules as is illustrated for gynogenetic populations. The presence of clones in gynogenetic populations causes singularity of the numerator relationship matrix. However, clones can be regarded as repeated observations of the same genotype, which can be accommodated by modifying the incidence matrix, and by considering only unique genotypes in the estimation procedure. Optimum gynogenetic sib family sizes for estimating heritabilities and estimates of their accuracy were derived and compared to those for conventional full-sib designs. This was done by means of a deterministic derivation and by stochastic simulation using Gibbs sampling. Optimum family sizes were smallest for gynogenetic families. Only for low heritabilities, there was a small advantage in accuracy under the gynogenetic design.

Bijma, P.; Van-Arendonk, JAM.; Bovenhuis, H.

1997-01-01

218

Bocca: A Development Environment for HPC Components  

SciTech Connect

In high-performance scientific software development, the emphasis is often on short time to first solution. Even when the development of new components mostly reuses existing components or libraries and only small amounts of new code must be created, dealing with the component glue code and software build processes to obtain complete applications is still tedious and error-prone. Component-based soft ware meant to reduce complexity at the application level increases complexity with the attendant glue code. To address these needs, we introduce Bocca, the first tool to enable application developers to perform rapid component prototyping while maintaining robust software-engineering practices suitable to HPC environments. Bocca provides project management and a comprehensive build environment for creating and managing applications composed of Common Component Architecture components. Of critical importance for HPC applications, Bocca is designed to operate in a language-agnostic way, simultaneously handling components written in any of the languages commonly used in scientific applications: C, C++, Fortran, Fortran77, Python, and Java. Bocca automates the tasks related to the component glue code, freeing the user to focus on the scientific aspects of the application. Bocca embraces the philosophy pioneered by Ruby Rails for web applications: Start with something that works and evolve it to the user's purpose.

Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Norris, Boyana [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Benjamin, Allan A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Armstrong, Robert C. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)

2007-01-01

219

Information Model Driven Semantic Framework Architecture and Design for Distributed Data Repositories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Earth and space science, the steady evolution away from isolated and single purpose data 'systems' toward systems of systems, data ecosystems, or data frameworks that provide access to highly heterogeneous data repositories is picking up in pace. As a result, common informatics approaches are being sought for how newer architectures are developed and/or implemented. In particular, a clear need to have a repeatable method for modeling, implementing and evolving the information architectures has emerged and one that goes beyond traditional software design. This presentation outlines new component design approaches bases in sets of information model and semantic encodings for mediation.

Fox, P. A.; Semantic eScience Framework Team

2011-12-01

220

How enterprise architectures can support integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article states the importance of Enterprise Architectures as a way to identify interoperability problems. Enterprise Architectures provide a common view of the primary resources of any enterprise (people, processes and technology) and how they integrate to provide the primary drivers of the enterprise. The authors of this work sketch an example where different kinds of integration problems are detected.

Victor Anaya; Angel Ortiz

2005-01-01

221

Enterprise Architecture in the Supply Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract-Information systems in supply chain management (SCM) is common, bringing architecture on the agenda . The paper uses three perspectives on enterprise architecture (EA) in the supply chain: The correlation view, the remote view and the institutional view. It is shown that the EA in the domain of supply chain has to meet quite a complicated set of demands. Coherency

Torben Tambo; Christian Koch

2010-01-01

222

A Simulation Study of Decoupled Architecture Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decoupled architectures achieve high scalar performance by cleanly splitting instruction processing into memory access and execution tasks. Several decoupled architectures have been proposed, and they all have two characteristics in common: 1) they have two separate sets of instructions, one for accessing memory and one for performing function execution. 2) The memory accessing task and the execution task communicate via

James E. Smith; Shlomo Weiss; Nicholas Y. Pang

1986-01-01

223

Harmonizing the semantics of technical terms by the generic component model.  

PubMed

Working interoperability not only requires harmonized system's architectures, but also the same interpretation of technical specifications in order to guide the development process. This paper analyzes the commonly used terms to introduce different kinds of coded concepts by an alignment with the Generic Component Model (GCM). PMID:20543318

Oemig, Frank; Blobel, Bernd

2010-01-01

224

Architectural models for global automation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing automation systems, as in most engineering endeavors, is primarily an architectural problem, involving hardware and software components. The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of software architecture and styles in designing automation systems, and to describe an object framework for the development of global automation systems.

Davide Brugali; Giuseppe Menga

2002-01-01

225

Complex Event Recognition Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

2009-01-01

226

Distributed visualization framework architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An architecture for distributed and collaborative visualization is presented. The design goals of the system are to create a lightweight, easy to use and extensible framework for reasearch in scientific visualization. The system provides both single user and collaborative distributed environment. System architecture employs a client-server model. Visualization projects can be synchronously accessed and modified from different client machines. We present a set of visualization use cases that illustrate the flexibility of our system. The framework provides a rich set of reusable components for creating new applications. These components make heavy use of leading design patterns. All components are based on the functionality of a small set of interfaces. This allows new components to be integrated seamlessly with little to no effort. All user input and higher-level control functionality interface with proxy objects supporting a concrete implementation of these interfaces. These light-weight objects can be easily streamed across the web and even integrated with smart clients running on a user's cell phone. The back-end is supported by concrete implementations wherever needed (for instance for rendering). A middle-tier manages any communication and synchronization with the proxy objects. In addition to the data components, we have developed several first-class GUI components for visualization. These include a layer compositor editor, a programmable shader editor, a material editor and various drawable editors. These GUI components interact strictly with the interfaces. Access to the various entities in the system is provided by an AssetManager. The asset manager keeps track of all of the registered proxies and responds to queries on the overall system. This allows all user components to be populated automatically. Hence if a new component is added that supports the IMaterial interface, any instances of this can be used in the various GUI components that work with this interface. One of the main features is an interactive shader designer. This allows rapid prototyping of new visualization renderings that are shader-based and greatly accelerates the development and debug cycle.

Mishchenko, Oleg; Raman, Sundaresan; Crawfis, Roger

2010-01-01

227

Architecture for autonomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2002 Defence R&D Canada changed research direction from pure tele-operated land vehicles to general autonomy for land, air, and sea craft. The unique constraints of the military environment coupled with the complexity of autonomous systems drove DRDC to carefully plan a research and development infrastructure that would provide state of the art tools without restricting research scope. DRDC's long term objectives for its autonomy program address disparate unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), unattended ground sensor (UGS), air (UAV), and subsea and surface (UUV and USV) vehicles operating together with minimal human oversight. Individually, these systems will range in complexity from simple reconnaissance mini-UAVs streaming video to sophisticated autonomous combat UGVs exploiting embedded and remote sensing. Together, these systems can provide low risk, long endurance, battlefield services assuming they can communicate and cooperate with manned and unmanned systems. A key enabling technology for this new research is a software architecture capable of meeting both DRDC's current and future requirements. DRDC built upon recent advances in the computing science field while developing its software architecture know as the Architecture for Autonomy (AFA). Although a well established practice in computing science, frameworks have only recently entered common use by unmanned vehicles. For industry and government, the complexity, cost, and time to re-implement stable systems often exceeds the perceived benefits of adopting a modern software infrastructure. Thus, most persevere with legacy software, adapting and modifying software when and wherever possible or necessary -- adopting strategic software frameworks only when no justifiable legacy exists. Conversely, academic programs with short one or two year projects frequently exploit strategic software frameworks but with little enduring impact. The open-source movement radically changes this picture. Academic frameworks, open to public scrutiny and modification, now rival commercial frameworks in both quality and economic impact. Further, industry now realizes that open source frameworks can reduce cost and risk of systems engineering. This paper describes the Architecture for Autonomy implemented by DRDC and how this architecture meets DRDC's current needs. It also presents an argument for why this architecture should also satisfy DRDC's future requirements as well.

Broten, Gregory S.; Monckton, Simon P.; Collier, Jack; Giesbrecht, Jared

2006-06-01

228

Hybrid Power Management-Based Vehicle Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hybrid Power Management (HPM) is the integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications (s ee figure). The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, that provides all power to a common energy storage system that is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems. This architecture also provides power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. The key element of HPM is the energy storage system. All generated power is sent to the energy storage system, and all loads derive their power from that system. This can significantly reduce the power requirement of the primary power source, while increasing the vehicle reliability. Ultracapacitors are ideal for an HPM-based energy storage system due to their exceptionally long cycle life, high reliability, high efficiency, high power density, and excellent low-temperature performance. Multiple power sources and multiple loads are easily incorporated into an HPM-based vehicle. A gas turbine is a good primary power source because of its high efficiency, high power density, long life, high reliability, and ability to operate on a wide range of fuels. An HPM controller maintains optimal control over each vehicle component. This flexible operating system can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve vehicle efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. The HPM-based vehicle architecture has many advantages over conventional vehicle architectures. Ultracapacitors have a much longer cycle life than batteries, which greatly improves system reliability, reduces life-of-system costs, and reduces environmental impact as ultracapacitors will probably never need to be replaced and disposed of. The environmentally safe ultracapacitor components reduce disposal concerns, and their recyclable nature reduces the environmental impact. High ultracapacitor power density provides high power during surges, and the ability to absorb high power during recharging. Ultracapacitors are extremely efficient in capturing recharging energy, are rugged, reliable, maintenance-free, have excellent lowtemperature characteristic, provide consistent performance over time, and promote safety as they can be left indefinitely in a safe, discharged state whereas batteries cannot.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.

2011-01-01

229

Compositional Verification of Architectural Refactorings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the success of model-driven development as well as component-based and service-oriented systems, models of software architecture are key artefacts in the development process. To adapt to changing requirements and improve internal software quality such models have to evolve while preserving aspects of their behaviour. These behaviour preserving developments are known as refactorings.

Bisztray, Dénes; Heckel, Reiko; Ehrig, Hartmut

230

Adaptable Decentralized Service Oriented Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), BPEL specified business processes are executed by non-scalable centralized orchestration engines. In order to address the scalability issue, decentralized orchestration engines are applied, which decentralize BPEL processes into static fragments at design time without considering runtime requirements. The fragments are then encapsulated into runtime components such as agents. There are a variety of attitudes

Faramarz Safi Esfahani; Masrah Azrifah Azmi Murad; Nur Izura Udzir

2011-01-01

231

Adaptable Decentralized Service Oriented Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), BPEL specified business processes are executed by nonscalable centralized orchestration engines. In order to address the scalability issue, decentralized orchestration engines are applied, which decentralize BPEL processes into static fragments at design time without considering runtime requirements. The fragments are then encapsulated into runtime components such as agents. There are a variety of attitudes

Faramarz Safi Esfahani; Masrah Azrifah Azmi Murad; Nur Izura Udzir

2011-01-01

232

The NAPA Adaptive Processing Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Adaptive Processing Architecture (NAPA) is a major effort to integrate the resources needed to develop teraops class computing systems based on the principles of adaptive computing. The primary goals for this effort include: (1) the development of an example NAPA component which achieves an order of magnitude cost\\/performance improvement compared to traditional FPGA based systems, (2) the creation

Charlé R. Rupp; Mark Landguth; Tim Garverick; Edson Gomersall; Harry Holt; Jeffrey M. Arnold; Maya Gokhale

1998-01-01

233

A proposed information architecture for telehealth system interoperability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an object-oriented information architecture for telemedicine systems that promotes secure `plug-and-play' interaction between system components through standardized interfaces, communication protocols, messaging formats, and data definitions. In this architecture, each component functions as a black box, and components plug together in a “lego-like” fashion to achieve the desired device or system functionality

S. Warren; R. L. Craft; R. C. Parks; L. K. Gallagher; R. J. Garcia; D. R. Funkhouser

1999-01-01

234

Optical linear algebra processors - Architectures and algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is given to the component design and optical configuration features of a generic optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) architecture, as well as the large number of OLAP architectures, number representations, algorithms and applications encountered in current literature. Number-representation issues associated with bipolar and complex-valued data representations, high-accuracy (including floating point) performance, and the base or radix to be employed, are discussed, together with case studies on a space-integrating frequency-multiplexed architecture and a hybrid space-integrating and time-integrating multichannel architecture.

Casasent, David

1986-01-01

235

The Vienna Component Framework enabling composition across component models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vienna Component Framework (VCF) supports the interoperability and composability of components across different component models, a facility that is lacking in existing component models. The VCF presents a unified component model---implemented by a façade component---to the application programmer. The programmer may write new components by composing components from different component models, accessed through the VCF. The model supports common

Johann Oberleitner; Thomas Gschwind; Mehdi Jazayeri

2003-01-01

236

A Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Based Vehicle Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Society desires vehicles with reduced fuel consumption and reduced emissions. This presents a challenge and an opportunity for industry and the government. The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed a Hybrid Power Management (HPM) based vehicle architecture for space and terrestrial vehicles. GRC's Electrical and Electromagnetics Branch of the Avionics and Electrical Systems Division initiated the HPM Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The basic vehicle architecture consists of a primary power source, and possibly other power sources, providing all power to a common energy storage system, which is used to power the drive motors and vehicle accessory systems, as well as provide power as an emergency power system. Each component is independent, permitting it to be optimized for its intended purpose. This flexible vehicle architecture can be applied to all vehicles to considerably improve system efficiency, reliability, safety, security, and performance. This unique vehicle architecture has the potential to alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, stimulate the economy, and enable new missions.

Eichenberg, Dennis J.

2011-01-01

237

Abstractions and implementations for architectural connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The architecture of a software system shows how the system is realized by a collection of components together with the interactions among these components. Conventional design focuses the components, but the properties of the system depend critically on the character of the interactions. Although software designers have good informal abstractions for these interactions, these abstractions are poorly supported by the

Mary Shaw; Robert DeLine; Gregory Zelesnik

1996-01-01

238

Electrical Grounding Architecture for Unmanned Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This handbook is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and all NASA Centers and is intended to provide a common framework for consistent practices across NASA programs. This handbook was developed to describe electrical grounding design architecture options for unmanned spacecraft. This handbook is written for spacecraft system engineers, power engineers, and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) engineers. Spacecraft grounding architecture is a system-level decision which must be established at the earliest point in spacecraft design. All other grounding design must be coordinated with and be consistent with the system-level architecture. This handbook assumes that there is no one single 'correct' design for spacecraft grounding architecture. There have been many successful satellite and spacecraft programs from NASA, using a variety of grounding architectures with different levels of complexity. However, some design principles learned over the years apply to all types of spacecraft development. This handbook summarizes those principles to help guide spacecraft grounding architecture design for NASA and others.

1998-01-01

239

IPCA, an architecture for intelligent control  

Microsoft Academic Search

IPCA (Intelligent Process Control Architecture) is an architecture for flexible, intelligent control. IPCA is rooted in the generic task (GT) approach to knowledge-based systems and incorporates plan generation and real-time plan execution monitoring components. The plan generation component produces a state-based process control plan representation which typically contains a collection of possible paths from initial to desired process states. Selection

David B. Decker; William F. Punch; Jon Sticklen

1996-01-01

240

Fast architecture prototyping through 3D collage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new framework for architecture prototyping via the concept of 3D collage, that is, a combination of geometrically transformed components segmented from multiple source architectures. In short, our\\u000a proposed framework makes its contribution by featuring three desired functionalities as follows. First, during the construction\\u000a process, two components can be snapped together through the most matched

Chuan-Kai Yang; Ching-Yang Tsai

241

Design and realization of macroscopic grid architectures mimicking carbon molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper shows, through a new geometrical approach, how to build some special deltahedra, which might represent nano-architectures of molecular structures, in nature commonly known as fullerenes, as well as new intriguing macro-architectures for designing innovative structures. We have realized models of these nano and macro architectures including a roof-like structure for a tennis court and educational games.

Gastaldi, Davide; Pugno, Nicola M.

2009-10-01

242

Automated Synthesis of Architecture of Avionic Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Architecture Synthesis Tool (AST) is software that automatically synthesizes software and hardware architectures of avionic systems. The AST is expected to be most helpful during initial formulation of an avionic-system design, when system requirements change frequently and manual modification of architecture is time-consuming and susceptible to error. The AST comprises two parts: (1) an architecture generator, which utilizes a genetic algorithm to create a multitude of architectures; and (2) a functionality evaluator, which analyzes the architectures for viability, rejecting most of the non-viable ones. The functionality evaluator generates and uses a viability tree a hierarchy representing functions and components that perform the functions such that the system as a whole performs system-level functions representing the requirements for the system as specified by a user. Architectures that survive the functionality evaluator are further evaluated by the selection process of the genetic algorithm. Architectures found to be most promising to satisfy the user s requirements and to perform optimally are selected as parents to the next generation of architectures. The foregoing process is iterated as many times as the user desires. The final output is one or a few viable architectures that satisfy the user s requirements.

Chau, Savio; Xu, Joseph; Dang, Van; Lu, James F.

2006-01-01

243

Communication architecture tuners: a methodology for the design of high-performance communication architectures for systems-on-chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we present a general methodology for the design of custom system-on-chip communication architectures. Our technique is based on the addition of a layer of circuitry, called the Communication Architecture Tuner (CAT), around any existing communication architecture topology. The added layer enhances the ability of the system to adapt to changing communication needs of its constituent components. For

Kanishka Lahiri; Anand Raghunathan; Ganesh Lakshminarayana; Sujit Dey

2000-01-01

244

Communication architecture tuners: a methodology for the design of high-performance communication architectures for system-on-chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a general methodology for the design of custom system-on-chip communication architectures. Our technique is based on the addition of a layer of circuitry, called the Communica- tion Architecture Tuner (CAT), around any existing communication architecture topology. The added layer enhances the ability of the system to adapt to changing communication needs of its constituent components.

