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Sample records for common embryologic basis

  1. Conjoined twins: theoretical embryologic basis.

    PubMed

    Spencer, R

    1992-06-01

    A theoretical basis for the embryology of conjoined twins was formulated from clinical experience with ten cases and extensive review of pertinent embryologic and clinical literature, including over 500 cases. Regarding the age old question of fusion or fission, it is concluded that there is no known embryologic process by which conjoined twins can be formed by fission but firm evidence to support fusion in all cases. Whether the fusion occurs between embryos on one embryonic disc or on two is of no consequence since they are all monovular. Intact ectoderm will not fuse to intact ectoderm, and all seven types of conjoined twins are explained by seven possible sites of union in the early embryo. One new term is proposed: parapagus, from the Greek para, meaning "side," combined with pagus, meaning "fixed"; this is the group formerly called dicephalus or diprosopos. These anterolaterally united parapagus twins must result from two nearly parallel notochords in close proximity; craniopagi and pygopagi from fusion at the cranial and caudal neuropores, respectively; cephalopagi and ischiopagi from union at the pharyngeal and cloacal membranes, respectively; thoracopagi from merging of the cardiac anlage; and omphalopagi from fusion of the umbilicus or of the edges of two embryonic discs in any area not including the above sites. Parasitic twins result from embryonic death of one twin, leaving various portions of the body vascularized by the surviving autosite. The rarity of cases (2) not easily explained by the above theories, and the nearly 6% of twins with two umbilical cords arising from the placenta would seem to support these conclusions. Should one wish to learn the methods of a conjurer, he might vainly watch the latter's customary repertoire, and, so long as everything went smoothly, might never obtain a clue to the mysterious performance, baffled by the precision of the manipulations and the complexity of the apparatus; if, however, a single error were made in

  2. Embryologic and anatomic basis of duodenal surgery.

    PubMed

    Androulakis, J; Colborn, G L; Skandalakis, P N; Skandalakis, L J; Skandalakis, J E

    2000-02-01

    The following points should be remembered by surgeons (Table 1). In writing about the head of the pancreas, the common bile duct, and the duodenum in 1979, the authors stated that Embryologically, anatomically and surgically these three entities form an inseparable unit. Their relations and blood supply make it impossible for the surgeon to remove completely the head of the pancreas without removing the duodenum and the distal part of the common bile duct. Here embryology and anatomy conspire to produce some of the most difficult surgery of the abdominal cavity. The only alternative procedure, the so-called 95% pancreatectomy, leaves a rim of pancreas along the medial border of the duodenum to preserve the duodenal blood supply. The authors had several conversations with Child, one of the pioneers of this procedure, whose constant message was to always be careful with the blood supply of the duodenum (personal communication, 1970). Beger et al popularized duodenum-preserving resection of the pancreatic head, emphasizing preservation of endocrine pancreatic function. They reported that ampullectomy (removal of the papilla and ampulla of Vater) carries a mortality rate of less than 0.4% and a morbidity rate of less than 10.0%. Surgeons should not ligate the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries because such ligation may cause necrosis of the head of the pancreas and of much of the duodenum. The accessory pancreatic duct of Santorini passes under the gastrointestinal artery. For safety, surgeons should ligate the artery away from the anterior medial duodenal wall, where the papilla is located, thereby avoiding injury to or ligation of the duct. "Water under the bridge" applies not only to the relationship of the uterine artery and ureter but also to the gastroduodenal artery and the accessory pancreatic duct. In 10% of cases, the duct of Santorini is the only duct draining the pancreas, so ligation of the gastroduodenal artery with accidental inclusion of

  3. The embryological basis of subclinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Captur, Gabriella; Ho, Carolyn Y; Schlossarek, Saskia; Kerwin, Janet; Mirabel, Mariana; Wilson, Robert; Rosmini, Stefania; Obianyo, Chinwe; Reant, Patricia; Bassett, Paul; Cook, Andrew C; Lindsay, Susan; McKenna, William J; Mills, Kevin; Elliott, Perry M; Mohun, Timothy J; Carrier, Lucie; Moon, James C

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is caused by mutations in sarcomeric proteins, the commonest being MYBPC3 encoding myosin-binding protein C. It is characterised by left ventricular hypertrophy but there is an important pre-hypertrophic phenotype with features including crypts, abnormal mitral leaflets and trabeculae. We investigated these during mouse cardiac development using high-resolution episcopic microscopy. In embryonic hearts from wildtype, homozygous (HO) and heterozygous (HET) Mybpc3-targeted knock-out (KO) mice we show that crypts (one or two) are a normal part of wildtype development but they almost all resolve by birth. By contrast, HO and HET embryos had increased crypt presence, abnormal mitral valve formation and alterations in the compaction process. In scarce normal human embryos, crypts were sometimes present. This study shows that features of the human pre-hypertrophic HCM phenotype occur in the mouse. In an animal model we demonstrate that there is an embryological HCM phenotype. Crypts are a normal part of cardiac development but, along with the mitral valve and trabeculae, their developmental trajectory is altered by the presence of HCM truncating Mybpc3 gene mutation. PMID:27323879

  4. The embryological basis of subclinical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Captur, Gabriella; Ho, Carolyn Y.; Schlossarek, Saskia; Kerwin, Janet; Mirabel, Mariana; Wilson, Robert; Rosmini, Stefania; Obianyo, Chinwe; Reant, Patricia; Bassett, Paul; Cook, Andrew C.; Lindsay, Susan; McKenna, William J.; Mills, Kevin; Elliott, Perry M.; Mohun, Timothy J.; Carrier, Lucie; Moon, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is caused by mutations in sarcomeric proteins, the commonest being MYBPC3 encoding myosin-binding protein C. It is characterised by left ventricular hypertrophy but there is an important pre-hypertrophic phenotype with features including crypts, abnormal mitral leaflets and trabeculae. We investigated these during mouse cardiac development using high-resolution episcopic microscopy. In embryonic hearts from wildtype, homozygous (HO) and heterozygous (HET) Mybpc3-targeted knock-out (KO) mice we show that crypts (one or two) are a normal part of wildtype development but they almost all resolve by birth. By contrast, HO and HET embryos had increased crypt presence, abnormal mitral valve formation and alterations in the compaction process. In scarce normal human embryos, crypts were sometimes present. This study shows that features of the human pre-hypertrophic HCM phenotype occur in the mouse. In an animal model we demonstrate that there is an embryological HCM phenotype. Crypts are a normal part of cardiac development but, along with the mitral valve and trabeculae, their developmental trajectory is altered by the presence of HCM truncating Mybpc3 gene mutation. PMID:27323879

  5. Plato's Embryology.

    PubMed

    Wilberding, James

    2015-01-01

    Embryology was a subject that inspired great cross-disciplinary discussion in antiquity, and Plato's Timaeus made an important contribution to this discussion, though Plato's precise views have remained a matter of controversy, especially regarding three key questions pertaining to the generation and nature of the seed: whether there is a female seed; what the nature of seed is; and whether the seed contains a preformed human being. In this paper I argue that Plato's positions on these three issues can be adequately determined, even if some other aspects of his theory cannot. In particular, it is argued that (i) Plato subscribes to the encephalo-myelogenic theory of seed, though he places particular emphasis on the soul being the true seed; (ii) Plato is a two-seed theorist, yet the female seed appears to make no contribution to reproduction; and (iii) Plato cannot be an advocate of preformationism. PMID:26415349

  6. The Embryology of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorge, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    More than 50 years after the appearance of the term "gender" in the clinical setting, we have yet to uncover the mechanisms and factors that lead to gender identity formation. Based on human embryology principles, the scientific reasoning with regard to the sexual differentiation of the body is erroneously applied to gender identity formation. The…

  7. Acid-shock, aluminium, and presence of Sphagnum aurantiacum: effect on embryological development in the common frog, Rana temporaria and the moor frog, Rana arvalis

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, M.; Hogstrand, C.; Dahlberg, A.; Berglind, S.A.

    1987-07-01

    During the last two decades, several effects of acidification have been shown, e.g., enhanced leaching of metals from sediments and soil. Furthermore, an increased growth of Sphagnum aurantiacum frequently occurs in acidified waters. The aim of the present study is to investigate some effects of acidification on the embryological development on two Anurans. The toxicity of aluminium is thought to vary with pH. The highest toxicity of aluminium in the hydroxyl form have been found at pH 5. In the present study a laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the toxicity of Al to frog embryos in water with pH 5.0. In acidified waters Sphagnum and especially S. aurantiacum, is competitive and quickly become established. It has been indicated that frog spawn deposited on Sphagnum show an unusually high mortality and questions have been raised if Sphagnum reinforces the detrimental effects of acidification on Anuran reproduction.

  8. Penile embryology and anatomy.

    PubMed

    Yiee, Jenny H; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7th and 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions. PMID:20602076

  9. A common biological basis of obesity and nicotine addiction

    PubMed Central

    Thorgeirsson, T E; Gudbjartsson, D F; Sulem, P; Besenbacher, S; Styrkarsdottir, U; Thorleifsson, G; Walters, G B; Furberg, H; Sullivan, P F; Marchini, J; McCarthy, M I; Steinthorsdottir, V; Thorsteinsdottir, U; Stefansson, K

    2013-01-01

    Smoking influences body weight such that smokers weigh less than non-smokers and smoking cessation often leads to weight increase. The relationship between body weight and smoking is partly explained by the effect of nicotine on appetite and metabolism. However, the brain reward system is involved in the control of the intake of both food and tobacco. We evaluated the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting body mass index (BMI) on smoking behavior, and tested the 32 SNPs identified in a meta-analysis for association with two smoking phenotypes, smoking initiation (SI) and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in an Icelandic sample (N=34 216 smokers). Combined according to their effect on BMI, the SNPs correlate with both SI (r=0.019, P=0.00054) and CPD (r=0.032, P=8.0 × 10−7). These findings replicate in a second large data set (N=127 274, thereof 76 242 smokers) for both SI (P=1.2 × 10−5) and CPD (P=9.3 × 10−5). Notably, the variant most strongly associated with BMI (rs1558902-A in FTO) did not associate with smoking behavior. The association with smoking behavior is not due to the effect of the SNPs on BMI. Our results strongly point to a common biological basis of the regulation of our appetite for tobacco and food, and thus the vulnerability to nicotine addiction and obesity. PMID:24084939

  10. A common biological basis of obesity and nicotine addiction.

    PubMed

    Thorgeirsson, T E; Gudbjartsson, D F; Sulem, P; Besenbacher, S; Styrkarsdottir, U; Thorleifsson, G; Walters, G B; Furberg, H; Sullivan, P F; Marchini, J; McCarthy, M I; Steinthorsdottir, V; Thorsteinsdottir, U; Stefansson, K

    2013-01-01

    Smoking influences body weight such that smokers weigh less than non-smokers and smoking cessation often leads to weight increase. The relationship between body weight and smoking is partly explained by the effect of nicotine on appetite and metabolism. However, the brain reward system is involved in the control of the intake of both food and tobacco. We evaluated the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting body mass index (BMI) on smoking behavior, and tested the 32 SNPs identified in a meta-analysis for association with two smoking phenotypes, smoking initiation (SI) and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in an Icelandic sample (N=34,216 smokers). Combined according to their effect on BMI, the SNPs correlate with both SI (r=0.019, P=0.00054) and CPD (r=0.032, P=8.0 × 10(-7)). These findings replicate in a second large data set (N=127,274, thereof 76,242 smokers) for both SI (P=1.2 × 10(-5)) and CPD (P=9.3 × 10(-5)). Notably, the variant most strongly associated with BMI (rs1558902-A in FTO) did not associate with smoking behavior. The association with smoking behavior is not due to the effect of the SNPs on BMI. Our results strongly point to a common biological basis of the regulation of our appetite for tobacco and food, and thus the vulnerability to nicotine addiction and obesity. PMID:24084939

  11. Embryological Staging of the Zebra Finch, Taeniopygia guttata

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Jessica R; Varian-Ramos, Claire W; Welch, Zoe S; Saha, Margaret S

    2013-01-01

    Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are the most commonly used laboratory songbird species, yet their embryological development has been poorly characterized. Most studies to date apply Hamburger and Hamilton stages derived from chicken development; however, significant differences in development between precocial and altricial species suggest that they may not be directly comparable. We provide the first detailed description of embryological development in the Zebra Finch under standard artificial incubation. These descriptions confirm that some of the features used to classify chicken embryos into stages are not applicable in an altricial bird such as the Zebra Finch. This staging protocol will help to standardize future studies of embryological development in the Zebra Finch. J. Morphol. 274:1090–1110, 2013. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Morphology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23813920

  12. Is there a Common Genetic Basis for Autoimmune Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Gómez, LuisMiguel; Castiblanco, John

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) represent a diverse collection of diseases in terms of their demographic profile and primary clinical manifestations. The commonality between them however, is the damage to tissues and organs that arises from the response to self-antigens. The presence of shared pathophysiological mechanisms within ADs has stimulated searches for common genetic roots to these diseases. Two approaches have been undertaken to sustain the “common genetic origin” theory of ADs. Firstly, a clinical genetic analysis showed that autoimmunity aggregates within families of probands diagnosed with primary Sjögren's (pSS) syndrome or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). A literature review supported the establishment of a familiar cluster of ADs depending upon the proband's disease phenotype. Secondly, in a same and well-defined population, a large genetic association study indicated that a number of polymorphic genes (i.e. HLA-DRB1, TNF and PTPN22) influence the susceptibility for acquiring different ADs. Likewise, association and linkage studies in different populations have revealed that several susceptibility loci overlap in ADs, and clinical studies have shown that frequent clustering of several ADs occurs. Thus, the genetic factors for ADs consist of two types: those which are common to many ADs (acting in epistatic pleitropy) and those that are specific to a given disorder. Their identification and functional characterization will allow us to predict their effect as well as to indicate potential new therapeutic interventions. Both autoimmunity family history and the co-occurrence of ADs in affected probands should be considered when performing genetic association and linkage studies. PMID:17162361

  13. Objective basis of the common law of population.

    PubMed

    Ma, S

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between social production and population growth in China's Marxist society. Marxist population theory states that the mode of social production determines the law of population. The law of population is peculiar to that society and is a natural law. Population cannot be studied apart from the specific production mode. Social production also determines the common law of population since the common law exists in the specific law peculiar to a society. Population phenomena, population growth, and relations between population and social economy have common characteristics in different societies. Material production determines population production, and only within the socialist society are the 2 conditions of public ownership of production means and scientific, technological, and medical development present so that population growth is planned. Marx's historical materialism describes the relationship between production relations and productive forces, and may be applied to other social forms. Only through study of historical materialism can people see capitalism's historical limitations and socialism's superiority. Capitalism oppresses and exploits laboring people. The capitalist law of population surplus stems from the capitalist mode of production, and is a special manifestation of the law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production; it results in anarchic competition and periodic economic crises. The law of conformity between the 2 kinds of production does not exist objectively and in different societies cannot be measured by the same rule. This law is the scientific abstraction of the particular laws of all societies; it acts as a particular law only with given modes of social production. In any society, lack of conformity between 2 kinds of production cannot last. In capitalistic societies, the ruling class changes the production relations of some of the superstructure to alleviate the nonconformity between the 2 kinds of

  14. Embryological observations on the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Acién, P

    1992-04-01

    The embryology of the genital tract and urinary system is described, and the hypothesis is advanced that the vagina is an organ embryologically derived from the mesonephric or Wolffian ducts in addition to the Müllerian tubercle. This is based on experimental studies and case reports in the literature and our own cases of genital malformations, especially in patients with unilateral renal agenesis and an ipsilateral blind vagina. The importance of the mesonephric ducts as guides or 'inductor' elements for adequate Müllerian development is emphasized. A new embryological classification of female genital malformations is proposed, based on these embryological concepts. PMID:1522183

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of Skin Color Variation in Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Songhao; Xu, Jian; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains. Conclusions In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values. PMID:25255374

  16. Normal development and experimental embryology: Edmund Beecher Wilson and Amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Lowe, James W E

    2016-06-01

    This paper concerns the concept of normal development, and how it is enacted in experimental procedures. To that end, I use an historical case study to assess the three ways in which normal development is and has been produced, used, and interpreted in the practice of experimental biology. I argue that each of these approaches involves different processes of abstraction, which manage biological variation differently. I then document the way in which Edmund Beecher Wilson, a key contributor to late-nineteenth century experimental embryology, approached the study of normal development and show that his work does not fit any of the three established categories in the taxonomy. On the basis of this new case study, I present a new interpretation of normal development as a methodological norm which operates as a technical condition in various experimental systems. I close by suggesting the questions, and ways of investigating developmental biology, that are opened up by this perspective. PMID:27054569

  17. Exploring the common molecular basis for the universal DNA mutation bias: Revival of Loewdin mutation model

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Liang-Yu; Wang, Guang-Zhong; Ma, Bin-Guang; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} There exists a universal G:C {yields} A:T mutation bias in three domains of life. {yields} This universal mutation bias has not been sufficiently explained. {yields} A DNA mutation model proposed by Loewdin 40 years ago offers a common explanation. -- Abstract: Recently, numerous genome analyses revealed the existence of a universal G:C {yields} A:T mutation bias in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. To explore the molecular basis for this mutation bias, we examined the three well-known DNA mutation models, i.e., oxidative damage model, UV-radiation damage model and CpG hypermutation model. It was revealed that these models cannot provide a sufficient explanation to the universal mutation bias. Therefore, we resorted to a DNA mutation model proposed by Loewdin 40 years ago, which was based on inter-base double proton transfers (DPT). Since DPT is a fundamental and spontaneous chemical process and occurs much more frequently within GC pairs than AT pairs, Loewdin model offers a common explanation for the observed universal mutation bias and thus has broad biological implications.

  18. The Building of Democratic Organizations: An Embryological Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cafferata, Gail Lee

    1982-01-01

    Patterns of bureaucratization and democratization in voluntary organizations may be explained by four principles of embryology: (1) the irreversibility of embryological development, (2) the canalization or branching of developmental pathways, (3) the induction of developmental change by the interaction of internal stimuli, and (4) the…

  19. Developing germplasm resources to identify the genetic basis of resistance to common scab in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common scab, caused mainly by the soil-borne bacterium Streptomyces scabies, produces lesions on potato tubers, reducing tuber quality and profitability. Methods to manage common scab are often expensive, impractical, and can be ineffective. Therefore, creating cultivars that are resistant to common...

  20. [The Baltic countries as the birthplace of embryology. Contingencies of a transnational region of science].

    PubMed

    Riha, Ortrun; Schmuck, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Modern embryology is grounded on the research of Pander (theory of germ-layers), von Baer (human egg) and Rathke (branchial arches in mammals). All these scientists lived and worked in the Baltic region. They held professorships at the universities of Koenigsberg and Dorpat and at the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg, thus moving between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Russian Czardom. Since the Baltic countries are not commonly considered to be predestined as a birthplace of embryology, special attention is turned to the coincidences that, there of all places, made those people focus on that special field of research. Considering the peripheral position of the Baltic, the paper examines personal relations, national identities, cultural exchange, and local working conditions, including room for development as well as formidable obstacles. PMID:21563375

  1. For the Classroom: The Sea Urchin Fertilization and Embryology Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevoort, Douglas

    1984-01-01

    The sea urchin provides an ideal embryology laboratory because it is visually representative of the fertilization process in higher animals. Procedures for conducting such a laboratory (including methods for securing specimens) are provided. (JN)

  2. Embryology in the era of proteomics.

    PubMed

    Katz-Jaffe, M G; Gardner, D K

    2007-09-01

    Currently, relatively little is known regarding the protein production of mammalian embryos. Unlike the genome, the proteome itself is dynamic reflecting both internal and external environmental stimuli. Until now the lack of sensitivity has remained a stumbling block for the global introduction of proteomics into the field of mammalian embryology. However, new developments in mass spectrometry have been revolutionary, utilizing protein profiling and peptide sequencing to elucidate underlying biological processes. The sensitivity of these platforms have allowed for the development of new protocols that are capable of profiling the proteome of individual mammalian oocytes and embryos. This information is fundamental to unravelling the complexity of embryo physiology including the dialogue between the developing embryo and its maternal environment. Such proteomic approaches are also assisting in the optimization of ART techniques, including oocyte cryopreservation and in vitro maturation. Embryo selection for transfer is another area of ART that should benefit in this era of proteomics. Currently, mammalian embryos are selected for transfer based on morphological grading systems. Although of great value, analysis of morphology alone cannot determine the embryo's physiological state or chromosomal complement. Subsequently, there is a need to identify in culture those embryos with the highest implantation potential. Proteomic analysis of the embryonic secretome (proteins produced by the embryo and secreted into the surrounding medium) followed by the identification of specific proteins critical for implantation, may lead to the development of a non-invasive viability assay to assist in the selection of embryos for transfer. PMID:17477967

  3. Common-Cause Failure Treatment in Event Assessment: Basis for a Proposed New Model

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Kelly; Song-Hua Shen; Gary DeMoss; Kevin Coyne; Don Marksberry

    2010-06-01

    Event assessment is an application of probabilistic risk assessment in which observed equipment failures and outages are mapped into the risk model to obtain a numerical estimate of the event’s risk significance. In this paper, we focus on retrospective assessments to estimate the risk significance of degraded conditions such as equipment failure accompanied by a deficiency in a process such as maintenance practices. In modeling such events, the basic events in the risk model that are associated with observed failures and other off-normal situations are typically configured to be failed, while those associated with observed successes and unchallenged components are assumed capable of failing, typically with their baseline probabilities. This is referred to as the failure memory approach to event assessment. The conditioning of common-cause failure probabilities for the common cause component group associated with the observed component failure is particularly important, as it is insufficient to simply leave these probabilities at their baseline values, and doing so may result in a significant underestimate of risk significance for the event. Past work in this area has focused on the mathematics of the adjustment. In this paper, we review the Basic Parameter Model for common-cause failure, which underlies most current risk modelling, discuss the limitations of this model with respect to event assessment, and introduce a proposed new framework for common-cause failure, which uses a Bayesian network to model underlying causes of failure, and which has the potential to overcome the limitations of the Basic Parameter Model with respect to event assessment.

  4. Genetic basis of common diseases: the general theory of Mendelian recessive genetics.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Michael; Spanaki, Cleanthe; Lebedev, Sergey; Plaitakis, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Common diseases tend to appear sporadically, i.e., they appear in an individual who has no first or second degree relatives with the disease. Yet diseases are often associated with a slight but definite increase in risk to the children of an affected individual. This weak pattern of inheritability cannot be explained by conventional interpretations of Mendelian genetics, and it is therefore commonly held that there is "incomplete penetrance" of a gene, or that there are polygenic, or multifactorial modes of inheritance. However, such arguments are heuristic and lack predictive power. Here, we explore the possibility that "incomplete penetrance" means the existence of a second, disease-related, gene. By examining in detail a specific common condition, Parkinson's disease (PD), we show that the sporadic form of the disease can be fully explained by a compact fully penetrant genotype involving an interaction between two, and only two, genes. In this model, therefore PD is fundamentally genetic. Our digenic model is complementary to Mendelian recessive genetics, but taken together with the latter forms a complete description for recessive genetics on one chromosome. It explains the slight increase in risk to the children if one parent has sporadic PD, and makes strict predictions where both parents coincidentally have sporadic PD. These predictions were verified in two large and carefully selected kindred, where the data also argue against other genetic models, including oligogenic and polygenic schemes. Since the inheritance patterns of sporadic PD are reminiscent of what is seen in many common diseases, it is plausible that similar genetic forms could apply to other diseases. Seen in this light, diseases wash in and out of every family, so that in a sense, over time every human family is equally at risk for most diseases. PMID:15922101

  5. Progress and promise in understanding the genetic basis of common diseases.

    PubMed

    Price, Alkes L; Spencer, Chris C A; Donnelly, Peter

    2015-12-22

    Susceptibility to common human diseases is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The explosive growth of genetic data, and the knowledge that it is generating, are transforming our biological understanding of these diseases. In this review, we describe the technological and analytical advances that have enabled genome-wide association studies to be successful in identifying a large number of genetic variants robustly associated with common disease. We examine the biological insights that these genetic associations are beginning to produce, from functional mechanisms involving individual genes to biological pathways linking associated genes, and the identification of functional annotations, some of which are cell-type-specific, enriched in disease associations. Although most efforts have focused on identifying and interpreting genetic variants that are irrefutably associated with disease, it is increasingly clear that--even at large sample sizes--these represent only the tip of the iceberg of genetic signal, motivating polygenic analyses that consider the effects of genetic variants throughout the genome, including modest effects that are not individually statistically significant. As data from an increasingly large number of diseases and traits are analysed, pleiotropic effects (defined as genetic loci affecting multiple phenotypes) can help integrate our biological understanding. Looking forward, the next generation of population-scale data resources, linking genomic information with health outcomes, will lead to another step-change in our ability to understand, and treat, common diseases. PMID:26702037

  6. Progress and promise in understanding the genetic basis of common diseases

    PubMed Central

    Price, Alkes L.; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Donnelly, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility to common human diseases is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The explosive growth of genetic data, and the knowledge that it is generating, are transforming our biological understanding of these diseases. In this review, we describe the technological and analytical advances that have enabled genome-wide association studies to be successful in identifying a large number of genetic variants robustly associated with common disease. We examine the biological insights that these genetic associations are beginning to produce, from functional mechanisms involving individual genes to biological pathways linking associated genes, and the identification of functional annotations, some of which are cell-type-specific, enriched in disease associations. Although most efforts have focused on identifying and interpreting genetic variants that are irrefutably associated with disease, it is increasingly clear that—even at large sample sizes—these represent only the tip of the iceberg of genetic signal, motivating polygenic analyses that consider the effects of genetic variants throughout the genome, including modest effects that are not individually statistically significant. As data from an increasingly large number of diseases and traits are analysed, pleiotropic effects (defined as genetic loci affecting multiple phenotypes) can help integrate our biological understanding. Looking forward, the next generation of population-scale data resources, linking genomic information with health outcomes, will lead to another step-change in our ability to understand, and treat, common diseases. PMID:26702037

  7. [Embryological and genetic mechanisms of cardiac great arteries malformations].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Damien; Zaffran, Stéphane; Kelly, Robert; Bajolle, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    Developmental genetics of congenital heart diseases have evolved from analysis of embryonic hearts towards molecular genetics of cardiac morphogenesis with a dynamic view of cardiac development. Ablation techniques, transgenic animal models and clonal analysis of the developing heart led to identification of different cardiac lineages and their respective roles. The mechanistic approach for great arteries anomalies has led to emerging concepts such as common embryological origin of anatomically different cardiac defects, phenotypic continuum of left heart obstructive defects, or developmental algorithms for cardiac isomerisms. Recent experiments that demonstrated the myocardial rotation of the outflow tract in mouse embryos led to a better understanding of the origin of transposition of the large arteries. This has also raised the hypothesis of a new group of congenital heart anomalies defined as laterality defects limited to a segment of the embryonic heart. These results confirm that genetic heterogeneity of congenital heart defects is related to the heterogeneity of the mechanisms that finally produce the same phenotype. PMID:19527629

  8. No evidence for shared genetic basis of common variants in multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Goris, An; van Setten, Jessica; Diekstra, Frank; Ripke, Stephan; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; Sawcer, Stephen J.; van Es, Michael; Andersen, Peter M.; Melki, Judith; Meininger, Vincent; Hardiman, Orla; Landers, John E.; Brown, Robert H.; Shatunov, Aleksey; Leigh, Nigel; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shaw, Christopher E.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Chiò, Adriano; Restagno, Gabriella; Mora, Gabriele; Ophoff, Roel A.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.; Van Damme, Philip; Compston, Alastair; Robberecht, Wim; Dubois, Bénédicte; van den Berg, Leonard H.; De Jager, Philip L.; Veldink, Jan H.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have been successful in identifying common variants that influence the susceptibility to complex diseases. From these studies, it has emerged that there is substantial overlap in susceptibility loci between diseases. In line with those findings, we hypothesized that shared genetic pathways may exist between multiple sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). While both diseases may have inflammatory and neurodegenerative features, epidemiological studies have indicated an increased co-occurrence within individuals and families. To this purpose, we combined genome-wide data from 4088 MS patients, 3762 ALS patients and 12 030 healthy control individuals in whom 5 440 446 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were successfully genotyped or imputed. We tested these SNPs for the excess association shared between MS and ALS and also explored whether polygenic models of SNPs below genome-wide significance could explain some of the observed trait variance between diseases. Genome-wide association meta-analysis of SNPs as well as polygenic analyses fails to provide evidence in favor of an overlap in genetic susceptibility between MS and ALS. Hence, our findings do not support a shared genetic background of common risk variants in MS and ALS. PMID:24234648

  9. A common genetic basis to the origin of the leaf economics spectrum and metabolic scaling allometry.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, François; Violle, Cyrille; Enquist, Brian J; Granier, Christine; Vile, Denis

    2012-10-01

    Many facets of plant form and function are reflected in general cross-taxa scaling relationships. Metabolic scaling theory (MST) and the leaf economics spectrum (LES) have each proposed unifying frameworks and organisational principles to understand the origin of botanical diversity. Here, we test the evolutionary assumptions of MST and the LES using a cross of two genetic variants of Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that there is enough genetic variation to generate a large fraction of variation in the LES and MST scaling functions. The progeny sharing the parental, naturally occurring, allelic combinations at two pleiotropic genes exhibited the theorised optimum ¾ allometric scaling of growth rate and intermediate leaf economics. Our findings: (1) imply that a few pleiotropic genes underlie many plant functional traits and life histories; (2) unify MST and LES within a common genetic framework and (3) suggest that observed intermediate size and longevity in natural populations originate from stabilising selection to optimise physiological trade-offs. PMID:22856883

  10. The ALMA Common Software as a Basis for a Distributed Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffi, Gianni; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Glendenning, Brian

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project involving astronomical organizations in Europe, North America and Japan. ALMA will consist of 64 12-m antennas operating in the millimetre and sub-millimetre wavelength range, with baselines of more than 10 km. It will be located at an altitude above 5000 m in the Chilean Atacama desert. The ALMA Computing group is a joint group with staff scattered on 3 continents and is responsible for all the control and data flow software related to ALMA, including tools ranging from support of proposal preparation to archive access of automatically created images. Early in the project it was decided that an ALMA Common Software (ACS) would be developed as a way to provide to all partners involved in the development a common software platform. The original assumption was that some key middleware like communication via CORBA and the use of XML and Java would be part of the project. It was intended from the beginning to develop this software in an incremental way based on releases, so that it would then evolve into an essential embedded part of all ALMA software applications. In this way we would build a basic unity and coherence into a system that will have been developed in a distributed fashion. This paper evaluates our progress after 1.5 year of work, following a few tests and preliminary releases. It analyzes the advantages and difficulties of such an ambitious approach, which creates an interface across all the various control and data flow applications.

  11. Anomalous pulmonary venous connections and related anomalies: nomenclature, embryology, anatomy, and morphology.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael J; Ungerleider, Ross M; Aiello, Vera D; Spicer, Diane; Giroud, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    This article combines material from three complementary overviews presented in the Symposium on Pulmonary Venous Anomalies during the Joint Meeting of the World Society for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery and Sociedad Latina de Cardiologia y Cirugia Cardiovascular Pediátrica in Lima, Peru. We discuss the embryologic basis for nomenclature, the hierarchical diagnostic categories, and the important anatomic and morphologic characteristics of anomalous pulmonary venous connections. The anatomic descriptions help to guide an understandable and sensible approach to the diagnosis and surgical management of these various disorders. PMID:23799752

  12. Large variation among photoreceptors as the basis of visual flexibility in the common backswimmer

    PubMed Central

    Immonen, Esa-Ville; Ignatova, Irina; Gislen, Anna; Warrant, Eric; Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko; Weckström, Matti; Frolov, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The common backswimmer, Notonecta glauca, uses vision by day and night for functions such as underwater prey animal capture and flight in search of new habitats. Although previous studies have identified some of the physiological mechanisms facilitating such flexibility in the animal's vision, neither the biophysics of Notonecta photoreceptors nor possible cellular adaptations are known. Here, we studied Notonecta photoreceptors using patch-clamp and intracellular recording methods. Photoreceptor size (approximated by capacitance) was positively correlated with absolute sensitivity and acceptance angles. Information rate measurements indicated that large and more sensitive photoreceptors performed better than small ones. Our results suggest that backswimmers are adapted for vision in both dim and well-illuminated environments by having open-rhabdom eyes with large intrinsic variation in absolute sensitivity among photoreceptors, exceeding those found in purely diurnal or nocturnal species. Both electrophysiology and microscopic analysis of retinal structure suggest two retinal subsystems: the largest peripheral photoreceptors provide vision in dim light and the smaller peripheral and central photoreceptors function primarily in sunlight, with light-dependent pigment screening further contributing to adaptation in this system by dynamically recruiting photoreceptors with varying sensitivity into the operational pool. PMID:25274359

  13. Global Neural Pattern Similarity as a Common Basis for Categorization and Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Gui; Love, Bradley C.; Preston, Alison R.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Familiarity, or memory strength, is a central construct in models of cognition. In previous categorization and long-term memory research, correlations have been found between psychological measures of memory strength and activation in the medial temporal lobes (MTLs), which suggests a common neural locus for memory strength. However, activation alone is insufficient for determining whether the same mechanisms underlie neural function across domains. Guided by mathematical models of categorization and long-term memory, we develop a theory and a method to test whether memory strength arises from the global similarity among neural representations. In human subjects, we find significant correlations between global similarity among activation patterns in the MTLs and both subsequent memory confidence in a recognition memory task and model-based measures of memory strength in a category learning task. Our work bridges formal cognitive theories and neuroscientific models by illustrating that the same global similarity computations underlie processing in multiple cognitive domains. Moreover, by establishing a link between neural similarity and psychological memory strength, our findings suggest that there may be an isomorphism between psychological and neural representational spaces that can be exploited to test cognitive theories at both the neural and behavioral levels. PMID:24872552

  14. Large variation among photoreceptors as the basis of visual flexibility in the common backswimmer.

    PubMed

    Immonen, Esa-Ville; Ignatova, Irina; Gislen, Anna; Warrant, Eric; Vähäsöyrinki, Mikko; Weckström, Matti; Frolov, Roman

    2014-11-22

    The common backswimmer, Notonecta glauca, uses vision by day and night for functions such as underwater prey animal capture and flight in search of new habitats. Although previous studies have identified some of the physiological mechanisms facilitating such flexibility in the animal's vision, neither the biophysics of Notonecta photoreceptors nor possible cellular adaptations are known. Here, we studied Notonecta photoreceptors using patch-clamp and intracellular recording methods. Photoreceptor size (approximated by capacitance) was positively correlated with absolute sensitivity and acceptance angles. Information rate measurements indicated that large and more sensitive photoreceptors performed better than small ones. Our results suggest that backswimmers are adapted for vision in both dim and well-illuminated environments by having open-rhabdom eyes with large intrinsic variation in absolute sensitivity among photoreceptors, exceeding those found in purely diurnal or nocturnal species. Both electrophysiology and microscopic analysis of retinal structure suggest two retinal subsystems: the largest peripheral photoreceptors provide vision in dim light and the smaller peripheral and central photoreceptors function primarily in sunlight, with light-dependent pigment screening further contributing to adaptation in this system by dynamically recruiting photoreceptors with varying sensitivity into the operational pool. PMID:25274359

  15. The molecular basis of variable phenotypic severity among common missense mutations causing Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kyla; Selfridge, Jim; Lagger, Sabine; Connelly, John; De Sousa, Dina; Kerr, Alastair; Webb, Shaun; Guy, Jacky; Merusi, Cara; Koerner, Martha V; Bird, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Rett syndrome is caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene, which encodes a chromosomal protein that binds to methylated DNA. Mouse models mirror the human disorder and therefore allow investigation of phenotypes at a molecular level. We describe an Mecp2 allelic series representing the three most common missense Rett syndrome (RTT) mutations, including first reports of Mecp2[R133C] and Mecp2[T158M] knock-in mice, in addition to Mecp2[R306C] mutant mice. Together these three alleles comprise ∼25% of all RTT mutations in humans, but they vary significantly in average severity. This spectrum is mimicked in the mouse models; R133C being least severe, T158M most severe and R306C of intermediate severity. Both R133C and T158M mutations cause compound phenotypes at the molecular level, combining compromised DNA binding with reduced stability, the destabilizing effect of T158M being more severe. Our findings contradict the hypothesis that the R133C mutation exclusively abolishes binding to hydroxymethylated DNA, as interactions with DNA containing methyl-CG, methyl-CA and hydroxymethyl-CA are all reduced in vivo. We find that MeCP2[T158M] is significantly less stable than MeCP2[R133C], which may account for the divergent clinical impact of the mutations. Overall, this allelic series recapitulates human RTT severity, reveals compound molecular aetiologies and provides a valuable resource in the search for personalized therapeutic interventions. PMID:26647311

  16. Embryology and Anatomy of the Jaw and Dentition.

    PubMed

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Poon, Colin S; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Radiologists should possess working knowledge of the embryological development and anatomy of the jaw and dentition in order to aid in the diagnosis of both simple and complex disorders that affect them. Here, we review the elaborate process of odontogenesis, as well as describe in detail the anatomy of a tooth and its surrounding structures. PMID:26589693

  17. A Functional Perspective on the Embryology and Anatomy of the Cerebral Blood Supply.

    PubMed

    Menshawi, Khaled; Mohr, Jay P; Gutierrez, Jose

    2015-05-01

    The anatomy of the arterial system supplying blood to the brain can influence the development of arterial disease such as aneurysms, dolichoectasia and atherosclerosis. As the arteries supplying blood to the brain develop during embryogenesis, variation in their anatomy may occur and this variation may influence the development of arterial disease. Angiogenesis, which occurs mainly by sprouting of parent arteries, is the first stage at which variations can occur. At day 24 of embryological life, the internal carotid artery is the first artery to form and it provides all the blood required by the primitive brain. As the occipital region, brain stem and cerebellum enlarge; the internal carotid supply becomes insufficient, triggering the development of the posterior circulation. At this stage, the posterior circulation consists of a primitive mesh of arterial networks that originate from projection of penetrators from the distal carotid artery and more proximally from carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. These anastomoses regress when the basilar artery and the vertebral arteries become independent from the internal carotid artery, but their persistence is not uncommon in adults (e.g., persistent trigeminal artery). Other common remnants of embryological development include fenestration or duplication (most commonly of the basilar artery), hypoplasia (typically of the posterior communicating artery) or agenesis (typically of the anterior communicating artery). Learning more about the hemodynamic consequence that these variants may have on the brain territories they supply may help understand better the underlying physiopathology of cerebral arterial remodeling and stroke in patients with these variants. PMID:26060802

  18. A Functional Perspective on the Embryology and Anatomy of the Cerebral Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Menshawi, Khaled; Mohr, Jay P

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the arterial system supplying blood to the brain can influence the development of arterial disease such as aneurysms, dolichoectasia and atherosclerosis. As the arteries supplying blood to the brain develop during embryogenesis, variation in their anatomy may occur and this variation may influence the development of arterial disease. Angiogenesis, which occurs mainly by sprouting of parent arteries, is the first stage at which variations can occur. At day 24 of embryological life, the internal carotid artery is the first artery to form and it provides all the blood required by the primitive brain. As the occipital region, brain stem and cerebellum enlarge; the internal carotid supply becomes insufficient, triggering the development of the posterior circulation. At this stage, the posterior circulation consists of a primitive mesh of arterial networks that originate from projection of penetrators from the distal carotid artery and more proximally from carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. These anastomoses regress when the basilar artery and the vertebral arteries become independent from the internal carotid artery, but their persistence is not uncommon in adults (e.g., persistent trigeminal artery). Other common remnants of embryological development include fenestration or duplication (most commonly of the basilar artery), hypoplasia (typically of the posterior communicating artery) or agenesis (typically of the anterior communicating artery). Learning more about the hemodynamic consequence that these variants may have on the brain territories they supply may help understand better the underlying physiopathology of cerebral arterial remodeling and stroke in patients with these variants. PMID:26060802

  19. Syndactylies and polydactylies: embryological overview and suggested classification.

    PubMed

    Winter, R M; Tickle, C

    1993-01-01

    In 1978, Temtamy and McKusick classified isolated, non-syndromic polydactyly and syndactyly, using a logical anatomical approach, into five distinct types for each group. Since then, there have been considerable advances in the molecular embryology of the developing limb bud. These include the proposal that retinoic acid and/or related retinoids are the morphogens responsible for the morphogenetic gradient giving rise to anterior-posterior pattern formation of the limb bud, the suggestion that the HOX4 complex and other homeotic genes may also be involved in patterning, and a greater understanding of other mechanisms such as programmed cell death in the shaping of the final hand and foot. This paper briefly reviews the molecular embryology of limb development and outlines the 'end-organ responsiveness' of the limbs to a variety of single-gene mutations. An alternative classification of syndactylies and polydactylies is suggested. It is still too early to match specific defects to individual genes with precision, and it is obvious that many important developmental genes remain to be identified; nevertheless, it is envisaged that clues from molecular embryological studies will become increasingly more useful. PMID:7915184

  20. Olfactory basis of floral preference of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) among common African plants.

    PubMed

    Nikbakhtzadeh, Mahmood R; Terbot, John W; Otienoburu, Philip E; Foster, Woodbridge A

    2014-12-01

    Mosquitoes of both sexes feed on plants to obtain sugar. Nocturnal species probably locate the plants primarily by their volatile semiochemicals that also form the basis for the mosquitoes' innate plant-species preferences. To evaluate these olfactory preferences quantitatively, we used a two-choice wind-tunnel olfactometer to measure the upwind orientation of Anopheles gambiae Giles, an important vector of malaria in equatorial Africa, toward odor plumes produced by nine plant species common where this mosquito occurs. These plants are reported to induce feeding behaviors in An. gambiae and to produce floral or extrafloral nectar. Results presented here demonstrated that the volatiles of S. didymobotrya, P. hysterophorus, S. occidentalis, and L. camara, in descending order of numbers of mosquitoes responding, were all attractive, compared to a control plant species, whereas D. stramonium, R. communis, S. bicapsularis, T. stans, and T. diversifolia were not. As expected, chromatographic analysis of the headspace of attractive plants whose volatiles were captured by stir-bar sorptive extraction revealed a wide range of compounds, primarily terpenoids. Once their bioactivity and attractiveness for An. gambiae, alone and in blends, has been firmly established, some of these semiochemicals may have applications in population sampling and control. PMID:25424267

  1. The embryology and surgical management of gastroschisis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D F; Atwell, J D

    1976-11-01

    Thirteen cases of gastroschisis are presented and a reduction in the operative mortality to 15 per cent is recorded. The aetiology of the condition is discussed and the opinion expressed that it represents the result of an intra-uterine rupture of an incarcerated "hernia into the cord" rather than any specific failure of development of the abdominal wall musculature. Early skin closure and the creation of a ventral hernia remain the surgical treatment of choice, but it is recognized that the use of a prosthetic sac may occasionally be necessary. Infection is not the most important single factor influencing mortality, and the prolonged administration of prophylactic antibiotics is justified on this basis. Skilled management of the protracted ileus is essential. In view of the low incidence of serious coexistent malformations the children who survive the initial operation can be offered the prospect of a life of normal duration and quality. PMID:137025

  2. Push it to the limit: Characterizing the convergence of common sequences of basis sets for intermolecular interactions as described by density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, Jonathon; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2016-05-01

    With the aim of systematically characterizing the convergence of common families of basis sets such that general recommendations for basis sets can be made, we have tested a wide variety of basis sets against complete-basis binding energies across the S22 set of intermolecular interactions—noncovalent interactions of small and medium-sized molecules consisting of first- and second-row atoms—with three distinct density functional approximations: SPW92, a form of local-density approximation; B3LYP, a global hybrid generalized gradient approximation; and B97M-V, a meta-generalized gradient approximation with nonlocal correlation. We have found that it is remarkably difficult to reach the basis set limit; for the methods and systems examined, the most complete basis is Jensen's pc-4. The Dunning correlation-consistent sequence of basis sets converges slowly relative to the Jensen sequence. The Karlsruhe basis sets are quite cost effective, particularly when a correction for basis set superposition error is applied: counterpoise-corrected def2-SVPD binding energies are better than corresponding energies computed in comparably sized Dunning and Jensen bases, and on par with uncorrected results in basis sets 3-4 times larger. These trends are exhibited regardless of the level of density functional approximation employed. A sense of the magnitude of the intrinsic incompleteness error of each basis set not only provides a foundation for guiding basis set choice in future studies but also facilitates quantitative comparison of existing studies on similar types of systems.