Kanishka Lahiri; Anand Raghunathan; Ganesh Lakshminarayana; Sujit Dey

2000-01-01

245

On the architecture of cell regulation networks  

PubMed Central

Background With the rapid development of high-throughput experiments, detecting functional modules has become increasingly important in analyzing biological networks. However, the growing size and complexity of these networks preclude structural breaking in terms of simplest units. We propose a novel graph theoretic decomposition scheme combined with dynamics consideration for probing the architecture of complex biological networks. Results Our approach allows us to identify two structurally important components: the "minimal production unit"(MPU) which responds quickly and robustly to external signals, and the feedback controllers which adjust the output of the MPU to desired values usually at a larger time scale. The successful application of our technique to several of the most common cell regulation networks indicates that such architectural feature could be universal. Detailed illustration and discussion are made to explain the network structures and how they are tied to biological functions. Conclusions The proposed scheme may be potentially applied to various large-scale cell regulation networks to identify functional modules that play essential roles and thus provide handles for analyzing and understanding cell activity from basic biochemical processes.

2011-01-01

246

Architectures for wavelet transforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of architectures for computing 1-D and 2-D DWT, and 1-D and 2-D CWT are presented. These architectures range from systolic arrays and parallel filters to SIMD arrays. The systolic array and the parallel filter architectures require an area that is independent of the length of the input sequence, and support single chip implementation. The SIMD architectures, on

Chaitali Chakrabarti; Mohan Vishwanath; Robert M. Owens

1993-01-01

247

The Architectural Review: A Study of Ritual, Acculturation and Reproduction in Architectural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the results of an ethnographic research project that looked at architectural students' experiences of disciplinary acculturation. The research focused on the architectural review: a pedagogic event used for the assessment of students' design projects and commonly understood as a liberal celebration of student creativity. The…

Webster, Helena

2005-01-01

248

Common Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A web resource that contains Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Numbers for approximately 7,800 chemicals of widespread general public interest. Common Chemistry is helpful to non-chemists who know either a name or CAS Registry Number® of a common chemical and want to pair both pieces of information.

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

249

Formalizing the NIST 4-D/RCS Reference Model Architecture Using an Architectural Description Language.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 4-D/Real-Time Control System (RCS) Reference Model Architecture provides a well-defined strategy for development of software components for applications in robotics, automated manufacturing, and autonomous vehicles. To further this work, an investigat...

C. Dabrowski H. Huang E. Messina J. Horst

1999-01-01

250

Hierarchical Control Modelling Architecture for Modular Distributed Automation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern design approaches for manufacturing system organize the control architecture in the same way as the functional structure of the plant. This leads to a modular approach that is based on composition of automation components. This paper introduces a hierarchical architecture that is based on a generic internal structure of automation components. This includes logic, diagnostics as well as human

C. Sunder; Alois Zoitl; Michael Rainbauer; Bernard Favre-Bulle

2006-01-01

251

The Information Agent: an infrastructure agent supporting collaborative enterprise architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the Information Agent as a component of the information infrastructure supporting collaborative computing environments. We discuss the functions of the Information Agent, describe an architecture based on an agent program and a knowledge management system and present out choices for these components. We show how the architecture can be designed and implemented using description logic representation systems and

Mihai Barbuceanu; Mark S. Fox

1994-01-01

252

Software architecture critics in the Argo design environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software architectures are high-level design representations of software systems that focus on composition o f software components and how those components interact. Software architectures abstract the details o f implementation and allow the designer to focus on essential design decisions. Regardless of notation, designers are faced with the task of making good design decisions that demand a broad range of

Jason E. Robbins; David F. Redmiles

1998-01-01

253

Most genetic risk for autism resides with common variation.  

PubMed

A key component of genetic architecture is the allelic spectrum influencing trait variability. For autism spectrum disorder (herein termed autism), the nature of the allelic spectrum is uncertain. Individual risk-associated genes have been identified from rare variation, especially de novo mutations. From this evidence, one might conclude that rare variation dominates the allelic spectrum in autism, yet recent studies show that common variation, individually of small effect, has substantial impact en masse. At issue is how much of an impact relative to rare variation this common variation has. Using a unique epidemiological sample from Sweden, new methods that distinguish total narrow-sense heritability from that due to common variation and synthesis of results from other studies, we reach several conclusions about autism's genetic architecture: its narrow-sense heritability is ?52.4%, with most due to common variation, and rare de novo mutations contribute substantially to individual liability, yet their contribution to variance in liability, 2.6%, is modest compared to that for heritable variation. PMID:25038753

Gaugler, Trent; Klei, Lambertus; Sanders, Stephan J; Bodea, Corneliu A; Goldberg, Arthur P; Lee, Ann B; Mahajan, Milind; Manaa, Dina; Pawitan, Yudi; Reichert, Jennifer; Ripke, Stephan; Sandin, Sven; Sklar, Pamela; Svantesson, Oscar; Reichenberg, Abraham; Hultman, Christina M; Devlin, Bernie; Roeder, Kathryn; Buxbaum, Joseph D

2014-08-01

254

Component-based software for high-performance scientific computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in both computational hardware and multidisciplinary science have given rise to an unprecedented level of complexity in scientific simulation software. This paper describes an ongoing grass roots effort aimed at addressing complexity in high-performance computing through the use of Component-Based Software Engineering (CBSE). Highlights of the benefits and accomplishments of the Common Component Architecture (CCA) Forum and SciDAC ISIC are given, followed by an illustrative example of how the CCA has been applied to drive scientific discovery in quantum chemistry. Thrusts for future research are also described briefly.

Alexeev, Yuri; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Bernholdt, David E.; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Gannon, Dennis; Janssen, Curtis L.; Kenny, Joseph P.; Krishnan, Manojkumar; Kohl, James A.; Kumfert, Gary; Curfman McInnes, Lois; Nieplocha, Jarek; Parker, Steven G.; Rasmussen, Craig; Windus, Theresa L.

2005-01-01

255

Architectural Prototyping: From CCS to .Net  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, software architecture emerged as a critical issue in Software Engineering. This encompassed a shift from traditional programming towards software development based on the deployment and assembly of independent components. The specification of both the overall systems structure and the interaction patterns between their components became a major concern for the working developer. Although a number of

Nuno F. Rodrigues; Luís Soares Barbosa

2005-01-01

256

Communication Architecture for AAL. Supporting Patient Care by Health Care Providers in AAL-enhanced Living Quarters.  

PubMed

Introduction: This article is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Using Data from Ambient Assisted Living and Smart Homes in Electronic Health Records". Background: Concepts of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) support a long-term health monitoring and further medical and other services for multi-morbid patients with chronic diseases. In Germany many AAL and telemedical applications exist. Synergy effects by common agreements for essential application components and standards are not achieved. Objectives: It is necessary to define a communication architecture which is based on common definitions of communication scenarios, application components and communication standards. Methods: The development of a communication architecture requires different steps. To gain a reference model for the problem area different AAL and telemedicine projects were compared and relevant data elements were generalized. The derived reference model defines standardized communication links. Results: As a result the authors present an approach towards a reference architecture for AAL-communication. The focus of the architecture lays on the communication layer. The necessary application components are identified and a communication based on standards and their extensions is highlighted. Conclusion: The exchange of patient individual events supported by an event classification model, raw and aggregated data from the personal home area over a telemedicine center to health care providers is possible. PMID:24728125

Nitzsche, T; Thiele, S; Häber, A; Winter, A

2014-05-15

257

Nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the details of the nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data. Topic discussed include: connection with principal component analysis; network architecture; analysis of the standard routine (PRINC); and results.

Boyle, J.; Sengupta, S.

1995-06-01

258

Generic architectures for future flight systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generic architecture for future flight systems must be based on open system architectures (OSA). This provides the developer and integrator the flexibility to optimize the hardware and software systems to match diverse and unique applications requirements. When developed properly OSA provides interoperability, commonality, graceful upgradability, survivability and hardware/software transportability to greatly minimize life cycle costs and supportability. Architecture flexibility can be achieved to take advantage of commercial developments by basing these developments on vendor-neutral commercially accepted standards and protocols. Rome Laboratory presently has a program that addresses requirements for OSA.

Wood, Richard J.

1992-01-01

259

Common Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents K-12 and college common areas considered outstanding in a competition, which judged the most outstanding learning environments at educational institutions nationwide. Jurors spent two days reviewing projects, highlighting concepts and ideas that made them exceptional. For each citation, the article offers information on the firm, client,…

American School & University, 2003

2003-01-01

260

Architecture of a distributed multimission operations system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an architecture to develop a multimission operations systems, which we call DIOSA. In this architecture, a component used as a building block is called a functional block. Each functional block has a standard structure, and the interface between functional blocks are defined with a set of standard protocols. This paper shows the structure of the database used by functional blocks, the structure of interfaces between functional blocks, and the structure of system management. Finally, examples of typical functional blocks and an example of a system constructed with this architecture is shown.

Yamada, Takahiro

1994-01-01

261

Space Telecommunications Radio Architecture (STRS): Technical Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software defined radio (SDR) architecture used in space-based platforms proposes to standardize certain aspects of radio development such as interface definitions, functional control and execution, and application software and firmware development. NASA has charted a team to develop an open software defined radio hardware and software architecture to support NASA missions and determine the viability of an Agency-wide Standard. A draft concept of the proposed standard has been released and discussed among organizations in the SDR community. Appropriate leveraging of the JTRS SCA, OMG s SWRadio Architecture and other aspects are considered. A standard radio architecture offers potential value by employing common waveform software instantiation, operation, testing and software maintenance. While software defined radios offer greater flexibility, they also poses challenges to the radio development for the space environment in terms of size, mass and power consumption and available technology. An SDR architecture for space must recognize and address the constraints of space flight hardware, and systems along with flight heritage and culture. NASA is actively participating in the development of technology and standards related to software defined radios. As NASA considers a standard radio architecture for space communications, input and coordination from government agencies, the industry, academia, and standards bodies is key to a successful architecture. The unique aspects of space require thorough investigation of relevant terrestrial technologies properly adapted to space. The talk will describe NASA's current effort to investigate SDR applications to space missions and a brief overview of a candidate architecture under consideration for space based platforms.

Reinhart, Richard C.

2006-01-01

262

Software Architecture Evolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evo...

J. M. Barnes

2013-01-01

263

Architecture Principle Specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter is concerned with the specification of architecture principles. The focus of this chapter is on the specification\\u000a itself, and not on the process of specifying. It shows how architectural information, such as architecture principles, can\\u000a be classified in multiple dimensions. Specifically, architecture principles can be classified along the dimensions: type of\\u000a information, scope, genericity, detail level, stakeholder, transformation,

Danny Greefhorst; Erik Proper

264

Draco : An adaptive runtime environment for components  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the architecture of Draco (DistriNet Re- liable and Adaptive COmponents), a modular and extensible com- ponent runtime system for embedded devices. It adheres to the SEESCOA component methodology which explicitly models com- ponent interaction using port and connector concepts and allows for dynamic adaptations of component oriented applications by rewir- ing components at runtime. The SEESCOA component

Yves Vandewoude; Peter Rigole; David Urting; Yolande Berbers

265

Genetically Engineered ART Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. This chapter focuses on the evolution of ARTMAP architectures, us- ing genetic algorithms, with the objective of improving generalization performance and alleviating the ART category proliferation problem. We refer to the resulting architectures as GFAM, GEAM, and GGAM. We demonstrate through extensive experimentation that evolved ARTMAP architectures exhibit good generalization and are of small size, while consuming reasonable computational

Ahmad Al-daraiseh; Assem Kaylani; Michael Georgiopoulos; Mansooreh Mollaghasemi; Annie S. Wu; Georgios C. Anagnostopoulos

2007-01-01

266

Taming architectural evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the world of software development evolves. So, then, do software architectures. Unlike source code, for which the use of a configuration management (CM) system is the predominant approach to capturing and managing evolution, approaches to capturing and managing architectural evolution span a wide range of disconnected alternatives. This paper contributes a novel architecture evolution environment, called Mae, which brings

André van der Hoek; Marija Mikic-Rakic; Roshanak Roshandel; Nenad Medvidovic

2001-01-01

267

High performance parallel architectures  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the author describes current high performance parallel computer architectures. A taxonomy is presented to show computer architecture from the user programmer's point-of-view. The effects of the taxonomy upon the programming model are described. Some current architectures are described with respect to the taxonomy. Finally, some predictions about future systems are presented. 5 refs., 1 fig.

Anderson, R.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1989-09-01

268

Making the Common Good Common  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

Chase, Barbara

2011-01-01

269

Common modeling system for digital simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Joint Modeling and Simulation System is a tri-service investigation into a common modeling framework for the development digital models. The basis for the success of this framework is an X-window-based, open systems architecture, object-based/oriented methodology, standard interface approach to digital model construction, configuration, execution, and post processing. For years Department of Defense (DOD) agencies have produced various weapon systems/technologies and typically digital representations of the systems/technologies. These digital representations (models) have also been developed for other reasons such as studies and analysis, Cost Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) tradeoffs, etc. Unfortunately, there have been no Modeling and Simulation (M&S) standards, guidelines, or efforts towards commonality in DOD M&S. The typical scenario is an organization hires a contractor to build hardware and in doing so an digital model may be constructed. Until recently, this model was not even obtained by the organization. Even if it was procured, it was on a unique platform, in a unique language, with unique interfaces, and, with the result being UNIQUE maintenance required. Additionally, the constructors of the model expended more effort in writing the 'infrastructure' of the model/simulation (e.g. user interface, database/database management system, data journalizing/archiving, graphical presentations, environment characteristics, other components in the simulation, etc.) than in producing the model of the desired system. Other side effects include: duplication of efforts; varying assumptions; lack of credibility/validation; and decentralization in policy and execution. J-MASS provides the infrastructure, standards, toolset, and architecture to permit M&S developers and analysts to concentrate on the their area of interest.

Painter, Rick

1994-01-01

270

Component-based design approach for multicore SoCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a high-level component-based methodology and design environment for application-specific multicore SoC architectures. Component-based design provides primitives to build complex architectures from basic components. This bottom-up approach allows design-architects to explore efficient custom solutions with best performances. This paper presents a high-level component-based methodology and design environment for application-specific multicore SoC architectures. The system specifications are represented as

Wander O. Cesário; Amer Baghdadi; Lovic Gauthier; Damien Lyonnard; Gabriela Nicolescu; Yanick Paviot; Sungjoo Yoo; Ahmed Amine Jerraya; Mario Diaz-Nava

2002-01-01

271

Analogy, cognitive architecture and universal construction: a tale of two systematicities.  

PubMed

Cognitive science recognizes two kinds of systematicity: (1) as the property where certain cognitive capacities imply certain other related cognitive capacities (Fodor and Pylyshyn); and (2) as the principle that analogical mappings based on collections of connected relations are preferred over relations in isolation (Gentner). Whether these kinds of systematicity are two aspects of a deeper property of cognition is hitherto unknown. Here, it is shown that both derive from the formal, category-theoretic notion of universal construction. In conceptual/psychological terms, a universal construction is a form of optimization of cognitive resources: optimizing the re-utilization of common component processes for common task components. Systematic cognitive capacity and the capacity for analogy are hallmarks of human cognition, which suggests that universal constructions (in the category-theoretic sense) are a crucial component of human cognitive architecture. PMID:24586555

Phillips, Steven

2014-01-01

272

Commonality Analysis as a Knowledge Acquisition Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Commonality analysis is a systematic attempt to reduce costs in a large scale engineering project by discontinuing development of certain components during the design phase. Each discontinued component is replaced by another component that has sufficient ...

D. P. Yeager

1987-01-01

273

Open Architecture SDR for Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an open-architecture SDR (software defined radio) infrastructure that is suitable for space-based operations (Space-SDR). SDR technologies will endow space and planetary exploration systems with dramatically increased capability, reduced power consumption, and significantly less mass than conventional systems, at costs reduced by vigorous competition, hardware commonality, dense integration, reduced obsolescence, interoperability, and software re-use. Significant progress has been recorded on developments like the Joint Tactical Radio System (JSTRS) Software Communication Architecture (SCA), which is oriented toward reconfigurable radios for defense forces operating in multiple theaters of engagement. The JTRS-SCA presents a consistent software interface for waveform development, and facilitates interoperability, waveform portability, software re-use, and technology evolution.

Smith, Carl; Long, Chris; Liebetreu, John; Reinhart, Richard C.

2005-01-01

274

Component-specific modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accomplishments are described for the second year effort of a 3-year program to develop methodology for component specific modeling of aircraft engine hot section components (turbine blades, turbine vanes, and burner liners). These accomplishments include: (1) engine thermodynamic and mission models; (2) geometry model generators; (3) remeshing; (4) specialty 3-D inelastic stuctural analysis; (5) computationally efficient solvers, (6) adaptive solution strategies; (7) engine performance parameters/component response variables decomposition and synthesis; (8) integrated software architecture and development, and (9) validation cases for software developed.

Mcknight, R. L.

1985-01-01

275

Architecture for Survivable System Processing (ASSP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Architecture for Survivable System Processing (ASSP) Program is a multi-phase effort to implement Department of Defense (DOD) and commercially developed high-tech hardware, software, and architectures for reliable space avionics and ground based systems. System configuration options provide processing capabilities to address Time Dependent Processing (TDP), Object Dependent Processing (ODP), and Mission Dependent Processing (MDP) requirements through Open System Architecture (OSA) alternatives that allow for the enhancement, incorporation, and capitalization of a broad range of development assets. High technology developments in hardware, software, and networking models, address technology challenges of long processor life times, fault tolerance, reliability, throughput, memories, radiation hardening, size, weight, power (SWAP) and security. Hardware and software design, development, and implementation focus on the interconnectivity/interoperability of an open system architecture and is being developed to apply new technology into practical OSA components. To insure for widely acceptable architecture capable of interfacing with various commercial and military components, this program provides for regular interactions with standardization working groups (e.g.) the International Standards Organization (ISO), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Selection of a viable open architecture is based on the widely accepted standards that implement the ISO/OSI Reference Model.

Wood, Richard J.

1991-01-01

276

Concept and architecture of the RHIC LLRF upgrade platform  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the RHIC LLRF upgrade has been the development of a stand alone, generic, high performance, modular LLRF control platform, which can be configured to replace existing systems and serve as a common platform for all new RF systems. The platform is also designed to integrate seamlessly into a distributed network based controls infrastructure, be easy to deploy, and to be useful in a variety of digital signal processing and data acquisition roles. Reuse of hardware, software and firmware has been emphasized to minimize development effort and maximize commonality of system components. System interconnection, synchronization and scaling are facilitated by a deterministic, high speed serial timing and data link, while standard intra and inter chassis communications utilize high speed, non-deterministic protocol based serial links. System hardware configuration is modular and flexible, based on a combination of a main carrier board which can host up to six custom or commercial daughter modules as required to implement desired functionality. This paper will provide an overview of the platform concept, architecture, features and benefits. The RHIC LLRF Upgrade Platform has been developed with the goal of providing a flexible, modular and scalable architecture which will support our current applications and satisfy new ones for the foreseeable future. The platform has been recently commissioned at both RHIC and the RHIC EBIS injector. To date the platform has demonstrated its versatility and utility, meeting the design goals as originally defined.

Smith, K.S.; Hayes, T.; Severino, F.

2011-03-28

277

A Review on System Architectures for Sensor Fusion Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the literature there exist many proposed architectures for sensor fusion applications. This paper briefly reviews some\\u000a of the most common approaches, i.e the JDL fusion architecture, the Waterfall model, the Intelligence cycle, the Boyd loop,\\u000a the LAAS architecture, the Omnibus model, Mr. Fusion, the DFuse framework, and the Time-Triggered Sensor Fusion Model, and\\u000a categorizes them into abstract models, generic

Wilfried Elmenreich

2007-01-01

278

Common world model for unmanned systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Robotic Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) seeks to provide adaptive robot capabilities which move beyond traditional metric algorithms to include cognitive capabilities. Key to this effort is the Common World Model, which moves beyond the state-of-the-art by representing the world using metric, semantic, and symbolic information. It joins these layers of information to define objects in the world. These objects may be reasoned upon jointly using traditional geometric, symbolic cognitive algorithms and new computational nodes formed by the combination of these disciplines. The Common World Model must understand how these objects relate to each other. Our world model includes the concept of Self-Information about the robot. By encoding current capability, component status, task execution state, and histories we track information which enables the robot to reason and adapt its performance using Meta-Cognition and Machine Learning principles. The world model includes models of how aspects of the environment behave, which enable prediction of future world states. To manage complexity, we adopted a phased implementation approach to the world model. We discuss the design of "Phase 1" of this world model, and interfaces by tracing perception data through the system from the source to the meta-cognitive layers provided by ACT-R and SS-RICS. We close with lessons learned from implementation and how the design relates to Open Architecture.

Dean, Robert Michael S.

2013-05-01

279

Terra Harvest: an open, integrated battlefield unattended ground sensors architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) is developing Terra Harvest, an open, integrated battlefield unattended ground sensors (UGS) architecture that will employ multiple, flexible sensors via standards-based integration. The Terra Harvest open architecture separates the UGS system into fundamental components and standardizes internal and external interfaces to optimize interoperability. Other acquisition programs can take advantage of this open architecture to meet challenging mission requirements.

Heathcock, Robert; Brasch, Colson

2011-05-01

280

Component Reliability and System Reliability for Space Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is to address the basics, the limitations and the relationship between component reliability and system reliability through a study of flight computing architectures and related avionics components for NASA future missions. Component reliabilit...

A. M. Gillespie M. J. Sampson M. W. Monaghan R. F. Hodson Y. Chen

2012-01-01

281

Common cold  

PubMed Central

Introduction Each year, children suffer up to 5 colds and adults have 2-3 infections, leading to time off school or work, and considerable discomfort. Most symptoms resolve within a week, but coughs often persist for longer. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for common cold? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to May 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants (norephedrine, oxymetazoline, or pseudoephedrine), decongestants plus antihistamine, echinacea, steam inhalation, vitamin C, and zinc (intranasal gel or lozenges).

2008-01-01

282

Common cold  

PubMed Central

Introduction Each year, children suffer up to 5 colds and adults have two to three infections, leading to time off school or work, and considerable discomfort. Most symptoms resolve within 1 week, but coughs often persist for longer. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for common cold? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 21 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants for short-term and for long-term relief, decongestants plus antihistamines, echinacea, steam inhalation, vitamin C, and zinc (intranasal gel or lozenges).

2011-01-01

283

Reconfigurable multi-component sensors built from MEMS payloads carried by micro-robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field Programmable Robot Arrays (FPRAs) are micro-robots with onboard reconfigurable logic. The primary goal of the FPRAs is to build digital-logic structures by physical motion as well as electronic reconfiguration (commonly used in prior programmable logic). We extend the application of FPRAs here by presenting a sensor-based architecture with the following components: (a) Scratch-Drive-Actuator (SDA) micro-robots carrying MEMS sensor payload

Jung H. Cho; Mayuresh Kothare; Mark G. Arnold

2010-01-01

284

Data Acquisition System Architecture and Capabilities At NASA GRC Plum Brook Station's Space Environment Test Facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Very large space environment test facilities present unique engineering challenges in the design of facility data systems. Data systems of this scale must be versatile enough to meet the wide range of data acquisition and measurement requirements from a diverse set of customers and test programs, but also must minimize design changes to maintain reliability and serviceability. This paper presents an overview of the common architecture and capabilities of the facility data acquisition systems available at two of the world?s largest space environment test facilities located at the NASA Glenn Research Center?s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio; namely, the Space Propulsion Research Facility (commonly known as the B-2 facility) and the Space Power Facility (SPF). The common architecture of the data systems is presented along with details on system scalability and efficient measurement systems analysis and verification. The architecture highlights a modular design, which utilizes fully-remotely managed components, enabling the data systems to be highly configurable and support multiple test locations with a wide-range of measurement types and very large system channel counts.

Evans, Richard K.; Hill, Gerald M.

2012-01-01

285

Integrating architecture description languages with a standard design method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software architecture descriptions are high-level models of software systems. Some researchers have proposed special- purpose architectural notations that have a great deal of expressive power but are not well integrated with common development methods. Others have used mainstream development methods that are accessible to developers, but lack semantics needed for extensive analysis. We describe an approach to combining the advantages

Jason E. Robbins; Nenad Medvidovic; David F. Redmiles; David S. Rosenblum

1998-01-01

286

Component-specific modeling. [jet engine hot section components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accomplishments are described for a 3 year program to develop methodology for component-specific modeling of aircraft hot section components (turbine blades, turbine vanes, and burner liners). These accomplishments include: (1) engine thermodynamic and mission models, (2) geometry model generators, (3) remeshing, (4) specialty three-dimensional inelastic structural analysis, (5) computationally efficient solvers, (6) adaptive solution strategies, (7) engine performance parameters/component response variables decomposition and synthesis, (8) integrated software architecture and development, and (9) validation cases for software developed.

Mcknight, R. L.; Maffeo, R. J.; Tipton, M. T.; Weber, G.

1992-01-01

287

SAE AS4893 Generic Open Architecture (GOA) framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generic open architecture (GOA) framework is a Society of Automotive (SAE) Avionics Systems Division standard, SAE AS4893. The GOA framework was developed as a framework for discussing open systems architecture and for identifying critical components and interfaces. The GOA framework is being used as a framework within the avionics community for developing a preferred set of interface standards catalog.

Chuck Roark

1996-01-01

288

A Reconfigurable Architecture for Building Intelligent Learning Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our initial efforts at implementing a new Choice- Adaptive Intelligent Learning Environment (CAILE) that combines multi-agent adaptive technologies and service architectures to provide a framework for design- ing extendible and reconfigurable learning environments. We describe the core components of the CAILE architecture, learning tasks that establish a situated con- text for learning, and a set of customizable

Joseph G. Linn; James Segedy; Hogyeong Jeong; Benjamin Podgursky; Gautam Biswas

2009-01-01

289

TEMPORAL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CONTROL ARCHITECTURE IN AUTOMATION SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performances of automation systems are strongly linked to the performances of their control architecture. These architectures are the merger of a hardware structure - industrial computers and logic controllers connected to networks and fieldbuses - and of software components - implantation control functions. To manage these performances, the control engineer must evaluate them at each stage of the life

Pascal Meunier; Bruno Denis; Jean-Jacques Lesage

290

An Orocos-based decisional architecture for the Ressac missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Onera-Ressac missions are dedicated to several purposes (exploration, detection, monitoring, tracking...) requiring decisional autonomy and possibly involving cooperation with other agents (vehicles or operators). In this context, we propose a general decisional architecture to manage these missions, based on the Orocos framework. We present the overall architecture including ba- sic components, such as image acquisition and processing, communication protocols,

Guillaume Infantes; Charles Lesire; Henry de Plinval; Florent Teichteil-Königsbuch

2009-01-01

291

The Component-Based Application for GAMESS  

SciTech Connect

GAMESS, a quantum chetnistry program for electronic structure calculations, has been freely shared by high-performance application scientists for over twenty years. It provides a rich set of functionalities and can be run on a variety of parallel platforms through a distributed data interface. While a chemistry computation is sophisticated and hard to develop, the resource sharing among different chemistry packages will accelerate the development of new computations and encourage the cooperation of scientists from universities and laboratories. Common Component Architecture (CCA) offers an enviromnent that allows scientific packages to dynamically interact with each other through components, which enable dynamic coupling of GAMESS with other chetnistry packages, such as MPQC and NWChem. Conceptually, a cotnputation can be constructed with "plug-and-play" components from scientific packages and require more than componentizing functions/subroutines of interest, especially for large-scale scientific packages with a long development history. In this research, we present our efforts to construct cotnponents for GAMESS that conform to the CCA specification. The goal is to enable the fine-grained interoperability between three quantum chemistry programs, GAMESS, MPQC and NWChem, via components. We focus on one of the three packages, GAMESS; delineate the structure of GAMESS computations, followed by our approaches to its component development. Then we use GAMESS as the driver to interoperate integral components from the other tw"o packages, arid show the solutions for interoperability problems along with preliminary results. To justify the versatility of the design, the Tuning and Analysis Utility (TAU) components have been coupled with GAMESS and its components, so that the performance of GAMESS and its components may be analyzed for a wide range of systetn parameters.

Fang Peng

2008-05-01

292

Web Service Architecture Framework for Embedded Devices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of Service Oriented Architectures, namely web services, has become a widely adopted method for transfer of data between systems across the Internet as well as the Enterprise. Adopting a similar approach to embedded devices is also starting to emerge as personal devices and sensor networks are becoming more common in the industry. This…

Yanzick, Paul David

2009-01-01

293

Architecture of product family for mass customization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rationale of developing product families with respect to mass customization has been well recognized in both industry and academia. This paper investigates the concept of architecture of product family (APF). Fundamental issues underlying the APF are discussed. Common bases, differentiation enablers and configuration mechanisms from both sales and engineering views are defined. Variety generation methods with regard to producing

Xuehong DUI; Jianxin Jiao; Mitchell M. Tseng

2000-01-01

294

A Generic Model for Software Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In other industries, the idea of build corporate culture by establishing a common level of “best practice” is widely known and used. The architecture concept directly supports this goal for our industry and can help us improve problem areas dominated by organizational and social issues, such as health care organizations, educational systems, and so on. Our proposed reference model for

Wilhelm Rossak; Vassilka Kirova; Leon Jololian; Harold W. Lawson; Tamar Zemel

1997-01-01

295

Multi-Agent Architectures as Organizational Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Multi-Agent System (MAS) is an organization of coordinated autonomous agents that interact in order to achieve particular, possible common goals. Consid- ering real world organizations as an analogy, this paper proposes architectural styles for MAS which adopt concepts from organizational theories. The styles are modeled using the i* framework which oers the notions of actor, goal and actor dependency

Paolo Giorgini; Manuel Kolp

2001-01-01

296

Component based distributed systems - CORBA and EJB in context.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy, like other sciences, is highly collaborative, so it is no surprise that astronomical computing environments have become increasingly distributed in nature. Therefore the interest in benefiting from new developments in distributed computing technologies is clear, but to reap these potential benefits one must overcome the problems posed by the heterogeneous mix of different architectures and operating systems that occur. This mix has made information flow between systems at best difficult and organizations have not been able to fully harness one of their most valuable assets, namely information. This paper introduces the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and Enterprise Java Beans (EJBs), and puts forward a rationale as to why they have the potential to provide the required integration platform. These component based distributed technologies, allow disparate, heterogeneous legacy data systems to be integrated with current systems and they also support the incremental growth of current systems to meet evolving requirements.

Lunney, T. F.; McCaughey, A. J.

2000-05-01

297

NASA Enterprise Architecture and Its Use in Transition of Research Results to Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enterprise architecture describes the design of the components of an enterprise, their relationships and how they support the objectives of that enterprise. NASA Stennis Space Center leads several projects involving enterprise architecture tools used to gather information on research assets within NASA's Earth Science Division. In the near future, enterprise architecture tools will link and display the relevant requirements, parameters, observatories, models, decision systems, and benefit/impact information relationships and map to the Federal Enterprise Architecture Reference Models. Components configured within the enterprise architecture serving the NASA Applied Sciences Program include the Earth Science Components Knowledge Base, the Systems Components database, and the Earth Science Architecture Tool. The Earth Science Components Knowledge Base systematically catalogues NASA missions, sensors, models, data products, model products, and network partners appropriate for consideration in NASA Earth Science applications projects. The Systems Components database is a centralized information warehouse of NASA's Earth Science research assets and a critical first link in the implementation of enterprise architecture. The Earth Science Architecture Tool is used to analyze potential NASA candidate systems that may be beneficial to decision-making capabilities of other Federal agencies. Use of the current configuration of NASA enterprise architecture (the Earth Science Components Knowledge Base, the Systems Components database, and the Earth Science Architecture Tool) has far exceeded its original intent and has tremendous potential for the transition of research results to operational entities.

Frisbie, T. E.; Hall, C. M.

2006-12-01

298

Hybrid fiber-coax (HFC) architecture overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid fiber-coax technology allows one network to deliver both traditional telephony as well as a host of broadband services including broadcast TV, cable TV, interactive TV, video-on- demand, enhanced pay-per-view, etc. This paper presents an overview of hybrid fiber-coax architecture including discussion of the components for transmission of telephony and broadband services from the headend/central office to the home. The components and architecture of an HFC system are compared to traditional telephony. An HFC system can be broken into 4 major sections: headend/central office and interoffice network, a feeder system, a distribution system, and a customer interface. The components within each of these sections include: local digital switches, host digital terminals, broadband and narrowband optical transmitters and receivers, optical nodes, power nodes, network interface units, set top terminals and several types of passives. The function of these components is reviewed as are spectrum allocation, and signal flow.

Kaplan, Blaina A.

1995-11-01

299

System design document U-AVLIS control system architecture  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the architecture of the integrated control system for the U-AVLIS process. It includes an overview of the major control system components and their interfaces to one another. Separate documents are utilized to fully describe each component mentioned herein. The purpose of this document is to introduce the reader to the integrated U-AVLIS control system. It describes the philosophy of the control system architecture and how all of the control system components are integrated. While the other System Design Documents describe in detail the design of individual control system components, this document puts those components into their correct context within the entire integrated control system.

Viebeck, P.G.