  3. Light Use Efficiency and Photochemical Reflectance Index: do we have a common basis defining them? Implications for productivity estimation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, A. A.; Gamon, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    There are at least three commonly used definitions of photosynthetic Light Use Efficiency (LUE) based on: (a) incident radiation (LUEinc); (b) total absorbed light (LUEtotal); and (c) radiation absorbed by photosynthetically active vegetation (LUEps). Consequently, LUE values reported do not have a common basis, bringing confusion and limiting the utility of reported LUE values for comparative analyses. Not surprisingly, the value of LUE reported in literature varies by a factor of three. Similarly, the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) has different operational definitions, resulting in a wide range of reported values for comparable conditions. The objectives of this paper are to investigate (a) temporal behavior of each definition of LUE; and (b) factors affecting PRI, often used as a surrogate of LUE at leaf and canopy levels. We focused on annual and winter-deciduous vegetation where total chlorophyll content is closely tied to the seasonal dynamics of GPP. In these conditions, LUEinc is closely related to total plant chlorophyll (Chl) content. LUEtotal oscillates around a constant value during the vegetative stage, depending mainly on plant physiological status, PAR composition and magnitude, while in reproductive and senescence stages it relates closely to Chl content. LUEps may vary 2- to 3-fold during the growing season with no clear seasonal pattern, and does not seem to be related to any biophysical characteristic studied; rather, it depends on the physiological status of vegetation, PAR composition and magnitude as well as air temperature and soil moisture. At the leaf level, PRI depends greatly on pigment content and composition and relates closely to the ratio of Chl to carotenoid content. At the canopy and stand levels, both total plant Chl content and green LAI are responsible for more than 95% of PRI variation, demonstrating that PRI is confounded by pigment pool sizes and canopy structure in these conditions. Importantly, the close relationship

  4. [The mark of envy: metaphysics and embryology according to Descartes].

    PubMed

    Gaudemard, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction between medicine and metaphysics in modern natural philosophy and especially in Descartes' philosophy. I argue that Descartes hypothetical account of birthmarks in connection with his embryology provides an argumentative proof of the metaphysical necessity of a substantial union between mind and body, which however does not threaten his doctrine of the real distinction between these two substances. It would appear that his argument relies on a temporal conception of alethic modalities and provides a new answer to Henricus Regius who in 1641 claimed that, for Descartes, the human being is an ensper accidens. PMID:23035401

  5. Push it to the limit: Characterizing the convergence of common sequences of basis sets for intermolecular interactions as described by density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Witte, Jonathon; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2016-05-21

    With the aim of systematically characterizing the convergence of common families of basis sets such that general recommendations for basis sets can be made, we have tested a wide variety of basis sets against complete-basis binding energies across the S22 set of intermolecular interactions-noncovalent interactions of small and medium-sized molecules consisting of first- and second-row atoms-with three distinct density functional approximations: SPW92, a form of local-density approximation; B3LYP, a global hybrid generalized gradient approximation; and B97M-V, a meta-generalized gradient approximation with nonlocal correlation. We have found that it is remarkably difficult to reach the basis set limit; for the methods and systems examined, the most complete basis is Jensen's pc-4. The Dunning correlation-consistent sequence of basis sets converges slowly relative to the Jensen sequence. The Karlsruhe basis sets are quite cost effective, particularly when a correction for basis set superposition error is applied: counterpoise-corrected def2-SVPD binding energies are better than corresponding energies computed in comparably sized Dunning and Jensen bases, and on par with uncorrected results in basis sets 3-4 times larger. These trends are exhibited regardless of the level of density functional approximation employed. A sense of the magnitude of the intrinsic incompleteness error of each basis set not only provides a foundation for guiding basis set choice in future studies but also facilitates quantitative comparison of existing studies on similar types of systems. PMID:27208948

  6. Variations of Gonadal Veins: Embryological Prospective and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Raman; Aggarwal, Navita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: An adequate knowledge of anomalies of gonadal veins will help the radiologists and surgeons in recognition and protection of these veins which play major roles in thermo-regulation that is essential for the efficient functioning of testis on which the survival of the human species depends. Aim: The aim of this work is to present an analysis of the anatomical variations of gonadal veins. An effort has also been made to explicate the possible embryological model of development of such variants and to present the variable clinical aspects concerning them. Materials and Methods: Gonadal veins in 60 dissection room cadavers were examined for variations from the classic anatomic description. Result: In the present study, out of 60 cases, male: female ratio was 2:1(40:20) in which no variation was found in ovarian veins. In the 18 (45%) cases, testicular veins showed variations which consist of duplication and atypical drainage. Discussion: Variations of drainage of gonadal vein are due to error of embryological development in venous shift and alteration in anastomotic channel of post-cardinal, supra-cardinal and sub cardinal veins. Conclusion: The gonadal veins present numeric variations as well as variations in its site of drainage, which attributed to the various pathological conditions as varicocele and pelvic congestion syndrome, leading to infertility in patients. Hence, in -depth knowledge of these developmental anomalies of gonadal veins is important. PMID:25859438

  7. Human Embryology and the Holy Quran: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Sabiha

    2009-01-01

    Man’s quest to know about his origin has led him to search his roots and the best source for him has been religious scriptures. The greatest miracle is the Holy Quraan. There is an elegant description of origin, development and step by step developmental stages of intra-uterine life in Quraan. Muslims had this knowledge in 7th century and the Prophet Muhammad’s Ahadeeth (sayings, deeds, approvals narrated by authentic narrators) had explained almost everything about natal and even postnatal events. These findings once presented to experts in the field of Anatomy and Embryology surprised them and they believed that the knowledge given to the Prophet Muhammad was indeed divine. Who else would provide this knowledge to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) except the Creator Himself. Modern embryology is a fairly recent development which has its beginning with the invention of microscope in the 17th century. However the concept of the human being developing in stages was not recognised until much later. But the scientists then and most Muslim and non-Muslim scholars do not even know that the holy Quran and Sunnah [words, deeds, approvals of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) collected by authentic narrators] had provided a detailed description of the significant events in human development from the stages of gametes and conception until the full term pregnancy and delivery or even post partum. Actually information in the Quran and Hadith corrected many superstitious and vague ideas about human development that were prevalent before. PMID:21475518

  8. Adult mouse brain gene expression patterns bear an embryologic imprint

    PubMed Central

    Zapala, Matthew A.; Hovatta, Iiris; Ellison, Julie A.; Wodicka, Lisa; Del Rio, Jo A.; Tennant, Richard; Tynan, Wendy; Broide, Ron S.; Helton, Rob; Stoveken, Barbara S.; Winrow, Christopher; Lockhart, Daniel J.; Reilly, John F.; Young, Warren G.; Bloom, Floyd E.; Lockhart, David J.; Barlow, Carrolee

    2005-01-01

    The current model to explain the organization of the mammalian nervous system is based on studies of anatomy, embryology, and evolution. To further investigate the molecular organization of the adult mammalian brain, we have built a gene expression-based brain map. We measured gene expression patterns for 24 neural tissues covering the mouse central nervous system and found, surprisingly, that the adult brain bears a transcriptional “imprint” consistent with both embryological origins and classic evolutionary relationships. Embryonic cellular position along the anterior–posterior axis of the neural tube was shown to be closely associated with, and possibly a determinant of, the gene expression patterns in adult structures. We also observed a significant number of embryonic patterning and homeobox genes with region-specific expression in the adult nervous system. The relationships between global expression patterns for different anatomical regions and the nature of the observed region-specific genes suggest that the adult brain retains a degree of overall gene expression established during embryogenesis that is important for regional specificity and the functional relationships between regions in the adult. The complete collection of extensively annotated gene expression data along with data mining and visualization tools have been made available on a publicly accessible web site (www.barlow-lockhart-brainmapnimhgrant.org). PMID:16002470

  9. Holoprosencephaly: a survey of the entity, with embryology and fetal imaging.

    PubMed

    Winter, Thomas C; Kennedy, Anne M; Woodward, Paula J

    2015-01-01

    Structural malformations of the brain are an important cause of childhood mortality and morbidity, with the latter having long-term financial and psychosocial implications for the affected child and family. Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a severe brain malformation characterized by abnormal cleavage of the prosencephalon in the 5th gestational week. Aprosencephaly and atelencephaly occur earlier because of failure in the formation of the prosencephalon and telencephalon, respectively. The HPE holoprosencephaly spectrum classically includes alobar, semilobar, and lobar forms, although there are no clear-cut defining features. The middle interhemispheric variant (MIH), also known as syntelencephaly, is classified as a variant of HPE holoprosencephaly with midline interhemispheric fusion. Other conditions sometimes included in the spectrum of HPE holoprosencephaly include septo-optic dysplasia (SOD); "minimal" HPE holoprosencephaly , which is associated with subtle craniofacial malformations and mild developmental delay; and microform HPE holoprosencephaly , which by definition excludes brain involvement. The focus of this article will be on the spectrum of findings visible in fetal manifestation of the HPE holoprosencephaly spectrum. Brain embryology; the imaging characteristics, epidemiology, and embryology of HPE; and the more common associated anomalies, particularly those of the face ("the face predicts the brain") are reviewed. Recognition of these anomalies is important for accurate parental counseling, since the prognosis is poor but not invariably lethal; children with the milder forms may live well into their teens with severe developmental delays, endocrine dysfunction, and disrupted homeostasis. Available data on outcome in surviving children are summarized. Illustrative fetal ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance images are presented with clinical, autopsy, and postnatal imaging correlation. PMID:25590404

  10. The attitudes of medical students in Europe toward the clinical importance of embryology.

    PubMed

    Moxham, Bernard John; Emmanouil-Nikoloussi, Elpida; Standley, Henrietta; Brenner, Erich; Plaisant, Odile; Brichova, Hana; Pais, Diogo; Stabile, Isobel; Borg, Jordy; Chirculescu, Andy

    2016-03-01

    Although there have been many studies reporting the attitudes of medical students to the clinical importance of gross anatomy, little is known about their opinions concerning the clinical importance of embryology. Using Thurstone and Chave methods to assess attitudes, nearly 1,600 medical students across Europe in the early stages of their training provided responses to a survey that tested the hypothesis that they do not regard embryology as highly clinically relevant. Indeed, we further proposed that student attitudes to gross anatomy are much more positive than those toward embryology. Our findings show that our hypotheses hold, regardless of the university and country surveyed and regardless of the teaching methods employed for embryology. Clearly, embryology has a significant part to play in medical education in terms of understanding prenatal life, of appreciating how the organization of the mature human body has developed, and of providing essential information for general medical practice, obstetrics and pediatrics, and teratology. However, while newly recruited medical students understand the importance of gross anatomy in the development of professional competence, understanding the importance of embryology requires teachers, medical educationalists, and devisors of medical curricula to pay special attention to informing students of the significant role played by embryology in attaining clinical competence and achieving the knowledge and understanding of the biomedical sciences that underpins becoming a learned member of a health care profession. PMID:26538399

  11. Human Brain Basis of Musical Rhythm Perception: Common and Distinct Neural Substrates for Meter, Tempo, and Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Thaut, Michael H.; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Parsons, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET) as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a) pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b) pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus). Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas). These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure. PMID:24961770

  12. Human brain basis of musical rhythm perception: common and distinct neural substrates for meter, tempo, and pattern.

    PubMed

    Thaut, Michael H; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Parsons, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET) as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a) pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b) pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus). Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas). These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure. PMID:24961770

  13. Teaching Embryology without Lectures and without Traditional Laboratories--An Adventure in Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Judith E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes problems with teaching embryology in the traditional manner. Presents a new approach where students prepare presentations, questions, and discussion topics. During laboratory periods, students conducted their own long-term research projects. (PR)

  14. A burgeoning science of embryological genetics demands a modern ethics.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R G

    2007-09-01

    This brief article discusses the nature of recent scientific advances in reproductive biomedicine and genetics, their moral implications and their effects on society. The pace of research has amplified exponentially, leading society into situations incomprehended by our ancestors. Early studies on reproductive biology in animals, and clinical methods such as artificial insemination by donor spermatozoa, were introduced several centuries ago and led to prolonged ethical disagreements. The 20th century witnessed the introduction of controlled ovulation in laboratory animals, the fertilization of the oocyte and preimplantation embryology in mammalian species. The second half of this century produced an avalanche of knowledge on genetics, developmental biology, the fertilization of the human oocyte in vitro, test-tube babies, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, designer babies, stem cells and a deeper understanding of molecular differentiation in the human embryo. The ethical and legal aspects of these items have led to intense debates on their rights and wrongs. The future may have even more bizarre possibilities such as producing medicines in cow's milk or trees and delaying death for many years. PMID:17822615

  15. Embryological and molecular development of the adrenal glands.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ian L; Louw, Graham J

    2015-03-01

    In this mini review, the embryological and functional development of the adrenal glands is presented from a molecular perspective. While acknowledging that this is a highly complex series of events, the processes are described in simple and broad strokes in a single text for the reader who is interested in this field but is not an active researcher. The origin of the adrenal glands is in the mesodermal ridge as early as the fourth week of gestation. Between the eighth and ninth weeks of gestation, the adrenal glands are encapsulated and this results in the presence of a distinct organ. There have been great strides in deciphering the very complicated molecular aspects of adrenal gland development in which multiple transcription factors have been identified, directing the adrenogonadal primordium into the adrenal cortex, kidney, or bipotential gonad. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone is critical for early development of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. Several mutations in transcription factors, responsible for normal adrenal gland development have been found to induce the familial syndrome of congenital adrenal hypoplasia or neoplasia. PMID:25255746

  16. Folding into being: early embryology and the epistemology of rhythm.

    PubMed

    Wellmann, Janina

    2015-03-01

    Historians have often described embryology and concepts of development in the period around 1800 in terms of "temporalization" or "dynamization". This paper, in contrast, argues that a central epistemological category in the period was "rhythm", which played a major role in the establishment of the emerging discipline of biology. I show that Caspar Friedrich Wolff's epigenetic theory of development was based on a rhythmical notion, namely the hypothesis that organic development occurs as a series of ordered rhythmical repetitions and variations. Presenting Christian Heinrich Pander's and Karl Ernst von Baer's theory of germ layers, I argue that Pander and Baer regarded folding as an organizing principle of ontogenesis, and that the principle's explanatory power stems from their understanding of folding as a rhythmical figuration. In a brief discussion of the notion of rhythm in contemporary music theory, I identify an underlying physiological epistemology in the new musical concept of rhythm around 1800. The paper closes with a more general discussion of the relationship between the rhythmic episteme, conceptions of life, and aesthetic theory at the end of the eighteenth century. PMID:26013433

  17. Multiple variations of the renal and testicular vessels: possible embryological basis and clinical importance.

    PubMed

    Mazengenya, Pedzisai

    2016-08-01

    During routine dissection of the abdominal cavity of a 55-year-old African male cadaver, multiple anomalies including renal and testicular vessels were encountered. The right kidney was supplied by three right hilar renal arteries arising from the abdominal aorta at different vertebral levels whereas only one left renal artery supplied the left kidney. On the right three renal veins drained the kidney into the inferior vena cava. In contrast, the left kidney was drained by a single renal vein which received a large primary posterior tributary. The primary posterior tributary had three tributaries from the posterior lumbar region. The right testis had two sources of arterial supply; one from the subcostal artery and another from the abdominal aorta. The left testis was supplied normally by a single testicular artery. The right testis was drained by four testicular veins as follows: one drained into the subcostal vein, the other two drained separately for a longer course and joined shortly before draining into the right main renal vein, the fourth one drained into the anterior aspect of the inferior vena cava at the level of the second lumbar vertebra. On the left, the testicle was drained by two testicular veins which travelled separately from the deep inguinal ring and joined shortly before they drain into the left renal vein. This variation may represent an immature form of complicated development of kidneys and testes. Additionally, emphasis must be put on preoperative vascular examination to avoid surgical complications from variant vessels in this region. PMID:26507071

  18. Foreseeing fates: a commentary on Manton (1928) ‘On the embryology of a mysid crustacean, Hemimysis lamornae’

    PubMed Central

    Akam, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sidnie Manton became best known for her work on arthropod locomotion, and for proposing radical views on the evolution of arthropods that were accepted for a generation. However, her early training was as an embryologist, and the work that she carried out at the beginning of her career still stands as one of the major twentieth century contributions to the study of crustacean embryology. Here, I review her first major paper, largely completed while she was a graduate student, describing embryonic development in Hemimysis lamornae, a small shrimp-like animal found in the seas around the UK. The clarity of her writing and the quality of her figures set a standard that laid the basis for subsequent work, and although not all of her conclusions have stood the test of time, they remain a standard reference for work today. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750244

  19. Superior mesenteric origin of the proper hepatic artery: embryological and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Alakkam, Anas; Hill, Robert V; Saggio, Gregory

    2016-08-01

    The hepatic arteries are subject to a great deal of anatomical variation, potentially complicating hepatobiliary surgical procedures as well as general gastrointestinal procedures that involve foregut and midgut structures. We report a case of a rare variant of the proper hepatic artery discovered during dissection of an 84-year-old male cadaver. In this individual, the common hepatic artery was absent and the proper hepatic artery was replaced directly to the superior mesenteric artery. The gastroduodenal artery and the right inferior phrenic artery took origin from the celiac trunk. In addition, there was no identifiable right gastric artery. The celiac trunk gave off three branches: the splenic, left gastric, and gastroduodenal arteries. The entire arterial blood supply to the liver, therefore, was derived from the superior mesenteric artery. Patterns of regression of the ventral branches and the partial disappearance of the ventral anastomotic arteries during embryonic development play a major role in the variations of the gut arteries. An intraoperative encounter with this particular variant carries a significant risk of iatrogenic injury with potentially devastating ischemia and necrotic results. Accurate depiction and definition of the hepatic arterial anatomy are crucial. Variations like the one described here underscore the importance of pre-operative imaging and knowledge of the embryological origins of variation. PMID:26650050

  20. [Embryology and "official science": the contribution of the anatomical school of José Escolar to embryology during the first Francoism (1939-1959)].

    PubMed

    Velasco Morgado, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the contribution of the anatomical school of José Escolar (1913-1998) to embryology during the first two decades of the Francoist dictatorship. Special attention is paid to the process by which the Spanish group, with the support of the new Superior National Research Council, made contact with the German morphology being developed by Hugo Spatz (1888-1979) at the Max Planck-Institut für Hirnforschung. Our study reveals the numerous influences that finally led to the anatomy and embryology of Escolar. In Spain, we found a direct influence of the Gegenbaurian morphology of Gumersindo Sánchez Guisande (1894-1976) and the neuroanatomy of Juan José Barcia Goyanes (1901-2003), full of references to studies by Braus. International contacts of the "Escolarian group", first with North America and then with Germany, created a homogeneous group with a single anatomy (functional and ontophylogenetic) but with so many research interests that subspecialisations had to be developed. An important embryological work resulted from an intense relationship with the German anatomical community during the 1950s. Escolar worked in this field on the development of the amygdala and allocortex, Fernando Reinoso studied the embryology of the diencephalon and Smith Victor Agreda, along with the German scientist Rudolf Diepen, made some important discoveries on the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary system. PMID:26012340

  1. The Incredible, Embryological Egg: Calcium and Strontium Isotopes Recapitulate Ontogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, G. W.; Skulan, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Embryological development reflects evolutionary history. Understanding the processes of fetal growth is important for curing human birth defects and predicting damage to ecosystems from environmental insults. Tracing enzymatic and hormonal gradients during development, and correlating them to genetic cues dominate modern embryology. Previous work done tracing the mass transfer of elements has generally been limited to isotope spikes in vitro. Natural mass-dependent Ca and Sr isotopic ratios and radiogenic Sr isotopes have the potential to reveal both source and biochemical mechanism information about processes in vivo, but have not previously been extensively explored. The process when a hen lays a fertilized egg that becomes a chick includes formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate (bone) and calcium carbonate (shell). Skulan and DePaolo (1999) showed that chickens have 2% δ44/42Ca between a hen's bones and an egg white; this span represents more than 80% of the entire range of natural Ca isotope variation and illustrates there is significant variation to investigate. A striking feature of archosaurian development that also occurs in many mammals, including humans, is mass transfer of calcium from mother to embryo. The yolk of the domestic hen matures over 7-9 days, but the albumen, shell membranes and shell form in less than 20 hours. Domestic laying hens are at the physiological limit of egg production and selective breeding is no longer an effective method of increasing egg production. 60-75% of the shell's ~1.5 g of calcium comes from dietary sources, while 25-40% comes from the hen's medullary bone. Medullary bone is spicules formed in the marrow of long bones, and is a store of dietary calcium rapidly available for eggshell secretion. During in ovo development, the embryo's skeleton is formed from calcium in the yolk and by bulk dissolution of the eggshell's inner aspect via carbonic anhydrase in a process that has an effect on bone density similar to

  2. The molecular basis of invasiveness: differences in gene expression of native and introduced common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) in stressful and benign environments.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Lai, Zhao; Nurkowski, Kristin; Huang, Jie; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2013-05-01

    Although the evolutionary and ecological processes that contribute to plant invasion have been the focus of much research, investigation into the molecular basis of invasion is just beginning. Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an annual weed native to North America and has been introduced to Europe where it has become invasive. Using a custom-designed NimbleGen oligoarray, we examined differences in gene expression between five native and six introduced populations of common ragweed in three different environments (control, light stress and nutrient stress), as well as two different time points. We identified candidate genes that may contribute to invasiveness in common ragweed based on differences in expression between native and introduced populations from Europe. Specifically, we found 180 genes where range explained a significant proportion of the variation in gene expression and a further 103 genes with a significant range by treatment interaction. Several of these genes are potentially involved in the metabolism of secondary compounds, stress response and the detoxification of xenobiotics. Previously, we found more rapid growth and greater reproductive success in introduced populations, particularly in benign and competitive (light stress) environments, and many of these candidate genes potentially underlie these growth differences. We also found expression differences among populations within each range, reflecting either local adaptation or neutral processes, although no associations with climate or latitude were identified. These data provide a first step in identifying genes that are involved with introduction success in an aggressive annual weed. PMID:23294156

  3. Embryological Features of Tofieldia glutinosa and Their Bearing on the Early Diversification of Monocotyledonous Plants

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Samuel J.; Friedman, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Although much is known about the vegetative traits associated with early monocot evolution, less is known about the reproductive features of early monocotyledonous lineages. A study was made of the embryology of Tofieldia glutinosa, a member of an early divergent monocot clade (Tofieldiaceae), and aspects of its development were compared with the development of other early divergent monocots in order to gain insight into defining reproductive features of early monocots. Methods Field-collected developing gynoecial tissues of Tofieldia glutinosa were prepared for histological examination. Over 600 ovules were sectioned and studied using brightfield, differential interference contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. High-resolution digital imaging was used to document important stages of megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis and early endosperm development. Key Results Development of the female gametophyte in T. glutinosa is of a modified Polygonum-type. At maturity the female gametophyte is seven-celled and 11-nucleate with a standard three-celled egg apparatus, a binucleate central cell (where ultimately, the two polar nuclei will fuse into a diploid secondary nucleus) and three binucleate antipodal cells. The antipodal nuclei persist past fertilization, and the process of double fertilization appears to yield a diploid zygote and triploid primary endosperm cell, as is characteristic of plants with Polygonum-type female gametophytes. Endosperm development is helobial, and free-nuclear growth initially proceeds at equal rates in both the micropylar and chalazal endosperm chambers. Conclusions The analysis suggests that the shared common ancestor of monocots possessed persistent and proliferating antipodals similar to those found in T. glutinosa and other early-divergent monocots (e.g. Acorus and members of the Araceae). Helobial endosperm among monocots evolved once in the common ancestor of all monocots excluding Acorus. Thus, the analysis further

  4. A Retrospective Look at Replacing Face-to-Face Embryology Instruction with Online Lectures in a Human Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Elmus G.; Tarwater, Patrick M.; Lee, Vaughan H.

    2014-01-01

    Embryology is integrated into the Clinically Oriented Anatomy course at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. Before 2008, the same instructor presented embryology in 13 face-to-face lectures distributed by organ systems throughout the course. For the 2008 and 2009 offerings of the course, a hybrid embryology…

  5. Genetic Basis for Spontaneous Hybrid Genome Doubling during Allopolyploid Speciation of Common Wheat Shown by Natural Variation Analyses of the Paternal Species

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Nasuda, Shuhei; Ashida, Yasuyo; Nitta, Miyuki; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Takumi, Shigeo; Kawahara, Taihachi

    2013-01-01

    The complex process of allopolyploid speciation includes various mechanisms ranging from species crosses and hybrid genome doubling to genome alterations and the establishment of new allopolyploids as persisting natural entities. Currently, little is known about the genetic mechanisms that underlie hybrid genome doubling, despite the fact that natural allopolyploid formation is highly dependent on this phenomenon. We examined the genetic basis for the spontaneous genome doubling of triploid F1 hybrids between the direct ancestors of allohexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD genome), namely Triticumturgidum L. (AABB genome) and Aegilopstauschii Coss. (DD genome). An Ae. tauschii intraspecific lineage that is closely related to the D genome of common wheat was identified by population-based analysis. Two representative accessions, one that produces a high-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid when crossed with a T. turgidum cultivar and the other that produces a low-genome-doubling-frequency hybrid with the same cultivar, were chosen from that lineage for further analyses. A series of investigations including fertility analysis, immunostaining, and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis showed that (1) production of functional unreduced gametes through nonreductional meiosis is an early step key to successful hybrid genome doubling, (2) first division restitution is one of the cytological mechanisms that cause meiotic nonreduction during the production of functional male unreduced gametes, and (3) six QTLs in the Ae. tauschii genome, most of which likely regulate nonreductional meiosis and its subsequent gamete production processes, are involved in hybrid genome doubling. Interlineage comparisons of Ae. tauschii’s ability to cause hybrid genome doubling suggested an evolutionary model for the natural variation pattern of the trait in which non-deleterious mutations in six QTLs may have important roles. The findings of this study demonstrated that the

  6. Comparative embryology without a microscope: using genomic approaches to understand the evolution of development

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, David A; Wray, Gregory A

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, understanding developmental conservation and change has relied on embryological comparisons and analyses of single genes. Several studies, including one recently published in BMC Biology, have now taken a genomic approach to this classical problem, providing insights into how selection operates differentially across the life cycle. PMID:19664180

  7. The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act of 1990 and Assessment for Parenthood: In Whose Best Interests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryburn, Murray; Fleming, Annette

    1993-01-01

    Britain's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act provides for the assessment of adults for parenthood on both medical and social grounds, justified by concern for the welfare of the child. Compares these assessments with those undertaken in the adoption process and questions the utility of such decisions for the welfare of the children involved.…

  8. Common Schools for Common Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Eamonn

    1995-01-01

    A vision of common education for citizens of a liberal democracy warrants faith in common schools as an instrument of social good. Some kinds of separate schooling are not inconsistent with common schooling and are even desirable. Equal respect, as defined by J. Rawls, is a basis for common education. (SLD)

  9. Quality changes and predictive models of radial basis function neural networks for brined common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Kong, Chunli; Wang, Huiyi; Li, Dapeng; Zhang, Yuemei; Pan, Jinfeng; Zhu, Beiwei; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-06-15

    To investigate and predict quality of 2% brined common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets during frozen storage, free fatty acids (FFA), salt extractable protein (SEP), total sulfhydryl (SH) content, and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity were determined at 261 K, 253 K, and 245 K, respectively. There was a dramatic increase (P<0.05) in FFA and a sharp decrease (P<0.05) in SH at 261 K during the first 3 weeks. SEP decreased to 67.31% after 17 weeks at 245 K, whereas it took about 7 weeks and 13 weeks to decrease to the same extent at 261 K and 253 K, respectively. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity kept decreasing to 18.28% after 7 weeks at 261 K. Furthermore, radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs) were developed to predict quality (FFA, SEP, SH, and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity) of brined carp fillets during frozen storage with relative errors all within ±5%. Thus, RBFNN is a promising method to predict quality of carp fillets during storage at 245-261 K. PMID:26868584

  10. Crystalline guanine adducts of natural and synthetic trioxacarcins suggest a common biological mechanism and reveal a basis for the instability of trioxacarcin A.

    PubMed

    Pröpper, Kevin; Dittrich, Birger; Smaltz, Daniel J; Magauer, Thomas; Myers, Andrew G

    2014-09-15

    X-ray crystallographic characterization of products derived from natural and fully synthetic trioxacarcins, molecules with potent antiproliferative effects, illuminates aspects of their reactivity and mechanism of action. Incubation of the fully synthetic trioxacarcin analog 3, which lacks one of the carbohydrate residues present in the natural product trioxacarcin A (1) as well as oxygenation at C2 and C4 yet retains potent antiproliferative effects, with the self-complimentary duplex oligonucleotide d(AACCGGTT) led to production of a crystalline covalent guanine adduct (6). Adduct 6 is closely analogous to gutingimycin (2), the previously reported guanine adduct derived from incubation of natural trioxacarcin A (1) with duplex DNA, suggesting that 3 and 1 likely share a common basis of cytotoxicity. In addition, we isolated a novel, dark-red crystalline guanine adduct (7) from incubation of trioxacarcin A itself with the self-complimentary duplex oligonucleotide d(CGTATACG). Crystallographic analysis suggests that 7 is an anthraquinone derivative, which we propose arises by a sequence of guanosine alkylation within duplex DNA, depurination, base-catalyzed elimination of the trioxacarcinose A carbohydrate residue, and oxidative rearrangement to form an anthraquinone. We believe that this heretofore unrecognized chemical instability of natural trioxacarcins may explain why trioxacarcin analogs lacking C4 oxygenation exhibit superior chemical stabilities yet, as evidenced by structure 3, retain a capacity to form lesions with duplex DNA. PMID:25176186

  11. Virtual embryology: a 3D library reconstructed from human embryo sections and animation of development process.

    PubMed

    Komori, M; Miura, T; Shiota, K; Minato, K; Takahashi, T

    1995-01-01

    The volumetric shape of a human embryo and its development is hard to comprehend as they have been viewed as a 2D schemes in a textbook or microscopic sectional image. In this paper, a CAI and research support system for human embryology using multimedia presentation techniques is described. In this system, 3D data is acquired from a series of sliced specimens. Its 3D structure can be viewed interactively by rotating, extracting, and truncating its whole body or organ. Moreover, the development process of embryos can be animated using a morphing technique applied to the specimen in several stages. The system is intended to be used interactively, like a virtual reality system. Hence, the system is called Virtual Embryology. PMID:8591413

  12. Computational Embryology and Predictive Toxicology of Hypospadias (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypospadias, one of the most common birth defects in human male infants, is a condition in which the urethral opening is misplaced along ventral aspect of the penis. We developed an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework and computer simulation that describes the pathogenesis of...

  13. Duplication of the superficial femoral artery: comprehensive review of imaging literature and insight into embryology

    PubMed Central

    Hapugoda, Sachintha; Kwan, Gigi Nga Chi; Watkins, Trevor William; Rophael, John A

    2016-01-01

    An extremely rare case of duplicated superficial femoral artery (SFA) was incidentally observed on computed tomography angiogram (CTA) of the lower limbs for presurgical planning for an osteomyocutaneous fibula flap in a patient with T4a oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case in the imaging literature. We performed a comprehensive review of the English literature and discuss the underlying embryological origin underpinning this rare anatomical variant. PMID:27504194

  14. Congenital basis of posterior fossa anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Cotes, Claudia; Bonfante, Eliana; Lazor, Jillian; Jadhav, Siddharth; Caldas, Maria; Swischuk, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    The classification of posterior fossa congenital anomalies has been a controversial topic. Advances in genetics and imaging have allowed a better understanding of the embryologic development of these abnormalities. A new classification schema correlates the embryologic, morphologic, and genetic bases of these anomalies in order to better distinguish and describe them. Although they provide a better understanding of the clinical aspects and genetics of these disorders, it is crucial for the radiologist to be able to diagnose the congenital posterior fossa anomalies based on their morphology, since neuroimaging is usually the initial step when these disorders are suspected. We divide the most common posterior fossa congenital anomalies into two groups: 1) hindbrain malformations, including diseases with cerebellar or vermian agenesis, aplasia or hypoplasia and cystic posterior fossa anomalies; and 2) cranial vault malformations. In addition, we will review the embryologic development of the posterior fossa and, from the perspective of embryonic development, will describe the imaging appearance of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. Knowledge of the developmental bases of these malformations facilitates detection of the morphological changes identified on imaging, allowing accurate differentiation and diagnosis of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. PMID:26246090

  15. Nasopharyngeal Masses Arising from Embryologic Remnants of the Clivus: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Sajisevi, Mirabelle; Hoang, Jenny K; Eapen, Rose; Jang, David W

    2015-11-01

    Objectives This study aims to (1) discuss rare nasopharyngeal masses originating from embryologic remnants of the clivus, and (2) discuss the embryology of the clivus and understand its importance in the diagnosis and treatment of these masses. Design and Participants This is a case series of three patients. We discuss the clinical and imaging characteristics of infrasellar craniopharyngioma, intranasal extraosseous chordoma, and canalis basilaris medianus. Results Case 1: A 16-year-old male patient with a history of craniopharyngioma resection, who presented with nasal obstruction. A nasopharyngeal cystic mass was noted to be communicating with a patent craniopharyngeal canal. Histology revealed adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. Case 2: A 43-year-old male patient who presented with nasal obstruction and headache. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enhancing polypoid mass in the posterior nasal cavity abutting the clivus. Histopathology revealed chondroid chordoma. Case 3: A 4-year-old female patient with a recurrent nasopharyngeal polyp. CT cisternogram showed that this mass may have risen from a bony defect of the middle clivus suggestive of canalis basilaris medianus. Conclusions Understanding the embryology of the clivus is crucial when considering the differential diagnosis of a nasopharyngeal mass. Identification of characteristic findings on imaging is critical in the diagnosis and treatment of these lesions. PMID:26623237

  16. Three-dimensional image analysis as a tool for embryology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verweij, Andre

    1992-06-01

    In the study of cell fate, cell lineage, and morphogenetic transformation it is necessary to obtain 3-D data. Serial sections of glutaraldehyde fixed and glycol methacrylate embedded material provide high resolution data. Clonal spread during germ layer formation in the mouse embryo has been followed by labeling a progenitor epiblast cell with horseradish peroxidase and staining its descendants one or two days later, followed by histological processing. Reconstruction of a 3-D image from histological sections must provide a solution for the alignment problem. As we want to study images at different magnification levels, we have chosen a method in which the sections are aligned under the microscope. Positioning is possible through a translation and a rotation stage. The first step for reconstruction is a coarse alignment on the basis of the moments in a binary, low magnification image of the embedding block. Thereafter, images of higher magnification levels are aligned by optimizing a similarity measure between the images. To analyze, first a global 3-D second order surface is fitted on the image to obtain the orientation of the embryo. The coefficients of this fit are used to normalize the size of the different embryos. Thereafter, the image is resampled with respect to the surface to create a 2-D mapping of the embryo and to guide the segmentation of the different cell layers which make up the embryo.

  17. A retrospective look at replacing face-to-face embryology instruction with online lectures in a human anatomy course.

    PubMed

    Beale, Elmus G; Tarwater, Patrick M; Lee, Vaughan H

    2014-01-01

    Embryology is integrated into the Clinically Oriented Anatomy course at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine. Before 2008, the same instructor presented embryology in 13 face-to-face lectures distributed by organ systems throughout the course. For the 2008 and 2009 offerings of the course, a hybrid embryology instruction model with four face-to-face classes that supplemented online recorded lectures was used. One instructor delivered the lectures face-to-face in 2007 and by online videos in 2008-2009, while a second instructor provided the supplemental face-to-face classes in 2008-2009. The same embryology learning objectives and selected examination questions were used for each of the three years. This allowed direct comparison of learning outcomes, as measured by examination performance, for students receiving only face-to-face embryology instruction versus the hybrid approach. Comparison of the face-to-face lectures to the hybrid approach showed no difference in overall class performance on embryology questions that were used all three years. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the delivery method on the examination scores for bottom quartile students. Students completed an end-of-course survey to assess their opinions. They rated the two forms of delivery similarly on a six-point Likert scale and reported that face-to-face lectures have the advantage of allowing them to interact with the instructor, whereas online lectures could be paused, replayed, and viewed at any time. These experiences suggest the need for well-designed prospective studies to determine whether online lectures can be used to enhance the efficacy of embryology instruction. PMID:23959807

  18. A history of normal plates, tables and stages in vertebrate embryology.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Developmental biology is today unimaginable without the normal stages that define standard divisions of development. This history of normal stages, and the related normal plates and normal tables, shows how these standards have shaped and been shaped by disciplinary change in vertebrate embryology. The article highlights the Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates edited by the German anatomist Franz Keibel (16 volumes, 1897-1938). These were a major response to problems in the relations between ontogeny and phylogeny that amounted in practical terms to a crisis in staging embryos, not just between, but (for some) also within species. Keibel's design adapted a plate by Wilhelm His and tables by Albert Oppel in order to go beyond the already controversial comparative plates of the Darwinist propagandist Ernst Haeckel. The project responded to local pressures, including intense concern with individual variation, but recruited internationally and mapped an embryological empire. Though theoretically inconclusive, the plates became standard laboratory tools and forged a network within which the Institut International d'Embryologie (today the International Society of Developmental Biologists) was founded in 1911. After World War I, experimentalists, led by Ross Harrison and Viktor Hamburger, and human embryologists, especially George Streeter at the Carnegie Department of Embryology, transformed Keibel's complex, bulky tomes to suit their own contrasting demands. In developmental biology after World War II, normal stages-reduced to a few journal pages-helped domesticate model organisms. Staging systems had emerged from discussions that questioned the very possibility of assigning an embryo to a stage. The historical issues resonate today as developmental biologists work to improve and extend stage series, to make results from different laboratories easier to compare and to take individual variation into account. PMID:17183461

  19. A history of normal plates, tables and stages in vertebrate embryology

    PubMed Central

    HOPWOOD, NICK

    2006-01-01

    Developmental biology is today unimaginable without the normal stages that define standard divisions of development. This history of normal stages, and the related normal plates and normal tables, shows how these standards have shaped and been shaped by disciplinary change in vertebrate embryology. The article highlights the Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates edited by the German anatomist Franz Keibel (16 volumes, 1897–1938). These were a major response to problems in the relations between ontogeny and phylogeny that amounted in practical terms to a crisis in staging embryos, not just between, but (for some) also within species. Keibel’s design adapted a plate by Wilhelm His and tables by Albert Oppel in order to go beyond the already controversial comparative plates of the Darwinist propagandist Ernst Haeckel. The project responded to local pressures, including intense concern with individual variation, but recruited internationally and mapped an embryological empire. Though theoretically inconclusive, the plates became standard laboratory tools and forged a network within which the Institut International d’Embryologie (today the International Society of Developmental Biologists) was founded in 1911. After World War I, experimentalists, led by Ross Harrison and Viktor Hamburger, and human embryologists, especially George Streeter at the Carnegie Department of Embryology, transformed Keibel’s complex, bulky tomes to suit their own contrasting demands. In developmental biology after World War II, normal stages—reduced to a few journal pages—helped domesticate model organisms. Staging systems had emerged from discussions that questioned the very possibility of assigning an embryo to a stage. The historical issues resonate today as developmental biologists work to improve and extend stage series, to make results from different laboratories easier to compare and to take individual variation into account. PMID:17183461

  20. Short, long, and beyond: molecular and embryological approaches to insect segmentation.

    PubMed

    Davis, Gregory K; Patel, Nipam H

    2002-01-01

    Over the past dozen years, studies comparing the expression of orthologues of the Drosophila segmentation genes among various insects have served to broaden our view of the ways in which insects make segments. The molecular data suggest that, although the overall genetic mechanisms of segmentation during embryogenesis have been conserved, the details of this process vary both within and between various insect orders. Here we summarize comparative gene expression data relevant to segmentation with an emphasis on understanding the extent of molecular patterning prior to gastrulation. These results are discussed in embryological context with an eye toward understanding the evolution of segmentation within insects. PMID:11729088

  1. Pre-modern Islamic medical ethics and Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryology.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, Mohammed

    2014-02-01

    This article examines the, hitherto comparatively unexplored, reception of Greek embryology by medieval Muslim jurists. The article elaborates on the views attributed to Hippocrates (d. ca. 375 BC), which received attention from both Muslim physicians, such as Avicenna (d. 1037), and their Jewish peers living in the Muslim world including Ibn Jumay' (d. ca. 1198) and Moses Maimonides (d. 1204). The religio-ethical implications of these Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryological views were fathomed out by the two medieval Muslim jurists Shihāb al-Dīn al-Qarāfī (d. 1285) and Ibn al-Qayyim (d. 1350). By putting these medieval religio-ethical discussions into the limelight, the article aims to argue for a two-pronged thesis. Firstly, pre-modern medical ethics did exist in the Islamic tradition and available evidence shows that this field had a multidisciplinary character where the Islamic scriptures and the Graeco-Islamic-Jewish medical legacy were highly intertwined. This information problematizes the postulate claiming that medieval Muslim jurists were hostile to the so-called 'ancient sciences'. Secondly, these medieval religio-ethical discussions remain playing a significant role in shaping the nascent field of contemporary Islamic bioethics. However, examining the exact character and scope of this role still requires further academic ventures. PMID:23844565

  2. Martensite Embryology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Andrew C. E.; Olson, Gregory B.

    2000-03-01

    Heterogeneous nucleation of martensite is modeled by examining the strain field of a dislocation array in a nonlinear, nonlocal continuum elastic matrix. The dislocations are modeled by including effects from atomic length scales, which control the dislocation Burger's vector, into a mesoscopic continuum model. The dislocation array models the heterogeneous nucleation source of the Olson/Cohen defect dissociation model, and depending on the potency can give rise to embryos of different character. High potency dislocations give rise to fully developed, classical pre-existing embryos, whereas low-potency dislocations result in the formation of highly nonclassical strain embryos. Heterogeneous nucleation theory is related to nucleation kinetics through the critical driving force for nucleation at a defect of a given potency. Recent stereological and calorimetric kinetic studies in thermoelastic TiNi alloys confirm that these materials exhibit the same form of defect potency distribution and resulting sample-size dependent Martensite start temperature, M_s, as nonthermoelastic FeNi systems. These results together point towards a broad theory of heterogeneous nucleation for both thermoelastic and nonthermoelastic martensites.