1994-02-16

300

POWER SPACES: MILITARY ARCHITECTURE OF THE LATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various kinds of domestic architecture existed during the late sixteenth century (best viewed in screens known as Rakuchu Rakugai zu ~1fJ~..)i.~ depicting the city of Kyoto). The most common (and the least studied) are the long shingle-roofed rowhouses of commoners, which fronted the streets and often doubled as shop space. In contrast, wealthy courtiers and warriors lived in spacious mansions

Melinda Takeuchi

301

Storing Data in Science Archives: Striving for a Common Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Science Archive Team at ESAC (European Space Astronomy Center) is responsible for developing, maintaining and operating the Science Archives for all the Astronomy and Planetary missions. Due to the different nature of the missions, each one with its peculiarities, the data produced has a great variety of formats and is always delivered in very project-specific way. Taking this restriction

N. Fajersztejn; C. Arviset; D. Baines; I. Barbarisi; J. Castellanos; N. Cheek; H. Costa; M. Fernandez; J. Gonzalez; A. Laruelo; I. Leon; B. Martinez; I. Ortiz; P. Osuna; C. Rios; J. Salgado; M. H. Sarmiento; D. Tapiador

2011-01-01

302

Missile signal processing common computer architecture for rapid technology upgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interceptor missiles process IR images to locate an intended target and guide the interceptor towards it. Signal processing requirements have increased as the sensor bandwidth increases and interceptors operate against more sophisticated targets. A typical interceptor signal processing chain is comprised of two parts. Front-end video processing operates on all pixels of the image and performs such operations as non-uniformity

Daniel V. Rabinkin; Edward Rutledge; Paul Monticciolo

2004-01-01

303

High-Level Architecture (HLA) Transition Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a product of the High Level Architecture (HLA) transition Issues Team, a caucus of representatives from the DoD Component (modeling and simulation) M&S Management Offices and the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO). This team oper...

1998-01-01

304

High-Level Architecture (HLA) Transition Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is the second published product of the High Level Architecture (HLA) Transition Issues Team, an approved subgroup of the DoD executive Council for Modeling and Simulation (EXCIMS) composed of representatives from the DoD Component Modeling and...

1999-01-01

305

Calculating Architectural Reliability via Modeling and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a software architecture-based approach tocompositional estimation of systemýs reliability. Ourapproach is applicable to early stages of developmentwhen the implementation artifacts are not yet available,and exact execution profile is unknown. The uncertainty ofthe execution profile is modeled using stochastic processeswith unknown parameters. The compositional approachcalculates overall reliability of the system as a function ofthe reliability of its constituent components

Roshanak Roshandel

2004-01-01

306

Connecting an Architecture with its Emergent Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergent properties are those higher-level properties that emerge from the combination of system elements as arranged in an architecture. They are separate and distinct from the properties of the component elements. It is an essential part of systems engineering to design a system to create specific, desired emergent properties while excluding other, undesired emergent properties. Yet because emergent properties exist

Eric C. Honour

2007-01-01

307

Modular robot system architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In comparison with dedicated robot systems, the main goal of modular robot systems is to achieve system adaptability by providing various modular configuration variations to meet possible task requirements. System architecture determines the system configuration variations, as the architecture specifies primary building blocks and the types of ways they are connected. In order to make systems more adaptive, configuration variations

Z. M. Bi; W. J. Zhang; Sherman Y. T. Lang

2002-01-01

308

Information Architecture Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Information Architecture Library is a selection of resources (articles, books, blogs, and other genres) related to the field of information architecture. The library is browseable by subject, resource type, author, and language. The website also features a list of selected introductory resources for those new to the field and a list of the ten most recently added resources.

309

Patterns Generate Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We need ways to describe designs that communicate the reasons for our design decisions, not just the results. Design patterns have been proposed as ways of communicating design information. This paper shows that patterns can be used to derive an architecture from its problem statement. The resulting description makes it easier to understand the purpose of the various architectural features.

Kent Beck; Ralph E. Johnson

1994-01-01

310

Emerging supercomputer architectures  

SciTech Connect

This paper will examine the current and near future trends for commercially available high-performance computers with architectures that differ from the mainstream ''supercomputer'' systems in use for the last few years. These emerging supercomputer architectures are just beginning to have an impact on the field of high performance computing. 7 refs., 1 tab.

Messina, P.C.

1987-01-01

311

Generic POCC architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes a generic POCC (Payload Operations Control Center) architecture based upon current POCC software practice, and several refinements to the architecture based upon object-oriented design principles and expected developments in teleoperations. The current-technology generic architecture is an abstraction based upon close analysis of the ERBS, COBE, and GRO POCC's. A series of three refinements is presented: these may be viewed as an approach to a phased transition to the recommended architecture. The third refinement constitutes the recommended architecture, which, together with associated rationales, will form the basis of the rapid synthesis environment to be developed in the remainder of this task. The document is organized into two parts. The first part describes the current generic architecture using several graphical as well as tabular representations or 'views.' The second part presents an analysis of the generic architecture in terms of object-oriented principles. On the basis of this discussion, refinements to the generic architecture are presented, again using a combination of graphical and tabular representations.

1989-01-01

312

Architectural Physics: Lighting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author coordinates the many diverse branches of knowledge which have dealt with the field of lighting--physiology, psychology, engineering, physics, and architectural design. Part I, "The Elements of Architectural Physics", discusses the physiological aspects of lighting, visual performance, lighting design, calculations and measurements of…

Hopkinson, R. G.

313

A Recursive Network Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Recursive Network Architecture (RNA) explores the relationship of layering to protocol and network architecture. RNA examines the implications of using a single, tunable protocol for different layers of the protocol stack, reusing basic protocol operations across different protocol layers to avoid reimplementation. Its primary goal is to encourage cleaner cross-layer interaction and to support dynamic service composition, and to

Joseph D. Touch; Yu-Shun Wang; Venkata Pingali

2006-01-01

314

Cell broadband engine architecture as a DSP platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The slowing pace of performance improvement in the commonly available processors is a cause of concern amongst many computational scientists. This combined with the ever increasing need for computational power has caused us to turn to alternative architectures in search of performance gains. Two main candidates were the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) and the Cell Broadband Engine (CELL BE) architecture. This paper focuses on the latter, outlining the architecture and basic programming paradigms, and also contains performance comparison of algorithms currently developed by our team.

Szumski, Karol; Malanowski, Mateusz

2009-06-01

315

An Architectural Approach to Autonomic Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We describe an architecturalapproach,to achieving the goals of autonomic ,computing. The architecture that we outline ,describes interfaces and behavioral requirements for individual system components, describes how ,interactions among ,components ,are established, and recommends design patterns that engender,the desired system-level properties of self- configuration, self-optimization, self-healing and self- protection. We have ,validated many ,of these ideas in two prototype autonomic,computing,systems.

Steve R. White; James E. Hanson; Ian Whalley; David M. Chess; Jeffrey O. Kephart

2004-01-01

316

Distributed Architectures for Event-Based Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Event-driven distributed systems have two important characteristics, which differentiate them from other system types: the\\u000a existence of several software or hardware components that run simultaneously on different inter-networked nodes, and the use\\u000a of events as the main vehicle to organize component intercommunication. Clearly, both attributes influence event-driven distributed\\u000a architectures, which are discussed in this chapter. We start with presenting the

Valentin Cristea; Florin Pop; Ciprian Dobre; Alexandru Costan

317

A scalable architecture for multimedia storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT In this paper we present a multimedia storage architecture that exhibits a high degree of scalability by exploiting the scalable properties of fast packed,switched networks and,scalable compression,technologies. Storage scalability is achieved by the dynamic,replication of high performance,storage instances which store multimedia files as compressed components,of a scalable compression,algorithm. Load balancing and resource,expandability,is achieved as compressed,file components,reside on multiple server

David W. Pegler; David Hutchison; Phillip Lougher; Doug Shepherd

1995-01-01

318

The Simulation Intranet Architecture  

SciTech Connect

The Simdarion Infranet (S1) is a term which is being used to dcscribc one element of a multidisciplinary distributed and distance computing initiative known as DisCom2 at Sandia National Laboratory (http ct al. 1998). The Simulation Intranet is an architecture for satisfying Sandia's long term goal of providing an end- to-end set of scrviccs for high fidelity full physics simu- lations in a high performance, distributed, and distance computing environment. The Intranet Architecture group was formed to apply current distributed object technologies to this problcm. For the hardware architec- tures and software models involved with the current simulation process, a CORBA-based architecture is best suited to meet Sandia's needs. This paper presents the initial desi-a and implementation of this Intranct based on a three-tier Network Computing Architecture(NCA). The major parts of the architecture include: the Web Cli- ent, the Business Objects, and Data Persistence.

Holmes, V.P.; Linebarger, J.M.; Miller, D.J.; Vandewart, R.L.

1998-12-02

319

Irish Architecture Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Irish Architecture Foundation's website is very inviting with its stylish grey and green-schemed color scheme. The Foundation has multiple goals: encouraging people to value architecture and "champion[ing] the power of architecture and urban design," just to name a few. Visitors will find this website filled with opportunities to learn about, discuss, and debate the role of architecture, at lectures, workshops and events. The "Education" link under the Activity heading at the top of the page contains lesson plans for teachers, lecture series' for adults, programs for children, and details on their Summer School. The "Exhibition" link, also under the Activity heading, has a number of announcements for design competitions, such as one for a public civic space for Dublin. There are also calls for papers, which include one on the politics of architectural destruction and the nature of sculpture is in the 21st century.

320

Object-Oriented Approach to Computer Architecture Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An object-oriented approach to modeling and simulating computer architectures is presented. This approach yields a 'generic' class hierarchy that supports the simulation of basic computer microarchitecture components found in most computers. This is accom...

K. A. Fontes

1991-01-01

321

Simple optical neighbor discovery (SOND): architecture, applications, and experimental verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The architecture, applications, and experimental verification of a simple neighbor discovery method are presented. The method follows the recent International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) and Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standardization, automatically switched optical network (ASON)/generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS), on automatically switched optical networks. The method needs no specific hardware components but claims to be so simple that virtually any equipment with common optical ports can support it. It eliminates the need for costly and complex synchronous optical network/synchronous digital hierarchy/optical transport network (SONET/SDH/OTN) overhead read-write functionality in optical elements such as optical cross connects (OXCs). The method thus offers a fast track to automated optical networks.

Larsson, Stefan N.; Hubendick, Sten; Nedelchef, Robert

2003-10-01

322

An Evaluation of the High Level Architecture (HLA) as a Framework for NASA Modeling and Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High Level Architecture (HLA) is a current US Department of Defense and an industry (IEEE-1516) standard architecture for modeling and simulations. It provides a framework and set of functional rules and common interfaces for integrating separate and disparate simulators into a larger simulation. The goal of the HLA is to reduce software costs by facilitating the reuse of simulation components and by providing a runtime infrastructure to manage the simulations. In order to evaluate the applicability of the HLA as a technology for NASA space mission simulations, a Simulations Group at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) conducted a study of the HLA and developed a simple prototype HLA-compliant space mission simulator. This paper summarizes the prototyping effort and discusses the potential usefulness of the HLA in the design and planning of future NASA space missions with a focus on risk mitigation and cost reduction.

Reid, Michael R.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

323

Reconfigurable Transceiver and Software-Defined Radio Architecture and Technology Evaluated for NASA Space Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating the development and suitability of a software-based open-architecture for space-based reconfigurable transceivers (RTs) and software-defined radios (SDRs). The main objectives of this project are to enable advanced operations and reduce mission costs. SDRs are becoming more common because of the capabilities of reconfigurable digital signal processing technologies such as field programmable gate arrays and digital signal processors, which place radio functions in firmware and software that were traditionally performed with analog hardware components. Features of interest of this communications architecture include nonproprietary open standards and application programming interfaces to enable software reuse and portability, independent hardware and software development, and hardware and software functional separation. The goals for RT and SDR technologies for NASA space missions include prelaunch and on-orbit frequency and waveform reconfigurability and programmability, high data rate capability, and overall communications and processing flexibility. These operational advances over current state-of-art transceivers will be provided to reduce the power, mass, and cost of RTs and SDRs for space communications. The open architecture for NASA communications will support existing (legacy) communications needs and capabilities while providing a path to more capable, advanced waveform development and mission concepts (e.g., ad hoc constellations with self-healing networks and high-rate science data return). A study was completed to assess the state of the art in RT architectures, implementations, and technologies. In-house researchers conducted literature searches and analysis, interviewed Government and industry contacts, and solicited information and white papers from industry on space-qualifiable RTs and SDRs and their associated technologies for space-based NASA applications. The white papers were evaluated, compiled, and used to assess RT and SDR system architectures and core technology elements to determine an appropriate investment strategy to advance these technologies to meet future mission needs. The use of these radios in the space environment represents a challenge because of the space radiation suitability of the components, which drastically reduces the processing capability. The radios available for space are considered to be RTs (as opposed to SDRs), which are digitally programmable radios with selectable changes from an architecture combining analog and digital components. The limited flexibility of this design contrasts against the desire to have a power-efficient solution and open architecture.

Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

2004-01-01

324

Abstractions for Software Architecture and Tools to Support Them  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architectures for software use rich abstractions and idioms to describe system components, the nature of interactions among the components, and the patterns that guide the composition of components into systems. These abstractions are higher-level than the elements usually supported by programming languages and tools. They capture packaging and interaction is- sues as well as computational functionality. Well-established (if informal) patterns

Mary Shaw; Robert Deline; Daniel V. Klein; Theodore L. Ross; David M. Young; Gregory Zelesnik

1995-01-01

325

A Self-repair Architecture for Cluster Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the Jade framework for the construction of self-repairable cluster systems. Jade adopts an architecture-based approach to management, and maintains a causally connected view of the software architecture\\u000a of the managed system, itself configured and manipulated as a component-based structure. Self-repair is achieved through a\\u000a combination of component-based design, reflection and active replication of the management subsystem. The

Fabienne Boyer; Noel De Palma; Olivier Gruber; Sylvain Sicard; Jean-Bernard Stefani

2008-01-01

326

Supporting Undergraduate Computer Architecture Students Using a Visual MIPS64 CPU Simulator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topics of computer architecture are always taught using an Assembly dialect as an example. The most commonly used textbooks in this field use the MIPS64 Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) to help students in learning the fundamentals of computer architecture because of its orthogonality and its suitability for real-world applications. This…

Patti, D.; Spadaccini, A.; Palesi, M.; Fazzino, F.; Catania, V.

2012-01-01

327

PIN: a binary instrumentation tool for computer architecture research and education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer architecture embraces a tremendous number of ever-changing inter-connected concepts and information, yet computer architecture education is very often static, seemingly motionless. Computer architecture is commonly taught using simple piecewise methods of explaining how the hardware performs a given task, rather than characterizing the interaction of software and hardware. Visualization tools allow students to interactively explore basic concepts in computer

Vijay Janapa Reddi; Alex Settle; Daniel A. Connors; Robert S. Cohn

2004-01-01

328

Database Architecture for Autonomous Transportation Agents for On-Scene Networked Incident Management (ATON)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of distributed databases forms an important architectural component of the ATON project for networked incidence management of highway traffic. The database sub-architecture supports the architectural integration of many thematic areas of the ATON, and provides many high level abstractions that semantically correspond to traffic incidents. These databases are queried for the detection of local or distributed traffic incidents

Mohan M. Trivedi; Shailendra K. Bhonsle; Amarnath Gupta

2000-01-01

329

A Knowledge Capture Distributed DSS Architecture to Support Planning and Policy Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a Web portal architecture that supports collaborative planning and policy decision making efforts through remote, joint experimentation with a distributed simulation model of the planning and policy process. The architecture also contains a knowledge management component that enables knowledge capture and representation. Thus the architecture facilitates the planning process by providing a transparent experimentation environment

Rosemary Wild; Kenneth Griggs

2007-01-01

330

Smart City: An Event Driven Architecture for Monitoring Public Spaces with Heterogeneous Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the Smart City Architecture developed in the context of the ARTEMIS JU SP3 SOFIA project. It is an Event Driven Architecture that allows the management and cooperation of heterogeneous sensors for monitoring public spaces. The main components of the architecture are implemented in a testbed on a subway scenario with the objective to demonstrate that

Luca Filipponi; Andrea Vitaletti; Giada Landi; Vincenzo Memeo; Giorgio Laura; Paolo Pucci

2010-01-01

331

ASPES: a knowledge based system for the interactive construction of architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ASPES system for the incremental and interactive definition of office architectures is presented. ASPES assists the architecture designer (1) by maintaining and making accessible a catalogue of available commercial hardware and software components; and (2) by providing a set of operations, accessible through a graphical interface, to incrementally and interactively build a description of an office architecture, which is

Donatella Castelli; Carlo Meghini

1991-01-01

332

Parallel architecture for rapid image generation and analysis  

SciTech Connect

A multiprocessor architecture inspired by the Disney multiplane camera is proposed. For many applications, this approach produces a natural mapping of processors to objects in a scene. Such a mapping promotes parallelism and reduces the hidden-surface work with minimal interprocessor communication and low-overhead cost. Existing graphics architectures store the final picture as a monolithic entity. The architecture here stores each object's image separately. It assembles the final composite picture from component images only when the video display needs to be refreshed. This organization simplifies the work required to animate moving objects that occlude other objects. In addition, the architecture has multiple processors that generate the component images in parallel. This further shortens the time needed to create a composite picture. In addition to generating images for animation, the architecture has the ability to decompose images.

Nerheim, R.J.

1987-01-01

333

Statistics of genome architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main statistical distributions applicable to the analysis of genome architecture and genome tracks are briefly discussed and critically assessed. Although the observed features in distributions of element lengths can be equally well fitted by the different statistical approximations, the interpretation of observed regularities may strongly depend on the chosen scheme. We discuss the possible evolution scenarios and describe the main characteristics obtained with different distributions. The expression for the assessment of levels in hierarchical chromatin folding is derived and the quantitative measure of genome architecture inhomogeneity is suggested. This theory provides the ground for the regular statistical study of genome architecture and genome tracks.

Chechetkin, V. R.

2013-12-01

334

Architecture for Verifiable Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Verifiable MDS Architecture (VMA) is a software architecture that facilitates the construction of highly verifiable flight software for NASA s Mission Data System (MDS), especially for smaller missions subject to cost constraints. More specifically, the purpose served by VMA is to facilitate aggressive verification and validation of flight software while imposing a minimum of constraints on overall functionality. VMA exploits the state-based architecture of the MDS and partitions verification issues into elements susceptible to independent verification and validation, in such a manner that scaling issues are minimized, so that relatively large software systems can be aggressively verified in a cost-effective manner.

Reinholtz, William; Dvorak, Daniel

2005-01-01

335

TRANSIMS software architecture for IOC-1  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the TRANSIMS software architecture and high-level design for the first Interim Operational Capability (IOC-1). Our primary goal in establishing the TRANSIMS software architecture is to lay down a framework for IOC-1. We aim to make sure that the various components of TRANSIMS are effectively integrated, both for IOC-1 and beyond, so that TRANSIMS remains flexible, expandable, portable, and maintainable throughout its lifetime. In addition to outlining the high-level design of the TRANSIMS software, we also set forth the software development environment and software engineering practices used for TRANSIMS.

Berkbigler, K.P.; Bush, B.W.; Davis, J.F.

1997-04-03

336

Enterprise Knowledge Clouds: Architecture and Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter outlines the architectural foundations of Enterprise Knowledge Clouds (EKC) (Delic & Riley, describing the underlying technological fabrics and then pointing at the key capabilities of the (hypothetical) intelligent enterprise operating in constantly evolving, dynamic market conditions. Our aim is to give readers of this chapter a better understanding of knowledge cloud architectural aims and practical insights into EKC technological components. Thanks to knowledge, the enterprise will know more, will act better and react sooner in changing environment conditions, ultimately improving its performance and enabling it to show better behaviour and measurable improvements.

Delic, Kemal A.; Riley, Jeff A.

337

Idaho Commons at the University of Idaho.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the architectural design, costs, general description, and square footage data for the Idaho Commons at the University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. A floor plan and photos are included along with a list of manufacturers and suppliers used for the project. (GR)

Design Cost Data, 2001

2001-01-01

338

An Architecture of Embedded Decompressor with Reconfigurability for Test Compression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Test compression/decompression scheme for reducing the test application time and memory requirement of an LSI tester has been proposed. In the scheme, the employed coding algorithms are tailored to a given test data, so that the tailored coding algorithm can highly compress the test data. However, these methods have some drawbacks, e. g., the coding algorithm is ineffective in extra test data except for the given test data. In this paper, we introduce an embedded decompressor that is reconfigurable according to coding algorithms and given test data. Its reconfigurability can overcome the drawbacks of conventional decompressors with keeping high compression ratio. Moreover, we propose an architecture of reconfigurable decompressors for four variable-length codings. In the proposed architecture, the common functions for four codings are implemented as fixed (or non-reconfigurable) components so as to reduce the configuration data, which is stored on an ATE and sent to a CUT. Experimental results show that (1) the configuration data size becomes reasonably small by reducing the configuration part of the decompressor, (2) the reconfigurable decompressor is effective for SoC testing in respect of the test data size, and (3) it can achieve an optimal compression of test data by Huffman coding.

Ichihara, Hideyuki; Saiki, Tomoyuki; Inoue, Tomoo

339

Architectural Knowledge in an SOA Infrastructure Reference Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this chapter, we present an industrial case study for the creation and usage of architectural knowledge. We first introduce the business domain, service portfolio, and knowledge management approach of the company involved in the case. Next, we introduce a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) infrastructure reference architecture as a primary carrier of architectural knowledge in this company. Moreover, we present how we harvested architectural knowledge from industry projects to create this reference architecture. We also present feedback from early reference architecture users. Finally, we conclude and give an outlook to future work.

Zimmermann, Olaf; Kopp, Petra; Pappe, Stefan

340

Renaissance and Baroque Architecture: Architectural History 102  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site hosts a collection of over 500 images that were prepared by the Digital Image Center at the University of Virginia Library for use in Professor C. W. Westfall's course on Renaissance and Baroque Architecture. The images are grouped topically, as they were covered in the class. Section titles include Florence in the 15th Century, The Sixteenth Century--Bramante and Roman Architecture, French Explorations of the New Classicism, The Holy Roman Emperor Rediscovers the Empire, and England Accepts Classicism, among others. Each section contains a number of thumbnails each of which leads to a full-sized JPEG image. It should be noted that the images are not individually labelled, but instead each section offers a description list at the bottom of the page. In some sections, but not in all, these are also hyperlinked. Teachers, scholars, students, and the general public are free to use these images for educational purposes.

341

Organization of Parallel Query Processing in Multiprocessor Database Machines with Hierarchical Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of database systems with hierarchical hardware architecture is currently a perspective trend in the field of parallel database machines. Hierarchical architectures have been suggested with the aim to combine advantages of shared-nothing architectures and shared-memory architectures with shared memory and disks. A commonly accepted way of construction of hierarchical systems is to combine shared-memory (shared-everything) clusters in a

Leonid B. Sokolinsky

2001-01-01

342

Architecture for a multiprocessing system based on data flow processing elements in a MAXbus system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Multiprocessor architecture is developed for imagetoimage algorithms which tunes processing power and efficient data distribution. The architecture is based on the MAXbus ROT video data distribution standard and processing elements containing four NEC Image Pipelined Processors each. A token ring architecture a messagepassing ring and a common bus architecture are analyzed in terms of efficiency and utilization where the latter appears to be most adequate. Special attention is paid to the stale data problem which occurs in iterative neighborhood operations.

Bulsink, Bennie J.; Klok, Frits H.

1991-02-01

343

Product platform commonization: platform construction and platform elements capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platform-based product family design is an effective means for mass customization. Platform commonization is one of the key problems in developing product platforms. Through discussion on the relevant problems of platform commonization, this article presents a framework of layered constructing platform architecture to improve commonality of platforms. Subsequently, an approach to capturing platform elements, viz. Graph theory-based clustering analysis (GTBCA),

Hongbin Qin; Yifang Zhong; Renbin Xiao; Weiguo Zhang

2005-01-01

344

Instrumented Architectural Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Simulation of systems at an architectural level can offer an effective way to study critical design choices if (1) the performance of the simulator is adequate to examine designs executing significant code bodies -- not just toy problems or small applicat...

B. A. Delagi N. Saraiya S. Nishimura

1987-01-01

345

Vehicle Electronics and Architecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vehicle Electronics and Architecture (VEA) focus area is responsible for developing the essential support structure needed to accommodate the numerous advanced technologies prevalent in today's ground vehicles. We develop the software and data network...

C. Mocnik

2011-01-01

346

Workshop on Architecture Competence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes a workshop on architecture competence that was held at the Carnegie Mellon(R) Software Engineering Institute (SEI) in June of 2008. The SEI invited accomplished practitioners from government, academia, and industry to discuss key is...

J. Klein L. Bass M. Klein P. Clements R. Kazman

2009-01-01

347

Wireless Computing Architecture III.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have developed new theory and novel systems on wireless networking, computing and sensing architectures. Our research has led to a methodology for achieving high throughput ground-to-UAV data transport via parallel links; a model of performing collabor...

H. T. Kung

2013-01-01

348

OBBL Architecture Blocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive applet gives students the opportunity to compose architectural structures using geometric and irregular elements. Learners must consider the effects of gravity and the methods of joining parts. Links to Help and Ideas sections are included.

2011-01-01

349

GOLD Architecture Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is intended to identify and analyze a software architecture to support the formation, operation and termination of a Virtual Organization. As Virtual Organizations are characterised by the dynamic behaviour that they exhibit, it is necessary...

A. Conlin N. Cook H. Hiden P. Periorellis R. Smith

2005-01-01

350

Undermanning and Architectural Accessibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preliminary results from behavior setting surveys conducted at remote military stations in Alaska for deriving habitability criteria for cold regions military installations reveal the architectural factor of accessibility to significantly influence underm...

C. B. Ledbetter

1974-01-01

351

Robot Electronics Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electronics architecture has been developed to enable the rapid construction and testing of prototypes of robotic systems. This architecture is designed to be a research vehicle of great stability, reliability, and versatility. A system according to this architecture can easily be reconfigured (including expanded or contracted) to satisfy a variety of needs with respect to input, output, processing of data, sensing, actuation, and power. The architecture affords a variety of expandable input/output options that enable ready integration of instruments, actuators, sensors, and other devices as independent modular units. The separation of different electrical functions onto independent circuit boards facilitates the development of corresponding simple and modular software interfaces. As a result, both hardware and software can be made to expand or contract in modular fashion while expending a minimum of time and effort.

Garrett, Michael; Magnone, Lee; Aghazarian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric; Kennedy, Brett

2008-01-01

352

DIVA (Data Intensive Architecture).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design development and implementation of a prototype system of a novel computer architecture based on PIM (Processing-In-Memory) technology are presented. The simulator and emulator that were used to develop and evaluate the overall concepts and syste...

J. Chame J. Draper J. LaCoss J. J. Granacki M. Hall

2004-01-01

353

International Architecture Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on the contributions from persons across much of Europe, the International Architecture Database website has served as a valuable clearinghouse for thousands of architectural projects (both built and unrealized) since 1996. Currently, the database contains information on more than 13,000 projects, most from the 20th and 21st centuries. Visitors can begin by browsing the database by name, location, or keyword. Looking at a single record, visitors will be presented with a host of information, such as building type, primary architect, location, years of construction, and in certain cases with external links, photographs, and plans. Looking through the lists of keywords can actually be quite useful, as each keyword is linked to examples that are demonstrative of the idea suggested by the keyword, such as early Gothic or elementary school. Overall, this is a fine resource for those persons who wish to learn a bit more about architecture or for those looking for information on different architectural projects.

354

The Virtual Interface Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This protected, zero-copy, user-level network interface architecture reduces the system overhead for sending and receiving messages between high-performance CPU\\/memory subsystems and networks to less than 10 microseconds when integrated in silicon

Dave Dunning; Greg Regnier; Gary McAlpine; Don Cameron; Bill Shubert; Frank Berry; A. M. Merritt; E. Gronke; C. Dodd

1998-01-01

355

Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture  

SciTech Connect

A Generic Distributed Simulation Architecture is described that allows a simulation to be automatically distributed over a heterogeneous network of computers and executed with very little human direction. A prototype Framework is presented that implements the elements of the Architecture and demonstrates the feasibility of the concepts. It provides a basis for a future, improved Framework that will support legacy models. Because the Framework is implemented in Java, it may be installed on almost any modern computer system.

Booker, C.P.

1999-05-14

356

BISDN Architecture and Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss the architecture and protocol for broadband ISDN (B-ISDN) based on the CCITT standards. The discussion attempts to address the general concept of B-ISDN architecture and protocol and, whenever possible, present alternatives and the rationale for decisions in the selection of the protocol. B-ISDN is presented as a network evolution, and the impact of the asynchronous transfer mode

Masatoshi Kawarasaki; Bijan Jabbari

1991-01-01

357

Optimal expression evaluation for data parallel architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A data parallel machine represents an array or other composite data structure by allocating one processor per data item. A pointwise operation can be performed between two such arrays in unit time, provided their corresponding elements are allocated in the same processors. If the arrays are not aligned in this fashion, the cost of moving one or both of them is part of the cost of operation. The choice of where to perform the operation then affects this cost. If an expression with several operands is to be evaluated, there may be many choices of where to perform the intermediate operations. An efficient algorithm is given to find the minimum cost way to evaluate an expression, for several different data parallel architectures. The algorithm applies to any architecture in which the metric describing the cost of moving an array has a property called robustness. This encompasses most of the common data parallel communication architectures, including meshes of arbitrary dimension and hypercubes.

Gilbert, J. R.; Schreiber, R.

1990-01-01

358

Evaluation of current architecture frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the growing importance of enterprise architecture the discussion about how to create or choose the right enterprise architecture framework for a specific organization arose quickly. But it is not only a question of choosing the right framework for describing or developing an enterprise architecture. It is more important to discover whether the chosen architecture framework meets the defined requirements

Susanne Leist; Gregor Zellner

2006-01-01

359

GENERATING VIRTUAL ARCHITECTURE WITH STYLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual architecture is a networked spatial environment designed using the metaphor of physical architecture 1 , from which virtual architecture inherits many visual and spatial characteristics. However, in order to further explore its potential, virtual architecture need to go beyond its physical metaphor to develop its own theories and styles. One important step of this process is to establish a

Ning Gu; Mary Lou Maher

360

Model-Drive Architecture for Agent-Based Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach uses a platform-independent model to define system functionality, or requirements, using some specification language. The requirements are then translated to a platform-specific model for implementation. An agent architecture based on the human cognitive model of planning, the Cognitive Agent Architecture (Cougaar) is selected for the implementation platform. The resulting Cougaar MDA prescribes certain kinds of models to be used, how those models may be prepared and the relationships of the different kinds of models. Using the existing Cougaar architecture, the level of application composition is elevated from individual components to domain level model specifications in order to generate software artifacts. The software artifacts generation is based on a metamodel. Each component maps to a UML structured component which is then converted into multiple artifacts: Cougaar/Java code, documentation, and test cases.

Gradanin, Denis; Singh, H. Lally; Bohner, Shawn A.; Hinchey, Michael G.

2004-01-01

361

Open Design Architecture for Round Trip Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter introduces a component design of application logic in special type of information system architecture called Open Design Architecture for Round Trip Engineering (ODARTE). This architecture supports model-driven development and integrates information system design with its executable form. It is possible to extract design anytime, modify it, and load back to change the activity and behavior of information system. In this approach, the application logic represents solely functionality and can be described either by sequential model of Windows Workflow Foundation or by UML activity or interaction diagrams. This approach allows creation of flexible and modifiable meta-design of application logic. Finally, an experimental simulation is shown demonstrating the effect of proposal which relates to pilot version of runtime environment for ODARTE support.

Beli?ák, Miroslav; Pokorný, Jaroslav; Richta, Karel

362

Challenges of Algebraic Multigrid across Multicore Architectures  

SciTech Connect

Algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a popular solver for large-scale scientific computing and an essential component of many simulation codes. AMG has shown to be extremely efficient on distributed-memory architectures. However, when executed on modern multicore architectures, we face new challenges that can significantly deteriorate AMG's performance. We examine its performance and scalability on three disparate multicore architectures: a cluster with four AMD Opteron Quad-core processors per node (Hera), a Cray XT5 with two AMD Opteron Hex-core processors per node (Jaguar), and an IBM BlueGene/P system with a single Quad-core processor (Intrepid). We discuss our experiences on these platforms and present results using both an MPI-only and a hybrid MPI/OpenMP model. We also discuss a set of techniques that helped to overcome the associated problems, including thread and process pinning and correct memory associations.

Baker, A H; Gamblin, T; Schulz, M; Yang, U M

2010-04-12

363

Partially Decentralized Control Architectures for Satellite Formations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a partially decentralized control architecture, more than one but less than all nodes have supervisory capability. This paper describes an approach to choosing the number of supervisors in such au architecture, based on a reliability vs. cost trade. It also considers the implications of these results for the design of navigation systems for satellite formations that could be controlled with a partially decentralized architecture. Using an assumed cost model, analytic and simulation-based results indicate that it may be cheaper to achieve a given overall system reliability with a partially decentralized architecture containing only a few supervisors, than with either fully decentralized or purely centralized architectures. Nominally, the subset of supervisors may act as centralized estimation and control nodes for corresponding subsets of the remaining subordinate nodes, and act as decentralized estimation and control peers with respect to each other. However, in the context of partially decentralized satellite formation control, the absolute positions and velocities of each spacecraft are unique, so that correlations which make estimates using only local information suboptimal only occur through common biases and process noise. Covariance and monte-carlo analysis of a simplified system show that this lack of correlation may allow simplification of the local estimators while preserving the global optimality of the maneuvers commanded by the supervisors.

Carpenter, J. Russell; Bauer, Frank H.

2002-01-01

364

Architectural plasticity in a Mediterranean winter annual  

PubMed Central

Size variability in plants may be underlain by overlooked components of architectural plasticity. In annual plants, organ sizes are expected to depend on the availability and reliability of resources and developmental time. Given sufficient resources and developmental time, plants are expected to develop a greater number of large branches, which would maximize fitness in the long run. However, under restrictive growth conditions and environmental reliability, developing large branches might be risky and smaller branches are expected to foster higher final fitness. Growth and architecture of Trifolium purpureum (Papilionaceae) plants from both Mediterranean (MED) and semi-arid (SAR) origins were studied, when plants were subjected to variable water availability, photoperiod cues and germination timing. Although no clear architectural plasticity could be found in response to water availability, plants subjected to photoperiod cuing typical to late spring developed fewer basal branches. Furthermore, plants that germinated late were significantly smaller, with fewer basal branches, compared with plants which grew for the same time, starting at the beginning of the growing season. The results demonstrate an intricate interplay between size and architectural plasticities, whereby size modifications are readily induced by environmental factors related to prevalent resource availability but architectural plasticity is only elicited following the perception of reliable anticipatory cues.