  3. Embryological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.

    1989-01-01

    To integrate a research/discovery component into one course, an experiment using the sea urchin embryo system is introduced because the teacher manages only one organism and students provide the variables. The materials, handling methods, and experimental methods of the experiment are described. (YP)

  4. Learning about Heredity and Embryology. Superific Science Book II. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Designed to provide teachers with low cost laboratory exercises, project ideas, and classroom activities for individuals and groups, this document focuses on the concepts of heredity and embryology. The materials address the topics of: (1) cell division; (2) the identification of the human embryo; (3) chromosomes; (4) DNA; (5) differences in the…

  5. An Eight-Year Study of Online Lecture Use in a Medical Gross Anatomy and Embryology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieder, Gary L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Online lectures have been used in lieu of live lectures in our gross anatomy and embryology course for the past eight years. We examined patterns of online lecture use by our students and related that use to academic entry measures, gender and examination performance. Detailed access records identified by student were available from server logs.…

  6. Pictures of evolution and charges of fraud: Ernst Haeckel's embryological illustrations.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Nick

    2006-06-01

    Comparative illustrations of vertebrate embryos by the leading nineteenth-century Darwinist Ernst Haeckel have been both highly contested and canonical. Though the target of repeated fraud charges since 1868, the pictures were widely reproduced in textbooks through the twentieth century. Concentrating on their first ten years, this essay uses the accusations to shed light on the novelty of Haeckel's visual argumentation and to explore how images come to count as proper representations or illegitimate schematics as they cross between the esoteric and exoteric circles of science. It exploits previously unused manuscripts to reconstruct the drawing, printing, and publishing of the illustrations that attracted the first and most influential attack, compares these procedures to standard practice, and highlights their originality. It then explains why, though Haeckel was soon accused, controversy ignited only seven years later, after he aligned a disciplinary struggle over embryology with a major confrontation between liberal nationalism--and Catholicism--and why the contested pictures nevertheless survived. PMID:16892945

  7. Teaching embryology to undergraduates in the Faculty of Education at Dokuz Eylul University in Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Irfan

    2003-01-01

    This report reviews the way in which classical embryology is taught and interpreted at the Buca Faculty of Education, in Dokuz Eylul University (Turkey). This university is one of the leading teacher-education institutions in Turkey. My course is taught with appreciation of the fact that students are thinking ideologically rather than scientifically with regard to creationism and evolution in both cognitive and educational processes. However, this ideological orientation, along with lack of classroom time and material resources, hinders my goal of a student-centered education. Being flexible with regard to philosophical and metaphysical issues on which concepts of evolution and creationism are in conflict, is constructive for student development and represents the approach I endeavor to pursue. PMID:12705661

  8. Unilateral Existence of Chondro-epitrochlearis: Its Embryological Perspectives and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Padavinangadi, Abhinitha; Rao, Mohandas KG; Nayak, Satheesha B

    2016-01-01

    Chondroepitrochlearis (CET) is an anomalous muscular slip that originates from the pectoralis major muscle and inserts into epicondyle of the humerus. The morphology of this variant form of pectoralis major can vary from slender to strong musculo-tendinous. In its course, it usually crosses the neurovascular structures of arm; their compression is a major complication that could be manifested by its persistence. In the present case, potentially anomalous CET muscle with the slender slip of origin, but strong tendinous insertion to the medial epicondyle of the humerus was found unilaterally. This musculo-tendinous structure was found to be compressing the brachial artery and median nerve in the arm. Detailed embryological and clinical perspective of such variant muscular slip helps the physiotherapists, orthopaedicians in their treatment strategy in complain of restricted shoulder movement. It may also help the neurologists, radiologists in their diagnostic approach of ulnar neuropathy.

  9. Computer morphing of scanning electron micrographs: an adjunct to embryology teaching.

    PubMed

    Watt, M E; McDonald, S W; Watt, A

    1996-01-01

    Traditional embryology courses demand considerable expenditure of time and effort from students to master the spatial awareness skills necessary to create three-dimensional mental images from two-dimensional serial sections. Then students must imagine a movie sequence of the changes which take place during normal development. Further steps are required to relate this information to the clinical situation. As more medical and dental schools move towards problem-based curricula, more efficient methods of improving understanding of embryology are needed. The development of many organs can be studied using scanning electron micrographs of embryos at different ages. These high quality images are more easily interpreted by our students than histological sections and the understanding achieved more readily applied to clinical problems. Still more beneficial would be the provision of moving images showing the actual changes happening. We decided to use computer morphing techniques to prepare movie sequences showing development of the face and plate. For each, four scanning electron micrographs of appropriately-sized sheep embryo heads were taken at the same magnification and orientation to use as start and end points of morphing sequences. After using retouching techniques to colour the separate processes, further sequences were prepared. The discipline of maintaining the same magnification throughout and the possibility of directly observing changes between stages revealed some surprising growth patterns. This technique is adaptable to any area of biological development where pre- and post-illustrations are available. Animations can be presented on computer or on video and incorporated into programs. Student feedback has been very favourable. PMID:8983113

  10. The perceptual basis of common photographic practice

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Emily A.; Piazza, Elise A.; Banks, Martin S.

    2012-01-01

    Photographers, cinematographers, and computer-graphics engineers use certain techniques to create striking pictorial effects. By using lenses of different focal lengths, they can make a scene look compressed or expanded in depth, make a familiar object look natural or distorted, or make a person look smarter, more attractive, or more neurotic. We asked why pictures taken with a certain focal length look natural, while those taken with other focal lengths look distorted. We found that people's preferred viewing distance when looking at pictures leads them to view long-focal-length pictures from too near and short-focal-length pictures from too far. Perceptual distortions occur because people do not take their incorrect viewing distances into account. By following the rule of thumb of using a 50-mm lens, photographers greatly increase the odds of a viewer looking at a photograph from the correct distance, where the percept will be undistorted. Our theory leads to new guidelines for creating pictorial effects that are more effective than conventional guidelines. PMID:22637709

  11. [Scientific revolution and embryology: rejection or transformation of antiquity? A comparison between the procreation teachings of Cesare Cremonini, William Harvey und René Descartes].

    PubMed

    Lo Presti, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I address the issue of the theoretical and epistemological status of embryology at the rise of the so-called "Scientific Revolution" (also in the first half of the seventeenth-century) and raise the question, in what sense and to what extent the historiographical concept of "Scientific Revolution" is applicable to the domain of embryology. To achieve this aim I compare the theories of three protagonists of the medical, scientific and philosophical debate of that age, namely Cesare Cremonini, William Harvey and René Descartes, who had very different views on the world structure and human nature and a very different concept of science, but who shared, as concerns embryological issues, an epigenetic conception of the development of the embryo. Their theories are discussed and compared in light of following questions: 1) What do Cremonini's, Harvey's and Descartes's embryological theories exactly aim to?; 2) In developing their theories, do these thinkers deal explicitly or implicitly with the Aristotelian and the Galenic embryological paradigm?; 3)Do they refer polemically to the Aristotelian and the Galenic tradition and what theoretical and/or rhetorical function have these polemical references?; 4) Do the embryological theories of Cremonini, Harvey and Descartes reflect the century-long dispute between "(Aristotelian) philosophers" and "(Galenic) doctors"?; 5) How is represented embryology as a 'scientific' and/or 'theoretical' domain? And what relationship between concepts of 'truth', 'research', 'tradition' and 'scientific progress' is implied or proposed in the embryological works of these three thinkers? What kind of use do Cremonini, Harvey and Descartes make of the argumenta ex ratione and of those ex experientia? PMID:25007445

  12. Dural Venous System in the Cavernous Sinus: A Literature Review and Embryological, Functional, and Endovascular Clinical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    MITSUHASHI, Yutaka; HAYASAKI, Koji; KAWAKAMI, Taichiro; NAGATA, Takashi; KANESHIRO, Yuta; UMABA, Ryoko; OHATA, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The cavernous sinus (CS) is one of the cranial dural venous sinuses. It differs from other dural sinuses due to its many afferent and efferent venous connections with adjacent structures. It is important to know well about its complex venous anatomy to conduct safe and effective endovascular interventions for the CS. Thus, we reviewed previous literatures concerning the morphological and functional venous anatomy and the embryology of the CS. The CS is a complex of venous channels from embryologically different origins. These venous channels have more or less retained their distinct original roles of venous drainage, even after alterations through the embryological developmental process, and can be categorized into three longitudinal venous axes based on their topological and functional features. Venous channels medial to the internal carotid artery “medial venous axis” carry venous drainage from the skull base, chondrocranium and the hypophysis, with no direct participation in cerebral drainage. Venous channels lateral to the cranial nerves “lateral venous axis” are exclusively for cerebral venous drainage. Venous channels between the internal carotid artery and cranial nerves “intermediate venous axis” contribute to all the venous drainage from adjacent structures, directly from the orbit and membranous skull, indirectly through medial and lateral venous axes from the chondrocranium, the hypophysis, and the brain. This concept of longitudinal venous axes in the CS may be useful during endovascular interventions for the CS considering our better understandings of its functions in venous drainage. PMID:27063146

  13. Dural Venous System in the Cavernous Sinus: A Literature Review and Embryological, Functional, and Endovascular Clinical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Yutaka; Hayasaki, Koji; Kawakami, Taichiro; Nagata, Takashi; Kaneshiro, Yuta; Umaba, Ryoko; Ohata, Kenji

    2016-06-15

    The cavernous sinus (CS) is one of the cranial dural venous sinuses. It differs from other dural sinuses due to its many afferent and efferent venous connections with adjacent structures. It is important to know well about its complex venous anatomy to conduct safe and effective endovascular interventions for the CS. Thus, we reviewed previous literatures concerning the morphological and functional venous anatomy and the embryology of the CS. The CS is a complex of venous channels from embryologically different origins. These venous channels have more or less retained their distinct original roles of venous drainage, even after alterations through the embryological developmental process, and can be categorized into three longitudinal venous axes based on their topological and functional features. Venous channels medial to the internal carotid artery "medial venous axis" carry venous drainage from the skull base, chondrocranium and the hypophysis, with no direct participation in cerebral drainage. Venous channels lateral to the cranial nerves "lateral venous axis" are exclusively for cerebral venous drainage. Venous channels between the internal carotid artery and cranial nerves "intermediate venous axis" contribute to all the venous drainage from adjacent structures, directly from the orbit and membranous skull, indirectly through medial and lateral venous axes from the chondrocranium, the hypophysis, and the brain. This concept of longitudinal venous axes in the CS may be useful during endovascular interventions for the CS considering our better understandings of its functions in venous drainage. PMID:27063146

  14. Congenital Upper Eyelid Coloboma: Embryologic, Nomenclatorial, Nosologic, Etiologic, Pathogenetic, Epidemiologic, Clinical, and Management Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Abdulhafez, Mohamed H.; Fouad, Yousef A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To review the recent literature and describe the authors’ experience with congenital upper eyelid coloboma. Methods: In this review, we will summarize the embryologic and etiopathogenetic bases of congenital upper eyelid coloboma, and study the published clinical reports. We will also attempt to briefly shed some light on the rarer syndromic curiosities associated with upper eyelid coloboma. Results: Congenital upper eyelid colobomas are one of the few nontraumatic oculoplastic emergencies that may occasionally present in the first few days of life with a corneal ulcer and may even present with impending perforation. They can present with or without corneopalpebral adhesions, may be isolated findings or a part of a larger spectrum of congenital anomalies as in the case of Fraser syndrome or Goldenhar syndrome, or could be associated with other rare curiosities that could challenge the clinician with a huge diagnostic dilemma. Conclusions: Existing literature dealing with congenital colobomas of the upper eyelid is fraught with nosologic problems, confusing etiologies, and overlapping clinical features. We attempted to clarify the salient clinical features, outline the management principles, and until a time in the not-so-distant future where advances in molecular genetic testing would help redefine the etiology and the diverse clinical spectrum of genetic diseases associated with upper eyelid colobomas, we propose a simplified classification scheme based on the relation of the coloboma to the cornea, the presence or absence of systemic features, and all the syndromic and nonsyndromic associations of congenital coloboma of the upper eyelid known today. PMID:25419956

  15. [Studies on sexual organs and embryological development morphology of Pterocypsela formosana].

    PubMed

    Hua, Long; Ma, Xue-ni; Huang, Heng-yu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the embryological characters of Pterocypsela formosana (Asteraceae) were investigated with the traditional paraffin section methods. The anther has 4 sporangiates, the anther wall development follows the dicotyledonous type and comprises of an epidermis, endothelium, a middle layer and a single-layered tapetum, the tapetum belongs to glandular type. Meiosis of the microspore mother cells is of the simultaneous type, for the formation of mostly tetrahedral tetrad, the mature pollen grains are 2 celled. The ovary is bicarpellate, unilocular, one ovule and basal placenta, the ovule is unitegmic, tenuinucellate, inverted campylotropous and with developed endothelium, archesporial cell of megaspore differentiates immediately below the nucellar epidermis and functions as megasporocyte after development and belongs to tenuinucellate ovule type. The megasporocyte undergoes meitotic to form a liner tetrad, only one chalazal megaspore becomes the functional megaspore which forms female gametophyte including 7-celled and 8-nucleated after three successive mitosis, the female gametophyte is of the Polygonum type. Two polar nuclei melt into a secondary nuclei before fertilization, the chalazal antipodal cells are ephemeral and degenerate shortly after forming. Fertilization is porogamous and belongs to premitotic type of syngamy. The division of the primary endosperm nucleus is earlier than the zygote, the endosperm is of the nuclear type with the presence of haustoria, and the embryogeny belongs to asterad type chicory variant. The developed suspensor on early stage has important significance to the embryo development. PMID:26080544

  16. Preliminary studies of enhanced contrast radiography in anatomy and embryology of insects with Elettra synchrotron light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Foerster, L. A.; Navarro-Silva, M. A.; Menk, R.-H.; Rigon, L.; Cusatis, C.

    2005-08-01

    Enhanced contrast X-ray imaging is achieved by exploiting the real part of the refraction index, which is responsible for the phase shifts, in addition to the imaginary part, which is responsible for the absorption. Such techniques are called X-ray phase contrast imaging. An analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast imaging set-up with Diffraction Enhanced Imaging processing (DEI) were used for preliminary studies in anatomy and embryology of insects. Parasitized stinkbug and moth eggs used as control agents of pests in vegetables and adult stinkbugs and mosquitoes ( Aedes aegypti) were used as samples. The experimental setup was mounted in the SYRMEP beamline at ELETTRA. Images were obtained using a high spatial resolution CCD detector (pixel size 14×14 μm 2) coupled with magnifying optics. Analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast images (PCI) and edge detection images show contrast and details not observed with conventional synchrotron radiography and open the possibility for future study in the embryonic development of insects.

  17. [On a contribution of Boris Balinsky to the comparative and ecological embryology of amphibians].

    PubMed

    Desnitskiĭ, A G

    2014-01-01

    The outstanding embryologist Boris Ivanovich Balinsky (1905-1997) worked in the Soviet Union up to 1941 and in South Africa since 1949. His experimental studies fulfilled during the Soviet period of his scientific career mainly on the embryos of the caudate amphibians are widely known. After moving to Africa (Johannesburg), he continued the research of amphibian development, with using those possibilities, which were offered by the diverse fauna of local Anura. Other embryologists started complex studies of tropical frog ontogenies (mainly from South and Central America) 30-40 years later than Balinsky. Unfortunately, his pioneering works on numerous African species are poorly known (with the exceptions of the description of the development of endodermal derivatives in Xenopus laevis and the analysis of limb induction in the toad genus Amietophrynus). In this paper, the works of Balinsky are analyzed (with the emphasis on comparative and ecological aspects) and his priority in using of "nonmodel" tropical and subtropical anurans in embryological studies has been shown. PMID:25720271

  18. Embryology of Cardiopteris (Cardiopteridaceae, Aquifoliales), with emphasis on unusual ovule and seed development.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Cardiopteris (Cardiopteridaceae), a twining herb of two or three species distributed from Southeast Asia to Northern Australia, requires an embryological study for better understanding of its reproductive features. The present study of C. quinqueloba showed that the ovule and seed development involves a number of unusual structures, most of which are unknown elsewhere in angiosperms. The ovule pendant from the apical placenta is straight (not orthotropous), ategmic, and tenuinucellate, developing a monosporic seven-celled/eight-nucleate female gametophyte with an egg apparatus on the funicular side. Fertilization occurs by a pollen tube entering from the funicular side, resulting in a zygote on the funicular side. The endosperm is formed by the cell on the funicular side in the two endosperm cell stage. While retaining a (pro)embryo/endosperm as it is, the raphe (differentiating late in pre-fertilization stages) elongates toward the antiraphal side during post-fertilization stages, resulting in an anatropous seed. The two-cell-layered nucellar epidermis (belatedly forming by periclinal divisions), along with the raphe, envelops the embryo/endosperm entirely as the seed coat. The possibility was discussed that the arrested integument development triggers a series of the subsequent unusual structures of ovule and seed development. The fertilization mode in Cardiopteris underpins the hypothesis that the Polygonum‒type female gametophyte comprises two four-celled archegonia. PMID:27333873

  19. Anatomy and embryology of umbilicus in newborns: a review and clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Abdelmonem A

    2016-09-01

    Umbilicus is considered a mirror of the abdomen in newborns. Despite its importance, the umbilicus has been stated in literature and textbooks as discrete subjects with many body systems, such as the urinary, digestive, and cardiovascular ones. This article aimed to address the basic knowledge of the umbilicus in relation to clinical disorders under one integrated topic to aid physicians and surgeons in assessing newborns and infants. The umbilicus appears as early as the fourth week of fetal life when the folding of the embryonic plate occurs. The umbilicus appears initially as a primitive umbilical ring on the ventral aspect of the body. The primitive umbilicus contains the connecting stalk, umbilical vessels, vitelline duct and vessels, allantois, and loop of the intestine. Changes occur to form the definitive cord, which contains three umbilical vessels, namely, "one vein and two arteries," embedded in Wharton's jelly. After birth, the umbilical vessels inside the body obliterate and gradually form ligaments. Congenital disorders at the umbilicus include herniation, bleeding, and discharge of mucous, urine, or feces. Some of these disorders necessitate emergent surgical interference, whereas others may be managed conservatively. The umbilicus has many embryological remnants. Thus, the umbilicus is prone to various clinical disorders. Detecting these disorders as early as possible is essential to prevent or minimize possible complications. PMID:27473223

  20. Embryological outcomes in cycles with human oocytes containing large tubular smooth endoplasmic reticulum clusters after conventional in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Itoi, Fumiaki; Asano, Yukiko; Shimizu, Masashi; Honnma, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    There have been no studies analyzing the effect of large aggregates of tubular smooth endoplasmic reticulum (aSERT) after conventional in vitro fertilization (cIVF). The aim of this study was to investigate whether aSERT can be identified after cIVF and the association between the embryological outcomes of oocytes in cycles with aSERT. This is a retrospective study examining embryological data from cIVF cycles showing the presence of aSERT in oocytes 5-6 h after cIVF. To evaluate embryo quality, cIVF cycles with at least one aSERT-metaphase II (MII) oocyte observed (cycles with aSERT) were compared to cycles with normal-MII oocytes (control cycles). Among the 4098 MII oocytes observed in 579 cycles, aSERT was detected in 100 MII oocytes in 51 cycles (8.8%). The fertilization rate, the rate of embryo development on day 3 and day 5-6 did not significantly differ between cycles with aSERT and control group. However, aSERT-MII oocytes had lower rates for both blastocysts and good quality blastocysts (p < 0.05). aSERT can be detected in the cytoplasm by removing the cumulus cell 5 h after cIVF. However, aSERT-MII oocytes do not affect other normal-MII oocytes in cycles with aSERT. PMID:26607857

  1. Dermatan Sulfate-Free Mice Display Embryological Defects and Are Neonatal Lethal Despite Normal Lymphoid and Non-Lymphoid Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Stachtea, Xanthi N.; Tykesson, Emil; van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Feinstein, Ricardo; Malmström, Anders; Reijmers, Rogier M.; Maccarana, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The epimerization of glucuronic acid into iduronic acid adds structural variability to chondroitin/dermatan sulfate polysaccharides. Iduronic acid-containing domains play essential roles in processes such as coagulation, chemokine and morphogen modulation, collagen maturation, and neurite sprouting. Therefore, we generated and characterized, for the first time, mice deficient in dermatan sulfate epimerase 1 and 2, two enzymes uniquely involved in dermatan sulfate biosynthesis. The resulting mice, termed DKO mice, were completely devoid of iduronic acid, and the resulting chondroitin sulfate chains were structurally different from the wild type chains, from which a different protein binding specificity can be expected. As a consequence, a vast majority of the DKO mice died perinatally, with greatly variable phenotypes at birth or late embryological stages such as umbilical hernia, exencephaly and a kinked tail. However, a minority of embryos were histologically unaffected, with apparently normal lung and bone/cartilage features. Interestingly, the binding of the chemokine CXCL13, an important modulator of lymphoid organogenesis, to mouse DKO embryonic fibroblasts was impaired. Nevertheless, the development of the secondary lymphoid organs, including the lymph nodes and spleen, was normal. Altogether, our results indicate an important role of dermatan sulfate in embryological development and perinatal survival. PMID:26488883

  2. Common Space, Common Time, Common Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shank, Melody J.

    2005-01-01

    The most valued means of support and learning cited by new teachers at Poland Regional High School in rural Maine are the collegial interactions that common workspace, common planning time, and common tasks make possible. The school has used these everyday structures to enable new and veteran teachers to converse about curricular and pedagogical…

  3. The thigh extension of the small saphenous vein: a hypothesis about its significance, based on morphological, embryological and anatomo-comparative reports.

    PubMed

    Barberini, Fabrizio; Cavallini, Alvise; Caggiati, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The small saphenous vein in its modal pattern flows into the popliteal vein by means of a terminal arch (sapheno-popliteal junction), and frequently gives off an anastomotic branch, ascending on the medial aspect of the thigh, to the great saphenous vein. This branch has often been termed thigh extension of the small saphenous vein. As resulted in this report from autopsy, the venous extension coursed on the midline of the posterior aspect of the thigh, tributary to the deep femoral vein, and the small saphenous vein presented neither a sapheno-popliteal terminal arch, nor evident intersaphenous anastomoses. As a consequence, the small saphenous vein by means of its prolongation continued directly from the calf into the deep femoral vein. In the human embryo the small saphenous vein appears as direct communication with the posterior cardinal vein, and accompanies the developing ischiatic artery and nerve, as the main vein (ischiatic vein) of the lower limb bud. At the end of development, its proximal part persists as inferior gluteal vein. Comparative anatomy indicates that in animals the small saphenous vein is the only superficial vein well developed and that in humans its termination into the popliteal one might be an adaptation to the elongation and relative rigidity of the lower limb. In the horse a posterior vein of the thigh connects the small saphenous with the ischiatic one, and ascends along the ischiatic nerve to anastomose with the deep femoral vein. It would appear also that in the lower animals the small saphenous vein ascends to a higher level on the posterior aspect of the thigh. Thus, a venous extension like that we observed might be an atavism. Therefore, on the basis of these embryological and phylogenetical data, the Authors hypothesized that a small saphenous vein and a thigh extension of such a feature might be regarded as a unique venous channel, wholly axial throughout its course, formed by the small saphenous vein proper in the leg and by a

  4. Genetic Basis of the Relationship Between Reproduction and Longevity: A Study on Common Variants of Three Genes in Steroid Hormone Metabolism--CYP17, HSD17B1, and COMT.

    PubMed

    Scarabino, Daniela; Scacchi, Renato; Pinto, Alessandro; Corbo, Rosa Maria

    2015-10-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging predict an antagonistic relationship between fertility and life span in humans, but the genetic basis of this phenomenon is not clear. The variation of three genes in steroid hormone metabolism--CYP17 (rs743572), HSD17B1 (rs 605059), and COMT (rs4680)--was examined to elucidate the genetic basis of the relationship between fertility and life span. A sample of 277 individuals (mean age, 82.9 years) was recruited in 2000. On the basis of mortality data collected in 2009, the sample was divided into two groups of subjects surviving to over 90 years (long-lived) or not (controls). Fertility data (number of children) were collected in the same sample. The HSD17B1 AA genotype was found to be significantly associated (p = 0.0085) with longevity only in the females (estimated odds ratio = 3.77). Because the HSD17B1 AA genotype was also associated with a higher number of children (5.3 ± 2.1) than the other genotypes (p = 0.006), we may infer that HSD17B1 genotypes could exert a positive pleiotropic action on longevity and fertility. CYP17 and COMT gene variation did not influence either life span or fertility. We then searched the literature for genes studied in relation to both reproduction and aging. A review of the studies showed a pleiotropic action for six out of 16 genes and revealed that genes may exert positive, or negative, or antagonistic pleiotropic actions. These potential actions may be modified by such environmental factors such as changing reproductive behaviors, which seem to be able to mitigate or enhance a gene's phenotypic effects. PMID:25936248

  5. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Common Cold Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page ... Help people who are suffering from the common cold by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials. ...

  6. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...

  7. Development and Growth of the Normal Cranial Vault : An Embryologic Review.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sung-Won; Sim, Ki-Bum; Kim, Sang-Dae

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the development of a skull deformity requires an understanding of the normal morphogenesis of the cranium. Craniosynostosis is the premature, pathologic ossification of one or more cranial sutures leading to skull deformities. A review of the English medical literature using textbooks and standard search engines was performed to gather information about the prenatal development and growth of the cranial vault of the neurocranium. A process of morphogenic sequencing begins during prenatal development and growth, continues postnatally, and contributes to the basis for the differential manner of growth of cranial vault bones. This improved knowledge might facilitate comprehension of the pathophysiology of craniosynostosis. PMID:27226848

  8. Development and Growth of the Normal Cranial Vault : An Embryologic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sung-Won; Kim, Sang-Dae

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the development of a skull deformity requires an understanding of the normal morphogenesis of the cranium. Craniosynostosis is the premature, pathologic ossification of one or more cranial sutures leading to skull deformities. A review of the English medical literature using textbooks and standard search engines was performed to gather information about the prenatal development and growth of the cranial vault of the neurocranium. A process of morphogenic sequencing begins during prenatal development and growth, continues postnatally, and contributes to the basis for the differential manner of growth of cranial vault bones. This improved knowledge might facilitate comprehension of the pathophysiology of craniosynostosis. PMID:27226848

  9. Unusual Variation in the Branching Pattern of the Celiac Trunk and Its Embryological and Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pangtey, Babita; Vasudeva, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of variations in the branching pattern of Celiac Trunk (CT) is important for surgeries of stomach, duodenum, pancreas and hepatobiliary region, for abdominal aortic aneurysm, for liver transplant and chaemoembolization of hepatic tumours. An unusual variation in the branching pattern of CT was observed in 50-year-old male cadaver of Indian origin. CT divided into six branches out of which right & left inferior phrenic arteries originated as first two branches and left gastric artery as the third branch. CT ended into three terminal branches as common hepatic artery, splenic artery & dorsal pancreatic artery. Right gastric artery originated from left hepatic artery instead of common hepatic artery. A variant hepatic artery to the left lobe of liver was also observed which originated from right gastric artery. Anatomical variations in the branching pattern of CT are due to developmental changes in ventral splanchnic artery. PMID:27504274

  10. Clays, common

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the common clay industry worldwide for 1997 is discussed. Sales of common clay in the U.S. increased from 26.2 Mt in 1996 to an estimated 26.5 Mt in 1997. The amount of common clay and shale used to produce structural clay products in 1997 was estimated at 13.8 Mt.

  11. Curving and looping of the internal carotid artery in relation to the pharynx: frequency, embryology and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, F; Tillmann, B; Christofides, C; Richter, W; Koebke, J

    2000-10-01

    Variations of the course of the internal carotid artery in the parapharyngeal space and their frequency were studied in order to determine possible risks for acute haemorrhage during pharyngeal surgery and traumatic events, as well as their possible relevance to cerebrovascular disease. The course of the internal carotid artery showed no curvature in 191 cases, but in 74 cases it had a medial, lateral or ventrocaudal curve, and 17 preparations showed kinking (12) or coiling (5) out of a total of 265 dissected carotid sheaths and 17 corrosion vascular casts. In 6 cases of kinking and 2 of coiling, the internal carotid artery was located in direct contact with the tonsillar fossa. No significant sex differences were found. Variations of the internal carotid artery leading to direct contact with the pharyngeal wall are likely to be of great clinical relevance in view of the large number of routine procedures performed. Whereas coiling is ascribed to embryological causes, curving is related to ageing and kinking is thought to be exacerbated by arteriosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia with advancing age and may therefore be of significance in relation to the occurrence of cerebrovascular symptoms. PMID:11117624

  12. Curving and looping of the internal carotid artery in relation to the pharynx: frequency, embryology and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    PAULSEN, FRIEDRICH; TILLMANN, BERNHARD; CHRISTOFIDES, CHRISTOS; RICHTER, WALBURGA; KOEBKE, JÜRGEN

    2000-01-01

    Variations of the course of the internal carotid artery in the parapharyngeal space and their frequency were studied in order to determine possible risks for acute haemorrhage during pharyngeal surgery and traumatic events, as well as their possible relevance to cerebrovascular disease. The course of the internal carotid artery showed no curvature in 191 cases, but in 74 cases it had a medial, lateral or ventrocaudal curve, and 17 preparations showed kinking (12) or coiling (5) out of a total of 265 dissected carotid sheaths and 17 corrosion vascular casts. In 6 cases of kinking and 2 of coiling, the internal carotid artery was located in direct contact with the tonsillar fossa. No significant sex differences were found. Variations of the internal carotid artery leading to direct contact with the pharyngeal wall are likely to be of great clinical relevance in view of the large number of routine procedures performed. Whereas coiling is ascribed to embryological causes, curving is related to ageing and kinking is thought to be exacerbated by arteriosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia with advancing age and may therefore be of significance in relation to the occurrence of cerebrovascular symptoms. PMID:11117624

  13. Genomic basis of broad host range and environmental adaptability of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 which are used in inoculants for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 are α-Proteobacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a range of legume hosts. These strains are broadly used in commercial inoculants for application to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in South America and Africa. Both strains display intrinsic resistance to several abiotic stressful conditions such as low soil pH and high temperatures, which are common in tropical environments, and to several antimicrobials, including pesticides. The genetic determinants of these interesting characteristics remain largely unknown. Results Genome sequencing revealed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 share a highly-conserved symbiotic plasmid (pSym) that is present also in Rhizobium leucaenae CFN 299, a rhizobium displaying a similar host range. This pSym seems to have arisen by a co-integration event between two replicons. Remarkably, three distinct nodA genes were found in the pSym, a characteristic that may contribute to the broad host range of these rhizobia. Genes for biosynthesis and modulation of plant-hormone levels were also identified in the pSym. Analysis of genes involved in stress response showed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 are well equipped to cope with low pH, high temperatures and also with oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, the genomes of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 had large numbers of genes encoding drug-efflux systems, which may explain their high resistance to antimicrobials. Genome analysis also revealed a wide array of traits that may allow these strains to be successful rhizosphere colonizers, including surface polysaccharides, uptake transporters and catabolic enzymes for nutrients, diverse iron-acquisition systems, cell wall-degrading enzymes, type I and IV pili, and novel T1SS and T5SS secreted adhesins. Conclusions Availability of the complete genome sequences of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 may be exploited in further efforts to understand the interaction of tropical rhizobia with common bean

  14. Student Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Student commons are no longer simply congregation spaces for students with time on their hands. They are integral to providing a welcoming environment and effective learning space for students. Many student commons have been transformed into spaces for socialization, an environment for alternative teaching methods, a forum for large group meetings…

  15. Review of Prostate Anatomy and Embryology and the Etiology of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Aaron, LaTayia; Franco, Omar E; Hayward, Simon W

    2016-08-01

    Prostate development follows a common pattern between species and depends on the actions of androgens to induce and support ductal branching morphogenesis of buds emerging from the urogenital sinus. The human prostate has a compact zonal anatomy immediately surrounding the urethra and below the urinary bladder. Rodents have a lobular prostate with lobes radiating away from the urethra. The human prostate is the site of benign hyperplasia, prostate cancer, and prostatitis. The rodent prostate has little naturally occurring disease. Rodents can be used to model aspects of human benign hyperplasia, but care should be taken in data interpretation and extrapolation to the human condition. PMID:27476121

  16. Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome: Embryology, Genetics and Clinical and Surgical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sturlese, Emanuele; Retto, Giovanni; Retto, Annalisa; De Dominici, Rosanna; Puzzolo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a pathological condition characterized by primary amenorrhea and infertility and by congenital aplasia of the uterus and of the upper vagina. The development of secondary sexual characters is normal as well as that the karyotype (46,XX). Etiologically, this syndrome may be caused by the lack of development of the Müllerian ducts between the fifth and the sixth weeks of gestation. To explain this condition, it has been suggested that in patients with MRKH syndrome, there is a very strong hyperincretion of Müllerian-inhibiting factor (MIF), which would provoke the lack of development of the Müllerian ducts from primitive structures (as what normally occurs in male phenotype). These alterations are commonly associated with renal agenesis or ectopia. Specific mutations of several genes such as WT1, PAX2, HOXA7-HOXA13, PBX1, and WNT4 involved in the earliest stages of embryonic development could play a key role in the etiopathogenesis of this syndrome. Besides, it seems that the other two genes, TCF2 (HNF1B) and LHX1, are involved in the determinism of this pathology. Currently, the most widely nonsurgical used techniques include the “Frank's dilators method,” while the surgical ones most commonly used are those developed by McIndoe, Williams, Vecchietti, Davydov, and Baldwin. PMID:23431465

  17. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work. Parents often get colds ... other children. A cold can spread quickly through schools or daycares. Colds can occur at any time ...

  18. Study of Genetics and Embryology of Polyembryonic Mutant of Autotetraploid Rice Induced by N+ Beam Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Ximei; Huang, Qunce; Li, Guoping; Hu, Xiuming; Qin, Guangyong; Yu, Zengliang

    2006-11-01

    In the present study autotetraploid rice IR36-4X was treated by an ion implantation technique with nitrogen ion beams. A polyembryonic mutant (named IR36-Shuang) was identified in the M2 generation. The mutant line and its offspring were systematically investigated in regard to their major agronomic properties and the rate of polyembryonic seedling in the M3-M6 generation. The abnormal phenomena in the embryo sac development and the cytological mechanism of the initiation of additional embryo in IR36-Shuang were observed by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy. The results were as follows. 1) The plant height, the panicle length and 1000 grain weight of IR36-Shuang were lower than that of its control by 35.41%, 5.08% and 15.72% respectively, Moreover, the setting percentage decreased 12.39% compared with that in normal IR36-4X plants. 2) The polyembryonic trait of IR36-Shuang was genetically stable and the frequency of the polyembryonic seedlings in the IR36-Shuang line was also relatively stable. 3) The rate of abnormal embryo sacs in IR36-Shuang was significantly higher than that in the control IR36-4X. 4) The additional embryo in IR36-Shuang might arise from the double set of embryo sacs in a single ovary, antipodal cells or endosperm cells. These results suggest that IR36-Shuang is a polyembryonic mutant and a new apomixis rice line induced by low energy ion implantation. The prospects for the application in production of the IR36-Shuang line are also discussed. The present study may provide a basis for future investigations of apomixis rice breeding via the ion implantation biotechnology.

  19. An embryological point of view on associated congenital anomalies of children with Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed

    Slavikova, T; Zabojnikova, L; Babala, J; Varga, I

    2015-01-01

    The most common congenital gut motility disorder is the Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). This anomaly is characterized by absence of neural crest-derived enteric neuronal ganglia. The aim of our study was to analyze the relationship between HSCR and other congenital anomalies or malfunctions. We examined 130 patients with Hirschsprung disease from Slovakia for last 10 years. During patients examination we focused not only on morphological abnormalities, but also functional anomalies. The incidence of associated congenital anomalies in our patients with HSCR was 26.1 %. But if we add functional defects (hypothyroidism, malfunction in cellular immunity, neurological deficit) to the morphological congenital abnormalities, the rate of the patients with HSCR with additional defects achieves 50.1 %. Nine of our patients (6.9 %) had syndromic HSCR. The most frequent disorder (13.6 % of patients) was primary deficiency in cellular immunity. More than 12.3 % of patients with HSCR had genitourinary abnormalities, in 10.0 % of patients variable degree of psychomotor retardation was observed, and skeletal, muscle and limb anomalies involved 7.7 % of patients. In 7.6 % cases of patients we found congenital hypothyroidism (including 2 cases of agenesis of thyroid gland). More than 6.1 % of patients presented with an associated anomaly in gastrointestinal tract (mostly anorectal malformations). Up to 5.5 % patients had congenital anomaly of heart, 3.8 % had ophthalmic and 3.1 % had craniofacial anomalies. Down syndrome was the main diagnosis in 3.8 % patients. We discussed  the relationship between HSCR and other anomalies, which are probably caused by abnormal migration, proliferation, or differentiation, of neural crest cells during embryogenesis (Tab. 1, Fig. 2, Ref. 75). PMID:26621159

  20. Genetic basis of autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Marson, Alexander; Housley, William J.; Hafler, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases affect up to approximately 10% of the population. While rare Mendelian autoimmunity syndromes can result from monogenic mutations disrupting essential mechanisms of central and peripheral tolerance, more common human autoimmune diseases are complex disorders that arise from the interaction between polygenic risk factors and environmental factors. Although the risk attributable to most individual nucleotide variants is modest, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have the potential to provide an unbiased view of biological pathways that drive human autoimmune diseases. Interpretation of GWAS requires integration of multiple genomic datasets including dense genotyping, cis-regulatory maps of primary immune cells, and genotyped studies of gene expression in relevant cell types and cellular conditions. Improved understanding of the genetic basis of autoimmunity may lead to a more sophisticated understanding of underlying cellular phenotypes and, eventually, novel diagnostics and targeted therapies. PMID:26030227

  1. Jean Brachet, l'hérédité générale and the origins of molecular embryology.

    PubMed

    Sapp, J

    1997-01-01

    Jean Brachet's research on microsomes and the role of RNA in protein synthesis during the 1940s and 50s is placed in the context of embryological views about the role of the cytoplasm in development, and plasmagene theory based on studies of non-Mendelian inheritance in microorganisms. I show how Brachet's subsequent conception of messenger RNA evolved in the context of his conceptions of the relations between plasmagenes and nuclear genes. His theorizing on cytoplasmic organelles and viruses is further situated in the bio-political controversy over the inheritance of acquired characteristics during the Lysenko controversy. PMID:9284643

  2. Making the Common Good Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  3. Congenital coronary artery anomalies: a bridge from embryology to anatomy and pathophysiology--a position statement of the development, anatomy, and pathology ESC Working Group.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pomares, José María; de la Pompa, José Luis; Franco, Diego; Henderson, Deborah; Ho, Siew Yen; Houyel, Lucile; Kelly, Robert G; Sedmera, David; Sheppard, Mary; Sperling, Silke; Thiene, Gaetano; van den Hoff, Maurice; Basso, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Congenital coronary artery anomalies are of major significance in clinical cardiology and cardiac surgery due to their association with myocardial ischaemia and sudden death. Such anomalies are detectable by imaging modalities and, according to various definitions, their prevalence ranges from 0.21 to 5.79%. This consensus document from the Development, Anatomy and Pathology Working Group of the European Society of Cardiology aims to provide: (i) a definition of normality that refers to essential anatomical and embryological features of coronary vessels, based on the integrated analysis of studies of normal and abnormal coronary embryogenesis and pathophysiology; (ii) an animal model-based systematic survey of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate coronary blood vessel development; (iii) an organization of the wide spectrum of coronary artery anomalies, according to a comprehensive anatomical and embryological classification scheme; (iv) current knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying symptoms and signs of coronary artery anomalies, with diagnostic and therapeutic implications. This document identifies the mosaic-like embryonic development of the coronary vascular system, as coronary cell types differentiate from multiple cell sources through an intricate network of molecular signals and haemodynamic cues, as the necessary framework for understanding the complex spectrum of coronary artery anomalies observed in human patients. PMID:26811390

  4. Observing temporal order in living processes: on the role of time in embryology on the cell level in the 1870s and post-2000.

    PubMed

    Bock von Wülfingen, Bettina

    2015-03-01

    The article analyses the role of time in the visual culture of two phases in embryological research: at the end of the nineteenth century, and in the years around 2000. The first case study involves microscopical cytology, the second reproductive genetics. In the 1870s we observe the first of a series of abstractions in research methodology on conception and development, moving from a method propagated as the observation of the "real" living object to the production of stained and fixated objects that are then aligned in temporal order. This process of abstraction ultimately fosters a dissociation between space and time in the research phenomenon, which after 2000 is problematized and explicitly tackled in embryology. Mass data computing made it possible partially to re-include temporal complexity in reproductive genetics in certain, though not all, fields of reproductive genetics. Here research question, instrument and modelling interact in ways that produce very different temporal relationships. Specifically, this article suggests that the different techniques in the late nineteenth century and around 2000 were employed in order to align the time of the researcher with that of the phenomenon and to economize the researcher's work in interaction with the research material's own temporal challenges. PMID:26013437

  5. Embryology of oesophageal atresia

    PubMed Central

    Ioannides, Adonis S.; Copp, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Oesophageal atresia (OA) and tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TOF) are important human birth defects of unknown aetiology. The embryogenesis of OA/TOF remains poorly understood mirroring the lack of clarity of the mechanisms of normal tracheo-oesophageal development. The development of rat and mouse models of OA/TOF has allowed the parallel study of both normal and abnormal embryogenesis. Although controversies persist, the fundamental morphogenetic process appears to be a rearrangement of the proximal foregut into separate respiratory (ventral) and gastrointestinal (dorsal) tubes. This process depends on the precise temporal and spatial pattern of expression of a number of foregut patterning genes. Disturbance of this pattern disrupts foregut separation and underlies the development of tracheo-oesophageal malformations. PMID:19103415

  6. Basis selection in LOBPCG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetmaniuk, U.; Lehoucq, R.

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of our paper is to discuss basis selection for Knyazev's locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate gradient (LOBPCG) method. An inappropriate choice of basis can lead to ill-conditioned Gram matrices in the Rayleigh-Ritz analysis that can delay convergence or produce inaccurate eigenpairs. We demonstrate that the choice of basis is not merely related to computing in finite precision arithmetic. We propose a representation that maintains orthogonality of the basis vectors and so has excellent numerical properties.

  7. Space station commonality analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This study was conducted on the basis of a modification to Contract NAS8-36413, Space Station Commonality Analysis, which was initiated in December, 1987 and completed in July, 1988. The objective was to investigate the commonality aspects of subsystems and mission support hardware while technology experiments are accommodated on board the Space Station in the mid-to-late 1990s. Two types of mission are considered: (1) Advanced solar arrays and their storage; and (2) Satellite servicing. The point of departure for definition of the technology development missions was a set of missions described in the Space Station Mission Requirements Data Base. (MRDB): TDMX 2151 Solar Array/Energy Storage Technology; TDMX 2561 Satellite Servicing and Refurbishment; TDMX 2562 Satellite Maintenance and Repair; TDMX 2563 Materials Resupply (to a free-flyer materials processing platform); TDMX 2564 Coatings Maintenance Technology; and TDMX 2565 Thermal Interface Technology. Issues to be addressed according to the Statement of Work included modularity of programs, data base analysis interactions, user interfaces, and commonality. The study was to consider State-of-the-art advances through the 1990s and to select an appropriate scale for the technology experiments, considering hardware commonality, user interfaces, and mission support requirements. The study was to develop evolutionary plans for the technology advancement missions.

  8. Common Geometry Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-01-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and onmore » top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.« less

  9. Safety Basis Report

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-14

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities.

  10. Basis of Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelz, Heinrich

    This article intends to shed light on the somewhat nebulous term "basis of articulation," which is used frequently in Eastern European phonetic and linguistic literature but highly neglected in contemporary American literature. In a historical approach, it is shown how the term originated and developed, how it is defined by various authors, and…

  11. 47 CFR 64.2001 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.2001 Section 64.2001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Proprietary Network Information § 64.2001 Basis and...

  12. 47 CFR 64.2001 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.2001 Section 64.2001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Proprietary Network Information § 64.2001 Basis and...

  13. 47 CFR 64.5101 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.5101 Section 64.5101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS TRS Customer Proprietary Network Information. § 64.5101 Basis...

  14. 47 CFR 64.5101 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.5101 Section 64.5101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS TRS Customer Proprietary Network Information. § 64.5101 Basis...

  15. 47 CFR 64.2001 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.2001 Section 64.2001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Proprietary Network Information § 64.2001 Basis and...

  16. 47 CFR 64.2001 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.2001 Section 64.2001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Proprietary Network Information § 64.2001 Basis and...

  17. 47 CFR 64.2001 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 64.2001 Section 64.2001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Customer Proprietary Network Information § 64.2001 Basis and...

  18. 47 CFR 53.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 53.1 Section 53.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) SPECIAL PROVISIONS CONCERNING BELL OPERATING COMPANIES General Information § 53.1 Basis and purpose. (a) Basis....

  19. No Common Opinion on the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Michael B.; Peterson, Paul E.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the three authors of this article, the 2014 "EdNext" poll yields four especially important new findings: (1) Opinion with respect to the Common Core has yet to coalesce. The idea of a common set of standards across the country has wide appeal, and the Common Core itself still commands the support of a majority of the public.…

  20. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B K

    2009-06-03

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  1. Evolution of the vertebrate jaw: comparative embryology and molecular developmental biology reveal the factors behind evolutionary novelty

    PubMed Central

    Kuratani, Shigeru

    2004-01-01

    It is generally believed that the jaw arose through the simple transformation of an ancestral rostral gill arch. The gnathostome jaw differentiates from Hox-free crest cells in the mandibular arch, and this is also apparent in the lamprey. The basic Hox code, including the Hox-free default state in the mandibular arch, may have been present in the common ancestor, and jaw patterning appears to have been secondarily constructed in the gnathostomes. The distribution of the cephalic neural crest cells is similar in the early pharyngula of gnathostomes and lampreys, but different cell subsets form the oral apparatus in each group through epithelial–mesenchymal interactions: and this heterotopy is likely to have been an important evolutionary change that permitted jaw differentiation. This theory implies that the premandibular crest cells differentiate into the upper lip, or the dorsal subdivision of the oral apparatus in the lamprey, whereas the equivalent cell population forms the trabecula of the skull base in gnathostomes. Because the gnathostome oral apparatus is derived exclusively from the mandibular arch, the concepts ‘oral’ and ‘mandibular’ must be dissociated. The ‘lamprey trabecula’ develops from mandibular mesoderm, and is not homologous with the gnathostome trabecula, which develops from premandibular crest cells. Thus the jaw evolved as an evolutionary novelty through tissue rearrangements and topographical changes in tissue interactions. PMID:15575882

  2. Migraine and Common Morbidities

    MedlinePlus

    ... headaches . Home > Migraine and Common Morbidities Print Email Migraine and Common Morbidities ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Migraine and Common Morbidities For many patients, migraine is ...

  3. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  4. Genetic basis of hyperlysinemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyperlysinemia is an autosomal recessive inborn error of L-lysine degradation. To date only one causal mutation in the AASS gene encoding α-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase has been reported. We aimed to better define the genetic basis of hyperlysinemia. Methods We collected the clinical, biochemical and molecular data in a cohort of 8 hyperlysinemia patients with distinct neurological features. Results We found novel causal mutations in AASS in all affected individuals, including 4 missense mutations, 2 deletions and 1 duplication. In two patients originating from one family, the hyperlysinemia was caused by a contiguous gene deletion syndrome affecting AASS and PTPRZ1. Conclusions Hyperlysinemia is caused by mutations in AASS. As hyperlysinemia is generally considered a benign metabolic variant, the more severe neurological disease course in two patients with a contiguous deletion syndrome may be explained by the additional loss of PTPRZ1. Our findings illustrate the importance of detailed biochemical and genetic studies in any hyperlysinemia patient. PMID:23570448

  5. WEST Physics Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907-12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L-H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  6. Common Career Technical Core: Common Standards, Common Vision for CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium's (NASDCTEc) Common Career Technical Core (CCTC), a state-led initiative that was created to ensure that career and technical education (CTE) programs are consistent and high quality across the United States. Forty-two states,…

  7. Neurobiological Basis of Hypersexuality.

    PubMed

    Kühn, S; Gallinat, J

    2016-01-01

    Until now, hypersexuality has not found entry into the common diagnostic classification systems. However it is a frequently discussed phenomenon consisting of excessive sexual appetite that is maladaptive for the individual. Initial studies investigated the neurobiological underpinnings of hypersexuality, but current literature is still insufficient to draw unequivocal conclusions. In the present review, we summarize and discuss findings from various perspectives: neuroimaging and lesion studies, studies on other neurological disorders that are sometimes accompanied by hypersexuality, neuropharmacological evidence, genetic as well as animal studies. Taken together, the evidence seems to imply that alterations in the frontal lobe, amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, septum, and brain regions that process reward play a prominent role in the emergence of hypersexuality. Genetic studies and neuropharmacological treatment approaches point at an involvement of the dopaminergic system. PMID:27503448

  8. Environmental Basis of Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Floreani, Annarosa; Leung, Patrick S C; Gershwin, M Eric

    2016-06-01

    The three common themes that underlie the induction and perpetuation of autoimmunity are genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and immune regulation. Environmental factors have gained much attention for their role in triggering autoimmunity, with increasing evidence of their influence as demonstrated by epidemiological studies, laboratory research, and animal studies. Environmental factors known to trigger and perpetuate autoimmunity include infections, gut microbiota, as well as physical and environmental agents. To address these issues, we will review major potential mechanisms that underlie autoimmunity including molecular mimicry, epitope spreading, bystander activation, polyclonal activation of B and T cells, infections, and autoinflammatory activation of innate immunity. The association of the gut microbiota on autoimmunity will be particularly highlighted by their interaction with pharmaceutical agents that may lead to organ-specific autoimmunity. Nonetheless, and we will emphasize this point, the precise mechanism of environmental influence on disease pathogenesis remains elusive. PMID:25998909

  9. Structural basis of metal hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Metal hypersensitivity is a common immune disorder. Human immune systems mount the allergic attacks on metal ions through skin contacts, lung inhalation and metal-containing artificial body implants. The consequences can be simple annoyances to life-threatening systemic illness. Allergic hyper-reactivities to nickel (Ni) and beryllium (Be) are the best-studied human metal hypersensitivities. Ni-contact dermatitis affects 10 % of the human population, whereas Be compounds are the culprits of chronic Be disease (CBD). αβ T cells (T cells) play a crucial role in these hypersensitivity reactions. Metal ions work as haptens and bind to the surface of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and peptide complex. This modifies the binding surface of MHC and triggers the immune response of T cells. Metal-specific αβ T cell receptors (TCRs) are usually MHC restricted, especially MHC class II (MHCII) restricted. Numerous models have been proposed, yet the mechanisms and molecular basis of metal hypersensitivity remain elusive. Recently, we determined the crystal structures of the Ni and Be presenting human MHCII molecules, HLA-DR52c (DRA*0101, DRB3*0301) and HLA-DP2 (DPA1*0103, DPB1*0201). These structures revealed unusual features of MHCII molecules and shed light on how metal ions are recognized by T cells. PMID:22983897

  10. Structural basis of metal hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Dai, Shaodong

    2013-03-01

    Metal hypersensitivity is a common immune disorder. Human immune systems mount the allergic attacks on metal ions through skin contacts, lung inhalation and metal-containing artificial body implants. The consequences can be simple annoyances to life-threatening systemic illness. Allergic hyper-reactivities to nickel (Ni) and beryllium (Be) are the best-studied human metal hypersensitivities. Ni-contact dermatitis affects 10 % of the human population, whereas Be compounds are the culprits of chronic Be disease (CBD). αβ T cells (T cells) play a crucial role in these hypersensitivity reactions. Metal ions work as haptens and bind to the surface of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and peptide complex. This modifies the binding surface of MHC and triggers the immune response of T cells. Metal-specific αβ T cell receptors (TCRs) are usually MHC restricted, especially MHC class II (MHCII) restricted. Numerous models have been proposed, yet the mechanisms and molecular basis of metal hypersensitivity remain elusive. Recently, we determined the crystal structures of the Ni and Be presenting human MHCII molecules, HLA-DR52c (DRA*0101, DRB3*0301) and HLA-DP2 (DPA1*0103, DPB1*0201). These structures revealed unusual features of MHCII molecules and shed light on how metal ions are recognized by T cells. PMID:22983897

  11. Basis Selection for Wavelet Regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A wavelet basis selection procedure is presented for wavelet regression. Both the basis and the threshold are selected using cross-validation. The method includes the capability of incorporating prior knowledge on the smoothness (or shape of the basis functions) into the basis selection procedure. The results of the method are demonstrated on sampled functions widely used in the wavelet regression literature. The results of the method are contrasted with other published methods.

  12. 7 CFR 810.103 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... seeds, dockage, garlic, live insect infestation, large stones, moisture, temperature, an unknown foreign substance(s), and a commonly recognized harmful or toxic substance(s) is made on the basis of the sample...

  13. 7 CFR 810.103 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... seeds, dockage, garlic, live insect infestation, large stones, moisture, temperature, an unknown foreign substance(s), and a commonly recognized harmful or toxic substance(s) is made on the basis of the sample...

  14. 7 CFR 810.103 - Basis of determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... seeds, dockage, garlic, live insect infestation, large stones, moisture, temperature, an unknown foreign substance(s), and a commonly recognized harmful or toxic substance(s) is made on the basis of the sample...

  15. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... of common interventional techniques is below. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures Angiography An X-ray exam of the ... into the vertebra. Copyright © 2016 Society of Interventional Radiology. All rights reserved. 3975 Fair Ridge Drive • Suite ...

  16. How Common Is the Common Core?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amande; Edson, Alden J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) in 2010, stakeholders in adopting states have engaged in a variety of activities to understand CCSSM standards and transition from previous state standards. These efforts include research, professional development, assessment and modification of curriculum resources,…

  17. EMBRYOLOGY OF AUTISM. (R824758)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Predictive Models and Computational Embryology

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s ‘virtual embryo’ project is building an integrative systems biology framework for predictive models of developmental toxicity. One schema involves a knowledge-driven adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework utilizing information from public databases, standardized ontologies...

  19. 47 CFR 32.2 - Basis of the accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basis of the accounts. 32.2 Section 32.2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Preface § 32.2 Basis of the accounts. (a) The financial accounts of...

  20. 47 CFR 32.2 - Basis of the accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis of the accounts. 32.2 Section 32.2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Preface § 32.2 Basis of the accounts. (a) The financial accounts of...

  1. 47 CFR 32.2 - Basis of the accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis of the accounts. 32.2 Section 32.2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Preface § 32.2 Basis of the accounts. (a) The financial accounts of...

  2. 47 CFR 32.2 - Basis of the accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis of the accounts. 32.2 Section 32.2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Preface § 32.2 Basis of the accounts. (a) The financial accounts of...

  3. The New Common School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Charles L.

    1987-01-01

    Horace Mann's goal of creating a common school that brings our society's children together in mutual respect and common learning need not be frustrated by residential segregation and geographical separation of the haves and have-nots. Massachusetts' new common school vision boasts a Metro Program for minority students, 80 magnet schools, and…

  4. The Common Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ernest L.

    Current curricula in institutions of higher education are criticized in this speech for their lack of a common core of education. Several possibilities for developing such a common core include education centered around our common heritage and the challenges of the present. It is suggested that all students must be introduced to the events,…

  5. Knowledge representation for commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Dorian P.

    1990-01-01

    Domain-specific knowledge necessary for commonality analysis falls into two general classes: commonality constraints and costing information. Notations for encoding such knowledge should be powerful and flexible and should appeal to the domain expert. The notations employed by the Commonality Analysis Problem Solver (CAPS) analysis tool are described. Examples are given to illustrate the main concepts.

  6. The Common Geometry Module (CGM).

    SciTech Connect

    Tautges, Timothy James

    2004-12-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and on top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also includes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.

  7. Cellular and molecular basis of cerebellar development

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Salvador; Andreu, Abraham; Mecklenburg, Nora; Echevarria, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cerebellar development were investigated through structural descriptions and studying spontaneous mutations in animal models and humans. Advances in experimental embryology, genetic engineering, and neuroimaging techniques render today the possibility to approach the analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying histogenesis and morphogenesis of the cerebellum by experimental designs. Several genes and molecules were identified to be involved in the cerebellar plate regionalization, specification, and differentiation of cerebellar neurons, as well as the establishment of cellular migratory routes and the subsequent neuronal connectivity. Indeed, pattern formation of the cerebellum requires the adequate orchestration of both key morphogenetic signals, arising from distinct brain regions, and local expression of specific transcription factors. Thus, the present review wants to revisit and discuss these morphogenetic and molecular mechanisms taking place during cerebellar development in order to understand causal processes regulating cerebellar cytoarchitecture, its highly topographically ordered circuitry and its role in brain function. PMID:23805080

  8. Structures for common-cause failure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    Common-cause failure methodology and terminology have been reviewed and structured to provide a systematical basis for addressing and developing models and methods for quantification. The structure is based on (1) a specific set of definitions, (2) categories based on the way faults are attributable to a common cause, and (3) classes based on the time of entry and the time of elimination of the faults. The failure events are then characterized by their likelihood or frequency and the average residence time. The structure provides a basis for selecting computational models, collecting and evaluating data and assessing the importance of various failure types, and for developing effective defences against common-cause failure. The relationships of this and several other structures are described.

  9. Common Dermatologic Procedures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shelley; Kampp, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    Dermatologists perform a wide variety of procedures on a daily basis. The skin biopsy is a fundamental technique that can be performed by all physicians who manage cutaneous conditions. Specimens should always be sent for pathologic evaluation, regardless of whether the sampled lesion appears benign. Postoperative care and education are critical for minimizing complications. PMID:26476254

  10. Common Conditions in Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Common Conditions in ...

  11. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  12. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  13. Barry Commoner Assails Petrochemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Commoner's ideas on the social value of the petrochemical industry and his suggestions for curtailment or elimination of its productive operation to produce a higher environmental quality for mankind at a relatively low loss in social benefit. (CC)

  14. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  15. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  16. Power system commonality study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littman, Franklin D.

    1992-07-01

    A limited top level study was completed to determine the commonality of power system/subsystem concepts within potential lunar and Mars surface power system architectures. A list of power system concepts with high commonality was developed which can be used to synthesize power system architectures which minimize development cost. Examples of potential high commonality power system architectures are given in this report along with a mass comparison. Other criteria such as life cycle cost (which includes transportation cost), reliability, safety, risk, and operability should be used in future, more detailed studies to select optimum power system architectures. Nineteen potential power system concepts were identified and evaluated for planetary surface applications including photovoltaic arrays with energy storage, isotope, and nuclear power systems. A top level environmental factors study was completed to assess environmental impacts on the identified power system concepts for both lunar and Mars applications. Potential power system design solutions for commonality between Mars and lunar applications were identified. Isotope, photovoltaic array (PVA), regenerative fuel cell (RFC), stainless steel liquid-metal cooled reactors (less than 1033 K maximum) with dynamic converters, and in-core thermionic reactor systems were found suitable for both lunar and Mars environments. The use of SP-100 thermoelectric (TE) and SP-100 dynamic power systems in a vacuum enclosure may also be possible for Mars applications although several issues need to be investigated further (potential single point failure of enclosure, mass penalty of enclosure and active pumping system, additional installation time and complexity). There are also technical issues involved with development of thermionic reactors (life, serviceability, and adaptability to other power conversion units). Additional studies are required to determine the optimum reactor concept for Mars applications. Various screening

  17. Common Rail Injection System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Electro-Motive,

    2005-12-30

    % improvement in fuel economy over EMD's traditional Tier I engine hardware configuration. the common rail fuel injection system enabled this added benefit by virtue of an inherent capability to provide multiple injections per power stroke at high fuel rail pressures. On the basis of the findings in this study, EMD concludes that the new electronically-controlled high-pressure common rail injection system has the potential to meet locomotive Tier 2 NOx and particulates emission standards without sacrificing the fuel economy. A number of areas to further improve the injection hardware and engine operating characteristics to further exploit the benefits of common rail injection system have also been identified.

  18. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  19. The pornographic anatomy book? The curious tale of the Anatomical Basis of Medical Practice.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Edward C

    2009-02-01

    Studying the history of medical education helps teach us that medicine is a social activity that occurs in the context of social mores and customs. In 1971, a major new anatomy textbook aimed at first-year medical students was published. The Anatomical Basis of Medical Practice, written by Professors R. Frederick Becker, James S. W. Wilson, and John A. Gehweiler, emphasized surface anatomy, embryology, and radiographic anatomy. At multiple places in the text, the authors used sexually suggestive and "cheeky" comments about women. A small fraction of the illustrations were stylized, posed female nude photographs purchased from California photographer Peter Gowland. These photographs, of a type typically seen in Playboy centerfolds or "pin-up girl" calendars, produced a firestorm of controversy. The book was criticized in the press and in reviews in scholarly journals, and a boycott was organized by the Association of Women in Science. The publisher received negative feedback from consumers, and the book was withdrawn from the market. The book is now a minor collector's item. Professors Becker and Wilson vigorously responded. They laid blame for the debacle on the publisher and also claimed they were the victims of a witch hunt by feminists. The Anatomical Basis of Medical Practice appeared as the women's movement became part of the American popular consciousness. It was also an era in which the public began to grapple with how to define pornography. Professor Becker and his coauthors thought that they were writing a witty, engaging, and funny book. Their detractors thought the book denigrated women. PMID:19174685

  20. Common Magnets, Unexpected Polarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a "misconception" in magnetism so simple and pervasive as to be typically unnoticed. That magnets have poles might be considered one of the more straightforward notions in introductory physics. However, the magnets common to students' experiences are likely different from those presented in educational…

  1. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  2. Information Commons to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Marc Dewey

    2008-01-01

    Since 2004, Buffalo State College's E. H. Butler Library has used the Information Commons (IC) model to assist its 8,500 students with library research and computer applications. Campus Technology Services (CTS) plays a very active role in its IC, with a centrally located Computer Help Desk and a newly created Application Support Desk right in the…

  3. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    After outlining the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibility for regulating interstate common carrier communication (non-broadcast communication whose carriers are required by law to furnish service at reasonable charges upon request), this information bulletin reviews the history, technological development, and current…

  4. Common Carrier Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin outlines the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating the interstate and foreign common carrier communication via electrical means. Also summarized are the history, technological development, and current capabilities and prospects of telegraph, wire telephone, radiotelephone, satellite communications,…

  5. Human Commonalities and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    Educator Ernest Boyer believed that well-educated students should do more than master isolated facts. They should understand the "connectedness of things." He suggested organizing curriculum thematically around eight commonalities shared by people around the world. In the book "The Basic School: A Community for Learning," Boyer recommends that…

  6. Common conversion factors.

    PubMed

    2001-05-01

    This appendix presents tables of some of the more common conversion factors for units of measure used throughout Current Protocols manuals, as well as prefixes indicating powers of ten for SI units. Another table gives conversions between temperatures on the Celsius (Centigrade) and Fahrenheit scales. PMID:18770653

  7. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  8. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  9. Common file formats.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Shonda A; Littlejohn, Timothy G; Baxevanis, Andreas D

    2007-01-01

    This appendix discusses a few of the file formats frequently encountered in bioinformatics. Specifically, it reviews the rules for generating FASTA files and provides guidance for interpreting NCBI descriptor lines, commonly found in FASTA files. In addition, it reviews the construction of GenBank, Phylip, MSF and Nexus files. PMID:18428774

  10. Navagating the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Michael Q.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a debate over the Common Core State Standards Initiative as it has rocketed to the forefront of education policy discussions around the country. The author contends that there is value in having clear cross state standards that will clarify the new online and blended learning that the growing use of technology has provided…

  11. The Common Denominator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Nikki

    2005-01-01

    An author and a poet Nikki Grimes uses her art to reach across differences such as race and culture, and show the commonality of human experience. She uses the power of her poetry to break down racial barriers, shatter cultural stereotypes, and forge community.

  12. Mathematics: Common Curriculum Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document defines what are considered to be the essentials in a strong mathematics program for the state of Oregon for grades K-12. The common curriculum goals are organized into nine content strands: (1) number and numeration; (2) appropriate computational skills; (3) problem solving; (4) geometry and visualization skills; (5) measurement;…

  13. Common Dermatoses of Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Gora, Irv

    1986-01-01

    Within the pediatric population of their practices, family physicians frequently encounter infants with skin rashes. This article discusses several of the more common rashes of infancy: atopic dermatitis, cradle cap, diaper dermatitis and miliaria. Etiology, clinical picture and possible approaches to treatment are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:21267297

  14. Common Standards for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    About three-fourths of the states have already adopted the Common Core State Standards, which were designed to provide more clarity about and consistency in what is expected of student learning across the country. However, given the brief time since the standards' final release in June, questions persist among educators, who will have the…

  15. The Basis Code Development System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-03-15

    BASIS9.4 is a system for developing interactive computer programs in Fortran, with some support for C and C++ as well. Using BASIS9.4 you can create a program that has a sophisticated programming language as its user interface so that the user can set, calculate with, and plot, all the major variables in the program. The program author writes only the scientific part of the program; BASIS9.4 supplies an environment in which to exercise that scientificmore » programming which includes an interactive language, an interpreter, graphics, terminal logs, error recovery, macros, saving and retrieving variables, formatted I/O, and online documentation.« less

  16. A Review of Vascular Anomalies: Genetics and Common Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Killion, Elizabeth; Mohan, Kriti; Lee, Edward I.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular tumors and malformations are unique in that affected cells exhibit disrupted angiogenesis. The current treatment options often yield suboptimal results. New insight into the genetics and molecular basis of vascular anomalies may pave the way for potential development of targeted therapy. The authors review the genetic and molecular basis of vascular anomalies and common associated syndromes. PMID:25045331

  17. B Plant interim safety basis

    SciTech Connect

    Chalk, S.E.

    1996-09-01

    This interim safety basis (ISB-008) replaces the B Plant Safety Analysis Report, WHC-SD-WM-SAR-013, Rev. 2 (WHC 1993a). ISB-008 uses existing accident analyses, modified existing accident analyses, and new accident analyses to prove that B Plant remains within the safety envelope for transition, deactivation, standby, and shutdown activities. The analyses in ISB-008 are in accordance with the most current requirements for analytical approach, risk determination, and configuration management. This document and supporting accident analyses replace previous design-basis documents.

  18. Common tester platform concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  19. Commonly missed orthopedic problems.

    PubMed

    Ballas, M T; Tytko, J; Mannarino, F

    1998-01-15

    When not diagnosed early and managed appropriately, common musculoskeletal injuries may result in long-term disabling conditions. Anterior cruciate ligament tears are some of the most common knee ligament injuries. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis may present with little or no hip pain, and subtle or absent physical and radiographic findings. Femoral neck stress fractures, if left untreated, may result in avascular necrosis, refractures and pseudoarthrosis. A delay in diagnosis of scaphoid fractures may cause early wrist arthrosis if nonunion results. Ulnar collateral ligament tears are a frequently overlooked injury in skiers. The diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture is missed as often as 25 percent of the time. Posterior tibial tendon tears may result in fixed bony planus if diagnosis is delayed, necessitating hindfoot fusion rather than simple soft tissue repair. Family physicians should be familiar with the initial assessment of these conditions and, when appropriate, refer patients promptly to an orthopedic surgeon. PMID:9456991

  20. Differential Forms Basis Functions for Better Conditioned Integral Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Fasenfest, B; White, D; Stowell, M; Rieben, R; Sharpe, R; Madsen, N; Rockway, J D; Champagne, N J; Jandhyala, V; Pingenot, J

    2005-01-13

    Differential forms offer a convenient way to classify physical quantities and set up computational problems. By observing the dimensionality and type of derivatives (divergence,curl,gradient) applied to a quantity, an appropriate differential form can be chosen for that quantity. To use these differential forms in a simulation, the forms must be discretized using basis functions. The 0-form through 2-form basis functions are formed for surfaces. Twisted 1-form and 2-form bases will be presented in this paper. Twisted 1-form (1-forms) basis functions ({Lambda}) are divergence-conforming edge basis functions with units m{sup -1}. They are appropriate for representing vector quantities with continuous normal components, and they belong to the same function space as the commonly used RWG bases [1]. They are used here to formulate the frequency-domain EFIE with Galerkin testing. The 2-form basis functions (f) are scalar basis functions with units m{sup -2} and with no enforced continuity between elements. At lowest order, the 2-form basis functions are similar to pulse basis functions. They are used here to formulate an electrostatic integral equation. It should be noted that the derivative of an n-form differential form basis function is an (n+1)-form, i.e. the derivative of a 1-form basis function is a 2-form. Because the basis functions are constructed such that they have spatial units, the spatial units are removed from the degrees of freedom, leading to a better-conditioned system matrix. In this conference paper, we look at the performance of these differential forms and bases by examining the conditioning of matrix systems for electrostatics and the EFIE. The meshes used were refined across the object to consider the behavior of these basis transforms for elements of different sizes.

  1. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  2. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  3. Common drive unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Moore, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Common Drive Unit (CDU) is a high reliability rotary actuator with many versatile applications in mechanism designs. The CDU incorporates a set of redundant motor-brake assemblies driving a single output shaft through differential. Tachometers provide speed information in the AC version. Operation of both motors, as compared to the operation of one motor, will yield the same output torque with twice the output speed.

  4. Common Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E.; Umar, Sarah B.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management. PMID:24987313

  5. Common HEP UNIX Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddei, Arnaud

    After it had been decided to design a common user environment for UNIX platforms among HEP laboratories, a joint project between DESY and CERN had been started. The project consists in 2 phases: 1. Provide a common user environment at shell level, 2. Provide a common user environment at graphical level (X11). Phase 1 is in production at DESY and at CERN as well as at PISA and RAL. It has been developed around the scripts originally designed at DESY Zeuthen improved and extended with a 2 months project at CERN with a contribution from DESY Hamburg. It consists of a set of files which are customizing the environment for the 6 main shells (sh, csh, ksh, bash, tcsh, zsh) on the main platforms (AIX, HP-UX, IRIX, SunOS, Solaris 2, OSF/1, ULTRIX, etc.) and it is divided at several "sociological" levels: HEP, site, machine, cluster, group of users and user with some levels which are optional. The second phase is under design and a first proposal has been published. A first version of the phase 2 exists already for AIX and Solaris, and it should be available for all other platforms, by the time of the conference. This is a major collective work between several HEP laboratories involved in the HEPiX-scripts and HEPiX-X11 working-groups.

  6. 'Historicising common sense'.

    PubMed

    Millstone, Noah

    2012-12-01

    This essay is an expanded set of comments on the social psychology papers written for the special issue on History and Social Psychology. It considers what social psychology, and particularly the theory of social representations, might offer historians working on similar problems, and what historical methods might offer social psychology. The social history of thinking has been a major theme in twentieth and twenty-first century historical writing, represented most recently by the genre of 'cultural history'. Cultural history and the theory of social representations have common ancestors in early twentieth-century social science. Nevertheless, the two lines of research have developed in different ways and are better seen as complementary than similar. The theory of social representations usefully foregrounds issues, like social division and change over time, that cultural history relegates to the background. But for historians, the theory of social representations seems oddly fixated on comparing the thought styles associated with positivist science and 'common sense'. Using historical analysis, this essay tries to dissect the core opposition 'science : common sense' and argues for a more flexible approach to comparing modes of thought. PMID:23135802

  7. Familial hepatopulmonary syndrome in common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Holmes, S N; Condliffe, A; Griffiths, W; Baxendale, H; Kumararatne, D S

    2015-04-01

    Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) comprises a heterogeneous group of primary antibody deficiencies which lead to a range of complications, including infectious, neoplastic and inflammatory disorders. This report describes monozygotic twin brothers with CVID who developed cryptogenic liver disease and subsequently hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). This is the second report of the association of HPS and CVID. Its occurrence in two identical twins implicates a genetic basis. PMID:25708586

  8. GASB's Basis of Accounting Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovlak, Daniel L.

    1986-01-01

    In July 1984, the Governmental Accounting Standards Board began its "Measurement Focus/Basis of Accounting" project, which addresses measurement issues and revenue and expenditure recognition problems involving governmental funds. This article explains the project's background, alternatives discussed by the board, and tentative conclusions and…

  9. A Molecular Basis of Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the molecular basis of cancer, focusing on genetics of the disease. Indicates that human cancers are initiated by oncogenes (altered versions of normal genes) and that in one case the critical alteration is a single point mutation that changes one amino acid in the protein encoded by the gene. (JN)

  10. Grobner Basis Representations of Sudoku

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taalman, Laura; Arnold, Elizabeth; Lucas, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses Grobner bases to explore the inherent structure of Sudoku puzzles and boards. In particular, we develop three different ways of representing the constraints of Sudoku puzzles with a system of polynomial equations. In one case, we explicitly show how a Grobner basis can be used to obtain a more meaningful representation of the…

  11. Diagnosing Common Benign Skin Tumors.

    PubMed

    Higgins, James C; Maher, Michael H; Douglas, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    Patients will experience a wide range of skin growths and changes over their lifetime. Family physicians should be able to distinguish potentially malignant from benign skin tumors. Most lesions can be diagnosed on the basis of history and clinical examination. Lesions that are suspicious for malignancy, those with changing characteristics, symptomatic lesions, and those that cause cosmetic problems may warrant medical therapy, a simple office procedure (e.g., excision, cryosurgery, laser ablation), or referral. Acrochordons are extremely common, small, and typically pedunculated benign neoplasms. Simple scissor or shave excision, electrodesiccation, or cryosurgery can be used for treatment. Sebaceous hyperplasia presents as asymptomatic, discrete, soft, pale yellow, shiny bumps on the forehead or cheeks, or near hair follicles. Except for cosmesis, they have no clinical significance. Lipomas are soft, flesh-colored nodules that are easily moveable under the overlying skin. Keratoacanthomas are rapidly growing, squamoproliferative benign tumors that resemble squamous cell carcinomas. Early simple excision is recommended. Pyogenic granuloma is a rapidly growing nodule that bleeds easily. Treatment includes laser ablation or shave excision with electrodesiccation of the base. Dermatofibromas are an idiopathic benign proliferation of fibroblasts. No treatment is required unless there is a change in size or color, bleeding, or irritation from trauma. Epidermal inclusion cysts can be treated by simple excision with removal of the cyst and cyst wall. Seborrheic keratoses and cherry angiomas generally do not require treatment. PMID:26447443

  12. Common pediatric epilepsy syndromes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun T; Shahid, Asim M; Jammoul, Adham

    2015-02-01

    Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), childhood idiopathic occipital epilepsy (CIOE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) are some of the common epilepsy syndromes in the pediatric age group. Among the four, BRE is the most commonly encountered. BRE remits by age 16 years with many children requiring no treatment. Seizures in CAE also remit at the rate of approximately 80%; whereas, JME is considered a lifelong condition even with the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Neonates and infants may also present with seizures that are self-limited with no associated psychomotor disturbances. Benign familial neonatal convulsions caused by a channelopathy, and inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, have a favorable outcome with spontaneous resolution. Benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, also referred to as "fifth-day fits," are an example of another epilepsy syndrome in infants that carries a good prognosis. BRE, CIOE, benign familial neonatal convulsions, benign idiopathic neonatal seizures, and benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy are characterized as "benign" idiopathic age-related epilepsies as they have favorable implications, no structural brain abnormality, are sensitive to AEDs, have a high remission rate, and have no associated psychomotor disturbances. However, sometimes selected patients may have associated comorbidities such as cognitive and language delay for which the term "benign" may not be appropriate. PMID:25658216

  13. Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Biman; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency of young adolescents and adults which also affects the children. The disease remains largely under-diagnosed in India and Southeast Asian countries. Although in majority of cases it is sporadic, disease may be inherited in a autosomal recessive pattern and rarely, in autosomal dominant pattern. Patients, in addition to frequent sino-pulmonary infections, are also susceptible to various autoimmune diseases and malignancy, predominantly lymphoma and leukemia. Other characteristic lesions include lymphocytic and granulomatous interstitial lung disease, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gut. Diagnosis requires reduced levels of at least two immunoglobulin isotypes: IgG with IgA and/or IgM and impaired specific antibody response to vaccines. A number of gene mutations have been described in CVID; however, these genetic alterations account for less than 20% of cases of CVID. Flow cytometry aptly demonstrates a disturbed B cell homeostasis with reduced or absent memory B cells and increased CD21(low) B cells and transitional B cell populations. Approximately one-third of patients with CVID also display T cell functional defects. Immunoglobulin therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Immunologists and other clinicians in India and other South East Asian countries need to be aware of CVID so that early diagnosis can be made, as currently, majority of these patients still go undiagnosed. PMID:26868026

  14. Commonly used gastrointestinal drugs.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Annu; Bhatt, Mohit

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the spectrum and mechanisms of neurologic adverse effects of commonly used gastrointestinal drugs including antiemetics, promotility drugs, laxatives, antimotility drugs, and drugs for acid-related disorders. The commonly used gastrointestinal drugs as a group are considered safe and are widely used. A range of neurologic complications are reported following use of various gastrointestinal drugs. Acute neurotoxicities, including transient akathisias, oculogyric crisis, delirium, seizures, and strokes, can develop after use of certain gastrointestinal medications, while disabling and pervasive tardive syndromes are described following long-term and often unsupervised use of phenothiazines, metoclopramide, and other drugs. In rare instances, some of the antiemetics can precipitate life-threatening extrapyramidal reactions, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, or serotonin syndrome. In contrast, concerns about the cardiovascular toxicity of drugs such as cisapride and tegaserod have been grave enough to lead to their withdrawal from many world markets. Awareness and recognition of the neurotoxicity of gastrointestinal drugs is essential to help weigh the benefit of their use against possible adverse effects, even if uncommon. Furthermore, as far as possible, drugs such as metoclopramide and others that can lead to tardive dyskinesias should be used for as short time as possible, with close clinical monitoring and patient education. PMID:24365343

  15. Perceptual basis for reactive teleoperation.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y. S.; Ewing, T. F.; Boyle, J. M.; Yule, T. J.

    2001-08-28

    To enhance task performance in partially structured environment, enhancement of teleoperation was proposed by introducing autonomous behaviors. Such autonomy is implemented based on reactive robotic architecture, where reactive motor agents that directly couples sensory inputs and motor actions become the building blocks. To this end, presented in this paper is a perceptual basis for the motor agents. The perceptual basis consists of perceptual agents that extracts environmental information from a structured light vision system and provide action oriented perception for the corresponding motor agents. Rather than performing general scene reconstruction, a perceptual agent directly provides the motion reference for the motor behavior. Various sensory mechanisms--sensor fission, fusion, and fashion--becomes basic building blocks of the perception process. Since perception is a process deeply intertwined with the motor actions, active perception may also incorporate motor behaviors as an integral perceptual process.

  16. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  17. Hanford Generic Interim Safety Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.C.

    1994-09-09

    The purpose of this document is to identify WHC programs and requirements that are an integral part of the authorization basis for nuclear facilities that are generic to all WHC-managed facilities. The purpose of these programs is to implement the DOE Orders, as WHC becomes contractually obligated to implement them. The Hanford Generic ISB focuses on the institutional controls and safety requirements identified in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  18. Performance Basis for Airborne Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging applications of Airborne Separation Assistance System (ASAS) technologies make possible new and powerful methods in Air Traffic Management (ATM) that may significantly improve the system-level performance of operations in the future ATM system. These applications typically involve the aircraft managing certain components of its Four Dimensional (4D) trajectory within the degrees of freedom defined by a set of operational constraints negotiated with the Air Navigation Service Provider. It is hypothesized that reliable individual performance by many aircraft will translate into higher total system-level performance. To actually realize this improvement, the new capabilities must be attracted to high demand and complexity regions where high ATM performance is critical. Operational approval for use in such environments will require participating aircraft to be certified to rigorous and appropriate performance standards. Currently, no formal basis exists for defining these standards. This paper provides a context for defining the performance basis for 4D-ASAS operations. The trajectory constraints to be met by the aircraft are defined, categorized, and assessed for performance requirements. A proposed extension of the existing Required Navigation Performance (RNP) construct into a dynamic standard (Dynamic RNP) is outlined. Sample data is presented from an ongoing high-fidelity batch simulation series that is characterizing the performance of an advanced 4D-ASAS application. Data of this type will contribute to the evaluation and validation of the proposed performance basis.

  19. The entropic basis of collective behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mann, Richard P; Garnett, Roman

    2015-05-01

    We identify a unique viewpoint on the collective behaviour of intelligent agents. We first develop a highly general abstract model for the possible future lives these agents may encounter as a result of their decisions. In the context of these possibilities, we show that the causal entropic principle, whereby agents follow behavioural rules that maximize their entropy over all paths through the future, predicts many of the observed features of social interactions among both human and animal groups. Our results indicate that agents are often able to maximize their future path entropy by remaining cohesive as a group and that this cohesion leads to collectively intelligent outcomes that depend strongly on the distribution of the number of possible future paths. We derive social interaction rules that are consistent with maximum entropy group behaviour for both discrete and continuous decision spaces. Our analysis further predicts that social interactions are likely to be fundamentally based on Weber's law of response to proportional stimuli, supporting many studies that find a neurological basis for this stimulus-response mechanism and providing a novel basis for the common assumption of linearly additive 'social forces' in simulation studies of collective behaviour. PMID:25833243

  20. The entropic basis of collective behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Richard P.; Garnett, Roman

    2015-01-01

    We identify a unique viewpoint on the collective behaviour of intelligent agents. We first develop a highly general abstract model for the possible future lives these agents may encounter as a result of their decisions. In the context of these possibilities, we show that the causal entropic principle, whereby agents follow behavioural rules that maximize their entropy over all paths through the future, predicts many of the observed features of social interactions among both human and animal groups. Our results indicate that agents are often able to maximize their future path entropy by remaining cohesive as a group and that this cohesion leads to collectively intelligent outcomes that depend strongly on the distribution of the number of possible future paths. We derive social interaction rules that are consistent with maximum entropy group behaviour for both discrete and continuous decision spaces. Our analysis further predicts that social interactions are likely to be fundamentally based on Weber's law of response to proportional stimuli, supporting many studies that find a neurological basis for this stimulus–response mechanism and providing a novel basis for the common assumption of linearly additive ‘social forces’ in simulation studies of collective behaviour. PMID:25833243

  1. A Possible Common Neurophysiologic Basis for MDD, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizophrenia: Lessons from Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahaf, Goded

    2016-01-01

    There is ample electrophysiological evidence of attention dysfunction in the EEG/ERP signal of major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. The reduced attention-related ERP waves show much similarity between MDD, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, raising the question whether there are similarities in the neurophysiologic process that underlies attention dysfunction in these pathologies. The present work suggests that there is such a unified underlying neurophysiologic process, which results in reduced attention in the three pathologies. Naturally, as these pathologies involve different clinical manifestations, we expect differences in their underlying neurophysiology. These differences and their subtle manifestation in the ERP marker for attention are also discussed. MDD, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia are just three of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, which involve changes in the EEG/ERP manifestations of attention. Further work should expand the basic model presented here to offer comprehensive modeling of these multiple disorders and to emphasize similarities and dissimilarities of the underlying neurophysiologic processes. PMID:27313546

  2. Commonalities among the Creative Arts Therapies as a Basis for Research Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Argues that poetry therapy is similar to the other creative arts therapies in its use of creative processes and products, and in its intrinsic positiveness, gentle indirectness, and breadth of appeal and application. Suggests that collaborative research efforts among creative arts therapists can lead to new understandings of the processes and…

  3. COMMON BASIS FOR THE MECHANISM OF METALLO AND NON-METALLO KDO8P SYNTHASES

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Peng; Schlegel, H. Bernhard; Gatti, Domenico L.

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional structures of metal and non-metal enzymes that catalyze the same reaction are often quite different, a clear indication of convergent evolution. However, there are interesting cases in which the same scaffold supports both a metal and a non-metal catalyzed reaction. One of these is 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate (KDO8P) synthase (KDO8PS), a bacterial enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of KDO8P and inorganic phosphate (Pi) from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), arabinose 5-phosphate (A5P), and water. This reaction is one of the key steps in the biosynthesis of bacterial endotoxins. The evolutionary tree of KDO8PS is evenly divided between metal and non-metal forms, both having essentially identical structures. Mutagenesis and crystallographic studies suggests that one or two residues at most determine whether or not KDO8PS requires a metal for function, a clear example of “minimalist evolution”. Quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations of both the enzymatic and non-enzymatic synthesis of KDO8P have revealed the mechanism underlying the switch between metal and non-metal dependent catalysis. The principle emerging from these studies is that this conversion is possible in KDO8PS because the metal is not involved in an activation process, but primarily contributes to orienting properly the reactants to lower the activation energy, an action easily mimicked by amino acid side-chains. PMID:20825995

  4. Superpriming of synaptic vesicles as a common basis for intersynapse variability and modulation of synaptic strength

    PubMed Central

    Taschenberger, Holger; Woehler, Andrew; Neher, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Glutamatergic synapses show large variations in strength and short-term plasticity (STP). We show here that synapses displaying an increased strength either after posttetanic potentiation (PTP) or through activation of the phospholipase-C–diacylglycerol pathway share characteristic properties with intrinsically strong synapses, such as (i) pronounced short-term depression (STD) during high-frequency stimulation; (ii) a conversion of that STD into a sequence of facilitation followed by STD after a few conditioning stimuli at low frequency; (iii) an equalizing effect of such conditioning stimulation, which reduces differences among synapses and abolishes potentiation; and (iv) a requirement of long periods of rest for reconstitution of the original STP pattern. These phenomena are quantitatively described by assuming that a small fraction of “superprimed” synaptic vesicles are in a state of elevated release probability (p ∼ 0.5). This fraction is variable in size among synapses (typically about 30%), but increases after application of phorbol ester or during PTP. The majority of vesicles, released during repetitive stimulation, have low release probability (p ∼ 0.1), are relatively uniform in number across synapses, and are rapidly recruited. In contrast, superprimed vesicles need several seconds to be regenerated. They mediate enhanced synaptic strength at the onset of burst-like activity, the impact of which is subject to modulation by slow modulatory transmitter systems. PMID:27432975

  5. New meta-analysis tools reveal common transciptional regulatory basis for multiple determinants of behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : A fundamental problem in meta-analysis is how to systematically combine information from multiple statistical tests to rigorously evaluate a single overarching hypothesis. This occurs in systems biology when attempting to map genomic attributes to complex phenotypes such as ...