Shemesh, Hagai; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Acuna, Tania; Novoplansky, Ariel

2012-01-01

365

Neural architectures for control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cerebellar model articulated controller (CMAC) neural architectures are shown to be viable for the purposes of real-time learning and control. Software tools for the exploration of CMAC performance are developed for three hardware platforms, the MacIntosh, the IBM PC, and the SUN workstation. All algorithm development was done using the C programming language. These software tools were then used to implement an adaptive critic neuro-control design that learns in real-time how to back up a trailer truck. The truck backer-upper experiment is a standard performance measure in the neural network literature, but previously the training of the controllers was done off-line. With the CMAC neural architectures, it was possible to train the neuro-controllers on-line in real-time on a MS-DOS PC 386. CMAC neural architectures are also used in conjunction with a hierarchical planning approach to find collision-free paths over 2-D analog valued obstacle fields. The method constructs a coarse resolution version of the original problem and then finds the corresponding coarse optimal path using multipass dynamic programming. CMAC artificial neural architectures are used to estimate the analog transition costs that dynamic programming requires. The CMAC architectures are trained in real-time for each obstacle field presented. The coarse optimal path is then used as a baseline for the construction of a fine scale optimal path through the original obstacle array. These results are a very good indication of the potential power of the neural architectures in control design. In order to reach as wide an audience as possible, we have run a seminar on neuro-control that has met once per week since 20 May 1991. This seminar has thoroughly discussed the CMAC architecture, relevant portions of classical control, back propagation through time, and adaptive critic designs.

Peterson, James K.

1991-01-01

366

A Facility and Architecture for Autonomy Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomy is a key enabling factor in the advancement of the remote robotic exploration. There is currently a large gap between autonomy software at the research level and software that is ready for insertion into near-term space missions. The Mission Simulation Facility (MST) will bridge this gap by providing a simulation framework and suite of simulation tools to support research in autonomy for remote exploration. This system will allow developers of autonomy software to test their models in a high-fidelity simulation and evaluate their system's performance against a set of integrated, standardized simulations. The Mission Simulation ToolKit (MST) uses a distributed architecture with a communication layer that is built on top of the standardized High Level Architecture (HLA). This architecture enables the use of existing high fidelity models, allows mixing simulation components from various computing platforms and enforces the use of a standardized high-level interface among components. The components needed to achieve a realistic simulation can be grouped into four categories: environment generation (terrain, environmental features), robotic platform behavior (robot dynamics), instrument models (camera/spectrometer/etc.), and data analysis. The MST will provide basic components in these areas but allows users to plug-in easily any refined model by means of a communication protocol. Finally, a description file defines the robot and environment parameters for easy configuration and ensures that all the simulation models share the same information.

Pisanich, Greg; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

367

An architecture for adaptive algorithmic hybrids.  

PubMed

We describe a cognitive architecture for creating more robust intelligent systems. Our approach is to enable hybrids of algorithms based on different computational formalisms to be executed. The architecture is motivated by some features of human cognitive architecture and the following beliefs: 1) Most existing computational methods often exhibit some of the characteristics desired of intelligent systems at the cost of other desired characteristics and 2) a system exhibiting robust intelligence can be designed by implementing hybrids of these computational methods. The main obstacle to this approach is that the various relevant computational methods are based on data structures and algorithms that are difficult to integrate into one system. We describe a new method of executing hybrids of algorithms using the focus of attention of multiple modules. The key to this approach is the following two principles: 1) Algorithms based on very different computational frameworks (e.g., logical reasoning, probabilistic inference, and case-based reasoning) can be implemented using the same set of five common functions and 2) each of these common functions can be executed using multiple data structures and algorithms. This approach has been embodied in the Polyscheme cognitive architecture. Systems based on Polyscheme in planning, spatial reasoning, robotics, and information retrieval illustrate that this approach to hybridizing algorithms enables qualitative and measurable quantitative advances in the abilities of intelligent systems. PMID:19914898

Cassimatis, Nicholas; Bignoli, Perrin; Bugajska, Magdalena; Dugas, Scott; Kurup, Unmesh; Murugesan, Arthi; Bello, Paul

2010-06-01

368

Hybrid architecture for building secure sensor networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensor networks have various communication and security architectural concerns. Three approaches are defined to address these concerns for sensor networks. The first area is the utilization of new computing architectures that leverage embedded virtualization software on the sensor. Deploying a small, embedded virtualization operating system on the sensor nodes that is designed to communicate to low-cost cloud computing infrastructure in the network is the foundation to delivering low-cost, secure sensor networks. The second area focuses on securing the sensor. Sensor security components include developing an identification scheme, and leveraging authentication algorithms and protocols that address security assurance within the physical, communication network, and application layers. This function will primarily be accomplished through encrypting the communication channel and integrating sensor network firewall and intrusion detection/prevention components to the sensor network architecture. Hence, sensor networks will be able to maintain high levels of security. The third area addresses the real-time and high priority nature of the data that sensor networks collect. This function requires that a quality-of-service (QoS) definition and algorithm be developed for delivering the right data at the right time. A hybrid architecture is proposed that combines software and hardware features to handle network traffic with diverse QoS requirements.

Owens, Ken R., Jr.; Watkins, Steve E.

2012-03-01

369

LOTTERYBUS: a new high-performance communication architecture for system-on-chip designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Lotterybus, a novel high-performance communication architecture for system-on-chip (SoC) designs. The Lotterybus architecture was designed to address the following limitations of current communication architectures: (i) lack of control over the allocation of communication bandwidth to different system components or data flows (e.g., in static priority based shared buses), leading to starvation of lower priority components in some

Kanishka Lahiri; Anand Raghunathan; Ganesh Lakshminarayana

2001-01-01

370

Preservation of Hypogastric Artery Blood Flow during EVAR of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Bilateral Common and Internal Iliac Artery Involvement: Utilization of Off-The-Shelf Stent-Graft Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 72 year-old male presented with a 7.4 cm abdominal aortic aneurysm with bilateral common and internal iliac involvement. In order to maintain pelvic perfusion, preservation of the patient's left hypogastric artery was pursued. Two weeks following right hypogastric artery embolization, endovascular repair of the patient's aneurysms was performed using a branched endograft approach. A 22 mm main-body bifurcated endograft

Paul J. Riesenman; Joseph J. Ricotta; Ravi K. Veeraswamy

371

The clinical document architecture and the continuity of care record: a critical analysis.  

PubMed

Health care provides many opportunities in which the sharing of data between independent sites is highly desirable. Several standards are required to produce the functional and semantic interoperability necessary to support the exchange of such data: a common reference information model, a common set of data elements, a common terminology, common data structures, and a common transport standard. This paper addresses one component of that set of standards: the ability to create a document that supports the exchange of structured data components. Unfortunately, two different standards development organizations have produced similar standards for that purpose based on different information models: Health Level 7 (HL7)'s Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) and The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM International) Continuity of Care Record (CCR). The coexistence of both standards might require mapping from one standard to the other, which could be accompanied by a loss of information and functionality. This paper examines and compares the two standards, emphasizes the strengths and weaknesses of each, and proposes a strategy of harmonization to enhance future progress. While some of the authors are members of HL7 and/or ASTM International, the authors stress that the viewpoints represented in this paper are those of the authors and do not represent the official viewpoints of either HL7 or of ASTM International. PMID:16501180

Ferranti, Jeffrey M; Musser, R Clayton; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Hammond, W Ed

2006-01-01

372

Advanced ground station architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a new station architecture for NASA's Ground Network (GN). The architecture makes efficient use of emerging technologies to provide dramatic reductions in size, operational complexity, and operational and maintenance costs. The architecture, which is based on recent receiver work sponsored by the Office of Space Communications Advanced Systems Program, allows integration of both GN and Space Network (SN) modes of operation in the same electronics system. It is highly configurable through software and the use of charged coupled device (CCD) technology to provide a wide range of operating modes. Moreover, it affords modularity of features which are optional depending on the application. The resulting system incorporates advanced RF, digital, and remote control technology capable of introducing significant operational, performance, and cost benefits to a variety of NASA communications and tracking applications.

Zillig, David; Benjamin, Ted

1994-01-01

373

Agent Architectures for Compliance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

374

Society of Architectural Historians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Society of Architectural Historians (SAH) was founded at Harvard University in 1940 and "promotes the study, interpretation, and conservation of architecture, design, landscapes and urbanism worldwide for the benefit of all." The SAH's outreach programs include the "Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians," an annual conference, study tours, and more. On the homepage, visitors can peruse the SAH News, the Association's informative and creative blog, and the Publications and Research area, which contains some member-only sections. The general public, however, can still take advantage of a number of digital resources here. Resources include the SAH Archipedia Classic Buildings, and external archives, such as the Julia Morgan Collection, Building Canada, and the Drawings & Documents Archive at Ball State University. Finally, visitors may also wish to look over the Jobs and Careers area for information about new and exciting careers in the field.

2013-04-22

375

Common variants explain a large fraction of the variability in the liability to psoriasis in a Han Chinese population  

PubMed Central

Background Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease with a known genetic component. Our previously published psoriasis genome-wide association study identified dozens of novel susceptibility loci in Han Chinese. However, these markers explained only a small fraction of the estimated heritable component of psoriasis. To better understand the unknown yet likely polygenic architecture in psoriasis, we applied a linear mixed model to quantify the variation in the liability to psoriasis explained by common genetic markers (minor allele frequency?>?0.01) in a Han Chinese population. Results We explored the polygenic genetic architecture of psoriasis using genome-wide association data from 2,271 Han Chinese individuals. We estimated that 34.9% (s.e.?=?6.0%, P?=?9?×?10-9) of the variation in the liability to psoriasis is captured by common genotyped and imputed variants. We discuss these results in the context of the strong association between HLA variants and psoriasis. We also show that the variance explained by each chromosome is linearly correlated to its length (R2?=?0.27, P=0.01), and quantify the impact of a polygenic effect on the prediction and diagnosis of psoriasis. Conclusions Our results suggest that psoriasis has a substantial polygenic component, which not only has implications for the development of genetic diagnostics and prognostics for psoriasis, but also suggests that more individual variants contributing to psoriasis may be detected if sample sizes in future association studies are increased.

2014-01-01

376

Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.

Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

2011-10-01

377

A Web-Based Architecture for a Medical Vocabulary Server  

Microsoft Academic Search

For health care providers to share computing resources and medical application programs across different sites, those applications must share a common medical vocabulary. To construct a common vocabulary, researchers must have an architecture that supports collaborative, networked devel- opment. In this paper, we present a web-based server archi- tecture for the collaborative development of a medical vocabulary: a system that

John H. Gennari; Diane E. Oliver; Wanda Pratt; James Rice; Mark A. Musen

1995-01-01

378

Multi-Agent Architectures as Organizational Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Multi-Agent System (hereafter MAS) is an organization of coordinated autonomous agents that interact in order to achieve\\u000a common goals. Considering real world organizations as an metaphor, this paper proposes architectural styles for MAS which\\u000a adopt concepts from organizational theories. The styles are modeled in i*\\/Tropos, using the notions of actor, goal and actor\\u000a dependency and are intended to capture

Manuel Kolp; Paolo Giorgini; John Mylopoulos

2006-01-01

379

D Architectural Videomapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D architectural mapping is a video projection technique that can be done with a survey of a chosen building in order to realize a perfect correspondence between its shapes and the images in projection. As a performative kind of audiovisual artifact, the real event of the 3D mapping is a combination of a registered video animation file with a real architecture. This new kind of visual art is becoming very popular and its big audience success testifies new expressive chances in the field of urban design. My case study has been experienced in Pisa for the Luminara feast in 2012.

Catanese, R.

2013-07-01

380

Hadl: HUMS Architectural Description Language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specification of architectures is an important prerequisite for evaluation of architectures. With the increase m the growth of health usage and monitoring systems (HUMS) in commercial and military domains, the need far the design and evaluation of HUMS architectures has also been on the increase. In this paper, we describe HADL, HUMS Architectural Description Language, that we have designed for this purpose. In particular, we describe the features of the language, illustrate them with examples, and show how we use it in designing domain-specific HUMS architectures. A companion paper contains details on our design methodology of HUMS architectures.

Mukkamala, R.; Adavi, V.; Agarwal, N.; Gullapalli, S.; Kumar, P.; Sundaram, P.

2004-01-01

381

The Sybase Architecture for Extensible Data Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

e IQ, and SQL Anywhere-- into this unified architecture. Adaptive Server features optimized data stores for delivering predictable highperformancemanagement of traditional and complex data within many different types of applications. It alsooffers a single programming and query interface across all the data stores, using Transact-SQL and standard components,including JavaBeans, running in the server. It also supports specialty data stores, which

Steve Olson; Richard Pledereder; Phil Shaw; David Yach

1998-01-01

382

IDD Archival Hardware Architecture and Workflow  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the functionality of every component in the DHS/IDD archival and storage hardware system shown in Fig. 1. The document describes steps by step process of image data being received at LLNL then being processed and made available to authorized personnel and collaborators. Throughout this document references will be made to one of two figures, Fig. 1 describing the elements of the architecture and the Fig. 2 describing the workflow and how the project utilizes the available hardware.

Mendonsa, D; Nekoogar, F; Martz, H

2008-10-09

383

An Architecture for Modular Data Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large numbers of low-cost, low-reliability commodity components are rapidly replacing high-quality, mainframe-class systems in data centers. These commodity clusters are far less expensive than the systems they replace, but they can bring new administrative costs in addition to heat and power-density challenges. This proposal introduces a data center architecture based upon macro-modules of standard shipping containers that optimizes how server

James R. Hamilton

2007-01-01

384

Deriving test plans from architectural descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an approach to derive test plansfor the conformance testing of a system implementationwith respect to the formal description of its SoftwareArchitecture (SA). The SA describes a system in termsof its components and connections, therefore the derivedtest plans address the integration testing phase.We base our approach on a Labelled Transition System(LTS) modeling the SA dynamics, and on suitable

Antonia Bertolino; Flavio Corradini; Henry Muccini

2000-01-01

385

The Information Architecture of Behavior Change Websites  

PubMed Central

The extraordinary growth in Internet use offers researchers important new opportunities to identify and test new ways to deliver effective behavior change programs. The information architecture (IA)—the structure of website information—is an important but often overlooked factor to consider when adapting behavioral strategies developed in office-based settings for Web delivery. Using examples and relevant perspectives from multiple disciplines, we describe a continuum of website IA designs ranging from a matrix design to the tunnel design. The free-form matrix IA design allows users free rein to use multiple hyperlinks to explore available content according to their idiosyncratic interests. The more directive tunnel IA design (commonly used in e-learning courses) guides users step-by-step through a series of Web pages that are arranged in a particular order to improve the chances of achieving a goal that is measurable and consistent. Other IA designs are also discussed, including hierarchical IA and hybrid IA designs. In the hierarchical IA design, program content is arranged in a top-down manner, which helps the user find content of interest. The more complex hybrid IA design incorporates some combination of components that use matrix, tunnel, and/or hierarchical IA designs. Each of these IA designs is discussed in terms of usability, participant engagement, and program tailoring, as well as how they might best be matched with different behavior change goals (using Web-based smoking cessation interventions as examples). Our presentation underscores the role of considering and clearly reporting the use of IA designs when creating effective Web-based interventions. We also encourage the adoption of a multidisciplinary perspective as we move towards a more mature view of Internet intervention research.

McKay, H Garth; Seeley, John R

2005-01-01

386

The information architecture of behavior change websites.  

PubMed

The extraordinary growth in Internet use offers researchers important new opportunities to identify and test new ways to deliver effective behavior change programs. The information architecture (IA)-the structure of website information--is an important but often overlooked factor to consider when adapting behavioral strategies developed in office-based settings for Web delivery. Using examples and relevant perspectives from multiple disciplines, we describe a continuum of website IA designs ranging from a matrix design to the tunnel design. The free-form matrix IA design allows users free rein to use multiple hyperlinks to explore available content according to their idiosyncratic interests. The more directive tunnel IA design (commonly used in e-learning courses) guides users step-by-step through a series of Web pages that are arranged in a particular order to improve the chances of achieving a goal that is measurable and consistent. Other IA designs are also discussed, including hierarchical IA and hybrid IA designs. In the hierarchical IA design, program content is arranged in a top-down manner, which helps the user find content of interest. The more complex hybrid IA design incorporates some combination of components that use matrix, tunnel, and/or hierarchical IA designs. Each of these IA designs is discussed in terms of usability, participant engagement, and program tailoring, as well as how they might best be matched with different behavior change goals (using Web-based smoking cessation interventions as examples). Our presentation underscores the role of considering and clearly reporting the use of IA designs when creating effective Web-based interventions. We also encourage the adoption of a multidisciplinary perspective as we move towards a more mature view of Internet intervention research. PMID:15914459

Danaher, Brian G; McKay, H Garth; Seeley, John R

2005-01-01

387

Development of a Conceptual Structure for Architectural Solar Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solar subsystems and components were identified and conceptual structure was developed for architectural solar energy heating and cooling systems. Recent literature related to solar energy systems was reviewed and analyzed. Solar heating and cooling system, subsystem, and component data were compared for agreement and completeness. Significant…

Ringel, Robert F.

388

Storage system architectures and their characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Not all users storage requirements call for 20 MBS data transfer rates, multi-tier file or data migration schemes, or even automated retrieval of data. The number of available storage solutions reflects the broad range of user requirements. It is foolish to think that any one solution can address the complete range of requirements. For users with simple off-line storage requirements, the cost and complexity of high end solutions would provide no advantage over a more simple solution. The correct answer is to match the requirements of a particular storage need to the various attributes of the available solutions. The goal of this paper is to introduce basic concepts of archiving and storage management in combination with the most common architectures and to provide some insight into how these concepts and architectures address various storage problems. The intent is to provide potential consumers of storage technology with a framework within which to begin the hunt for a solution which meets their particular needs. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive study or to address all possible solutions or new technologies, but is intended to be a more practical treatment of todays storage system alternatives. Since most commercial storage systems today are built on Open Systems concepts, the majority of these solutions are hosted on the UNIX operating system. For this reason, some of the architectural issues discussed focus around specific UNIX architectural concepts. However, most of the architectures are operating system independent and the conclusions are applicable to such architectures on any operating system.

Sarandrea, Bryan M.

1993-01-01

389

Open architecture test system: system architecture and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The open architecture test system provides a method and framework under which software and instruments of different vendors can be developed and integrated into an ATE. In This work, we describe the overall architecture and design of the system. First we describe the architecture and the control mechanism for the overall system and for individual test-sites. Data and command communication

Rochit Rajsuman; M. Noriyuki

2004-01-01

390

Open Architecture Test System: System Architecture and Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Open Architecture Test System provides a method and framework under which software and instruments of different vendors can be developed and integrated into an ATE. In this paper, we describe the overall architecture and design of the system. First we describe the architecture and the control mechanism for the overall system and for individual test-sites. Data and command communication

Rochit Rajsuman; Masuda Noriyuki

2004-01-01

391

12. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and Cartographic Branch, Alexandria, Va.) 'Non-Com-Officers Qrs.' Quartermaster Generals Office Standard Plan 82, sheet 2, April 1893. Lithograph on linen architectural drawing. DETAILS - Fort Myer, Non-Commissioned Officers Quarters, Washington Avenue between Johnson Lane & Custer Road, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

392

11. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Photocopy of architectural drawing (from National Archives Architectural and Cartographic Branch Alexandria, Va.) 'Non-Com-Officers Qrs.' Quartermaster General's Office Standard Plan 82, sheet 1. Lithograph on linen architectural drawing. April 1893 3 ELEVATIONS, 3 PLANS AND A PARTIAL SECTION - Fort Myer, Non-Commissioned Officers Quarters, Washington Avenue between Johnson Lane & Custer Road, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

393

Particle-in-Cell algorithms for emerging computer architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed Particle-in-Cell algorithms for emerging architectures. These algorithms share a common approach, using fine-grained tiles, but different implementations depending on the architecture. On the GPU, there were two different implementations, one with atomic operations and one with no data collisions, using CUDA C and Fortran. Speedups up to about 50 compared to a single core of the Intel i7 processor have been achieved. There was also an implementation for traditional multi-core processors using OpenMP which achieved high parallel efficiency. We believe that this approach should work for other emerging designs such as Intel Phi coprocessor from the Intel MIC architecture.

Decyk, Viktor K.; Singh, Tajendra V.

2014-03-01

394

Instrumented Sensor System Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensor systems are becoming ubiquitous throughout society, yet their design, construction, and operation are still more of an art than a science. In this paper, we define, develop, and apply a formal se mantics for sensor systems that provides a theoretical framework for an integrated software architecture for modeling sensor-based con trol systems. Our goal is to develop a design

Mohamed Dekhil; Thomas C. Henderson

1998-01-01

395

1989 Architectural Exhibition Winners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Winners of the 1989 Architectural Exhibition sponsored annually by the ASBO International's School Facilities Research Committee include the Brevard Performing Arts Center (Melbourne, Florida), the Capital High School (Santa Fe, New Mexico), Gage Elementary School (Rochester, Minnesota), the Lakewood (Ohio) High School Natatorium, and three other…

School Business Affairs, 1990

1990-01-01

396

Specifying Distributed Software Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a real need for clear and sound design specifications of distributed systems at the architectural level. This is the level of the design which deals with the high-level organisation of computational elements and the interactions between those elements. The paper presents the Darwin notation for specifying this high-level organisation. Darwin is in essence a declarative binding language which

Jeff Magee; Naranker Dulay; Susan Eisenbach; Jeff Kramer

1995-01-01

397

Instrumented Architectural Simulation System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Simulation of systems at an architectural level can offer an effective way to study critical design choices if (1) the performance of the simulator is adequate to examine designs executing significant code bodies--not just toy problems or small applicatio...

B. A. Delagi N. Saraiya S. Nishimura G. Byrd

1987-01-01

398

Global distributed storage architecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NSA architects and planners have come to realize that to gain the maximum benefit from, and keep pace with, emerging technologies, we must move to a radically different computing architecture. The compute complex of the future will be a distributed hetero...

N. M. Lionikis M. F. Shields

1996-01-01

399

The Architecture of Personality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a theoretical framework for analyzing psychological systems that contribute to the variability, consistency, and cross-situational coherence of personality functioning. In the proposed knowledge-and-appraisal personality architecture (KAPA), personality structures and processes are delineated by combining 2 principles:…

Cervone, Daniel

2004-01-01

400

GNU debugger internal architecture  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the internal and architecture and implementation of the GNU debugger, gdb. Topics include inferior process management, command execution, symbol table management and remote debugging. Call graphs for specific functions are supplied. This document is not a complete description but offers a developer an overview which is the place to start before modification.

Miller, P.; Nessett, D. [eds.; Pizzi, R.

1993-12-16

401

Architectural Layout Design Optimization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This joint effort between architecture and mechanical engineering researchers at the University of Michigan applied geometrical and topological optimization techniques to building floorplan layout. In the course of their research, they developed an optimization tool that is briefly described and can be downloaded from a Web site given in the paper.

Choudhary, Ruchi; Michalek, Jeremy J.; Papalambros, Panos Y.

2008-05-27

402

Multimedia communications: architectural alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimedia communications systems are a combination of human interfaces and end users interacting with multimedia data bases and highly disparate but interconnected communications networks. This paper discusses several architectural alternatives and system requirements that will assist in the design and development of MMCS in actual environments. The approaches taken in this paper are based upon the development of such systems

Terrence P. McGarty; S. T. Treves

1992-01-01

403

Open Architecture Motion Controller.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nomad, an open architecture motion controller, is described. It is formed by a combination of TMOS, C-WORKS, and other utilities. Nomad software runs in a UNIX environment and provides for sensor-controlled robotic motions, with user replaceable kinematic...

L. Rossol

1994-01-01

404

The software radio architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

As communications technology continues its rapid transition from analog to digital, more functions of contemporary radio systems are implemented in software, leading toward the software radio. This article provides a tutorial review of software radio architectures and technology, highlighting benefits, pitfalls, and lessons learned. This includes a closer look at the canonical functional partitioning of channel coding into antenna, RF,

J. Mitola

1995-01-01

405

Geometric Shapes in Architecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit designed to improve students' understanding and appreciation of basic geometric shapes used in architecture. It describes various plane geometric figures and discusses in detail the properties of several of these figures. Perimeters and areas of polygons and circles are computed.

Fox, Lauretta J.

2007-02-22

406

Test Architecture, Test Retrofit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…

Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred

2009-01-01

407

Mother Nature and Architecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author describes how architects have used the resources at hand to provide comfort in the design of buildings in the past. He describes architectural design concepts in office buildings from the 1930's to the present. He recommends that future buildin...

S. H. Pansky

1983-01-01

408

Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Common Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Numerous genetic syndromes have had the cognitive and behavioral components of the phenotype delineated, leading to improved\\u000a diagnosis of the condition, as well as to better management and interventional approaches. This article is a review of some\\u000a of what is known about the neurodevelopmental aspects of some of the more common genetic syndromes.

Helga V. Toriello

409

Novel architecture for measurements in resistive MEMS sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low voltage, low power, resistive sensor architecture is proposed in this paper. The architecture is novel as it enhances the sensitivity along the main axis as well as reducing the impact of cross axes components. The proposed scheme also allows the simultaneous measurement of sensitivity along six different axes. With less than 15% of the power of its Wheatstone bridge [1] counterpart and with a voltage level as low as 2.25 V, this architecture also enables the realization of the sensor using fewer resistive elements. The modified sensor structure, along with the front-end signal processing circuit, is discussed.

Nandi, Prajit; Biswas, Riju; Sundar Dhar, Anindya; Das, Soumen

2014-05-01

410

Protein Dynamics: Implications for Nuclear Architecture and Gene Expression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studies of nuclear architecture reveal that the dynamic properties of proteins in the nucleus are critical for their function. The high mobility of proteins ensures their availability throughout the nucleus; their dynamic interplay generates an ever-changing, but overall stable, architectural framework, within which nuclear processes take place. As a consequence, overall nuclear morphology is determined by the functional interactions of nuclear components. The observed dynamic properties of nuclear proteins are consistent with a central role for stochastic mechanisms in gene expression and nuclear architecture.

Tom Mistelli (National Cancer Institute;)

2001-02-02

411

An architecture for exploiting coarse-grain parallelism on FPGAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the use of a novel architecture, called the multi-level computing architecture (MLCA) to efficiently exploit coarse-grain parallelism on FPGAs. The central component of the MLCA is its control processor (CP), which is analogous to an out-of-order scheduling unit of a superscalar processor. The CP schedules coarse-grain units of computation, or tasks, onto processing units (PUs). In this paper,

Davor Capalija; Tarek S. Abdelrahman

2009-01-01

412

Towards architecture-based self-healing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our approach to creating self-healing systems is based on software architecture, where repairs are done at the level of a software system's components and connectors. In our approach, event-based software architectures are targeted because they offer significant benefits for run-time adaptation. Before an automated planning agent can decide how to repair a self-healing system, a significant infrastructure must be in

Eric M. Dashofy; André van der Hoek; Richard N. Taylor

2002-01-01

413

Development of a satellite structural architecture for operationally responsive space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Research Laboratory\\/Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL\\/RV) is developing a satellite structural architecture in support of the Department of Defense's Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) initiative. Such a structural architecture must enable rapid Assembly, Integration, and Test (AI&T) of the satellite, accommodate multiple configurations (to include structural configurations, components, and payloads), and incorporate structurally integrated thermal management and electronics, while

Brandon J. Arritt; Steven J. Buckley; Jeffrey M. Ganley; Jeffry S. Welsh; Benjamin K. Henderson; M. Eric Lyall; Andrew D. Williams; Jeffrey C. Preble; John DiPalma; Greg Mehle; R. Roopnarine

2008-01-01

414

Simulation system architecture design for generic communications link  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses a computer simulation system architecture design for generic digital communications systems. It addresses the issues of an overall system architecture in order to achieve a user-friendly, efficient, and yet easily implementable simulation system. The system block diagram and its individual functional components are described in detail. Software implementation is discussed with the VAX/VMS operating system used as a target environment.

Tsang, Chit-Sang; Ratliff, Jim

1986-01-01

415

Simulation system architecture design for generic communications link  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses a computer simulation system architecture design for generic digital communications systems. It addresses the issues of an overall system architecture in order to achieve a user-friendly, efficient, and yet easily implementable simulation system. The system block diagram and its individual functional components are described in detail. Software implementation is discussed with the VAX/VMS operating system used as a target environment.

Tsang, Chit-Sang; Ratliff, Jim

416

Common Stochastic Trends, Common Cycles, and Asymmetry in Economic Fluctuations. International Finance Discussion Papers Number 681.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper investigates the nature of business cycle asymmetry using a dynamic factor model of output, investment, and consumption. We first identify a common stochastic trend and a common transitory component by embedding the permanent income hypothesis ...

C. J. Kim J. Piger

2000-01-01

417

Achieving Usability Through Software Architecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report, we present an approach to improving the usability of software systems by means of software architectural decisions. We identify specific connections between aspects of usability, such as the ability to 'undo', and software architecture. We...

L. Bass B. E. John J. Kates

2001-01-01

418

Probabilistic common-cause failures analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common-cause failures (CCF) are simultaneous failures of multiple components within a system due to a common-cause or a shared root cause. CCF can contribute significantly to the overall system unreliability. Therefore, it is important to incorporate CCF into the system reliability analysis. Traditional CCF analyses have assumed that the occurrence of a common-cause results in the deterministic\\/guaranteed failure of components

Liudong Xing; Wendai Wang

2008-01-01

419

Web Server Farm in the Cloud: Performance Evaluation and Dynamic Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web applications' traffic demand fluctuates widely and unpredictably. The common practice of provisioning a fixed capacity would either result in unsatisfied customers (underprovision) or waste valuable capital investment (overprovision). By leveraging an infrastructure cloud's on-demand, pay-per-use capabilities, we finally can match the capacity with the demand in real time. This paper investigates how we can build a web server farm in the cloud. We first present a benchmark performance study on various cloud components, which not only shows their performance results, but also reveals their limitations. Because of the limitations, no single configuration of cloud components can excel in all traffic scenarios. We then propose a dynamic switching architecture which dynamically switches among several configurations depending on the workload and traffic pattern.

Liu, Huan; Wee, Sewook

420

System Architectural Considerations on Reliable Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN and C) for Constellation Program (CxP) Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report summarizes the results of a comparative assessment of the fault tolerance and reliability of different Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) architectural approaches. This study was proactively performed by a combined Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Draper Laboratory team as a GN&C "Discipline-Advancing" activity sponsored by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). This systematic comparative assessment of GN&C system architectural approaches was undertaken as a fundamental step towards understanding the opportunities for, and limitations of, architecting highly reliable and fault tolerant GN&C systems composed of common avionic components. The primary goal of this study was to obtain architectural 'rules of thumb' that could positively influence future designs in the direction of an optimized (i.e., most reliable and cost-efficient) GN&C system. A secondary goal was to demonstrate the application and the utility of a systematic modeling approach that maps the entire possible architecture solution space.

Dennehy, Cornelius J.

2010-01-01

421

Memory performance of Prolog architectures  

SciTech Connect

Memory Performance of Prolog Architectures addresses these problems and reports dynamic data and instruction referencing characteristics of both sequential and parallel prolog architectures and corresponding uni-processor and multi-processor memory-hierarchy performance tradeoffs. Computer designers and logic programmers will find this work to be a valuable reference with many practical applications. Memory Performance of Prolog Architectures will also serve as an important textbook for graduate level courses in computer architecture and/or performance analysis.

Tick, E.

1988-01-01

422

Digit-serial DSP architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a systematic unfolding transformation technique to transform bit-serial architectures into equivalent digit-serial ones. The novel feature of the technique is the generation of functionally correct control circuits in the digit-serial architectures. Bit-serial systems process one bit of a word or sample in a clock cycle. For some applications bit-serial architectures may be too slow, and bit-parallel architectures

Keshab K. Parhi; Ching-Yi Wang

1990-01-01

423

Automated component creation for legacy C++ and fortran codes.  

SciTech Connect

A significant amount of work has been spent creating component models and programming environments, but little support exists for automation in the process of creating components from existing codes. To entice users to adopt the component-based paradigm over traditional programming models, integration of legacy codes must be as simple and fast as possible, We present a system for automating the IDL generation stage of component development based on source code analysis of legacy C, C-t-4 and Fortran codes using the Program Database Toolkit. Together with IDL compilation tools such as Babel, we provide an alternative to hand-written IDL code for legacy applications and libraries. In addition to generating IDL, we propose an XML-based method for specifying meta-data related to type mapping and wrapper generation that can be shared between our tools and IDL compilers. The component model of choice for this work is the Common Component Architecture (CCA) using the Scientific Interface Definition Language (SIDL), though the concepts presented can be applied to other models.

Sottile, M. J. (Matthew J.); Rasmussen, C. E. (Craig E.)

2001-01-01

424

HYDRA : High-speed simulation architecture for precision spacecraft formation simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

e Hierarchical Distributed Reconfigurable Architecture- is a scalable simulation architecture that provides flexibility and ease-of-use which take advantage of modern computation and communication hardware. It also provides the ability to implement distributed - or workstation - based simulations and high-fidelity real-time simulation from a common core. Originally designed to serve as a research platform for examining fundamental challenges in formation flying simulation for future space missions, it is also finding use in other missions and applications, all of which can take advantage of the underlying Object-Oriented structure to easily produce distributed simulations. Hydra automates the process of connecting disparate simulation components (Hydra Clients) through a client server architecture that uses high-level descriptions of data associated with each client to find and forge desirable connections (Hydra Services) at run time. Services communicate through the use of Connectors, which abstract messaging to provide single-interface access to any desired communication protocol, such as from shared-memory message passing to TCP/IP to ACE and COBRA. Hydra shares many features with the HLA, although providing more flexibility in connectivity services and behavior overriding.

Martin, Bryan J.; Sohl, Garett.