  6. Common herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Turkoski, B B

    2000-01-01

    Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular as people seek more effective, natural, or safer methods for treating a variety of complaints. As a result, nurses in every setting may expect to see increased numbers of patients who are using herbal products. When patients assume that the nurses will be critical of their use of herbals, they may withhold such information to avoid unpleasantness. This could place patients at risk for adverse effects, drug interactions, and complications related to ineffective treatment. Nurses who are knowledgeable about herbal products and who are open to discussion about these products can provide information and advice about safe use. The discussion in this article addresses actions, possible benefits, and dangers of the most common herbal products. Guidelines for assessing and teaching clients about herbal use are included. PMID:11062629

  7. CPL: Common Pipeline Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ESO CPL Development Team

    2014-02-01

    The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).

  8. System Safety Common Cause Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-03-10

    The COMCAN fault tree analysis codes are designed to analyze complex systems such as nuclear plants for common causes of failure. A common cause event, or common mode failure, is a secondary cause that could contribute to the failure of more than one component and violates the assumption of independence. Analysis of such events is an integral part of system reliability and safety analysis. A significant common cause event is a secondary cause common tomore » all basic events in one or more minimal cut sets. Minimal cut sets containing events from components sharing a common location or a common link are called common cause candidates. Components share a common location if no barrier insulates any one of them from the secondary cause. A common link is a dependency among components which cannot be removed by a physical barrier (e.g.,a common energy source or common maintenance instructions).« less

  9. Common Control System Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the

  10. Genetic Basis for Red Coloration in Birds.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ricardo J; Johnson, James D; Toomey, Matthew B; Ferreira, Mafalda S; Araujo, Pedro M; Melo-Ferreira, José; Andersson, Leif; Hill, Geoffrey E; Corbo, Joseph C; Carneiro, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    The yellow and red feather pigmentation of many bird species [1] plays pivotal roles in social signaling and mate choice [2, 3]. To produce red pigments, birds ingest yellow carotenoids and endogenously convert them into red ketocarotenoids via an oxidation reaction catalyzed by a previously unknown ketolase [4-6]. We investigated the genetic basis for red coloration in birds using whole-genome sequencing of red siskins (Spinus cucullata), common canaries (Serinus canaria), and "red factor" canaries, which are the hybrid product of crossing red siskins with common canaries [7]. We identified two genomic regions introgressed from red siskins into red factor canaries that are required for red coloration. One of these regions contains a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2J19. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that CYP2J19 is significantly upregulated in the skin and liver of red factor canaries, strongly implicating CYP2J19 as the ketolase that mediates red coloration in birds. Interestingly, a second introgressed region required for red feathers resides within the epidermal differentiation complex, a cluster of genes involved in development of the integument. Lastly, we present evidence that CYP2J19 is involved in ketocarotenoid formation in the retina. The discovery of the carotenoid ketolase has important implications for understanding sensory function and signaling mediated by carotenoid pigmentation. PMID:27212400

  11. The Basis version of LASNEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, P. F.

    1990-10-01

    We have made major changes to the computer science aspects of our laser fusion simulation program LASNEX. LASNEX is now using the Basis system, a FORTRAN development system developed over the last six years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This has given users greatly increased power and flexibility. We have eliminated all non-standard usage and macros, enabling us to begin the port of LASNEX to workstations. At the same time, we have completely redone the system used to maintain the source and create new versions of LASNEX, resulting in major gains in capability and productivity.

  12. The Basis version of LASNEX

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, P.F.

    1990-10-26

    We have made major changes to the computer science aspects of our laser fusion simulation program LASNEX. LASNEX is now using the Basis system, a Fortran development system developed over the last six years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This has given users greatly increased power and flexibility. We have eliminated all non-standard usage and macros, enabling us to begin the port of LASNEX to workstations. At the same time, we have completely redone the system used to maintain the source and create new versions of LASNEX, resulting in major gains in capability and productivity. 5 refs.

  13. Value basis for conservation policy

    SciTech Connect

    Leiss, W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a case study in attempting to apply a particular value (caring) to the domain of social policy, specifically resource conservation policy. The argument is that our consumer society erodes the social basis for the development by individuals of a sense of well-being and personal identity, and that a conservation ethic based on the concept of caring could provide a foundation in practical morality and public policy for a viable sense of well-being. Conservation, then, goes beyond eliminating wasteful consumption to encompass a public commitment that can further economic and social goals. 11 references.

  14. The Common Land Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yongjiu; Zeng, Xubin; Dickinson, Robert E.; Baker, Ian; Bonan, Gordon B.; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Denning, A. Scott; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Houser, Paul R.; Niu, Guoyue; Oleson, Keith W.; Schlosser, C. Adam; Yang, Zong-Liang

    2003-08-01

    The Common Land Model (CLM) was developed for community use by a grassroots collaboration of scientists who have an interest in making a general land model available for public use and further development. The major model characteristics include enough unevenly spaced layers to adequately represent soil temperature and soil moisture, and a multilayer parameterization of snow processes; an explicit treatment of the mass of liquid water and ice water and their phase change within the snow and soil system; a runoff parameterization following the TOPMODEL concept; a canopy photosynthesis-conductance model that describes the simultaneous transfer of CO2 and water vapor into and out of vegetation; and a tiled treatment of the subgrid fraction of energy and water balance. CLM has been extensively evaluated in offline mode and coupling runs with the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3). The results of two offline runs, presented as examples, are compared with observations and with the simulation of three other land models [the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS), Bonan's Land Surface Model (LSM), and the 1994 version of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Atmospheric Physics LSM (IAP94)].

  15. Common approaches for adolescents.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    A South-South program organized by JOICFP provided an excellent opportunity for the exchange of experiences in the field of adolescent reproductive health (RH) between Mexico and the Philippines. Alfonso Lopez Juarez, executive director, Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM), shared MEXFAM's experiences with field personnel and GO-NGO representatives related to JOICFP's RH-oriented project in the Philippines while in the country from November 16 to 21. The program was also effective for identifying common issues and effective approaches to adolescent health issues and communicating with youth on RH and sexual health. The exchange was supported by the Hoken Kaikan Foundation and organized by JOICFP in collaboration with UNFPA-Manila and the Commission on Population (POPCOM). Lopez shared some of the lessons of MEXFAM's decade-long Gente Joven IEC program on adolescent health with GO and NGO representatives at a forum held on November 18. The event was opened by Dr. Carmencita Reodica, secretary, Department of Health (DOH). He then moved to the project sites of Balayan and Malvar municipalities of Batangas Province, where he spoke with field staff and demonstrated MEXFAM's approach in classroom situations with young people. Lopez also observed various adolescent activities such as group work with peer facilitators. "I am pleased that we can share some applicable experiences and learn from each other's projects," commented Lopez. PMID:12348336

  16. COMMON ENVELOPE: ENTHALPY CONSIDERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, N.; Chaichenets, S.

    2011-04-20

    In this Letter, we discuss a modification to the criterion for the common envelope (CE) event to result in envelope dispersion. We emphasize that the current energy criterion for the CE phase is not sufficient for an instability of the CE, nor for an ejection. However, in some cases, stellar envelopes undergo stationary mass outflows, which are likely to occur during the slow spiral-in stage of the CE event. We propose the condition for such outflows, in a manner similar to the currently standard {alpha}{sub CE}{lambda}-prescription but with an addition of P/{rho} term in the energy balance equation, accounting therefore for the enthalpy of the envelope rather than merely the gas internal energy. This produces a significant correction, which might help to dispense with an unphysically high value of energy efficiency parameter during the CE phase, currently required in the binary population synthesis studies to make the production of low-mass X-ray binaries with a black hole companion to match the observations.

  17. Derivation of a continuous myogenic cell culture from an embryo of common killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Gignac, Sarah J; Vo, Nguyen T K; Mikhaeil, Michael S; Alexander, J Andrew N; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Schulte, Patricia M; Lee, Lucy E J

    2014-09-01

    The common killifish or mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) is an estuarine teleost increasingly used in comparative physiology, toxicology and embryology. Their ability to withstand extreme environmental conditions and ease of maintenance has made them popular aquatic research organisms. Scientific advances with most popular model organisms have been assisted with the availability of continuous cell lines; however, cell lines from F. heteroclitus appear to be unavailable. The development of a killifish cell line, KFE-5, derived from the mid trunk region of a late stage embryo is described here. KFE-5 grows well in Leibovitz's L-15 media with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). This cell line has been passaged over 60 times in a span of three years, and cells at various passages have been successfully cryopreserved and thawed. The cells are mostly fibroblastic but contain myogenic cells that differentiate into mono-, bi- and multi-nucleated striated myocytes. Immunofluorescence detection of muscle specific antigens such as α-actinin, desmin, and myosin confirms KFE-5 as a myogenic cell line. KFE-5 has a temperature preference for 26-28°C and has been shown to withstand temperatures up to 37°C. The cell line responds to chemical signals including growth factors, hormones and extracellular matrix components. KFE-5 could thus be useful not only for mummichog's thermobiology but also for studies in fish muscle physiology and development. PMID:24836542

  18. Nitrogen cycle: Basis of life; Stickstoffkreislaeufe: basis des lebens

    SciTech Connect

    Haunold, E.

    1992-10-01

    About 200 species of bacteria and blue algae yearly fix 175 Mio t of nitrogen from the air. This input of nitrogen into the compartment land - sea occurs by means of the enzyme nitrogenase. Within this process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) elemental nitrogen is transformed to bound organic nitrogen. All other living organisms depend on bound nitrogen. BNF is nowadays strongly supported by the technical nitrogen fixation (TNF) according to the Haber-Bosch-process. The technically fixed fertilizer nitrogen will soon reach 100 Mio t/a. With the rain additionally 200 Mio t of N/a are washed in as NH3, NH4 or NOx. The inputs are balanced by the outputs of the same magnitude, which occur as the result of mineralization of organic matter, ammonia volatilization and denitrification. The nitrogen cycles thus constitute the basis for life.

  19. Threads of common knowledge.

    PubMed

    Icamina, P

    1993-04-01

    Indigenous knowledge is examined as it is affected by development and scientific exploration. The indigenous culture of shamanism, which originated in northern and southeast Asia, is a "political and religious technique for managing societies through rituals, myths, and world views." There is respect for the natural environment and community life as a social common good. This world view is still practiced by many in Latin America and in Colombia specifically. Colombian shamanism has an environmental accounting system, but the Brazilian government has established its own system of land tenure and political representation which does not adequately represent shamanism. In 1992 a conference was held in the Philippines by the International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and IDRC on sustainable development and indigenous knowledge. The link between the two is necessary. Unfortunately, there are already examples in the Philippines of loss of traditional crop diversity after the introduction of modern farming techniques and new crop varieties. An attempt was made to collect species, but without proper identification. Opposition was expressed to the preservation of wilderness preserves; the desire was to allow indigenous people to maintain their homeland and use their time-tested sustainable resource management strategies. Property rights were also discussed during the conference. Of particular concern was the protection of knowledge rights about biological diversity or pharmaceutical properties of indigenous plant species. The original owners and keepers of the knowledge must retain access and control. The research gaps were identified and found to be expansive. Reference was made to a study of Mexican Indian children who knew 138 plant species while non-Indian children knew only 37. Sometimes there is conflict of interest where foresters prefer timber forests and farmers desire fuelwood supplies and fodder and grazing land, which is provided by shrubland. Information

  20. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor... in the safety basis any changes, conditions, or hazard controls directed by DOE....

  1. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor... in the safety basis any changes, conditions, or hazard controls directed by DOE....

  2. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor... in the safety basis any changes, conditions, or hazard controls directed by DOE....

  3. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor... in the safety basis any changes, conditions, or hazard controls directed by DOE....

  4. HOW COMMON IS RSI?

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith T; Reading, Isabel; Calnan, Michael; Coggon, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective Statistics from Labour Force Surveys are widely quoted as evidence for the scale of occupational illness in Europe. However, occupational attribution depends on whether participants believe their health problem is caused or aggravated by work, and personal beliefs may be unreliable. We assessed the potential for error for work-associated arm pain. Methods We mailed a questionnaire to working-aged adults, randomly chosen from five British general practices. We asked about: occupational activities; mental health; self-rated health; arm pain; and beliefs about its causation. Those in work (n = 1769) were asked about activities likely to cause arm pain, from which we derived a variable for exposure to any ‘arm-straining’ occupational activity. We estimated the relative risk (RR) from arm-straining activity, using a modified Cox model, and derived the population attributable fraction (PAF). We compared the proportion of arm pain cases reporting their symptom as caused or made worse by work with the calculated PAF, overall and for subsets defined by demographic and other characteristics. Results Arm pain in the past year was more common in the 1,143 subjects who reported exposure to arm-straining occupational activity (RR 1.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.5). In the study sample as a whole, 53.9% of 817 cases reported their arm pain as work-associated, whereas the PAF for arm-straining occupational activity was only 13.9%. The ratio of cases reported as work-related to the calculated attributable number was substantially higher below 50 years (5.4) than at older ages (3.0) and higher in those with worse self-rated and mental health. Conclusions Counting people with arm pain which they believe to be work-related can overestimate the number of cases attributable to work substantially. This casts doubt on the validity of a major source of information used by European Governments to evaluate their occupational health strategies. PMID:18056747

  5. Internal dosimetry technical basis manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-20

    The internal dosimetry program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) consists of radiation protection programs and activities used to detect and evaluate intakes of radioactive material by radiation workers. Examples of such programs are: air monitoring; surface contamination monitoring; personal contamination surveys; radiobioassay; and dose assessment. The objectives of the internal dosimetry program are to demonstrate that the workplace is under control and that workers are not being exposed to radioactive material, and to detect and assess inadvertent intakes in the workplace. The Savannah River Site Internal Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual (TBM) is intended to provide a technical and philosophical discussion of the radiobioassay and dose assessment aspects of the internal dosimetry program. Detailed information on air, surface, and personal contamination surveillance programs is not given in this manual except for how these programs interface with routine and special bioassay programs.

  6. The Chemical Basis of Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Molecular biology now dominates pharmacology so thoroughly that it is difficult to recall that only a generation ago the field was very different. To understand drug action today, we characterize the targets through which they act and new drug leads are discovered on the basis of target structure and function. Until the mid-1980s the information often flowed in reverse: investigators began with organic molecules and sought targets, relating receptors not by sequence or structure but by their ligands. Recently, investigators have returned to this chemical view of biology, bringing to it systematic and quantitative methods of relating targets by their ligands. This has allowed the discovery of new targets for established drugs, suggested the bases for their side effects, and predicted the molecular targets underlying phenotypic screens. The bases for these new methods, some of their successes and liabilities, and new opportunities for their use are described. PMID:21058655

  7. The neurological basis of occupation.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Sharon A; Schindler, Victoria P

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to survey the literature about the neurological basis of human activity and its relationship to occupation and health. Activities related to neurological function were organized into three categories: those that activate the brain's reward system; those that promote the relaxation response; and those that preserve cognitive function into old age. The results from the literature review correlating neurological evidence and activities showed that purposeful and meaningful activities could counter the effects of stress-related diseases and reduce the risk for dementia. Specifically, it was found that music, drawing, meditation, reading, arts and crafts, and home repairs, for example, can stimulate the neurogical system and enhance health and well-being, Prospective research studies are needed to examine the effects of purposeful activities on reducing stress and slowing the rate of cognitive decline. PMID:17623380

  8. The Genetic Basis of Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Kousi, Maria; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    Studies of syndromic hydrocephalus have led to the identification of >100 causative genes. Even though this work has illuminated numerous pathways associated with hydrocephalus, it has also highlighted the fact that the genetics underlying this phenotype are more complex than anticipated originally. Mendelian forms of hydrocephalus account for a small fraction of the genetic burden, with clear evidence of background-dependent effects of alleles on penetrance and expressivity of driver mutations in key developmental and homeostatic pathways. Here, we synthesize the currently implicated genes and inheritance paradigms underlying hydrocephalus, grouping causal loci into functional modules that affect discrete, albeit partially overlapping, cellular processes. These in turn have the potential to both inform pathomechanism and assist in the rational molecular classification of a clinically heterogeneous phenotype. Finally, we discuss conceptual methods that can lead to enhanced gene identification and dissection of disease basis, knowledge that will potentially form a foundation for the design of future therapeutics. PMID:27145913

  9. The scientific basis of flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    The practical art of flotation, used for about 100 years in mineral processing, has an underlying science. This book describes this scientific basis, by commencing with the surface properties of fine particles in water, and the physical and hydrodynamic behaviour of bubbles. The book integrates the physical, chemical, hydrodynamic and process engineering aspects of flotation, which is not found in existing publications. The contents include: introduction; the froth flotation process; past, present and future-in brief; physics and hydrodynamics of bubbles; thin films, contact angles, wetting. Some aspects of the physical chemistry of solid/water interfaces; experimental techniques in flotation; flotation in mineral processing; engineering aspects of flotation in the minerals industry; flotation machines, circuits and their simulation; and flotation in water treatment. wastewater treatment.

  10. Chemical basis for minimal cognition.

    PubMed

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Ikegami, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a simple chemical system capable of self-movement in order to study the physicochemical origins of movement. We propose how this system may be useful in the study of minimal perception and cognition. The system consists simply of an oil droplet in an aqueous environment. A chemical reaction within the oil droplet induces an instability, the symmetry of the oil droplet breaks, and the droplet begins to move through the aqueous phase. The complement of physical phenomena that is then generated indicates the presence of feedback cycles that, as will be argued, form the basis for self-regulation, homeostasis, and perhaps an extended form of autopoiesis. We discuss the result that simple chemical systems are capable of sensory-motor coupling and possess a homeodynamic state from which cognitive processes may emerge. PMID:20586578

  11. Cellular basis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bali, Jitin; Halima, Saoussen Ben; Felmy, Boas; Goodger, Zoe; Zurbriggen, Sebastian; Rajendran, Lawrence

    2010-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease. A characteristic feature of the disease is the presence of amyloid-β (Aβ) which either in its soluble oligomeric form or in the plaque-associated form is causally linked to neurodegeneration. Aβ peptide is liberated from the membrane-spanning -amyloid precursor protein by sequential proteolytic processing employing β- and γ-secretases. All these proteins involved in the production of Aβ peptide are membrane associated and hence, membrane trafficking and cellular compartmentalization play important roles. In this review, we summarize the key cellular events that lead to the progression of AD. PMID:21369424

  12. Cofunctional Subpathways Were Regulated by Transcription Factor with Common Motif, Common Family, or Common Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Shang, Desi; Xu, Yanjun; Feng, Li; Yang, Haixiu; Liu, Baoquan; Su, Shengyang; Chen, Lina; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Dissecting the characteristics of the transcription factor (TF) regulatory subpathway is helpful for understanding the TF underlying regulatory function in complex biological systems. To gain insight into the influence of TFs on their regulatory subpathways, we constructed a global TF-subpathways network (TSN) to analyze systematically the regulatory effect of common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs on subpathways. We performed cluster analysis to show that the common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs that regulated the same pathway classes tended to cluster together and contribute to the same biological function that led to disease initiation and progression. We analyzed the Jaccard coefficient to show that the functional consistency of subpathways regulated by the TF pairs with common motif, common family, or common tissue was significantly greater than the random TF pairs at the subpathway level, pathway level, and pathway class level. For example, HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha) and NR1I3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3) were a pair of TFs with common motif, common family, and common tissue. They were involved in drug metabolism pathways and were liver-specific factors required for physiological transcription. In short, we inferred that the cofunctional subpathways were regulated by common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs. PMID:26688819

  13. BASIS Set Exchange (BSE): Chemistry Basis Sets from the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) Basis Set Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Feller, D; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared; Li, Jun

    The Basis Set Exchange (BSE) provides a web-based user interface for downloading and uploading Gaussian-type (GTO) basis sets, including effective core potentials (ECPs), from the EMSL Basis Set Library. It provides an improved user interface and capabilities over its predecessor, the EMSL Basis Set Order Form, for exploring the contents of the EMSL Basis Set Library. The popular Basis Set Order Form and underlying Basis Set Library were originally developed by Dr. David Feller and have been available from the EMSL webpages since 1994. BSE not only allows downloading of the more than 500 Basis sets in various formats; it allows users to annotate existing sets and to upload new sets. (Specialized Interface)

  14. Molecular basis for color vision.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, T

    1994-05-01

    Amino acid sequences of four kinds of chicken cone pigments and two kinds of nocturnal gecko visual pigment were determined. Calculations of amino acid identities indicate that gecko pigments should be cone pigments. A phylogenetic tree of visual pigments constructed demonstrated that cone pigments evolved earlier than rod pigments (rhodopsins), indicating that daylight vision including color vision appeared earlier than twilight vision. The divergence of cone pigments to rhodopsins would be caused by replacing basic amino acid residues to acidic ones according to net charge calculations. A comparison between chicken rhodopsin and cone pigments (chicken green and red) displayed that the cone pigments are faster in regeneration from 11-cis retinal and opsin, faster in formation of meta II-intermediate and shorter in lifetime of meta II-intermediate than rhodopsin. These facts would partly explain the rapid dark adaptation, the rapid light response and the low photosensitivity of cones compared with rods. In comparison with di- and tri-chromatic color visions, chicken tetra-chromatic vision was discussed on the basis of both absorption spectra of cone pigments and filtering effect of oil droplets. PMID:8011932

  15. [Neural basis of procedural memory].

    PubMed

    Mochizuki-Kawai, Hiroko

    2008-07-01

    Procedural memory is acquired by trial and error. Our daily life is supported by a number of procedural memories such as those for riding bicycle, typing, reading words, etc. Procedural memory is divided into 3 types; motor, perceptual, and cognitive. Here, the author reviews the cognitive and neural basis of procedural memory according to these 3 types. It is reported that the basal ganglia or cerebellum dysfunction causes deficits in procedural memory. Compared with age-matched healthy participants, patients with Parkinson disease (PD), Huntington disease (HD) or spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) show deterioration in improvements in motor-type procedural memory tasks. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that motor-type procedural memory may be supported by multiple brain regions, including the frontal and parietal regions as well as the basal ganglia (cerebellum); this was found with a serial reaction time task (SRT task). Although 2 other types of procedural memory are also maintained by multiple brain regions, the related cerebral areas depend on the type of memory. For example, it was suggested that acquisition of the perceptual type of procedural memory (e.g., ability to read mirror images of words) might be maintained by the bilateral fusiform region, while the acquisition of cognitive procedural memory might be supported by the frontal, parietal, or cerebellar regions as well as the basal ganglia. In the future, we need to cleary understand the neural "network" related to the procedural memory. PMID:18646622

  16. The autoimmune basis of narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Mahlios, Josh; De la Herrán-Arita, Alberto K; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2013-10-01

    Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagonic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and disturbed nocturnal sleep patterns. Narcolepsy is caused by the loss of hypocretin (orexin)-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Evidence, such as a strong association with HLA DQB1*06:02, strongly suggests an autoimmune basis targeting hypocretin neurons. Genome-wide association studies have strengthened the association between narcolepsy and immune system gene polymorphisms, including the identification of polymorphisms in the T cell receptor alpha locus, TNFSF4 (also called OX40L), Cathepsin H (CTSH) the purinergic receptor P2RY11, and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1. Recently, attention has been raised regarding a spike in cases of childhood narcolepsy in 2010 following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) in China and vaccination with Pandemrix, an adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine that was used in Europe. How the immune system may be involved in disease initiation and/or progression remains a challenge to researchers. Potential immunological pathways that could lead to the specific elimination of hypocretin producing neurons include molecular mimicry or bystander activation, and are likely a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as upper airway infections. PMID:23725858

  17. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2008-03-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  18. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert

    2007-04-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 26 cost modules—24 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, and high-level waste.

  19. Basis Document for Sludge Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2001-06-18

    DOE-RL recently issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER) amendments to the PFP Final Safety Analysis Report, HNF-SD-CP-SAR-021 Rev. 2. The Justification for Continued Operations for 2736-ZB and plutonium oxides in BTCs Safety Basis change (letter DOE-RL ABD-074) was approved by one of the SERs. Also approved by SER was the revised accident analysis for Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process (MHPP) gloveboxes HC-230C-3 and HC-230C-5 containing increased glovebox inventories and corresponding increases in seismic release consequence. Numerous implementing documents require revision and issuance to implement the SER approvals. The SER authorizing plutonium oxides into BTCs specifically limited the SER authorization scope to ''pure or clean oxides, i.e., 85 wt% or grater Pu, in this feed change'' (SER Section 3.0 Base Information paragraph 4 [page 11]). Comprehensive USQ Evaluation PFP-2001-12 addressed the packaging of Pu alloy metals into BTCs, and the packaging of Pu alloy oxides (powders) into food pack cans and determined that the activities did not represent an USQ. The same information used to make the PFP-2001-12 negative USQ determination is applicable to packaging Pu alloy powders (DOES NOT INCLUDE STABILIZED MHPP MATERIALS OR OXIDES OF MOLYBDATES) into BTCs. Information from USQ Evaluation PFP-2001-12 is included in this USQ Evaluation for packaging of relatively pure Pu oxides and Pu alloy oxides into BTCs.

  20. Vascular basis of mucosal color

    PubMed Central

    Kleinheinz, Johannes; Büchter, André; Fillies, Thomas; Joos, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Background Besides the color of the teeth the color of the alveolar gingiva plays a crucial role in esthetic rehabilitation in dento-alveolar treatment. Whereas nowadays the color of the teeth can be determined exactly and individually, the specific influence of the red color of the gingiva on treatment has not been assessed yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vascularization as the basis for gingival esthetics. Methods Standardized photographs of defined areas of the alveolar gingiva in operated and non-operated patients were taken and assigned to groups with same characteristics after color comparisons. In addition, histologic and immunohistologic analyses of gingival specimens were performed for qualitative and quantitative assessment of vessels and vascularization. Finally, colors and number of vessels were correlated. Results Our results demonstrated three different constellations of colors of the alveolar gingiva in healthy patients. The operated patients could not be grouped because of disparate depiction. There was a clear correlation between color and vessel number in the alveolar gingiva. Conclusion Our investigations revealed the connections between vascularization and gingival color. Recommendations for specific change or even selection of colors based on the results cannot be given, but the importance of vascularly based incision lines was demonstrated. PMID:16270929

  1. Advanced Fuel Cycle Cost Basis

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire; K. A. Williams; W. B. Boore; J. D. Smith; B. W. Dixon; M. Dunzik-Gougar; R. D. Adams; D. Gombert; E. Schneider

    2009-12-01

    This report, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides a comprehensive set of cost data supporting a cost analysis for the relative economic comparison of options for use in the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program. The report describes the AFCI cost basis development process, reference information on AFCI cost modules, a procedure for estimating fuel cycle costs, economic evaluation guidelines, and a discussion on the integration of cost data into economic computer models. This report contains reference cost data for 25 cost modules—23 fuel cycle cost modules and 2 reactor modules. The cost modules were developed in the areas of natural uranium mining and milling, conversion, enrichment, depleted uranium disposition, fuel fabrication, interim spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste conditioning, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packaging, long-term monitored retrievable storage, near surface disposal of low-level waste (LLW), geologic repository and other disposal concepts, and transportation processes for nuclear fuel, LLW, SNF, transuranic, and high-level waste.

  2. Structural basis of spectrin elasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, B.W.; Stevens, F.J.; Luthi, U.; Goldin, S.B.

    1991-10-17

    A new model of human erythrocyte {alpha}-spectrin is proposed. The secondary structure of human erythrocyte {alpha}-spectrin and its folding into a condensed structure that can convert reversibly in situ, into an elongated configuration is predicted from its deduced protein sequence. Results from conformational and amphipathicity analyses suggest that {alpha}-spectrin consists mainly of short amphipathicity helices interconnected by flexible turns and/or coils. The distribution of charges and amphipathicity of the helices can facilitate their folding into stable domains of 4 and 3 helices surrounding a hydrophobic core. The association between adjacent four- and three-helix domains further organize them into recurring seven-helix motifs that might constitute the basic structural units of the extended {alpha}-spectrin. The elongated spectrin molecule packs, in a sinusoidal fashion, through interactions between neighboring motifs into a compact structure. We suggest that the reversible extension and contraction of this sigmoidally packed structure is the molecular basis of the mechanism by which spectrin contributes to the elasticity of the red cell membrane.

  3. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  4. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    PubMed

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  5. The Philosophical Basis of Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Horn, Peter

    2015-09-01

    In this article, I consider in what sense bioethics is philosophical. Philosophy includes both analysis and synthesis. Analysis focuses on central concepts in a domain, for example, informed consent, death, medical futility, and health. It is argued that analysis should avoid oversimplification. The synthesis or synoptic dimension prompts people to explain how their views have logical assumptions and implications. In addition to the conceptual elements are the evaluative and empirical dimensions. Among its functions, philosophy can be a form of prophylaxis--helping people avoid some commonly accepted questionable theories. Generally, recent philosophy has steered away from algorithms and deductivist approaches to ethical justification. In bioethics, philosophy works in partnership with a range of other disciplines, including pediatrics and neurology. PMID:26358430

  6. Analyzing Commonality In A System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacheco, Alfred; Pool, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    Cost decreased by use of fewer types of parts. System Commonality Analysis Tool (SCAT) computer program designed to aid managers and engineers in identifying common, potentially common, and unique components of system. Incorporates three major functions: program for creation and maintenance of data base, analysis of commonality, and such system utilities as host-operating-system commands and loading and unloading of data base. Produces reports tabulating maintenance, initial configurations, and expected total costs. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  7. Profiling of Discrete Gynecological Cancers Reveals Novel Transcriptional Modules and Common Features Shared by Other Cancer Types and Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Amariglio, Ninette; Vlachos, George D.; Loutradis, Dimitrios; Anagnou, Nicholas P.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on individual types of gynecological cancers (GCs), utilizing novel expression technologies, have revealed specific pathogenetic patterns and gene markers for cervical (CC), endometrial (EC) and vulvar cancer (VC). Although the clinical phenotypes of the three types of gynecological cancers are discrete, the fact they originate from a common embryological origin, has led to the hypothesis that they might share common features reflecting regression to early embryogenesis. To address this question, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of their profiles. Our data identified both common features (pathways and networks) and novel distinct modules controlling the same deregulated biological processes in all three types. Specifically, four novel transcriptional modules were discovered regulating cell cycle and apoptosis. Integration and comparison of our data with other databases, led to the identification of common features among cancer types, embryonic stem (ES) cells and the newly discovered cell population of squamocolumnar (SC) junction of the cervix, considered to host the early cancer events. Conclusively, these data lead us to propose the presence of common features among gynecological cancers, other types of cancers, ES cells and the pre-malignant SC junction cells, where the novel E2F/NFY and MAX/CEBP modules play an important role for the pathogenesis of gynecological carcinomas. PMID:26559525

  8. Culture and the Common School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter

    2007-01-01

    This essay addresses the question: given the flattening out of the cultural hierarchy that was the vestige of colonialism and nation-building, is there anything that might be uniquely common about the common school in this postmodern age? By "uniquely common" I do not mean those subjects that all schools might teach, such as reading or arithmetic.…

  9. Committee Handbook for Common Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Sharon; And Others

    This manual on general education and common learning was prepared by and for the Dallas County Community College District's (DCCCD's) Committees for Common Learning (CCL's), which have been charged with reviewing the DCCCD's general education curriculum and degree requirements and making recommendations concerning common learning requirements and…

  10. Common Core State Standards 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent the first time that nearly every state has set common expectations for what students should know and be able to do. In the past, each state set its own standards, and the results varied widely. And while states collectively developed these common standards, decisions about the curriculum and…

  11. Point Set Denoising Using Bootstrap-Based Radial Basis Function

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Ahmad; Abd. Majid, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the application of a bootstrap test error estimation of radial basis functions, specifically thin-plate spline fitting, in surface smoothing. The presence of noisy data is a common issue of the point set model that is generated from 3D scanning devices, and hence, point set denoising is one of the main concerns in point set modelling. Bootstrap test error estimation, which is applied when searching for the smoothing parameters of radial basis functions, is revisited. The main contribution of this paper is a smoothing algorithm that relies on a bootstrap-based radial basis function. The proposed method incorporates a k-nearest neighbour search and then projects the point set to the approximated thin-plate spline surface. Therefore, the denoising process is achieved, and the features are well preserved. A comparison of the proposed method with other smoothing methods is also carried out in this study. PMID:27315105

  12. Structural basis of hereditary coproporphyria

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Sun; Flachsová, Eva; Bodnárová, Michaela; Demeler, Borries; Martásek, Pavel; Raman, C. S.

    2005-01-01

    Hereditary coproporphyria is an autosomal dominant disorder resulting from the half-normal activity of coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO), a mitochondrial enzyme catalyzing the antepenultimate step in heme biosynthesis. The mechanism by which CPO catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation, in an extraordinary metal- and cofactor-independent manner, is poorly understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of human CPO at 1.58-Å resolution. The structure reveals a previously uncharacterized tertiary topology comprising an unusually flat seven-stranded β-sheet sandwiched by α-helices. In the biologically active dimer (KD = 5 × 10-7 M), one monomer rotates relative to the second by ≈40° to create an intersubunit interface in close proximity to two independent enzymatic sites. The unexpected finding of citrate at the active site allows us to assign Ser-244, His-258, Asn-260, Arg-262, Asp-282, and Arg-332 as residues mediating substrate recognition and decarboxylation. We favor a mechanism in which oxygen serves as the immediate electron acceptor, and a substrate radical or a carbanion with substantial radical character participates in catalysis. Although several mutations in the CPO gene have been described, the molecular basis for how these alterations diminish enzyme activity is unknown. We show that deletion of residues (392-418) encoded by exon six disrupts dimerization. Conversely, harderoporphyria-causing K404E mutation precludes a type I β-turn from retaining the substrate for the second decarboxylation cycle. Together, these findings resolve several questions regarding CPO catalysis and provide insights into hereditary coproporphyria. PMID:16176984

  13. Structural basis of hereditary coproporphyria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Sun; Flachsová, Eva; Bodnárová, Michaela; Demeler, Borries; Martásek, Pavel; Raman, C S

    2005-10-01

    Hereditary coproporphyria is an autosomal dominant disorder resulting from the half-normal activity of coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO), a mitochondrial enzyme catalyzing the antepenultimate step in heme biosynthesis. The mechanism by which CPO catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation, in an extraordinary metal- and cofactor-independent manner, is poorly understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of human CPO at 1.58-A resolution. The structure reveals a previously uncharacterized tertiary topology comprising an unusually flat seven-stranded beta-sheet sandwiched by alpha-helices. In the biologically active dimer (K(D) = 5 x 10(-7) M), one monomer rotates relative to the second by approximately 40 degrees to create an intersubunit interface in close proximity to two independent enzymatic sites. The unexpected finding of citrate at the active site allows us to assign Ser-244, His-258, Asn-260, Arg-262, Asp-282, and Arg-332 as residues mediating substrate recognition and decarboxylation. We favor a mechanism in which oxygen serves as the immediate electron acceptor, and a substrate radical or a carbanion with substantial radical character participates in catalysis. Although several mutations in the CPO gene have been described, the molecular basis for how these alterations diminish enzyme activity is unknown. We show that deletion of residues (392-418) encoded by exon six disrupts dimerization. Conversely, harderoporphyria-causing K404E mutation precludes a type I beta-turn from retaining the substrate for the second decarboxylation cycle. Together, these findings resolve several questions regarding CPO catalysis and provide insights into hereditary coproporphyria. PMID:16176984

  14. Emotional manifestations of PD: Neurobiological basis.

    PubMed

    Castrioto, Anna; Thobois, Stéphane; Carnicella, Sebastien; Maillet, Audrey; Krack, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common and disabling in PD. Their neurobiological bases are complex, partly because of the disease itself and partly because of the dopaminergic treatment. The aim of this review is to focus on the emotional manifestations stemming from the neurodegenerative process itself. We focus on depression, anxiety, apathy, and fatigue, which can all be part of the clinical spectrum of premotor disease and may be improved or masked by medications targeting parkinsonian motor signs or psychiatric symptoms as the disease progresses. Findings from clinical, neuroimaging, and animal studies are reviewed, showing a major contribution of the dopaminergic system to the pathophysiology of these disabling symptoms. Degeneration of noradrenergic and serotonergic projection systems also has an impact on psychiatric symptoms of PD. The available literature is reviewed, but at present there is a lack of studies that would allow disentangling the separate contribution of each of the monoaminergic systems. The use of a pragmatic classification of all these symptoms under the umbrella of hypodopaminergic behavioral syndrome seems clinically useful, as it emphasizes the crucial, although not exclusive, nature of their dopaminergic neurobiological basis, which has important implications in the clinical management of PD. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27041545

  15. The neural basis of tactile motion perception.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yu-Cheng; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2014-12-15

    The manipulation of objects commonly involves motion between object and skin. In this review, we discuss the neural basis of tactile motion perception and its similarities with its visual counterpart. First, much like in vision, the perception of tactile motion relies on the processing of spatiotemporal patterns of activation across populations of sensory receptors. Second, many neurons in primary somatosensory cortex are highly sensitive to motion direction, and the response properties of these neurons draw strong analogies to those of direction-selective neurons in visual cortex. Third, tactile speed may be encoded in the strength of the response of cutaneous mechanoreceptive afferents and of a subpopulation of speed-sensitive neurons in cortex. However, both afferent and cortical responses are strongly dependent on texture as well, so it is unclear how texture and speed signals are disambiguated. Fourth, motion signals from multiple fingers must often be integrated during the exploration of objects, but the way these signals are combined is complex and remains to be elucidated. Finally, visual and tactile motion perception interact powerfully, an integration process that is likely mediated by visual association cortex. PMID:25253479

  16. Positive basis for surface skein algebras

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Dylan Paul

    2014-01-01

    We show that the twisted SL2 skein algebra of a surface has a natural basis (the bracelets basis) that is positive, in the sense that the structure constants for multiplication are positive integers. PMID:24982193

  17. 14 CFR Sec. 2-2 - Basis of allocation between entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... recording to other participating entities on such basis that the statements of financial condition and..., investments by the air carrier in resources or facilities used in common by the regulated air carrier...

  18. 10 CFR 830.202 - Safety basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety basis. 830.202 Section 830.202 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.202 Safety basis. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must establish and maintain the safety...

  19. Microbiological basis for periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Feres, Magda; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Figueiredo, Luciene Cristina; Haffajee, Anne D; Socransky, Sigmund S

    2004-12-01

    The search for the etiologic agents of periodontal diseases started in the Golden Era of medical bacteriology, when the etiologic agents of many bacterial infections were isolated and characterized. After the initial enthusiasm in establishing the infectious nature and the true agents of periodontal diseases, this concept was virtually ignored for the next four decades. Until the early 1970s treatment regimens based on the non-specific plaque hypothesis were directed towards a non-specific reduction in plaque amount. Later, the specific plaque hypothesis established the role of some microorganisms such as A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, T. forsythensis, T. denticola, P. intermedia and F. nucleatum in different forms of periodontal diseases. It was recently suggested that these suspected periodontal pathogens seem to not act alone and interactions between species, especially the balance between pathogenic and beneficial species affect both progression of disease and response of tissues to periodontal therapy. Nowadays it is well established that one of the goals of therapy is to control such periodontal pathogens. Among the most commonly used therapies to treat periodontal infections are scaling and root planing (SRP), supragingival plaque control and periodontal surgeries. Many studies confirmed the reduction of "red complex" species by SRP, and apically repositioned flap can lead to an additional beneficial effect in the subgingival microbiota by decreasing levels of "red" and "orange complexes" species. Furthermore, the level of plaque control maintained by the patients has been considered a crucial step in preventing recurrence of destructive periodontitis. PMID:20976394

  20. Leading the Common Core State Standards: From Common Sense to Common Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkle, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Many educators agree that we already know how to foster student success, so what is keeping common sense from becoming common practice? The author provides step-by-step guidance for overcoming the barriers to adopting the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and achieving equity and excellence for all students. As an experienced teacher and…

  1. Competence across Europe: Highest Common Factor or Lowest Common Denominator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterton, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore diversity in competence models across Europe and consider the extent to which there is sufficient common ground for a common European approach to underpin the European Qualifications Framework. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses a literature review and interviews with policy makers.…

  2. Constructing the Commons: Practical Projects To Build the Information Commons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes several projects aimed at building the Information Commons, including: Knowledge Conservancy plans to create a database of all freely available digitized content; the Universal Library, a project with the long-term goal of providing free, online access to all books; and several projects of the Creative Commons intended to build a robust…

  3. Lunar and Martian hardware commonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Hubert P.; Johnson, Robert E.; Phillips, Paul G.; Spear, Donald S.; Stump, William R.; Williams, Franklin U.

    1986-01-01

    A number of different hardware elements were examined for possible Moon/Mars program commonality. These include manned landers; cargo landers, a trans-Mars injection (TMI) stage, traverse vehicles, unmanned surface rovers, habitation modules, and power supplies. Preliminary analysis indicates that it is possible to build a common two-stage manned lander. A single-stage, reusable lander may be practical for the lunar cast, but much less so for the Martian case, and commonality may therefore exist only at the subsystem level. A modified orbit transfer vehicle was examined as a potential cargo lander. Potential cargoes to various destinations were calculated for a Shuttle external tank sized TMI stage. A nuclear powered, long range traverse vehicle was conceptually designed and commonality is considered feasible. Short range, unmanned rovers can be made common without great effort. A surface habitation module may be difficult to make common due to difficulties in landing certain shapes on the Martian surface with aerobraking landers. Common nuclear power sources appear feasible. High temperature radiators appear easy to make common. Low temperature radiators may be difficult to make common. In most of these cases, Martian requirements determine the design.

  4. How Common is Common Use Facilities at Airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbeau, Addison D.

    This study looked at common use airports across the country and at the implementation of common use facailities at airports. Common use consists of several elements that maybe installed at an airport. One of the elements is the self-service kiosks that allow passengers to have a faster check-in process, therefore moving them more quickly within the airport. Another element is signage and the incorporation of each airline's logo. Another aspect of common useis an airport regaining control of terminal gates by reducing the number of gates that are exclusively leased to a specific air carrier. This research focused on the current state of the common use facilities across the United States and examines the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. The research entailed interviews with personnel at a wide range of airports and found that each airport is in a different stage of implementation; some have fully implemented the common use concept while others are in the beginning stages of implementation. The questions were tailored to determine what the advantages and disadvantages are of a common use facility. The most common advantages reported included flexibility and cost. In the commom use system the airport reserves the right to move any airline to a different gate at any time for any reason. In turn, this helps reduce gates delays at that facility. For the airports that were interviewed no major disadvantages were reported. One down side of common use facilities for the airport involved is the major capital cost that is required to move to a common use system.

  5. Heritability of Resistance to Common Scab in Diploid Potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common scab, caused by several species of Streptomyces, is a serious soil-borne disease of potatoes that may cause superficial, raised or pitted lesions on potato tubers. Little is known about the genetic basis of resistance to this disease. The purpose of this study was to determine if genetic re...

  6. Common Pyraloidea species of Dominica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-six adult crambid moths of the superfamily Pyraloidea from Dominica are illustrated and identified. These images are a tool for the identification of large, common species in the Caribbean. The Caribbean is a common entry and pathway of invasive species to southeastern United States....