2003-01-01

425

Selected Precepts in Lunar Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of selected approaches to Lunar Architecture to describe the parameters of this design problem space. The paper identifies typologies of architecture based on Lunar site features, structural concepts and habitable functions. This paper develops an analysis of these architectures based on the NASA Habitats and Surface Construction Road Map (1997) in which there are three

Marc M. Cohen

2002-01-01

426

Evaluation of the WM architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the results of studies of the WM architecture—its performance, the values of some of its key architectural parameters, the difficulty of compiling for it, and hardware implementation complexity. The studies confirm that, with comparable chip area and without heroic compiler technology, WM is capable of outperforming traditional scalar architectures by factors of 2-9. They also underscore the

William A. Wulf

1992-01-01

427

Integrated cognitive architectures: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to present an account of the state of the art research in the fleld of integrated cognitive architectures by providing a review of six cognitive architectures, namely Soar, ACT-R, ICARUS, BDI, the subsumption architecture and CLARION. We conduct a detailed functional comparison by looking at a wide range of cognitive com- ponents, including perception, memory, goal representation,

Hui-Qing Chong; Ah-Hwee Tan; Gee-Wah Ng

2007-01-01

428

ADLs and dynamic architecture changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing ADLs typically support only static architecture specifica- tion and do not provide facilities for the support of dynamically changing architectures. This paper presents a possible solution to this problem: in order to adequately support dynamic architecture changes, ADLs can leverage techniques used in dynamic program- ming languages. In particular, changes to ADL specifications should be interpreted. To enable interpretation,

Nenad Medvidovic

1996-01-01

429

Cognitive Architectures for Multimedia Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a tutorial overview of cognitive architectures that can form a theoretical foundation for designing multimedia instruction. Cognitive architectures include a description of memory stores, memory codes, and cognitive operations. Architectures that are relevant to multimedia learning include Paivio's dual coding theory,…

Reed, Stephen K.

2006-01-01

430

An overview of the ALMA Common Software (ACS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is an application framework designed to provide a common and homogeneous software architecture and infrastructure, spanning the end to end needs of an Astronomical observatory, from the Telescope Control system to high-level data flow management. ACS offers, at the lower level, several basic services needed for object-oriented distributed computing like transparent remote object invocation, object

P. Di Marcantonio; R. Cirami; A. Caproni; G. Chiozzi; B. Jeram; H. Sommer; S. Harrington; K. Zagar; M. Plesko; M. Sekoranja

2007-01-01

431

SEAL: Common Core Libraries and Services for LHC Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CERN LHC experiments have begun the LHC Computing Grid project in 2001. One of the project's aims is to develop common software infrastructure based on a development vision shared by the participating experiments. The SEAL project will provide common foundation libraries, services and utilities identified by the project's architecture blueprint report. This requires a broad range of functionality that

J. Generowicz; P. Mato; L. Moneta; S. Roiser; M. Marino; L A Tuura

2003-01-01

432

Robust Software Architecture for Robots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Robust Real-Time Reconfigurable Robotics Software Architecture (R4SA) is the name of both a software architecture and software that embodies the architecture. The architecture was conceived in the spirit of current practice in designing modular, hard, realtime aerospace systems. The architecture facilitates the integration of new sensory, motor, and control software modules into the software of a given robotic system. R4SA was developed for initial application aboard exploratory mobile robots on Mars, but is adaptable to terrestrial robotic systems, real-time embedded computing systems in general, and robotic toys.

Aghazanian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric; Garrett, Michael

2009-01-01

433

WWW Computer Architecture Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The WWW Computer Architecture Home Page, created by Mark Hill and maintained by Milo Martin at the University of Wisconsin Computer Sciences Department, contains a wealth of up-to-date and useful links to myriad resources about computer architecture. Site features include timely calls for papers and calls for participation, useful links to information on commercial hardware, a white pages listing of people involved in computer architecture, links to architecture research groups and projects around the world, and many other pages of informative links. While not searchable, the organization, size, and usefulness of the collection make it a valuable starting point for computer architecture research.

434

Supporting Viewpoint-Oriented Enterprise Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, organisations establish what is called an enterprise architecture. The enterprise architecture combines and relates all architectures describing some aspect of the organization, such as the business process architecture, the information architecture, and the application architecture. It is a blueprint of the organisation, which serves as a starting point for analysis, design and decision making. Viewpoints define abstractions on the

Maarten W. A. Steen; David H. Akehurst; Hugo W. L. Ter Doest; Marc M. Lankhorst

2004-01-01

435

Architecture and Metamorphosis  

PubMed Central

When compared to other conserved housekeeping protein families, such as ribosomal proteins, during the evolution of higher eukaryotes, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) show an apparent high propensity to add new sequences, and especially, new domains. The stepwise emergence of those new domains is consistent with their involvement in a broad range of biological functions beyond protein synthesis, and correlates with the increasing biological complexity of higher organisms. The new domains have been extensively characterized based on their evolutionary origins and their sequence, structural and functional features. While some of the domains are uniquely found in aaRSs and may have originated from nucleic acid binding motifs, others are common domain modules mediating protein-protein interactions that play a critical role in the assembly of the multi-synthetase complex (MSC). Interestingly, the MSC has emerged from a miniature complex in yeast, to a large, stable complex in insects to humans. The human MSC consists of 9 aaRSs (LysRS, ArgRS, GlnRS, AspRS, MetRS, IleRS, LeuRS and GluProRS) and 3 scaffold proteins (AIMP1/p43, AIMP2/p38 and AIMP3/p18), and has a molecular weight of 1.5 million Da. The MSC has been proposed to have a functional dualism: both facilitating protein synthesis and serving as a reservoir of non-canonical functions associated with its synthetase and non-synthetase components. Importantly, domain additions and functional expansions are not limited to the components of the MSC and are found in almost all aaRS proteins. From a structural perspective, multi-functionalities are represented by multiple conformational states. In fact, alternative conformations of aaRSs have been generated by various mechanisms from proteolysis to alternative splicing and posttranslational modifications, as well as by disease-causing mutations. Therefore, the metamorphosis between different conformational states is connected to the activation and regulation of the novel functions of aaRSs in higher eukaryotes.

2013-01-01

436

Distributed component technologies and their software engineering implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this state of the art report, we review advances in distributed component technologies, such as the Enterprise Java Beans specification and the CORBA Component Model. We assess the state of industrial practice in the use of distributed components. We show several architectural styles for whose implementation distributed components have been used successfully. We review the use of iterative and

Wolfgang Emmerich

2002-01-01

437

Parallel Subconvolution Filtering Architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These architectures are based on methods of vector processing and the discrete-Fourier-transform/inverse-discrete- Fourier-transform (DFT-IDFT) overlap-and-save method, combined with time-block separation of digital filters into frequency-domain subfilters implemented by use of sub-convolutions. The parallel-processing method implemented in these architectures enables the use of relatively small DFT-IDFT pairs, while filter tap lengths are theoretically unlimited. The size of a DFT-IDFT pair is determined by the desired reduction in processing rate, rather than on the order of the filter that one seeks to implement. The emphasis in this report is on those aspects of the underlying theory and design rules that promote computational efficiency, parallel processing at reduced data rates, and simplification of the designs of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits needed to implement high-order filters and correlators.

Gray, Andrew A.

2003-01-01

438

Lincoln Park Architectural Photographs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Lincoln Park neighborhood in Chicago is home to a number of architectural landmarks, including 19th century mansions with bold mansard roofs, a former seminary on the grounds of DePaul University, and other delights. In 2000, DePaul sociologist Wanda Harold set out to photograph a number of these unique structures. This digital collection includes 200 of her images, and this project was made possible in part through a grant from the Library Services and Technology Act. First-time visitors can get started by using a clickable map of Lincoln Park to explore the photos, and they can also browse around by architect or street. Visitors shouldn't miss the photos of the workers' cottages at 1756 N. Clybourn and 2715 N. Kenmore Avenue. Overall, the site is a nice resource for students of Chicago architecture and urban geography.

Harold, Wanda

2012-01-13

439

Architecture.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The official homepage of the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA), this site offers a number of architecture-related resources. The heart of the site is an indexed collection of over 1000 annotated links to architecture resources from around the world, though it currently focuses mainly on Britain. The links may be searched by keyword or browsed by category and subject. A "raw" list of another 1000 sites compiled by the RIBA staff and organized by topic (some annotated) is also provided. From the site visitors can also access the RIBA Library online catalog, which is searchable by keyword, author, title, subject, and series. Detailed information on the library and its holdings is also available. Other features at the site include a registry of architects in the UK, career and job information (UK-based), information on events and competitions, site of the day, and a bookshop.

440

Generic robot architecture  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

Bruemmer, David J. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

2010-09-21

441

The Architecture of Personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a theoretical framework for analyzing psychological systems that contribute to the variability, consistency, and cross-situational coherence of personality functioning. In the proposed knowledge-and-appraisal personality architecture (KAPA), personality structures and processes are delineated by combining 2 principles: distinctions (a) between knowledge structures and appraisal processes and (b) among intentional cognitions with varying directions of fit, with the latter

Daniel Cervone

2004-01-01

442

Enterprise architecture management patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces the concept of enterprise architecture management (EAM) patterns, a pattern based approach for EA management. Three different types of patterns are presented. M-Patterns document proven-practice methodologies to address typical problems in EA management. V-Patterns represent best-practice visualizations, whereas I-Patterns indicate information requirements for EA management. These patterns build up a pattern language for EA management, with an

Alexander M. Ernst

2008-01-01

443

Next generation TPS architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe the symptom-model-based (SMB) approach, which correlates the failure symptom with the ambiguity group using historical data and diagnostic knowledge of the specific line replaceable units (LRUs). The SMB approach incorporates three key techniques for developing a next-generation TPS (test program set) architecture. The first technique is model-based diagnosis, which involves isolating the cause of failure based on

A. Poon; William J. Bertch; Jay B. Wood

1990-01-01

444

Aerobot Autonomy Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An architecture for autonomous operation of an aerobot (i.e., a robotic blimp) to be used in scientific exploration of planets and moons in the Solar system with an atmosphere (such as Titan and Venus) is undergoing development. This architecture is also applicable to autonomous airships that could be flown in the terrestrial atmosphere for scientific exploration, military reconnaissance and surveillance, and as radio-communication relay stations in disaster areas. The architecture was conceived to satisfy requirements to perform the following functions: a) Vehicle safing, that is, ensuring the integrity of the aerobot during its entire mission, including during extended communication blackouts. b) Accurate and robust autonomous flight control during operation in diverse modes, including launch, deployment of scientific instruments, long traverses, hovering or station-keeping, and maneuvers for touch-and-go surface sampling. c) Mapping and self-localization in the absence of a global positioning system. d) Advanced recognition of hazards and targets in conjunction with tracking of, and visual servoing toward, targets, all to enable the aerobot to detect and avoid atmospheric and topographic hazards and to identify, home in on, and hover over predefined terrain features or other targets of scientific interest. The architecture is an integrated combination of systems for accurate and robust vehicle and flight trajectory control; estimation of the state of the aerobot; perception-based detection and avoidance of hazards; monitoring of the integrity and functionality ("health") of the aerobot; reflexive safing actions; multi-modal localization and mapping; autonomous planning and execution of scientific observations; and long-range planning and monitoring of the mission of the aerobot. The prototype JPL aerobot (see figure) has been tested extensively in various areas in the California Mojave desert.

Elfes, Alberto; Hall, Jeffery L.; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Clouse, Daniel S.; Montgomery, James F.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Machuzak, Richard J.

2009-01-01

445

Irregular Applications: Architectures & Algorithms  

SciTech Connect

Irregular applications are characterized by irregular data structures, control and communication patterns. Novel irregular high performance applications which deal with large data sets and require have recently appeared. Unfortunately, current high performance systems and software infrastructures executes irregular algorithms poorly. Only coordinated efforts by end user, area specialists and computer scientists that consider both the architecture and the software stack may be able to provide solutions to the challenges of modern irregular applications.

Feo, John T.; Villa, Oreste; Tumeo, Antonino; Secchi, Simone

2012-02-06

446

Capital Architecture: Situating symbolism parallel to architectural methods and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capital Architecture is a symbol of a nation's global presence and the cultural and social focal point of its inhabitants. Since the advent of High-Modernism in Western cities, and subsequently decolonised capitals, civic architecture no longer seems to be strictly grounded in the philosophy that national buildings shape the legacy of government and the way a nation is regarded through its built environment. Amidst an exceedingly globalized architectural practice and with the growing concern of key heritage foundations over the shortcomings of international modernism in representing its immediate socio-cultural context, the contextualization of public architecture within its sociological, cultural and economic framework in capital cities became the key denominator of this thesis. Civic architecture in capital cities is essential to confront the challenges of symbolizing a nation and demonstrating the legitimacy of the government'. In today's dominantly secular Western societies, governmental architecture, especially where the seat of political power lies, is the ultimate form of architectural expression in conveying a sense of identity and underlining a nation's status. Departing with these convictions, this thesis investigates the embodied symbolic power, the representative capacity, and the inherent permanence in contemporary architecture, and in its modes of production. Through a vast study on Modern architectural ideals and heritage -- in parallel to methodologies -- the thesis stimulates the future of large scale governmental building practices and aims to identify and index the key constituents that may respond to the lack representation in civic architecture in capital cities.

Daoud, Bassam

447

An open architecture for medical image workstation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dealing with the difficulties of integrating various medical image viewing and processing technologies with a variety of clinical and departmental information systems and, in the meantime, overcoming the performance constraints in transferring and processing large-scale and ever-increasing image data in healthcare enterprise, we design and implement a flexible, usable and high-performance architecture for medical image workstations. This architecture is not developed for radiology only, but for any workstations in any application environments that may need medical image retrieving, viewing, and post-processing. This architecture contains an infrastructure named Memory PACS and different kinds of image applications built on it. The Memory PACS is in charge of image data caching, pre-fetching and management. It provides image applications with a high speed image data access and a very reliable DICOM network I/O. In dealing with the image applications, we use dynamic component technology to separate the performance-constrained modules from the flexibility-constrained modules so that different image viewing or processing technologies can be developed and maintained independently. We also develop a weakly coupled collaboration service, through which these image applications can communicate with each other or with third party applications. We applied this architecture in developing our product line and it works well. In our clinical sites, this architecture is applied not only in Radiology Department, but also in Ultrasonic, Surgery, Clinics, and Consultation Center. Giving that each concerned department has its particular requirements and business routines along with the facts that they all have different image processing technologies and image display devices, our workstations are still able to maintain high performance and high usability.

Liang, Liang; Hu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiangyun

2005-04-01

448

A resource management architecture for metacomputing systems.  

SciTech Connect

Metacomputing systems are intended to support remote and/or concurrent use of geographically distributed computational resources. Resource management in such systems is complicated by five concerns that do not typically arise in other situations: site autonomy and heterogeneous substrates at the resources, and application requirements for policy extensibility, co-allocation, and online control. We describe a resource management architecture that addresses these concerns. This architecture distributes the resource management problem among distinct local manager, resource broker, and resource co-allocator components and defines an extensible resource specification language to exchange information about requirements. We describe how these techniques have been implemented in the context of the Globus metacomputing toolkit and used to implement a variety of different resource management strategies. We report on our experiences applying our techniques in a large testbed, GUSTO, incorporating 15 sites, 330 computers, and 3600 processors.

Czajkowski, K.; Foster, I.; Karonis, N.; Kesselman, C.; Martin, S.; Smith, W.; Tuecke, S.

1999-08-24

449

Applicative architectures for fault-tolerant multiprocessors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper proposes functional programming frameworks for the design of highly reliable multiprocessor systems. In contrast to imperative programming environments, a functional environment offers elegant, relatively simple, and efficient solutions to concurrent error detection and recovery problems in multiprocessors. Specific fault tolerance mechanisms for upset exposure, fault containment, secure task assignment, and recovery are developed for a class of applicative multiprocessor architectures. Verification of abstract behavioral characteristics of applicative tasks is used for exposing faults during the execution of tasks. The fault containment mechanism is based on isolation of stack and heap segments of tasks. A protocol for secure task assignment is defined between system components. The architecture permits incremental, distributed, and asynchronous backups of system state. Finally, recovery is accomplished, even in the worst cases, by reexecution of a small number of tasks.

Sharma, Madhumitra; Fuchs, W. Kent

1988-01-01

450

Applicative architectures for fault-tolerant multiprocessors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Functional programming frameworks for the design of highly reliable multiprocessor systems are proposed. In contrast to imperative programming environments, a functional environment offers elegant, relatively simple, and efficient solutions to concurrent error detection and recovery problems in multiprocessors. Specific fault tolerance mechanisms for upset exposure, fault containment, secure task assignment, and recovery are developed for a class of applicative multiprocessor architectures. Verification of abstract behavioral characteristics of applicative tasks is used for exposing faults during the execution of tasks. The fault containment mechanism is based on isolation of stack and heap segments of tasks. A protocol for secure task assignment is defined between system components. The architecture permits incremental, distributed, and asynchronous backups of system state. Finally, recovery is accomplished, even in the worst cases, by re-execution of a small number of tasks.

Sharma, Madhumitra; Fuchs, W. Kent

1987-01-01

451

A Software Architecture for High Level Applications  

SciTech Connect

A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.

Shen,G.

2009-05-04

452

Component nextgen: a sound and expressive component framework for java  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing a general component system for a statically typed, object-oriented language is a challenging design problem for two reasons. First, mutually recursive references across components are common in object-oriented programs-an issue that has proven troublesome in the context of component systems for functional and procedural languages. Second, inheritance across component boundaries can cause accidental method overrides. Our recent research shows

James Sasitorn; Robert Cartwright

2007-01-01

453

Component nextgen: a sound and expressive component framework for java  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing a general component system for a statically typed, object-oriented language is a challenging design problem for two reasons. First, mutually recursive refer- ences across components are common in object-oriented programs—an issue that has proven troublesome in the context of component systems for functional and proce- dural languages. Second, inheritance across component boundaries can cause accidental method overrides. Our recent

James Sasitorn; Robert Cartwright

2007-01-01