  7. The common ancestry of life

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is common belief that all cellular life forms on earth have a common origin. This view is supported by the universality of the genetic code and the universal conservation of multiple genes, particularly those that encode key components of the translation system. A remarkable recent study claims to provide a formal, homology independent test of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis by comparing the ability of a common-ancestry model and a multiple-ancestry model to predict sequences of universally conserved proteins. Results We devised a computational experiment on a concatenated alignment of universally conserved proteins which shows that the purported demonstration of the universal common ancestry is a trivial consequence of significant sequence similarity between the analyzed proteins. The nature and origin of this similarity are irrelevant for the prediction of "common ancestry" of by the model-comparison approach. Thus, homology (common origin) of the compared proteins remains an inference from sequence similarity rather than an independent property demonstrated by the likelihood analysis. Conclusion A formal demonstration of the Universal Common Ancestry hypothesis has not been achieved and is unlikely to be feasible in principle. Nevertheless, the evidence in support of this hypothesis provided by comparative genomics is overwhelming. Reviewers this article was reviewed by William Martin, Ivan Iossifov (nominated by Andrey Rzhetsky) and Arcady Mushegian. For the complete reviews, see the Reviewers' Report section. PMID:21087490

  8. Uncovering common bacterial skin infections.

    PubMed

    Napierkowski, Daria

    2013-03-10

    The four most common bacterial skin infections are impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, and folliculitis. This article summarizes current information about the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and implications for primary care practice needed to effectively diagnose and treat common bacterial skin infections. PMID:23361375

  9. Remedies for Common Cold Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Penny F.

    1991-01-01

    Individuals suffering from intolerable symptoms of the common cold can now be advised of safe and effective products for symptomatic relief. This article describes and discusses four categories of drugs used to treat the common cold. To simplify the product selection process for family physicians, suggestions are included for possible ingredients for treatments of specific cold symptoms. PMID:21234087

  10. Connecticut's Common Core of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Since its adoption in January 1987, Connecticut's Common Core of Learning has set the standard of an educated citizen for the state, and the five 1991-1995 Statewide Educational Goals for Students incorporate its policy on the skills, knowledge and attitudes that are expected of Connecticut's public secondary school graduates. The Common Core…

  11. OSTA commonality analysis, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarik, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The 13 OSTA disciplines are examined and the applications being performed under each discipline and the parameter requirements associated with the various applications are identified. It contains a variety of printouts from the commonality database built using DRS on the Vax. It also shows commonality of parameter requirements by discipline and by application.

  12. The Common Core Takes Hold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A survey administered in the spring of 2013 by the Center on Education Policy (CEP) inquired into the implementation of Common Core State Standards at that time. Based on self-reports by state officials, the survey found that curricula aligned to the common core were already being taught in at least some districts or grade levels. All states…

  13. Understanding Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Now that the Common Core standards are coming to just about every school, what every school leader needs is a straightforward explanation that lays out the benefits of the Common Core in plain English, provides a succinct overview, and gets everyone thinking about how to transition to this promising new paradigm. This handy, inexpensive booklet…

  14. The genetic basis of music ability.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F; Wilson, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  15. The genetic basis of music ability

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E.; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  16. Acute Pancreatitis Classifications: Basis and Key Goals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao Dong; Wang, Zhe Yuan; Zhang, Ling Yi; Ni, Rui; Wei, Feng Xian; Han, Wei; Zhang, Hui Han; Zhang, Ya Wu; Wei, Zhen Gang; Guo, Xiao Hu; Guo, Liu Qiang; Ma, Jian Zhong; Zhang, You Cheng

    2015-12-01

    To explore the efficacy of the revised Atlanta classification (RACAP) and the determinant-based classification of acute pancreatitis severity (DBCAPS) on the basis of clinical data and feedback from patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). The authors retrospectively investigated a total of 573 patients with AP admitted to our hospital between December 2011 and December 2014. The definitions of severity and local complications in AP using RACAP and DBCAPS are presented and common points and mutual differences between the 2 groups are analyzed and discussed. Classification according to RACAP and DBCAPS found 86 (15%) and 178 (31.1%) mild cases (P < 0.01), 269 (46.9%) and 176 (30.7%) moderate cases (P < 0.01), and 218 (38.0%) and 219 (38.2%) severe cases (P = 0.95), respectively. A major contribution of DBCAPS is the introduction of a new type of severe AP, critical AP, identified in 4 patients (0.7%). Complications were observed in 313 RACAP-defined cases and 153 DBCAPS-defined cases (P < 0.01). Among the 313 RACAP-defined cases, acute peripancreatic fluid collection (236 patients, 75.40%), pancreatic pseudocysts (20 patients, 6.4%), acute necrotic collection (42 patients, 13.4%), and walled-off necrosis (15 patients, 4.8%) were observed. Among the 153 DBCAPS-defined cases, sterile peripancreatic necrosis (105 patients, 68.6%), sterile pancreatic necrosis (44 patients, 28.8%), infected peripancreatic necrosis (2 patients, 1.3%), and infected pancreatic necrosis (2/153 patients, 1.3%) were observed. Both classifications adopted organ failure and complications as determinants of severity. Revised Atlanta classification refined local complications and DBCAPS modified severity to include critical AP. In accordance with the demands of precision medicine, a combination of the 2 could be important for further clinical practice and scientific research. PMID:26632905

  17. A clash of traditions: the history of comparative and experimental embryology in Sweden as exemplified by the research of Gösta Jägersten and Sven Hörstadius.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Lennart

    2007-12-01

    Until the 1940s research traditions were often imported from Germany to Sweden, and young scientists went to German universities to learn new techniques and get in touch with the latest ideas. In developmental biology, the comparative, phylogenetic embryology advocated most forcefully by Ernst Haeckel co-existed with the "Entwickelungsmechanik" tradition developed by Wilhelm His, Wilheln Roux and others partly as a reaction to Haeckel's ideas. I use the zoology department at Uppsala University as a microcosmos to reflect the tensions between these traditions: Gösta Jägersten (1903-1993) and Sven Hörstadius (1898-1996) are used as exemples. Jägersten was a marine biologist who worked on the morphology and evolution of invertebrates, especiallly their larval forms. He developed a comprehensive theory describing the evolution of the life cycle in early metazoans. Recapitulation was an important ingredient, and Jägersten explicitly based his reasoning on Ernst Haeckel's "biogenetic law". Jägersten developed Haeckel's "Gastraea" theory into another hypothetical animal-Bilaterogastraea-that came into being when the holopelagic Blastaea settled on the ground as an adult and kept a pelagic, planktonic larval form. This was the birth of the pelago-benthic life cycle, which plays such an important role in Jägersten's speculations on the deep phylogeny of metazoans. Sven Hörstadius was a leading experimental embryologist in the mid-twentieth century. His most important work was on the determination and differentiation of the sea urchin embryo. Early work inspired by his teacher John Runnström's double gradient theory showed that gradients of animalness (ectodermal determination) and vegetalness (endodermal determination) existed in the 16- and 32- cell embryos. Hörstadius became famous for his elegant extirpation and transplantation experiments using glass needles, and for his microsugical skills. He also made important contributions to the study of cranial neural

  18. Authorization basis for the 209-E Building

    SciTech Connect

    TIFFANY, M.S.

    1999-02-23

    This Authorization Basis document is one of three documents that constitute the Authorization Basis for the 209-E Building. Per the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) letter 98-WSD-074, this document, the 209-E Building Preliminary Hazards Analysis (WHC-SD-WM-TI-789), and the 209-E Building Safety Evaluation Report (97-WSD-074) constitute the Authorization Basis for the 209-E Building. This Authorization Basis and the associated controls and safety programs will remain in place until safety documentation addressing deactivation of the 209-E Building is developed by the contractor and approved by RL.

  19. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  20. COMMON LESIONS OF THE URETHRA IN WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Burkland, Carl E.

    1952-01-01

    Urethral disease in women and girls often is overlooked. As the urine may seem to be normal as determined by repeated urinalysis, the symptoms—urinary frequency and burning—may be attributed entirely to other pelvic disease or to functional disorder. Since erroneous diagnosis may lead to unnecessary procedures or to neglect of treatment with consequent development of severe disease in the kidneys or ureters, it is important to consider urethral lesions as a possible cause in any case of abdominal discomfort in women. The most common lesions of the urethra in women are urethritis, stricture, caruncle, inflammatory polyps and cysts, prolapse of the urethra, and diverticulum. In some cases diagnosis can be made simply on the basis of inspection and palpation. In others more extensive diagnostic procedures must be carried out in order that treatment may be definitive. The methods of treatment, varying with the nature of the lesion, are outlined herein. PMID:14905285

  1. Conceptions of Prenatal Development: Behavioral Embryology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Gilbert

    1976-01-01

    Describes recent progress in research on prenatal behavioral development and in a systematic fashion the various ways in which prenatal experience can affect the development of behavior in the neonate as well as in the embryo and fetus. (Author/RK)

  2. Inverting dedevelopment: geometric singularity theory in embryology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookstein, Fred L.; Smith, Bradley R.

    2000-10-01

    The diffeomorphism model so useful in the biomathematics of normal morphological variability and disease is inappropriate for applications in embryogenesis, where whole coordinate patches are created out of single points. For this application we need a suitable algebra for the creation of something from nothing in a carefully organized geometry: a formalism for parameterizing discrete nondifferentiabilities of invertible functions on Rk, k $GTR 1. One easy way to begin is via the inverse of the development map - call it the dedevelopment map, the deformation backwards in time. Extrapolated, this map will inevitably have singularities at which its derivative is zero. When the dedevelopment map is inverted to face forward in time, the singularities become appropriately isolated infinities of derivative. We have recently introduced growth visualizations via extrapolations to the isolated singularities at which only one directional derivative is zero. Maps inverse to these create new coordinate patches directionally rather than radically. The most generic singularity that suits this purpose is the crease f(x,y) equals (x,x2y+y3), which has already been applied in morphometrics for the description of focal morphogenetic phenomena. We apply it to embryogenesis in the form of its analytic inverse, and demonstrate its power using a priceless new data set of mouse embryos imaged in 3D by micro-MR with voxels smaller than 100micrometers 3.

  3. Embryology of Maldives clownfish, Amphiprion nigripes (Amphiprioninae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Swagat; Kumar, Thipramalai Thankappanpillai Ajith; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the embryonic development of Maldives clownfish Amphiprion nigripes under natural conditions (28-30°C) at a lagoon of Agatti Island, Lakshadweep, India. The newly deposited fish egg was capsule-shaped and orange-red, with a (0.73 ± 0.04) mm3 yolk containing 5-10 fat globules. The embryonic development of fertilized eggs was divided into 26 stages and the time elapsing for each stage was recorded. Results showed that the cleavage was rapid, with the first division observed 1 h 20 min after fertilization. Blastulation occurred 4 h later, followed by gastrulation 12 h after fertilization, with a yolk volume of (0.61 ± 0.06) mm3. The organogenesis process started 22 h after fertilization when the blastopores closed and notochord formation began. The embryonic stage was recorded 24 h later, with the appearance of forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, melanophores on yolk-sac and 22 somites, and a decreased yolk volume of (0.54 ± 0.08) mm3. Other organs developed well 31 h after fertilization, whereas the heart started beating and blood circulation began 78 h later. Red pigmentation (erytrophores) appeared 96 h after fertilization, with a small yolk volume of (0.22 ± 0.02) mm3. Mouth developed well and eyes were noticeable 120 h later, with head, pectoral fin and tail frequently moving 144 h after fertilization. The embryo reached the pre-hatching stage 168 h later and started to hatch after 170-180 h incubation. This study first detailed the embryonic development and yolk absorption of A. nigripes under natural conditions.

  4. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  5. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  6. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth ...

  7. Misconceptions about Acne Still Common

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157613.html Misconceptions About Acne Still Common Skin condition isn't caused by ... of negative and mistaken beliefs about people with acne, a new study finds. Researchers showed photos of ...

  8. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  9. Muscle Cramp - A Common Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment Becoming a DO Video Library Muscle Cramp – A Common Pain Page Content Has a ... body’s natural tendency toward self-healing. Causes of Muscle Cramps Unfortunately, cramps can occur anywhere, anytime to ...

  10. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  12. Adolescents' theories of the commons.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Constance; Gallay, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from research on civic engagement and environmental commitment, we make a case for the processes inherent in how adolescents' ideas about the commons (those things that bind a polity together) develop. Engagement in the public realm with a plethora of perspectives and a goal of finding common ground is fundamental. Adolescents participate in the public realm through mini-polities (e.g., schools, community organizations). Practices in those settings can reinforce or challenge dominant political narratives. Special attention is given to the natural environment as a commons that transcends generations and to the opportunities in schools and in community partnerships that enable adolescents to realize their interdependence with nature and to author decisions about the commons. PMID:24851345

  13. Common Skin Diseases in Children

    PubMed Central

    Taradash, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Six common pediatric skin problems are discussed through the use of case histories. Problems of differential diagnosis are outlined, and the various steps and pitfalls in therapy itemized. PMID:21308018

  14. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  16. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  17. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  18. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  19. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  20. 42 CFR 460.2 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basis. 460.2 Section 460.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Basis,...

  1. 42 CFR 408.1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Statutory basis. 408.1 Section 408.1 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PREMIUMS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE General Provisions § 408.1 Statutory basis. (a) This part implements certain provisions of sections...

  2. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Legal basis. 120.9 Section 120.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and...

  3. 42 CFR 409.1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory basis. 409.1 Section 409.1 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Hospital Insurance Benefits: General Provisions § 409.1 Statutory basis. This part is based on the identified provisions...

  4. Stimulus Overselectivity: Empirical Basis and Diagnostic Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the empirical basis for the phenomena known as stimulus overselectivity. Stimulus overselectivity involves responding on the basis of a restricted range of elements or features that are discriminative for reinforcement. The manner in which such a response pattern impedes the skill acquisition in children is identified. A…

  5. 47 CFR 64.2317 - Unbundled basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... publisher may request that a carrier unbundle subscriber list information on any basis for the purpose of... directory publisher requests and no other listings, products, or services; or (2) Subscriber list... internal systems do not permit it unbundle subscriber list information on the basis a directory...

  6. 47 CFR 64.2317 - Unbundled basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... publisher may request that a carrier unbundle subscriber list information on any basis for the purpose of... directory publisher requests and no other listings, products, or services; or (2) Subscriber list... internal systems do not permit it unbundle subscriber list information on the basis a directory...

  7. 47 CFR 64.2317 - Unbundled basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... publisher may request that a carrier unbundle subscriber list information on any basis for the purpose of... directory publisher requests and no other listings, products, or services; or (2) Subscriber list... internal systems do not permit it unbundle subscriber list information on the basis a directory...

  8. 47 CFR 64.2317 - Unbundled basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... publisher may request that a carrier unbundle subscriber list information on any basis for the purpose of... directory publisher requests and no other listings, products, or services; or (2) Subscriber list... internal systems do not permit it unbundle subscriber list information on the basis a directory...

  9. 47 CFR 64.2317 - Unbundled basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... publisher may request that a carrier unbundle subscriber list information on any basis for the purpose of... directory publisher requests and no other listings, products, or services; or (2) Subscriber list... internal systems do not permit it unbundle subscriber list information on the basis a directory...

  10. 14 CFR 1203.100 - Legal basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...”), and the standards for such classification, are established by the “the Order” (E.O. 12958, 3 CFR, 1996... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal basis. 1203.100 Section 1203.100....100 Legal basis. (a) Executive Order 12958 (hereinafter referred to as “the Order”)....

  11. Recent advances in the molecular basis of frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Rademakers, Rosa; Neumann, Manuela; Mackenzie, Ian R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a clinical syndrome with heterogeneous molecular basis. Until recently, our knowledge was limited to a minority of cases associated with abnormalities of the tau protein or gene (MAPT). However, in 2006, mutations in progranulin (GRN) were discovered as another important cause of familial FTD. That same year, TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) was identified as the pathological protein in the most common subtypes of FTD and ALS. Since then, significant efforts have been made to understand the normal functions and regulation of GRN and TDP-43 and their roles in neurodegeneration. More recently, other DNA/RNA binding proteins (FUS, EWS and TAF15) were identified as pathological proteins in most of the remaining cases of FTD. And just six months ago, abnormal expansion of a hexanucleotide repeat in C9ORF72 was found to be the most common genetic cause of both FTD and ALS. With this remarkable progress, it appears that all the common FTD-causing genes have now been discovered and the major pathological proteins identified. This review highlights recent advances in the molecular aspects of FTD, which will provide the basis for improved patient care through the future development of more targeted diagnostic tests and therapies. PMID:22732773

  12. Acoustics of a flanged cylindrical pipe using singular basis functions

    PubMed

    Amir; Matzner; Shtrikman

    2000-02-01

    The problem of acoustic radiation from a cylindrical pipe with an infinite flange has been discussed in a number of papers. The most common approach is to decompose the field inside the pipe over a basis of Bessel functions. A very large number of basis functions is usually required, with a large degree of ripple appearing as an artifact in the solution. In this paper it is shown that a close analysis of the velocity field near the corner yields a new family of functions, which are called "edge functions." Using this set of functions as test functions and applying the moment method on the boundary between the waveguide and free space, a solution is obtained with greatly improved convergence properties and no ripple. PMID:10687680

  13. Unwinding the Molecular Basis of Interval and Circadian Timing

    PubMed Central

    Agostino, Patricia V.; Golombek, Diego A.; Meck, Warren H.

    2011-01-01

    Neural timing mechanisms range from the millisecond to diurnal, and possibly annual, frequencies. Two of the main processes under study are the interval timer (seconds-to-minute range) and the circadian clock. The molecular basis of these two mechanisms is the subject of intense research, as well as their possible relationship. This article summarizes data from studies investigating a possible interaction between interval and circadian timing and reviews the molecular basis of both mechanisms, including the discussion of the contribution from studies of genetically modified animal models. While there is currently no common neurochemical substrate for timing mechanisms in the brain, circadian modulation of interval timing suggests an interaction of different frequencies in cerebral temporal processes. PMID:22022309

  14. Experimental investigations on the basis for intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    Fast, Anne A; Olson, Kristina R; Mandel, Gregory N

    2016-08-01

    Lay people routinely misunderstand or do not obey laws protecting intellectual property (IP), leading to a variety of (largely unsuccessful) efforts by policymakers, IP owners, and researchers to change those beliefs and behaviors. The current work tests a new approach, inquiring whether lay people's views about IP protection can be modified by arguments concerning the basis for IP rights. Across 2 experiments, 572 adults (recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk) read 1 of 6 arguments about the basis for IP protection (incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, plagiarism, commons, or no argument). Participants then reported their general support for IP protection. Participants also reported their evaluations of 2 scenarios that involved infringement of IP rights, including cases in which there were mitigating experiences (e.g., the copier acknowledged the original source), and completed several demographic questions. Three primary findings emerged: (a) exposure to the importance of the public commons (and to a lesser extent, exposure to the argument that plagiarism is the basis of IP protection) led participants to become less supportive of IP protection than the incentives, natural rights, expressive rights, and control conditions; (b) people believed that infringement was more acceptable if the infringer acknowledged the original creator of the work; and (c) older adults and women were especially likely to see infringement as problematic. These findings illustrate several ways in which lay beliefs are at odds with legal doctrine, and suggest that people's views about IP protection can be shaped in certain ways by learning the basis for IP rights. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27149291

  15. Common variable immunodeficiency: etiological and treatment issues.

    PubMed

    Deane, Sean; Selmi, Carlo; Naguwa, Stanley M; Teuber, Suzanne S; Gershwin, M Eric

    2009-01-01

    One of the great advances in clinical medicine was the recognition of the pleomorphism of the immune response and the multiple afferent and efferent limbs of antigen processing and responsiveness. A significant contribution to this understanding was derived from studies of human immunodeficiency states, including both inherited and acquired syndromes. Amongst these syndromes, one of the most common, and least understood, is common variable immune deficiency (CVID). CVID is a syndrome that leads to a reduction in serum immunoglobulins and complications including recurrent infections. Management includes immunoglobulin replacement therapy; however, patients with CVID are at risk for complications of exogenous immunoglobulin administration as well as CVID-associated diseases such as autoimmune processes and malignancies. To assess the current state of knowledge in the field, we performed a literature review of a total of 753 publications covering the period of 1968 until 2008. From this list, 189 publications were selected for discussion. In this review, we demonstrate that while the molecular basis of CVID in many cases remains incompletely understood, significant strides have been made and it is now clear that there is involvement of several pathways of immune activation, with contributions from both T and B cells. Furthermore, despite the current gaps in our knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of the syndrome, there have been dramatic advances in management that have led to improved survival and significantly reduced morbidity in affected patients. PMID:19571563

  16. Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Etiological and Treatment Issues

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Sean; Selmi, Carlo; Naguwa, Stanley M.; Teuber, Suzanne S.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2009-01-01

    One of the great advances in clinical medicine was the recognition of the pleomorphism of the immune response and the multiple afferent and efferent limbs of antigen processing and responsiveness. A significant contribution to this understanding was derived from studies of human immunodeficiency states, including both inherited and acquired syndromes. Amongst these syndromes, one of the most common, and least understood, is common variable immune deficiency (CVID). CVID is a syndrome that leads to a reduction in serum immunoglobulins and complications including recurrent infections. Management includes immunoglobulin replacement therapy; however, patients with CVID are at risk for complications of exogenous immunoglobulin administration as well as CVID-associated diseases such as autoimmune processes and malignancies. To assess the current state of knowledge in the field, we performed a literature review of a total of 753 publications covering the period of 1968 until 2008. From this list, 189 publications were selected for discussion. In this review, we demonstrate that while the molecular basis of CVID in many cases remains incompletely understood, significant strides have been made and it is now clear that there is involvement of several pathways of immune activation, with contributions from both T and B cells. Furthermore, despite the current gaps in our knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of the syndrome, there have been dramatic advances in management that have led to improved survival and significantly reduced morbidity in affected patients. PMID:19571563

  17. Systemic AA amyloidosis in the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Ludlage, E; Murphy, C L; Davern, S M; Solomon, A; Weiss, D T; Glenn-Smith, D; Dworkin, S; Mansfield, K G

    2005-03-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World primate native to Brazil that has been used extensively in biomedical research. A retrospective analysis of archived hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections and clinical records was conducted at the New England Primate Research Center on 86 marmosets more than 1 year of age that were euthanized during the past decade because of morbidity and failure to thrive. Approximately 17% (15 of 86) were found to have amyloid deposits in one or more organs, including the liver, adrenal glands, kidneys, and intestine. This material was shown by amino acid sequence analysis to be composed of serum amyloid A (SAA)-related protein. This type of amyloidosis, designated AA or "secondary," is associated typically with an inflammatory process that induces elevated levels of the SAA amyloidogenic precursor molecule. Notably, there were no significant pathologic differences or other distinguishing features in animals with amyloid versus those without; furthermore, on the basis of the limited number of serum specimens available for analysis, the SAA concentrations in the two groups were comparable, thus suggesting the possible inheritable nature of the disorder. In this respect, the common marmoset provides a unique experimental model for study of the pathogenesis and treatment of AA and other forms of systemic amyloidosis. PMID:15753464

  18. Garlic for the common cold.

    PubMed

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value < 0.001), resulting in fewer days of illness in the garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions

  19. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Rosario; MacFadyen, Bruce V

    2002-04-01

    In recent years, laparoscopic common bile duct exploration has become the procedure of choice in the management of choledocholithiasis in several laparoscopic centers. The increasing interest for this laparoscopic approach is due to the development of instrumentation and technique, allowing the procedure to be performed safely, and it is also the result of the revised role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, which has been questioned because of its cost, risk of complications and effectiveness. Many surgeons, however, are still not familiar with this technique. In this article we discuss the technique and results of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration. Both the laparoscopic transcystic approach and choledochotomy are discussed, together with the results given in the literature. When one considers the costs, morbidity, mortality and the time required before the patient can return to work, it would appear that laparoscopic cholecystectomy with common bile duct exploration is more favorable than open surgery or laparoscopic cholecystectomy with preoperative or postoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy. However, the technique requires advanced laparoscopic skills, including suturing, knot tying, the use of a choledochoscope, guidewire, dilators and balloon stone extractor. Although laparoscopic common bile duct exploration appears to be the most cost-effective method to treat common bile duct stones, it should be emphasized that this procedure is very challenging, and it should be performed by well-trained laparoscopic surgeons with experience in biliary surgery. PMID:11981684

  20. Creative Commons and Why It Should Be More Commonly Understood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doug

    2009-01-01

    Authors, videographers, musicians, photographers, and almost anyone who creates materials and makes them publicly available has an alternative to standard copyright licensing: Creative Commons (CC). It is a tool that helps the creator display a licensing mark. The creator can assign a variety of rights for others to use his work--rights that are…

  1. Common Ground: Finding Commonalities in Diverse Musical Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gault, Brent

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on teaching commonalities in diverse musical genres. Teachers need to relate the musical activities performed in class to music that students experience in the world around them since they understand music in relation to history and culture. A key to selecting high-quality musical examples is to find music pieces that contain…

  2. Surveying the Commons: Current Implementation of Information Commons Web sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeder, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the content of 72 academic library Information Commons (IC) Web sites using content analysis, quantitative assessment and qualitative surveys of site administrators to analyze current implementation by the academic library community. Results show that IC Web sites vary widely in content, design and functionality, with few…

  3. The last common bilaterian ancestor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Douglas H.; Davidson, Eric H.

    2002-01-01

    Many regulatory genes appear to be utilized in at least superficially similar ways in the development of particular body parts in Drosophila and in chordates. These similarities have been widely interpreted as functional homologies, producing the conventional view of the last common protostome-deuterostome ancestor (PDA) as a complex organism that possessed some of the same body parts as modern bilaterians. Here we discuss an alternative view, in which the last common PDA had a less complex body plan than is frequently conceived. This reconstruction alters expectations for Neoproterozoic fossil remains that could illustrate the pathways of bilaterian evolution.

  4. Common Emergencies in Pet Birds.

    PubMed

    Stout, Jane D

    2016-05-01

    Treating avian emergencies can be a challenging task. Pet birds often mask signs of illness until they are critically ill and require quick initiation of supportive care with minimal handling to stabilize them. This article introduces the clinician to common avian emergency presentations and details initial therapeutics and diagnostics that can be readily performed in the small-animal emergency room. Common disease presentations covered include respiratory and extrarespiratory causes of dyspnea, gastrointestinal signs, reproductive disease, neurologic disorders, trauma, and toxin exposure. The duration and severity of the avian patient's disease and the clinician's initiation of appropriate therapy often determines clinical outcome. PMID:26948267

  5. THEORETICAL BASIS FOR MODELING ELEMENT CYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A biophysical basis for modeling element cycling is described. The scheme consists of element cycles, organisms necessary to completely catalyze all the component reactions, and higher organisms as structurally complex systems and as subsystems of more complex ecosystems, all to ...

  6. Basic Achievement Skills Individual Screener (BASIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the behaviors sampled, test administration, scoring, norms, reliability, and validity of the Basic Achievement Skills Individual Screener (BASIS), an individually administered test that measures skill development in reading, mathematics, spelling, and writing. (BL)

  7. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and to implement a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... implementation of its HACCP system....

  8. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and to implement a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... implementation of its HACCP system....

  9. Nonlocality of orthogonal product basis quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Chao; Gao, Fei; Tian, Guo-Jing; Cao, Tian-Qing; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we mainly study the local indistinguishability of mutually orthogonal product basis quantum states in the high-dimensional quantum systems. In the Hilbert space of 3⊗3, Walgate and Hardy [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 147901 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.147901] presented a very simple proof for nonlocality of nine orthogonal product basis quantum states which are given by Bennett et al. [Phys. Rev. A 59, 1070 (1999), 10.1103/PhysRevA.59.1070]. In the quantum system of d⊗d, where d is odd, we construct d2 orthogonal product basis quantum states and prove these states are locally indistinguishable. Then we are able to construct some locally indistinguishable product basis quantum states in the multipartite systems. All these results reveal the phenomenon of "nonlocality without entanglement."

  10. Common Core: Rx for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Paige

    2012-01-01

    When David Coleman, one of the authors of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), spoke to New York educators, he stated that over the last forty years 8th grade reading scores have been flat. Despite doubling expenditures on classroom instruction, there has been little growth. Most educators are aware that what worked for the students of the…

  11. Common Types of Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) ... heart defect, treatment options and expected results. The descriptions and pictures of common heart defects that follow ...

  12. Common problems in gastrointestinal radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers approximately 70 common diagnostic problems in gastro-intestinal radiology. Each problem, includes a short illustrated case history, a discussion of the radiologic findings, a general discussion of the case, the differential diagnosis, a description of the management of the problem or procedure used, and, where appropriate, the results of the therapy suggested.

  13. "Common Core Implementation Best Practices"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    This document presents the testimony of Carmel Martin, Executive Vice President for Policy at the Center for American Progress, delivered at the New York State Office of the Governor Common Core Implementation Panel on Wednesday, February 19, 2014. In this statement, Martin began by saying that The Center for American Progress believes that this…

  14. Common Practices in Adventure Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, Karl M., Ed.

    The goals of this manual are to raise the level of safety, environmental awareness, and quality in outdoor adventure education, and to encourage the development of skilled, knowledgeable outdoor leaders through the compilation and dissemination of common practices and information. Other goals are to provide information for programs to use as a…

  15. Common Ground: Expanding Our Horizons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, Michele J.

    In "Common Ground: Dialogue, Understanding, and the Teaching of Composition," Kurt Spellmeyer seeks to familiarize students and teachers with the linguistic and cultural no-man's-land separating them. Reinstating the value of two writing conventions often used by traditional students--expressive and commonplaces--can help expand on the horizons of…

  16. Technology: Technology and Common Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2004-01-01

    The absence of common sense in the world of technology continues to amaze the author. Things that seem so logical to just aren nott for many people. The installation of Voice-over IP (VoIP, with IP standing for Internet Protocol) in many school districts is a good example. Schools have always had trouble with telephones. Many districts don't even…

  17. The Common Core Math Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurman, Ze'ev; Wilson, W. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    More than 40 states have now signed onto the Common Core standards in English language arts and math, which have been both celebrated as a tremendous advance and criticized as misguided and for bearing the heavy thumbprint of the federal government. This article presents an interview with Ze'ev Wurman and W. Stephen Wilson. Wurman, who was a U.S.…

  18. Common Core: Victory Is Yours!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Jennifer L. W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to implement the Common Core State Standards in the classroom. She presents examples and activities that will leave teachers feeling "rosy" about tackling the new standards. She breaks down important benchmarks and shows how other teachers are doing the Core--and loving it!

  19. The Common Vision. Reviews: Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Marshak's book describing the work of educators Maria Montessori, Rudolf Steiner, Aurobindo Ghose, and Inayat Khan. Maintains that the book gives clear, concise information on each educator and presents a common vision for children and their education; also maintains that it gives theoretical and practical information and discusses…

  20. Objectification in Common Sense Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markova, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    In epistemologies of both scientific and common sense thinking "objectification" characterizes the formation of knowledge and concepts, yet in each case its meaning is different. In the former, objectification in acquiring knowledge refers to the individual's rationalistic reification of an object or of another person and to disengagement or…

  1. Common Core: Fact vs. Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Despite students' interest in informational text, it has played second fiddle in literacy instruction for years. Now, though, nonfiction is getting its turn in the spotlight. The Common Core State Standards require that students become thoughtful consumers of complex, informative texts--taking them beyond the realm of dry textbooks and…

  2. Community Commons Program Development Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culp, Kieta Osteen

    Community Commons (CC) is a collaborative partnership among Brevard Community College (BCC) (Florida) and over 40 social service organizations and agencies in Florida dedicated to providing education, job training, social services, recreation, and a drug free environment to communities of low income families. The project specifically seeks to…

  3. Common sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Carter, Kevin A; Hathaway, Nathanael E; Lettieri, Christine F

    2014-03-01

    Up to 50% of children will experience a sleep problem. Early identification of sleep problems may prevent negative consequences, such as daytime sleepiness, irritability, behavioral problems, learning difficulties, motor vehicle crashes in teenagers, and poor academic performance. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs in 1% to 5% of children. Polysomnography is needed to diagnose the condition because it may not be detected through history and physical examination alone. Adenotonsillectomy is the primary treatment for most children with obstructive sleep apnea. Parasomnias are common in childhood; sleepwalking, sleep talking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors tend to occur in the first half of the night, whereas nightmares are more common in the second half of the night. Only 4% of parasomnias will persist past adolescence; thus, the best management is parental reassurance and proper safety measures. Behavioral insomnia of childhood is common and is characterized by a learned inability to fall and/or stay asleep. Management begins with consistent implementation of good sleep hygiene practices, and, in some cases, use of extinction techniques may be appropriate. Delayed sleep phase disorder is most common in adolescence, presenting as difficulty falling asleep and awakening at socially acceptable times. Treatment involves good sleep hygiene and a consistent sleep-wake schedule, with nighttime melatonin and/or morning bright light therapy as needed. Diagnosing restless legs syndrome in children can be difficult; management focuses on trigger avoidance and treatment of iron deficiency, if present. PMID:24695508

  4. Common Protocols for Shared Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Bull, Gina; Sigmon, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Although it is becoming easier to share materials via the Internet, the process is still not transparent, especially when cross-platform transfers are involved. This article reviews common protocols and discusses several utilities and strategies for exchanging information online. Includes a table listing transfer and compression protocols, common…

  5. Common Issues in Professional Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janosik, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Most conversations about ethics and professional behavior involve case studies and hypothetical situations. This study identifies and examines the most common concerns in professional behavior as reported by 303 student affairs practitioners in the field. Differences by gender, years of experience, organizational level, institutional type, and…

  6. Common Ground: Opportunities and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, M. Katherine; Muck, Randolph; Bazemore, Gordon

    2001-01-01

    Wraps up a theme issue that explores the common ground between the restorative justice and community justice movements and examines their effect on substance-abusing youth and the communities in which they reside. Suggests that restorative justice programs may help adolescent treatment providers in their adoption of practices to promote change and…

  7. Leadership in Education: Five Commonalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Marc A.

    2001-01-01

    Reflecting on 43 interviews with eminent educational leaders from all backgrounds and political stripes, the author isolates five common characteristics: a bedrock belief in their work's usefulness, courage to swim upstream on behalf of their beliefs, possession of a social conscience, seriousness of purpose, and situational mastery. (MLH)

  8. Common sense and the common morality in theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Daly, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The unfinished nature of Beauchamp and Childress's account of the common morality after 34 years and seven editions raises questions about what is lacking, specifically in the way they carry out their project, more generally in the presuppositions of the classical liberal tradition on which they rely. Their wide-ranging review of ethical theories has not provided a method by which to move beyond a hypothetical approach to justification or, on a practical level regarding values conflict, beyond a questionable appeal to consensus. My major purpose in this paper is to introduce the thought of Bernard Lonergan as offering a way toward such a methodological breakthrough. In the first section, I consider Beauchamp and Childress's defense of their theory of the common morality. In the second, I relate a persisting vacillation in their argument regarding the relative importance of reason and experience to a similar tension in classical liberal theory. In the third, I consider aspects of Lonergan's generalized empirical method as a way to address problems that surface in the first two sections of the paper: (1) the structural relation of reason and experience in human action; and (2) the importance of theory for practice in terms of what Lonergan calls "common sense" and "general bias." PMID:24526573

  9. Nanoplasmonics simulations at the basis set limit through completeness-optimized, local numerical basis sets

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Tuomas P. Sakko, Arto; Puska, Martti J.; Lehtola, Susi; Nieminen, Risto M.

    2015-03-07

    We present an approach for generating local numerical basis sets of improving accuracy for first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations within time-dependent density functional theory. The method is demonstrated for copper, silver, and gold nanoparticles that are of experimental interest but computationally demanding due to the semi-core d-electrons that affect their plasmonic response. The basis sets are constructed by augmenting numerical atomic orbital basis sets by truncated Gaussian-type orbitals generated by the completeness-optimization scheme, which is applied to the photoabsorption spectra of homoatomic metal atom dimers. We obtain basis sets of improving accuracy up to the complete basis set limit and demonstrate that the performance of the basis sets transfers to simulations of larger nanoparticles and nanoalloys as well as to calculations with various exchange-correlation functionals. This work promotes the use of the local basis set approach of controllable accuracy in first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations and beyond.

  10. Nanoplasmonics simulations at the basis set limit through completeness-optimized, local numerical basis sets.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Tuomas P; Lehtola, Susi; Sakko, Arto; Puska, Martti J; Nieminen, Risto M

    2015-03-01

    We present an approach for generating local numerical basis sets of improving accuracy for first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations within time-dependent density functional theory. The method is demonstrated for copper, silver, and gold nanoparticles that are of experimental interest but computationally demanding due to the semi-core d-electrons that affect their plasmonic response. The basis sets are constructed by augmenting numerical atomic orbital basis sets by truncated Gaussian-type orbitals generated by the completeness-optimization scheme, which is applied to the photoabsorption spectra of homoatomic metal atom dimers. We obtain basis sets of improving accuracy up to the complete basis set limit and demonstrate that the performance of the basis sets transfers to simulations of larger nanoparticles and nanoalloys as well as to calculations with various exchange-correlation functionals. This work promotes the use of the local basis set approach of controllable accuracy in first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations and beyond. PMID:25747068

  11. Common/Dependent-Pressure-Vessel Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    The term "common/dependent pressure vessel" (C/DPV) denotes a proposed alternative configuration for a nickelhydrogen battery. The C/DPV configuration is so named because it is a hybrid of two prior configurations called "common pressure vessel" (CPV) and "dependent pressure vessel" (DPV). The C/DPV configuration has been proposed as a basis for designing highly reliable, long-life Ni/H2-batteries and cells for anticipated special applications in which it is expected that small charge capacities will suffice and sizes and weights must be minimized.

  12. Basis Construction for Range Estimation by Phase Unwrapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaq, Assad; McKilliam, R. G.; Subramanian, R.

    2015-11-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the distance, or range, between two locations by measuring the phase of a sinusoidal signal transmitted between the locations. This method is only capable of unambiguously measuring range within an interval of length equal to the wavelength of the signal. To address this problem signals of multiple different wavelengths can be transmitted. The range can then be measured within an interval of length equal to the least common multiple of these wavelengths. Estimation of the range requires solution of a problem from computational number theory called the closest lattice point problem. Algorithms to solve this problem require a basis for this lattice. Constructing a basis is non-trivial and an explicit construction has only been given in the case that the wavelengths can be scaled to pairwise relatively prime integers. In this paper we present an explicit construction of a basis without this assumption on the wavelengths. This is important because the accuracy of the range estimator depends upon the wavelengths. Simulations indicate that significant improvement in accuracy can be achieved by using wavelengths that cannot be scaled to pairwise relatively prime integers.

  13. Common skin conditions during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tunzi, Marc; Gray, Gary R

    2007-01-15

    Common skin conditions during pregnancy generally can be separated into three categories: hormone-related, preexisting, and pregnancy-specific. Normal hormone changes during pregnancy may cause benign skin conditions including striae gravidarum (stretch marks); hyperpigmentation (e.g., melasma); and hair, nail, and vascular changes. Preexisting skin conditions (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, fungal infections, cutaneous tumors) may change during pregnancy. Pregnancy-specific skin conditions include pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy, prurigo of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, pemphigoid gestationis, impetigo herpetiformis, and pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy. Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy are the most common of these disorders. Most skin conditions resolve postpartum and only require symptomatic treatment. However, there are specific treatments for some conditions (e.g., melasma, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, pruritic folliculitis of pregnancy). Antepartum surveillance is recommended for patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, impetigo herpetiformis, and pemphigoid gestationis. PMID:17263216

  14. Common Perspectives in Qualitative Research.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Marie

    2016-07-01

    The primary purpose of this column is to focus on several common core concepts that are foundational to qualitative research. Discussion of these concepts is at an introductory level and is designed to raise awareness and understanding of several conceptual foundations that undergird qualitative research. Because of the variety of qualitative approaches, not all concepts are relevant to every design and tradition. However, foundational aspects were selected for highlighting. PMID:27314194

  15. 26 CFR 1.755-1 - Rules for allocation of basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rules for allocation of basis. 1.755-1 Section 1.755-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Provisions Common to Part II, Subchapter K, Chapter 1 of the Code § 1.755-1 Rules for allocation of basis. (a)...

  16. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  17. George Combe and common sense.

    PubMed

    Dyde, Sean

    2015-06-01

    This article examines the history of two fields of enquiry in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Scotland: the rise and fall of the common sense school of philosophy and phrenology as presented in the works of George Combe. Although many previous historians have construed these histories as separate, indeed sometimes incommensurate, I propose that their paths were intertwined to a greater extent than has previously been given credit. The philosophy of common sense was a response to problems raised by Enlightenment thinkers, particularly David Hume, and spurred a theory of the mind and its mode of study. In order to succeed, or even to be considered a rival of these established understandings, phrenologists adapted their arguments for the sake of engaging in philosophical dispute. I argue that this debate contributed to the relative success of these groups: phrenology as a well-known historical subject, common sense now largely forgotten. Moreover, this history seeks to question the place of phrenology within the sciences of mind in nineteenth-century Britain. PMID:25921681

  18. Common Avionics Display Processor (CADP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farley, Paul E.

    1995-06-01

    The 1970s saw the start of a trend towards integrated digital avionics. In the 1980s, the Air Force's Pave Pillar initiative defined centralized digital processing as the cost- effective approach to tactical avionics. The avionics systems of the two advanced aircraft presently under development, a fixed-wing tactical fighter and an armed scout/reconnaissance helicopter, were based on this architecture. Both platforms relied upon custom, single-purpose hardware and software to generate images for their advanced multifunctional flat panel cockpit displays. The technology to generate real-time synthetic images with common data and signal processors was not available during the development of the platforms. Harris IR&D investigations have focused on an approach that Harris GASD has named the Common Avionics Display Processor (CADP). This programmable device can generate sophisticated images or perform sensor image manipulation and processing. The Common Avionics Display Processor is a general purpose image synthesizer. It consists of software and hardware components configured at run time by a downloaded program. The CADP offers two advantages over custom, special purpose devices. First, it solves a class of problems, not a single one. It can generate many types of images, from alphanumeric to sensor simulation. Only one module type is required for any of these functions. Second, as program schedules become shorter, traditional hardware design time becomes the delivery limiting task. Because both the software and hardware components are programmable at run time, the CADP can adapt to changing requirements without redesign.

  19. Treatment of common skin infections and infestations during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Elston, Carly A; Elston, Dirk M

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of systematic studies in pregnant and lactating women, recommendations for the treatment of infections during pregnancy are based on animal studies, accumulated evidence from clinical use and case reports, as well as published consensus statements and expert opinion. This article examines the evidence basis for the treatment of common cutaneous infections in women who are pregnant or breast-feeding. PMID:23914888

  20. Common modeling system for digital simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, Rick

    1994-01-01

    The Joint Modeling and Simulation System is a tri-service investigation into a common modeling framework for the development digital models. The basis for the success of this framework is an X-window-based, open systems architecture, object-based/oriented methodology, standard interface approach to digital model construction, configuration, execution, and post processing. For years Department of Defense (DOD) agencies have produced various weapon systems/technologies and typically digital representations of the systems/technologies. These digital representations (models) have also been developed for other reasons such as studies and analysis, Cost Effectiveness Analysis (COEA) tradeoffs, etc. Unfortunately, there have been no Modeling and Simulation (M&S) standards, guidelines, or efforts towards commonality in DOD M&S. The typical scenario is an organization hires a contractor to build hardware and in doing so an digital model may be constructed. Until recently, this model was not even obtained by the organization. Even if it was procured, it was on a unique platform, in a unique language, with unique interfaces, and, with the result being UNIQUE maintenance required. Additionally, the constructors of the model expended more effort in writing the 'infrastructure' of the model/simulation (e.g. user interface, database/database management system, data journalizing/archiving, graphical presentations, environment characteristics, other components in the simulation, etc.) than in producing the model of the desired system. Other side effects include: duplication of efforts; varying assumptions; lack of credibility/validation; and decentralization in policy and execution. J-MASS provides the infrastructure, standards, toolset, and architecture to permit M&S developers and analysts to concentrate on the their area of interest.

  1. Labor Dystocia: A Common Approach to Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Neal, Jeremy L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Holley, Sharon L; Ryan, Sharon L; Buxton, Margaret; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary labor and birth population norms should be the basis for evaluating labor progression and determining slow progress that may benefit from intervention. The aim of this article is to present guidelines for a common, evidence-based approach for determination of active labor onset and diagnosis of labor dystocia based on a synthesis of existing professional guidelines and relevant contemporary publications. A 3-point approach for diagnosing active labor onset and classifying labor dystocia-related labor aberrations into well-defined, mutually exclusive categories that can be used clinically and validated by researchers is proposed. The approach comprises identification of 1) an objective point that strictly defines active labor onset (point of active labor determination); 2) an objective point that identifies when labor progress becomes atypical, beyond which interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia may be justified (point of protraction diagnosis); and 3) an objective point that identifies when interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia, if used, can first be determined to be unsuccessful, beyond which assisted vaginal or cesarean birth may be justified (earliest point of arrest diagnosis). Widespread adoption of a common approach for diagnosing labor dystocia will facilitate consistent evaluation of labor progress, improve communications between clinicians and laboring women, indicate when intervention aimed at speeding labor progress or facilitating birth may be appropriate, and allow for more efficient translation of safe and effective management strategies into clinical practice. Correct application of the diagnosis of labor dystocia may lead to a decrease in the rate of cesarean birth, decreased health care costs, and improved health of childbearing women and neonates. PMID:26461189

  2. Using imagination to understand the neural basis of episodic memory

    PubMed Central

    Hassabis, Demis; Kumaran, Dharshan; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2008-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) studies investigating the neural basis of episodic memory recall, and the related task of thinking about plausible personal future events, have revealed a consistent network of associated brain regions. Surprisingly little, however, is understood about the contributions individual brain areas make to the overall recollective experience. In order to examine this, we employed a novel fMRI paradigm where subjects had to imagine fictitious experiences. In contrast to future thinking, this results in experiences that are not explicitly temporal in nature or as reliant on self-processing. By using previously imagined fictitious experiences as a comparison for episodic memories, we identified the neural basis of a key process engaged in common, namely scene construction, involving the generation, maintenance and visualisation of complex spatial contexts. This was associated with activations in a distributed network, including hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and retrosplenial cortex. Importantly, we disambiguated these common effects from episodic memory-specific responses in anterior medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. These latter regions may support self-schema and familiarity processes, and contribute to the brain's ability to distinguish real from imaginary memories. We conclude that scene construction constitutes a common process underlying episodic memory and imagination of fictitious experiences, and suggest it may partially account for the similar brain networks implicated in navigation, episodic future thinking, and the default mode. We suggest that further brain regions are co-opted into this core network in a task-specific manner to support functions such as episodic memory that may have additional requirements. PMID:18160644

  3. Full Waveform Inversion with Optimal Basis Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Gang; Chang, Qianshun; Sheng, Ping

    2003-03-01

    Based on the approach suggested by Tarantola, and Gauthier etal., we show that the alternate use of the step (linear) function basis and the block function (quasi-δ function) basis can give accurate full waveform inversion results for the layered acoustic systems, starting from a uniform background. Our method is robust against additive white noise (up to 20% of the signal) and can resolve layers that are comparable to or smaller than a wavelength in thickness. The physical reason for the success of our approach is illustrated through a simple example.

  4. The Q field, a variable quaternion basis

    SciTech Connect

    Efremov, A.P.

    1986-06-01

    The author introduces the concept of the Q field as a 2 x 2 matrix representation of the variable basis of vectors satisfying the rule of multiplication of quaternion imaginary numbers and as an element of the group of transformations of the basis preserving the invariance of this multiplication rule. The rule for projecting such matrices on a given direction is determined with the help of the characteristic functions of the matrices-vectors of the Q field. The differential structure of Q fields is studied and the theory developed is illustrated by an example of a model-topological classification of particles according to the magnitude of their spin.

  5. Heavy quarkonium in a holographic basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Maris, Pieter; Zhao, Xingbo; Vary, James P.

    2016-07-01

    We study the heavy quarkonium within the basis light-front quantization approach. We implement the one-gluon exchange interaction and a confining potential inspired by light-front holography. We adopt the holographic light-front wavefunction (LFWF) as our basis function and solve the non-perturbative dynamics by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix. We obtain the mass spectrum for charmonium and bottomonium. With the obtained LFWFs, we also compute the decay constants and the charge form factors for selected eigenstates. The results are compared with the experimental measurements and with other established methods.

  6. Common genetic and epigenetic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Adams, Darius J; Clark, David A

    2015-04-01

    Cytogenetic anomalies should be considered in individuals with multiple congenital anomalies. DNA methylation analysis is the most sensitive initial test in evaluating for Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. The timely identification of cytogenetic anomalies allows for prompt initiation of early intervention services to maximize the potential of every individual as they grow older. Although many of these conditions are rare, keeping them in mind can have a profound impact on the clinical course of affected individuals. This article reviews some of the more common genetic syndromes. PMID:25836705

  7. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  8. Sampled Longest Common Prefix Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirén, Jouni

    When augmented with the longest common prefix (LCP) array and some other structures, the suffix array can solve many string processing problems in optimal time and space. A compressed representation of the LCP array is also one of the main building blocks in many compressed suffix tree proposals. In this paper, we describe a new compressed LCP representation: the sampled LCP array. We show that when used with a compressed suffix array (CSA), the sampled LCP array often offers better time/space trade-offs than the existing alternatives. We also show how to construct the compressed representations of the LCP array directly from a CSA.

  9. Psychosocial effect of common skin diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Barankin, Benjamin; DeKoven, Joel

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To increase awareness of the psychosocial effect of acne, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A literature review was based on a MEDLINE search (1966 to 2000). Selected articles from the dermatologic and psychiatric literature, as well as other relevant medical journals, were reviewed and used as the basis for discussion of how skin disease affects patients' lives and of appropriate management. Studies in the medical literature provide mainly level III evidence predominantly based on descriptive studies and expert opinion. MAIN MESSAGE: Dermatologic problems can result in psychosocial effects that seriously affect patients' lives. More than a cosmetic nuisance, skin disease can produce anxiety, depression, and other psychological problems that affect patients' lives in ways comparable to arthritis or other disabling illnesses. An appreciation for the effects of sex, age, and location of lesions is important, as well as the bidirectional relationship between skin disease and psychological distress. This review focuses on the effects of three common skin diseases seen by family physicians: acne, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. CONCLUSION: How skin disease affects psychosocial well-being is underappreciated. Increased understanding of the psychiatric comorbidity associated with skin disease and a biopsychosocial approach to management will ultimately improve patients' lives. PMID:12046366

  10. Common data link (CDL) interference model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerasoli, Caramen; Zhao, Wiley; Santapietro, John J.; McAlinden, R. E.; Smith, B. F.; Jacyk, P. A.

    2002-07-01

    The increasing use of airwaves for military communication and surveillance and commercial applications places burdens on spectrum use. This crowding of the spectrum presents two broad problem categories. The first is "co-site interference" where numerous transmitters and receivers are physically located in a small area and share a given portion of the spectrum. Under these conditions, a receiver can be "victim" to a co-located transmitter. The second category involves numerous transmitters (typically airborne) well separated from each other but communicating to receivers placed in a relatively small area. The Common Data Link (CDL) refers to a standard protocol for military data delivery and communication. Surveillance platforms such as Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (TUAV), JSTARS, U2's, Global Hawks will stream high rate surveillance data (radar, visual and/or infrared imagery, etc.) down to ground terminals. As such, bandwidths are wide (100's MHz) and the potential exists for ground receivers to be victim to signals from airborne transmitters other than its desired source. MITRE has developed a CDL Interference Model to assess potential problems in realistic tactical surveillance scenarios. This paper documents the physical basis of the CDL Interference Model as well as the visualization software architecture that integrates the model with ModSAF/OneSAF.

  11. 26 CFR 1.1033(b)-1 - Basis of property acquired as a result of an involuntary conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Basis of property acquired as a result of an involuntary conversion. 1.1033(b)-1 Section 1.1033(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(b)-1 Basis of...

  12. 7 CFR 1710.204 - Filing requirements for borrowers that must maintain an approved load forecast on an ongoing basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... an approved load forecast on an ongoing basis. 1710.204 Section 1710.204 Agriculture Regulations of... AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Load Forecasts § 1710.204 Filing requirements for borrowers that must maintain an approved load forecast on an ongoing basis....

  13. The Common Communication Interface (CCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Shipman, Galen M; Atchley, Scott; Dillow, David A; Geoffray, Patrick; Bosilca, George; Squyres, Jeffrey M; Minnich, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    There are many APIs for connecting and exchanging data between network peers. Each interface varies wildly based on metrics including performance, portability, and complexity. Specifically, many interfaces make design or implementation choices emphasizing some of the more desirable metrics (e.g., performance) while sacrificing others (e.g., portability). As a direct result, software developers building large, network-based applications are forced to choose a specific network API based on a complex, multi-dimensional set of criteria. Such trade-offs inevitably result in an interface that fails to deliver some desirable features. In this paper, we introduce a novel interface that both supports many features that have become standard (or otherwise generally expected) in other communication interfaces, and strives to export a small, yet powerful, interface. This new interface draws upon years of experience from network-oriented software development best practices to systems-level implementations. The goal is to create a relatively simple, high-level communication interface with low barriers to adoption while still providing important features such as scalability, resiliency, and performance. The result is the Common Communications Interface (CCI): an intuitive API that is portable, efficient, scalable, and robust to meet the needs of network-intensive applications common in HPC and cloud computing.

  14. Caffeine and the common cold.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Thomas, M; Perry, K; Whitney, H

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine whether caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee removed the malaise (reduced alertness, slower psychomotor performance) associated with having a common cold. One hundred volunteers were tested when healthy and 46 returned to the laboratory when they developed colds. Those subjects who remained healthy were then recalled as a control group. On the second visit subjects carried out two sessions, one pre-drink and another an hour after the drink. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following three conditions, caffeinated coffee (1.5 mg/kg caffeine/body weight), decaffeinated coffee or fruit juice. Subjects with colds reported decreased alertness and were slower at performing psychomotor tasks. Caffeine increased the alertness and performance of the colds subjects to the same level as the healthy group and decaffeinated coffee also led to an improvement. These results suggest that drugs which increase alertness can remove the malaise associated with the common cold, and that increased stimulation of the sensory afferent nerves may also be beneficial. PMID:9443519

  15. ALMA Common Software - UTFSM Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, M.; Avarias, J.; Mora, M.; Tobar, R.

    The ACS-UTFSM Group was created as a distributed systems research team on astronomical and non-astronomical applications on the year 2004. The choice of the ALMA Common Software framework (ACS) as the development platform came from the experience gained during summerjobs at ESO observatories. After three years of informal contributions to ACS development, the team presented a technology exchange initiative to the ALMA-CONICYT Fund 2006, which was granted in 2007. Through the past years, the UTFSM helped the ACS team with "nice-to-have" applications and testing. Currently the ACS-UTFSM is involved in several contributions to ACS, and the development of a flexible telescope control system (gTCS) framework which aims to encapsulate common requirements and will provide a uniform software. In preparation for this challenging objective, several small projects are currently being developed. The other interesting edge of the team work is the technology transfer initiatives. Several inter-universities collaborations are flourishing (PUC, UCN, UV) after the first ACS Workshop held at the UTFSM this year. Today three former team members are working at NRAO's ALMA Test Facility in Socorro, New Mexico. Two other students will have a summer job next year to work in ALMA related development.

  16. Common hematological disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Deepak; Totadri, Sidharth

    2014-01-01

    It is common for primary care physicians to be faced with children with hematological disorders in everyday practice. The article seeks to provide realistic information for the first-contact physician in handling common hematological diseases in children. Practical step-wise approach to understanding and investigating anemia and bleeding disorders is illustrated. Requirement of iron in normal children and management of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and thalassemia is explained. The gold standard for IDA continues to be ferrous sulphate which has good bioavailability and is inexpensive. There is emerging concept of delayed clamping of umbilical cord at birth, particularly in regions with widespread IDA, to augment iron stores in infancy. Typical case scenarios of children with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and hemophilia are provided to facilitate the understanding of management in day to day practice. The vital role of the medical practitioner in shared care of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and febrile neutropenia is emphasized. A risk based treatment algorithm for febrile neutropenia is provided. PMID:23934100

  17. Inverse Common-Reflection-Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perroud, H.; Tygel, M.; Freitas, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Common-Reflection-Surface (CRS) stack method is a powerful tool to produce high-quality stacked images of multicoverage seismic data. As a result of the CRS stack, not only a stacked section, but also a number of attributes defined at each point of that section, are produced. In this way, one can think of the CRS stack method as a transformation from data space to attribute space. Being a purely kinematic method, the CRS stack lacks amplitude information that can be useful for many purposes. Here we propose to fill this gap by means of a combined use of a zero-offset section (that could be a short-offset or amplitude-corrected stacked section) and common midpoint gather. We present an algorithm for an inverse CRS transformation, namely one that (approximately) transforms the CRS attributes back to data space. First synthetic tests provide satisfying results for the two simple cases of single dipping-plane and single circular reflectors with a homogeneous overburden, and provide estimates of the range of applicability, in both midpoint and offset directions. We further present an application for interpolating missing traces in a near-surface, high-resolution seismic experiment, conducted in the alluvial plain of the river Gave de Pau, near Assat, southern France, showing its ability to build coherent signals, where recording was not available. A somewhat unexpected good feature of the algorithm, is that it seems capable to reconstruct signals even in muted parts of the section.

  18. Common Skin Rashes in Children.

    PubMed

    Allmon, Amanda; Deane, Kristen; Martin, Kari L

    2015-08-01

    Because childhood rashes may be difficult to differentiate by appearance alone, it is important to consider the entire clinical presentation to help make the appropriate diagnosis. Considerations include the appearance and location of the rash; the clinical course; and associated symptoms, such as pruritus or fever. A fever is likely to occur with roseola, erythema infectiosum (fifth disease), and scarlet fever. Pruritus sometimes occurs with atopic dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, erythema infectiosum, molluscum contagiosum, and tinea infection. The key feature of roseola is a rash presenting after resolution of a high fever, whereas the distinguishing features in pityriasis rosea are a herald patch and a bilateral and symmetric rash in a Christmas tree pattern. The rash associated with scarlet fever usually develops on the upper trunk, then spreads throughout the body, sparing the palms and soles. Impetigo is a superficial bacterial infection that most commonly affects the face and extremities of children. Erythema infectiosum is characterized by a viral prodrome followed by the "slapped cheek" facial rash. Flesh-colored or pearly white papules with central umbilication occur with molluscum contagiosum, a highly contagious viral infection that usually resolves without intervention. Tinea is a common fungal skin infection in children that affects the scalp, body, groin, feet, hands, or nails. Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin condition that may present with a variety of skin changes. PMID:26280141

  19. DNA/SNLA commonality program

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, D. V.; Watts, A. J.; Rice, D. A.; Powe, J.; Beezhold, W.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the Commonality program, initiated by DNA in 1978, was to evaluate e-beam material testing procedures and techniques by comparing material stress and spall data from various US and UK e-beam facilities and experimenters. As part of this joint DNA/SNL/UK Commonality effort, Sandia and Ktech used four different electron-beam machines to investigate various aspects of e-beam energy deposition in three materials. The deposition duration and the deposition profiles were varied, and the resulting stresses were measured. The materials studied were: (1) a low-Z material (A1), (2) a high-Z material (Ta), and (3) a typical porous material, a cermet. Aluminium and tantalum were irradiated using the DNA Blackjack 3 accelerator (60 ns pulse width), the DNA Blackjack 3' accelerator (30 ns pulse width), and the SNLA REHYD accelerator (100 ns pulse width). Propagating stresses were measured using x-cut quartz gauges, carbon gauges, and laser interferometry techniques. Data to determine the influence of deposition duration were obtained over a wide range of energy loadings. The cermet material was studied using the SNLA REHYD and HERMES II accelerators. The e-beam from REHYD generated propagating stresses which were monitored with quartz gauges as a function of sample thickness and energy loadings. The HERMES II accelerator was used to uniformly heat the cermet to determine the Grueneisen parameter and identify the incipient spall condition. Results of these experiments are presented.

  20. Evolution of a common controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, D.; Barbour, D.; Gilbreath, G.

    2012-06-01

    Precedent has shown common controllers must strike a balance between the desire for an integrated user interface design by human factors engineers and support of project-specific data requirements. A common user-interface requires the project-specific data to conform to an internal representation, but project-specific customization is impeded by the implicit rules introduced by the internal data representation. Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) developed the latest version of the Multi-robot Operator Control Unit (MOCU) to address interoperability, standardization, and customization issues by using a modular, extensible, and flexible architecture built upon a sharedworld model. MOCU version 3 provides an open and extensible operator-control interface that allows additional functionality to be seamlessly added with software modules while providing the means to fully integrate the information into a layered game-like user interface. MOCU's design allows it to completely decouple the human interface from the core management modules, while still enabling modules to render overlapping regions of the screen without interference or a priori knowledge of other display elements, thus allowing more flexibility in project-specific customization.

  1. Common questions about Barrett esophagus.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Thomas G

    2014-01-15

    Barrett esophagus is a precancerous metaplasia of the esophagus that is more common in patients with chronic reflux symptoms, although it also occurs in patients without symptomatic reflux. Other risk factors include smoking, male sex, obesity, white race, hiatal hernia, and increasing age (particularly older than 50 years). Although Barrett esophagus is a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma, its management and the need for screening or surveillance endoscopy are debatable. The annual incidence of progression to esophageal cancer is 0.12% to 0.33%; progression is more common in patients with high-grade dysplasia and long-segment Barrett esophagus. Screening endoscopy should be considered for patients with multiple risk factors, and those who have lesions with high-grade dysplasia should undergo endoscopic mucosal resection or other endoscopic procedures to remove the lesions. Although the cost-effectiveness is questionable, patients with nondysplastic Barrett esophagus can be followed with endoscopic surveillance. Lowgrade dysplasia should be monitored or eradicated via endoscopy. Although there is no evidence that medical or surgical therapies to reduce acid reflux prevent neoplastic progression, proton pump inhibitors can be used to help control reflux symptoms. PMID:24444576

  2. Common ecology quantifies human insurgency.

    PubMed

    Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Gourley, Sean; Dixon, Alexander R; Spagat, Michael; Johnson, Neil F

    2009-12-17

    Many collective human activities, including violence, have been shown to exhibit universal patterns. The size distributions of casualties both in whole wars from 1816 to 1980 and terrorist attacks have separately been shown to follow approximate power-law distributions. However, the possibility of universal patterns ranging across wars in the size distribution or timing of within-conflict events has barely been explored. Here we show that the sizes and timing of violent events within different insurgent conflicts exhibit remarkable similarities. We propose a unified model of human insurgency that reproduces these commonalities, and explains conflict-specific variations quantitatively in terms of underlying rules of engagement. Our model treats each insurgent population as an ecology of dynamically evolving, self-organized groups following common decision-making processes. Our model is consistent with several recent hypotheses about modern insurgency, is robust to many generalizations, and establishes a quantitative connection between human insurgency, global terrorism and ecology. Its similarity to financial market models provides a surprising link between violent and non-violent forms of human behaviour. PMID:20016600

  3. Management of common sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramar, Kannan; Olson, Eric J

    2013-08-15

    Sleep disorders are common and affect sleep quality and quantity, leading to increased morbidity. Patients with sleep disorders can be categorized as those who cannot sleep, those who will not sleep, those with excessive daytime sleepiness, and those with increased movements during sleep. Insomnia, defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep that results in daytime impairment, is diagnosed using history findings and treated with cognitive behavior therapy, with or without sleep hypnotics. Restless legs syndrome is characterized by an urge to move the legs that worsens with rest, is relieved by movement, and often occurs in the evening or at night. Restless legs syndrome is treated based on the frequency of symptoms. Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. It is diagnosed using a sleep log or actigraphy, followed by overnight polysomnography and a multiple sleep latency test. Narcolepsy is treated with stimulants, such as modafinil; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; or gamma hydroxybutyric acid (sodium oxybate). Patients with snoring and witnessed apneas may have obstructive sleep apnea, which is diagnosed using overnight polysomnography. Continuous positive airway pressure is the most common and effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by increased muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep, resulting in the patient acting out dreams with possible harmful consequences. It is diagnosed based on history and polysomnography findings, and treated with environmental safety measures and melatonin or clonazepam. PMID:23944726

  4. Mycoflora of seed of common teasel (Dipsacus fullonum) in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds of standing common teasel (Dipsacus fullonum) were harvested in January 2007 in Pullman, Washington, and divided into two categories, symptomatic versus asymptomatic, on the basis of signs of fungal colonization at 10-50X magnification. The most common signs were pseudothecia of Davidiella ta...

  5. The Rise and Fall of Boot Camps: A Case Study in Common-Sense Corrections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Francis T.; Blevins, Kristie R.; Trager, Jennifer S.; Gendreau, Paul

    2005-01-01

    "Common sense" is often used as a powerful rationale for implementing correctional programs that have no basis in criminology and virtually no hope of reducing recidivism. Within this context, we undertake a case study in "common-sense' corrections by showing how the rise of boot camps, although having multiple causes, was ultimately legitimized…

  6. The molecular basis of positional information.

    PubMed

    Summerbell, D; Smith, J C; Maden, M

    1991-01-01

    Embryologists have dreamed of their own particular philosophers stone for 100 years. During that time they have repeatedly demonstrated the likely existence of signalling molecules or morphogens that control the pattern of development in the embryo. Now at last seems possible that some of these morphogens may have been identified. We review current evidence for the molecular basis of positional information. PMID:1768796

  7. Technical basis document for external events

    SciTech Connect

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-03-22

    This document supports the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis and presents the technical basis for the frequencies of externally initiated accidents. The consequences of externally initiated events are discussed in other documents that correspond to the accident that was caused by the external event. The external events include aircraft crash, vehicle accident, range fire, and rail accident.

  8. The molecular basis of peanut allergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures, and discusses how modif...

  9. 42 CFR 478.12 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory basis. 478.12 Section 478.12 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS RECONSIDERATIONS AND APPEALS Utilization and Quality Control...

  10. 45 CFR 144.200 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basis. 144.200 Section 144.200 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO... frequency with which such reports are to be made. This section of the statute also provides that...

  11. 42 CFR 489.1 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory basis. 489.1 Section 489.1 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION PROVIDER AGREEMENTS AND SUPPLIER APPROVAL General Provisions § 489.1 Statutory...

  12. The Emotional and Moral Basis of Rationality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boostrom, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the basis of rationality, arguing that critical thinking tends to be taught in schools as a set of skills because of the failure to recognize that choosing to think critically depends on the prior development of stable sentiments or moral habits that nourish a rational self. Primary among these stable sentiments are the…

  13. 42 CFR 488.800 - Statutory basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Statutory basis. 488.800 Section 488.800 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Alternative Sanctions for...

  14. 47 CFR 10.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM General Information § 10.1 Basis. The rules in this part are issued pursuant to the authority contained in the Warning, Alert, and... of June 26, 2006, Public Alert and Warning System, 71 FR 36975, June 26, 2006....

  15. 47 CFR 10.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS General Information § 10.1 Basis. The rules in this part are issued pursuant to the authority contained in the Warning, Alert, and Response..., 2006, Public Alert and Warning System, 71 FR 36975, June 26, 2006....

  16. 47 CFR 10.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM General Information § 10.1 Basis. The rules in this part are issued pursuant to the authority contained in the Warning, Alert, and... of June 26, 2006, Public Alert and Warning System, 71 FR 36975, June 26, 2006....

  17. 47 CFR 10.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS General Information § 10.1 Basis. The rules in this part are issued pursuant to the authority contained in the Warning, Alert, and Response..., 2006, Public Alert and Warning System, 71 FR 36975, June 26, 2006....

  18. 47 CFR 10.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM General Information § 10.1 Basis. The rules in this part are issued pursuant to the authority contained in the Warning, Alert, and... of June 26, 2006, Public Alert and Warning System, 71 FR 36975, June 26, 2006....

  19. 29 CFR 541.605 - Fee basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... payment meets the minimum amount of salary required for exemption under these regulations, the amount paid... artist paid $250 for a picture that took 20 hours to complete meets the minimum salary requirement for... Salary Requirements § 541.605 Fee basis. (a) Administrative and professional employees may be paid on...

  20. Developing a basis for moral thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowell, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Writing from the standpoint of mother and teacher, the author asks from where we can start to find a basis of moral education. She rejects simply exchanging one basis for another. We need to agree upon principles which would enable us to judge what constitutes a right basis, rather than concentrating on the content of particular beliefs. She identifies four qualities that children need to be equipped with in order to act reasonably in situations where moral choice is required: recognition of the validity of others as equals; requisite emotional insight; factual knowledge; and a capacity to make, and act upon, principles formulated by using the above equipment. These "high-level" principles should take precedence over any creed — sacred or secular; to make this shift has become crucial on a national and international level. The general preconditions and practical possibilities for the implementation of moral education are then specified. Finally, the author questions why so few researchers and teachers are working on this basis — concluding that what hinders us is our tendency to see morality as derived from authority, instead of being "a form of thought in its own right'.

  1. 42 CFR 405.500 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis. 405.500 Section 405.500 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Criteria for Determining Reasonable Charges § 405.500...

  2. The Neuropsychological Basis of Childhood Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…

  3. PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF MGR DESIGN BASIS EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Kappes

    1999-09-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify the preliminary design basis events (DBEs) for consideration in the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). For external events and natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake), the objective is to identify those initiating events that the MGR will be designed to withstand. Design criteria will ensure that radiological release scenarios resulting from these initiating events are beyond design basis (i.e., have a scenario frequency less than once per million years). For internal (i.e., human-induced and random equipment failures) events, the objective is to identify credible event sequences that result in bounding radiological releases. These sequences will be used to establish the design basis criteria for MGR structures, systems, and components (SSCs) design basis criteria in order to prevent or mitigate radiological releases. The safety strategy presented in this analysis for preventing or mitigating DBEs is based on the preclosure safety strategy outlined in ''Strategy to Mitigate Preclosure Offsite Exposure'' (CRWMS M&O 1998f). DBE analysis is necessary to provide feedback and requirements to the design process, and also to demonstrate compliance with proposed 10 CFR 63 (Dyer 1999b) requirements. DBE analysis is also required to identify and classify the SSCs that are important to safety (ITS).

  4. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    SciTech Connect

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  5. 340 Waste handling facility interim safety basis

    SciTech Connect

    Stordeur, R.T.

    1996-10-04

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  6. The neural basis of phantom limb pain.

    PubMed

    Flor, Herta; Diers, Martin; Andoh, Jamila

    2013-07-01

    A recent study suggests that brain changes in amputees may be pain-induced, questioning maladaptive plasticity as a neural basis of phantom pain. These findings add valuable information on cortical reorganization after amputation. We suggest further lines of research to clarify the mechanisms that underlie phantom pain. PMID:23608362

  7. THE METABOLIC BASIS OF ARSENIC TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metabolic Basis of Arsenic Toxicity

    David J. Thomas, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC

    Methylati...

  8. A reduced basis localized orthogonal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulle, Assyr; Henning, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    In this work we combine the framework of the Reduced Basis method (RB) with the framework of the Localized Orthogonal Decomposition (LOD) in order to solve parametrized elliptic multiscale problems. The idea of the LOD is to split a high dimensional Finite Element space into a low dimensional space with comparably good approximation properties and a remainder space with negligible information. The low dimensional space is spanned by locally supported basis functions associated with the node of a coarse mesh obtained by solving decoupled local problems. However, for parameter dependent multiscale problems, the local basis has to be computed repeatedly for each choice of the parameter. To overcome this issue, we propose an RB approach to compute in an "offline" stage LOD for suitable representative parameters. The online solution of the multiscale problems can then be obtained in a coarse space (thanks to the LOD decomposition) and for an arbitrary value of the parameters (thanks to a suitable "interpolation" of the selected RB). The online RB-LOD has a basis with local support and leads to sparse systems. Applications of the strategy to both linear and nonlinear problems are given.

  9. 22 CFR 9.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.1 Basis. These regulations, taken together with the Information Security Oversight Office Directive No. 1 dated September 22, 2003, and Volume 5... National Security Information”, as amended (“the Executive Order”)....

  10. 22 CFR 9.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.1 Basis. These regulations, taken together with the Information Security Oversight Office Directive No. 1 dated September 22, 2003, and Volume 5... National Security Information”, as amended (“the Executive Order”)....

  11. 22 CFR 9.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.1 Basis. These regulations, taken together with the Information Security Oversight Office Directive No. 1 dated September 22, 2003, and Volume 5... National Security Information”, as amended (“the Executive Order”)....

  12. 22 CFR 9.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.1 Basis. These regulations, taken together with the Information Security Oversight Office Directive No. 1 dated September 22, 2003, and Volume 5... National Security Information”, as amended (“the Executive Order”)....

  13. 22 CFR 9.1 - Basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.1 Basis. These regulations, taken together with the Information Security Oversight Office Directive No. 1 dated September 22, 2003, and Volume 5... National Security Information”, as amended (“the Executive Order”)....

  14. [Hereditary stomatocytoses--diagnostic problems and their molecular basis].

    PubMed

    Bogusławska, Dzamila M; Machnicka, Beata; Sikorski, Aleksander F

    2010-08-01

    Hereditary stomatocytosis (HSt) is a group of haemolytic anaemias in which the common symptom is an increased permeability of the red cell membrane for monovalent cations. HSt is diagnosed really seldom and the difficulties in diagnosing are connected to the fact that the clinical presentation of individual subtypes of HSt is very diverse. Many cases are characterised by unique phenotypes. Nevertheless, the number of diagnosed HSt cases is increasing each year. The aim of this review was the presentation of current information and an attempt to systematize it, what might be helpful in clinical diagnostic of the new cases of this anaemia. The most frequent mistake is to classify a case of HSt as the most common haemolytic anaemia--hereditary spherocytosis (HS), in which to improve patient condition a splenectomy is often recommended. Most cases of HSt no positive response to splenectomy and often thromboembolic complications are observed. It is interesting that commonly present in blood film stomatocytes and in many cases absent or severely reduced stomatin in HSt red cell membrane are not correlated with nucleotide sequence changes of the gene encoding stomatin. Many diagnosed cases are related to mutations in SLC4A1 and RHAG genes. Extensive research carried out on HSt in the entire world will certainly permit to know the molecular basis of the disease, the diversify of its subtypes and to estimate the real incidence of HSt. PMID:20842826

  15. System Design and the Safety Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, Darrel

    2008-05-06

    The objective of this paper is to present the Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) Lessons Learned for system design as it relates to safety basis documentation. BJC has had to reconcile incomplete or outdated system description information with current facility safety basis for a number of situations in recent months. This paper has relevance in multiple topical areas including documented safety analysis, decontamination & decommissioning (D&D), safety basis (SB) implementation, safety and design integration, potential inadequacy of the safety analysis (PISA), technical safety requirements (TSR), and unreviewed safety questions. BJC learned that nuclear safety compliance relies on adequate and well documented system design information. A number of PIS As and TSR violations occurred due to inadequate or erroneous system design information. As a corrective action, BJC assessed the occurrences caused by systems design-safety basis interface problems. Safety systems reviewed included the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Fluorination System, K-1065 fire alarm system, and the K-25 Radiation Criticality Accident Alarm System. The conclusion was that an inadequate knowledge of system design could result in continuous non-compliance issues relating to nuclear safety. This was especially true with older facilities that lacked current as-built drawings coupled with the loss of 'historical knowledge' as personnel retired or moved on in their careers. Walkdown of systems and the updating of drawings are imperative for nuclear safety compliance. System design integration with safety basis has relevance in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the BJC Lessons Learned in this area. It will be of benefit to DOE contractors that manage and operate an aging population of nuclear facilities.

  16. The Molecular Basis of Communication between Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Solomon H.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical messengers mediate long-range hormonal communication and short-range neural communication between cells. Background information on peptides, steroids, neuropeptides, and specialized enzymes is given. Investigations reveal that the two systems have many common intercellular messenger molecules. (DH)

  17. 75 FR 6166 - Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts, 1, 31, and 301 RIN 1545-Bl66 Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock Correction In proposed rule document E9-29855 beginning on...

  18. 75 FR 75896 - Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR 1 RIN 1545-BI66 Basis Reporting by Securities Brokers and Basis Determination for Stock Correction In rule document 2010-25504 beginning on page 64072 in the issue of...

  19. Common sense in nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyle, F.; Hoyle, G.

    1980-01-01

    Public concern about energy resource exhaustion is noted to have developed only after the means (nuclear power) for avoiding this disaster became available and the negative implications of a nuclear society became a focus for anxiety. Ironically, collapse of conventional energy supplies could lead to the nuclear confrontation which anti-nuclear forces claim as the inevitable outcome of nuclear power. A review of the risks, environmental impacts, and political implications of the major energy sources concludes that emotion, not common sense, has made nuclear energy an unpopular option. While the problems of proliferation, radiation protection, waste management, and accident prevention are far from trivial, they will respond to technological improvements and responsible control policies. An historical tradition of fearing new, poorly understood technologies is seen in the reaction to railroads during the early 19th Century. (DCK)

  20. Common questions in veterinary toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N

    2015-05-01

    Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. PMID:25728477

  1. CLL: Common Leukemia; Uncommon Presentations.

    PubMed

    Lad, Deepesh; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Neelam; Sachdeva, Manupdesh Singh; Das, Ashim; Srinivasan, Radhika; Bal, Amanjit; Khadwal, Alka; Prakash, Gaurav; Suri, Vikas; Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay; Varma, Subhash

    2016-09-01

    We report here a series of ten patients with uncommon presentations and associations of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) not reported hitherto or occasionally reported in literature. The first two cases describe unusual causes of abdominal distension in CLL and unusual sites infiltration by CLL. The next two cases illustrate occurrence of CLL in association with other hematological malignancies. Cases five and six describe unusual infections and their impact on CLL. Cases seven and eight depict associations of rare non-hematological autoimmune conditions with CLL. The last two cases describe transformation at unusual sites. This series of ten cases illustrates how a common leukemia like CLL can present in different forms and how despite so much progress in understanding of this leukemia so little is known of such presentations. PMID:27429518

  2. Work and common psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Henderson, M; Harvey, S B; Overland, S; Mykletun, A; Hotopf, M

    2011-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders are now the most common reason for long-term sickness absence. The associated loss in productivity and the payment of disability benefits places a substantial burden on the economies of many developed countries. The occupational dysfunction associated with psychiatric disorders can also lead to poverty and social isolation. As a result the area of work and psychiatric disorders is a high priority for policymakers. There are two main agendas: for many researchers and clinicians the focus is on the need to overcome stigma and ensure people with severe psychiatric disorders have meaningful work; however the public health agenda predominantly relates to the more common disorders such as depression and anxiety, which contribute a greater burden of disability benefits and pensions. In this review we attempt to address this second agenda. The relatively sparse evidence available reveals a complex field with significant interplay between medical, psychological social and cultural factors. Sick leave can be a 'process' as well as an 'event'. In this review we propose a staged model where different risk and protective factors contribute to the onset of psychiatric disorders in the working population, the onset of short-term sickness absence, and the transition from short- to long-term absence. We also examine strategies to manage psychiatric disorder in the workforce with a view towards returning the employee to work. Our aim in this review is to highlight the complexity of the area, to stimulate debate and to identify important gaps in knowledge where further research might benefit both patients and wider society. PMID:21558098

  3. Finding common ground in implementation: towards a theory of gradual commonality.

    PubMed

    Ter Haar, Marian; Aarts, Noelle; Verhoeven, Piet

    2016-03-01

    This article reports on an empirical study that aimed to design a practice-based theory about collaboration on the local implementation of a nationally developed health-promoting intervention. The study's objective is to better understand the dynamic process of complex collaboration. The research is based on a Delphi study among some 100 individuals in local and regional networks, in which various professionals work together to implement the BeweegKuur, which translates as 'course of exercise'. The BeweegKuur is a combined lifestyle intervention aimed at promoting sufficient physical exercise and a healthy diet among people in the Netherlands who are overweight and at risk of diabetes. The Delphi study in three rounds systematically and interactively constructs a common perspective on implementation, reflecting stakeholders' ideas about the collaboration and providing an insight into how these ideas are influenced by the context of the implementation. The statistical and qualitative analyses of the responses to the feedback in the Delphi study form the basis for this practice-based theory on complex collaboration, called the theory of gradual commonality. During interaction, consensus gradually emerges about co-creation as a collaboration strategy. Co-creation leaves room for various ways of achieving the ambitions of the BeweegKuur. This article discusses the importance of this practice-based theory and the value of the Delphi research strategy for promoting health. PMID:25209917

  4. Finite basis representations with nondirect product basis functions having structure similar to that of spherical harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czakó, Gábor; Szalay, Viktor; Császár, Attila G.

    2006-01-01

    The currently most efficient finite basis representation (FBR) method [Corey et al., in Numerical Grid Methods and Their Applications to Schrödinger Equation, NATO ASI Series C, edited by C. Cerjan (Kluwer Academic, New York, 1993), Vol. 412, p. 1; Bramley et al., J. Chem. Phys. 100, 6175 (1994)] designed specifically to deal with nondirect product bases of structures ϕnl(s)fl(u), χml(t)ϕnl(s)fl(u), etc., employs very special l-independent grids and results in a symmetric FBR. While highly efficient, this method is not general enough. For instance, it cannot deal with nondirect product bases of the above structure efficiently if the functions ϕnl(s) [and/or χml(t)] are discrete variable representation (DVR) functions of the infinite type. The optimal-generalized FBR(DVR) method [V. Szalay, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 6940 (1996)] is designed to deal with general, i.e., direct and/or nondirect product, bases and grids. This robust method, however, is too general, and its direct application can result in inefficient computer codes [Czakó et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 024101 (2005)]. It is shown here how the optimal-generalized FBR method can be simplified in the case of nondirect product bases of structures ϕnl(s)fl(u), χml(t)ϕnl(s)fl(u), etc. As a result the commonly used symmetric FBR is recovered and simplified nonsymmetric FBRs utilizing very special l-dependent grids are obtained. The nonsymmetric FBRs are more general than the symmetric FBR in that they can be employed efficiently even when the functions ϕnl(s) [and/or χml(t)] are DVR functions of the infinite type. Arithmetic operation counts and a simple numerical example presented show unambiguously that setting up the Hamiltonian matrix requires significantly less computer time when using one of the proposed nonsymmetric FBRs than that in the symmetric FBR. Therefore, application of this nonsymmetric FBR is more efficient than that of the symmetric FBR when one wants to diagonalize the Hamiltonian matrix

  5. A common genetic basis in sweet corn inbred C1 for cross sensitivity to multiple cytochrome P450-metabolized herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nicosulfuron, mesotrione, dicamba + diflufenzopyr, and carfentrazone are postemergence herbicides from different chemical families with different modes of action. An association between the sensitivity of sweet corn to these herbicides was observed when 143 S2 families (S3 plants) of a cross betwee...

  6. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT FOR NATURAL EVENT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2006-07-31

    This technical basis document was developed to support the documented safety analysis (DSA) and describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins for natural event hazard (NEH)-initiated accidents. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous conditions based on an evaluation of the frequency and consequence. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers, because all facility worker hazardous conditions are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls.

  7. Radioactive Waste Management BasisApril 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B K

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  8. Unextendible product basis for fermionic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianxin; Chen, Lin; Zeng, Bei

    2014-08-01

    We discuss the concept of unextendible product basis (UPB) and generalized UPB for fermionic systems, using Slater determinants as an analogue of product states, in the anti-symmetric subspace wedge ^ N {{C}}^M. We construct an explicit example of generalized fermionic unextendible product basis (FUPB) with minimum cardinality N(M - N) + 1 for any N ⩾ 2, M ⩾ 4. We also show that any bipartite anti-symmetric space wedge ^ 2 {{C}}^M of codimension two is spanned by Slater determinants, and the spaces of higher codimension may not be spanned by Slater determinants. Furthermore, we construct an example of complex FUPB of N = 2, M = 4 with minimum cardinality 5. In contrast, we show that a real FUPB does not exist for N = 2, M = 4. Finally, we provide a systematic construction for FUPBs of higher dimensions by using FUPBs and UPBs of lower dimensions.

  9. The basis spline method and associated techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    We outline the Basis Spline and Collocation methods for the solution of Partial Differential Equations. Particular attention is paid to the theory of errors, and the handling of non-self-adjoint problems which are generated by the collocation method. We discuss applications to Poisson's equation, the Dirac equation, and the calculation of bound and continuum states of atomic and nuclear systems. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Minimal Basis for Gauge Theory Amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Damgaard, Poul H.; Vanhove, Pierre

    2009-10-16

    Identities based on monodromy for integrations in string theory are used to derive relations between different color-ordered tree-level amplitudes in both bosonic and supersymmetric string theory. These relations imply that the color-ordered tree-level n-point gauge theory amplitudes can be expanded in a minimal basis of (n-3)exclamation amplitudes. This result holds for any choice of polarizations of the external states and in any number of dimensions.

  11. High Scores at BASIS Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2014-01-01

    While U.S. schools struggled to reach even an average score on a key international exam for 15-year-olds in 2012, BASIS Tucson North, an economically modest, ethnically diverse charter school in Arizona, outperformed every country in the world, and left even Shanghai, China's academic gem in the dust. With the U.S. frantic about its place in…

  12. Individual Basis for Collective Behaviour in the Termite, Cornitermes cumulans

    PubMed Central

    Miramontes, Octavio; DeSouza, Og

    2008-01-01

    Interactions among individuals in social groups lead to the emergence of collective behaviour at large scales by means of multiplicative non-linear effects. Group foraging, nest building and task allocation are just some well-known examples present in social insects. However the precise mechanisms at the individual level that trigger and amplify social phenomena are not fully understood. Here we show evidence of complex dynamics in groups of the termite, Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar) (Isoptera: Termitidae), of different sizes and qualitatively compare the behaviour observed with that exhibited by agent-based computer models. It is then concluded that certain aspects of social behaviour in insects have a universal basis common to interconnected systems and that this may be useful for understanding the temporal dynamics of systems displaying social behaviour in general. PMID:20233076

  13. The physical basis of cosmetic defects of the nail plate.

    PubMed

    de Berker, David

    2002-01-01

    Cosmetic defects of the nail cover a range of changes. Some are variants of normal which are considered unattractive, others are part of the normal ageing process and some changes are manifestations of local or systemic disease. Interpretation of these changes relies on recognition of the specific characteristics in question and an understanding of the anatomy and biology of nails. In many instances, therapies are limited and explanation of the changes represents one of the most useful contributions the professional can make to the affected individual. This article covers some of the most common cosmetic defects of nail involving colour, surface, brittleness and behaviour of surrounding tissues. Understanding of the physical basis of these defects is limited in many cases, but current thinking is recorded. PMID:17134450

  14. Biochemical and physiological basis of medical near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joebsis-vander Vliet, Frans F.; Joebsis, Paul

    1999-10-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can monitor both the redox status of Cytochrome c oxidase located in the mitochondria within the cell and the oxygenation of the blood in the tissue being monitored. Since the enzyme catalyzes more than 90% of oxygen utilization, it is the sink for the oxygen while the hemoglobin in the capillaries is the oxygen source. In order to evaluate the oxidative metabolic status of a tissue the optical data obtained from both molecules are commonly interpreted in the basis of test tube experiments with purified preparations. We are concerned that the validity of this practice may not have been tested sufficiently and raise four basic questions that have not yet been answered. Citing some examples of in vitro versus in vivo differences we conclude that more effort should be expended on the in vivo testing of the range of the signals, their natural variability, and the physiological and pathological meaning of their deviations from norm.

  15. Neural basis of nonanalytical reasoning expertise during clinical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Durning, Steven J; Costanzo, Michelle E; Artino, Anthony R; Graner, John; van der Vleuten, Cees; Beckman, Thomas J; Wittich, Christopher M; Roy, Michael J; Holmboe, Eric S; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Understanding clinical reasoning is essential for patient care and medical education. Dual-processing theory suggests that nonanalytic reasoning is an essential aspect of expertise; however, assessing nonanalytic reasoning is challenging because it is believed to occur on the subconscious level. This assumption makes concurrent verbal protocols less reliable assessment tools. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to explore the neural basis of nonanalytic reasoning in internal medicine interns (novices) and board-certified staff internists (experts) while completing United States Medical Licensing Examination and American Board of Internal Medicine multiple-choice questions. Results The results demonstrated that novices and experts share a common neural network in addition to nonoverlapping neural resources. However, experts manifested greater neural processing efficiency in regions such as the prefrontal cortex during nonanalytical reasoning. Conclusions These findings reveal a multinetwork system that supports the dual-process mode of expert clinical reasoning during medical evaluation. PMID:25798328

  16. Accurate basis set truncation for wavefunction embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Taylor A.; Goodpaster, Jason D.; Manby, Frederick R.; Miller, Thomas F.

    2013-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) provides a formally exact framework for performing embedded subsystem electronic structure calculations, including DFT-in-DFT and wavefunction theory-in-DFT descriptions. In the interest of efficiency, it is desirable to truncate the atomic orbital basis set in which the subsystem calculation is performed, thus avoiding high-order scaling with respect to the size of the MO virtual space. In this study, we extend a recently introduced projection-based embedding method [F. R. Manby, M. Stella, J. D. Goodpaster, and T. F. Miller III, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 2564 (2012)], 10.1021/ct300544e to allow for the systematic and accurate truncation of the embedded subsystem basis set. The approach is applied to both covalently and non-covalently bound test cases, including water clusters and polypeptide chains, and it is demonstrated that errors associated with basis set truncation are controllable to well within chemical accuracy. Furthermore, we show that this approach allows for switching between accurate projection-based embedding and DFT embedding with approximate kinetic energy (KE) functionals; in this sense, the approach provides a means of systematically improving upon the use of approximate KE functionals in DFT embedding.

  17. Calibration of options on a reduced basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pironneau, Olivier

    2009-10-01

    Calibration of models is an important step in financial engineering. However it can be costly, especially in view of the increasing complexity of the models. In this paper we explore the use of reduced basis as is done in fluid mechanics for the Navier-Stokes equations or as proposed by Maday, Patera and Turinici [Y. Maday et al., A priori convergence theory for reduced-basis approximations of single-parameter elliptic partial differential equations, J. Sci. Comput. 17 (1-4) (2002) 437-446]. It is shown that the method works well if we use convex combination of the basis functions instead of the more general linear combination; however, while this idea makes sense in view of the properties of the Black-Scholes equation, we have no proof to general linear combination; however, while this idea makes sense in view of the properties of the Black-Scholes equation, we have no proof to justify it mathematically. The paper presents a numerical investigation of the problem posed.

  18. An Isotonic Partial Credit Model for Ordering Subjects on the Basis of Their Sum Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligtvoet, Rudy

    2012-01-01

    In practice, the sum of the item scores is often used as a basis for comparing subjects. For items that have more than two ordered score categories, only the partial credit model (PCM) and special cases of this model imply that the subjects are stochastically ordered on the common latent variable. However, the PCM is very restrictive with respect…

  19. Common questions about wound care.

    PubMed

    Worster, Brooke; Zawora, Michelle Q; Hsieh, Christine

    2015-01-15

    Lacerations, abrasions, burns, and puncture wounds are common in the outpatient setting. Because wounds can quickly become infected, the most important aspect of treating a minor wound is irrigation and cleaning. There is no evidence that antiseptic irrigation is superior to sterile saline or tap water. Occlusion of the wound is key to preventing contamination. Suturing, if required, can be completed up to 24 hours after the trauma occurs, depending on the wound site. Tissue adhesives are equally effective for low-tension wounds with linear edges that can be evenly approximated. Although patients are often instructed to keep their wounds covered and dry after suturing, they can get wet within the first 24 to 48 hours without increasing the risk of infection. There is no evidence that prophylactic antibiotics improve outcomes for most simple wounds. Tetanus toxoid should be administered as soon as possible to patients who have not received a booster in the past 10 years. Superficial mild wound infections can be treated with topical agents, whereas deeper mild and moderate infections should be treated with oral antibiotics. Most severe infections, and moderate infections in high-risk patients, require initial parenteral antibiotics. Severe burns and wounds that cover large areas of the body or involve the face, joints, bone, tendons, or nerves should generally be referred to wound care specialists. PMID:25591209

  20. Common hyperspectral image database design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lixun; Liao, Ningfang; Chai, Ali

    2009-11-01

    This paper is to introduce Common hyperspectral image database with a demand-oriented Database design method (CHIDB), which comprehensively set ground-based spectra, standardized hyperspectral cube, spectral analysis together to meet some applications. The paper presents an integrated approach to retrieving spectral and spatial patterns from remotely sensed imagery using state-of-the-art data mining and advanced database technologies, some data mining ideas and functions were associated into CHIDB to make it more suitable to serve in agriculture, geological and environmental areas. A broad range of data from multiple regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is supported, including ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, thermal infrared, and fluorescence. CHIDB is based on dotnet framework and designed by MVC architecture including five main functional modules: Data importer/exporter, Image/spectrum Viewer, Data Processor, Parameter Extractor, and On-line Analyzer. The original data were all stored in SQL server2008 for efficient search, query and update, and some advance Spectral image data Processing technology are used such as Parallel processing in C#; Finally an application case is presented in agricultural disease detecting area.

  1. Managing the wildlife tourism commons.

    PubMed

    Pirotta, Enrico; Lusseau, David

    2015-04-01

    The nonlethal effects of wildlife tourism can threaten the conservation status of targeted animal populations. In turn, such resource depletion can compromise the economic viability of the industry. Therefore, wildlife tourism exploits resources that can become common pool and that should be managed accordingly. We used a simulation approach to test whether different management regimes (tax, tax and subsidy, cap, cap and trade) could provide socioecologically sustainable solutions. Such schemes are sensitive to errors in estimated management targets. We determined the sensitivity of each scenario to various realistic uncertainties in management implementation and in our knowledge of the population. Scenarios where time quotas were enforced using a tax and subsidy approach, or they were traded between operators were more likely to be sustainable. Importantly, sustainability could be achieved even when operators were assumed to make simple rational economic decisions. We suggest that a combination of the two regimes might offer a robust solution, especially on a small spatial scale and under the control of a self-organized, operator-level institution. Our simulation platform could be parameterized to mimic local conditions and provide a test bed for experimenting different governance solutions in specific case studies. PMID:26214918

  2. Common Bolted Joint Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imtiaz, Kauser

    2011-01-01

    Common Bolted Joint Analysis Tool (comBAT) is an Excel/VB-based bolted joint analysis/optimization program that lays out a systematic foundation for an inexperienced or seasoned analyst to determine fastener size, material, and assembly torque for a given design. Analysts are able to perform numerous what-if scenarios within minutes to arrive at an optimal solution. The program evaluates input design parameters, performs joint assembly checks, and steps through numerous calculations to arrive at several key margins of safety for each member in a joint. It also checks for joint gapping, provides fatigue calculations, and generates joint diagrams for a visual reference. Optimum fastener size and material, as well as correct torque, can then be provided. Analysis methodology, equations, and guidelines are provided throughout the solution sequence so that this program does not become a "black box:" for the analyst. There are built-in databases that reduce the legwork required by the analyst. Each step is clearly identified and results are provided in number format, as well as color-coded spelled-out words to draw user attention. The three key features of the software are robust technical content, innovative and user friendly I/O, and a large database. The program addresses every aspect of bolted joint analysis and proves to be an instructional tool at the same time. It saves analysis time, has intelligent messaging features, and catches operator errors in real time.

  3. Common Questions About Streptococcal Pharyngitis.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Monica G; Higgins, Kim E; Perez, Evan D

    2016-07-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infection causes 15% to 30% of sore throats in children and 5% to 15% in adults, and is more common in the late winter and early spring. The strongest independent predictors of GABHS pharyngitis are patient age of five to 15 years, absence of cough, tender anterior cervical adenopathy, tonsillar exudates, and fever. To diagnose GABHS pharyngitis, a rapid antigen detection test should be ordered in patients with a modified Centor or FeverPAIN score of 2 or 3. First-line treatment for GABHS pharyngitis includes a 10-day course of penicillin or amoxicillin. Patients allergic to penicillin can be treated with firstgeneration cephalosporins, clindamycin, or macrolide antibiotics. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are more effective than acetaminophen and placebo for treatment of fever and pain associated with GABHS pharyngitis; medicated throat lozenges used every two hours are also effective. Corticosteroids provide only a small reduction in the duration of symptoms and should not be used routinely. PMID:27386721

  4. Common themes in microbial pathogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, B B; Falkow, S

    1989-01-01

    A bacterial pathogen is a highly adapted microorganism which has the capacity to cause disease. The mechanisms used by pathogenic bacteria to cause infection and disease usually include an interactive group of virulence determinants, sometimes coregulated, which are suited for the interaction of a particular microorganism with a specific host. Because pathogens must overcome similar host barriers, common themes in microbial pathogenesis have evolved. However, these mechanisms are diverse between species and not necessarily conserved; instead, convergent evolution has developed several different mechanisms to overcome host barriers. The success of a bacterial pathogen can be measured by the degree with which it replicates after entering the host and reaching its specific niche. Successful microbial infection reflects persistence within a host and avoidance or neutralization of the specific and nonspecific defense mechanisms of the host. The degree of success of a pathogen is dependent upon the status of the host. As pathogens pass through a host, they are exposed to new environments. Highly adapted pathogenic organisms have developed biochemical sensors exquisitely designed to measure and respond to such environmental stimuli and accordingly to regulate a cascade of virulence determinants essential for life within the host. The pathogenic state is the product of dynamic selective pressures on microbial populations. PMID:2569162

  5. Just in Time DSA the Hanford Nuclear Safety Basis Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    JACKSON, M.W.

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) is responsible for 30 hazard category 2 and 3 nuclear facilities that are operated by its prime contractors, Fluor Hanford, Incorporated (FHI), Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The publication of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 830, Subpart B, Safely Basis Requirements (the Rule) in January 2001 requires that the Documented Safety Analyses (DSA) for these facilities be reviewed against the requirements of the Rule. Those DSAs that do not meet the requirements must either be upgraded to satisfy the Rule, or an exemption must be obtained. RL and its prime contractors have developed a Nuclear Safety Strategy that provides a comprehensive approach for supporting RL's efforts to meet its long-term objectives for hazard category 2 and 3 facilities while also meeting the requirements of the Rule. This approach will result in a reduction of the total number of safety basis documents that must be developed and maintained to support the remaining mission and closure of the Hanford Site and ensure that the documentation that must be developed will support: Compliance with the Rule; A ''Just-In-Time'' approach to development of Rule-compliant safety bases supported by temporary exemptions; and Consolidation of safety basis documents that support multiple facilities with a common mission (e.g. decontamination, decommissioning and demolition [DD&D], waste management, surveillance and maintenance). This strategy provides a clear path to transition the safety bases for the various Hanford facilities from support of operation and stabilization missions through DD&D to accelerate closure. This ''Just-In-Time'' Strategy can also be tailored for other DOE Sites, creating the potential for large cost savings and schedule reductions throughout the DOE complex.

  6. Neural Basis of Interpersonal Traits in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sollberger, Marc; Stanley, Christine M.; Wilson, Stephen M.; Gyurak, Anett; Beckman, Victoria; Growdon, Matthew; Jang, Jung; Weiner, Michael W.; Miller, Bruce L.; Rankin, Katherine P.

    2009-01-01

    Several functional and structural imaging studies have investigated the neural basis of personality in healthy adults, but human lesions studies are scarce. Personality changes are a common symptom in patients with neurodegenerative diseases like frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and semantic dementia (SD), allowing a unique window into the neural basis of personality. In this study, we used the Interpersonal Adjective Scales to investigate the structural basis of eight interpersonal traits (dominance, arrogance, coldness, introversion, submissiveness, ingenuousness, warmth, and extraversion) in 257 subjects: 214 patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as FTD, SD, progressive non-fluent aphasia, Alzheimer’s disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, corticobasal degeneration, and progressive supranuclear palsy and 43 healthy elderly people. Measures of interpersonal traits were correlated with regional atrophy pattern using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of structural MR images. Interpersonal traits mapped onto distinct brain regions depending on the degree to which they involved agency and affiliation. Interpersonal traits high in agency related to left dorsolateral prefrontal and left lateral frontopolar regions, whereas interpersonal traits high in affiliation related to right ventromedial prefrontal and right anteromedial temporal regions. Consistent with the existing literature on neural networks underlying social cognition, these results indicate that brain regions related to externally-focused, executive control-related processes underlie agentic interpersonal traits such as dominance, whereas brain regions related to internally-focused, emotion- and reward-related processes underlie affiliative interpersonal traits such as warmth. In addition, these findings indicate that interpersonal traits are subserved by complex neural networks rather than discrete anatomic areas. PMID:19540253

  7. Toward a scientifically rigorous basis for developing mapped ecological regions.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, G.; Wiken, E.B.; Gauthier, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the wide use of ecological regions in conservation and resource-management evaluations and assessments, a commonly accepted theoretical basis for ecological regionalization does not exist. This fact, along with the paucity of focus on ecological regionalization by professional associations, journals, and faculties, has inhibited the advancement of a broadly acceptable scientific basis for the development, use, and verification of ecological regions. The central contention of this article is that ecological regions should improve our understanding of geographic and ecological phenomena associated with biotic and abiotic processes occurring in individual regions and also of processes characteristic of interactions and dependencies among multiple regions. Research associated with any ecoregional framework should facilitate development of hypotheses about ecological phenomena and dominant landscape elements associated with these phenomena, how these phenomena are structured in space, and how they function in a hierarchy. Success in addressing the research recommendations outlined in this article cannot occur within an ad hoc, largely uncoordinated research environment. Successful implementation of this plan will require activities--coordination, funding, and education--that are both scientific and administrative in nature. Perhaps the most important element of an infrastructure to support the scientific work of ecoregionalization would be a national or international authority similar to the Water and Science Technology Board of the National Academy of Sciences.

  8. Toward a Scientifically Rigorous Basis for Developing Mapped Ecological Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Gerard; Wiken, Ed B.; Gauthier, David A.

    2004-04-01

    Despite the wide use of ecological regions in conservation and resource-management evaluations and assessments, a commonly accepted theoretical basis for ecological regionalization does not exist. This fact, along with the paucity of focus on ecological regionalization by professional associations, journals, and faculties, has inhibited the advancement of a broadly acceptable scientific basis for the development, use, and verification of ecological regions. The central contention of this article is that ecological regions should improve our understanding of geographic and ecological phenomena associated with biotic and abiotic processes occurring in individual regions and also of processes characteristic of interactions and dependencies among multiple regions. Research associated with any ecoregional framework should facilitate development of hypotheses about ecological phenomena and dominant landscape elements associated with these phenomena, how these phenomena are structured in space, and how they function in a hierarchy. Success in addressing the research recommendations outlined in this article cannot occur within an ad hoc, largely uncoordinated research environment. Successful implementation of this plan will require activities—coordination, funding, and education—that are both scientific and administrative in nature. Perhaps the most important element of an infrastructure to support the scientific work of ecoregionalization would be a national or international authority similar to the Water and Science Technology Board of the National Academy of Sciences.

  9. Designing the Microbial Research Commons

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlir, Paul F

    2011-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed an ever-increasing range and volume of digital data. All elements of the pillars of science--whether observation, experiment, or theory and modeling--are being transformed by the continuous cycle of generation, dissemination, and use of factual information. This is even more so in terms of the re-using and re-purposing of digital scientific data beyond the original intent of the data collectors, often with dramatic results. We all know about the potential benefits and impacts of digital data, but we are also aware of the barriers, the challenges in maximizing the access, and use of such data. There is thus a need to think about how a data infrastructure can enhance capabilities for finding, using, and integrating information to accelerate discovery and innovation. How can we best implement an accessible, interoperable digital environment so that the data can be repeatedly used by a wide variety of users in different settings and with different applications? With this objective: to use the microbial communities and microbial data, literature, and the research materials themselves as a test case, the Board on Research Data and Information held an International Symposium on Designing the Microbial Research Commons at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC on 8-9 October 2009. The symposium addressed topics such as models to lower the transaction costs and support access to and use of microbiological materials and digital resources from the perspective of publicly funded research, public-private interactions, and developing country concerns. The overall goal of the symposium was to stimulate more research and implementation of improved legal and institutional models for publicly funded research in microbiology.

  10. The behavioural final common path.

    PubMed

    McFarland, D J; Sibly, R M

    1975-05-15

    In this paper it is argued that any model of the motivational (i.e. reversible) processes governing the behaviour of an animal can be represented by means of isoclines in a multidimensional 'causal-factor space'. The argument is axiomatic, based upon the two prime assumptions: that (1) it is always possible to classify the behavioural repertoire of a species in such a way that the classes are mutually exclusive in the sense that the members of different classes cannot occur simultaneously, and (2) these incompatible actions are uniquely determined by a particular set of causal factors. The isoclines join all points in the space which present a given 'degree of competitiveness' of a particular 'candidate' for overt behavioural expression. The competition between candidates is an inevitable consequence of the fact that animals cannot 'do more than one thing at a time', and is envisaged as taking place in the behavioural final common path. An empirical method of determining the motivational state (i.e. point in causal-factor space) is outlined. This is a 'relative' method, independent of the arbitrary calibration of the axes of the causal-factor space. It is shown that an arbitrary scale of measurement along any two axes of the causal-factor space is all that is necessary for empirical determination of the shape of a motivational isocline. Experiments in which this method has been applied to the measurement of hunger and thirst in doves are outlined, and the results are discussed in terms of their implications for motivation theory in general. PMID:239416

  11. Instruction and "The Commons". The College Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasowitz-Scheer, Abby

    2009-01-01

    Many academic libraries have embraced the concept of the information commons or the learning commons. These library spaces consist of collections of tools, services and programs intended to enhance the student learning experience. According to Scott Bennett (2008), an information commons supports learning, while the learning commons "enacts" the…

  12. Common Cause Failures and Ultra Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    A common cause failure occurs when several failures have the same origin. Common cause failures are either common event failures, where the cause is a single external event, or common mode failures, where two systems fail in the same way for the same reason. Common mode failures can occur at different times because of a design defect or a repeated external event. Common event failures reduce the reliability of on-line redundant systems but not of systems using off-line spare parts. Common mode failures reduce the dependability of systems using off-line spare parts and on-line redundancy.

  13. Returning common sense to regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.R.

    1995-10-01

    While these sessions of the November 1995 meeting of the American Nuclear Society are being devoted to the Linear Theory of harm from radiation, it must be realized that the low-level radiation issue, as important as it may be, is but a subset of an entire body of environmental issues running afoul of common sense. Cellular phones, electromagnetic fields, asbestos, dioxin, acid rain, and others especially in their public portrayals, some in their regulatory treatment, are based upon exaggerated or misunderstood risks. One must recognize that what lies ahead is an immense effort to revisit the underlying science of the existing regulations of radiation exposures. New evidence has been published, and most importantly, it is now recognized that many of these regulations--promulgated with the best of intentions--have been extraordinarily harmful to the public. In many cases, the harm has been exaggerated, and has created in the public policy arena the notion that the public is at great risk from the smallest sources of radiation. The national cost of compliance with these regulations has been enormous. To the extent that existing environmental regulations are not being moderated, they pose major economic threats to present and future industries involving nuclear materials and technology. These would include the pharmaceutical industries as well as those seeking U.S. isotope markets in separations, purification, labeling, and manufacturing of new radiopharmaceuticals for cancer therapy, diagnosis, pain mitigation, treatment of arthritis, and other new applications. For those who are not aware of the results of recent advances in radiopharmaceuticals, clinical trials have demonstrated an 80% remission rate in the treatment of b-cell lymphoma and leukemia. New isotopes and new isotope technology promise greater effectiveness in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. The regulatory problems and their enormous costs exist at all stages in nuclear medicine, from the

  14. Strategic mating with common preferences.

    PubMed

    Alpern, Steve; Reyniers, Diane

    2005-12-21

    We present a two-sided search model in which individuals from two groups (males and females, employers and workers) would like to form a long-term relationship with a highly ranked individual of the other group, but are limited to individuals who they randomly encounter and to those who also accept them. This article extends the research program, begun in Alpern and Reyniers [1999. J. Theor. Biol. 198, 71-88], of providing a game theoretic analysis for the Kalick-Hamilton [1986. J. Personality Soc. Psychol. 51, 673-682] mating model in which a cohort of males and females of various 'fitness' or 'attractiveness' levels are randomly paired in successive periods and mate if they accept each other. Their model compared two acceptance rules chosen to represent homotypic (similarity) preferences and common (or 'type') preferences. Our earlier paper modeled the first kind by assuming that if a level x male mates with a level y female, both get utility -|x-y|, whereas this paper models the second kind by giving the male utility y and the female utility x. Our model can also be seen as a continuous generalization of the discrete fitness-level game of Johnstone [1997. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 40, 51-59]. We establish the existence of equilibrium strategy pairs, give examples of multiple equilibria, and conditions guaranteeing uniqueness. In all equilibria individuals become less choosy over time, with high fitness individuals pairing off with each other first, leaving the rest to pair off later. This route to assortative mating was suggested by Parker [1983. Mate Choice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 141-164]. If the initial fitness distributions have atoms, then mixed strategy equilibria may also occur. If these distributions are unknown, there are equilibria in which only individuals in the same fitness band are mated, as in the steady-state model of MacNamara and Collins [1990. J. Appl. Prob. 28, 815-827] for the job search problem. PMID:16171826

  15. A Neural Basis for Developmental Topographic Disorientation

    PubMed Central

    Aminoff, Elissa M.; Kastner, Sabine; Behrmann, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Developmental topographic disorientation (DTD) is a life-long condition in which affected individuals are severely impaired in navigating around their environment. Individuals with DTD have no apparent structural brain damage on conventional imaging and the neural mechanisms underlying DTD are currently unknown. Using functional and diffusion tensor imaging, we present a comprehensive neuroimaging study of an individual, J.N., with well defined DTD. J.N. has intact scene-selective responses in the parahippocampal place area (PPA), transverse occipital sulcus, and retrosplenial cortex (RSC), key regions associated with scene perception and navigation. However, detailed fMRI studies probing selective tuning properties of these regions, as well as functional connectivity, suggest that J.N.'s RSC has an atypical response profile and an atypical functional coupling to PPA compared with human controls. This deviant functional profile of RSC is not due to compromised structural connectivity. This comprehensive examination suggests that the RSC may play a key role in navigation-related processing and that an alteration of the RSC's functional properties may serve as the neural basis for DTD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Individuals with developmental topographic disorientation (DTD) have a life-long impairment in spatial navigation in the absence of brain damage, neurological conditions, or basic perceptual or memory deficits. Although progress has been made in identifying brain regions that subserve normal navigation, the neural basis of DTD is unknown. Using functional and structural neuroimaging and detailed statistical analyses, we investigated the brain regions typically involved in navigation and scene processing in a representative DTD individual, J.N. Although scene-selective regions were identified, closer scrutiny indicated that these areas, specifically the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), were functionally disrupted in J.N. This comprehensive examination of a

  16. Reduced Basis Method for Nanodevices Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Pau, George Shu Heng

    2008-05-23

    Ballistic transport simulation in nanodevices, which involves self-consistently solving a coupled Schrodinger-Poisson system of equations, is usually computationally intensive. Here, we propose coupling the reduced basis method with the subband decomposition method to improve the overall efficiency of the simulation. By exploiting a posteriori error estimation procedure and greedy sampling algorithm, we are able to design an algorithm where the computational cost is reduced significantly. In addition, the computational cost only grows marginally with the number of grid points in the confined direction.

  17. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products ({sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, and {sup 59}Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium,. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation and bioassay follow-up treatment. 78 refs., 35 figs., 115 tabs.

  18. Chopped random-basis quantum optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Caneva, Tommaso; Calarco, Tommaso; Montangero, Simone

    2011-08-15

    In this work, we describe in detail the chopped random basis (CRAB) optimal control technique recently introduced to optimize time-dependent density matrix renormalization group simulations [P. Doria, T. Calarco, and S. Montangero, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 190501 (2011)]. Here, we study the efficiency of this control technique in optimizing different quantum processes and we show that in the considered cases we obtain results equivalent to those obtained via different optimal control methods while using less resources. We propose the CRAB optimization as a general and versatile optimal control technique.

  19. Thermodynamic basis of site-specific cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Di Cera, E

    1994-08-01

    Cooperative phenomena in biological macromolecules arise from the interaction of many distinct subsystems, such as structural domains or binding sites. Cooperative properties of the system as a whole, like protein folding or allosteric transitions, are subject to the restrictions imposed by thermodynamic stability. These restrictions, however, do not apply in the case of individual subsystems open to interactions with the rest of the macromolecule. The site-specific properties of such subsystems can be understood in general thermodynamic terms from those of a multicomponent system under particular conditions. The analogy provides a thermodynamic basis for site-specific cooperativity. PMID:8075382

  20. Neurobiological Basis of Language Learning Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Saloni; Watkins, Kate E; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we highlight why there is a need to examine subcortical learning systems in children with language impairment and dyslexia, rather than focusing solely on cortical areas relevant for language. First, behavioural studies find that children with these neurodevelopmental disorders perform less well than peers on procedural learning tasks that depend on corticostriatal learning circuits. Second, fMRI studies in neurotypical adults implicate corticostriatal and hippocampal systems in language learning. Finally, structural and functional abnormalities are seen in the striatum in children with language disorders. Studying corticostriatal networks in developmental language disorders could offer us insights into their neurobiological basis and elucidate possible modes of compensation for intervention. PMID:27422443

  1. Graph-state basis for Pauli channels

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xiaoyu; Jiang Lizhen

    2011-05-15

    Quantum capacities of Pauli channels are not additive, a degenerate quantum code may improve the hashing bound of the capacity. The difficulty in approaching the capacity is how to calculate the coherent information of a generic degenerate quantum code. Using graph state basis, we greatly reduce the problem for the input of quantum error-correcting code. We show that for a graph diagonal state passing through a Pauli channel the output state is diagonalizable and the joint output state of the system and ancilla is block diagonalizable. When the input state is an equal probable mixture of codewords of a stabilizer code, the coherent information can be analytically obtained.

  2. Central waste complex interim safety basis

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, F.G.

    1995-05-15

    This interim safety basis provides the necessary information to conclude that hazards at the Central Waste Complex are controlled and that current and planned activities at the CWC can be conducted safely. CWC is a multi-facility complex within the Solid Waste Management Complex that receives and stores most of the solid wastes generated and received at the Hanford Site. The solid wastes that will be handled at CWC include both currently stored and newly generated low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, contact-handled transuranic, and contact-handled TRU mixed waste.

  3. Tests for Wavelets as a Basis Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Thomas; Evenbly, Glen; White, Steven

    A wavelet transformation is a special type of filter usually reserved for image processing and other applications. We develop metrics to evaluate wavelets for general problems on test one-dimensional systems. The goal is to eventually use a wavelet basis in electronic structure calculations. We compare a variety of orthogonal wavelets such as coiflets, symlets, and daubechies wavelets. We also evaluate a new type of orthogonal wavelet with dilation factor three which is both symmetric and compact in real space. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award #DE-SC008696.

  4. Technical basis for internal dosimetry at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Sula, M.J.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Bihl, D.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program, administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, provides routine bioassay monitoring for employees who are potentially exposed to radionuclides in the workplace. This report presents the technical basis for routine bioassay monitoring and the assessment of internal dose at Hanford. The radionuclides of concern include tritium, corrosion products (/sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 54/Mn, and /sup 59/Fe), strontium, cesium, iodine, europium, uranium, plutonium, and americium. Sections on each of these radionuclides discuss the sources and characteristics; dosimetry; bioassay measurements and monitoring; dose measurement, assessment, and mitigation; and bioassay follow-up treatment. 64 refs., 42 figs., 118 tabs.

  5. Modelling erosion on a daily basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikha Shrestha, Dhruba; Jetten, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Effect of soil erosion causing negative impact on ecosystem services and food security is well known. To assess annual erosion rates various empirical models have been extensively used in all the climatic regions. While these models are simple to operate and do not require lot of input data, the effect of extreme rain is not taken into account in the annual estimations. For analysing the effects of extreme rain the event- based models become handy. These models can simulate detail erosional processes including particle detachment, transportation and deposition of sediments during a storm. But they are not applicable for estimating annual erosion rates. Moreover storm event data may not be available everywhere which prohibits their extensive use. In this paper we describe a method by adapting the revised MMF model to assess erosion on daily basis so that the effects of extreme rains are taken into account. We couple it to a simple surface soil moisture balance on a daily basis and include estimation of daily vegetation cover changes. Annual soil loss is calculated by adding daily erosion rates. We compare the obtained results with that obtained from applying the revised MMF model in a case study in the Mamora plateau in northwest Morocco which is affected by severe gully formation. The results show clearly the effects of exceptional rain in erosional processes which cannot be captured in an annual model.

  6. Treatment matching. Theoretic basis and practical implications.

    PubMed

    Gastfriend, D R; McLellan, A T

    1997-07-01

    An extensive knowledge base supports the development of treatment matching methods for alcohol and other drug abuse. Many matching variables have been identified that relate to specific modalities of treatment and to specific levels of care. Physicians and other providers can use many putative matching variables to address patients' substance use problems on a highly individualized basis. These variables include demographic factors (age, gender, culture), typology and severity (age of onset; severity of intoxication; withdrawal; quantity, recency, frequency of substance use), intrapersonal characteristics (psychiatric diagnosis, cognitive function, self-efficacy, stage of change), and interpersonal function (social stability). The evolution of formal criteria for patient placement such as the ASAM criteria is a beneficial, adaptive process that is underway in numerous states, managed care entities, professional provider societies, and provider groups. Currently, matching approaches rely more heavily on consensus recommendations than on empiric matching data. The technology for conducting psychosocial treatment matching studies is rapidly increasing in sophistication. Although predictive validity has not yet been fully demonstrated on a large, multisite basis, the national research portfolio on treatment matching is expanding in size and complexity. This is an essential public health need, given dramatic cost pressures, if addiction services are to continue to grow in quality and availability. PMID:9222262

  7. Technical Basis for PNNL Beryllium Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michelle Lynn

    2014-07-09

    The Department of Energy (DOE) issued Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 850, “Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program” (the Beryllium Rule) in 1999 and required full compliance by no later than January 7, 2002. The Beryllium Rule requires the development of a baseline beryllium inventory of the locations of beryllium operations and other locations of potential beryllium contamination at DOE facilities. The baseline beryllium inventory is also required to identify workers exposed or potentially exposed to beryllium at those locations. Prior to DOE issuing 10 CFR 850, Pacific Northwest Nuclear Laboratory (PNNL) had documented the beryllium characterization and worker exposure potential for multiple facilities in compliance with DOE’s 1997 Notice 440.1, “Interim Chronic Beryllium Disease.” After DOE’s issuance of 10 CFR 850, PNNL developed an implementation plan to be compliant by 2002. In 2014, an internal self-assessment (ITS #E-00748) of PNNL’s Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP) identified several deficiencies. One deficiency is that the technical basis for establishing the baseline beryllium inventory when the Beryllium Rule was implemented was either not documented or not retrievable. In addition, the beryllium inventory itself had not been adequately documented and maintained since PNNL established its own CBDPP, separate from Hanford Site’s program. This document reconstructs PNNL’s baseline beryllium inventory as it would have existed when it achieved compliance with the Beryllium Rule in 2001 and provides the technical basis for the baseline beryllium inventory.

  8. Detection of Gaseous Plumes using Basis Vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, Lawrence; Walsh, Stephen

    2009-05-01

    Detecting and identifying weak gaseous plumes using thermal imaging data is complicated by many factors. There are several methods currently being used to detect plumes. They can be grouped into two categories: those that use a chemical spectral library and those that don’t. The approaches that use chemical libraries include least squares methods and physics-based approaches. They are "optimal" only if the plume chemical is actually in the search set but risk missing chemicals not in the library. The methods that don’t use a chemical spectral library are based on a statistical or data analytical transformation applied to the data. These include principle components, independent components, entropy, Fourier transform, and others. These methods do not explicitly take advantage of the physics of the signal formulation process and therefore don’t exploit all available information in the data. This paper presents initial results of employing basis vectors as a tool for plume detection. It describes the standard generalized least squares approach using gas spectra, presents the detection approach using basis vectors, and compares detection images resulting from applying both methods to synthetic hyperspectral images.

  9. 340 Waste Handling Facility interim safety basis

    SciTech Connect

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1995-04-03

    This document establishes the interim safety basis (ISB) for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (340 Facility). An ISB is a documented safety basis that provides a justification for the continued operation of the facility until an upgraded final safety analysis report is prepared that complies with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The ISB for the 340 Facility documents the current design and operation of the facility. The 340 Facility ISB (ISB-003) is based on a facility walkdown and review of the design and operation of the facility, as described in the existing safety documentation. The safety documents reviewed, to develop ISB-003, include the following: OSD-SW-153-0001, Operating Specification Document for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (WHC 1990); OSR-SW-152-00003, Operating Limits for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (WHC 1989); SD-RE-SAP-013, Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Railroad Liquid Waste Tank Cars (Mercado 1993); SD-WM-TM-001, Safety Assessment Document for the 340 Waste Handling Facility (Berneski 1994a); SD-WM-SEL-016, 340 Facility Safety Equipment List (Berneski 1992); and 340 Complex Fire Hazard Analysis, Draft (Hughes Assoc. Inc. 1994).

  10. Seismicity along Subduction Zones: Visualization with a Physical Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Brudzinski, M. R.

    2002-12-01

    It is a common practice to plot epicenters and hypocenters as symbols of equal sizes on maps and cross-sections. While this representation is effective in relating seismicity to high-angle faults, it lacks a physical basis because equal weights are assigned to events that span several orders of magnitude in seismic moment. Furthermore, for cases such as subducted lithosphere where seismicity does not occur along major, through-going faults, "connecting the dots" leads to erroneous impressions of true seismogenic structures. Another common practice is to plot each event according to its magnitude. In principle, this preserves the size of earthquakes by using the logarithmic magnitude scale. The results, however, are not intuitive and the physical meaning of the magnitude scale is unclear. In contrast, we use simple scaling laws between fault area and seismic moment to plot seismicity in a way that conforms to the true scale of maps and cross-sections. The results are intuitive and often quite distinct from plots produced from common practices. We will illustrate the utility of our approach with examples from several different tectonic settings, including the large (Mw 7.6 and 7.7) August 19, 2002 Tonga deep earthquakes, configurations of sub-horizontal outboard earthquakes and complex Wadati-Benioff zones [Chen and Brudzinski, Science, v. 292, p. 2475, 2001], aftershock productivity of deep earthquakes [Wu and Chen, GRL, v. 26, p. 1977, 1999], and dual, out-of-sequence thrusts at mid- to lower-crustal depths [Kao and Chen, Science, v. 288, p. 2346, 2000].

  11. Neurobiological roots of language in primate audition: common computational properties

    PubMed Central

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Small, Steven L.; Rauschecker, Josef P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new perspective on an old question: how does the neurobiology of human language relate to brain systems in nonhuman primates? We argue that higher-order language combinatorics – including sentence and discourse processing – can be situated in a unified, cross-species dorsal-ventral streams architecture for higher auditory processing, and that the functions of the dorsal and ventral streams in higher-order language processing can be grounded in their respective computational properties in primate audition. This view challenges an assumption, common in the cognitive sciences, that a nonhuman primate model forms an inherently inadequate basis for modeling higher-level language functions. PMID:25600585

  12. Neurobiological roots of language in primate audition: common computational properties.

    PubMed

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Small, Steven L; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2015-03-01

    Here, we present a new perspective on an old question: how does the neurobiology of human language relate to brain systems in nonhuman primates? We argue that higher-order language combinatorics, including sentence and discourse processing, can be situated in a unified, cross-species dorsal-ventral streams architecture for higher auditory processing, and that the functions of the dorsal and ventral streams in higher-order language processing can be grounded in their respective computational properties in primate audition. This view challenges an assumption, common in the cognitive sciences, that a nonhuman primate model forms an inherently inadequate basis for modeling higher-level language functions. PMID:25600585

  13. 47 CFR 13.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 13.1 Section 13.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.1 Basis and purpose. (a) Basis. The basis for the rules contained in this part is the Communications Act of 1934,...

  14. Winter mortality of common loons in Florida coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forrester, Donald J.; Davidson, W.R.; Lange, R.E., Jr.; Stroud, R.K.; Alexander, L.L.; Franson, J.C.; Haseltine, S.D.; Littell, R.C.; Nesbitt, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Diagnostic findings are presented for 434 common loons (Gavia imrner) found sick or dead on Florida beaches from 1970 through 1994, primarily during the months of December to April. The most commonly recognized problem was an emaciation syndrome (66%), followed by oiling (18%), aspergillosis (7%), trauma (5%) and miscellaneous disease entities (1%). The cause-of-death for 3% of the birds was not determined. Many of the carcasses examined (n = 173) were obtained during an epizootic which occurred from January to March of 1983 in which more than 13,000 loons were estimated to have died. An emaciation syndrome, characterized by severe atrophy of pectoral muscles, loss of body fat and hemorrhagic enteritis, was the primary finding in this epizootic. It was postulated to have a complex etiologic basis involving synergistic effects and energy costs of migration, molting and replacement of flight feathers, food resource changes, salt-loading, intestinal parasitism, environmental contaminants, and inclement weather.

  15. Structural basis of enzymatic benzene ring reduction.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Tobias; Huwiler, Simona G; Kung, Johannes W; Weidenweber, Sina; Hellwig, Petra; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Biskup, Till; Weber, Stefan; Cotelesage, Julien J H; George, Graham N; Ermler, Ulrich; Boll, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    In chemical synthesis, the widely used Birch reduction of aromatic compounds to cyclic dienes requires alkali metals in ammonia as extremely low-potential electron donors. An analogous reaction is catalyzed by benzoyl-coenzyme A reductases (BCRs) that have a key role in the globally important bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds at anoxic sites. Because of the lack of structural information, the catalytic mechanism of enzymatic benzene ring reduction remained obscure. Here, we present the structural characterization of a dearomatizing BCR containing an unprecedented tungsten cofactor that transfers electrons to the benzene ring in an aprotic cavity. Substrate binding induces proton transfer from the bulk solvent to the active site by expelling a Zn(2+) that is crucial for active site encapsulation. Our results shed light on the structural basis of an electron transfer process at the negative redox potential limit in biology. They open the door for biological or biomimetic alternatives to a basic chemical synthetic tool. PMID:26120796

  16. The genetic basis for elite running performance.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Ross; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Collins, Malcolm

    2013-06-01

    The dominance of East African distance runners and sprinters of West African origin invites discussion around the contribution of genetic and lifestyle factors to performance. In this review, we focus on the genetic basis for performance. Previous research associating candidate genes such as ACE and ACTN3 to endurance and sprint performance in Caucasian populations has not been replicated in African populations. This may be influenced by numerous factors, including small sample sizes, comparisons across different ethnic populations and problems identifying appropriate control groups. Conceptually, these failures reveal the complex polygenic nature of physiology and performance, and the erroneous application of a candidate gene approach to more genetically diverse African populations. We argue that research has in fact established a role for genes in performance, and that the frequency, rather than the prevalence, of favourable genetic variants within certain populations may account for the performance dominance in these populations. PMID:23666980

  17. The molecular basis of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Geoffrey A; Maleki, Soheila J; Pedersen, Lars C

    2014-05-01

    Peanut allergens can trigger a potent and sometimes dangerous immune response in an increasing number of people. The molecular structures of these allergens form the basis for understanding this response. This review describes the currently known peanut allergen structures and discusses how modifications both enzymatic and non-enzymatic affect digestion, innate immune recognition, and IgE interactions. The allergen structures help explain cross-reactivity among allergens from different sources, which is useful in improving patient diagnostics. Surprisingly, it was recently noted that similar short peptide sequences among unrelated peanut allergens could also be a source of cross-reactivity. The molecular features of peanut allergens continue to inform predictions and provide new research directions in the study of allergic disease. PMID:24633613

  18. Weighted robust Basis Function for phase unwrapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmau, Oscar; Rivera, Mariano; Gonzalez, Adonai

    2015-06-01

    This work presents a robust algorithm for phase unwrapping. The proposed algorithm is based on the expansion of the estimated phase through a linear combination of a set of Basis Functions. We present a novel weighted robust functional which is minimised using a two step strategy. This model allows us to reduce the influence of noise and to remove inconsistent pixels in the estimation of the unwrapped phase. The proposed model assumes that the phase is smooth. Under this assumption, experiments demonstrate that if the phase is corrupted by high levels of noise, our model presents a better performance than state of the art algorithms. For low levels of noise, the results are comparable.

  19. The molecular basis of genetic dominance.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, A O

    1994-01-01

    Studies of mutagenesis in many organisms indicate that the majority (over 90%) of mutations are recessive to wild type. If recessiveness represents the 'default' state, what are the distinguishing features that make a minority of mutations give rise to dominant or semidominant characters? This review draws on the rapid expansion in knowledge of molecular and cellular biology to classify the molecular mechanisms of dominant mutation. The categories discussed include (1) reduced gene dosage, expression, or protein activity (haploinsufficiency); (2) increased gene dosage; (3) ectopic or temporally altered mRNA expression; (4) increased or constitutive protein activity; (5) dominant negative effects; (6) altered structural proteins; (7) toxic protein alterations; and (8) new protein functions. This provides a framework for understanding the basis of dominant genetic phenomena in humans and other organisms. Images PMID:8182727

  20. Radioactive Waste Management BasisSept 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, S S

    2011-08-31

    This Radioactive Waste Management Basis (RWMB) documents radioactive waste management practices adopted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) pursuant to Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. The purpose of this RWMB is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.